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Sample records for chimaeroid fish revealed

  1. Unsuspected functional disparity in Devonian fishes revealed by tooth morphometrics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauchey, Samuel; Girard, Catherine; Adnet, Sylvain; Renaud, Sabrina

    2014-09-01

    The shape of features involved in key biological functions, such as teeth in nutrition, can provide insights into ecological processes even in ancient time, by linking the occupation of the morphological space (disparity) to the occupation of the ecological space. Investigating disparity in radiating groups may provide insights into the ecological diversification underlying evolution of morphological diversity. Actinopterygian fishes initiated their radiation in the Devonian, a period characterized by the diversification of marine ecosystem. Although a former morpho-functional analysis of jaw shape concluded to conservative and poorly diversified morphologies in this early part of their history, fish tooth disparity evidenced here an unsuspected diversity of possible functional significance in the pivotal period of the Late Devonian (Famennian). All teeth being caniniforms, some were stocky and robust, in agreement with expectations for active generalist predators. More surprisingly, elongated teeth also occurred at the beginning of Famennian. Their needle-like shape challenges morpho-functional interpretations by making them fragile in response to bending or torsion. The occurrence of both types of fish teeth during the beginning of the Famennian points to a discrete but real increase in disparity, thus testifying a first burst of feeding specialization despite overall conservative jaw morphology. The disappearance of these needle-like teeth in the Late Famennian might have been related to a relay in dental diversity with abundant co-occurring groups, namely conodonts and chondrichthyans (sharks).

  2. Fish population dynamics revealed by instantaneous continental-shelf scale acoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratilal, Purnima; Symonds, Deanelle; Makris, Nicholas C.; Nero, Redwood

    2005-04-01

    Video images of fish population densities over vast areas of the New Jersey continental shelf have been produced from acoustic data collected on a long range bistatic sonar system during the Acoustic Clutter 2003 experiment. Areal fish population densities were obtained after correcting the acoustic data for two-way transmission loss modeled using the range-dependent parabolic equation, spatially varying beampattern of the array, source level and mean target strength per fish. The wide-area fish density images reveal the temporal evolution of fish school distributions, their migration, as well as shoal formation and fragmentation at 50 s interval. Time series of the fish population within various density thresholds were made over the period of a day in an area containing millions of fish that at some instances formed a massive shoal extending over 12 km. The analysis shows that fish population in the area can be decomposed into a stable ambient population from lower-fish-density regions and a time-varying population composed from higher-density regions. Estimates of the differential speed between population centers of various shoals show that the average speed is on the order of a slow-moving surface vessel or submarine.

  3. First genealogy for a wild marine fish population reveals multigenerational philopatry

    KAUST Repository

    Salles, Océane C.

    2016-11-01

    Natal philopatry, the return of individuals to their natal area for reproduction, has advantages and disadvantages for animal populations. Natal philopatry may generate local genetic adaptation, but it may also increase the probability of inbreeding that can compromise persistence. Although natal philopatry is well documented in anadromous fishes, marine fish may also return to their birth site to spawn. How philopatry shapes wild fish populations is, however, unclear because it requires constructing multigenerational pedigrees that are currently lacking for marine fishes. Here we present the first multigenerational pedigree for a marine fish population by repeatedly genotyping all individuals in a population of the orange clownfish (Amphiprion percula) at Kimbe Island (Papua New Guinea) during a 10-y period. Based on 2927 individuals, our pedigree analysis revealed that longitudinal philopatry was recurrent over five generations. Progeny tended to settle close to their parents, with related individuals often sharing the same colony. However, successful inbreeding was rare, and genetic diversity remained high, suggesting occasional inbreeding does not impair local population persistence. Local reproductive success was dependent on the habitat larvae settled into, rather than the habitat they came from. Our study suggests that longitudinal philopatry can influence both population replenishment and local adaptation of marine fishes. Resolving multigenerational pedigrees during a relatively short period, as we present here, provides a framework for assessing the ability of marine populations to persist and adapt to accelerating climate change.

  4. Fish gut-liver immunity during homeostasis or inflammation revealed by integrative transcriptome and proteome studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nan; Song, Yu-Long; Wang, Bei; Zhang, Xiang-Yang; Zhang, Xu-Jie; Wang, Ya-Li; Cheng, Ying-Yin; Chen, Dan-Dan; Xia, Xiao-Qin; Lu, Yi-Shan; Zhang, Yong-An

    2016-11-01

    The gut-associated lymphoid tissue, connected with liver via bile and blood, constructs a local immune environment of both defense and tolerance. The gut-liver immunity has been well-studied in mammals, yet in fish remains largely unknown, even though enteritis as well as liver and gallbladder syndrome emerged as a limitation in aquaculture. In this study, we performed integrative bioinformatic analysis for both transcriptomic (gut and liver) and proteomic (intestinal mucus and bile) data, in both healthy and infected tilapias. We found more categories of immune transcripts in gut than liver, as well as more adaptive immune in gut meanwhile more innate in liver. Interestingly reduced differential immune transcripts between gut and liver upon inflammation were also revealed. In addition, more immune proteins in bile than intestinal mucus were identified. And bile probably providing immune effectors to intestinal mucus upon inflammation was deduced. Specifically, many key immune transcripts in gut or liver as well as key immune proteins in mucus or bile were demonstrated. Accordingly, we proposed a hypothesized profile of fish gut-liver immunity, during either homeostasis or inflammation. Current data suggested that fish gut and liver may collaborate immunologically while keep homeostasis using own strategies, including potential unique mechanisms.

  5. Cerium Anomalies in Fossil Fish Teeth Reveal Changes in Bottom Water Oxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, C. O.; Scher, H. D.; Delaney, M. L.

    2007-12-01

    Shale-normalized rare earths and yttrium (REY) concentrations of fossil fish teeth in deep sea sediments display prominent negative cerium (Ce) anomalies and positive yttrium (Y) anomalies. These features are ultimately inherited from seawater and strongly indicate that fossil fish teeth preserve a seawater REY signature. In seawater, Ce+3 is oxidized to Ce+4, and Ce becomes depleted relative to the other REY's as it partitions into other phases (e.g., ferromanganese oxyhydroxides). The magnitude of Ce depletion in a water mass is thus related to its oxygen content. We hypothesize that changes in the oxygenation of bottom waters may be revealed by examining downcore variability in the magnitude of the Ce anomaly of fossil fish teeth. To test this hypothesis, REY concentrations were measured on samples of cleaned fossil fish teeth recovered from the late Paleogene to early Eocene sections of Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Sites 1262 and 1263 (lower and upper Walvis Ridge, ODP Leg 208, South Atlantic Ocean). These sites are vertically offset (early Eocene paleodepths were 3700 and 1700 meters, respectively) and have been extensively studied to characterize the oceanic response to the Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). Manganese enrichment factors (Mn EF) determined from total digestions of samples from these sites reveal abrupt changes in the oxygenation of bottom waters across the PETM interval. Mn EF's decrease to crustal values (~1) during the PETM, which reflects the reduction of Mn oxides as bottom water oxygen levels were depleted. Mn EF's begin to increase to 6-8 during the 'recovery phase' following the PETM. The Ce anomaly for these samples, Ce/Ce*, was calculated according to the geometric approach reported by Lawrence et al. (2006, Aquatic Geochemistry 12, 39-72), where Ce* represents an interpolation of the expected shale-normalized Ce concentration from near neighbors. In this notation, when Ce/Ce* = 1 no Ce anomaly is present. At upper Walvis Ridge

  6. Fish Reproduction Is Disrupted upon Lifelong Exposure to Environmental PAHs Fractions Revealing Different Modes of Action

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    Caroline Vignet

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs constitute a large family of organic pollutants emitted in the environment as complex mixtures, the compositions of which depend on origin. Among a wide range of physiological defects, PAHs are suspected to be involved in disruption of reproduction. In an aquatic environment, the trophic route is an important source of chronic exposure to PAHs. Here, we performed trophic exposure of zebrafish to three fractions of different origin, one pyrolytic and two petrogenic. Produced diets contained PAHs at environmental concentrations. Reproductive traits were analyzed at individual, tissue and molecular levels. Reproductive success and cumulative eggs number were disrupted after exposure to all three fractions, albeit to various extents depending on the fraction and concentrations. Histological analyses revealed ovary maturation defects after exposure to all three fractions as well as degeneration after exposure to a pyrolytic fraction. In testis, hypoplasia was observed after exposure to petrogenic fractions. Genes expression analysis in gonads has allowed us to establish common pathways such as endocrine disruption or differentiation/maturation defects. Taken altogether, these results indicate that PAHs can indeed disrupt fish reproduction and that different fractions trigger different pathways resulting in different effects.

  7. Fishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜群山

    2002-01-01

    @@ Last Saturday my cousin (表兄) came to my home. We were very happy to see each other. We decided that the next day we went to fish. We got up very early that day. When we left home,the moon could still be seen in the sky.

  8. Comparative analyses of animal-tracking data reveal ecological significance of endothermy in fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuuki Y.; Goldman, Kenneth J.; Caselle, Jennifer E.; Chapman, Demian D.; Papastamatiou, Yannis P.

    2015-01-01

    Despite long evolutionary separations, several sharks and tunas share the ability to maintain slow-twitch, aerobic red muscle (RM) warmer than ambient water. Proximate causes of RM endothermy are well understood, but ultimate causes are unclear. Two advantages often proposed are thermal niche expansion and elevated cruising speeds. The thermal niche hypothesis is generally supported, because fishes with RM endothermy often exhibit greater tolerance to broad temperature ranges. In contrast, whether fishes with RM endothermy cruise faster, and achieve any ecological benefits from doing so, remains unclear. Here, we compiled data recorded by modern animal-tracking tools for a variety of free-swimming marine vertebrates. Using phylogenetically informed allometry, we show that both cruising speeds and maximum annual migration ranges of fishes with RM endothermy are 2–3 times greater than fishes without it, and comparable to nonfish endotherms (i.e., penguins and marine mammals). The estimated cost of transport of fishes with RM endothermy is twice that of fishes without it. We suggest that the high energetic cost of RM endothermy in fishes is offset by the benefit of elevated cruising speeds, which not only increase prey encounter rates, but also enable larger-scale annual migrations and potentially greater access to seasonally available resources. PMID:25902489

  9. Fish habitat selection in a large hydropeaking river: Strong individual and temporal variations revealed by telemetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, Hervé; Plichard, Laura; Bergé, Julien; Pella, Hervé; Ovidio, Michaël; McNeil, Eric; Lamouroux, Nicolas

    2017-02-01

    Modeling individual fish habitat selection in highly variable environments such as hydropeaking rivers is required for guiding efficient management decisions. We analyzed fish microhabitat selection in the heterogeneous hydraulic and thermal conditions (modeled in two-dimensions) of a reach of the large hydropeaking Rhône River locally warmed by the cooling system of a nuclear power plant. We used modern fixed acoustic telemetry techniques to survey 18 fish individuals (five barbels, six catfishes, seven chubs) signaling their position every 3s over a three-month period. Fish habitat selection depended on combinations of current microhabitat hydraulics (e.g. velocity, depth), past microhabitat hydraulics (e.g. dewatering risk or maximum velocities during the past 15days) and to a lesser extent substrate and temperature. Mixed-effects habitat selection models indicated that individual effects were often stronger than specific effects. In the Rhône, fish individuals appear to memorize spatial and temporal environmental changes and to adopt a "least constraining" habitat selection. Avoiding fast-flowing midstream habitats, fish generally live along the banks in areas where the dewatering risk is high. When discharge decreases, however, they select higher velocities but avoid both dewatering areas and very fast-flowing midstream habitats. Although consistent with the available knowledge on static fish habitat selection, our quantitative results demonstrate temporal variations in habitat selection, depending on individual behavior and environmental history. Their generality could be further tested using comparative experiments in different environmental configurations.

  10. Fishery-independent data reveal negative effect of human population density on Caribbean predatory fish communities.

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    Christopher D Stallings

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the current status of predatory fish communities, and the effects fishing has on them, is vitally important information for management. However, data are often insufficient at region-wide scales to assess the effects of extraction in coral reef ecosystems of developing nations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, I overcome this difficulty by using a publicly accessible, fisheries-independent database to provide a broad scale, comprehensive analysis of human impacts on predatory reef fish communities across the greater Caribbean region. Specifically, this study analyzed presence and diversity of predatory reef fishes over a gradient of human population density. Across the region, as human population density increases, presence of large-bodied fishes declines, and fish communities become dominated by a few smaller-bodied species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Complete disappearance of several large-bodied fishes indicates ecological and local extinctions have occurred in some densely populated areas. These findings fill a fundamentally important gap in our knowledge of the ecosystem effects of artisanal fisheries in developing nations, and provide support for multiple approaches to data collection where they are commonly unavailable.

  11. Comparative analyses of animal-tracking data reveal ecological significance of endothermy in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuuki Y; Goldman, Kenneth J; Caselle, Jennifer E; Chapman, Demian D; Papastamatiou, Yannis P

    2015-05-12

    Despite long evolutionary separations, several sharks and tunas share the ability to maintain slow-twitch, aerobic red muscle (RM) warmer than ambient water. Proximate causes of RM endothermy are well understood, but ultimate causes are unclear. Two advantages often proposed are thermal niche expansion and elevated cruising speeds. The thermal niche hypothesis is generally supported, because fishes with RM endothermy often exhibit greater tolerance to broad temperature ranges. In contrast, whether fishes with RM endothermy cruise faster, and achieve any ecological benefits from doing so, remains unclear. Here, we compiled data recorded by modern animal-tracking tools for a variety of free-swimming marine vertebrates. Using phylogenetically informed allometry, we show that both cruising speeds and maximum annual migration ranges of fishes with RM endothermy are 2-3 times greater than fishes without it, and comparable to nonfish endotherms (i.e., penguins and marine mammals). The estimated cost of transport of fishes with RM endothermy is twice that of fishes without it. We suggest that the high energetic cost of RM endothermy in fishes is offset by the benefit of elevated cruising speeds, which not only increase prey encounter rates, but also enable larger-scale annual migrations and potentially greater access to seasonally available resources.

  12. Fossil-based comparative analyses reveal ancient marine ancestry erased by extinction in ray-finned fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur-R, Ricardo; Ortí, Guillermo; Pyron, Robert Alexander

    2015-05-01

    The marine-freshwater boundary is a major biodiversity gradient and few groups have colonised both systems successfully. Fishes have transitioned between habitats repeatedly, diversifying in rivers, lakes and oceans over evolutionary time. However, their history of habitat colonisation and diversification is unclear based on available fossil and phylogenetic data. We estimate ancestral habitats and diversification and transition rates using a large-scale phylogeny of extant fish taxa and one containing a massive number of extinct species. Extant-only phylogenetic analyses indicate freshwater ancestry, but inclusion of fossils reveal strong evidence of marine ancestry in lineages now restricted to freshwaters. Diversification and colonisation dynamics vary asymmetrically between habitats, as marine lineages colonise and flourish in rivers more frequently than the reverse. Our study highlights the importance of including fossils in comparative analyses, showing that freshwaters have played a role as refuges for ancient fish lineages, a signal erased by extinction in extant-only phylogenies.

  13. Ocean-wide tracking of pelagic sharks reveals extent of overlap with longline fishing hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Nuno; Humphries, Nicolas E; Mucientes, Gonzalo; Hammerschlag, Neil; Lima, Fernando P; Scales, Kylie L; Miller, Peter I; Sousa, Lara L; Seabra, Rui; Sims, David W

    2016-02-09

    Overfishing is arguably the greatest ecological threat facing the oceans, yet catches of many highly migratory fishes including oceanic sharks remain largely unregulated with poor monitoring and data reporting. Oceanic shark conservation is hampered by basic knowledge gaps about where sharks aggregate across population ranges and precisely where they overlap with fishers. Using satellite tracking data from six shark species across the North Atlantic, we show that pelagic sharks occupy predictable habitat hotspots of high space use. Movement modeling showed sharks preferred habitats characterized by strong sea surface-temperature gradients (fronts) over other available habitats. However, simultaneous Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking of the entire Spanish and Portuguese longline-vessel fishing fleets show an 80% overlap of fished areas with hotspots, potentially increasing shark susceptibility to fishing exploitation. Regions of high overlap between oceanic tagged sharks and longliners included the North Atlantic Current/Labrador Current convergence zone and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge southwest of the Azores. In these main regions, and subareas within them, shark/vessel co-occurrence was spatially and temporally persistent between years, highlighting how broadly the fishing exploitation efficiently "tracks" oceanic sharks within their space-use hotspots year-round. Given this intense focus of longliners on shark hotspots, our study argues the need for international catch limits for pelagic sharks and identifies a future role of combining fine-scale fish and vessel telemetry to inform the ocean-scale management of fisheries.

  14. Uniqueness of the Gossypium mustelinum Genome Revealed by GISH and 45S rDNA FISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    STELLY; David

    2008-01-01

    Gossypium mustelinum [(AD)4] is one of five tetraploid species in Gossypium.Three pairs of nucleolar organizer regions(NOR) in(AD)4 were detected by FISH with 45S rDNA as a probe,they also were observed with genomic DNA(gDNA) from Gossypium D genome species as probes.Of the

  15. Feeding characteristics reveal functional distinctions among browsing herbivorous fishes on coral reefs

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    Streit, Robert P.; Hoey, Andrew S.; Bellwood, David R.

    2015-12-01

    The removal of macroalgal biomass by fishes is a key process on coral reefs. Numerous studies have identified the fish species responsible for removing mature macroalgae, and have identified how this varies spatially, temporally, and among different algal types. None, however, have considered the behavioural and morphological traits of the browsing fishes and how this may influence the removal of macroalgal material. Using video observations of fish feeding on the brown macroalga Sargassum polycystum, we quantified the feeding behaviour and morphology of the four dominant browsing species on the Great Barrier Reef ( Kyphosus vaigiensis, Naso unicornis, Siganus canaliculatus, and Siganus doliatus). The greatest distinction between species was the algal material they targeted. K. vaigiensis and N. unicornis bit on the entire macroalgal thallus in approximately 90 % of bites. In contrast, Si. canaliculatus and Si. doliatus avoided biting the stalks, with 80-98 % of bites being on the macroalgal leaves only. This distinctive grouping into `entire thallus-biters' versus `leaf-biters' was not supported by size-standardized measures of biting morphology. Rather, species-specific adult body sizes, tooth shape, and feeding behaviour appear to underpin this functional distinction, with adults of the two larger fish species ( N. unicornis and K. vaigiensis) eating the entire macroalgal thallus, while the two smaller species ( Si. canaliculatus and Si. doliatus) bite only leaves. These findings caution against assumed homogeneity within this, and potentially other, functional groups on coral reefs. As functional redundancy within the macroalgal browsers is limited, the smaller `leaf-biting' species are unlikely to be able to compensate functionally for the loss of larger `entire thallus-biting' species.

  16. Comprehensive transcriptome analysis reveals accelerated genic evolution in a Tibet fish, Gymnodiptychus pachycheilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liandong; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Zhaolei; He, Shunping

    2014-12-26

    Elucidating the genetic mechanisms of organismal adaptation to the Tibetan Plateau at a genomic scale can provide insights into the process of adaptive evolution. Many highland species have been investigated and various candidate genes that may be responsible for highland adaptation have been identified. However, we know little about the genomic basis of adaptation to Tibet in fishes. Here, we performed transcriptome sequencing of a schizothoracine fish (Gymnodiptychus pachycheilus) and used it to identify potential genetic mechanisms of highland adaptation. We obtained totally 66,105 assembled unigenes, of which 7,232 were assigned as putative one-to-one orthologs in zebrafish. Comparative gene annotations from several species indicated that at least 350 genes lost and 41 gained since the divergence between G. pachycheilus and zebrafish. An analysis of 6,324 orthologs among zebrafish, fugu, medaka, and spotted gar identified consistent evidence for genome-wide accelerated evolution in G. pachycheilus and only the terminal branch of G. pachycheilus had an elevated Ka/Ks ratio than the ancestral branch. Many functional categories related to hypoxia and energy metabolism exhibited rapid evolution in G. pachycheilus relative to zebrafish. Genes showing signature of rapid evolution and positive selection in the G. pachycheilus lineage were also enriched in functions associated with energy metabolism and hypoxia. The first genomic resources for fish in the Tibetan Plateau and evolutionary analyses provided some novel insights into highland adaptation in fishes and served as a foundation for future studies aiming to identify candidate genes underlying the genetic bases of adaptation to Tibet in fishes.

  17. Molecular epidemiology of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in British Columbia, Canada, reveals transmission from wild to farmed fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garver, Kyle A; Traxler, Garth S; Hawley, Laura M; Richard, Jon; Ross, Jay P; Lovy, Jan

    2013-05-27

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) is a fish pathogen found throughout the Northern Hemisphere and is capable of infecting and causing mortality in numerous marine and freshwater hosts. In the coastal waters of British Columbia, Canada, the virus has been detected for 20 yr with many occurrences of mass mortalities among populations of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii (Valenciennes) and sardine Sardinops sagax as well as detections among cultured Atlantic Salmo salar and Chinook Oncorhynchus tshawytscha salmon. We compared nucleotide sequence of the full glycoprotein (G) gene coding region (1524 nt) of 63 VHSV isolates sampled during its recorded presence from 1993 to 2011 from 6 species and a total of 29 sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all isolates fell into sub-lineage IVa within the major VHSV genetic group IV. Of the 63 virus isolates, there were 42 unique sequences, each of which was ephemeral, being repeatedly detected at most only 1 yr after its initial detection. Multiple sequence types were revealed during single viral outbreak events, and genetic heterogeneity was observed within isolates from individual fish. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis revealed a close genetic linkage between VHSV isolates obtained from pelagic finfish species and farmed salmonids, providing evidence for virus transmission from wild to farmed fish.

  18. Uniqueness of the Gossypium mustelinum Genome Revealed by GISH and 45S rDNA FISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qiong; STELLY David; SONG Guo-li; WANG Kun-bo; WANG Chun-ying; LIU Fang; LI Shao-hui; ZHANG Xiang-di; WANG Yu-hong; LIU San-hong

    2008-01-01

    @@ Gossypium mustelinum [-(AD)4"] is one of five tetraploid species in Gossypium.Three pairs of nucleolar organizer regions (NOR) in (AD)4 were detected by FISH with 45S rDNA as a probe,they also were observed with genomic DNA (gDNA) from Gossypium D genome species as probes.Of the three NORs or GISH-NORs,one was super-major and other two were minor,which was distinctly different from other tetraploid cottons.

  19. Migration history of air-breathing fishes reveals Neogene atmospheric circulation patterns

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    Böhme, M.

    2004-05-01

    The migration history of an air-breathing fish group (Channidae; snakehead fishes) is used for reconstructing Neogene Eurasian precipitation and atmospheric circulation patterns. The study shows that snakeheads are sensitive indicators of summer precipitation maxima in subtropical and temperate regions, and are present regularly if the wettest month exceeds 150 mm precipitation and 20 °C mean temperature. The analysis of 515 fossil freshwater fish deposits of the past 50 m.y. from Africa and Eurasia shows two continental-scale migration events from the snakeheads' center of origin in the south Himalayan region, events that can be related to changes in the Northern Hemisphere circulation pattern. The first migration, ca. 17.5 Ma, into western and central Eurasia may have been caused by a northward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone that brought western Eurasia under the influence of trade winds that produced a zonal and meridional precipitation gradient in Europe. During the second migration, between 8 and 4 Ma, into Africa and East Asia, snakeheads reached their present-day distribution. This migration could have been related to the intensification of the Asian monsoon that brought summer precipitation to their migratory pathways in East Africa Arabia and East Asia.

  20. Population genetic studies revealed local adaptation in a high gene-flow marine fish, the small yellow croaker (Larimichthys polyactis.

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    Le Wang

    Full Text Available The genetic differentiation of many marine fish species is low. Yet local adaptation may be common in marine fish species as the vast and changing marine environment provides more chances for natural selection. Here, we used anonymous as well as known protein gene linked microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA to detect the population structure of the small yellow croaker (Larimichthys polyactis in the Northwest Pacific marginal seas. Among these loci, we detected at least two microsatellites, anonymous H16 and HSP27 to be clearly under diversifying selection in outlier tests. Sequence cloning and analysis revealed that H16 was located in the intron of BAHCC1 gene. Landscape genetic analysis showed that H16 mutations were significantly associated with temperature, which further supported the diversifying selection at this locus. These marker types presented different patterns of population structure: (i mitochondrial DNA phylogeny showed no evidence of genetic divergence and demonstrated only one glacial linage; (ii population differentiation using putatively neutral microsatellites presented a pattern of high gene flow in the L. polyactis. In addition, several genetic barriers were identified; (iii the population differentiation pattern revealed by loci under diversifying selection was rather different from that revealed by putatively neutral loci. The results above suggest local adaptation in the small yellow croaker. In summary, population genetic studies based on different marker types disentangle the effects of demographic history, migration, genetic drift and local adaptation on population structure and also provide valuable new insights for the design of management strategies in L. polyactis.

  1. Long-term acoustical observations of the mesopelagic fish Maurolicus muelleri reveal novel and varied vertical migration patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Staby, A

    2011-11-15

    We studied the temporal dynamics in the vertical distribution of Maurolicus muelleri scattering layers (SL) by examining continuous acoustic recordings over a 15 mo period in Masfjorden, Norway, complemented by intermittent sampling campaigns. The data revealed known patterns as normal diel vertical migration (DVM), midnight sinking between dusk and dawn, and periods without migrations, as well as novel behaviours consisting of early morning ascents, reverse diel vertical migrations, and interrupted ascents in the evening. During the first autumn of the study, adult fish modified their normal DVM behaviour by suspending their migration in the evening, yet ascending toward the surface in the later part of the night to reach upper layers during dawn. This behaviour was not observed during the second autumn of the study. By mid- to end of November (1st autumn), adult fish had suspended the nocturnal ascent entirely, and in the subsequent period until the end of January, a fraction of the population rather performed limited reverse migrations, slightly shifting their vertical distribution upwards during the first part of the day. From January to March 2008, fish interrupted their evening ascent at apparently random intervals and returned to deeper waters, instead of completing a full ascent to the surface. Our study underlines the value of long-term recordings, with the results suggesting that M. muelleri has the capability of changing its behaviour in response to ontogeny and internal state (satiation and hunger) as well as to external stimuli.

  2. Life history inhomogeneity in Baltic Sea whitefish populations revealed by otolith strontium signatures – identification of stocked fish

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    Henry Hägerstrand

    2015-11-01

    The strontium concentrations in the otolith cores of whitefish from River Tornionjoki were higher than that of the four otoliths with low core strontium from fishes caught at sea (Table 1. Supposing that this latter group represent stocked fish raised in freshwater ponds, the vast majority of River Tornionjoki whitefish is naturally reproduced fish. This is plausible because in River Tornionjoki, the major whitefish spawning river in Finland, no larger stocking have been made since 1990s (Jokikokko and Huhmarniemi 2014. In conclusion, the concentration of otolith core strontium differs in whitefish hatched in fresh-water and in whitefish hatched in river water or in brackish Baltic Sea water. This difference can be used to reveal stocked whitefish. Barium concentration may be an even better indicator in this respect than strontium, as previous results indicate (Hägerstrand et al., 2015. Stocked river spawning whitefish appear in large amount at the southern feeding grounds around the Åland Islands, as already indicated by e.g. Leskelä et al. (2009.

  3. Next generation sequencing and FISH reveal uneven and nonrandom microsatellite distribution in two grasshopper genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J; Cuadrado, Ángeles; Montiel, Eugenia E; Camacho, Juan Pedro M; López-León, María Dolores

    2015-06-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs), also known as microsatellites, are one of the prominent DNA sequences shaping the repeated fraction of eukaryotic genomes. In spite of their profuse use as molecular markers for a variety of genetic and evolutionary studies, their genomic location, distribution, and function are not yet well understood. Here we report the first thorough joint analysis of microsatellite motifs at both genomic and chromosomal levels in animal species, by a combination of 454 sequencing and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques performed on two grasshopper species. The in silico analysis of the 454 reads suggested that microsatellite expansion is not driving size increase of these genomes, as SSR abundance was higher in the species showing the smallest genome. However, the two species showed the same uneven and nonrandom location of SSRs, with clear predominance of dinucleotide motifs and association with several types of repetitive elements, mostly histone gene spacers, ribosomal DNA intergenic spacers (IGS), and transposable elements (TEs). The FISH analysis showed a dispersed chromosome distribution of microsatellite motifs in euchromatic regions, in coincidence with chromosome location patterns previously observed for many mobile elements in these species. However, some SSR motifs were clustered, especially those located in the histone gene cluster.

  4. Smartphones reveal angler behavior: A case study of a popular mobile fishing application in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papenfuss, Jason T.; Phelps, Nicholas; Fulton, David C.; Venturelli, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Successfully managing fisheries and controlling the spread of invasive species depends on the ability to describe and predict angler behavior. However, finite resources restrict conventional survey approaches and tend to produce retrospective data that are limited in time or space and rely on intentions or attitudes rather than actual behavior. In this study, we used three years of angler data from a popular mobile fishing application in Alberta, Canada, to determine province-wide, seasonal patterns of (1) lake popularity that were consistent with conventional data and (2) anthropogenic lake connectivity that has not been widely described in North America. Our proof-of-concept analyses showed that mobile apps can be an inexpensive source of high-resolution, real-time data for managing fisheries and invasive species. We also identified key challenges that underscore the need for further research and development in this new frontier that combines big data with increased stakeholder interaction and cooperation.

  5. Integrated Taxonomy Reveals Hidden Diversity in Northern Australian Fishes: A New Species of Seamoth (Genus Pegasus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Osterhage

    Full Text Available Fishes are one of the most intensively studied marine taxonomic groups yet cryptic species are still being discovered. An integrated taxonomic approach is used herein to delineate and describe a new cryptic seamoth (genus Pegasus from what was previously a wide-ranging species. Preliminary mitochondrial DNA barcoding indicated possible speciation in Pegasus volitans specimens collected in surveys of the Torres Strait and Great Barrier Reef off Queensland in Australia. Morphological and meristic investigations found key differences in a number of characters between P. volitans and the new species, P. tetrabelos. Further mt DNA barcoding of both the COI and the slower mutating 16S genes of additional specimens provided strong support for two separate species. Pegasus tetrabelos and P. volitans are sympatric in northern Australia and were frequently caught together in trawls at the same depths.

  6. Expressed sequence tags from the oomycete fish pathogen Saprolegnia parasitica reveal putative virulence factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van West Pieter

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oomycete Saprolegnia parasitica is one of the most economically important fish pathogens. There is a dramatic recrudescence of Saprolegnia infections in aquaculture since the use of the toxic organic dye malachite green was banned in 2002. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying pathogenicity in S. parasitica and other animal pathogenic oomycetes. In this study we used a genomics approach to gain a first insight into the transcriptome of S. parasitica. Results We generated 1510 expressed sequence tags (ESTs from a mycelial cDNA library of S. parasitica. A total of 1279 consensus sequences corresponding to 525944 base pairs were assembled. About half of the unigenes showed similarities to known protein sequences or motifs. The S. parasitica sequences tended to be relatively divergent from Phytophthora sequences. Based on the sequence alignments of 18 conserved proteins, the average amino acid identity between S. parasitica and three Phytophthora species was 77% compared to 93% within Phytophthora. Several S. parasitica cDNAs, such as those with similarity to fungal type I cellulose binding domain proteins, PAN/Apple module proteins, glycosyl hydrolases, proteases, as well as serine and cysteine protease inhibitors, were predicted to encode secreted proteins that could function in virulence. Some of these cDNAs were more similar to fungal proteins than to other eukaryotic proteins confirming that oomycetes and fungi share some virulence components despite their evolutionary distance Conclusion We provide a first glimpse into the gene content of S. parasitica, a reemerging oomycete fish pathogen. These resources will greatly accelerate research on this important pathogen. The data is available online through the Oomycete Genomics Database 1.

  7. Karyotype differentiation of four Cestrum species (Solanaceae) revealed by fluorescent chromosome banding and FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Thiago; de Almeida Rego, Letícia do Nascimento Andrade; Nardy, Mariana; Yuyama, Priscila Mary; Vanzela, André Luís Laforga

    2009-04-01

    The karyotypes of four South American species of Cestrum (C. capsulare,C. corymbosum,C. laevigatum and C. megalophylum) were studied using conventional staining, C-CMA/DAPI chromosome banding and FISH with 45S and 5S rDNA probes. The karyotypes showed a chromosome number of 2n = 2x = 16, with metacentric chromosomes, except for the eighth submeta- to acrocentric pair. Several types of heterochromatin were detected, which varied in size, number, distribution and base composition. The C-CMA(+) bands and 45S rDNA were located predominantly in terminal regions. The C-CMA (+) /DAPI (+) bands appeared in interstitial and terminal regions, and the C-DAPI (+) bands were found in all chromosome regions. The 5S rDNA sites were observed on the long arm of pair 8 in all species except C. capsulare, where they were found in the paracentromeric region of the long arm of pair 4. The differences in band patterns among the species studied here, along with data from other nine species reported in the literature, suggest that the bands are dispersed in an equilocal and non-equilocal manner and that structural rearrangements can be responsible for internal karyotype diversification. However, it is important to point out that the structural changes involving repetitive segments did not culminate in substantial changes in the general karyotype structure concerning chromosome size and morphology.

  8. Karyotype differentiation of four Cestrum species (Solanaceae revealed by fluorescent chromosome banding and FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Fernandes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The karyotypes of four South American species of Cestrum (C. capsulare, C. corymbosum, C. laevigatum and C. megalophylum were studied using conventional staining, C-CMA/DAPI chromosome banding and FISH with 45S and 5S rDNA probes. The karyotypes showed a chromosome number of 2n = 2x = 16, with metacentric chromosomes, except for the eighth submeta- to acrocentric pair. Several types of heterochromatin were detected, which varied in size, number, distribution and base composition. The C-CMA+ bands and 45S rDNA were located predominantly in terminal regions. The C-CMA+/DAPI+ bands appeared in interstitial and terminal regions, and the C-DAPI+ bands were found in all chromosome regions. The 5S rDNA sites were observed on the long arm of pair 8 in all species except C. capsulare, where they were found in the paracentromeric region of the long arm of pair 4. The differences in band patterns among the species studied here, along with data from other nine species reported in the literature, suggest that the bands are dispersed in an equilocal and non-equilocal manner and that structural rearrangements can be responsible for internal karyotype diversification. However, it is important to point out that the structural changes involving repetitive segments did not culminate in substantial changes in the general karyotype structure concerning chromosome size and morphology.

  9. Transcriptome comparison reveals a genetic network regulating the lower temperature limit in fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peng; Liu, Mingli; Liu, Yimeng; Wang, Jinfeng; Zhang, Dong; Niu, Hongbo; Jiang, Shouwen; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Dongsheng; Han, Bingshe; Xu, Qianghua; Chen, Liangbiao

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional plasticity is a major driver of phenotypic differences between species. The lower temperature limit (LTL), namely the lower end of survival temperature, is an important trait delimiting the geographical distribution of a species, however, the genetic mechanisms are poorly understood. We investigated the inter-species transcriptional diversification in cold responses between zebrafish Danio rerio and tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, which were reared at a common temperature (28 °C) but have distinct LTLs. We identified significant expressional divergence between the two species in the orthologous genes from gills when the temperature cooled to the LTL of tilapia (8 °C). Five KEGG pathways were found sequentially over-represented in the zebrafish/tilapia divergently expressed genes in the duration (12 hour) of 8 °C exposure, forming a signaling cascade from metabolic regulation to apoptosis via FoxO signaling. Consistently, we found differential progression of apoptosis in the gills of the two species in which zebrafish manifested a delayed and milder apoptotic phenotype than tilapia, corresponding with a lower LTL of zebrafish. We identified diverged expression in 25 apoptosis-related transcription factors between the two species which forms an interacting network with diverged factors involving the FoxO signaling and metabolic regulation. We propose a genetic network which regulates LTL in fishes. PMID:27356472

  10. Population genomics reveals a possible history of backcrossing and recombination in the gynogenetic fish Poecilia formosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberici da Barbiano, Laura; Gompert, Zachariah; Aspbury, Andrea S; Gabor, Caitlin R; Nice, Chris C

    2013-08-20

    Unisexual sperm-dependent vertebrates are of hybrid origins, rare, and predicted to be short-lived as a result of several challenges arising from their mode of reproduction. In particular, because of a lack of recombination, clonal species are predicted to have a low potential to respond to natural selection. However, many unisexual sperm-dependent species persist, and assessing the genetic diversity present in these species is fundamental to understanding how they avoid extinction. We used population genomic methods to assess genotypic variation within the unisexual fish Poecilia formosa. Measures of admixture and population differentiation, as well as clustering analyses, indicate that the genomes of individuals of P. formosa are admixed and intermediate between Poecilia latipinna and Poecilia mexicana, consistent with the hypothesis of their hybrid origins. Bayesian genomic cline analyses indicate that about 12% of sampled loci exhibit patterns consistent with inheritance from only one parent. The estimation of observed heterozygosity clearly suggests that P. formosa is not comprised of direct descendants of a single nonrecombining asexual F1 hybrid individual. Additionally, the estimation of observed heterozygosity provides support for the hypothesis that the history of this unisexual species has included backcrossing with the parent species before the onset of gynogenesis. We also document high levels of variation among asexual individuals, which is attributable to recombination (historical or ongoing) and the accumulation of mutations. The high genetic variation suggests that this unisexual vertebrate has more potential to respond to natural selection than if they were frozen F1 hybrids.

  11. A RAD-tag genetic map for the platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus) reveals mechanisms of karyotype evolution among teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amores, Angel; Catchen, Julian; Nanda, Indrajit; Warren, Wesley; Walter, Ron; Schartl, Manfred; Postlethwait, John H

    2014-06-01

    Mammalian genomes can vary substantially in haploid chromosome number even within a small taxon (e.g., 3-40 among deer alone); in contrast, teleost fish genomes are stable (24-25 in 58% of teleosts), but we do not yet understand the mechanisms that account for differences in karyotype stability. Among perciform teleosts, platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus) and medaka (Oryzias latipes) both have 24 chromosome pairs, but threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and green pufferfish (Tetraodon nigroviridis) have just 21 pairs. To understand the evolution of teleost genomes, we made a platyfish meiotic map containing 16,114 mapped markers scored on 267 backcross fish. We tiled genomic contigs along the map to create chromosome-length genome assemblies. Genome-wide comparisons of conserved synteny showed that platyfish and medaka karyotypes remained remarkably similar with few interchromosomal translocations but with numerous intrachromosomal rearrangements (transpositions and inversions) since their lineages diverged ∼120 million years ago. Comparative genomics with platyfish shows how reduced chromosome numbers in stickleback and green pufferfish arose by fusion of pairs of ancestral chromosomes after their lineages diverged from platyfish ∼195 million years ago. Zebrafish and human genomes provide outgroups to root observed changes. These studies identify likely genome assembly errors, characterize chromosome fusion events, distinguish lineage-independent chromosome fusions, show that the teleost genome duplication does not appear to have accelerated the rate of translocations, and reveal the stability of syntenies and gene orders in teleost chromosomes over hundreds of millions of years.

  12. Analysis of newly established EST databases reveals similarities between heart regeneration in newt and fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weis Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The newt Notophthalmus viridescens possesses the remarkable ability to respond to cardiac damage by formation of new myocardial tissue. Surprisingly little is known about changes in gene activities that occur during the course of regeneration. To begin to decipher the molecular processes, that underlie restoration of functional cardiac tissue, we generated an EST database from regenerating newt hearts and compared the transcriptional profile of selected candidates with genes deregulated during zebrafish heart regeneration. Results A cDNA library of 100,000 cDNA clones was generated from newt hearts 14 days after ventricular injury. Sequencing of 11520 cDNA clones resulted in 2894 assembled contigs. BLAST searches revealed 1695 sequences with potential homology to sequences from the NCBI database. BLAST searches to TrEMBL and Swiss-Prot databases assigned 1116 proteins to Gene Ontology terms. We also identified a relatively large set of 174 ORFs, which are likely to be unique for urodele amphibians. Expression analysis of newt-zebrafish homologues confirmed the deregulation of selected genes during heart regeneration. Sequences, BLAST results and GO annotations were visualized in a relational web based database followed by grouping of identified proteins into clusters of GO Terms. Comparison of data from regenerating zebrafish hearts identified biological processes, which were uniformly overrepresented during cardiac regeneration in newt and zebrafish. Conclusion We concluded that heart regeneration in newts and zebrafish led to the activation of similar sets of genes, which suggests that heart regeneration in both species might follow similar principles. The design of the newly established newt EST database allows identification of molecular pathways important for heart regeneration.

  13. Variability of ribosomal DNA sites in Festuca pratensis, Lolium perenne, and their intergeneric hybrids, revealed by FISH and GISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksiazczyk, T; Taciak, M; Zwierzykowski, Z

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the variability of chromosomal location and number of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sites in some diploid and autotetraploid Festuca pratensis and Lolium perenne cultivars, as well as on identification of rDNA-bearing chromosomes in their triploid and tetraploid F. pratensis × L. perenne hybrids. The rDNA loci were mapped using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 5S and 25S rDNA probes, and the origin of parental genomes was verified by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) with L. perenne genomic DNA as a probe, and F. pratensis genomic DNA as a block. FISH detected variation in the number and chromosomal location of both 5S and 45S rDNA sites. In F. pratensis mostly additional signals of 5S rDNA loci occurred, as compared with standard F. pratensis karyotypes. Losses of 45S rDNA loci were more frequent in L. perenne cultivars and intergeneric hybrids. Comparison of the F. pratensis and L. perenne genomes approved a higher number of rDNA sites as well as variation in chromosomal rDNA location in L. perenne. A greater instability of F. pratensis-genome-like and L. perenne-genome-like chromosomes in tetraploid hybrids was revealed, indicating gains and losses of rDNA loci, respectively. Our data indicate that the rDNA loci physically mapped on chromosomes 2 and 3 in F. pratensis and on chromosome 3 in L. perenne are useful markers for these chromosomes in intergeneric Festuca × Lolium hybrids.

  14. Metal concentration in water, sediment and four fish species from Lake Titicaca reveals a large-scale environmental concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy, Mario; Maceda-Veiga, Alberto; de Sostoa, Adolfo

    2014-07-15

    Although intensive mining activity and urban sewage discharge are major sources of metal inputs to Lake Titicaca, the risk posed by metal pollution to wildlife and human populations has been poorly studied. In this study we compared the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg, Pb, Co, and Fe in water, sediment, and two tissues (liver and muscle) of four fish species (Odontesthes bonariensis, Orestias luteus, Orestias agassii, and Trichomycterus rivulatus) across important fishery areas in Lake Titicaca. The concentration of Pb in water at the discharge sites of the main rivers and of most elements, with the exception of Co and Fe, in all fish collected in this study exceeded the safety thresholds established by international legislation. The highest metal concentrations were observed in benthopelagic species, and liver tissue was identified as the main depository for all metals with the exception of mercury. The metal bioaccumulation pattern in fish was weakly related to the metal concentrations in the environment with the exception of Hg at the most polluted location, partly explained by the different metabolic role of essential and non-essential elements and the influence of other factors such as species' ecology and individual traits in the bioaccumulation of most metals. As metal pollution extended across the study area and high metal concentrations were detected in all four fish species, we urge the authorities to enforce legislation for water and fish consumption and to evaluate the effects of metal pollution on fish health.

  15. The evolutionary analysis on complement genes reveals that fishes C3 and C9 experience different evolutionary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanchen; Wang, Rixin; Xu, Tianjun

    2013-12-01

    Complement is a humoral factor of innate immunity and plays an essential role in altering the host of the presence of potential pathogens and clearing of invading microorganisms. The third complement component (C3) not only is regarded as the crossing of the three pathways of complement activation, but also serves one of the bridges linking innate and acquired immunity. The nine complement component (C9) can combine with C5b, C6, C7 and C8 to form MAC which bounds to the surface of microorganisms to kill them. The evidence of evolution on C3 genes which have multiple functions and plays central role in innate immunity was documented in our previous study. Now we were interested in the evolution of C9 genes which were the terminal complement components. For these reasons, we want to explore the evolutionary patterns of C9 and whether C3 and C9 experience different evolutionary patterns. In our study, we used the sliding window method to separately calculate the values of ω among fishes and mammals of C3 and C9 codons. In order to detect the positive selection sites, we used the maximum likelihood (ML) method to study the evolutionary pattern on C3 and C9 genes. Positive selection sites were detected in mammalian C9 genes and no positive selection sites were detected in fishes C9 genes. However, no positive selection sites were detected in mammalian C3 genes and positive selection sites were detected in fishes C3 genes. The result indicated that C3 and C9 had different evolutionary patterns on mammals and fishes. In conclusion, different living environments lead to different evolutionary patterns on C3 and C9 in mammals and fishes. Besides, different complement components may have different evolutionary patterns on mammals and fishes.

  16. Dinitrogen and Cyanide Fixation by Methane Seep Microorganisms Revealed by FISH- SIMS And Implications for AOM Productivity and Nitrogenase Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekas, A.; Orphan, V.

    2008-12-01

    The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), mediated by methane oxidizing archaea (ANME) and sulfate reducing bacterial symbionts (SRB), minimizes the flux of methane from marine sediment to the overlying water column. Understanding the factors determining AOM productivity, and particularly the rates of methane catabolism and anabolism, is of interest to both modern and ancient investigations of climate and bulk carbon isotopic change. It has been hypothesized that nitrogen availability in methane seeps is temporally variable, and that the seep biomass may be at least partially nitrogen limited. The recent finding of nif genes, those necessary for the production of nitrogenase, in enrichments of ANME and SRB consortia suggested that the organisms mediating AOM have the potential to fix dinitrogen. In the present study we incubated methane seep sediment with nitrogen-deplete artificial marine media and a headspace of methane (CH4) and either 15N-labeled dinitrogen (15N2), cyanide (C15N-), or ammonia (15NH3) in order to (1) test the ability of these currently unculturable microorganisms to fix nitrogen and other triple bonded substrates, (2) investigate which AOM partner was responsible for the fixation, (3) compare growth rates on different nitrogen sources, and (4) characterize the phylogeny of these methane seep-associated nitrogenases. Fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled to nano-scale Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy imaging (FISH-SIMS) revealed incorporation of 15N into ANME and SRB biomass of up to 0.06 15N fractional abundance in the 15N2 incubation, and up to 0.02 in the C15N- incubation, after 6 and 4 months, respectively. This represents a nearly ten-fold enrichment of 15N compared to the measured natural 15N fractional abundance (0.0036). The NanoSIMS ion images of ANME/SRB aggregates from 15N2 incubations show evidence for 15N enrichment in both partners with the highest incorporation of 15N within the methanotrophic ANME cells. Cyanide incubations

  17. Cross-continent comparisons reveal differing environmental drivers of growth of the coral reef fish, Lutjanus bohar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Joyce J. L.; Rountrey, Adam N.; Marriott, Ross J.; Newman, Stephen J.; Meeuwig, Jessica J.; Meekan, Mark G.

    2017-03-01

    Biochronologies provide important insights into the growth responses of fishes to past variability in physical and biological environments and, in so doing, allow modelling of likely responses to climate change in the future. We examined spatial variability in the key drivers of inter-annual growth patterns of a widespread, tropical snapper, Lutjanus bohar, at similar tropical latitudes on the north-western and north-eastern coasts of the continent of Australia. For this study, we developed biochronologies from otoliths that provided proxies of somatic growth and these were analysed using mixed-effects models to examine the historical drivers of growth. Our analyses demonstrated that growth patterns of fish were driven by different climatic and biological factors in each region, including Pacific Ocean climate indices, regional sea level and the size structure of the fish community. Our results showed that the local oceanographic and biological context of reef systems strongly influenced the growth of L. bohar and that a single age-related growth trend cannot be assumed for separate populations of this species that are likely to experience different environmental conditions. Generalised predictions about the growth response of fishes to climate change will thus require adequate characterisation of the spatial variability in growth determinants likely to be found throughout the range of species that have cosmopolitan distributions.

  18. Cross-species BAC-FISH painting of the tomato and potato chromosome 6 reveals undescribed chromosomal rearrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, X.; Szinay, D.; Ramanna, M.S.; Vossen, van der E.A.G.; Datema, E.; Klein Lankhorst, R.M.; Boer, de J.M.; Peters, S.A.; Bachem, C.W.B.; Stiekema, W.J.; Visser, R.G.F.; Jong, de J.H.; Bai, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Ongoing genomics projects of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum ) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) are providing unique tools for comparative mapping studies in Solanaceae. At the chromosomal level, BACs can be positioned on pachytene comple-ments by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on homoeologous

  19. Response to Comment on "Open-ocean fish reveal an omnidirectional solution to camouflage in polarized environments".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Parrish; Gilerson, Alex; Kattawar, George; Sullivan, Jim; Twardowski, Mike; Dierssen, Heidi; Cummings, Molly

    2016-08-01

    Cronin et al take issue with our evidence for polarocryptic carangid fish based on concerns of pseudoreplication, our contrast metric, and habitat. We clarify (i) the importance of camouflage in near-surface open ocean environments and (ii) the use of a Stokes contrast metric and further (iii) conduct individual-based statistics on our data set to confirm the reported polarocrypsis patterns.

  20. At odds with the group: changes in lateralization and escape performance reveal conformity and conflict in fish schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, Douglas P; McCormick, Mark I; Allan, Bridie J M; Mitchell, Matthew D; Gonçalves, Emanuel J; Bryshun, Reid; Ferrari, Maud C O

    2016-10-26

    Many vertebrates are known to show behavioural lateralization, whereby they differentially use one side of their body or either of their bilateral organs or limbs. Behavioural lateralization often manifests in a turning bias in fishes, with some individuals showing a left bias and others a right bias. Such biases could be the source of considerable conflict in fish schools given that there may be considerable social pressure to conform to the group to maintain effective group evasion. Here, we show that predation pressure is a major determinant of the degree of lateralization, both in a relative and absolute sense, in yellow-and-blueback fusiliers (Caesio teres), a schooling fish common on coral reefs. Wild-caught fish showed a bias for right turning. When predation pressure was experimentally elevated or relaxed, the strength of lateralization changed. Higher predation pressure resulted in an increase in the strength of lateralization. Individuals that exhibited the same turning bias as the majority of individuals in their group had improved escape performance compared with individuals that were at odds with the group. Moreover, individuals that were right-biased had improved escape performance, compared with left-biased ones. Plasticity in lateralization might be an important evolutionary consequence of the way gregarious species respond to predators owing to the probable costs associated with this behaviour.

  1. Multi year observations reveal variability in residence of a tropical Demersal Fish, Lethrinus nebulosus: implications for spatial management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D Pillans

    Full Text Available Off the Ningaloo coast of North West Western Australia, Spangled Emperor Lethrinus nebulosus are among the most highly targeted recreational fish species. The Ningaloo Reef Marine Park comprises an area of 4,566 km2 of which 34% is protected from fishing by 18 no-take sanctuary zones ranging in size from 0.08-44.8 km2. To better understand Spangled Emperor movements and the adequacy of sanctuary zones within the Ningaloo Reef Marine Park for this species, 84 Spangled Emperor of a broad spectrum of maturity and sex were tagged using internal acoustic tags in a range of lagoon and reef slope habitats both inside and adjacent to the Mangrove Bay Sanctuary zone. Kernel Utilisation Distribution (KUD was calculated for 39 resident individuals that were detected for more than 30 days. There was no relationship with fish size and movement or site fidelity. Average home range (95% KUD for residents was 8.5±0.5 km2 compared to average sanctuary zone size of 30 km2. Calculated home range was stable over time resulting in resident animals tagged inside the sanctuary zone spending ∼80% of time within the sanctuary boundaries. The number of fish remaining within the array of receivers declined steadily over time and after one year more than 60% of tagged fish had moved outside the sanctuary zone and also beyond the 28 km2 array of receivers. Long term monitoring identified the importance of shifting home range and was essential for understanding overall residency within protected areas and also for identifying spawning related movements. This study indicates that despite exhibiting stable and small home ranges over periods of one to two years, more than half the population of spangled emperor move at scales greater than average sanctuary size within the Ningaloo Reef Marine Park.

  2. Mangrove habitat use by juvenile reef fish: meta-analysis reveals that tidal regime matters more than biogeographic region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias M Igulu

    Full Text Available Identification of critical life-stage habitats is key to successful conservation efforts. Juveniles of some species show great flexibility in habitat use while other species rely heavily on a restricted number of juvenile habitats for protection and food. Considering the rapid degradation of coastal marine habitats worldwide, it is important to evaluate which species are more susceptible to loss of juvenile nursery habitats and how this differs across large biogeographic regions. Here we used a meta-analysis approach to investigate habitat use by juvenile reef fish species in tropical coastal ecosystems across the globe. Densities of juvenile fish species were compared among mangrove, seagrass and coral reef habitats. In the Caribbean, the majority of species showed significantly higher juvenile densities in mangroves as compared to seagrass beds and coral reefs, while for the Indo-Pacific region seagrass beds harbored the highest overall densities. Further analysis indicated that differences in tidal amplitude, irrespective of biogeographic region, appeared to be the major driver for this phenomenon. In addition, juvenile reef fish use of mangroves increased with increasing water salinity. In the Caribbean, species of specific families (e.g. Lutjanidae, Haemulidae showed a higher reliance on mangroves or seagrass beds as juvenile habitats than other species, whereas in the Indo-Pacific family-specific trends of juvenile habitat utilization were less apparent. The findings of this study highlight the importance of incorporating region-specific tidal inundation regimes into marine spatial conservation planning and ecosystem based management. Furthermore, the significant role of water salinity and tidal access as drivers of mangrove fish habitat use implies that changes in seawater level and rainfall due to climate change may have important effects on how juvenile reef fish use nearshore seascapes in the future.

  3. A revealed preference approach to valuing non-market recreational fishing losses from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Sergio; Larkin, Sherry L; Whitehead, John C; Haab, Tim

    2014-12-01

    At an estimated 206 million gallons, the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) is the largest marine oil spill in the history of the United States. In this paper we develop a series of random utility models of site choice by saltwater anglers in the Southeast US and estimate monetary compensation for recreational losses due to the DWH oil spill. Heterogeneity in angler preferences is accounted for by using mixed logit models, and different compensation measures for shore-based, private boat, and for-hire anglers are estimated. Results indicate that willingness to pay for oil spill prevention varies by fishing mode and anglers fishing from shore and private boats exhibit heterogeneous preferences for oil spill avoidance. In addition, the total monetary compensation due to anglers is estimated at USD 585 million.

  4. A populational survey of 45S rDNA polymorphism in the Jefferson salamander Ambystoma jeffersonianum revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhong FU

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The chromosomal localization of 45S ribosomal RNA genes in Ambystoma jeffersonianum was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization with 18S rDNA fragment as a probe (FISH-rDNA. Our results revealed the presence of rDNA polymorphism among A.jeffersonianum populations in terms of number, location and FISH signal intensity on the chromosomes. Nine rDNA cytotypes were found in ten geographically isolated populations and most of them contained derivative rDNA sites. Our preliminary study provides strong indication of karyotypic diversification of A.jeffersonianum that is demonstrated by intraspecific variation of 45S rDNA cytotypes. rDNA cytotype polymorphism has been described in many other caudate amphibians. We predict that habitat isolation, low dispersal ability and decline of effective population size could facilitate the fixation and accumulation of variable rDNA cytotypes during their chromosome evolution.

  5. A populational survey of 45S rDNA polymorphism in the Jefferson salamander Ambystoma jeffersonianum revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke BI; James P.BOGART; Jinzhong FU

    2009-01-01

    The chromosomal localization of 45S ribosomal RNA genes in Ambystoma jeffersonianum was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization with 18S rDNA fragment as a probe (FISH-rDNA). Our results revealed the presence of rDNA polymorphism among A.jeffersonianum populations in terms of number, location and FISH signal intensity on the chromosomes. Nine rDNA cytotypes were found in ten geographically isolated populations and most of them contained derivative rDNA sites. Our preliminary study provides strong indication of karyotypic diversification of A.jeffersonianum that is demonstrated by intraspecific variation of 45S rDNA cytotypes. rDNA cytotype polymorphism has been described in many other caudate amphibians. We predict that habitat isolation, low dispersal ability and decline of effective population size could facilitate the fixation and accumulation of variable rDNA cytotypes during their chromosome evolution [Current Zoology 55(2):145-149,2009].

  6. Phylogenomic analysis of vertebrate thrombospondins reveals fish-specific paralogues, ancestral gene relationships and a tetrapod innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Josephine C

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thrombospondins (TSPs are evolutionarily-conserved, extracellular, calcium-binding glycoproteins with important roles in cell-extracellular matrix interactions, angiogenesis, synaptogenesis and connective tissue organisation. Five TSPs, designated TSP-1 through TSP-5, are encoded in the human genome. All but one have known roles in acquired or inherited human diseases. To further understand the roles of TSPs in human physiology and pathology, it would be advantageous to extend the repertoire of relevant vertebrate models. In general the zebrafish is proving an excellent model organism for vertebrate biology, therefore we set out to evaluate the status of TSPs in zebrafish and two species of pufferfish. Results We identified by bioinformatics that three fish species encode larger numbers of TSPs than vertebrates, yet all these sequences group as homologues of TSP-1 to -4. By phylogenomic analysis of neighboring genes, we uncovered that, in fish, a TSP-4-like sequence is encoded from the gene corresponding to the tetrapod TSP-5 gene. Thus, all TSP genes show conservation of synteny between fish and tetrapods. In the human genome, the TSP-1, TSP-3, TSP-4 and TSP-5 genes lie within paralogous regions that provide insight into the ancestral genomic context of vertebrate TSPs. Conclusion A new model for TSP evolution in vertebrates is presented. The TSP-5 protein sequence has evolved rapidly from a TSP-4-like sequence as an innovation in the tetrapod lineage. TSP biology in fish is complicated by the presence of additional lineage- and species-specific TSP paralogues. These novel results give deeper insight into the evolution of TSPs in vertebrates and open new directions for understanding the physiological and pathological roles of TSP-4 and TSP-5 in humans.

  7. The rediscovery of a long described species reveals additional complexity in speciation patterns of poeciliid fishes in sulfide springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Maura; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Plath, Martin; Eifert, Constanze; Lerp, Hannes; Lamboj, Anton; Voelker, Gary; Tobler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The process of ecological speciation drives the evolution of locally adapted and reproductively isolated populations in response to divergent natural selection. In Southern Mexico, several lineages of the freshwater fish species of the genus Poecilia have independently colonized toxic, hydrogen sulfide-rich springs. Even though ecological speciation processes are increasingly well understood in this system, aligning the taxonomy of these fish with evolutionary processes has lagged behind. While some sulfide spring populations are classified as ecotypes of Poecilia mexicana, others, like P. sulphuraria, have been described as highly endemic species. Our study particularly focused on elucidating the taxonomy of the long described sulfide spring endemic, Poecilia thermalis Steindachner 1863, and investigates if similar evolutionary patterns of phenotypic trait divergence and reproductive isolation are present as observed in other sulfidic species of Poecilia. We applied a geometric morphometric approach to assess body shape similarity to other sulfidic and non-sulfidic fish of the genus Poecilia. We also conducted phylogenetic and population genetic analyses to establish the phylogenetic relationships of P. thermalis and used a population genetic approach to determine levels of gene flow among Poecilia from sulfidic and non-sulfidic sites. Our results indicate that P. thermalis' body shape has evolved in convergence with other sulfide spring populations in the genus. Phylogenetic analyses placed P. thermalis as most closely related to one population of P. sulphuraria, and population genetic analyses demonstrated that P. thermalis is genetically isolated from both P. mexicana ecotypes and P. sulphuraria. Based on these findings, we make taxonomic recommendations for P. thermalis. Overall, our study verifies the role of hydrogen sulfide as a main factor shaping convergent, phenotypic evolution and the emergence of reproductive isolation between Poecilia populations

  8. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH-Based Karyotyping Reveals Rapid Evolution of Centromeric and Subtelomeric Repeats in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and Relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Iwata-Otsubo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH-based karyotyping is a powerful cytogenetics tool to study chromosome organization, behavior, and chromosome evolution. Here, we developed a FISH-based karyotyping system using a probe mixture comprised of centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats, 5S rDNA, and chromosome-specific BAC clones in common bean, which enables one to unambiguously distinguish all 11 chromosome pairs. Furthermore, we applied the karyotyping system to several wild relatives and landraces of common bean from two distinct gene pools, as well as other related Phaseolus species, to investigate repeat evolution in the genus Phaseolus. Comparison of karyotype maps within common bean indicates that chromosomal distribution of the centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats is stable, whereas the copy number of the repeats was variable, indicating rapid amplification/reduction of the repeats in specific genomic regions. In Phaseolus species that diverged approximately 2–4 million yr ago, copy numbers of centromeric repeats were largely reduced or diverged, and chromosomal distributions have changed, suggesting rapid evolution of centromeric repeats. We also detected variation in the distribution pattern of subtelomeric repeats in Phaseolus species. The FISH-based karyotyping system revealed that satellite repeats are actively and rapidly evolving, forming genomic features unique to individual common bean accessions and Phaseolus species.

  9. Anguilliform fish reveal large scale contamination by mine trace elements in the coral reefs of New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Xavier; Briand, Marine J; Brischoux, François; Letourneur, Yves; Fauvel, Thomas; Bustamante, Paco

    2014-02-01

    Due to intensive mining activity, increasing urbanization and industrialization, vast amounts of contaminants are discharged into the lagoon of New Caledonia, one of the largest continuous coral reef systems and a major biodiversity hotspot. The levels of 11 trace element concentrations were examined in the muscles of predator fish in the south-western lagoon (moray eels and congers). These species are sedentary, widespread, abundant, and they are easily collected using a sea snake sampling technique. We found the highest mean and maximal concentrations of different trace elements ever found in coral fish, notably regarding trace elements typical from mining activity (e.g., mean values for Cr and Ni, respectively: 5.53 ± 6.99 μg g(-1) [max, 35.7 μg g(-1)] and 2.84 ± 3.38 μg g(-1) [max, 18.0 μg g(-1)]). Results show that important trace element contamination extends throughout the lagoon to the barrier reef, following a concentration gradient from the oldest nickel factory (Nouméa).

  10. Oncogene amplification in the proximal part of chromosome 6 in rat endometrial adenocarcinoma as revealed by combined BAC/PAC FISH, chromosome painting, zoo-FISH, and allelotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovic, Tatjana; Trossö, Fredrik; Roshani, Leyla; Andersson, Lars; Petersen, Greta; Rajaei, Saide; Helou, Khalil; Levan, Göran

    2005-10-01

    The inbred BDII rat is a valuable experimental model for the genetic analysis of endometrial adenocarcinoma (EAC). One common aberration detected by comparative genomic hybridization in rat EAC was gain/amplification affecting the proximal part of rat chromosome 6 (RNO6). We applied rat and mouse chromosome painting probes onto tumor cell metaphase preparations in order to detect and characterize gross RNO6 aberrations. In addition, the RNO6q11-q16 segment was analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization with probes representing 12 cancer-related genes in the region. The analysis revealed that seven tumors contained large RNO6-derived homogeneously staining regions (HSRs) in addition to several normal or near-normal RNO6 chromosomes. Five tumors (two of which also had HSRs) exhibited a selective increase of the RNO6q11-q16 segment, sometimes in conjunction with moderate amplification of one or a few genes. Most commonly, the amplification affected the region centered around band 6q16 and included the Mycn, Ddx1, and Rrm2 genes. A second region, centering around Slc8a1 and Xdh, also was affected by gene amplification but to a lesser extent. The aberrations in the proximal part of RNO6 were further analyzed using allelotyping of microsatellite markers in all tumors from animals that were heterozygous in the proximal RNO6 region. We could detect allelic imbalance (AI) in 12 of 20 informative tumors, 6 of which were in addition to those already analyzed by molecular cytogenetic methods as described. Our findings suggest that increase/amplification of genes in this chromosome region contribute to the development of this hormone-dependent tumor.

  11. Combining projected changes in species richness and composition reveals climate change impacts on coastal Mediterranean fish assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albouy, Camille; Guilhaumon, François; Bastos Araujo, Miguel;

    2012-01-01

    Species Temporal Turnover (STT) is one of the most familiar metrics to assess changes in assemblage composition as a consequence of climate change. However, STT mixes two components in one metric, changes in assemblage composition caused by a process of species loss or gain (i.e. the nestedness...... component) and changes in assemblage composition caused by a process of species replacement (i.e. the species replacement component). Drawing on previous studies investigating spatial patterns of beta diversity, we propose measures of STT that allow analysing each component (species replacement vs....... nestedness), separately. We also present a mapping strategy to simultaneously visualize changes in species richness and assemblage composition. To illustrate our approach, we used the Mediterranean coastal fish fauna as a case study. Using Bioclimatic Envelope Models (BEMs) we first projected the potential...

  12. Microsatellite organization in the grasshopper Abracris flavolineata (Orthoptera: Acrididae) revealed by FISH mapping: remarkable spreading in the A and B chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Diogo; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo Cavalcanti

    2014-01-01

    With the aim of acquiring deeper knowledge about repetitive DNAs chromosomal organization in grasshoppers, we used fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to map the distribution of 16 microsatellite repeats, including mono-, di-, tri- and tetra-nucleotides, in the chromosomes of the species Abracris flavolineata (Acrididae), which harbors B chromosome. FISH revealed two main patterns: (i) exclusively scattered signals, and (ii) scattered and specific signals, forming evident blocks. The enrichment was observed in both euchromatic and heterochromatic areas and only the motif (C)30 was absent in heterochromatin. The A and B chromosomes were enriched with all the elements that were mapped, being observed in the B chromosome more distinctive blocks for (GA)15 and (GAG)10. For A complement distinctive blocks were noticed for (A)30, (CA)15, (CG)15, (GA)15, (CAC)10, (CAA)10, (CGG)10, (GAA)10, (GAC)10 and (GATA)8. These results revealed an intense spreading of microsatellites in the A. flavolineata genome that was independent of the A+T or G+C enrichment in the repeats. The data indicate that the microsatellites compose the B chromosome and could be involved in the evolution of this element in this species, although no specific relationship with any A chromosome was observed to discuss about its origin. The systematic analysis presented here contributes to the knowledge of repetitive DNA chromosomal organization among grasshoppers including the B chromosomes.

  13. Microsatellite organization in the grasshopper Abracris flavolineata (Orthoptera: Acrididae revealed by FISH mapping: remarkable spreading in the A and B chromosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Milani

    Full Text Available With the aim of acquiring deeper knowledge about repetitive DNAs chromosomal organization in grasshoppers, we used fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH to map the distribution of 16 microsatellite repeats, including mono-, di-, tri- and tetra-nucleotides, in the chromosomes of the species Abracris flavolineata (Acrididae, which harbors B chromosome. FISH revealed two main patterns: (i exclusively scattered signals, and (ii scattered and specific signals, forming evident blocks. The enrichment was observed in both euchromatic and heterochromatic areas and only the motif (C30 was absent in heterochromatin. The A and B chromosomes were enriched with all the elements that were mapped, being observed in the B chromosome more distinctive blocks for (GA15 and (GAG10. For A complement distinctive blocks were noticed for (A30, (CA15, (CG15, (GA15, (CAC10, (CAA10, (CGG10, (GAA10, (GAC10 and (GATA8. These results revealed an intense spreading of microsatellites in the A. flavolineata genome that was independent of the A+T or G+C enrichment in the repeats. The data indicate that the microsatellites compose the B chromosome and could be involved in the evolution of this element in this species, although no specific relationship with any A chromosome was observed to discuss about its origin. The systematic analysis presented here contributes to the knowledge of repetitive DNA chromosomal organization among grasshoppers including the B chromosomes.

  14. Evolutionary history of the fish genus Astyanax Baird & Girard (1854 (Actinopterygii, Characidae in Mesoamerica reveals multiple morphological homoplasies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doadrio Ignacio

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesoamerica is one of the world's most complex biogeographical regions, mostly due to its complex geological history. This complexity has led to interesting biogeographical processes that have resulted in the current diversity and distribution of fauna in the region. The fish genus Astyanax represents a useful model to assess biogeographical hypotheses due to it being one of the most diverse and widely distributed freshwater fish species in the New World. We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to evaluate phylogenetic relationships within the genus in Mesoamerica, and to develop historical biogeographical hypotheses to explain its current distribution. Results Analysis of the entire mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cytb gene in 208 individuals from 147 localities and of a subset of individuals for three mitochondrial genes (Cytb, 16 S, and COI and a single nuclear gene (RAG1 yielded similar topologies, recovering six major groups with significant phylogeographic structure. Populations from North America and Upper Central America formed a monophyletic group, while Middle Central America showed evidence of rapid radiation with incompletely resolved relationships. Lower Central America lineages showed a fragmented structure, with geographically restricted taxa showing high levels of molecular divergence. All Bramocharax samples grouped with their sympatric Astyanax lineages (in some cases even with allopatric Astyanax populations, with less than 1% divergence between them. These results suggest a homoplasic nature to the trophic specializations associated with Bramocharax ecomorphs, which seem to have arisen independently in different Astyanax lineages. We observed higher taxonomic diversity compared to previous phylogenetic studies of the Astyanax genus. Colonization of Mesoamerica by Astyanax before the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama (3.3 Mya explains the deep level of divergence detected in Lower Central America. The

  15. Comparative phylogeography of reef fishes from the Gulf of Aden to the Arabian Sea reveals two cryptic lineages

    KAUST Repository

    DiBattista, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    The Arabian Sea is a heterogeneous region with high coral cover and warm stable conditions at the western end (Djibouti), in contrast to sparse coral cover, cooler temperatures, and upwelling at the eastern end (southern Oman). We tested for barriers to dispersal across this region (including the Gulf of Aden and Gulf of Oman), using mitochondrial DNA surveys of 11 reef fishes. Study species included seven taxa from six families with broad distributions across the Indo-Pacific and four species restricted to the Arabian Sea (and adjacent areas). Nine species showed no significant genetic partitions, indicating connectivity among contrasting environments spread across 2000 km. One butterflyfish (Chaetodon melannotus) and a snapper (Lutjanus kasmira) showed phylogenetic divergences of d = 0.008 and 0.048, respectively, possibly indicating cryptic species within these broadly distributed taxa. These genetic partitions at the western periphery of the Indo-Pacific reflect similar partitions recently discovered at the eastern periphery of the Indo-Pacific (the Hawaiian and the Marquesan Archipelagos), indicating that these disjunctive habitats at the ends of the range may serve as evolutionary incubators for coral reef organisms.

  16. Molecular markers reveal spatially segregated cryptic species in a critically endangered fish, the common skate (Dipturus batis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Andrew M; Sims, David W; Cotterell, Stephen P; El Nagar, Aliya; Ellis, Jim R; Lynghammar, Arve; McHugh, Matthew; Neat, Francis C; Pade, Nicolas G; Queiroz, Nuno; Serra-Pereira, Bárbara; Rapp, Toby; Wearmouth, Victoria J; Genner, Martin J

    2010-05-22

    Many sharks and skates are particularly vulnerable to overfishing because of their large size, slow growth, late maturity and low fecundity. In Europe dramatic population declines have taken place in common skate (Dipturus batis L.), one of the largest demersal fish in regional shelf seas, leading to extirpations from substantial parts of its former range. Here we report the discovery of cryptic species in common skate collected from the northeast Atlantic continental shelf. Data from nuclear microsatellite markers indicated two clearly distinct clades and phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences demonstrated monophyly of each one of them. Capture locations showed evidence of strong spatial segregation, with one taxon occurring mainly in waters off the southern British Isles and around Rockall, while the other was restricted to more northerly shelf waters. These apparently cryptic species showed overlapping substrate and depth preferences, but distributional limits were closely related to temperature gradients, potentially indicating thermal limits to their distributions. This discovery of hidden diversity within a large, critically endangered marine vertebrate demonstrates how marine biodiversity can be underestimated, even in such a relatively well-studied and heavily exploited region.

  17. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Two Vibrio toranzoniae Strains with Different Virulence Capacity Reveals Clues on Its Pathogenicity for Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasa, Aide; Gibas, Cynthia J.; Romalde, Jesús L.

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio toranzoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium of the Splendidus clade within the Vibrio genus. V. toranzoniae was first isolated from healthy clams in Galicia (Spain) but recently was also identified associated to disease outbreaks of red conger eel in Chile. Experimental challenges showed that the Chilean isolates were able to produce fish mortalities but not the strains isolated from clams. The aim of the present study was to determine the differences at the genomic level between the type strain of the species (CECT 7225T) and the strain R17, isolated from red conger eel in Chile, which could explain their different virulent capacity. The genome-based comparison showed high homology between both strains but differences were observed in certain gene clusters that include some virulence factors. Among these, we found that iron acquisition systems and capsule synthesis genes were the main differential features between both genomes that could explain the differences in the pathogenicity of the strains. Besides, the studied genomes presented genomic islands and toxins, and the R17 strain presented CRISPR sequences that are absent on the type strain. Taken together, this analysis provided important insights into virulence factors of V. toranzoniae that will lead to a better understanding of the pathogenic process. PMID:28194141

  18. First in-depth analysis of the novel Th2-type cytokines in salmonid fish reveals distinct patterns of expression and modulation but overlapping bioactivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiehui; Johansson, Petronella; Abós, Beatriz; Holt, Amy; Tafalla, Carolina; Jiang, Youshen; Wang, Alex; Xu, Qiaoqing; Qi, Zhitao; Huang, Wenshu; Costa, Maria M.; Diaz-Rosales, Patricia; Holland, Jason W.; Secombes, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    IL-4 and IL-13 are closely related canonical type-2 cytokines in mammals and have overlapping bioactivities via shared receptors. They are frequently activated together as part of the same immune response and are the signature cytokines produced by T-helper (Th)2 cells and type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), mediating immunity against extracellular pathogens. Little is known about the origin of type-2 responses, and whether they were an essential component of the early adaptive immune system that gave a fitness advantage by limiting collateral damage caused by metazoan parasites. Two evolutionary related type-2 cytokines, IL-4/13A and IL-4/13B, have been identified recently in several teleost fish that likely arose by duplication of an ancestral IL-4/13 gene as a consequence of a whole genome duplication event that occurred at the base of this lineage. However, studies of their comparative expression levels are largely missing and bioactivity analysis has been limited to IL-4/13A in zebrafish. Through interrogation of the recently released salmonid genomes, species in which an additional whole genome duplication event has occurred, four genomic IL-4/13 loci have been identified leading to the cloning of three active genes, IL-4/13A, IL-4/13B1 and IL-4/13B2, in both rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon. Comparative expression analysis by real-time PCR in rainbow trout revealed that the IL-4/13A expression is broad and high constitutively but less responsive to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and pathogen challenge. In contrast, the expression of IL-4/13B1 and IL-4/13B2 is low constitutively but is highly induced by viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSH) infection and during proliferative kidney disease (PKD) in vivo, and by formalin-killed bacteria, PAMPs, the T cell mitogen PHA, and the T-cell cytokines IL-2 and IL-21 in vitro. Moreover, bioactive recombinant cytokines of both IL-4/13A and B were produced and found to have shared but also distinct

  19. Combined fishing and climate forcing in the southern Benguela upwelling ecosystem: an end-to-end modelling approach reveals dampened effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgane Travers-Trolet

    Full Text Available The effects of climate and fishing on marine ecosystems have usually been studied separately, but their interactions make ecosystem dynamics difficult to understand and predict. Of particular interest to management, the potential synergism or antagonism between fishing pressure and climate forcing is analysed in this paper, using an end-to-end ecosystem model of the southern Benguela ecosystem, built from coupling hydrodynamic, biogeochemical and multispecies fish models (ROMS-N2P2Z2D2-OSMOSE. Scenarios of different intensities of upwelling-favourable wind stress combined with scenarios of fishing top-predator fish were tested. Analyses of isolated drivers show that the bottom-up effect of the climate forcing propagates up the food chain whereas the top-down effect of fishing cascades down to zooplankton in unfavourable environmental conditions but dampens before it reaches phytoplankton. When considering both climate and fishing drivers together, it appears that top-down control dominates the link between top-predator fish and forage fish, whereas interactions between the lower trophic levels are dominated by bottom-up control. The forage fish functional group appears to be a central component of this ecosystem, being the meeting point of two opposite trophic controls. The set of combined scenarios shows that fishing pressure and upwelling-favourable wind stress have mostly dampened effects on fish populations, compared to predictions from the separate effects of the stressors. Dampened effects result in biomass accumulation at the top predator fish level but a depletion of biomass at the forage fish level. This should draw our attention to the evolution of this functional group, which appears as both structurally important in the trophic functioning of the ecosystem, and very sensitive to climate and fishing pressures. In particular, diagnoses considering fishing pressure only might be more optimistic than those that consider combined effects

  20. Combined fishing and climate forcing in the southern Benguela upwelling ecosystem: an end-to-end modelling approach reveals dampened effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers-Trolet, Morgane; Shin, Yunne-Jai; Shannon, Lynne J; Moloney, Coleen L; Field, John G

    2014-01-01

    The effects of climate and fishing on marine ecosystems have usually been studied separately, but their interactions make ecosystem dynamics difficult to understand and predict. Of particular interest to management, the potential synergism or antagonism between fishing pressure and climate forcing is analysed in this paper, using an end-to-end ecosystem model of the southern Benguela ecosystem, built from coupling hydrodynamic, biogeochemical and multispecies fish models (ROMS-N2P2Z2D2-OSMOSE). Scenarios of different intensities of upwelling-favourable wind stress combined with scenarios of fishing top-predator fish were tested. Analyses of isolated drivers show that the bottom-up effect of the climate forcing propagates up the food chain whereas the top-down effect of fishing cascades down to zooplankton in unfavourable environmental conditions but dampens before it reaches phytoplankton. When considering both climate and fishing drivers together, it appears that top-down control dominates the link between top-predator fish and forage fish, whereas interactions between the lower trophic levels are dominated by bottom-up control. The forage fish functional group appears to be a central component of this ecosystem, being the meeting point of two opposite trophic controls. The set of combined scenarios shows that fishing pressure and upwelling-favourable wind stress have mostly dampened effects on fish populations, compared to predictions from the separate effects of the stressors. Dampened effects result in biomass accumulation at the top predator fish level but a depletion of biomass at the forage fish level. This should draw our attention to the evolution of this functional group, which appears as both structurally important in the trophic functioning of the ecosystem, and very sensitive to climate and fishing pressures. In particular, diagnoses considering fishing pressure only might be more optimistic than those that consider combined effects of fishing and

  1. Visual Capability of the Weakly Electric Fish Apteronotus albifrons as Revealed by a Modified Retinal Flat-Mount Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiyama, Tomo; Luna da Silva, Valdir; Moura Silva, Daniel; Hamasaki, Sawako; Yoshida, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Apteronotus albifrons (Gymnotiformes, Apteronotidae) is well known to have a sophisticated active electrosense system and is commonly described as having poor vision or being almost blind. However, some studies on this species suggest that the visual system may have a role in sensing objects in the environment. In this study, we investigated the visual capabilities of A. albifrons by focusing on eye morphology and retinal ganglion cell distribution. The eyes were almost embedded below the body surface and pigmented dermal tissue covered the peripheral regions of the pupil, limiting the direction of incoming light. The lens was remarkably flattened compared to the almost spherical lenses of other teleosts. The layered structure of the retina was not well delineated and ganglion cells did not form a continuous sheet of cell bodies. A newly modified retinal flat-mount method was applied to reveal the ganglion cell distribution. This method involved postembedding removal of the pigment epithelium of the retina for easier visualization of ganglion cells in small and/or fragile retinal tissues. We found that ganglion cell densities were relatively high in the periphery and highest in the nasal and temporal retina, although specialization was not so high (approx. 3:1) with regard to the medionasal or mediotemporal axis. The estimated highest possible spatial resolving power was around 0.57 and 0.54 cycles/degree in the nasal and temporal retina, respectively, confirming the lower importance of the visual sense in this species. However, considering the hunting nature of A. albifrons, the relatively high acuity of the caudal visual field in combination with electrolocation may well be used to locate prey situated close to the side of the body.

  2. Next-generation sequencing, FISH mapping and synteny-based modeling reveal mechanisms of decreasing dysploidy in Cucumis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Luming; Koo, Dal-Hoe; Li, Dawei; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Jiming; Luan, Feishi; Renner, Susanne S; Hénaff, Elizabeth; Sanseverino, Walter; Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Casacuberta, Josep; Senalik, Douglas A; Simon, Philipp W; Chen, Jinfeng; Weng, Yiqun

    2014-01-01

    In the large Cucurbitaceae genus Cucumis, cucumber (C. sativus) is the only species with 2n = 2x = 14 chromosomes. The majority of the remaining species, including melon (C. melo) and the sister species of cucumber, C. hystrix, have 2n = 2x = 24 chromosomes, implying a reduction from n = 12 to n = 7. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we investigated chromosome synteny among cucumber, C. hystrix and melon using integrated and complementary approaches. We identified 14 inversions and a C. hystrix lineage-specific reciprocal inversion between C. hystrix and melon. The results reveal the location and orientation of 53 C. hystrix syntenic blocks on the seven cucumber chromosomes, and allow us to infer at least 59 chromosome rearrangement events that led to the seven cucumber chromosomes, including five fusions, four translocations, and 50 inversions. The 12 inferred chromosomes (AK1-AK12) of an ancestor similar to melon and C. hystrix had strikingly different evolutionary fates, with cucumber chromosome C1 apparently resulting from insertion of chromosome AK12 into the centromeric region of translocated AK2/AK8, cucumber chromosome C3 originating from a Robertsonian-like translocation between AK4 and AK6, and cucumber chromosome C5 originating from fusion of AK9 and AK10. Chromosomes C2, C4 and C6 were the result of complex reshuffling of syntenic blocks from three (AK3, AK5 and AK11), three (AK5, AK7 and AK8) and five (AK2, AK3, AK5, AK8 and AK11) ancestral chromosomes, respectively, through 33 fusion, translocation and inversion events. Previous results (Huang, S., Li, R., Zhang, Z. et al., , Nat. Genet. 41, 1275-1281; Li, D., Cuevas, H.E., Yang, L., Li, Y., Garcia-Mas, J., Zalapa, J., Staub, J.E., Luan, F., Reddy, U., He, X., Gong, Z., Weng, Y. 2011a, BMC Genomics, 12, 396) showing that cucumber C7 stayed largely intact during the entire evolution of Cucumis are supported. Results from this study allow a fine-scale understanding of the

  3. Characterization of a multiresistant mosaic plasmid from a fish farm Sediment Exiguobacterium sp. isolate reveals aggregation of functional clinic-associated antibiotic resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Wang, Chao; Wu, Jinyu; Liu, Li; Zhang, Gang; Feng, Jie

    2014-02-01

    The genus Exiguobacterium can adapt readily to, and survive in, diverse environments. Our study demonstrated that Exiguobacterium sp. strain S3-2, isolated from marine sediment, is resistant to five antibiotics. The plasmid pMC1 in this strain carries seven putative resistance genes. We functionally characterized these resistance genes in Escherichia coli, and genes encoding dihydrofolate reductase and macrolide phosphotransferase were considered novel resistance genes based on their low similarities to known resistance genes. The plasmid G+C content distribution was highly heterogeneous. Only the G+C content of one block, which shared significant similarity with a plasmid from Exiguobacterium arabatum, fit well with the mean G+C content of the host. The remainder of the plasmid was composed of mobile elements with a markedly lower G+C ratio than the host. Interestingly, five mobile elements located on pMC1 showed significant similarities to sequences found in pathogens. Our data provided an example of the link between resistance genes in strains from the environment and the clinic and revealed the aggregation of antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria isolated from fish farms.

  4. Comet-FISH with strand-specific probes reveals transcription-coupled repair of 8-oxoGuanine in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jia; Hanawalt, Philip C; Spivak, Graciela

    2013-09-01

    Oxidized bases in DNA have been implicated in cancer, aging and neurodegenerative disease. We have developed an approach combining single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) that enables the comparative quantification of low, physiologically relevant levels of DNA lesions in the respective strands of defined nucleotide sequences and in the genome overall. We have synthesized single-stranded probes targeting the termini of DNA segments of interest using a polymerase chain reaction-based method. These probes facilitate detection of damage at the single-molecule level, as the lesions are converted to DNA strand breaks by lesion-specific endonucleases or glycosylases. To validate our method, we have documented transcription-coupled repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) gene in human fibroblasts irradiated with 254 nm ultraviolet at 0.1 J/m2, a dose ∼100-fold lower than those typically used. The high specificity and sensitivity of our approach revealed that 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) at an incidence of approximately three lesions per megabase is preferentially repaired in the transcribed strand of the ATM gene. We have also demonstrated that the hOGG1, XPA, CSB and UVSSA proteins, as well as actively elongating RNA polymerase II, are required for this process, suggesting cross-talk between DNA repair pathways.

  5. Intra- and interchromosomal rearrangements between cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) revealed by BAC-FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Emanuelle Varão; de Andrade Fonsêca, Artur Fellipe; Pedrosa-Harand, Andrea; de Andrade Bortoleti, Kyria Cilene; Benko-Iseppon, Ana Maria; da Costa, Antônio Félix; Brasileiro-Vidal, Ana Christina

    2015-06-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an annual legume grown in tropical and subtropical regions, which is economically relevant due to high protein content in dried beans, green pods, and leaves. In this work, a comparative cytogenetic study between V. unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) was conducted using BAC-FISH. Sequences previously mapped in P. vulgaris chromosomes (Pv) were used as probes in V. unguiculata chromosomes (Vu), contributing to the analysis of macrosynteny between both legumes. Thirty-seven clones from P. vulgaris 'BAT93' BAC library, corresponding to its 11 linkage groups, were hybridized in situ. Several chromosomal rearrangements were identified, such as translocations (between BACs from Pv1 and Pv8; Pv2 and Pv3; as well as Pv2 and Pv11), duplications (BAC from Pv3), as well as paracentric and pericentric inversions (BACs from Pv3, and Pv4, respectively). Two BACs (from Pv2 and Pv7), which hybridized at terminal regions in almost all P. vulgaris chromosomes, showed single-copy signal in Vu. Additionally, 17 BACs showed no signal in V. unguiculata chromosomes. The present results demonstrate the feasibility of using BAC libraries in comparative chromosomal mapping and karyotype evolution studies between Phaseolus and Vigna species, and revealed several macrosynteny and collinearity breaks among both legumes.

  6. Visual surveys can reveal rather different 'pictures' of fish densities: Comparison of trawl and video camera surveys in the Rockall Bank, NE Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, F. D.; Neat, F.; Collie, N.; Stewart, M.; Fernandes, P. G.

    2015-01-01

    Visual surveys allow non-invasive sampling of organisms in the marine environment which is of particular importance in deep-sea habitats that are vulnerable to damage caused by destructive sampling devices such as bottom trawls. To enable visual surveying at depths greater than 200 m we used a deep towed video camera system, to survey large areas around the Rockall Bank in the North East Atlantic. The area of seabed sampled was similar to that sampled by a bottom trawl, enabling samples from the towed video camera system to be compared with trawl sampling to quantitatively assess the numerical density of deep-water fish populations. The two survey methods provided different results for certain fish taxa and comparable results for others. Fish that exhibited a detectable avoidance behaviour to the towed video camera system, such as the Chimaeridae, resulted in mean density estimates that were significantly lower (121 fish/km2) than those determined by trawl sampling (839 fish/km2). On the other hand, skates and rays showed no reaction to the lights in the towed body of the camera system, and mean density estimates of these were an order of magnitude higher (64 fish/km2) than the trawl (5 fish/km2). This is probably because these fish can pass under the footrope of the trawl due to their flat body shape lying close to the seabed but are easily detected by the benign towed video camera system. For other species, such as Molva sp, estimates of mean density were comparable between the two survey methods (towed camera, 62 fish/km2; trawl, 73 fish/km2). The towed video camera system presented here can be used as an alternative benign method for providing indices of abundance for species such as ling in areas closed to trawling, or for those fish that are poorly monitored by trawl surveying in any area, such as the skates and rays.

  7. Forage fish of the Pacific Rim as revealed by diet of a piscivorous seabird: Synchrony and relationships with sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, J.A.; Bertram, D.F.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Hipfner, M.J.; Slater, L.; Sydeman, W.J.; Watanuki, Y.

    2008-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis of synchronous interannual changes in forage fish dynamics around the North Pacific Rim. To do this, we sampled forage fish communities using a seabird predator, the rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata), at six coastal study sites from Japan to California. We investigated whether take of forage fishes was related to local marine conditions as indexed by sea surface temperature (SST). SST was concordant across sites in the eastern Pacific, but inversely correlated between east and west. Forage fish communities consisted of anchovy (Engraulis spp.), sandlance (Ammodytes spp.), capelin (Mallotus spp.), and juvenile rockfish (Sebastes spp.), among others, and take of forage fish varied in response to interannual and possibly lower-frequency oceanographic variability. Take of primary forage species were significantly related to changes in SST only at the eastern sites. We found synchrony in interannual variation of primary forage fishes across several regions in the eastern Pacific, but no significant east-west correlations. Specifically in the Japan Sea, factors other than local SST or interannual variability may more strongly influence forage fishes. Predator diet sampling offers a fishery-independent, large-scale perspective on forage fish dynamics that may be difficult to obtain using conventional means of study. ?? 2008 NRC.

  8. 85 million years of pelagic ecosystem evolution: Pacific Ocean deep-sea ichthyolith records reveal fish community dynamics and a long-term decline in sharks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibert, E. C.; Norris, R. D.; Cuevas, J. M.; Graves, L. G.

    2015-12-01

    The structure and productivity of open ocean consumers has undergone major changes over the past 85 million years. Here, we present the first long-term detailed records of pelagic fish and sharks utilizing the record of ichthyoliths (teeth and dermal scales) from the deep Pacific Ocean. While the North and South Pacific Oceans show similar patterns throughout the 85 million year history, the North Pacific ichthyolith accumulation is significantly higher than the South Pacific, suggesting that the basin has been a more productive region for tens of millions of years. Fish and sharks were not abundant in the Pacific gyres until ~75 million years ago (Ma) suggesting that neither group was quantitatively important in oligotrophic pelagic food webs prior to the latest Cretaceous. Relative to ray-finned fish, sharks were common in the ancient ocean. Most ichthyolith assemblages have >50% shark dermal scales (denticles), but denticle abundance has been declining in both absolute and relative abundance since the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg) mass extinction. The accumulation rate of ichthyoliths of both sharks and ray-finned fish was highest in the Early Eocene, during the peak of the Cenozoic 'greenhouse' climate where production of shark dermal denticles and fish teeth increased almost five times over Paleocene production rates. Ichthyolith fluxes fell with cooler climates in the later Eocene and Oligocene, but fish production is almost always higher than in the Cretaceous and Paleocene reflecting the expanded ecological roles and importance of pelagic fish in marine ecosystems. Shark denticle production fell to less than half that of the Cretaceous by 20 Ma when it dropped abruptly to near-zero levels. Currently denticles make up sharks appear to be falling as major pelagic consumers over the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic, and particularly over the past 20 Ma, perhaps reflecting demographic changes in shark and fish communities, or the rise of resource competition from

  9. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Fish Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Fish Allergy Print A ... From Home en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the ...

  10. The role of ecological context and predation risk-stimuli in revealing the true picture about the genetic basis of boldness evolution in fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klefoth, Thomas; Skov, Christian; Krause, Jens;

    2011-01-01

    To showcase the importance of genotype × environment interactions and the presence of predation risk in the experimental assessment of boldness in fish, we investigated boldness in terms of feeding behavior and refuge use in two genetically different populations of juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio)...

  11. Sequence and Expression Analysis of Interferon Regulatory Factor 10 (IRF10 in Three Diverse Teleost Fish Reveals Its Role in Antiviral Defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoqing Xu

    Full Text Available Interferon regulatory factor (IRF 10 was first found in birds and is present in the genome of other tetrapods (but not humans and mice, as well as in teleost fish. The functional role of IRF10 in vertebrate immunity is relatively unknown compared to IRF1-9. The target of this research was to clone and characterize the IRF10 genes in three economically important fish species that will facilitate future evaluation of this molecule in fish innate and adaptive immunity.In the present study, a single IRF10 gene was cloned in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella and Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus, and two, named IRF10a and IRF10b, in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The fish IRF10 molecules share highest identities to other vertebrate IRF10s, and have a well conserved DNA binding domain, IRF-associated domain, and an 8 exon/7 intron structure with conserved intron phase. The presence of an upstream ATG or open reading frame (ORF in the 5'-untranslated region of different fish IRF10 cDNA sequences suggests potential regulation at the translational level, and this has been verified by in vitro transcription/translation experiments of the trout IRF10a cDNA, but would still need to be validated in fish cells.Both trout IRF10 paralogues are highly expressed in thymus, blood and spleen but are relatively low in head kidney and caudal kidney. Trout IRF10b expression is significantly higher than IRF10a in integumentary tissues i.e. gills, scales, skin, intestine, adipose fin and tail fins, suggesting that IRF10b may be more important in mucosal immunity. The expression of both trout IRF10 paralogues is up-regulated by recombinant IFN-γ. The expression of the IRF10 genes is highly induced by Poly I:C in vitro and in vivo, and by viral infection, but is less responsive to peptidoglycan and bacterial infection, suggesting an important role of fish IRF10 in antiviral defense.

  12. Comparative genomic analysis reveals independent expansion of a lineage-specific gene family in vertebrates: The class II cytokine receptors and their ligands in mammals and fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogensen Knud

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high degree of sequence conservation between coding regions in fish and mammals can be exploited to identify genes in mammalian genomes by comparison with the sequence of similar genes in fish. Conversely, experimentally characterized mammalian genes may be used to annotate fish genomes. However, gene families that escape this principle include the rapidly diverging cytokines that regulate the immune system, and their receptors. A classic example is the class II helical cytokines (HCII including type I, type II and lambda interferons, IL10 related cytokines (IL10, IL19, IL20, IL22, IL24 and IL26 and their receptors (HCRII. Despite the report of a near complete pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes genome sequence, these genes remain undescribed in fish. Results We have used an original strategy based both on conserved amino acid sequence and gene structure to identify HCII and HCRII in the genome of another pufferfish, Tetraodon nigroviridis that is amenable to laboratory experiments. The 15 genes that were identified are highly divergent and include a single interferon molecule, three IL10 related cytokines and their potential receptors together with two Tissue Factor (TF. Some of these genes form tandem clusters on the Tetraodon genome. Their expression pattern was determined in different tissues. Most importantly, Tetraodon interferon was identified and we show that the recombinant protein can induce antiviral MX gene expression in Tetraodon primary kidney cells. Similar results were obtained in Zebrafish which has 7 MX genes. Conclusion We propose a scheme for the evolution of HCII and their receptors during the radiation of bony vertebrates and suggest that the diversification that played an important role in the fine-tuning of the ancestral mechanism for host defense against infections probably followed different pathways in amniotes and fish.

  13. New specimens and records of chondrichthyan fishes (Vertebrata: Chondrichthyes off the Mexican Pacific coast Nuevos ejemplares y nuevos registros de peces cartilaginosos (Vertebrata: Chondrichthyes de la costa del Pacífico mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgonio Ruiz-Campos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available New specimens and new records of occurrence for 10 species of chondrichthyan (elasmobranch and chimaeroid fishes previously unknown or little documented for the continental shelf of the Mexican Pacific are reported. This contribution provides the first record of Centroscyllium nigrum, Isurus paucus, and Bathyraja trachura for the Mexican Pacific, as well as new specimens of Hydrolagus colliei, Hexanchus griseus, Echinorhinus cookei, Pseudocarcharias kamoharai, and Raja velezi for the western coast of the Baja California Peninsula, including the intermediate record within the known distribution range for Apristurus kampae, and the southernmost record for Raja inornata.Se reportan nuevos ejemplares y nuevos registros de concurrencia para 10 especies de elasmobranquios previamente desconocidos o con muy poca documentación en aguas del Pacífico mexicano. Esta contribución ofrece el primer registro de Centroscyllium nigrum, Isurus paucus, y Bathyraja trachura en el Pacífico mexicano; así como nuevos ejemplares de Hydrolagus colliei, Hexanchus griseus, Echinorhinus cookei, Pseudocarcharias kamoharai y Raja velezi en la costa occidental de la península de Baja California, con la inclusión del registro intermedio en el ámbito de distribución conocida para Apristurus kampae, y el registro más meridional para Raja inornata.

  14. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a clear and consistent manner, so that consumers with food allergies and their caregivers can be informed as ... the menu, cross-contact with fish is possible. Ethnic ... fish. Avoid foods like fish sticks and anchovies. Some individuals with ...

  15. Fish Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaxter, J. H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides related information about hearing in fish, including the sensory stimulus of sound in the underwater environment, mechanoreceptors in fish, pressure perception and the swimbladder, specializations in sound conduction peculiar to certain fish families. Includes numerous figures. (CS)

  16. Not All Inner Ears are the Same: Otolith Matrix Proteins in the Inner Ear of Sub-Adult Cichlid Fish, Oreochromis Mossambicus, Reveal Insights Into the Biomineralization Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigele, Jochen; Franz-Odendaal, Tamara A; Hilbig, Reinhard

    2016-02-01

    The fish ear stones (otoliths) consist mainly of calcium carbonate and have lower amounts of a proteinous matrix. This matrix consists of macromolecules, which directly control the biomineralization process. We analyzed the composition of this proteinous matrix by mass spectrometry in a shotgun approach. For this purpose, an enhanced protein purification technique was developed that excludes any potential contamination of proteins from body fluids. Using this method we identified eight proteins in the inner ear of Oreochromis mossambicus. These include the common otolith matrix proteins (OMP-1, otolin-1, neuroserpin, SPARC and otoconin), and three proteins (alpha tectorin, otogelin and transferrin) not previously localized to the otoliths. Moreover, we were able to exclude the occurrence of two matrix proteins (starmaker and pre-cerebellin-like protein) known from other fish species. In further analyses, we show that the absence of the OMP starmaker corresponds to calcitic otoliths and that pre-cerebellin-like protein is not present at any stage during the development of the otoliths of the inner ear. This study shows O. mossambicus does not have all of the known otolith proteins indicating that the matrix proteins in the inner ear of fish are not the same across species. Further functional studies of the novel proteins we identified during otolith development are required.

  17. Simultaneous RNA-DNA FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lan-Tian; Meng, Zhenyu; Shao, Fangwei; Zhang, Li-Feng

    2016-01-01

    A highly useful tool for studying lncRNAs is simultaneous RNA-DNA FISH, which reveals the localization and quantitative information of RNA and DNA in cellular contexts. However, a simple combination of RNA FISH and DNA FISH often generates disappointing results because the fragile RNA signals are often damaged by the harsh conditions used in DNA FISH for denaturing the DNA. Here, we describe a robust and simple RNA-DNA FISH protocol, in which amino-labeled nucleic acid probes are used for RNA FISH. The method is suitable to detect single-RNA molecules simultaneously with DNA.

  18. Testing for adaptive evolution of the female reproductive protein ZPC in mammals, birds and fishes reveals problems with the M7-M8 likelihood ratio test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlin Sofia

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adaptive evolution appears to be a common feature of reproductive proteins across a very wide range of organisms. A promising way of addressing the evolutionary forces responsible for this general phenomenon is to test for adaptive evolution in the same gene but among groups of species, which differ in their reproductive biology. One can then test evolutionary hypotheses by asking whether the variation in adaptive evolution is consistent with the variation in reproductive biology. We have attempted to apply this approach to the study of a female reproductive protein, zona pellucida C (ZPC, which has been previously shown by the use of likelihood ratio tests (LRTs to be under positive selection in mammals. Results We tested for evidence of adaptive evolution of ZPC in 15 mammalian species, in 11 avian species and in six fish species using three different LRTs (M1a-M2a, M7-M8, and M8a-M8. The only significant findings of adaptive evolution came from the M7-M8 test in mammals and fishes. Since LRTs of adaptive evolution may yield false positives in some situations, we examined the properties of the LRTs by several different simulation methods. When we simulated data to test the robustness of the LRTs, we found that the pattern of evolution in ZPC generates an excess of false positives for the M7-M8 LRT but not for the M1a-M2a or M8a-M8 LRTs. This bias is strong enough to have generated the significant M7-M8 results for mammals and fishes. Conclusion We conclude that there is no strong evidence for adaptive evolution of ZPC in any of the vertebrate groups we studied, and that the M7-M8 LRT can be biased towards false inference of adaptive evolution by certain patterns of non-adaptive evolution.

  19. Fish allergy and fish allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuehn, A; Hilger, Christiane; Ollert, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Fish is one of the main elicitors for food allergies. For a long time, the clinical picture of fish allergy was reduced to the following features. First, fish-allergic patients suffer from a high IgE cross-reactivity among fishes so that they have to avoid all species. Second, clinically relevant...... review gives an overview on the clinical characteristics of fish allergy and the molecular properties of relevant fish allergens. The advancement of the IgE-based diagnosis using a panel of well-defined fish allergens from different species is in the focus of the discussion. © 2016 Dustri-Verlag Dr. Karl...

  20. Deep Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Omer; Sadanandan, Sajith Kecheril; Wählby, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish ( Danio rerio) is an important vertebrate model organism in biomedical research, especially suitable for morphological screening due to its transparent body during early development. Deep learning has emerged as a dominant paradigm for data analysis and found a number of applications in computer vision and image analysis. Here we demonstrate the potential of a deep learning approach for accurate high-throughput classification of whole-body zebrafish deformations in multifish microwell plates. Deep learning uses the raw image data as an input, without the need of expert knowledge for feature design or optimization of the segmentation parameters. We trained the deep learning classifier on as few as 84 images (before data augmentation) and achieved a classification accuracy of 92.8% on an unseen test data set that is comparable to the previous state of the art (95%) based on user-specified segmentation and deformation metrics. Ablation studies by digitally removing whole fish or parts of the fish from the images revealed that the classifier learned discriminative features from the image foreground, and we observed that the deformations of the head region, rather than the visually apparent bent tail, were more important for good classification performance.

  1. Antarctic Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Joseph T.; DeVries, Arthur L.

    1986-01-01

    Explains the adaptations to Antarctic waters that Notothenioidei, a group of advanced bony fishes, have exhibited. Discusses the fishes' mechanisms of production of antifreeze properties and their capacities for neutral buoyancy in water. (ML)

  2. Fish Dishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project that was inspired by Greek pottery, specifically dishes shaped as fish. Explains that fourth-grade students drew a fish shape that was later used to create their clay version of the fish. Discusses how the students examined the pottery to make decisions about color and design. (CMK)

  3. Effectiveness of annealing blocking primers versus restriction enzymes for characterization of generalist diets: unexpected prey revealed in the gut contents of two coral reef fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leray, Matthieu; Agudelo, Natalia; Mills, Suzanne C; Meyer, Christopher P

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of predator-prey interactions is challenging as researchers have to rely on indirect methods that can be costly, biased and too imprecise to elucidate the complexity of food webs. DNA amplification and sequencing techniques of gut and fecal contents are promising approaches, but their success largely depends on the ability to amplify the taxonomic array of prey consumed and then match prey amplicons with reference sequences. When little a priori information on diet is available or a generalist predator is targeted, versatile primer sets (also referred to as universal or general primers) as opposed to group- or species-specific primer sets are the most powerful to unveil the full range of prey consumed. However, versatile primers are likely to preferentially amplify the predominant, less degraded predator DNA if no manipulation is performed to exclude this confounding DNA template. In this study we compare two approaches that eliminate the confounding predator template: restriction digestion and the use of annealing blocking primers. First, we use a preliminary DNA barcode library provided by the Moorea BIOCODE project to 1) evaluate the cutting frequency of commercially available restriction enzymes and 2) design predator specific annealing blocking primers. We then compare the performance of the two predator removal strategies for the detection of prey templates using two versatile primer sets from the gut contents of two generalist coral reef fish species sampled in Moorea. Our study demonstrates that blocking primers should be preferentially used over restriction digestion for predator DNA removal as they recover greater prey diversity. We also emphasize that a combination of versatile primers may be required to best represent the breadth of a generalist's diet.

  4. Puerto Rico Revealed Preference data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Revealed preference models provide insights into recreational angler behavior and the economic value of recreational fishing trips. Revealed preference data is...

  5. Chromosome studies of European cyprinid fishes: cross-species painting reveals natural allotetraploid origin of a Carassius female with 206 chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knytl, M; Kalous, L; Symonová, R; Rylková, K; Ráb, P

    2013-01-01

    A single female with 206 chromosomes and another 26 females with 156 chromosomes identified as Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio, and 5 individuals with 100 chromosomes identified as crucian carp, C. carassius, were sampled during field survey in one locality in the upper Elbe River. To identify the origin of females with high chromosome numbers, comparative karyotype analysis, GISH, with whole C. carassius DNA as probe and phylogenetic positions of sampled individuals revealed by cytochrome b mitochondrial marker were performed. GISH showed consistently bright labeling of 50 chromosomal elements out of 206, corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of C. carassius. The position of these females with high chromosome numbers in a reconstructed phylogenetic tree was within the clade of C. gibelio, documenting its affiliation to C. gibelio mitochondrial, i.e. maternal lineage. Our findings indicated that the mother of the female with high chromosome numbers was a gynogenetically reproducing 156-chromosome C. gibelio female and the father a bisexually reproducing C. carassius male. We, therefore, hypothesized that the C. gibelio × C. carassius allopolyploid female with 206 chromosomes arose by a mechanism of sperm genome addition to an unreduced egg of the mother.

  6. Sexual signals in electric fishes

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Bernd

    1990-01-01

    Electroreceptive bony fishes of Africa (the Mormyriformes) and South America (the Gymnotiformes) detect and communicate with conspecifics by their continuously discharging electric organs. Laboratory studies of members of each group are beginning to reveal the mechanisms of communicating with and finding mates, offering much scope for future studies of the behavioral ecology of electric fishes.

  7. Fish health and fish quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian

    Aquaculture is an expanding worldwide industry producing an increasing amount of fish every year. The quality of the fish meat is dependent upon many biological and non-biological factors. Infectious diseases are known to cause bleedings and damage of the muscle tissue that may lead to scarring...... are poorly described in fish. The present work in this thesis focused on: 1) examination of potential changes in the quality regarding texture of the muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after previous infection with the bacterial pathogens Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum; 2...... of these studies showed that previous infections by Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum gave rise to subsequent changes regarding textural quality parameters in fresh fish meat, while no differences were seen for cold-smoked meat from the same fish. The texture in previous infected fish was less flaky and less...

  8. Broad-scale sampling of primary freshwater fish populations reveals the role of intrinsic traits, inter-basin connectivity, drainage area and latitude on shaping contemporary patterns of genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Santos, Carla; Robalo, Joana I; Pereira, Ana M; Branco, Paulo; Santos, José Maria; Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Sousa, Mónica; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Background. Worldwide predictions suggest that up to 75% of the freshwater fish species occurring in rivers with reduced discharge could be extinct by 2070 due to the combined effect of climate change and water abstraction. The Mediterranean region is considered to be a hotspot of freshwater fish diversity but also one of the regions where the effects of climate change will be more severe. Iberian cyprinids are currently highly endangered, with over 68% of the species raising some level of conservation concern. Methods. During the FISHATLAS project, the Portuguese hydrographical network was extensively covered (all the 34 river basins and 47 sub-basins) in order to contribute with valuable data on the genetic diversity distribution patterns of native cyprinid species. A total of 188 populations belonging to 16 cyprinid species of Squalius, Luciobarbus, Achondrostoma, Iberochondrostoma, Anaecypris and Pseudochondrostoma were characterized, for a total of 3,678 cytochrome b gene sequences. Results. When the genetic diversity of these populations was mapped, it highlighted differences among populations from the same species and between species with identical distribution areas. Factors shaping the contemporary patterns of genetic diversity were explored and the results revealed the role of latitude, inter-basin connectivity, migratory behaviour, species maximum size, species range and other species intrinsic traits in determining the genetic diversity of sampled populations. Contrastingly, drainage area and hydrological regime (permanent vs. temporary) seem to have no significant effect on genetic diversity. Species intrinsic traits, maximum size attained, inter-basin connectivity and latitude explained over 30% of the haplotype diversity variance and, generally, the levels of diversity were significantly higher for smaller sized species, from connected and southerly river basins. Discussion. Targeting multiple co-distributed species of primary freshwater fish allowed

  9. Population genetic structure revealed by a school of the freshwatermigratory fish, Brycon hilarii Estructura genética poblacional revelada por un cardumen del pez migratorio de agua dulce, Brycon hilarii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Sanches

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It is believed that different genetic populations of migratory fishes can co-exist in a single hydrographic system. Although different populations may occupy and explore the river together, they segregate during the spawning season and consequently the population genetic structuring is maintained. Genetic variation of a Brycon hilarii spawning school and samples from different collection sites in the Miranda River basin were surveyed using seven microsatellites. Population structuring was revealed by a significant differentiation of the spawning school related to the supposed local populations. The genetic differentiation detected may be supported by behavior during the reproductive season that promotes the maintenance of the genetic integrity of different populations. These data may contribute toward the understanding of the behavior and biology of these fish as well as fishery management and species conservation programs.Se ha documentado que diferentes poblaciones genéticas de peces migratorios pueden coexistir en un único sistema hidrográfico. Diferentes poblaciones pueden ocupar y explorar el río juntas, pero se segregan durante la temporada de desove y consecuentemente la estructuración genética poblacional se mantiene. La diversidad genética de un cardumen reproductivo de Brycon hilarii y muestras de diferentes sitios en la cuenca del Río Miranda fueron analizadas mediante siete microsatélites. La estructura poblacional fue revelada por una diferenciación genética significativa del cardumen reproductivo con las muestras de las poblaciones locales. La diferenciación genética detectada puede ser resultado de un probable comportamiento durante la temporada reproductiva, que promueve el mantenimiento de la integridad genética de las diferentes poblaciones. Estos datos pueden contribuir a la comprensión del comportamiento y biología de estos peces, así como amparar programas de gestión de la pesca y conservación de las

  10. Fish parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems......This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems...

  11. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ying-Nan; Xiao, Gui-Bao; Li, Jiong-Tang

    2016-11-01

    The Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) is one of the popular aquarium fish. Serious attentions have been paid to the biodiversity of the fish. The mitochondrial genome of the Siamese fighting fish is reported to be 17 099 bp and includes 37 genes. The gene organization is similar to other fish mitogenomes. The control region is AT-rich and includes three tandem repeats. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the fish is close to fish in the Macropodus genus. This mitogenome will assist in studying the mitochondrial variations and population structure in this fish and examine the evolutionary relationship among fish in the Osphronemidae family.

  12. One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

  13. Fighting fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchi, E.; Guerrini, V.; Rinaldi, S.; Schaeffer, G.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce new combinatorial structures, called fighting fish, that generalize directed convex polyominoes by allowing them to branch out of the plane into independent substructures. On the one hand the combinatorial structure of fighting fish appears to be particularly rich: we show that their generating function with respect to the perimeter and number of tails is algebraic, and we conjecture a mysterious multivariate equidistribution property with the left ternary trees introduced by Del Lungo et al On the other hand, fighting fish provide a simple and natural model of random branching surfaces which displays original features: in particular, we show that the average area of a uniform random fighting fish with perimeter 2n is of order n 5/4: to the best of our knowledge this behaviour is non-standard and suggests that we have identified a new universality class of random structures. Dedicated to Tony Guttmann on the occasion of his 70th birthday.

  14. Alabama ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and freshwater fish species in Alabama. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  15. Virginia ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and brackishwater fish species in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data...

  16. Maryland ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in Maryland. Vector polygons in this data...

  17. Hawaii ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, marine, estuarine, and native stream fish species in coastal Hawaii. Vector polygons in this data...

  18. Louisiana ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for freshwater (inland) fish species in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent water-bodies and other...

  19. Fish intelligence, sentience and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Culum

    2015-01-01

    Fish are one of the most highly utilised vertebrate taxa by humans; they are harvested from wild stocks as part of global fishing industries, grown under intensive aquaculture conditions, are the most common pet and are widely used for scientific research. But fish are seldom afforded the same level of compassion or welfare as warm-blooded vertebrates. Part of the problem is the large gap between people's perception of fish intelligence and the scientific reality. This is an important issue because public perception guides government policy. The perception of an animal's intelligence often drives our decision whether or not to include them in our moral circle. From a welfare perspective, most researchers would suggest that if an animal is sentient, then it can most likely suffer and should therefore be offered some form of formal protection. There has been a debate about fish welfare for decades which centres on the question of whether they are sentient or conscious. The implications for affording the same level of protection to fish as other vertebrates are great, not least because of fishing-related industries. Here, I review the current state of knowledge of fish cognition starting with their sensory perception and moving on to cognition. The review reveals that fish perception and cognitive abilities often match or exceed other vertebrates. A review of the evidence for pain perception strongly suggests that fish experience pain in a manner similar to the rest of the vertebrates. Although scientists cannot provide a definitive answer on the level of consciousness for any non-human vertebrate, the extensive evidence of fish behavioural and cognitive sophistication and pain perception suggests that best practice would be to lend fish the same level of protection as any other vertebrate.

  20. Fishing Access Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department maintains developed fishing access areas. These sites provide public access to waters in Vermont for shore fishing...

  1. Breaking the host range: mandarin fish is susceptible to a vesiculovirus derived from snakehead fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaodan; Wen, Yi; Hu, Xianqin; Wang, Wenwen; Liang, Xufang; Li, Jun; Vakharia, Vikram; Lin, Li

    2015-04-01

    Members of the genus Vesiculovirus, which belongs to the family Rhabdoviridae, can cause great economic loss in fish culture. In the present report, a vesiculovirus [named snakehead fish vesiculovirus (SHVV)] was isolated from diseased hybrid snakehead fish. SHVV shared 94 % nucleotide sequence identity at the genomic level with Siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus (SCRV), which infects mandarin fish (S. chuatsi). We showed that SHVV was able to replicate and proliferate well in SSN-1 cells, which originate from striped snakehead fish (Channa striatus). Furthermore, mandarin fish was susceptible to SHVV by bath exposure, as well as by intraperitoneal injection. The infected fish showed typical clinical signs of rhabdovirus infection, including haemorrhage and oedema. Histopathological analysis revealed that extensive inflammation and necrosis were observed in the spleen, kidney, liver, heart and brain of the moribund mandarin fish. These results will shed new light on the epidemic of vesiculovirus infections among fish.

  2. Vitamin A intoxication from reef fish liver consumption in Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewailly, E; Rouja, P; Schultz, E; Julien, P; Tucker, T

    2011-09-01

    We report three historical cases of severe vitamin A intoxication in anglers who had consumed reef fish liver caught in Bermuda. The subsequent analyses of 35 fish livers from seven different fish species revealed that very high concentrations of vitamin A exist in tropical fish liver, even in noncarnivorous fish species. Large variations in concentrations were observed between specimens and between species. The angling population and (especially) pregnant women should be advised of this potential health threat.

  3. The Fishing Cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雅飞; 乐伟国

    2008-01-01

    @@ 一、故事内容 A cat goes fishing every day. He wants to eat fish, but he can't catch any fish. One day, he goes to the river as usual. Suddenly, a fish comes out. He catches the fish and putsthe fish in the basket. He's very happy, but he forgest to put the lid on the basket.

  4. Fish gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boran, Gokhan; Regenstein, Joe M

    2010-01-01

    Gelatin is a multifunctional ingredient used in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and photographic films as a gelling agent, stabilizer, thickener, emulsifier, and film former. As a thermoreversible hydrocolloid with a narrower gap between its melting and gelling temperatures, both of which are below human body temperature, gelatin provides unique advantages over carbohydrate-based gelling agents. Gelatin is mostly produced from pig skin, and cattle hides and bones. Some alternative raw materials have recently gained attention from both researchers and the industry not just because they overcome religious concerns shared by Jews and Muslims but also because they provide, in some cases, technological advantages over mammalian gelatins. Fish skins from a number of fish species are among the other sources that have been comprehensively studied as sources for gelatin production. Fish skins have a significant potential for the production of high-quality gelatin with different melting and gelling temperatures over a much wider range than mammalian gelatins, yet still have a sufficiently high gel strength and viscosity. Gelatin quality is industrially determined by gel strength, viscosity, melting or gelling temperatures, the water content, and microbiological safety. For gelatin manufacturers, yield from a particular raw material is also important. Recent experimental studies have shown that these quality parameters vary greatly depending on the biochemical characteristics of the raw materials, the manufacturing processes applied, and the experimental settings used for quality control tests. In this review, the gelatin quality achieved from different fish species is reviewed along with the experimental procedures used to determine gelatin quality. In addition, the chemical structure of collagen and gelatin, the collagen-gelatin conversion, the gelation process, and the gelatin market are discussed.

  5. Fish hemoglobins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. de Souza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemical strategies to adapt to the changing environmental gas availability. Structurally, most fish hemoglobins are tetrameric; however, those from some species such as lamprey and hagfish dissociate, being monomeric when oxygenated and oligomeric when deoxygenated. Fish blood frequently possesses several hemoglobins; the primary origin of this finding lies in the polymorphism that occurs in the globin loci, an aspect that may occasionally confer advantages to its carriers or even be a harmless evolutionary remnant. On the other hand, the functional properties exhibit different behaviors, ranging from a total absence of responses to allosteric regulation to drastic ones, such as the Root effect.

  6. Fish Tales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLerran, L.

    2010-07-06

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical

  7. Fish Immunoglobulins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashoof, Sara; Criscitiello, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    The B cell receptor and secreted antibody are at the nexus of humoral adaptive immunity. In this review, we summarize what is known of the immunoglobulin genes of jawed cartilaginous and bony fishes. We focus on what has been learned from genomic or cDNA sequence data, but where appropriate draw upon protein, immunization, affinity and structural studies. Work from major aquatic model organisms and less studied comparative species are both included to define what is the rule for an immunoglobulin isotype or taxonomic group and what exemplifies an exception. PMID:27879632

  8. Stable isotopes as a useful tool for revealing the environmental fate and trophic effect of open-sea-cage fish farm wastes on marine benthic organisms with different feeding guilds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Tak-Cheung; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Wu, Rudolf S S; Shin, Paul K S; Cheung, S G; Li, X Y; Lee, Joseph H W

    2011-01-01

    Environmental fate of fish farm wastes (FFW) released from an open-sea-cage farm at Kat O, Hong Kong was examined by measuring carbon and nitrogen stable isotope (SI) ratios in selected benthic organisms collected along a 2000 m transect from the farm. Our results showed that FFW significantly influenced the energy utilization profile of consumers near the fish farm. Although nitrogen enrichment effect on δ15N was anticipated in biota near the farm, the predicted patterns did not consistently occur in all feeding guilds. Two species of suspension-feeders, which relied on naturally δ15N-depleted sources, were δ15N-enriched near the fish farm. In contrast, both species of benthic grazer and deposit-feeder, which relied on naturally δ15N-enriched algal sources, were δ15N-depleted under the influence of FFW. The SI signatures of biota can, therefore, serve as feasible biomarkers for FFW discharges only when the trophic structure of the receiving environment is fully elucidated.

  9. Research Project Segment : Anadromous Fish Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Estimates at Lower Russian Lake weir revealed the out-migration of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, smelts was 1,018,527. The peak of the migration (75% of the...

  10. Fishing amplifies forage fish population collapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essington, Timothy E; Moriarty, Pamela E; Froehlich, Halley E; Hodgson, Emma E; Koehn, Laura E; Oken, Kiva L; Siple, Margaret C; Stawitz, Christine C

    2015-05-26

    Forage fish support the largest fisheries in the world but also play key roles in marine food webs by transferring energy from plankton to upper trophic-level predators, such as large fish, seabirds, and marine mammals. Fishing can, thereby, have far reaching consequences on marine food webs unless safeguards are in place to avoid depleting forage fish to dangerously low levels, where dependent predators are most vulnerable. However, disentangling the contributions of fishing vs. natural processes on population dynamics has been difficult because of the sensitivity of these stocks to environmental conditions. Here, we overcome this difficulty by collating population time series for forage fish populations that account for nearly two-thirds of global catch of forage fish to identify the fingerprint of fisheries on their population dynamics. Forage fish population collapses shared a set of common and unique characteristics: high fishing pressure for several years before collapse, a sharp drop in natural population productivity, and a lagged response to reduce fishing pressure. Lagged response to natural productivity declines can sharply amplify the magnitude of naturally occurring population fluctuations. Finally, we show that the magnitude and frequency of collapses are greater than expected from natural productivity characteristics and therefore, likely attributed to fishing. The durations of collapses, however, were not different from those expected based on natural productivity shifts. A risk-based management scheme that reduces fishing when populations become scarce would protect forage fish and their predators from collapse with little effect on long-term average catches.

  11. Sport Fishing Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The regulations for sport fishing on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge are outlined in this document. Fishing is only permitted from sunrise to sunset, and only...

  12. Fish Springs pond snail

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Communication scenario between the branch of Listing and Recovery, Fish and Wildlife Enhancement, and Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), in regards to the...

  13. Fish tapeworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with the tapeworm parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  14. Got a Sick Fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Got a sick fish? Fish with disease can show a variety of signs. If you notice your pet fish having any unusual disease signs, contact your veterinarian ...

  15. No Fishing Now,More Fish Later

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Fishing ban for ecological purposes starts on the Pearl River Since April1,a two-month ban on fishing has been imposed on the Pearl River valley in south China.It is the first fishing ban in this area with the purpose of preserving biodiversity in China’s third longest

  16. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative...

  17. Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus in marine fish and its implications for fish farming - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Mellergaard, Stig

    2005-01-01

    marine fish show no to low pathogenicity to rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon, although several are pathogenic for turbot. Marine VHSV isolates are so far serologically indistinguishable from freshwater isolates. Genotyping based on VHSV G- and N-genes reveals four groups indicating the geographical...... of possible transfer of virus from free-living marine fish to farmed fish are discussed, as are measures to prevent introduction of VHSV from the marine environment to aquaculture....

  18. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  19. Three Kinds of Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2012-01-01

    There are three kinds of fish. Fish you were given, fish you bought and fish you lease. This might sound a bit odd, but it is nevertheless the basis for the activities of Danish commercial fishers since the introduction of transferable fishing concessions (TFCs) in 2007. In the current 2012 reform...... of market based systems are wild speculation, concentration and monopolization of fishing access and subsequent leasing with fishing communities and new entrants very likely being worse off (see for example the chapter “From fishing rights to financial derivatives” is this volume or Olson 2011; Sumaila 2010...... will examine five Danish fishing operations and discuss how they have reacted in different ways to the newly introduced system of transferable fishing concessions. By introducing TFCs as a solution to fleet overcapacity, the EU Commission will also be introducing a system where buying, selling and leasing...

  20. Using Echo Ultrasound from Schooling Fish to Detect and Classify Fish Types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yeffry Handoko; Yul.Y. Nazaruddin; Huosheng Hu

    2009-01-01

    Fish finders have already been widely available in the fishing market for a number of years. However, the sizes of these fish finders are too big and their prices are expensive to suit for the research of robotic fish or mini-submarine. The goal of this research is to propose a low-cost fish detector and classifier which suits for underwater robot or submarine as a proximity sensor .With some pre-condition in hardware and algorithms, the experimental results show that the proposed design has good per-formance, with a detection rate of 100 % and a classification rate of 94 %. Both the existing type of fish and the group behavior can be revealed by statistical interpretations such as hovering passion and sparse swimming mode.

  1. Beyond the point of no return? A comparison of genetic diversity in captive and wild populations of two nearly extinct species of Goodeid fish reveals that one is inbred in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, N W; Macías Garcia, C; Ritchie, M G

    2007-06-01

    The relative importance of genetic and non-genetic factors in extinction liability has been extensively debated. Here, we examine the levels of genetic variability at 13 (seven informative) loci in wild and captive populations of two endangered species of Mexican Goodeid fish, Ameca splendens and Zoogoneticus tequila. Allelic diversity was higher in the wild populations, and F(IS) lower. Values of theta (=4Nemu) were estimated using a coalescent approach. These implied that the effective population size of all captive populations of A. splendens were smaller than that of the wild population; qualitatively similar results were obtained using an analytical method based on within-population gene identity disequilibrium. However, the wild population of Z. tequila did not show a significantly greater estimate of theta. We used the Beaumont approach to infer population declines, and found that both species showed clear evidence of a decline in effective population size, although this was stronger and probably occurred over a longer period of time in Z. tequila than in A. splendens. The decline in Z. tequila probably occurred before captive populations were established. We discuss implications for the conservation of critically endangered populations.

  2. Umatilla - Rough Fish Eradication

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In order to enhance environmental conditions in the McCormack Slough on Umatilla NWR, the population of rough fish, including common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and...

  3. Scorpion fish sting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002849.htm Scorpion fish sting To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Scorpion fish are members of the family Scorpaenidae, which ...

  4. Pittsburgh Fish Fry Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Lenten Fish Fry records for the Greater Pittsburgh region. Data is collected before and during the Lenten fish fry season each year by Code for Pittsburgh. Data is...

  5. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  6. Medusivorous fishes, a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ates, R.M.L.

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary review is presented of fish species having consumed pelagic Cnidaria (Scyphozoa and Hydrozoa) as well as Ctenophora. Quantitative data are scarce. Knowledge of morphological and physiological adaptations of fishes foraging on gelatinous plankton is almost non-existent. Many fish specie

  7. Medusivorous fishes, a review

    OpenAIRE

    Ates, R.M.L.

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary review is presented of fish species having consumed pelagic Cnidaria (Scyphozoa and Hydrozoa) as well as Ctenophora. Quantitative data are scarce. Knowledge of morphological and physiological adaptations of fishes foraging on gelatinous plankton is almost non-existent. Many fish species consume medusae and some reasons to suspect that there are even more that do so, are discussed.

  8. Do Fish Resist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Joseph Wadiwel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of scientific studies on the question of whether fish feel pain. Some have suggested that some fish indeed do feel pain and that this has significant welfare implications (2003. Others have argued that fish do not have the brain development necessary to feel pain. In terms of number of animals killed, the slaughter of sea animals for human consumption significantly exceeds that of any land animals that we use for food, and sea animal slaughter practices frequently lack any basic welfare protections. If fish can be shown to feel pain—or more importantly, if humans can agree that fish feel pain—then this would place a significant question mark over many contemporary fishing practices.  This article substitutes the question 'Do Fish Feel Pain?' with an alternative: 'Do Fish Resist?' It explores the conceptual problems of understanding fish resistance, and the politics of epistemology that surrounds and seeks to develop a conceptual framework for understanding fish resistance to human capture by exploring the development of fishing technologies - the hook, the net and contemporary aquaculture.

  9. Fish allergy: in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Michael F; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-06-01

    Globally, the rising consumption of fish and its derivatives, due to its nutritional value and divergence of international cuisines, has led to an increase in reports of adverse reactions to fish. Reactions to fish are not only mediated by the immune system causing allergies, but are often caused by various toxins and parasites including ciguatera and Anisakis. Allergic reactions to fish can be serious and life threatening and children usually do not outgrow this type of food allergy. The route of exposure is not only restricted to ingestion but include manual handling and inhalation of cooking vapors in the domestic and occupational environment. Prevalence rates of self-reported fish allergy range from 0.2 to 2.29 % in the general population, but can reach up to 8 % among fish processing workers. Fish allergy seems to vary with geographical eating habits, type of fish processing, and fish species exposure. The major fish allergen characterized is parvalbumin in addition to several less well-known allergens. This contemporary review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish allergy including demographics, novel allergens identified, immunological mechanisms of sensitization, and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-long disease.

  10. Fish under exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palstra, Arjan P; Planas, Josep V

    2011-06-01

    Improved knowledge on the swimming physiology of fish and its application to fisheries science and aquaculture (i.e., farming a fitter fish) is currently needed in the face of global environmental changes, high fishing pressures, increased aquaculture production as well as increased concern on fish well-being. Here, we review existing data on teleost fish that indicate that sustained exercise at optimal speeds enhances muscle growth and has consequences for flesh quality. Potential added benefits of sustained exercise may be delay of ovarian development and stimulation of immune status. Exercise could represent a natural, noninvasive, and economical approach to improve growth, flesh quality as well as welfare of aquacultured fish: a FitFish for a healthy consumer. All these issues are important for setting directions for policy decisions and future studies in this area. For this purpose, the FitFish workshop on the Swimming Physiology of Fish ( http://www.ub.edu/fitfish2010 ) was organized to bring together a multidisciplinary group of scientists using exercise models, industrial partners, and policy makers. Sixteen international experts from Europe, North America, and Japan were invited to present their work and view on migration of fishes in their natural environment, beneficial effects of exercise, and applications for sustainable aquaculture. Eighty-eight participants from 19 different countries contributed through a poster session and round table discussion. Eight papers from invited speakers at the workshop have been contributed to this special issue on The Swimming Physiology of Fish.

  11. Zoonoses associated with fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Shane

    2011-09-01

    The taxonomic group that composes the fishes is the most diverse group of vertebrates worldwide. The challenges of unique physiologies, a foreign environment, and many unknowns attract a passionate group of biologists and veterinarians. Economically, fishes have become vital as food, bait, and companion animals. Fishermen and fish handlers (processing plants) represent the historical human population exposed to fish zoonoses, but growth in aquaculture and aquarium hobbyists have led to an increase in published fish-borne zoonotic cases starting in the late 1950s that bloomed in the 1980s. Human physicians, particularly dermatologists and infectious disease specialists, are now more aware of fish-borne zoonoses, but they can be assisted with diagnosis when informed patients give more detailed histories with fish/water exposure.

  12. Characteristics of Marine Recreational Fishing in the anakkale Strait (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. UNAL

    2012-12-01

    highly negative. Several indicators including the following revealed a high percentage of trading catch (47% being conducted under the guise of a recreational label: annual fishing intensity, total costs, target species, and sales. At present, it is evident that the highly developed recreational fishing policy in Turkey is not sufficient to ensure that recreational fishing is sustainable or to prevent fishing conflicts in Turkey. This study revealed the need for establishing monitoring, control and surveillance programs to ensure the sustainability of fish resources and fisheries including MRF.

  13. Southeast Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for estuarine, benthic, and pelagic fish in Southeast Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of...

  14. Columbia River ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in Columbia River. Vector polygons in this...

  15. North Slope, Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector...

  16. American Samoa ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, pelagic, benthic, and estuarine fish species in American Samoa. Vector polygons in this data set...

  17. Ambiguity Revealed

    OpenAIRE

    Subir Bose; Matthew Polisson; Ludovic Renou

    2012-01-01

    We derive necessary and suffcient conditions for data sets composed of state-contingent prices and consumption to be consistent with two prominent models of decision making under ambiguity: variational preferences and smooth ambiguity. The revealed preference conditions for the maxmin expected utility and subjective expected utility models are characterized as special cases.

  18. Ambiguity revealed

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Ralph-C; Bose, Subir; Polisson, Matthew; Renou, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for data sets composed of state-contingent prices and consumption to be consistent with two prominent models of decision making under uncertainty: variational preferences and smooth ambiguity. The revealed preference conditions for subjective expected utility, maxmin expected utility, and multiplier preferences are characterised as special cases. We implement our tests on data from a portfolio choice experiment.

  19. Fish elevator and method of elevating fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truebe, Jonathan; Drooker, Michael S.

    1984-01-01

    A means and method for transporting fish from a lower body of water to a higher body of water. The means comprises a tubular lock with a gated entrance below the level of the lower body of water through which fish may enter the lock and a discharge passage above the level of the upper body of water. The fish raising means in the lock is a crowder pulled upward by a surface float as water from the upper body of water gravitationally flows into the closed lock filling it to the level of the upper body. Water is then pumped into the lock to raise the level to the discharge passage. The crowder is then caused to float upward the remaining distance through the water to the level of the discharge passage by the introduction of air into a pocket on the underside of the crowder. The fish are then automatically discharged from the lock into the discharge passage by the out of water position of the crowder. The movement of the fish into the discharge passage is aided by the continuous overflow of water still being pumped into the lock. A pipe may be connected to the discharge passage to deliver the fish to a selected location in the upper body of water.

  20. Population structure and adaptation in fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Limborg, Morten

    Marine fishes represent a valuable resource for the global economy and food consumption. Accordingly, many species experience high levels of exploitation necessitating effective management plans. However, long term sustainability may be jeopardized from insufficient knowledge about intra-specific......Marine fishes represent a valuable resource for the global economy and food consumption. Accordingly, many species experience high levels of exploitation necessitating effective management plans. However, long term sustainability may be jeopardized from insufficient knowledge about intra......-specific population structure and adaptive divergence. The large population sizes and high migration rates common to most marine fishes impede the differentiating effect of genetic drift, having led to expectations of no population structure and that the occurrence of local adaptation should be rare in these species....... Comprehensive genetic analyses on the small pelagic fish European sprat (Sprattus sprattus) revealed significant population structure throughout its distribution with an overall pattern of reduced connectivity across environmental transition zones. Population structure reflected both historical separations over...

  1. Vaccination in Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    vaccines have reduced the need for usage of antibiotics with more than 99 % since the 1980s. Fish can be vaccinated by three different administration routes: injection, immersion and oral vaccination. Injection vaccination (intraperitoneal injection of vaccine) is the most time consuming and labor...... intensive method, which however, provides the best protection of the fish. Immersion vaccination is used for immunization of a high number of small fish is cost-efficient and fast (30 sec immersion into vaccine). Oral vaccination (vaccine in feed) is the least efficient. As in higher vertebrates fish...... respond to vaccination by increasing the specific antibody titer and by activating the cellular responses. My talk will cover vaccination methods in fish, immune responses and some adverse effect of oil-adjuvanted vaccines in fish with reference to our work in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss....

  2. When Is a Fish Not a Fish? Questions Raised by a Nage Life-Form Category

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory Forth

    2012-01-01

    Speakers of a Central-Malayo-Polynesian language, the Nage inhabit the central region of the eastern Indonesian island of Flores. Their folk taxonomy of animals (ana wa) contains three named life-form taxa, one of which is ika, fish. A review of component folk-generic taxa, however, reveals that Nage do not classify five kinds of freshwater fish as ‘fish’ (ika), even though they further apply ika to various marine fish (including sharks and rays) as well as to marine mammals. The article cons...

  3. Do Fish Sleep?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Most fish can’t shut their eyes, so it’s easy to think they don’t sleep. But that’s like assuming humans don’t sleep because we can’t shut our ears to drown out sound. In fact, many species of fish take time out during the day or (more often) at night to enter a sleeplike stage. Some of these fish float in place, others lie on the bottom。

  4. Fish and wildlife surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the monitoring of radioactive contaminants in fish and wildlife species that inhabit the Colombia River and Hanford Site. Wildlife have access to areas of the Site containing radioactive contamination, and fish can be exposed to contamination in spring water entering the river along the shoreline. Therefore, samples are collected at various locations annually, generally during the hunting or fishing season, for selected species.

  5. Intelligent Fish Freshness Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Gholam Hosseini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish species identification and automated fish freshness assessment play important roles in fishery industry applications. This paper describes a method based on support vector machines (SVMs to improve the performance of fish identification systems. The result is used for the assessment of fish freshness using artificial neural network (ANN. Identification of the fish species involves processing of the images of fish. The most efficient features were extracted and combined with the down-sampled version of the images to create a 1D input vector. Max-Win algorithm applied to the SVM-based classifiers has enhanced the reliability of sorting to 96.46%. The realisation of Cyranose 320 Electronic nose (E-nose, in order to evaluate the fish freshness in real-time, is experimented. Intelligent processing of the sensor patterns involves the use of a dedicated ANN for each species under study. The best estimation of freshness was provided by the most sensitive sensors. Data was collected from four selected species of fishes over a period of ten days. It was concluded that the performance can be increased using individual trained ANN for each specie. The proposed system has been successful in identifying the number of days after catching the fish with an accuracy of up to 91%.

  6. Anglers' fishing problem

    CERN Document Server

    Karpowicz, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The considered model will be formulated as related to "the fishing problem" even if the other applications of it are much more obvious. The angler goes fishing. He uses various techniques and he has at most two fishing rods. He buys a fishing ticket for a fixed time. The fishes are caught with the use of different methods according to the renewal processes. The fishes' value and the inter arrival times are given by the sequences of independent, identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables with the known distribution functions. It forms the marked renewal--reward process. The angler's measure of satisfaction is given by the difference between the utility function, depending on the value of the fishes caught, and the cost function connected with the time of fishing. In this way, the angler's relative opinion about the methods of fishing is modelled. The angler's aim is to have as much satisfaction as possible and additionally he has to leave the lake before a fixed moment. Therefore his goal is to find two...

  7. Combating Illegal Fishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Stanciu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU fishing is a worldwide phenomenon. Its extent and its environmental,economic and social consequences are such that it has become a priority issue at international level. IUU fishingcontributes to the depletion of fish stocks and jeopardises protection and recovery measures put in place to ensure theviability of resources. It represents unfair competition for those who exploit fish resources legally. The Commissionhave been involved in the fight against IUU fishing for over a decade and in 2002 the Commission adopted an ActionPlan against IUU fishing inspired by the FAOs International Plan of Action to prevent, deter and eliminate IUUfishing of 2001. However, despite regional and international efforts to stop IUU fishing the phenomenon is still agrowing problem and as a result, the European Community intensified its action towards IUU fishing by launching aconsultation process in 2007. A Proposal to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing was adopted in October 2007and a Regulation to prevent, deter and eliminate illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU fishing was adopted on 29September 2008, after a unanimous political agreement.

  8. Meat, Poultry and Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of fish may contain high levels of mercury, PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), dioxins and other environmental contaminants. Shark, swordfish, tilefish (golden bass or golden snapper) and ...

  9. Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) Areas Protected From Fishing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Designated Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) areas where fishing or the use of fishing gears has been restricted or modified in order to minimize the adverse effects of...

  10. Fish Springs NWR mammal, fish, amphibian, and reptile list

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following is a species list for mammals, fishes, amphibians, and reptiles found on or adjacent to Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge, as of October, 1996.

  11. Professor reveals darter reserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Newspaper article on on reserve population of watercress darter in Pinson, AL to help save the population in Roebuck Spring after a significant fish kill in 2008.

  12. Alaskan sport fishing waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — As a guide to newcomers and visitors, fishery biologists have compiled a list of some of the well-known fishing waters in Alaska. The list is merely a starting point...

  13. Virus diseases of fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Stanley W.

    1954-01-01

    Viruses are probably the cause of a wide spectrum of fish diseases. Although relatively few virus diseases of fish are known today, some of the diseases of unknown etiology, as well as some diseases presently accepted as due to bacteria, protozoa, fungi or nutritional deficiencies, possibly will be recognized eventually as virus diseases.

  14. PARASITES OF FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The intent of this chapter is to describe the parasites of importance to fishes maintained and used in laboratory settings. In contrast to the frist edition, the focus will be only on those parasites that pose a serious threat to or are common in fishes held in these confined en...

  15. Folkbiology of Freshwater Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medin, Douglas L.; Ross, Norbert O.; Atran, Scott; Cox, Douglas; Coley, John; Proffitt, Julia B.; Blok, Sergey

    2006-01-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of categorization often confound cultural factors with expertise. This paper reports four experiments on the conceptual behavior of Native American and majority-culture fish experts. The two groups live in the same general area and engage in essentially the same set of fishing-related behaviors. Nonetheless, cultural…

  16. Zebra fish: an uncharted behavior genetic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlai, Robert

    2003-09-01

    The zebra fish has been a preferred subject of genetic analysis. It produces a large number of offspring that can be kept in small aquaria, it can be easily mutagenized using chemical mutagens (e.g., ethyl nitrosourea [ENU]), and high-resolution genetic maps exist that aid identification of novel genes. Libraries containing large numbers of mutant fish have been generated, and the genetic mechanisms of the development of zebra fish, whose embryo is transparent, have been extensively studied. Given the extensive homology of its genome with that of other vertebrate species including our own and given the available genetic tools, zebra fish has become a popular model organism. Despite this popularity, however, surprisingly little is known about its behavior. It is argued that behavioral analysis is a powerful tool with which the function of the brain may be studied, and the zebra fish will represent an excellent subject of such analysis. The present paper is a proof of concept study that uses pharmacological manipulation (exposure to alcohol) to show that the zebra fish is amenable to the behavioral genetic analysis of aggression and thus may allow us to reveal molecular mechanisms of this behavioral phenomenon relevant to vertebrates.

  17. Biannual Fish Survey, Spring 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The biannual fish survey was initiated in 1989 to monitor population trends of federally endangered fish species at Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge. Item 421 of...

  18. Revealing Rembrandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Parker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt’s portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings.

  19. Evolution of long-toothed fishes and the changing nature of fish-benthos interactions on coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellwood, David R; Hoey, Andrew S; Bellwood, Orpha; Goatley, Christopher H R

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between fishes and the benthos have shaped the development of marine ecosystems since at least the early Mesozoic. Here, using the morphology of fish teeth as an indicator of feeding abilities, we quantify changes over the last 240 million years of reef fish evolution. Fossil and extant coral reef fish assemblages reveal exceptional stasis in tooth design over time, with one notable exception, a distinct long-toothed form. Arising only in the last 40 million years, these long-toothed fishes have bypassed the invertebrate link in the food chain, feeding directly on benthic particulate material. With the appearance of elongated teeth, these specialized detritivores have moved from eating invertebrates to eating the food of invertebrates. Over evolutionary time, fishes have slid back down the food chain.

  20. Olfactory toxicity in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Keith B; Baldwin, David H; Hara, Toshiaki J; Ross, Peter S; Scholz, Nathaniel L; Kennedy, Christopher J

    2010-01-21

    Olfaction conveys critical environmental information to fishes, enabling activities such as mating, locating food, discriminating kin, avoiding predators and homing. All of these behaviors can be impaired or lost as a result of exposure to toxic contaminants in surface waters. Historically, teleost olfaction studies have focused on behavioral responses to anthropogenic contaminants (e.g., avoidance). More recently, there has been a shift towards understanding the underlying mechanisms and functional significance of contaminant-mediated changes in fish olfaction. This includes a consideration of how contaminants affect the olfactory nervous system and, by extension, the downstream physiological and behavioral processes that together comprise a normal response to naturally occurring stimuli (e.g., reproductive priming or releasing pheromones). Numerous studies spanning several species have shown that ecologically relevant exposures to common pollutants such as metals and pesticides can interfere with fish olfaction and disrupt life history processes that determine individual survival and reproductive success. This represents one of the pathways by which toxic chemicals in aquatic habitats may increasingly contribute to the decline and at-risk status of many commercially and ecologically important fish stocks. Despite our emerging understanding of the threats that pollution poses for chemical communication in aquatic communities, many research challenges remain. These include: (1) the determination of specific mechanisms of toxicity in the fish olfactory sensory epithelium; (2) an understanding of the impacts of complex chemical mixtures; (3) the capacity to assess olfactory toxicity in fish in situ; (4) the impacts of toxins on olfactory-mediated behaviors that are still poorly understood for many fish species; and (5) the connections between sublethal effects on individual fish and the long-term viability of wild populations. This review summarizes and integrates

  1. Why do fish school?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matz LARSSON

    2012-01-01

    Synchronized movements (schooling) emit complex and overlapping sound and pressure curves that might confuse the inner ear and lateral line organ (LLO) of a predator.Moreover,prey-fish moving close to each other may blur the electro-sensory perception of predators.The aim of this review is to explore mechanisms associated with synchronous swimming that may have contributed to increased adaptation and as a consequence may have influenced the evolution of schooling.The evolutionary development of the inner ear and the LLO increased the capacity to detect potential prey,possibly leading to an increased potential for cannibalism in the shoal,but also helped small fish to avoid joining larger fish,resulting in size homogeneity and,accordingly,an increased capacity for moving in synchrony.Water-movements and incidental sound produced as by-product of locomotion (ISOL) may provide fish with potentially useful information during swimming,such as neighbour body-size,speed,and location.When many fish move close to one another ISOL will be energetic and complex.Quiet intervals will be few.Fish moving in synchrony will have the capacity to discontinue movements simultaneously,providing relatively quiet intervals to allow the reception of potentially critical environmental signals.Besides,synchronized movements may facilitate auditory grouping of ISOL.Turning preference bias,well-functioning sense organs,good health,and skillful motor performance might be important to achieving an appropriate distance to school neighbors und aid the individual fish in reducing time spent in the comparatively less safe school periphery.Turning preferences in ancestral fish shoals might have helped fish to maintain groups and stay in formarion,reinforcing aforementioned predator confusion mechanisms,which possibly played a role in the lateralization of the vertebrate brain [Current Zoology 58 (1):116-128,2012].

  2. Mercury in South Carolina fishes, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, James B; Domino, Marisa E; Altman, Kenneth C; Dillman, James W; Castleberry, William S; Eidson, Jeannie P; Mattocks, Micheal

    2010-04-01

    iron, total organic carbon, ammonia, and total kjedahl nitrogen, and a negative relationship with alkalinity, dissolved oxygen and pH. Results from principle component analysis revealed patterns between waterbody type and water chemistry variables that suggests hydrologic modification can have profound effects on the levels of fish tissue Hg in riverine systems. From 1993 to 2007, fish tissue Hg levels have trended lower. A spike in tissue Hg levels was observed in 2003-2005. The drying and rewetting of the landscape after the 2002 drought is hypothesized to have caused an increase in the methylation efficiencies of the system.

  3. West Lake Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Sweet & Sour Fish is widely recognized as the best fish recipe found in the city of Hangzhou. The delectable tender sweet & sour dish would please the palate of even the most demanding gourmet. The unique preparation method follows: Method: Place a one kilogram grass carp in clear water for three days to eliminate any offensive odor, and allowing adequate time for defecation. Gut and clean the carp thoroughly. Slice open the belly, Make five equally spaced one centimeter deep incisions on one side of the fish, and another slanting cut through the thick meat on the opposite side. Be certain to ensure the

  4. An updated checklist of poisonous fishes of Turkish Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Bayhan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The current status of marine poisonous fish species ranging in the Aegean Sea coastline in Turkey were introduced. Turkey is a peninsula surrounded by seas with different ecological features on three sides. The total length of shoreline is 8 333 km including the islands. The total number of fish species in Turkish seas is 512, of which 449 live in the Aegean Sea followed by the Mediterranean Sea (441 species, the Marmara Sea (257 species and the Black Sea (154species. On the Aegean Sea coasts, the richest sea regarding fish diversity, the number of poisonous fish species is also high. This mini-review revealed 51 poisonous fish species belonging to 14 families in the Turkish Aegean Sea. On the Aegean Sea coasts poisonous fish species can be categorized into three groups: (i Fish that contain venomous spines on the tail or on the operculum (ii Fish that carry poisonous bite and (iii Fish having poisonous flesh or liver. Poisoning fish that contain venomous spines on the tail or on the operculum mostly are dangerous because of their poisonous thorns whereas the passive poisonous fish species poison when they are eaten. These toxins can cause morbidity and rarely, mortality in humans. Apart from these, swallowing the blood of species such as European eel Anguilla anguilla and European conger Conger conger might also cause poisoning. Besides, as there has been an invasion of puffer fish especially on the Turkish Mediterranean and Aegean coasts in recent years, there is a danger in question. Thus, it is very important to particularly draw attention to these fish on the Turkish coasts.

  5. Fish germ cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Fish, like many other animals, have two major cell lineages, namely the germline and soma. The germ-soma separation is one of the earliest events of embryonic development. Germ cells can be specifically labeled and isolated for culture and transplan-tation, providing tools for reproduction of endangered species in close relatives, such as surrogate production of trout in salmon. Haploid cell cultures, such as medaka haploid embryonic stem cells have recently been obtained, which are capable of mimicking sperm to produce fertile offspring, upon nuclear being directly transferred into normal eggs. Such fish originated from a mosaic oocyte that had a haploid meiotic nucleus and a transplanted haploid mitotic cell culture nucleus. The first semi-cloned fish is Holly. Here we review the current status and future directions of understanding and manipulating fish germ cells in basic research and reproductive technology.

  6. Fishing Community Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To enable fisheries managers to comply with National Standard 8 (NS8), NMFS social scientists around the nation are preparing fishing community profiles that present...

  7. Of Fish and Micrornas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bela-Ong, Dennis; Schyth, Brian Dall; Lorenzen, Niels

    Fish is an important small vertebrate multidisciplinary model for investigating various aspects of reproduction, development, disease (immunology, toxicology, carcinogenesis), and aging. It is also an important model for comparative and evolutionary studies because it represents the lower vertebr...

  8. SIS - Fish Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Fish Assessment data set within the Species Information System (SIS) constraints information related to fishery stock assessments, including assessment meta-data...

  9. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... debilitating (Miller, 1991). To date there is no antidote or effectivc treatment, so supportive care and medications ... Diagnosis, Management and Treatment, Chemical Structure, and Molecular Mechanism of Action. Additional Resources Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Treatment, ...

  10. West Coast Fishing Ethnography

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Created as part of a 2012 BOEM study on OCS renewable energy space-use conflicts, this data contains the commercial and recreational fishing locations off the...

  11. Senescence in fishes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.

    1979-01-01

    A long-standing theory, that there is a fundamental difference in aging between fishes and higher vertebrates, is still alive in the minds of many. In 1932, Bidder proposed that aging was causatively related to the cessation of growth at sexual maturity. Fish, which continue to grow throughout their lives, would not age, and therefore were potentially immortal. His ideas were clearly disproven by Comfort, who established that the survival curves of a laboratory population of guppies, Poecilia reticulata, were very similar to those of a small mammal population under laboratory conditions. Recent data from field and laboratory studies, including histological evidence, amply confirm the occurrence of senescence in fishes. Natural death in fish has been associated with reproduction. There is good evidence for a number of species which shows that, with increasing size, the gonad forms a greater proportion of total body weight. In older, larger fish, extensive energy depletion for reproduction is suggested as an important factor in mortality. Reproductive modifications in older fish are also noted.

  12. Fish cardiovascular physiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Johanna; Weber, E Scott; Marty, Gary D; Hernandez-Divers, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Fish patients with cardiovascular disorders present a challenge in terms of diagnostic evaluation and therapeutic options. Veterinarians can approach these cases in fish using methods similar to those employed for other companion animals. Clinicians who evaluate and treat fish in private, aquarium, zoologic, or aquaculture settings need to rely on sound clinical judgment after thorough historical and physical evaluation. Pharmacokinetic data and treatments specific to cardiovascular disease in fish are limited; thus, drug types and dosages used in fish are largely empiric. Fish cardiovascular anatomy, physiology, diagnostic evaluation, monitoring, common diseases, cardiac pathologic conditions, formulary options, and comprehensive references are presented with the goal of providing fish veterinarians with clinically relevant tools.

  13. Contribution of conservation genetics in assessing neotropical freshwater fish biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NM. Piorski

    Full Text Available Human activities have a considerable impact on hydrographic systems and fish fauna. The present review on conservation genetics of neotropical freshwater fish reveals that DNA analyses have been promoting increased knowledge on the genetic structure of fish species and their response to environmental changes. This knowledge is fundamental to the management of wild fish populations and the establishment of Evolutionary Significant Units capable of conserving genetic integrity. While population structuring can occur even in long-distance migratory fish, isolated populations can show reduced genetic variation and be at greater risk of extinction. Phylogeography and phylogeny have been powerful tools in understanding the evolution of fish populations, species and communities in distinct neotropic environments. Captive fish can be used to introduce new individuals and genes into the wild and their benefits and disadvantages can be monitored through genetic analysis. Understanding how fish biodiversity in neotropical freshwaters is generated and maintained is highly important, as these habitats are transformed by human development and fish communities are increasingly exploited as food sources to sustain a growing human population.

  14. Parasites modify sub-cellular partitioning of metals in the gut of fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyoo-Okoth, Elijah, E-mail: elijaoyoo2009@gmail.com [Division of Environmental Health, School of Environmental Studies, Moi University, P.O. Box 3900, Eldoret (Kenya); Department of Aquatic Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 9424/1090 GE (Netherlands); Admiraal, Wim [Department of Aquatic Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 9424/1090 GE (Netherlands); Osano, Odipo [Division of Environmental Health, School of Environmental Studies, Moi University, P.O. Box 3900, Eldoret (Kenya); Kraak, Michiel H.S. [Department of Aquatic Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 9424/1090 GE (Netherlands); Gichuki, John; Ogwai, Caleb [Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute, P.O. Box 1881, Kisumu (Kenya)

    2012-01-15

    Infestation of fish by parasites may influence metal accumulation patterns in the host. However, the subcellular mechanisms of these processes have rarely been studied. Therefore, this study determined how a cyprinid fish (Rastrineobola argentea) partitioned four metals (Cd, Cr, Zn and Cu) in the subcellular fractions of the gut in presence of an endoparasite (Ligula intestinalis). The fish were sampled along four sites in Lake Victoria, Kenya differing in metal contamination. Accumulation of Cd, Cr and Zn was higher in the whole body and in the gut of parasitized fish compared to non-parasitized fish, while Cu was depleted in parasitized fish. Generally, for both non-parasitized and parasitized fish, Cd, Cr and Zn partitioned in the cytosolic fractions and Cu in the particulate fraction. Metal concentrations in organelles within the particulate fractions of the non-parasitized fish were statistically similar except for Cd in the lysosome, while in the parasitized fish, Cd, Cr and Zn were accumulated more by the lysosome and microsomes. In the cytosolic fractions, the non-parasitized fish accumulated Cd, Cr and Zn in the heat stable proteins (HSP), while in the parasitized fish the metals were accumulated in the heat denatured proteins (HDP). On the contrary, Cu accumulated in the HSP in parasitized fish. The present study revealed specific binding of metals to potentially sensitive sub-cellular fractions in fish in the presence of parasites, suggesting interference with metal detoxification, and potentially affecting the health status of fish hosts in Lake Victoria.

  15. The technology of fish-vegetable feed production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukatova M. D.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Perspective direction of the Volga-Caspian basin fisheries is increasing the productivity of aquaculture production which requires the availability of sufficient quantities of feed. The cutting waste of carp and crucian carp, crayfish processing (cephalothorax, wheat bran, soy isolate, freshwater plants – pondweed perfoliate, fish-vegetable ration, produced feeding staffs have been investigated. In researching samples of manufactured pelleted feeds the standard methods adopted in the animal feed industry have been used. The number of nitrogen-free extractives and energy value has been determined by calculation. The composition of fish-vegetable ration has been worked out. Some manufacturing inspection of fish-vegetable feed technology using proofing process has been carried out. The possibility of manufacturing on the basis of crushed fish waste of the company LLC "VES" and dry ingredients of fish-vegetable feed has been determined; the output of feed at water content of not more than 10 % is 43 % of feed mix based on the mass of directed waste equal to 84 %. The pilot batch of dry fish-vegetable feed has been investigated to establish quality indicators. It has been determined that fish-vegetable feed meets the requirements of GOST 10385–2014 "Combined feeding staffs for fishes. General specifications" as for main quality indicators and refers to economic grower for catfish and carp fish weighing more than 50 g. This reveals good palatability of the experimental batch of floating feed by carp fish species and African catfish. Thus, fish-vegetable feed manufacturing technology can be implemented in the production for processing secondary raw materials: waste from butchering fish by grinding, cooking, mixing with selected vegetable fillings which is waste of flour or grain processing industries and freshwater plants mowed annually during the reclamation works on the Volga delta.

  16. Impact of using raw or fermented manure as fish feed on microbial quality of water and fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagham Elsaidy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbial water and fish quality was assessed due to feeding of chicken manure (CM and fermented chicken manure (FCM to fish in ponds, using Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus which were classified into 7 groups (G. Each group received different mixtures of CM or FCM with fish ration (FR, 0:100, 25:75, 50:50 and 100:0 (%CM or FCM:% FR. The obtained results revealed that total bacterial count (TBC and total coliform count (TCC were significantly high at P ⩽ 0.05 in CM than both FCM and fish ration (FR. Escherichia coli and Salmonella were isolated from CM but not from FCM or FR. Additionally, TBC and TCC were significantly high at P ⩽ 0.05 at water and fish samples raised at CM ponds followed by FCM ponds in comparison with FR. Both E. coli and Salmonella were isolated from water and fish raised in ponds receiving either CM or FCM with higher incidence in those with CM. However all water and fish samples examined were free from E-coli O157: H7. The obtained results, proved the influence of CM on water and fish quality and recommend the use of FCM as a bacteriologically safe fish pond fertilizer.

  17. GENOTYPING OF CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS FROM FRESH WATER FISH AND FISH PICKLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adarsh Jain

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the genotypes of Clostridium perfringens in fish and fish based products from Tamil Nadu and Kerala states of India. A total of 301 samples consisting intestinal contents of freshwater fish (234 from various dams, freshwater lakes, ponds, retail shops and markets and fish pickles (67 obtained from randomly selected retail shops and supermarkets were investigated. Bacterial isolations, identifications and phenotypic characterization of virulence factors were carried out as per standard microbiological procedures. Genotyping of the C. perfringens isolates were done by amplifying four major lethal toxin genes namely- alpha toxin gene (cpa, beta toxin gene (cpb, epsilon toxin gene (etx, iota toxin gene (iA in a Thermal Cycler. Isolates were also screened for the presence of enterotoxin gene (cpe and beta2 toxin gene (cpb2 by single step PCR. Biochemical tests and phenotypic determination of virulence factors tentatively identified 82 (27.24% isolates of C. perfringens. In PCR assay, all 82 (100% isolates harbored cpa toxin genes of C. perfringens, however, 65 (79.26% isolates also carried additional cpb2 toxin genes. None of the isolates were found positive for beta, epsilon, iota and enterotoxin genes. Genotyping of the 82 isolates by PCR revealed that all the isolated bacteria were belonged to C. perfringens type A and both cpa and cpb2 toxin genes were prevalent among the isolates of C. perfringens type A, impending the risk of pathogenicity to human via freshwater fish and fish pickles.

  18. Freshwater and fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxen, R. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    Severe radioactive contamination of the freshwater environment could have serious consequences for both drinking water and fish. Most of the Nordic countries have an abundance of freshwater lakes and rivers. Finland alone has about 56,000 lakes, each with a surface area of 1 hectare or more. Nearly 10% of Finland`s surface is covered with lakes and rivers. In Sweden, about 9% of the surface area is freshwater, in Norway about 5%, and in Denmark only about 2%. Freshwater plays a minor role in Iceland, but even there numerous rivers discharge from the volcanic soils to the Ocean. Cs-137 and {sup 90}Sr are likely to be the most important radionuclides with respect to long term radioactive contamination of freshwater. If radioactive deposition occurs in the absence of snow and ice radionuclides will contaminate the surface water directly and may rapidly enter the aquatic food chain. Fish which eat contaminated plankton become contaminated almost immediately. Deposition during summer increases the transfer for radionuclides to fish since fish metabolism is faster during the warm season. During the cold period, fish metabolism is slow and thus uptake and excretion of radiocaesium are also slow. (EG). 18 refs.

  19. Immunity to Fish Rhabdoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen K. Purcell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non‑virion (NV protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.

  20. Can Fish Catch On in Your Class?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzow, John W.; Kane, Philip N.

    1983-01-01

    Presented are several classroom activities using fish. These include gyotaku (Japanese fish printing), use of a dichotomous key to classify fish, "invent-a-fish" activities, and others. Includes discussion of fish facts and copies of fish key and invent-a-fish cards. (JN)

  1. A Research for Massive Fish Kills in Lake Bafa (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yabanlı

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available As there were massive fish kills in Lake Bafa which is a lagoon situated in Southwestern Turkey in October, 2006, water and fish samples were taken from the region. Water samples were analysed physicochemically, toxicologically and microbiologically and fish samples were subjected to toxicological analysis. The analyses of lake water revealed on oxygen value of approximately 5.0 mg/L, salinity 16.2 ‰, nitrogen from ammonia 0.1 mg/L, nitrogen nitrite 0.013 mg/L, and total organic carbon 13 mg/L. Total coliform count was 1100 MPN/100 ml and faecal coliform count was 28 MPN/100 ml. There was no detection of any pesticide residues in fish and water samples. Massive fish kills are thought to be due to the decrease in water quality.

  2. Dynamite fishing in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Lorna M; Kalangahe, Baraka

    2015-12-30

    Fishing using explosives is common in Tanzanian waters; it is considered to be more widely practised now than at any other point in history. Mwambao Coastal Community Network, a Tanzanian NGO carried out a multi-stakeholder consultation in April 2014 initiated through the concern of private investors and tourism operators. Consultations were held with villagers, fisheries officers, government officers, hoteliers, dive operators, fish processors, NGOs and other key individuals, and shed some light on key factors enabling this practice to flourish. Key areas identified for attention include engendering political will at all levels, upholding of the law through a non-corrupt enforcement and judicial system, and defining clear roles and responsibilities for monitoring and surveillance. The work identified other successful initiatives which have tackled this pervasive practice including projects that build local capacity for marine governance, villages that have declared themselves intolerant of blast-fishing, and private-public partnerships for patrol and protection.

  3. [Ciguatera fish poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Erwan; Bouchut, Jérémie

    2014-09-01

    Ciguatera, an ichtyosarcotoxism linked to the consumption of usually healthy coral fish is a common poisoning in the Pacific, Caribbean and Indian Ocean where it is endemic. However, increased tourism and commercial transportation of tropical fish for consumption make it an unexceptional intoxication in countries away from its endemic area. Environmental stresses such as climate changes also contribute to the expansion of its geographical area. The non-specific clinical symptomatology is characterized by the occurrence of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous and general signs few hours after eating a ciguatoxic fish. The diagnosis is clinical and relatively easy in endemic areas but much less for physicians who are rarely confronted with, which is a source of prolonged diagnostic delays and a significant increase in spending. Treatment of ciguatera is symptomatic but new treatments, still experimental, give a real hope for the future.

  4. Fish remains and humankind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K G Jones

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The four papers in this issue represent a trawl of the reports presented to the Fourth meeting of the International Council for Archaeozoology (ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group, which met at the University of York in 1987. The conference discussed material from many parts of the world - from Australasia to the north-west coast of America - and many eras, ranging in date from the early Pleistocene to the 1980s. It demonstrated both the variety of work being carried out and the growing interest in ancient fish remains. Internet Archaeology plans to publish other batches of papers from this conference. These reports will demonstrate the effort being made to distinguish between assemblages of fish remains which have been deposited by people and those which occur in ancient deposits as a result of the action of other agents. To investigate this area, experiments with modern material and observations of naturally occurring fish bone assemblages are supplemented with detailed analysis of ancient and modern fish remains. The papers published here illustrate the breadth of research into osteology, biogeography, documentary research, and the practicalities of recovering fish remains. Read, digest and enjoy them! Using the Internet for publishing research papers is not only ecologically sound (saving paper, etc. it disseminates scholarship to anyone anywhere on the planet with access to what is gradually becoming necessary technology in the late 20th century. Hopefully, future groups of papers will include video and audio material recorded at the conference, and so enable those who could not attend to gain further insights into the meeting and the scholarship underpinning this area of research.

  5. Jurassic fishes of Gondwana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana López-Arbarello

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Jurassic is an important period for understanding the origin of modern fish faunas, since it saw the first radiation - and in some cases the origin - of most modern groups. In chondrichthyans, neoselachian sharks and rays diversified during this time. In actinopterygians, the neopterygians, and among them the teleosts, experienced an important radiation, which led to the appearance of several of the modern teleosts groups. In the sarcopterygians, dipnoans and actinistians approached their current forms. However, the Jurassic fossil record of fishes is strongly biased towards the Northern Hemisphere. The only notable Early Jurassic fish fauna from Gondwana is that of the Kota Formation of India. For the Middle Jurassic, the most important Gondwanan fish faunas are those of the Aalenian-Bathonian Stanleyville Beds of the Democratic Republic of Congo, in which a distinct freshwater and a marine fauna are found. In the Late Jurassic, the Gondwanan record is slightly better, with important marine faunas being known from the Oxfordian Quebrada del Profeta in Chile and the Tithonian Vaca Muerta Formation of Argentina. Freshwater faunas have been described from the Tithonian Talbragar Beds of eastern Australia and the Tithonian Cañadón Calcáreo Formation of Argentina. The taxonomic composition of the known marine actinopterygian faunas of Gondwana is in general agreement with faunas of the Northern Hemisphere. However, the Jurassic fish record from Gondwana is highly incomplete both stratigraphically and geographically, and most faunas are in need of revision, further hampering an interpretation of Jurassic fish evolution in the Southern Hemisphere.

  6. Fish stem cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ni; Li, Zhendong; Hong, Yunhan

    2011-04-13

    Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on "Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer", we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer.

  7. Fish Stem Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Hong, Zhendong Li, Yunhan Hong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on “Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer”, we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer.

  8. Fish Hatchery Management in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Akankali

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish hatchery management is efficient tool in intensive fish culture. The vital requirements of fish hatchery, hatchery construction, concrete tank construction, nursery, rearing and production ponds, fish seed hatchery, hormone in fish spawning, hypophysation, compounds used for induced breeding, hormone administration, spawning and rearing, steps in artificial propagation, hatchery management, nursery management are basic elements in effective hatchery management. The article reviews these vital elements to re-awaken fish farmers, Fisheries students private and public sectors in the formulation of fisheries policies.

  9. FishFrame

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degel, Henrik; Jansen, Teunis

    2006-01-01

    . Development and test of software modules can be done once and reused by all. The biggest challenge in this is not technical – it is in organisation, coordination and trust. This challenge has been addressed by FishFrame - a web-based datawarehouse application. The “bottom-up” approach with maximum involvement...... value to users and in the end improves the way we work with our data. FishFrame version 4.2 is presented and the lessons learned from the process are discussed....

  10. Fish and Bird

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛秀波

    2010-01-01

    人物:B——Bird L——Little Fish M——Mother Fish N——Narracor(旁白)道具:角色头饰 N:一条生活在河里的Little Fish对天空充满了好奇,一心想飞到天空去看看。此时,Little Fish正依偎在Mother Fish身边,好奇地望着天空。

  11. Fish Hold Effluent and Fish Hold Cleaning Wastewater Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    summarized in Table 1). EPA estimated that mid-size fishing vessels, such as gill netters , and purse seiners found in Alaska, and shrimp boats in the Gulf...size fishing boats such as gill netters , fish holds are typically cleaned using a garden hose at a flow rate of approximately 10 to 12 gpm (USEPA...Small: salmon trollers and longliners 1,500 Daily when fishing 500 - 600 150 - 200 Mid-size: gill netters , purse seiners and shrimp boats

  12. Comparison of Electrophysiological Auditory Measures in Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruska, Karen P; Sisneros, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    Sounds provide fishes with important information used to mediate behaviors such as predator avoidance, prey detection, and social communication. How we measure auditory capabilities in fishes, therefore, has crucial implications for interpreting how individual species use acoustic information in their natural habitat. Recent analyses have highlighted differences between behavioral and electrophysiologically determined hearing thresholds, but less is known about how physiological measures at different auditory processing levels compare within a single species. Here we provide one of the first comparisons of auditory threshold curves determined by different recording methods in a single fish species, the soniferous Hawaiian sergeant fish Abudefduf abdominalis, and review past studies on representative fish species with tuning curves determined by different methods. The Hawaiian sergeant is a colonial benthic-spawning damselfish (Pomacentridae) that produces low-frequency, low-intensity sounds associated with reproductive and agonistic behaviors. We compared saccular potentials, auditory evoked potentials (AEP), and single neuron recordings from acoustic nuclei of the hindbrain and midbrain torus semicircularis. We found that hearing thresholds were lowest at low frequencies (~75-300 Hz) for all methods, which matches the spectral components of sounds produced by this species. However, thresholds at best frequency determined via single cell recordings were ~15-25 dB lower than those measured by AEP and saccular potential techniques. While none of these physiological techniques gives us a true measure of the auditory "perceptual" abilities of a naturally behaving fish, this study highlights that different methodologies can reveal similar detectable range of frequencies for a given species, but absolute hearing sensitivity may vary considerably.

  13. Prevalence of Foodborne Pathogens in Freshwater Fish in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terentjeva, Margarita; Eizenberga, Inga; Valciņa, Olga; Novoslavskij, Aleksandr; Strazdiņa, Vita; Bērziņš, Aivars

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Yersinia enterocolitica in freshwater fish in Latvia. In total, 235 samples, including freshly caught fish from fives lakes (n = 129) and fish from retail markets (n = 106), were collected from April 2014 to December 2014 in Latvia. Samples were tested according to International Organization for Standardization methods. No Salmonella spp. were found in fresh fish from lakes or in commercially available fish. In contrast, the overall prevalence of L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica in freshwater fish was 13% (30 of 235) and 14% (34 of 235), respectively, and no significant difference between the prevalence of L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica was observed (P > 0.05). All Y. enterocolitica isolates belonged to the nonpathogenic 1A biotype. Molecular serotyping of L. monocytogenes revealed that the most distributed serogroup was 1/2a-3a (65%), followed by 1/2c-3c (25%), 1/2b-3b (5%), and 4b, 4d, 4e (5%). The prevalence of L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica in freshwater lake fish was 2% (2 of 129) and 3% (4 of 129), respectively. In contrast, the prevalence of L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica in fish at retail markets was 26% (28 of 106) and 28% (30 of 106), respectively. In retail samples, 9 of 58 positive fish contained both L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica. In general, differences in the prevalences of L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica in retail samples were significantly higher than those in freshly caught fish (P < 0.05). The results of this study indicate that freshwater fish could be an important source of Y. enterocolitica and L. monocytogenes for consumers in Latvia.

  14. Significant Effects of Fishing Gear Selectivity on Fish Life History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Zhenlin; SUN Peng; YAN Wei; HUANG Liuyi; TANG Yanli

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, extreme changes have occurred in the characters of exploited fish populations. The majority of these changes have affected the growth traits of fish life history, which include a smaller size-at-age, an earlier age-at-maturation and among others. Currently, the causes of these life history traits changes still require systematic analyses and empirical studies. The explanations that have been cited are merely expressed in terms of fish phenotypic adaptation. It has been claimed that the original traits of fish can be recovered once the intensity of exploitation of the fish is controlled. Sustained environmental and fishing pressure will change the life history traits of most fish species, so the fish individual’s traits are still in small size-at-age and at earlier age-at-maturation in exploited fish populations. In this paper, we expressed our view of points that fishing gear has imposed selectiv-ity on fish populations and individuals as various other environmental factors have done and such changes are unrecoverable. Ac-cording to the existing tend of exploited fish individual’s life history traits, we suggested further researches in this field and provided better methods of fishery management and thereby fishery resources protection than those available early.

  15. Fish Commoditization: Sustainability Strategies to Protect Living Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Mimi E.; Pitcher, Tony J.

    2012-01-01

    The impacts of early fishing on aquatic ecosystems were minimal, as primitive technologies were used to harvest fish primarily for food. As fishing technology grew more sophisticated and human populations dispersed and expanded, local economies transitioned from subsistence to barter and trade. Expanded trade networks and mercantilization led to…

  16. Fish and fish oil in health promotion and disease prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish is an important dietary component due to its contribution of valuable nutrients. In addition to the high quality protein and micronutrients provided, fish is the primary source of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids which are found in oils of ‘fatty’ cold water fish. Biomedical evidence supports th...

  17. Ammonia Production, Excretion, Toxicity, and Defense in Fish: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Yuen K Ip; Chew, Shit F.

    2010-01-01

    Many fishes are ammonotelic but some species can detoxify ammonia to glutamine or urea. Certain fish species can accumulate high levels of ammonia in the brain or defense against ammonia toxicity by enhancing the effectiveness of ammonia excretion through active NH 4 + transport, manipulation of ambient pH, or reduction in ammonia permeability through the branchial and cutaneous epithelia. Recent reports on ammonia toxicity in mammalian brain reveal the importance of permeation of ammonia thr...

  18. MARKETING SYSTEM OF MARINE FISH IN BANGLADESH: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, M. Serajul; Miah, Tofazzal Hossain; Haque, Md. Mojammel

    2000-01-01

    This paper was designed to investigate the present status of marine fish marketing aiming to determine marketing costs, margins and profits of marketing intermediaries both in domestic and export marketing. Primary data were collected by survey method wherein various market intermediaries were interviewed from selected districts for eliciting information at various stages of marine fish marketing. The study revealed that marketing margin as well as marketing profit both were relatively higher...

  19. Fish consumption and cardiovascular response during mental stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamakoshi Takehiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frequent fish consumption is related to a lower risk of coronary heart disease. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying this cardioprotective effect are as yet unknown. We therefore examined certain cardiovascular physiological variables of fish eaters during rest, whilst conducting mental arithmetic, and during recovery. Findings The participants were 12 fish eaters (eating baked fish more than 3–4 times/week and 13 controls (eating fish less than 1–2 times/week. Analysis of the collected data revealed that heart rate, blood pressure, and pulse wave velocity were significantly lower and pre-ejection period and baroreflex sensitivity were significantly higher in the fish eaters than in the controls during both rest and mental arithmetic, and that systolic and mean blood pressure recovery from mental arithmetic were faster in the fish eaters than in the controls. Conclusions These findings suggest a possible physiological mechanism that may explain why frequent fish consumption reduces coronary heart disease risk.

  20. Lemongrass-Fried Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 500 grams grass carp, several stalks of lemongrass, 5 leaves of lettuce. Condiments: 10 grams sweet sauce (made from fermented flour, scallion powder and ginger root powder); yolk of one egg, cooking wine, salt, pepper and MSG (optional). Method: 1. Cut the fish into pieces. Mash

  1. FishTraits Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2009-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. FishTraits is a database of >100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 exotic) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology, (2) body size and reproductive ecology (life history), (3) habitat associations, and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status is also included. Together, we refer to the traits, distribution, and conservation status information as attributes. Descriptions of attributes are available here. Many sources were consulted to compile attributes, including state and regional species accounts and other databases.

  2. Yet Another Fish Tale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalasz, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Last month the "Rocky Mountain News" reported that a survey by an emeritus professor at University of Colorado Boulder found that only 23 of 825 faculty members on the campus were registered Republicans. But on his "New York Times" blog, Stanley Fish brushed off the survey's significance from a familiarly Fishian stance. A faculty's political…

  3. ChillFish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Jensen, Mads Møller

    2016-01-01

    Breathing exercises can help children with ADHD control their stress level, but it can be hard for a child to sustain attention throughout such an exercise. In this paper, we present ChillFish, a breath-controlled biofeedback game designed in collaboration with ADHD professionals to investigate...

  4. The fish egg microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Y. Liu Prof. dr. F. Govers (promotor); Prof. dr. J.M. Raaijmakers (promotor); Dr. I. de Bruijn (co-promotor); Wageningen University, 13 June 2016, 170 pp. The fish egg microbiome: diversity and activity against the oomycete pathogen Saprolegnia Emerging oomycete pat

  5. Access and Fishing Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, I look at the implications of transferable quotas on the organization of production; that is, how fishing activities are structured around access to the individual and transferable quotas and how, in turn, the quotas structure the production. Therefore, this chapter will give...

  6. Fish in Mutton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Ingredients:500 grams mutton and 750 grams live fish Condiments:Salt for taste, ginger, scallion, soup, water chestnut powder, gourmet powder Method: 1.Quick-boil the clean mutton. then put scallion, ginger, salt, gourmet powder and pepper powder into it and cook until

  7. Hydrodynamics of fossil fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Thomas; Altringham, John; Peakall, Jeffrey; Wignall, Paul; Dorrell, Robert

    2014-08-07

    From their earliest origins, fishes have developed a suite of adaptations for locomotion in water, which determine performance and ultimately fitness. Even without data from behaviour, soft tissue and extant relatives, it is possible to infer a wealth of palaeobiological and palaeoecological information. As in extant species, aspects of gross morphology such as streamlining, fin position and tail type are optimized even in the earliest fishes, indicating similar life strategies have been present throughout their evolutionary history. As hydrodynamical studies become more sophisticated, increasingly complex fluid movement can be modelled, including vortex formation and boundary layer control. Drag-reducing riblets ornamenting the scales of fast-moving sharks have been subjected to particularly intense research, but this has not been extended to extinct forms. Riblets are a convergent adaptation seen in many Palaeozoic fishes, and probably served a similar hydrodynamic purpose. Conversely, structures which appear to increase skin friction may act as turbulisors, reducing overall drag while serving a protective function. Here, we examine the diverse adaptions that contribute to drag reduction in modern fishes and review the few attempts to elucidate the hydrodynamics of extinct forms.

  8. Fish Facts. Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Mike

    This lesson plan is designed for a 50-minute class to teach extension home economists and homemakers about buying, storing, and using fish. The lesson plan contains references, a list of equipment needed, objectives, and the presentation. The presentation consists of an outline of instruction coordinated with methods of instruction and aids and…

  9. Fish Culture Economics and Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Ogamba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fish culture economics and extension was reviewed to enable fish culturist plan effectively before involved in fish culture and practices. The cost and benefits of fish culture need be known before participation in the business. There is need for cross-link between research and the fishing community. Prior to introduction of any new innovation in fisheries extension and evaluation of such programmers, the agency responsible for such exercise should have full knowledge of the existing farming practice/techniques and the reasons behind them. In assessing or evaluating the impact of any new techniques or programmers, consideration should be given to such factors as natural conditions, local infrastructures, socio cultural setting, farmers’ production aims and labor economics. The study reviews the types of feasibility study, a typical feasibility study and report on a fish farm project and detail analysis of culture extension to enable fish culturist plan effectively before involved in fish culture and practices.

  10. Report on Fish Springs - 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document discusses field survey results from several trips to Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge during the summer of 1958. The following information is...

  11. LCA of Danish fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    The article presents the main results from a PhD dissertation about environmental impacts from Danish fish products.......The article presents the main results from a PhD dissertation about environmental impacts from Danish fish products....

  12. Temperature - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  13. KLA - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  14. Anadromous fish inventory: Summary volume

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary volume, with discussion, on anadromous fish inventories, species lists, histories of fisheries, habitat, key spawning and rearing areas, runs/escapements,...

  15. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF THE FISH AQUACULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Buchatsky

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The latest progress in biotechnology on fish aquaculture and different modern methods of investigations for increasing of fish productivity in aquaculture are analyzed. Except for the applied aspect, the use of modern biotechnological methods of investigations opens new possibilities for fundamental researches of sex-determining mechanisms, polyploidy, distant hybridization, and developmental biology of bony fishes. Review contains examples of utilizing modern biotechnology methods to obtain transgenic fishes with accelerated growth and for designing surrogate fishes. Methods for receiving unisexual shoals of salmon and sturgeon female fishes with the view of obtaining a large quantity of caviar, as well as receiving sterile (triploid fishes are analyzed. Great attention is given to androgenesis, particularly to disperm one, in connection with the problem of conserving rare and vanishing fish species using only sperm genetic material. Examples how distant hybrids may be obtained with the use of disperm androgenesis and alkylated DNA are given. Methods of obtaining fish primordium germ cells, recent developments in cultivation of fish stem cells and their use in biotechnology, as well as ones of transplantation of oogonium and spermatogonium to obtain surrogate fishes. The examples of successful experiments on spermatogonial xenotransplantation and characteristic of antifreezing fish proteins and also the prospect of their practical usage are given.

  16. Plastic in North Sea Fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekema, E.M.; Gruijter, de C.; Mergia, M.T.; Franeker, van J.A.; Murk, A.J.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    To quantify the occurrence of ingested plastic in fish species caught at different geographical positions in the North Sea, and to test whether the fish condition is affected by ingestion of plastics, 1203 individual fish of seven common North Sea species were investigated: herring, gray gurnard, wh

  17. Fish freshness rapid detection based on fish-eye image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Zang, Yue; Wo, Qiqi; Zou, Chen; Wang, Nan; Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Dadong

    Study a new method for detecting fish freshness. During the experiment, we choose freshest fish-eyes images via digital camera to add computing the synthesis of the latest fish-eye image .Next figure out every image's signal strength. Finally, we analysis relation between the change of the image's energy and the value (pH, electrical conductivity, TVBN) by Modeling of Partial Least Squares Regression. The result shows that we can detect freshness of fish quickly, conveniently, simply and accurately through the fish-eye image energy change.

  18. Collapse and recovery of marine fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, J A

    2000-08-24

    Overexploitation and subsequent collapse of marine fishes has focused attention on the ability of affected populations to recover to former abundance levels and on the degree to which their persistence is threatened by extinction. Although potential for recovery has been assessed indirectly, actual changes in population size following long-term declines have not been examined empirically. Here I show that there is very little evidence for rapid recovery from prolonged declines, in contrast to the perception that marine fishes are highly resilient to large population reductions. With the possible exception of herring and related species that mature early in life and are fished with highly selective equipment, my analysis of 90 stocks reveals that many gadids (for example, cod, haddock) and other non-clupeids (for example, flatfishes) have experienced little, if any, recovery as much as 15 years after 45-99% reductions in reproductive biomass. Although the effects of overfishing on single species may generally be reversible, the actual time required for recovery appears to be considerable. To exempt marine fishes from existing criteria used to assign extinction risk would be inconsistent with precautionary approaches to fisheries management and the conservation of marine biodiversity.

  19. Ethical considerations for field research on fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhett H. Bennett

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Collection of data from animals for research purposes can negatively impact target or by-catch species if suitable animal ethics practices are not followed. This study aimed to assess the ethical requirements of peer-reviewed scientific journals that publish primary literature on fishes, and review the ethical considerations and animal care guidelines of national and international documents on the ethical treatment of animals for research, to provide an overview of the general ethical considerations for field research on fishes. A review of 250 peer-reviewed, ISI-rated journals publishing primary research on fishes revealed that nearly half (46% had no mention of ethics, treatment of animals or ethical requirements for publication in their author guidelines or publication policies. However, 18% of the journals reviewed identify a specific set of ethical guidelines to be followed before publishing research involving animals. Ethical considerations for investigators undertaking field research on fishes, common to most animal care policies, legislation and guiding documents, include adhering to relevant legislation, minimising sample sizes, reducing or mitigating pain and distress, employing the most appropriate and least invasive techniques and accurately reporting methods and findings. This information will provide potential investigators with a useful starting point for designing and conducting ethical field research. Application of ethical best practices in field sampling studies will improve the welfare of study animals and the conservation of rare and endangered species.Conservation implications: This article provides a list of ethical considerations for designing and conducting field research on fishes. By reviewing sampling techniques and processes that are frequently used in field research on fishes and by highlighting the potential negative impacts of these sampling techniques, this article is intended to assist researchers in planning

  20. Metazoan Parasites of Antarctic Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oğuz, Mehmet Cemal; Tepe, Yahya; Belk, Mark C; Heckmann, Richard A; Aslan, Burçak; Gürgen, Meryem; Bray, Rodney A; Akgül, Ülker

    2015-06-01

    To date, there have been nearly 100 papers published on metazoan parasites of Antarctic fishes, but there has not yet been any compilation of a species list of fish parasites for this large geographic area. Herein, we provide a list of all documented occurrences of monogenean, cestode, digenean, acanthocephalan, nematode, and hirudinean parasites of Antarctic fishes. The list includes nearly 250 parasite species found in 142 species of host fishes. It is likely that there are more species of fish parasites, which are yet to be documented from Antarctic waters.

  1. Speciation in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Giacomo

    2013-11-01

    The field of speciation has seen much renewed interest in the past few years, with theoretical and empirical advances that have moved it from a descriptive field to a predictive and testable one. The goal of this review is to provide a general background on research on speciation as it pertains to fishes. Three major components to the question are first discussed: the spatial, ecological and sexual factors that influence speciation mechanisms. We then move to the latest developments in the field of speciation genomics. Affordable and rapidly available, massively parallel sequencing data allow speciation studies to converge into a single comprehensive line of investigation, where the focus has shifted to the search for speciation genes and genomic islands of speciation. We argue that fish present a very diverse array of scenarios, making them an ideal model to study speciation processes.

  2. Herpesviruses that Infect Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshe Kotler

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Herpesviruses are host specific pathogens that are widespread among vertebrates. Genome sequence data demonstrate that most herpesviruses of fish and amphibians are grouped together (family Alloherpesviridae and are distantly related to herpesviruses of reptiles, birds and mammals (family Herpesviridae. Yet, many of the biological processes of members of the order Herpesvirales are similar. Among the conserved characteristics are the virion structure, replication process, the ability to establish long term latency and the manipulation of the host immune response. Many of the similar processes may be due to convergent evolution. This overview of identified herpesviruses of fish discusses the diseases that alloherpesviruses cause, the biology of these viruses and the host-pathogen interactions. Much of our knowledge on the biology of Alloherpesvirdae is derived from research with two species: Ictalurid herpesvirus 1 (channel catfish virus and Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus.

  3. Consumers’ attitude towards fish meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Conte

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The overall aim of this paper is to show the factors that may affect consumers’ attitude towards farmed fish products. Consumers ask new products on the basis of different quality attributes: stability, safety, composition, better health effects, environment protection, etc. Different and controversial opinions on farmed and wild fish are also explored by literature review. The authors pay attention also to fish welfare as an emerging issue and effective information about fish products as a factor exerting a positive influence on consumers’ decision of purchase. Some relevant legislative notes on the paper’s topics are also cited. The qualitative aspects of aquaculture fish and the consumers’ demand and choice need further studies, according to some factors, such as the changing consumers’ attitudes towards fish products, the different fish quality perception and the development in the aquaculture systems.

  4. Of Fish and Micrornas

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Fish is an important small vertebrate multidisciplinary model for investigating various aspects of reproduction, development, disease (immunology, toxicology, carcinogenesis), and aging. It is also an important model for comparative and evolutionary studies because it represents the lower vertebrates and serves as an essential link to early vertebrate evolution. Microribonucleic acids (miRNAs) are 18-22 nucleotide-long endogenous RNAs that bind to specific mRNAs, usually at the 3’-untranslate...

  5. Fish Synucleins: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Toni

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Synucleins (syns are a family of proteins involved in several human neurodegenerative diseases and tumors. Since the first syn discovery in the brain of the electric ray Torpedo californica, members of the same family have been identified in all vertebrates and comparative studies have indicated that syn proteins are evolutionary conserved. No counterparts of syns were found in invertebrates suggesting that they are vertebrate-specific proteins. Molecular studies showed that the number of syn members varies among vertebrates. Three genes encode for α-, β- and γ-syn in mammals and birds. However, a variable number of syn genes and encoded proteins is expressed or predicted in fish depending on the species. Among biologically verified sequences, four syn genes were identified in fugu, encoding for α, β and two γ (γ1 and γ2 isoforms, whereas only three genes are expressed in zebrafish, which lacks α-syn gene. The list of “non verified” sequences is much longer and is often found in sequence databases. In this review we provide an overview of published papers and known syn sequences in agnathans and fish that are likely to impact future studies in this field. Indeed, fish models may play a key role in elucidating some of the molecular mechanisms involved in physiological and pathological functions of syn proteins.

  6. Fish community responses to green tides in shallow estuarine and coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Luherne, E.; Réveillac, E.; Ponsero, A.; Sturbois, A.; Ballu, S.; Perdriau, M.; Le Pape, O.

    2016-06-01

    All over the world, numerous bays and estuarine systems that are known to shelter essential fish habitats are experiencing proliferations of green macroalgae known as green tides. Although the processes that enhance green tides in response to nutrient enrichment are well known, their consequences for ecological communities -especially for ichthyofauna- remain poorly studied. To estimate these consequences, this analysis focused on the two types of shallow systems that are experiencing green tides: sandy beaches and estuarine mudflats. In these two systems, macroalgae proliferation and fish community were surveyed along seasonal cycles at control and impacted sites that shared similar physico-chemical parameters and sediment structure. To analyse the consequences of green tides on the fish community, a Before-After Control-Impact approach was used. This approach reveals no difference between fish communities at the control and impacted sites before the macroalgal bloom. Then, it underlines an influence of green tides on the fish community, and this influence varies according to the composition, density and duration of the macroalgal bloom. Indeed, when intertidal systems experienced short proliferation and/or weak density, green tides did not seem to impact the fish community. However, when green macroalgae proliferated in large quantities and/or when the proliferation lasted for long periods, the fish community was significantly affected. These modifications in the fish community led to a significant decrease in fish species diversity and density until fish disappeared from impacted sites at high proliferations. Furthermore, the response of fish species to green tides differed according to their functional guilds. Negative consequences for benthic and marine juvenile fish species were beginning at low proliferations, whereas for pelagic fish species they occurred only at high proliferations. Thus, green tides significantly affect fish habitat suitability because

  7. The Peculiar Characteristics of Fish Type I Interferons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Boudinot

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Antiviral type I interferons (IFNs have been discovered in fish. Genomic studies revealed their considerable number in many species; some genes encode secreted and non-secreted isoforms. Based on cysteine motifs, fish type I IFNs fall in two subgroups, which use two different receptors. Mammalian type I IFN genes are intronless while type III have introns; in fish, all have introns, but structurally, both subgroups belong to type I. Type I IFNs likely appeared early in vertebrates as intron containing genes, and evolved in parallel in tetrapods and fishes. The diversity of their repertoires in fish and mammals is likely a convergent feature, selected as a response to the variety of viral strategies. Several alternative nomenclatures have been established for different taxonomic fish groups, calling for a unified system. The specific functions of each type I gene remains poorly understood, as well as their interactions in antiviral responses. However, distinct induction pathways, kinetics of response, and tissue specificity indicate that fish type I likely are highly specialized, especially in groups where they are numerous such as salmonids or cyprinids. Unravelling their functional integration constitutes the next challenge to understand how these cytokines evolved to orchestrate antiviral innate immunity in vertebrates.

  8. Survivorship of coral juveniles in a fish farm environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Ronald D; Yap, Helen T; Montaño, Marco Nemesio E

    2005-01-01

    Intensive fish farming is an emerging coastal activity that can potentially enhance sedimentation and promote eutrophication in fringing coral reefs. Here, we investigate the effect of fish farm effluent on the juvenile survivorship of the reef-building coral Seriatopora caliendrum. One-month old juvenile corals (on terracotta tiles) were deployed in fish farm and reference (reef) sites in Bolinao, the Philippines at a depth of 2m. After forty days, no survivor was recovered in the fish farm, while survivorship was low (11%) in the reference site, with the survivors' growth rate at 3.3polypsmo(-1) or 1.3mm(2)mo(-1). The fish farm deployed tiles were covered with muddy sediment and were colonized by barnacles, whereas those in the reference site were overgrown by a short stand of filamentous macroalgae. Environmental monitoring revealed higher nutrient levels (ammonia and phosphate), sedimentation rate, and organic matter flux, as well as diminished water transparency and dissolved oxygen levels in the fish farm compared to the reference site. Hence, intensive fish farming offers a suite of physical, chemical and biological modifications of the coastal marine environment which have a detrimental effect on the survivorship of coral juveniles.

  9. [Biological value of protein from raw fish and canned fish].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganoviak, Z M; Lipka, E M

    1983-01-01

    The authors evaluated the nutritive value of protein from 4 kinds of raw fish (herring, cod, mackerel, sprat) and its preserves. Experiments were made on rats fed the diets containing fish protein (8-10% of the total diet). Experiments included the determination of apparent and genuine digestibility, net protein utilization, and net dietary protein caloric value. Evidence was obtained that protein from fish and its preserves is characterized by high digestibility coefficient as compared with casein and egg powder. The highest net protein utilization was noted in animal groups fed the diet containing protein from raw fish. Protein assimilability from fish preserves was on the average 15% lower than that from raw fish.

  10. Hidden chromosomal abnormalities in pleuropulmonary blastomas identified by multiplex FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coze Carole

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB is a rare childhood dysontogenetic intrathoracic neoplasm associated with an unfavourable clinical behaviour. Cases presentation We report pathological and cytogenetic findings in two cases of PPB at initial diagnosis and recurrence. Both tumors were classified as type III pneumoblastoma and histological findings were similar at diagnosis and relapse. In both cases, conventional cytogenetic techniques revealed complex numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities. Molecular cytogenetic analysis (interphase/metaphase FISH and multicolor FISH identified accurately chromosomal aberrations. In one case, TP53 gene deletion was detected on metaphase FISH. To date, only few cytogenetic data have been published about PPB. Conclusion The PPB genetic profile remains to be established and compared to others embryonal neoplasia. Our cytogenetic data are discussed reviewing cytogenetics PPBs published cases, illustrating the contribution of multicolor FISH in order to identify pathogenetically important recurrent aberrations in PPB.

  11. Corticosteroids: Friends or foes of teleost fish reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milla, S; Wang, N; Mandiki, S N M; Kestemont, P

    2009-07-01

    Reproduction in vertebrates is controlled by the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Gonad axis and the main hormone actions have been extensively described. Still, despite the scattered information in fish, accumulating evidence strongly indicates that corticosteroids play essential roles in reproductive mechanisms. An integrative approach is important for understanding these implications. Animal husbandry and physiological studies at molecular to organismal levels have revealed that these corticosteroids are regulators of fish reproductive processes. But their involvements appear strongly contrasted. Indeed, for both sexes, corticosteroids present either deleterious or positive effects on fish reproduction. In this review, the authors will attempt to gather and clarify the available information about these physiological involvements. The authors will also suggest future ways to prospect corticosteroid roles in fish reproduction.

  12. Indigenous fish species in the modern ichthyofauna of the Balkhash basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir Shamilevich Mamilov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous fish fauna of the Balkhash basin was mostly formed in the postglacial period and consists of 10 species from Cyprinidae family, 5 from Balitoridae, and 1 from Percidae. More than 20 alien fish species were introduced here during XXth century that led to eradication of indigenous fishes from the Balkhash Lake and the Ili River. Our investigations of the fish fauna during last 25 years revealed permanent shortage of living area of indigenous fishes. Nowadays fish communities from only indigenous fish species exist in some remote and isolated water bodies. Areas of all indigenous fish species are become disconnected. Reduction of habitats goes relatively slow for naked osman Gymnodiptychus dybowskii (Kessler, 1874, spotted thicklip loach Triplophysa strauchii (Kessler, 1874, and gray loach Triplophysa dorsalis (Kessler, 1872. Drastic reductions of areas were revealed for Ili marinka Schizothorax pseudoaksaiensis Herzenstein 1889, Balkhash marinka Schizothorax argentatus Kessler 1874, Severtsov’s loach Triplophysa sewerzowii (G.Nikolskii, 1938, Seven River’s minnow Phoxinus brachyurus Berg 1912, Balkhsh minnow Rhynchocypris poljakowii Kessler 1879, and Balkhash perch Perca schrenkii Kessler 1874. Marinkas, osmans and perch often become victims of overfishing and poaching of local people. In that region water resources usually are used by wasteful way and loaded with pollutants. Many indigenous fish species are able to bear relatively high level of environment pollution. Hence, the main threats for indigenous fishes are introductions of trout and sander, habitats lose and unstable hydrological regimen.

  13. SWALLOWED FISH BONES IN MALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacko HB

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the different aspects, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic of 114 cases of fish bones in the upper digestive tract . Methods: One hundred fourteen patients with fish bones suspected in the upper digestive tract were admitted in our department between February 2010 and October 2012. Results: There was a predominance of the male: 66 men (58%. The average age of the patients was 26 years with extremes 3 to 62 years old. The tongue base and vallecula are constituted the principals locations 66.66%. In the majority of the cases the fish bones were removed by direct pharyngoscopy in 43.86 %. We have not notified any serious complications. Conclusion: Therefore this study shows the foreign fish bones are frequently just as well in children as adult. The fish bones are particularly lodged in tongue base. The classical methods of extraction are permit to remove the all foreign fish bones.

  14. Gonadal development in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Toshiya; Tanaka, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrate reproduction depends on the function of 2 distinct gametes, sperm and eggs, which develop in 2 different organs, the testis and the ovary. Testes and ovaries are composed of germ cells, supporting cells and interstitial cells. In this review, we describe the origin and the fate of these cell lineages and how they interact with each other to form sexually dimorphic reproductive organs in medaka. We delineate how the temporally different association and establishment of these lineages contribute to a variety of seemingly different sex differentiation processes among teleost fish. Thus, teleosts represent an intriguing group in which to study the fundamental processes of gonadal development through comparing conserved and unique mechanisms.

  15. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF THE FISH AQUACULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    L. P. Buchatsky

    2013-01-01

    The latest progress in biotechnology on fish aquaculture and different modern methods of investigations for increasing of fish productivity in aquaculture are analyzed. Except for the applied aspect, the use of modern biotechnological methods of investigations opens new possibilities for fundamental researches of sex-determining mechanisms, polyploidy, distant hybridization, and developmental biology of bony fishes. Review contains examples of utilizing modern biotechnology methods to obtain ...

  16. 75 FR 6058 - Federal Sport Fish Restoration; California Department of Fish and Game Fish Hatchery and Stocking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Federal Sport Fish Restoration; California Department of Fish and Game Fish.... Under the Sport Fish Restoration Act (SFRA), FWS proposes to fund actions associated with the operation...: Under the SFRA (Pub. L. 106-408), FWS has authority to grant Federal funds from the Sport...

  17. Ciguatera fish poisoning - New York City, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    During August 2010-July 2011, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) received reports of six outbreaks and one single case of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), involving a total of 28 persons. CFP results from consumption of certain large, predatory, tropical reef fish that have bioaccumulated ciguatoxins (CTX). CFP is characterized by various gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and neurologic symptoms. A prolonged period of acute illness can result, and the neurologic symptoms can last months, with variable asymptomatic and symptomatic periods. The first two outbreaks and the single case, involving 13 persons, were reported during August 6-September 13, 2010. DOHMH distributed a health alert in November 2010 requesting health-care providers be alert for CFP signs and symptoms. The health alert resulted in identification of 11 more cases that month and an additional two outbreaks involving four persons in July 2011. In comparison, only four CFP outbreaks, involving 21 persons total, had been reported in New York City (NYC) during the preceding 10 years (2000-2009). DOHMH's investigation revealed that 13 persons became ill after eating barracuda, and 15 became ill after eating grouper. Although specific and highly sensitive laboratory analyses can detect and confirm CTX in fish, no practical field tests are available for fish monitoring programs. CFP prevention depends on educating the public, seafood suppliers, and distributors about known CFP endemic areas and high-risk fish species. Traceback investigations of fish associated with outbreaks provide valuable information regarding fishing areas associated with CFP. Not all fish from CFP endemic areas are ciguatoxic, but persons who eat fish from endemic regions are at higher risk for CFP. If an illness is suspected to be CFP, public health authorities should be notified and informed of the case history for possible investigation and intervention measures.

  18. Consistent selection towards low activity phenotypes when catchability depends on encounters among human predators and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alós, Josep; Palmer, Miquel; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Together with life-history and underlying physiology, the behavioural variability among fish is one of the three main trait axes that determines the vulnerability to fishing. However, there are only a few studies that have systematically investigated the strength and direction of selection acting on behavioural traits. Using in situ fish behaviour revealed by telemetry techniques as input, we developed an individual-based model (IBM) that simulated the Lagrangian trajectory of prey (fish) moving within a confined home range (HR). Fishers exhibiting various prototypical fishing styles targeted these fish in the model. We initially hypothesised that more active and more explorative individuals would be systematically removed under all fished conditions, in turn creating negative selection differentials on low activity phenotypes and maybe on small HR. Our results partly supported these general predictions. Standardised selection differentials were, on average, more negative on HR than on activity. However, in many simulation runs, positive selection pressures on HR were also identified, which resulted from the stochastic properties of the fishes' movement and its interaction with the human predator. In contrast, there was a consistent negative selection on activity under all types of fishing styles. Therefore, in situations where catchability depends on spatial encounters between human predators and fish, we would predict a consistent selection towards low activity phenotypes and have less faith in the direction of the selection on HR size. Our study is the first theoretical investigation on the direction of fishery-induced selection of behaviour using passive fishing gears. The few empirical studies where catchability of fish was measured in relation to passive fishing techniques, such as gill-nets, traps or recreational fishing, support our predictions that fish in highly exploited situations are, on average, characterised by low swimming activity, stemming, in

  19. Consistent selection towards low activity phenotypes when catchability depends on encounters among human predators and fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Alós

    Full Text Available Together with life-history and underlying physiology, the behavioural variability among fish is one of the three main trait axes that determines the vulnerability to fishing. However, there are only a few studies that have systematically investigated the strength and direction of selection acting on behavioural traits. Using in situ fish behaviour revealed by telemetry techniques as input, we developed an individual-based model (IBM that simulated the Lagrangian trajectory of prey (fish moving within a confined home range (HR. Fishers exhibiting various prototypical fishing styles targeted these fish in the model. We initially hypothesised that more active and more explorative individuals would be systematically removed under all fished conditions, in turn creating negative selection differentials on low activity phenotypes and maybe on small HR. Our results partly supported these general predictions. Standardised selection differentials were, on average, more negative on HR than on activity. However, in many simulation runs, positive selection pressures on HR were also identified, which resulted from the stochastic properties of the fishes' movement and its interaction with the human predator. In contrast, there was a consistent negative selection on activity under all types of fishing styles. Therefore, in situations where catchability depends on spatial encounters between human predators and fish, we would predict a consistent selection towards low activity phenotypes and have less faith in the direction of the selection on HR size. Our study is the first theoretical investigation on the direction of fishery-induced selection of behaviour using passive fishing gears. The few empirical studies where catchability of fish was measured in relation to passive fishing techniques, such as gill-nets, traps or recreational fishing, support our predictions that fish in highly exploited situations are, on average, characterised by low swimming activity

  20. Assessment of Heavy Metals in the Fish Collected from the River Ravi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazala Jabeen*, Muhammad Javed and Hamda Azmat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity of heavy metals viz. aluminium (Al, arsenic (As, barium (Ba, chromium (Cr, nickel (Ni and zinc (Zn in fish at three main public fishing sites of the river Ravi viz. Shahdara bridge, Baloki headworks and Sidhnai barrage has been studied from June, 2009 to May, 2010. The concentrations of heavy metals in the body organs (gills, liver, kidney, intestine, reproductive organs, skin, muscle, fins, scales, bones, fats of three fish species viz. Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhina mrigala were determined. The present results reveal that the toxicity of metals fluctuated significantly in fish at all the three sampling stations with season. The fish samples collected from all the three sampling stations had significantly higher aluminium and zinc. However, the fish at Sidhnai barrage showed significantly lower metallic toxicity, followed by that at Baloki headworks and Shahdara bridge. Significantly higher metals were observed in fish liver, followed by that of kidney, gills, intestine, reproductive organs, skin, scales, fins, bones, muscle and fats. The accumulation of metals in carnivorous fish body organs showed significantly direct dependence on the metallic toxicity of herbivorous cyprinids. Fish liver and kidney showed significantly higher abilities for the accumulation of all metals while accumulations were lowest in fish muscle and fats. The health status of river Ravi at three main public fishing sites viz. Shahdara bridge, Baloki headworks and Sidhnai barrage, with respect to eco-toxicity of Al, As, Ba, Cr, Ni and Zn was above the recommended permissible standards.

  1. Distribution, behavior, and condition of herbivorous fishes on coral reefs track algal resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tootell, Jesse S; Steele, Mark A

    2016-05-01

    Herbivore distribution can impact community structure and ecosystem function. On coral reefs, herbivores are thought to play an important role in promoting coral dominance, but how they are distributed relative to algae is not well known. Here, we evaluated whether the distribution, behavior, and condition of herbivorous fishes correlated with algal resource availability at six sites in the back reef environment of Moorea, French Polynesia. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that increased algal turf availability would coincide with (1) increased biomass, (2) altered foraging behavior, and (3) increased energy reserves of herbivorous fishes. Fish biomass and algal cover were visually estimated along underwater transects; behavior of herbivorous fishes was quantified by observations of focal individuals; fish were collected to assess their condition; and algal turf production rates were measured on standardized tiles. The best predictor of herbivorous fish biomass was algal turf production, with fish biomass increasing with algal production. Biomass of herbivorous fishes was also negatively related to sea urchin density, suggesting competition for limited resources. Regression models including both algal turf production and urchin density explained 94 % of the variation in herbivorous fish biomass among sites spread over ~20 km. Behavioral observations of the parrotfish Chlorurus sordidus revealed that foraging area increased as algal turf cover decreased. Additionally, energy reserves increased with algal turf production, but declined with herbivorous fish density, implying that algal turf is a limited resource for this species. Our findings support the hypothesis that herbivorous fishes can spatially track algal resources on coral reefs.

  2. Novel Acoustic Techniques for Assessing Fish Schooling in the Context of an Operational Ocean Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-30

    and onshore waters. A unique acoustic scattering source was identified during the experiment as dense, monotypic aggregations of a pelagic gastropod ...can often reveal hidden coherent structure. IMPACT/ APPLICATIONS The distribution of fish and the variability in their distribution has...direct and waveguide scattering for application to fish. REFERENCES Pitcher, T. J., and J. K. Parrish. 1993. Function of shoaling behavior in teleosts

  3. Fish Karyome: A karyological information network database of Indian Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpure, Naresh Sahebrao; Pathak, Ajey Kumar; Pati, Rameshwar; Singh, Shri Prakash; Singh, Mahender; Sarkar, Uttam Kumar; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Kumar, Ravindra

    2012-01-01

    'Fish Karyome', a database on karyological information of Indian fishes have been developed that serves as central source for karyotype data about Indian fishes compiled from the published literature. Fish Karyome has been intended to serve as a liaison tool for the researchers and contains karyological information about 171 out of 2438 finfish species reported in India and is publically available via World Wide Web. The database provides information on chromosome number, morphology, sex chromosomes, karyotype formula and cytogenetic markers etc. Additionally, it also provides the phenotypic information that includes species name, its classification, and locality of sample collection, common name, local name, sex, geographical distribution, and IUCN Red list status. Besides, fish and karyotype images, references for 171 finfish species have been included in the database. Fish Karyome has been developed using SQL Server 2008, a relational database management system, Microsoft's ASP.NET-2008 and Macromedia's FLASH Technology under Windows 7 operating environment. The system also enables users to input new information and images into the database, search and view the information and images of interest using various search options. Fish Karyome has wide range of applications in species characterization and identification, sex determination, chromosomal mapping, karyo-evolution and systematics of fishes.

  4. Sautéed Fish Slices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Ingredients: A fresh fish, cooking oil, scallion, ginger, egg white, salt, MSG, cooking wine, cornstarch. Directions: 1. Clean and scale the fish and take out the internal organs. 2. Fillet the fish. Slice the fish into thin pieces. Coat the fish

  5. Fish oil quality of by-product (fish skin from swangi fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Ode Huli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The skin of swangi fish is a potential fish skin to be produced for fish oil. The objectives of this research were aimed to determine the yield and the best quality of fish oil and also to compare fatty acid profile of the fish according to different extraction methods. Fish oil extractions were used by wet rendering method with extraction temperatures of 60, 70, 80, 90, 100°C for 20, 30, and 40 minutes. Fish oil quality was determined by the chemical oil characteristics i.e. PV, FFA, AV, anisidin, and TOTOX. Fatty acid profile was analyzed using gas chromatography (Shimadzu. The results of the study showed that the highest fish oil yield in each treatment was obtained extraction temperature of 60°C for 30 minutes with percentage of 0.33, (70°C for 30 minutes 0.46, (80°C for 30 minutes 1.23, (90°C for 20 minutes 1.14 and (100°C for 20 minutes 0.84. These values were lower compare to Bligh & Dyer and Soxhlet methods. Then, the best fish oil quality was resulted on temperature extraction of 60°C for 30 minutes with PV, FFA, anisidin, AV, and TOTOX were 9.17 meq/kg, 6.92%, 13,77 mg KOH/g, 0.86 meq/kg and 19.19 meq/kg, respectively. FUFA fatty acid compositions of swangi skin fish oil especially EPA and DHA in wet rendering method were gained 0.73% and 2.53%, respectively. These results were lower than Bligh & Dyer method which was consisted of 3.66% (EPA, and 13.29% (DHA and also Soxhlet extraction method with value of EPA was 2.78% and DHA was 9.62%.Keywords: EPA, extraction temperature, DHA, fish oil quality, fish skin

  6. Fishes and humankind III. Editorial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. G. Jones

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The publication of this group of three papers form part of the 1987 meeting of the International Council for Archaeozoologists Fish Remains Working Group which took place at the University of York, U. K. The papers illustrate an increased awareness of the significance of ichthyological research to archaeology and cover three areas of research: taphonomy; fishing artefacts; and fish remains recovered from an excavation. Jones sheds some light on the relative robustness of the bewildering array of elements in a fish skeleton by recording damage to a skeleton when it is trampled. His paper suggests an index of robustness which might be used to assess the degree of fragmentation in archaeological assemblages. Kemp reports on the excavation of a small medieval building located adjacent to medieval fish ponds created by Cistercian monks in North Yorkshire, England. In addition to the structural evidence, an impressive assemblage of weights, presumably net weights, found on or near the site is published. Perhaps most significant is a large lead weight which may have been used to weight catches of fish from the ponds. Fish remains recovered from two excavations at the quayside at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England are discussed by Nicholson. Around 6000 identified bones form the basis for the study, the majority of which were identified as Gadid (cod family or herring. While the main food fishes typify fish bone assemblages from most post-Roman urban archaeological sites, the identification of small fishes such as sandeels, smelt, gobies and buttefish may indicate the utilisation of fish not nowadays considered as food at all. Given the diversity of species (30 individual species identified it is suggested that the remains from the main bone-producing organic horizons, dated to the late twelfth to thirteenth centuries, may include discard from a nearby fishmarket.

  7. Appearance traits in fish farming: progress from classical genetics to genomics, providing insight into current and potential genetic improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colihueque, Nelson; Araneda, Cristian

    2014-01-01

    Appearance traits in fish, those external body characteristics that influence consumer acceptance at point of sale, have come to the forefront of commercial fish farming, as culture profitability is closely linked to management of these traits. Appearance traits comprise mainly body shape and skin pigmentation. Analysis of the genetic basis of these traits in different fish reveals significant genetic variation within populations, indicating potential for their genetic improvement. Work into ascertaining the minor or major genes underlying appearance traits for commercial fish is emerging, with substantial progress in model fish in terms of identifying genes that control body shape and skin colors. In this review, we describe research progress to date, especially with regard to commercial fish, and discuss genomic findings in model fish in order to better address the genetic basis of the traits. Given that appearance traits are important in commercial fish, the genomic information related to this issue promises to accelerate the selection process in coming years. PMID:25140172

  8. Corticosteroids: friends or foes of teleost fish reproduction?

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Reproduction in vertebrates is controlled by the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Gonad axis and the main hormone actions have been extensively described. Still, despite the scattered information in fish, accumulating evidence strongly indicates that corticosteroids play essential roles in reproductive mechanisms. An integrative approach is important for understanding these implications. Animal husbandry and physiological studies at molecular to organismal levels have revealed that these corticosteroid...

  9. Identifying Canadian freshwater fishes through DNA barcodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Hubert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA barcoding aims to provide an efficient method for species-level identifications using an array of species specific molecular tags derived from the 5' region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI gene. The efficiency of the method hinges on the degree of sequence divergence among species and species-level identifications are relatively straightforward when the average genetic distance among individuals within a species does not exceed the average genetic distance between sister species. Fishes constitute a highly diverse group of vertebrates that exhibit deep phenotypic changes during development. In this context, the identification of fish species is challenging and DNA barcoding provide new perspectives in ecology and systematics of fishes. Here we examined the degree to which DNA barcoding discriminate freshwater fish species from the well-known Canadian fauna, which currently encompasses nearly 200 species, some which are of high economic value like salmons and sturgeons. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We bi-directionally sequenced the standard 652 bp "barcode" region of COI for 1360 individuals belonging to 190 of the 203 Canadian freshwater fish species (95%. Most species were represented by multiple individuals (7.6 on average, the majority of which were retained as voucher specimens. The average genetic distance was 27 fold higher between species than within species, as K2P distance estimates averaged 8.3% among congeners and only 0.3% among concpecifics. However, shared polymorphism between sister-species was detected in 15 species (8% of the cases. The distribution of K2P distance between individuals and species overlapped and identifications were only possible to species group using DNA barcodes in these cases. Conversely, deep hidden genetic divergence was revealed within two species, suggesting the presence of cryptic species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study evidenced that freshwater fish

  10. 76 FR 20707 - Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction Project; Kittitas County, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction Project; Kittitas... Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction... FEIS on the proposed Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction Project....

  11. Assessment demersal fish stocks Mauritania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corten, A.A.H.M.; Goudswaard, P.C.; Heessen, H.J.L.

    2006-01-01

    The RIVO project "Assessment of demersal fish stocks in Mauritania" was commissioned by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of The Netherlands to produce information on the state of the demersal fish stocks (species that live near the bottom) in Mauritania, in particular octopus and shrimps. These stock

  12. Fish In Mutton Equals Delicious

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    CHINESE characters are pictographs. The character "delicious" consists of "fish" and "sheep." In fact, there are few recipes that uses fish and mutton as main ingredients, Yet, there is one dish called "fisn in mutton" whose taste is good enough to make people understand the connotation of

  13. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the logbook data from U.S.A. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessels (CPFV) fishing in the U.S.A. EEZ and in waters off of Baja California, from...

  14. Fish and Wildlife Mitigation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-01

    NORTHERN CALIFORNIA COUNCIL OF FLY FISHING CLUBS Bob Baiocchi Vice President Conservation Chairman 1859 Salida Way Paradise, CA 95969 (916...PROJECT CALIFORNIA FIRST PHASE SPECIAL REPORT FISH AND WILDLIFE MITIGATION PLAN DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SACRAMENTO DISTRICT...CORPS OF ENGINEERS SACRAMENTO, CALIFORNIA 20081029163 DEFENSE TECHNICAL INFORMATION CENTER lufontuiioitfoir tktr Defense- CMtutucnity DTIC

  15. Ciguatera fish poisoning: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouw JC de; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    2001-01-01

    This review on ciguatera fish poisoning contains information on the ciguatera intoxication syndrome and the provoking ciguatoxins (CTXs) and gambiertoxin-4b (GTX-4B), of which CTX-1 is a major component at the end of food chain (the carnivore fish). Data on chemical structures and detection methods

  16. Snapshots of past fish faunas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Inge Bødker; Ediger, Vedat

    2016-01-01

    Analyses of fish remains from sediment cores make it possible to detect not only commonly caught fish from prehistoric times, but also species without any economic importance, but with high value of paleaoecological reconstructions. In this study, fish bones from sediment cores reaching several...... thousand years back and taken in the Baltic and Black Seas were analysed. All fish remains dealt with postdate the last glaciations and are from the last marine/brackish stages of both seas. In the Baltic cores, 13+ species were found, the most abundant ones being sand-eel and clupeids (herring and sprat...... before industrial fishing for them began. Clupeids, in the Baltic samples also sand-eel, dominate the materials. Both contain species that would hardly be expected on archaeological sites. Experience from this study leads to methodological recommendations regarding dating of material from sediment cores...

  17. Do Fish Enhance Tank Mixing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Laursen, Jesper; Craig, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    The design of fish rearing tanks represents a critical stage in the development of optimal aquaculture systems, especially in the context of recirculating systems. Poor hydrodynamics can compromise water quality, waste management and the physiology and behaviour of fish, and thence, production...... potential and operational profitability. The hydrodynamic performance of tanks, therefore, represents an important parameter during the tank design process. Because there are significant complexities in combining the rigid principles of hydrodynamics with the stochastic behaviour of fish, however, most data...... upon tank hydrokinetics has been derived using tanks void of fish. Clearly, the presence of randomly moving objects, such as fish, in a water column will influence not only tank volumes by displacing water, but due to their activity, water dynamics and associated in-tank processes. In order...

  18. Sex Determination Mechanisms in Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Quanqi; SUN Xiaohua; QI Jie; WANG Zhigang; WANG Xinglian; WANG Xubo; ZHAI Teng

    2009-01-01

    In fish, sex determination (SD) system shows high variation. The SD mechanisms include environmental and genetic regulation. The research on SD system and related genes in intensively studied fish species was reviewed. Although some genes have been described as sex-related, only DMRTlbY can be considered as a master sex determination gene and none of them has been util-ized in aquaculture. The variation of fish SD system, the importance of sex-related genes in evolution research and the relations be-tween environmental factors and sex-related genes were also discussed. The fish sex determination mechanism remains largely un-known. Further research needs to be done considering the significance of fish SD studies in basic and applied aspects.

  19. Adult Neurogenesis in Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Julia; Brand, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Teleost fish have a remarkable neurogenic and regenerative capacity in the adult throughout the rostrocaudal axis of the brain. The distribution of proliferation zones shows a remarkable conservation, even in distantly related teleost species, suggesting a common teleost ground plan of proliferation zones. There are different progenitor populations in the neurogenic niches-progenitors positive for radial glial markers (dorsal telencephalon, hypothalamus) and progenitors with neuroepithelial-like characteristics (ventral telencephalon, optic tectum, cerebellum). Definition of these progenitors has allowed studying their role in normal growth of the adult brain, but also when challenged following a lesion. From these studies, important roles have emerged for intrinsic mechanisms and extrinsic signals controlling the activation of adult neurogenesis that enable regeneration of the adult brain to occur, opening up new perspectives on rekindling regeneration also in the context of the mammalian brain.

  20. Airborne laser fish finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao; Li, Zaiguang; Huang, Houzheng

    1998-05-01

    An experimental airborne laser fish finder has been developed and field trial has been conducted. The Q-switched and frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser output is of 100 HZ pulse repetition rate, 2 MW peak power, 8 ns pulse width. The green light receiving telescope is transmissive with 1400 mm focal length and 200 mm aperture. The varying-gain control of PMT and logarithmic amplifier are used to compress the 105 dynamic range of received signals. The main features of data real-time processing subsystem are of 200 Ms/s sampling rate, 8 bit resolution, adjacent average treatment of return waveforms with high noise, and pseudo-color display of water depth.

  1. Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge : Sport Fishing Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge Sport Fishing Plans covers the assesment and managment strategies for sport fishing in the Refuge. Focus is on bass, crappie,...

  2. Fish Management Plan : Muscatatuck National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the Fish Management Plan for Muscatatuck NWR. The Plan provides an introduction to the Refuge, a description of the area, a description of the fish resource...

  3. Fish Springs pond snail : Refuge communication scenario

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Communication scenario between the branch of Listing and Recovery, Fish and Wildlife Enhancement, and Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), in regards to the...

  4. Neosho National Fish Hatchery contaminants survey results

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Fish were collected from Neosho National Fish Hatchery (NNFH) to determine if metal or organic contaminants were elevated in the biota located on the hatchery. Whole...

  5. Body Size Shifts in Philippine Reef Fishes: Interfamilial Variation in Responses to Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Y. Fidler

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of intense fishing pressure, fished populations experience reduced population sizes and shifts in body size toward the predominance of smaller and early maturing individuals. Small, early-maturing fish exhibit significantly reduced reproductive output and, ultimately, reduced fitness. As part of resource management and biodiversity conservation programs worldwide, no-take marine protected areas (MPAs are expected to ameliorate the adverse effects of fishing pressure. In an attempt to advance our understanding of how coral reef MPAs meet their long-term goals, this study used visual census data from 23 MPAs and fished reefs in the Philippines to address three questions: (1 Do MPAs promote shifts in fish body size frequency distribution towards larger body sizes when compared to fished reefs? (2 Do MPA size and (3 age contribute to the efficacy of MPAs in promoting such shifts? This study revealed that across all MPAs surveyed, the distribution of fishes between MPAs and fished reefs were similar; however, large-bodied fish were more abundant within MPAs, along with small, young-of-the-year individuals. Additionally, there was a significant shift in body size frequency distribution towards larger body sizes in 12 of 23 individual reef sites surveyed. Of 22 fish families, eleven demonstrated significantly different body size frequency distributions between MPAs and fished reefs, indicating that shifts in the size spectrum of fishes in response to protection are family-specific. Family-level shifts demonstrated a significant, positive correlation with MPA age, indicating that MPAs become more effective at increasing the density of large-bodied fish within their boundaries over time.

  6. Active Fish Tracking Sonar (AFTS) for Assessing Fish Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedgepeth, J (Tenera Environmental, LLC); Johnson, Gary E.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Skalski, John R.; Burczynski, J (BioSonics Inc.)

    2002-11-01

    Active fish tracking sonars (AFTS) were used in 2001 to study fish movement in response to intake occlusion plates at The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River. AFTS provides three-dimensional fish tracks by aligning the axis of a split-beam transducer with a fish target. High-speed stepper motors move the transducer so that a tracked target remains on-axis. Occlusion plates with lateral extensions covered the top half of the turbine intakes to produce a fish friendly near-dam environment. Two AFTS were positioned at the center of Main Unit 1, one each for monitoring installed and removed plate conditions. A regression analysis showed that occlusion plates had pronounced effects on fish movement along the dam. The plates appeared to inhibit movement toward the spillway, movement toward the dam (especially in front of the turbine intake), and movement downward toward the turbines. Fish fate (as opposed to movement directions from regression slopes) into particular areas was determined using Markov-chain analysis. The sluiceway (a safer passage route above the turbine intake) zone of influence was larger with the occlusion plates installed, contrary to the regression results. In addition, the probability of passage out the near turbine and bottom sides of the sample volume was about 50% lower with occlusion plates installed.

  7. Fish and Soup of Hubei Cuisine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    I was very impressed by the delicious freshwater fish dish from the well-known Changjiang River and Dongting Lake, the first time I travelled to Hubei Province. Hubei is famous for its freshwater fish dishes since it has so many lakes. The steamed Wuchang fish is one. Wuchang fish is pure, tender and fat and is considered a first-class freshwater fish. Waiters in local restaurants usually bring the fresh Wuchang fish to the

  8. Fisheries and aquatic resources--fish health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Fish health research at Leetown had its origin in the 1930’s when the Leetown Fish Hatchery and Experiment Station was constructed. In 1978, the National Fish Health Research Laboratory, now a component of the Leetown Science Center, was established to solve emerging and known disease problems affecting fish and other aquatic organisms critical to species restoration programs. Center scientists develop methods for the isolation, detection, and identification of fish pathogens and for prevention and control of fish diseases.

  9. Tropical fishes dominate temperate reef fish communities within western Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Nakamura

    Full Text Available Climate change is resulting in rapid poleward shifts in the geographical distribution of tropical and subtropical fish species. We can expect that such range shifts are likely to be limited by species-specific resource requirements, with temperate rocky reefs potentially lacking a range of settlement substrates or specific dietary components important in structuring the settlement and success of tropical and subtropical fish species. We examined the importance of resource use in structuring the distribution patterns of range shifting tropical and subtropical fishes, comparing this with resident temperate fish species within western Japan (Tosa Bay; the abundance, diversity, size class, functional structure and latitudinal range of reef fishes utilizing both coral reef and adjacent rocky reef habitat were quantified over a 2 year period (2008-2010. This region has undergone rapid poleward expansion of reef-building corals in response to increasing coastal water temperatures, and forms one of the global hotspots for rapid coastal changes. Despite the temperate latitude surveyed (33°N, 133°E the fish assemblage was both numerically, and in terms of richness, dominated by tropical fishes. Such tropical faunal dominance was apparent within both coral, and rocky reef habitats. The size structure of the assemblage suggested that a relatively large number of tropical species are overwintering within both coral and rocky habitats, with a subset of these species being potentially reproductively active. The relatively high abundance and richness of tropical species with obligate associations with live coral resources (i.e., obligate corallivores shows that this region holds the most well developed temperate-located tropical fish fauna globally. We argue that future tropicalisation of the fish fauna in western Japan, associated with increasing coral habitat development and reported increasing shifts in coastal water temperatures, may have considerable

  10. Tropical fishes dominate temperate reef fish communities within western Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yohei; Feary, David A; Kanda, Masaru; Yamaoka, Kosaku

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is resulting in rapid poleward shifts in the geographical distribution of tropical and subtropical fish species. We can expect that such range shifts are likely to be limited by species-specific resource requirements, with temperate rocky reefs potentially lacking a range of settlement substrates or specific dietary components important in structuring the settlement and success of tropical and subtropical fish species. We examined the importance of resource use in structuring the distribution patterns of range shifting tropical and subtropical fishes, comparing this with resident temperate fish species within western Japan (Tosa Bay); the abundance, diversity, size class, functional structure and latitudinal range of reef fishes utilizing both coral reef and adjacent rocky reef habitat were quantified over a 2 year period (2008-2010). This region has undergone rapid poleward expansion of reef-building corals in response to increasing coastal water temperatures, and forms one of the global hotspots for rapid coastal changes. Despite the temperate latitude surveyed (33°N, 133°E) the fish assemblage was both numerically, and in terms of richness, dominated by tropical fishes. Such tropical faunal dominance was apparent within both coral, and rocky reef habitats. The size structure of the assemblage suggested that a relatively large number of tropical species are overwintering within both coral and rocky habitats, with a subset of these species being potentially reproductively active. The relatively high abundance and richness of tropical species with obligate associations with live coral resources (i.e., obligate corallivores) shows that this region holds the most well developed temperate-located tropical fish fauna globally. We argue that future tropicalisation of the fish fauna in western Japan, associated with increasing coral habitat development and reported increasing shifts in coastal water temperatures, may have considerable positive economic

  11. A Review on Correlations between Fish Freshness and pH during Cold Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Abbas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshness of fish in most markets was found to be the significant quality parameter. The state of fish freshness was assessed by various methods but most of them were costly, time-consuming and not user friendly tools which made the development of simple, easy, undemanding and reliable system for the evaluation of fish freshness unresolved goal. The findings of many researchers revealed that there was remarkable correlation between the pH and the fish freshness which suggested that this physical characteristic could be used as suitable tool for the analysis and fish freshness evaluation rather than sensory evaluation method which inherent many uncertainties. Based on this demand, this paper was established with the objective of reviewing the literature which focused on the pH as one of the simple and reliable freshness indicator for cold stored fish samples.

  12. Perceived importance of sustainability and ethics related to fish: a consumer behavior perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Wim; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Sioen, Isabelle; Van Camp, John; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2007-11-01

    Although sustainability and ethics are of increasing public importance, little research has been conducted to reveal its association with fish consumer behavior. Cross-sectional data were collected through a postal self-administered survey (June 2005) from a sample of 381 Flemish women aged 20-50 years. Consumers attach high perceived importance to sustainability and ethics related to fish. However, this perceived importance is neither correlated with fish consumption frequency nor with general attitude toward eating fish. Refusing to eat wild fish is grounded in sustainability and ethical concerns, whereas the decision not to eat farmed fish is associated with a lower expected intrinsic quality rather than shaped by importance attached to sustainability and ethical issues.

  13. Ecology of North Sea fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daan, N.; Bromley, P. J.; Hislop, J. R. G.; Nielsen, N. A.

    Fishes of the North Sea include over 200 species exhibiting widely differing ecological characteristics. There is a wealth of literature and, in this paper, we have restricted ourselves to providing generalized data on the more abundant species, with a view of highlighting those aspects which link the total fish community to the biotic and abiotic environment. There is necessarily a bias towards commercial species, because most of the pertinent information is related specifically to fish which are heavily fished. However, since there are few abundant species which are not exploited, the ecological links of the total fish community to other components of the system are well represented by the selection. Moreover, exploitation of the fish community may have indirectly affected the ecological relationships in the entire system. It follows that an understandinf of the impact of fisheries on the fish community is likely to play a key role in helping us to understand how the North Sea ecosystem functions. The paper highlights various ecological aspects of the fish fauna including population dynamics, spawning in time and space, distribution, variations in year class strength, feeding, density-dependent growth and changes in species composition. Despite long time series of quantitative biological information for individual species and the obvious impact of fisheries on longevity and productivity of the fish community, the general conclusion is that it remains very difficult to separate effects of fisheries and of the environment on reproductive success, in which the variation is the most important destabilizing factor in the regulation of exploited fish populations. Another conclusion is that the spatial heterogeneity of the fish community in the North Sea is a factor of considerable concern in trying to link fish production to other components. It would seem likely that, to improve our understanding of the ecological linkages in the entire system, the spatial differences

  14. The Fresh-water Fishes of Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfred, E.R.

    1966-01-01

    CONTENTS Page Introduction 5 Materials................... 6 The environment................. 7 Ichthyological literature of Singapore........... 9 Aquarium fishes................. io Pond culture fishes................ n Introduced species................. 12 Acknowledgements................ 13 Syst

  15. The Rise of Jaw Protrusion in Spiny-Rayed Fishes Closes the Gap on Elusive Prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellwood, David R; Goatley, Christopher H R; Bellwood, Orpha; Delbarre, Daniel J; Friedman, Matt

    2015-10-19

    Jaw protrusion is one of the most important innovations in vertebrate feeding over the last 400 million years [1, 2]. Protrusion enables a fish to rapidly decrease the distance between itself and its prey [2, 3]. We assessed the evolution and functional implications of jaw protrusion in teleost fish assemblages from shallow coastal seas since the Cretaceous. By examining extant teleost fishes, we identified a robust morphological predictor of jaw protrusion that enabled us to predict the extent of jaw protrusion in fossil fishes. Our analyses revealed increases in both average and maximum jaw protrusion over the last 100 million years, with a progressive increase in the potential impact of fish predation on elusive prey. Over this period, the increase in jaw protrusion was initially driven by a taxonomic restructuring of fish assemblages, with an increase in the proportion of spiny-rayed fishes (Acanthomorpha), followed by an increase in the extent of protrusion within this clade. By increasing the ability of fishes to catch elusive prey [2, 4], jaw protrusion is likely to have fundamentally changed the nature of predator-prey interactions and may have contributed to the success of the spiny-rayed fishes, the dominant fish clade in modern oceans [5].

  16. Genomic comparison of virulent and non-virulent Streptococcus agalactiae in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannoy, C M J; Zadoks, R N; Crumlish, M; Rodgers, D; Lainson, F A; Ferguson, H W; Turnbull, J; Fontaine, M C

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae infections in fish are predominantly caused by beta-haemolytic strains of clonal complex (CC) 7, notably its namesake sequence type (ST) 7, or by non-haemolytic strains of CC552, including the globally distributed ST260. In contrast, CC23, including its namesake ST23, has been associated with a wide homeothermic and poikilothermic host range, but never with fish. The aim of this study was to determine whether ST23 is virulent in fish and to identify genomic markers of fish adaptation of S. agalactiae. Intraperitoneal challenge of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus), showed that ST260 is lethal at doses down to 10(2) cfu per fish, whereas ST23 does not cause disease at 10(7) cfu per fish. Comparison of the genome sequence of ST260 and ST23 with those of strains derived from fish, cattle and humans revealed the presence of genomic elements that are unique to subpopulations of S. agalactiae that have the ability to infect fish (CC7 and CC552). These loci occurred in clusters exhibiting typical signatures of mobile genetic elements. PCR-based screening of a collection of isolates from multiple host species confirmed the association of selected genes with fish-derived strains. Several fish-associated genes encode proteins that potentially provide fitness in the aquatic environment.

  17. Study on fish life history traits and variation in the Taiwan Strait and its adjacent waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Wenjia; YE Guanqiong; LU Zhenbin; DU Jianguo; CHEN Mingru; CHOU Loke Ming; YANG Shengyun

    2015-01-01

    Large portions of the world’s fishery resources are overexploited. Life history traits of fish species are important indicators to reveal different life history strategies and to indicate population responses to fishing pressures. For this study, empirical data on fishing grounds located in the coastal area between Fujian Coast and Taiwan Island were collected. These areas have experienced severe overfishing in the past 30 years, leading to changes in the structure and function of the fish communities. Fifty-one commercial fish species in this fishing ground were selected to study the life history traits. Using the life history traits, all the species were grouped into five different life history strategies by principle component analysis. More than 60%of the species were categorized in Group 5 that was similar to r-strategists. Twenty-five commercial species were selected for further analysis of changes in life history variables, and to discuss the population responses to exploitation. Results showed that most of the species appeared to become smaller size, shorter life, earlier maturation and faster growing under long-term exploitation. The exploitation rate of each species was also calculated to further discuss the impacts of fishing pressures to fish populations. Four species were found with the severest changes on life history traits indicating some of the species might be more susceptible to exploitation. This study on fish life history traits and their long-term variations under fishing pressures could provide important scientific implications for fishery management and conservation.

  18. Simulated recalls of fish products in five Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrup, Maria; Storøy, J.; Lievonen, S.;

    2008-01-01

    traceable step of the raw material vary considerably. However, the existing traceable information seemed to be easily accessible. Altogether, the fish industry in the Nordic countries seems not to be fully prepared for a recall.. Improved traceability awareness and practices in the whole chain can limit......Simulated recalls of fish products sampled in retailer shops were conducted in five Nordic countries to indicate the effectiveness and accuracy of chain traceability systems. The results suggested poor traceability practices at the vessels/auctions and revealed that batch sizes at the last...

  19. Does copepod size determine food consumption of particulate feeding fish?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deurs, Mikael van; Koski, Marja; Rindorf, Anna

    2014-01-01

    on adult particulate feeding fish is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that the availability of the large copepods determines food consumption and growth conditions of lesser sandeel (Ammodytes marinus) in the North Sea. Analysis of stomach content suggested that food...... consumption is higher for fish feeding on large copepods, and additional calculations revealed how handling time limitation may provide part of the explanation for this relationship. Comparing stomach data and zooplankton samples indicated that lesser sandeel actively target large copepods when...

  20. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, pelagic, benthic, and estuarine fish species in Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Vector...

  1. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea...

  2. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species for Long Island, New York. Vector polygons...

  3. Multisensor for fish quality determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsdottir, G.; Nesvadba, P.; Di Natale, C.

    2004-01-01

    The European fish industry is still reluctant to implement methods other than sensory to monitor freshness and quality of fish products, although general concensus exists about the importance of various quality attributes and the need for methods to monitor quality. The objective of the project...... FAIR CT98-4076 (MUSTEC) was to evaluate several physico-chemical techniques and to integrate their outputs into a more robust estimate of the freshness quality of fish. The techniques used for this multisensor approach were based on visible light spectroscopy, electrical properties, image analysis...

  4. Who cares about fish welfare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellingsen, Kristian; Grimsrud, Kristine; Nielsen, Hanne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is threefold: first, to assess how concerned Norwegians are about fish welfare; second, to investigate Norwegians’ willingness to pay for salmon filet made from welfare-assured farmed fish with high levels of welfare; and third, to examine Norwegian opinions ab...... concern about animal welfare is growing in the western world, very little attention has been given to the welfare of fish. This paper aims to make up for this by presenting a study of how Norwegians view the welfare of farmed salmon....

  5. Selectivity of fish ladders: a bottleneck in Neotropical fish movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sérgio Agostinho

    Full Text Available Although dozens of fish ladders have been constructed at dams of Brazilian reservoirs, there are few studies evaluating their efficiency as a tool for the conservation of Neotropical ichthyofauna, especially for migratory species. Therefore, the present study evaluated the selectivity of the species that entered and ascended the fish ladder located next to Lajeado Dam (Luis Eduardo Magalhães Hydroelectric Power Plant on the Tocantins River. Samples were taken monthly from November, 2002 through October, 2003, in the resting pools of the ladder, using cast nets, and in the downstream stretch, using gillnets. The selectivity of the ladder in attracting fish was evaluated by comparing the occurrence, relative abundance, dominance and the congruence of abundance ranks of migratory and non-migratory species in the ladder and in the stretch of river immediately downstream. Species richness and fish abundance in the resting pools were used to evaluate selectivity along the ladder. The effects on selectivity by temporal variations in water level downriver and maximum flow velocity in the fish ladder were also analyzed. Out of the 130 species recorded downriver, 62.3% were caught in the ladder, and migratory species were clearly favored. However, more than 2/3 of the catch belonged to only three species (Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Psectrogaster amazonica and Oxydoras niger. Although the majority of the species that entered the ladder were able to reach its top, there was a sharp reduction in abundance of individuals towards the top. Temporal variations in the water level below the dam influenced richness and abundance of fish concentrated downstream and in the ladder, with lower values during periods of low water. In the ladder, a maximum flow velocity of 2.3 m/s, although also selective, proved to be more appropriate for fish ascension than a velocity of 2.8 m/s. It was concluded that the entry and ascension of the fish in the ladder were not congruent with

  6. Real-Time Fish Observation and Fish Category Database Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Pang Lin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a distributed real-time video stream system for underwater fish observation in the real world. The system, based on a three-tier architecture, includes capture devices unit, stream processor unit, and display devices unit. It supports variety of capture source devices, such as HDV, DV, WebCam, TV Card, Capture Card, and video compression formats, such as WMV, FLV/SWF, MJPEG, MPEG-2/4. The system has been demonstrated in Taiwan for long-term underwater fish observation. CCTV cameras and high-definition cameras are deployed on our system. Video compression methods and image processing methods are implemented to reduce network transfer flow and data storage space. Marine ecologists and end users can browse these real-time video streams via the Internet to understand the ecological changes immediately. These video data is preserved to form a resource base for marine ecologists. Based on the video data, fish detection is implemented. However, it is complicated in the unconstrained underwater environment, due to the water flow causes the water plants sway severely. In this paper, a bounding-surrounding boxes method is proposed to overcome the problem. It efficiently classifies moving fish as the foreground objects and the swaying water plants as the background objects. It enables to remove the irrelevant information (without fish to reduce the massive amount of video data. Moreover, fish tracking is implemented to acquire multiple species of fish images with varied angles, sizes, shapes, and illumination to construct a fish category database.

  7. Interaction between fish spoilage bacteria Pseudomonas sp and Shewanella putrefaciens in fish extracts and on fish tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Melchiorsen, Jette

    1996-01-01

    The interaction between fish spoilage bacteria, Pseudomonas sp. and Shewanella putrefaciens, was investigated using fish extract and fish tissue as model systems. Isolates of Pseudomonas that produced iron chelators, siderophores, inhibited growth of S. putrefaciens in a fish-extract-agar diffusion...

  8. 78 FR 53156 - Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council; Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council; Teleconference AGENCY: Fish... Wildlife Service (Service), announce a public teleconference of the Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership.... App., we announce that Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council will hold a...

  9. Massachusetts Recreational Fishing Demand Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stated preference choice experiment data were collected in 2012 from Massachuestts saltwater recreational fishermen. Saltwater anglers fishing in Massachusetts (MA)...

  10. Hawaii ESI: FISHPT (Fish Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for native stream and anchialine pool fish species in coastal Hawaii. (Anchialine pools are small,...

  11. AKRO: Guided Angler Fish Landings

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Beginning in 2014, the the halibut Catch Sharing Plan (CSP) authorizes annual transfers of commercial halibut IFQ as guided angler fish (GAF) to charter halibut...

  12. AFSC: Various fish maturity studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Knowledge of the reproductive biology of fish and crab stocks is critical to stock assessment estimates of the reproductive potential (typically measured as spawning...

  13. DNA vaccines for aquacultured fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; LaPatra, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    in various animal species as well as in humans, the vaccines against rhabdovirus diseases in fish have given some of the most promising results. A single intramuscular (IM) injection of microgram amounts of DNA induces rapid and long-lasting protection in farmed salmonids against economically important...... viruses such as infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). DNA vaccines against other types of fish pathogens, however, have so far had limited success. The most efficient delivery route at present is IM injection, and suitable delivery strategies...... for mass vaccination of small fish have yet to be developed. In terms of safety, no adverse effects in the vaccinated fish have been observed to date. As DNA vaccination is a relatively new technology, various theoretical and long-term safety issues related to the environment and the consumer remain...

  14. DNA vaccines for aquacultured fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; LaPatra, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    of licensing and public acceptance of the technology. The potential benefits of DNA vaccines for farmed fish include improved animal welfare, reduced environmental impacts of aquaculture activities, increased food quality and quantity, and more sustainable production. Testing under commercial production...

  15. Final Report : Anadromous Fish Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A creel census was conducted during the 1981 Russian River sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), sport fishery to determine harvest and angler participation....

  16. Effects of herbicides on fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Keith R.; Dalhoff, Kristoffer; Volz, David

    2013-01-01

    Herbicides are used to control weeds and are usually targeted to processes and target sites that are specific to plants. As a result, most herbicides are not acutely toxic to fish. Exceptions to this general rule are uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation and some herbicides that interfere...... have been observed in fish exposed to herbicides, these have either been observed at large concentrations that would be rarely found in surface waters inhabited by fish or, as in the case of behavior and olfaction, have not been linked to ecologically relevant responses on survival, growth, development......, and reproduction. As with all pesticides, herbicides may have indirect effects in fish. These effects are mediated by herbicide-induced changes in food webs or in the physical environment. Indirect effects can only occur if direct effects occur first and would be mediated by the killing of plants by herbicides...

  17. Allergens from fish and egg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Hansen, T K; Nørgaard, A

    2001-01-01

    Allergens from fish and egg belong to some of the most frequent causes of food allergic reactions reported in the literature. Egg allergens have been described in both white and yolk, and the egg white proteins ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme have been adopted in the allergen...... nomenclature as Gal d1-d4. The most reported allergen from egg yolk seems to be alpha-livitin. In fish, the dominating allergen is the homologues of Gad c1 from cod, formerly described as protein M. A close cross-reactivity exists within different species of fish between this calcium-binding protein family......, denominated the parvalbumins. This cross-reactivity has been indicated to be of clinical relevance for several species, since patients with a positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge to cod will also react with other fish species, such as herring, plaice and mackerel. In spite...

  18. Stochastic stomach theory of fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Fish stomach dynamics is discussed and introduced analytically by a simple individually-based stomach model for total stomach content. The predator encounters food (meals) in a Poisson process, starting to search for a new meal when the stomach is empty. Basic equations for the frequency distribu......Fish stomach dynamics is discussed and introduced analytically by a simple individually-based stomach model for total stomach content. The predator encounters food (meals) in a Poisson process, starting to search for a new meal when the stomach is empty. Basic equations for the frequency...... evacuation. The average rate of food consumption and the functional response are derived from simple renewal theory and from obtaining the average of the gastric evacuation rates. Effects of meal size biased stomach sampling are introduced. As a primer on modelling the stomach content of piscivorous fish...... and direction for further developments of fish stomach theory are discussed. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  19. Tortugas Reef Fish Census (CRCP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a long term data set collecting visual census transect data on reef fishes at staions located at Rileys Hump, Tortugas South Ecological Reservee.

  20. Statistical modelling of fish stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Trine

    1999-01-01

    for modelling the dynamics of a fish population is suggested. A new approach is introduced to analyse the sources of variation in age composition data, which is one of the most important sources of information in the cohort based models for estimation of stock abundancies and mortalities. The approach combines...... and it is argued that an approach utilising stochastic differential equations might be advantagous in fish stoch assessments....

  1. Fish consumption pattern among adults of different ethnics in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nurul Izzah; Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Tengku Mohamad, Tengku Rozaina; Ling, Cheong Yoon; Daud, Siti Fatimah; Hussein, Nasriyah Che; Abdullah, Nor Aini; Shaharudin, Rafiza; Sulaiman, Lokman Hakim

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component for risk assessment of contaminants in fish. A few studies on food consumption had been conducted in Malaysia, but none of them focused specifically on fish consumption. The objectives of this study were to document the meal pattern among three major ethnics in Malaysia with respect to fish/seafood consumption, identify most frequently consumed fish and cooking method, and examine the influence of demographic factors on pattern of fish consumption among study subjects. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted between February 2008 and May 2009 to investigate patterns of fish consumption among Malaysian adults in Peninsular Malaysia. Adults aged 18 years and above were randomly selected and fish consumption data were collected using a 3-day prospective food diary. Results A total of 2,675 subjects, comprising male (44.2%) and female (55.7%) participants from major ethnics (Malays, 76.9%; Chinese, 14.7%; Indians, 8.3%) with a mean age of 43.4±16.2 years, were involved in this study. The results revealed 10 most frequently consumed marine fish in descending order: Indian mackerel, anchovy, yellowtail and yellow-stripe scads, tuna, sardines, torpedo scad, Indian and short-fin scads, pomfret, red snapper, and king mackerel. Prawn and squid were also among the most preferred seafood by study subjects. The most frequently consumed freshwater fish were freshwater catfish and snakehead. The most preferred cooking style by Malaysians was deep-fried fish, followed by fish cooked in thick and/or thin chili gravy, fish curry, and fish cooked with coconut milk mixed with other spices and flavorings. Overall, Malaysians consumed 168 g/day fish, with Malay ethnics’ (175±143 g/day) consumption of fish significantly (p<0.001) higher compared with the other two ethnic groups (Chinese=152±133 g/day, Indians=136±141 g/day). Conclusion Fish consumption was significantly associated with

  2. Fish consumption pattern among adults of different ethnics in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Izzah Ahmad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component for risk assessment of contaminants in fish. A few studies on food consumption had been conducted in Malaysia, but none of them focused specifically on fish consumption. The objectives of this study were to document the meal pattern among three major ethnics in Malaysia with respect to fish/seafood consumption, identify most frequently consumed fish and cooking method, and examine the influence of demographic factors on pattern of fish consumption among study subjects. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between February 2008 and May 2009 to investigate patterns of fish consumption among Malaysian adults in Peninsular Malaysia. Adults aged 18 years and above were randomly selected and fish consumption data were collected using a 3-day prospective food diary. Results: A total of 2,675 subjects, comprising male (44.2% and female (55.7% participants from major ethnics (Malays, 76.9%; Chinese, 14.7%; Indians, 8.3% with a mean age of 43.4±16.2 years, were involved in this study. The results revealed 10 most frequently consumed marine fish in descending order: Indian mackerel, anchovy, yellowtail and yellow-stripe scads, tuna, sardines, torpedo scad, Indian and short-fin scads, pomfret, red snapper, and king mackerel. Prawn and squid were also among the most preferred seafood by study subjects. The most frequently consumed freshwater fish were freshwater catfish and snakehead. The most preferred cooking style by Malaysians was deep-fried fish, followed by fish cooked in thick and/or thin chili gravy, fish curry, and fish cooked with coconut milk mixed with other spices and flavorings. Overall, Malaysians consumed 168 g/day fish, with Malay ethnics’ (175±143 g/day consumption of fish significantly (p<0.001 higher compared with the other two ethnic groups (Chinese=152±133 g/day, Indians=136±141 g/day. Conclusion: Fish consumption was

  3. Chlorophycean parasite on a marine fish, Sillago japonica (Japanese sillago).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Kazuhiko; Akai, Noriko; Liao, Lawrence M; Ikeda, Shota; Yoshimatsu, Sadaaki

    2013-12-01

    A green spotted Japanese sillago (Sillago japonica) was caught by a fisherman and brought to the laboratory for pathological inspection. The green spots were abundant on the lateral line and more extensively so within the mouth cavity. In both sites, green spots were embedded within the fish flesh and formed 2-3mm dome-shaped colonies. SEM revealed these colonies to harbor numerous unknown cells with small, surface warts (ornamentations). Molecular analysis showed the cells were Desmodesmus (D. komarekii), a common freshwater coccoid green alga found in ponds and rivers worldwide. It is uncertain how the host fish came to be infected with the alga which was not merely attached externally but embedded within the flesh and inside the mouth cavity. This is the first case of parasitic form of coccoid green algae in marine fish and provides new insights into the variable nature of green algae.

  4. Genetic diversity of geographically distinct Streptococcus dysgalactiae isolates from fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdelsalam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus dysgalactiae is an emerging pathogen of fish. Clinically, infection is characterized by the development of necrotic lesions at the caudal peduncle of infected fishes. The pathogen has been recently isolated from different fish species in many countries. Twenty S. dysgalactiae isolates collected from Japan, Taiwan, Malaysia and Indonesia were molecularly characterized by biased sinusoidal field gel electrophoresis (BSFGE using SmaI enzyme, and tuf gene sequencing analysis. DNA sequencing of ten S. dysgalactiae revealed no genetic variation in the tuf amplicons, except for three strains. The restriction patterns of chromosomal DNA measured by BSFGE were differentiated into six distinct types and one subtype among collected strains. To our knowledge, this report gives the first snapshot of S. dysgalactiae isolates collected from different countries that are localized geographically and differed on a multinational level. This genetic unrelatedness among different isolates might suggest a high recombination rate and low genetic stability.

  5. Mandarin Fish and Fine Fried Noodles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Ingredients: one mandarin fish, shredded scallion and ginger, cooking wine, ground pepper, corn starch, salt and flour. Direction: 1. Scale and clean the fish. Remove the skin and bones. Cut the fish meat into slivers. Add shredded scallion and ginger, cooking wine, ground pepper and salt to the fish

  6. Undulatory fish swimming : from muscles to flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, U.K.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2006-01-01

    Undulatory swimming is employed by many fish for routine swimming and extended sprints. In this biomechanical review, we address two questions: (i) how the fish's axial muscles power swimming; and (ii) how the fish's body and fins generate thrust. Fish have adapted the morphology of their axial musc

  7. Vaccines for fish in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerset, Ingunn; Krossøy, Bjørn; Biering, Eirik; Frost, Petter

    2005-02-01

    Vaccination plays an important role in large-scale commercial fish farming and has been a key reason for the success of salmon cultivation. In addition to salmon and trout, commercial vaccines are available for channel catfish, European seabass and seabream, Japanese amberjack and yellowtail, tilapia and Atlantic cod. In general, empirically developed vaccines based on inactivated bacterial pathogens have proven to be very efficacious in fish. Fewer commercially available viral vaccines and no parasite vaccines exist. Substantial efficacy data are available for new fish vaccines and advanced technology has been implemented. However, before such vaccines can be successfully commercialized, several hurdles have to be overcome regarding the production of cheap but effective antigens and adjuvants, while bearing in mind environmental and associated regulatory concerns (e.g., those that limit the use of live vaccines). Pharmaceutical companies have performed a considerable amount of research on fish vaccines, however, limited information is available in scientific publications. In addition, salmonids dominate both the literature and commercial focus, despite their relatively small contribution to the total volume of farmed fish in the world. This review provides an overview of the fish vaccines that are currently commercially available and some viewpoints on how the field is likely to evolve in the near future.

  8. BACTERIAL DESEASES IN SEA FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivančica Strunjak-Perović

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available With development of the fish culturing in the sea, the interest in their health also increased. The reason for this are diseases or rather mortality that occur in such controlled cultures and cause great economic losses. By growing large quantities of fish in rather small species, natural conditions are changed, so fish is more sensitive and prone to infection agents (viruses, bacteria, parasites. Besides, a large fish density in the cultural process accelerates spreading if the diseases, but also enables a better perception of them. In wild populations sick specimen very quickly become predator’s prey, witch makes it difficult to note any pathological changes in such fish. There are lots of articles on viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases nowdays, but this work deals exclusively with bacterial deseases that occur in the controlled sea cultures (vibriosis, furunculosis, pastherelosis, nocardiosis, mycobaceriosis, edwardsielosis, yersiniosis, deseases caused by bacteria of genera Flexibacter, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Streptococus and bacteria nephryithis. Yet, the knowledge of these deseases vary, depending on wether a fish species is being cultured for a longer period of time or is only being introduced in the controlled culture.

  9. Nano-encapsulation of fish oil in nano-liposomes and its application in fortification of yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanzade, Tahere; Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Akhavan, Sahar; Hadavi, Roxana

    2017-02-01

    Fish oils have many dietary benefits, but due to their strong odors and rapid deterioration, their application in food formulations is limited. For these reasons, nano-liposome was used to nano-encapsulate fish oil in this study and encapsulated fish oil was utilized in fortifying yogurt. Physicochemical properties of produced yogurt including pH, acidity, syneresis, fatty acid composition, peroxide value as well as sensory tests were investigated during three weeks storage at 4°C. Nano-liposome encapsulation resulted in a significant reduction in acidity, syneresis and peroxide value. The results of gas chromatography analyses revealed that after 21days storage, yogurt fortified with nano-encapsulated fish oil had a higher DHA and EPA contents than yogurt containing free fish oil. Overall, the results of this study indicates that adding nano-encapsulated fish oil into yogurt gave closer characteristics to control sample in terms of sensory characteristics than yogurt fortified with free fish oil.

  10. Effects of acid rock drainage on stocked rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): an in-situ, caged fish experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Andrew S; McKnight, Diane M; Jaros, Chris L; Marchitto, Thomas M

    2007-07-01

    In-situ caged rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) studies reveal significant fish toxicity and fish stress in a river impacted by headwater acid rock drainage (ARD). Stocked trout survival and aqueous water chemistry were monitored for 10 days at 3 study sites in the Snake River watershed, Colorado, U.S.A. Trout mortality was positively correlated with concentrations of metals calculated to be approaching or exceeding conservative toxicity thresholds (Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd). Significant metal accumulation on the gills of fish stocked at ARD impacted study sites support an association between elevated metals and fish mortality. Observations of feeding behavior and significant differences in fish relative weights between study site and feeding treatment indicate feeding and metals-related fish stress. Together, these results demonstrate the utility of in-situ exposure studies for stream stakeholders in quantifying the relative role of aqueous contaminant exposures in limiting stocked fish survival.

  11. The fishes of Genome 10K

    KAUST Repository

    Bernardi, Giacomo

    2012-09-01

    The Genome 10K project aims to sequence the genomes of 10,000 vertebrates, representing approximately one genome for each vertebrate genus. Since fishes (cartilaginous fishes, ray-finned fishes and lobe-finned fishes) represent more than 50% of extant vertebrates, it is planned to target 4,000 fish genomes. At present, nearly 60 fish genomes are being sequenced at various public funded labs, and under a Genome 10K and BGI pilot project. An additional 100 fishes have been identified for sequencing in the next phase of Genome 10K project. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Fish and mussels: importance of fish for freshwater mussel conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Sousa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Co-extinctions have received trivial consideration in discussions about the global conservation crisis, even though recent studies have emphasised their importance. This situation is even more pronounced in freshwater ecosystems where this phenomenon is largely unrecognized. In this presentation we explore the role of fish for freshwater mussels’ conservation. Freshwater mussels’ need fish as a host to complete their life cycle and given this premise is expected that changes in the fish community due to species extinctions or additions may have great effects. We reviewed the published information and we found: 1 that most of the studies were published in the last few years; 2 that most of the studies were performed in North America (69%, which is probably due to the high number of endemic threatened species in this continent; 3 that most of the mussel species that are specialists in fish hosting are listed as vulnerable or endangered (55%; 4 most studies were performed in laboratory (83% and 5 that the majority of studies were focused on life cycle or on identifying suitable fish hosts of freshwater mussel species with few studies focusing on threats. Since the interaction between fish and freshwater mussels can be easily disrupted and serious threats to this interaction have arisen (e.g. loss and fragmentation of habitat, changes in river flow, climate change, introduction of invasive species, pollution a more holistic approach is needed to find the best management strategies to conserve these animals. In addition, more field studies are required and more information on African, South American and Asian species is essential. Neglect the possible fundamental role of fish in the decline or extinction of freshwater mussels may impair the success of any measure devoted to their conservation; therefore, this issue cannot be ignored.

  13. 21 CFR 102.45 - Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.45 Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as fish sticks...

  14. Exploring novel hormones essential for seawater adaptation in teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Yoshio

    2008-05-15

    Marine fish are dehydrated in hyperosmotic seawater (SW), but maintain water balance by drinking surrounding SW if they are capable of excreting the excess ions, particularly Na(+) and Cl(-), absorbed with water by the intestine. An integrative approach is essential for understanding the mechanisms for SW adaptation, in which hormones play pivotal roles. Comparative genomic analyses have shown that hormones that have Na(+)-extruding and vasodepressor properties are greatly diversified in teleost fish. Physiological studies at molecular to organismal levels have revealed that these diversified hormones are much more potent and efficacious in teleost fish than in mammals and are important for survival in SW and for maintenance of low arterial pressure in a gravity-free aquatic environment. This is typified by the natriuretic peptide (NP) family, which is diversified into seven members (ANP, BNP, VNP and CNP1, 2, 3 and 4) and exerts potent hyponatremic and vasodepressor actions in marine fish. Another example is the guanylin family, which consists of three paralogs (guanylin, uroguanylin and renoguanylin), and stimulates Cl(-) secretion into the intestinal lumen and activates the absorptive-type Na-K-2Cl cotransporter by local luminocrine actions. The most recent addition is the adrenomedullin (AM) family, which has five members (AM1, 2, 3, 4 and 5), with AM2 and AM5 showing the most potent or efficacious vasodepressor and osmoregulatory effects among known hormones in teleost fish. Accumulating evidence strongly indicates that members of these diversified hormone families play essential roles in SW adaptation in teleost fish. In this short review, the author has attempted to propose a novel approach for identification of new hormones that are important for SW adaptation using comparative genomic and functional studies. The author has also suggested potential hormone families that are diversified in teleost fish and appear to be involved in SW adaptation through their

  15. Ammonia production, excretion, toxicity, and defense in fish: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Y K Ip

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many fishes are ammonotelic but some species can detoxify ammonia to glutamine or urea. Certain fish species can accumulate high levels of ammonia in the brain or defense against ammonia toxicity by enhancing the effectiveness of ammonia excretion through active NH4+ transport, manipulation of ambient pH, or reduction in ammonia permeability through the branchial and cutaneous epithelia. Recent reports on ammonia toxicity in mammalian brain reveal the importance of permeation of ammonia through the blood-brain barrier and passages of ammonia and water through transporters in the plasmalemma of brain cells. Additionally, brain ammonia toxicity could be related to the passage of glutamine through the mitochondrial membranes into the mitochondrial matrix. On the other hand, recent reports on ammonia excretion in fish confirm the involvement of Rhesus glycoproteins in the branchial and cutaneous epithelia. Therefore, this review focuses on both the earlier literature and the up-to-date information on the problems and mechanisms concerning the permeation of ammonia, as NH3, NH4+ or proton-neutral nitrogenous compounds, across mitochondrial membranes, the blood-brain barrier, the plasmalemma of neurons, and the branchial and cutaneous epithelia of fish. It also addresses how certain fishes with high ammonia tolerance defend against ammonia toxicity through the regulation of the permeation of ammonia and related nitrogenous compounds through various types of membranes. It is hoped that this review would revive the interests in investigations on the passage of ammonia through the mitochondrial membranes and the blood-brain barrier of ammonotelic fishes and fishes with high brain ammonia-tolerance, respectively.

  16. Fish community and bioassessment responses to stream network position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, N.P.; Angermeier, P.L.

    2011-01-01

    If organisms move beyond the boundaries of local sampling units, regional metacommunity dynamics could undermine the ability of bioassessment studies to characterize local environmental quality. We tested the prediction that fish dispersal influences local fish community structure and bioassessment metrics as a function of site position within stream networks. We evaluated fish community data from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Regional Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program in West Virginia, USA, to compare the influences of stream network position, ecoregion, basin, and stream size on local fish community composition. We assigned sites to 1 of 3 stream network positions: 1) main channels (MC, n  =  12) encompassed streams with upstream catchment areas >200 km2, 2) mainstem tributaries (MT, n  =  43) flowed into MC-sized confluences within 15 fluvial km, 3) headwater tributaries (HT, n  =  31) lacked such riverine confluences within 15 fluvial km. MT and HT sites had similar upstream catchment sizes and landuse gradients, but species richness was greater in MT sites than HT sites, whereas MT and MC sites were not different in this regard. Three bioassessment metrics were greater in MT sites than HT sites (intolerant species richness, cyprinid species richness, benthic species richness), but a multimetric index of biotic integrity did not differ among stream network positions. Ordinations revealed that fish community composition was organized primarily by zoogeographic basin (Monongahela River basin, New River basin, Ohio River basin), ecoregion (Central Appalachian Plateau, Western Appalachian Plateau, Ridge and Valley), and stream size. Riverine specialists were more abundant in MT than HT sites and were more abundant in basins connected to the Ohio River than in basins isolated from the Ohio River by a large waterfall (New River). Our results suggest that contemporary dispersal among streams influences fish community composition

  17. Parasites of freshwater fishes in North America: why so neglected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Tomáš; Choudhury, Anindo

    2014-02-01

    Fish parasitology has a long tradition in North America and numerous parasitologists have contributed considerably to the current knowledge of the diversity and biology of protistan and metazoan parasites of freshwater fishes. The Journal of Parasitology has been essential in disseminating this knowledge and remains a significant contributor to our understanding of fish parasites in North America as well as more broadly at the international level. However, with a few exceptions, the importance of fish parasites has decreased during the last decades, which is reflected in the considerable decline of funding and corresponding decrease of attention paid to these parasites in Canada and the United States of America. After the 'golden age' in the second half of the 20th Century, fish parasitology in Canada and the United States went in a new direction, driven by technology and a shift in priorities. In contrast, fish parasitology in Mexico has undergone rapid development since the early 1990s, partly due to extensive international collaboration and governmental funding. A critical review of the current data on the parasites of freshwater fishes in North America has revealed considerable gaps in the knowledge of their species composition, host specificity, life cycles, evolution, phylogeography, and relationships with their fish hosts. As to the key question, "Why so neglected?" this is probably because: (1) fish parasites are not in the forefront due to their lesser economic importance; (2) there is little funding for this kind of research, especially if a practical application is not immediately apparent; and (3) of shifting interests and a shortage of key personalities to train a new generation (they switched to marine habitats or other fields). Some of the opportunities for future research are outlined, such as climate change and cryptic species diversity. A significant problem challenging future research seems to be the loss of trained and experienced fish

  18. When Is a Fish Not a Fish? Questions Raised by a Nage Life-Form Category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Forth

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Speakers of a Central-Malayo-Polynesian language, the Nage inhabit the central region of the eastern Indonesian island of Flores. Their folk taxonomy of animals (ana wa contains three named life-form taxa, one of which is ika, fish. A review of component folk-generic taxa, however, reveals that Nage do not classify five kinds of freshwater fish as ‘fish’ (ika, even though they further apply ika to various marine fish (including sharks and rays as well as to marine mammals. The article considers this peculiarity of Nage folk zoological taxonomy, and how it might affect an understanding of ika as denoting a ‘fish’ life-form taxon. The main conclusion is that the five excluded categories—distinguished largely on morphological and behavioural grounds, and  conveniently designated as the ‘tebhu cluster’, after one of their members—are contrasted primarily with freshwater species which Nage do classify as ‘fish’ (ika. Specified by name as ika lowo (‘river fish’, these are further contrasted with another named folk-intermediate taxon of ‘marine fish’ (ika mesi. From this, it is argued that, as a life-form category, ika should be understood as implicitly including the five members of the ‘tebhu cluster’ as a third, albeit covert, folk-intermediate taxon.

  19. Does ketoprofen or diclofenac pose the lowest risk to fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuklev, Filip; Fick, Jerker; Cvijovic, Marija; Kristiansson, Erik; Förlin, Lars; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2012-08-30

    Ketoprofen and diclofenac are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) often used for similar indications, and both are frequently found in surface waters. Diclofenac affects organ histology and gene expression in fish at around 1 μg/L. Here, we exposed rainbow trout to ketoprofen (1, 10 and 100 μg/L) to investigate if this alternative causes less risk for pharmacological responses in fish. The bioconcentration factor from water to fish blood plasma was Ketoprofen only reached up to 0.6 ‰ of the human therapeutic plasma concentration, thus the probability of target-related effects was estimated to be fairly low. Accordingly, a comprehensive analysis of hepatic gene expression revealed no consistent responses. In some contrast, trout exposed to undiluted, treated sewage effluents bioconcentrated ketoprofen and other NSAIDs much more efficiently, according to a meta-analysis of recent studies. Neither of the setups is however an ideal representation of the field situation. If a controlled exposure system with a single chemical in pure water is a reasonable representation of the environment, then the use of ketoprofen is likely to pose a lower risk for wild fish than diclofenac, but if bioconcentration factors from effluent-exposed fish are applied, the risks may be more similar.

  20. Waste composting and proving fish for production the organic fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda San Martins Sanes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The volumes of waste generated in the fishing activity are increasing due to the increase in demand for these products. This implies the need for fast processing and cycling of these materials. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of waste generated in the fishing activity as a source of organic fertilizers in agricultural production systems familiar ecological basis. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Station Cascade / Embrapa Temperate Climate was assessed throughout the composting process and the fermentation of fish waste, identifying the main points that enable the use of these fertilizers in farming systems ecological base. The composting process of rice husk revealed be incomplete during the experiment. The compound prepared with fish waste and exhausted bark of acacia presents itself as a good source of nutrients for crops, which may be suitable as organic fertilizer for production of ecologically-based systems. For liquid organic fertilizer, the conditions under which the experiment was conducted, it is concluded that the compound resulting from aerobic or anaerobic fermentation of fish waste, present themselves as a viable source of nutrients for productive systems of ecological base. However, further studies need to be conducted to better understanding and qualification of both processes.

  1. Biodiversity and adaptive evolution of Antarctic notothenioid fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianghua Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sea surrounding the Antarctic continent is one of the coldest regions in the world. It provides an environmentally unique and isolated “hotbed” for evolution to take place. In the past 30 million years, species of Perciform suborder Notothenioidei evolved and diversified from a benthic and temperate-water ancestor, and now dominate the fish fauna of the coldest ocean. Because of their distribution across temperature zones both inside and outside the Antarctic Polar Front, notothenioid fishes are regarded as excellent model organisms for exploring mechanisms of adaptive evolution, particularly cold adaptation. We first summarize research progress on the biodiversity of Antarctic fish and then review current findings on the peculiar biological characteristics of Antarctic notothenioids that evolved in response to a freezing environment. Research has revealed that extensive gene duplication and transcriptomic changes occurred during the adaptive radiation of notothenioid fish. Examples of highly duplicated genes in the Antarctic lineages include genes encoding hepcidin, and zona pellucida proteins, in addition to various retrotransposable elements. A few genes from Antarctic notothenioid fishes have been used as transgenes and demonstrated to be effective in making transgenic plants cold-hardy. In the coming years, the genomes of some Antarctic notothenioid species will be fully sequenced and the adaptive functions of duplicated genes will be further elucidated. Such studies will deepen our understanding of how genomes evolve in freezing environments, and provide an improved knowledge of molecular mechanisms of cold adaptation.

  2. Maintenance of fish diversity on disturbed coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S. K.; Dolman, A. M.; Cheal, A. J.; Emslie, M. J.; Pratchett, M. S.; Sweatman, H. P. A.

    2009-03-01

    Habitat perturbations play a major role in shaping community structure; however, the elements of disturbance-related habitat change that affect diversity are not always apparent. This study examined the effects of habitat disturbances on species richness of coral reef fish assemblages using annual surveys of habitat and 210 fish species from 10 reefs on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Over a period of 11 years, major disturbances, including localised outbreaks of crown-of-thorns sea star ( Acanthaster planci), severe storms or coral bleaching, resulted in coral decline of 46-96% in all the 10 reefs. Despite declines in coral cover, structural complexity of the reef framework was retained on five and species richness of coral reef fishes maintained on nine of the disturbed reefs. Extensive loss of coral resulted in localised declines of highly specialised coral-dependent species, but this loss of diversity was more than compensated for by increases in the number of species that feed on the epilithic algal matrix (EAM). A unimodal relationship between areal coral cover and species richness indicated species richness was greatest at approximately 20% coral cover declining by 3-4 species (6-8% of average richness) at higher and lower coral cover. Results revealed that declines in coral cover on reefs may have limited short-term impact on the diversity of coral reef fishes, though there may be fundamental changes in the community structure of fishes.

  3. Fabrication of hydroxyapatite from fish bones waste using reflux method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyanto, A.; Kosasih, E.; Aripin, D.; Hasratiningsih, Z.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this present study was to investigate the fabrication of hydroxyapatites, which were synthesized from fish bone wastes using reflux method. The fish bone wastes collected from the restaurant were brushed and boiled at 100°C for 10 minutes to remove debris and fat. After drying, the fish bones were crushed, and ball milled into a fine powder. The fish bone wastes were then processed by refluxing using KOH and H3PO4 solutions. The samples were calcined at 900°C and characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The XRD pattern of samples after treatment revealed that the peak of hydroxyapatite was observed and the bands of OH- and PO4 3- were observed by FT-IR. The scanning electron microscope evaluation of sample showed the entangled crystal and porous structure of hydroxyapatite. In conclusion, the hydroxyapatite was successfully synthesized from fish bone wastes using reflux method.

  4. The use of fish remains in sediments for the reconstruction of paleoproductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drago, T; Santos, A M P; Pinheiro, J [Institute Nacional de Recursos Biologicos (INRB), L-IPIMAR, Av. 5 de Outubro s/n 8700-305 OLHaO (Portugal); Ferreira-Bartrina, V [Centra de Investigacion CientIfica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada- CICESE, Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana, C.P.22860, Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)], E-mail: tdrago@ipimar.pt

    2009-01-01

    The majority of the works concerning fish productivity are based in fish landing records. However, in order to understand the causes of variability in fish productivity (natural and/or anthropogenic) it is essential to have information from periods when human impacts (e.g., fisheries) are considered unimportant. This can be achieved through the use of fish remains, i.e. scales, vertebrae and otoliths, from sediment records. The obtained data can be used to develop time series of fish stocks revealing the history of fish population dynamics over the last centuries or millennia. The majority of these works are located in Eastern Boundary Current Systems (e.g., Benguela, Peru-Humboldt, California), because these are associated with coastal upwelling and high productivity, which in some cases is at the origin of low bottom oxygen levels, leading to scale preservation. A search for fish remains in the Portuguese margin sediments is in progress in the context of the ongoing research project POPEI (High-resolution oceanic paleoproductivity and environmental changes; correlation with fish populations), which intend to fill the gap in studies of this type for the Canary Current System. In this paper we review some general ideas of the use of fish remains, related studies, methodologies and data processing, as well as presenting the first results of POPEI.

  5. Haematological and histopathological analysis in South American fish Piaractus mesopotamicus parasitized by monogenean (Dactylogyridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GT Jerônimo

    Full Text Available Monogeneans are the parasites mostly found on the body surface and gills of fish and can cause large losses in farmed fish. Some studies demonstrate elevated parasitic levels causing hematological alterations. But few of them relate the effects of parasitism on the hematology and histopathology of native freshwater farmed fish. This study evaluated the host-parasite relationship in pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus parasitized by the monogenean Anacanthorus penilabiatus. Hematological and parasitological assessments were obtained in 60 fish captured in a fish farm located in Dourados, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Central Brazil. Fish were analyzed in different categories of parasite number: class I (n=13; 0-200 parasites, class II (n=17; 201-1200 parasites; class III (n=7; 1201-2200 parasites; and class IV (n=23; more than 2200 parasites per host. The highest levels of parasitism caused significant decrease (p<0.05 in the hematocrit, red blood cells (RBC, mean hemoglobin concentration (MCHC and basophils number. Thrombocytes, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, monocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils and LG-PAS did not present significant difference among the parasitic levels. In contrast, increased number of total leukocytes and lymphocytes were found in highly-parasitized fish. A positive linear correlation (p<0.01 was found between the amount of parasites and fish weight. Histopathology revealed severe hyperplasia, sub-epithelial edema, fusion of the secondary lamellae, focal and multifocal necrosis in highly parasitized fish.

  6. Temporal and spatial variations of water qualities and fish fauna distributions in the Kaname river, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, K.; Kitano, T.; Kutsumi, M.; Shimizu, K.

    2011-12-01

    Fish fauna distributions had been studied at many places and they indicated that the fish distributions were dramatically different depending on fish species and local environment such as water temperature, current, sediment parameters. But the relationships between water qualities and fish fauna distribution have not been understood well. In order to find physical and chemical environment factors which relate to the fish fauna distribution, we investigated the temporal and spatial change of water qualities and fish distributions in Kaname river, Japan. We measured both of physical (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Chl-a and turbidity) and chemical (nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, orthophosphoric and suspended solids) water parameters and surveyed the fish distribution. The field observations were conducted seasonally and check the season differences. Observation results showed that Gobiidae and Cyprinidae fishes live in the Kaname river and the distribution was clearly classified with the species. And also chemical water qualities were dramatically different by location. Especially the effects of sewage farms on water qualities were detected. This study will be contributory to reveal the relationships between fish fauna distribution and environmental parameters and it will lead to the ecological preservation.

  7. A Comparative Study of Fish Assemblages Near Aquaculture, Artificial and Natural Habitats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhenhua; CHEN Yong; ZHANG Shouyu; WANG Kai; ZHAO Jing; XU Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Habitat plays a critical role in regulating fish community structure. Using the data collected from a monthly trammel net survey in Ma’an archipelago off the east coast of China, we evaluated impacts of five different habitats (artificial reefs, mussel farms, cage aquaculture, rocky reefs and soft bottom) on fish assemblages. This study suggests that artificial reefs (AR) have significantly higher species richness, abundance and diversity than mussel farms (MF) or soft bottom (SB) habitats during most seasons, and that fish taxa in the AR habitats are similar to those in the rocky reef (RR) habitats. Two different fish assemblage patterns were revealed in the study area using non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination: an assemblage dominated by reef fishes (especially by Scor-paenidae species) in AR, RR and cage aquaculture (CA) habitats and an assemblage dominated by Sciaenidae species in MF and SB habitats. We suggest that reef fishes play a key role in differentiating fish community structures in the study area. Although few dif-ferences in fish abundance and diversity were found between the CA and SB habitats, a more diverse age structure was observed in the CA habitats. A much more complex fish assemblage and enhanced population of local species were established as a result of the presence of both floating and fixed artificial structures, probably through improved survival rates.

  8. A comparative study of fish assemblages near aquaculture, artificial and natural habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenhua; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Shouyu; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Jing; Xu, Qiang

    2015-02-01

    Habitat plays a critical role in regulating fish community structure. Using the data collected from a monthly trammel net survey in Ma'an archipelago off the east coast of China, we evaluated impacts of five different habitats (artificial reefs, mussel farms, cage aquaculture, rocky reefs and soft bottom) on fish assemblages. This study suggests that artificial reefs (AR) have significantly higher species richness, abundance and diversity than mussel farms (MF) or soft bottom (SB) habitats during most seasons, and that fish taxa in the AR habitats are similar to those in the rocky reef (RR) habitats. Two different fish assemblage patterns were revealed in the study area using non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination: an assemblage dominated by reef fishes (especially by Scorpaenidae species) in AR, RR and cage aquaculture (CA) habitats and an assemblage dominated by Sciaenidae species in MF and SB habitats. We suggest that reef fishes play a key role in differentiating fish community structures in the study area. Although few differences in fish abundance and diversity were found between the CA and SB habitats, a more diverse age structure was observed in the CA habitats. A much more complex fish assemblage and enhanced population of local species were established as a result of the presence of both floating and fixed artificial structures, probably through improved survival rates.

  9. Control of Histamine-Producing Bacteria and Histamine Formation in Fish Muscle by Trisodium Phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornsdottir-Butler, Kristin; Green, David P; Bolton, Greg E; McClellan-Green, Patricia D

    2015-06-01

    Scombrotoxin fish poisoning remains the primary cause of seafood poisoning outbreaks despite preventive guidelines. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of pH for the control of growth and histamine formation by histamine-producing bacteria in fish muscle. We examined pH effects on growth and histamine formation in tuna fish infusion broth and in inoculated tuna and mahi-mahi fish muscle. Histamine production was significantly less for all bacterial strains at pH 8.5 compared to pH 5.5 in tuna fish infusion broth with no significant difference in growth. Elevated pH due to phosphate treatment of fish muscle tissues significantly reduced histamine formation with no effect on the growth of histamine-producing bacteria. This study revealed that phosphate treatment of mahi-mahi and tuna fish muscle resulted in significantly lower histamine production over 4 d of storage at 10 °C. Phosphate treatment of fish muscle may serve as a secondary barrier in addition to FDA recommended time and temperature controls for reducing public health concerns of scombrotoxin fish poisoning.

  10. [Rapid ecological assessment of tropical fish communities in a gold mine area of Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza Mendiola, Mario

    2008-12-01

    Gold mining impacts have generated a great concern regarding aquatic systems and habitat fragmentation. Anthropogenic disturbances on the structure and heterogeneity of a system can have an important effect on aquatic community stability. Ecological rapid assessments (1996, 2002, and 2007) were employed to determine the structure, composition and distribution of tropical fish communities in several rivers and smaller creeks from a gold mining area in Cerro Crucitas, Costa Rica. In addition, species composition and relative abundance were related with habitat structure. A total of 35 species were registered, among which sardine Astyanax aeneus (Characidae) and livebearer Alfaro cultratus (Poeciliidae) were the most abundant fish (71%). The highest species richness was observed in Caño Crucitas (s=19) and Minas Creek (s=18). Significant differences in fish communities structure and composition from Infiernillo river and Minas creek were observed (lamda = 0.0, F(132, 66) = 2.24, p fish species and habitat structure was observed. This study reveals a high complexity in tropical fish communities that inhabit a gold mine area. Furthermore, it highlights the importance of habitat heterogeneity in fish community dynamics. The loss and degradation of aquatic systems in Cerro Crucitas can have a strong negative effect on fish community structure and composition of local species. A better understanding of the use of specific habitats that serve as essential fish habitats can improve tropical fish conservation and management strategies, thus increasing local diversity, and thereby, the biological importance of the area.

  11. Multiplex-FISH (M-FISH): technique, developments and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, L

    2006-01-01

    Multiplex FISH (M-FISH) represents one of the most significant developments in molecular cytogenetics of the past decade. Originally designed to generate 24 colour karyotyping, the technique has spawned many variations and an equally diverse range of applications. In tumour and leukaemia cytogenetics, the two groups that have been targeted represent both ends of the cytogenetic spectrum: those with an apparently normal karyotype (suspected of harbouring small rearrangements not detectable by conventional cytogenetics) and those with a complex aberrant karyotype (which are difficult to karyotype accurately due to the sheer number of aberrations). In research, mouse M-FISH provides a powerful tool to characterize mouse models of a disease. In addition, the ability to accurately karyotype single metaphases without selection makes M-FISH the perfect tool in chromosome breakage studies and for characterizing clonal evolution of tumours. Finally, M-FISH has emerged as the perfect partner for the developing genomic microarray (array CGH) technologies, providing a powerful approach to gene discovery.

  12. THE CLASSIC WAY OF FISH PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurica Kalember

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Today's population faces great difficulties in fish marketing, although it is very valuable food. The classic supply with fresh fish has little influence on its consumption, which is not remarkable anyhow. Therefore one shulud be reminded on the classic, almost forgotten, ways of fish processing that can substantially increase fish assortment and improve its distribution. After cleaning and cutting the fish (primary procedures in its processing, comes salting, after which the salted fish can become an end-product or it can be one of many semi-products in the fish production chain. The most common methods of fish salting are dry-salting, dry-wet-salting (Greek-Dalmatian and wet-salting (pickling. The aim of fish drying is its dehydratation. Our country has the experience of traditional drying, sun-drying and natural drying of fish. Each of these has its own special qualities, depending on the fish species and the drying temperature. Smoked fish gets a very distinctive and spicy aroma and a specific colour. There are two kinds of smoking - cold and warm - based on the smoke derived from burning some special trees or, lately, from smoke preparations. Marinades are old procedures of fish processing in acetic acid and specific spices which can be prepared cold, fried or cooked. Fish-roe of some specific fish species has a special value and is considered a delicacy. The most precious black caviar is derived from the sturgeon roe and some of its related species.

  13. Pond Fish Culture Practices in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Akankali

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pond fish culture practices in Nigeria was reviewed to refresh the minds of fish and other interested stake holders on some basic principles involved in pond fish culture. Fish pond system is the commonest agricultural techniques in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Profit making, job creation, provision of raw materials for several industries and increase in foreign exchange earnings are some benefits. However, loss of land and introduction some water borne diseases are some disadvantages in pond fish culture. This articles reviews the fish pond management processes, stocking of ponds, feeding of fish, types of culture, fish farming combined with other branches of agriculture, rearing of fish for purposes other than food, other fish culture, types of fish used for fish culture in central east Africa, general biology of the species of value in fish culture and suitable combinations of fish for stocking to reawaken the minds of individuals, companies and government on the need to develop pond fish culture in Nigeria.

  14. Fish attraction to artificial reefs not always harmful: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A; Lowry, Michael B; Suthers, Iain M

    2015-10-01

    The debate on whether artificial reefs produce new fish or simply attract existing fish biomass continues due to the difficulty in distinguishing these processes, and there remains considerable doubt as to whether artificial reefs are a harmful form of habitat modification. The harm typically associated with attraction is that fish will be easier to harvest due to the existing biomass aggregating at a newly deployed reef. This outcome of fish attraction has not progressed past an anecdotal form, however, and is always perceived as a harmful process. We present a numerical model that simulates the effect that a redistributed fish biomass, due to an artificial reef, has on fishing catch per unit effort (CPUE). This model can be used to identify the scenarios (in terms of reef, fish, and harvest characteristics) that pose the most risk of exploitation due to fish attraction. The properties of this model were compared to the long-standing predictions by Bohnsack (1989) on the factors that increase the risk or the harm of attraction. Simulations revealed that attraction is not always harmful because it does not always increase maximum fish density. Rather, attraction sometimes disperses existing fish biomass making them harder to catch. Some attraction can be ideal, with CPUE lowest when attraction leads to an equal distribution of biomass between natural and artificial reefs. Simulations also showed that the outcomes from attraction depend on the characteristics of the target fish species, such that transient or pelagic species are often at more risk of harmful attraction than resident species. Our findings generally agree with Bohnsack's predictions, although we recommend distinguishing "mobility" and "fidelity" when identifying species most at risk from attraction, as these traits had great influence on patterns of harvest of attracted fish biomass.

  15. Determination and assessment of total mercury levels in local, frozen and canned fish in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Pierre J; El-Khoury, Bilal; Burger, Joanne; Aouad, Samer; Younis, Mira; Aoun, Amal; El-Nakat, John Hanna

    2011-01-01

    Fish is an important constituent of the Lebanese diet. However, very little attention in our area is given to bring awareness regarding the effect of the toxicity of mercury (Hg) mainly through fish consumption. This study aimed to report analytical data on total mercury levels in several fish species for the first time in thirty years and to also made individuals aware of the presence and danger from exposure to mercury through fish consumption. Fish samples were selected from local Lebanese markets and fisheries and included 94 samples of which were fresh, frozen, processed, and canned fish. All values were reported as microgram of mercury per gram of fish based on wet weight. The level of mercury ranged from 0.0190 to 0.5700 microg/g in fresh samples, 0.0059 to 0.0665 microg/g in frozen samples, and 0.0305 to 0.1190 microg/g in canned samples. The data clearly showed that higher levels of mercury were detected in local fresh fish as opposed to other types thus placing consumers at higher risk from mercury exposure. Moreover, the data revealed that Mallifa (yellowstripe barracuda/Sphyraena chrysotaenia), Sargous (white seabream/Diplodus sargus), Ghobbos (bogue/Boops boops), and shrimp (Penaeus sp.) were among the types containing the highest amounts of mercury. On the other hand, processed fish such as fish fillet, fish burger, small shrimp and crab are found to contain lower levels of mercury and are associated with lower exposure risks to mercury. Lebanese population should therefore, be aware to consume limited amounts of fresh local fish to minimize exposure to mercury.

  16. Determination and assessment of total mercury levels in local, frozen and canned fish in Lebanon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pierre J Obeid; Bilal E1-Khoury; Joanne Burger; Samer Aouad; Mira Younis; Amal Aoun; John Hanna El-Nakat

    2011-01-01

    Fish is an important constituent of the Lebanese diet.However,very little attention in our area is given to bring awareness regarding the effect of the toxicity of mercury (Hg) mainly through fish consumption.This study aimed to report analytical data on total mercury levels in several fish species for the first time in thirty years and to also made individuals aware of the presence and danger from exposure to mercury through fish consumption.Fish samples were selected from local Lebanese markets and fisheries and included 94 samples of which were fresh,frozen,processed,and canned fish.All values were reported as microgram of mercury per gram of fish based on wet weight.The level of mercury ranged from 0.0190 to 0.5700 μg/g in fresh samples,0.0059 to 0.0665 μg/g in frozen samples,and 0.0305 to 0.1190 μg/g in canned samples.The data clearly showed that higher levels of mercury were detected in local fresh fish as opposed to other types thus placing consumers at higher risk from mercury exposure.Moreover,the data revealed that Mallifa (yellowstripe barracuda/Sphyraena chrysotaenia),Sargous (white seabream/Diplodus sargus),Ghobbos (bogue/Boops boops),and shrimp (Penaeus sp.) were among the types containing the highest amounts of mercury.On the other hand,processed fish such as fish fillet,fish burger,small shrimp and crab are found to contain lower levels of mercury and are associated with lower exposure risks to mercury.Lebanese population should therefore,be aware to consume limited amounts of fresh local fish to minimize exposure to mercury.

  17. Cloning of fish enzymes and other fish protein genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macouzet, M; Simpson, B K; Lee, B H

    1999-01-01

    Fish metabolism needs special enzymes that have maximum activity at very different conditions than their mammalian counterparts. Due to the differences in activity, these enzymes, especially cold-adapted proteases, could be used advantageously for the production of some foods. In addition to the enzymes, this review describes some other unique fish polypeptides such as antifreeze proteins, fluorescent proteins, antitumor peptides, antibiotics, and hormones, that have already been cloned and used in food processing, genetic engineering, medicine, and aquaculture. Recombinant DNA technology, which allows these biological molecules to be cloned and overexpressed in microorganisms is also described, highlighting innovative applications. The expected impact of cloning fish proteins in different fields of technology is discussed.

  18. Hatcheries, Harvest and Wild Fish: An Integrated Program at Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery is operated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and is located on the Warm Springs River within the Warm Springs Indian...

  19. Occurrence of Clostridium perfringens Types A, E, and C in Fresh Fish and Its Public Health Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, Maha; Abd El-Moein, Khaled; Hamza, Eman; Abdel Kader, Fatma

    2016-06-01

    Fish remains among the most traded of food commodities, and Egypt is one of the emerging countries being recognized as an important world fish exporter. Clostridium perfringens is an important foodborne pathogen to consider in fish trade, as it has been implicated as the causative organism of two fish outbreaks. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence and toxin diversity of C. perfringens associated with fresh and canned fish and to examine the public health significance of C. perfringens infection in fish. Isolation and identification of C. perfringens showed a significantly higher prevalence of the bacterium in fresh fish collected from aquaculture (54.5%) and from markets (71%) as well as in humans in contact with fish (63%) compared with water used for keeping fresh fish (27.3%) and water used in canned fish (17.8%). The isolation level was significantly higher in samples from the external surface of fresh fish (31.8% in aquaculture, 45.6% in markets) than from the intestinal contents of the same fish (9.1% in aquaculture, 6.7% in markets). Thus, markets represent a risk factor for contamination of the external surface of fish from the surrounding environment. Genotyping of the C. perfringens-positive isolates by using multiplex PCR revealed that type A enterotoxin-negative (CPE(-)) is the predominant strain among fish (fresh and canned), humans, and water in contact with fresh fish. Interestingly, C. perfringens types A enterotoxin-positive (CPE(+)) and C were found only in fresh fish, and these two strains have great health importance in humans. Strikingly, C. perfringens type E strain was detected for the first time in fish, humans, and water in contact with fresh fish. Our results demonstrate for the first time that fish act as a reservoir for C. perfringens, particularly for types A CPE(+), C, and E. The external surface of fish represents a vehicle for contamination of fish from the surrounding environment as well as a source of

  20. Some Basic Principles of Fish processing in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F.N. Abowei

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Some basic principles offish processing in Nigeria is reviewed to provide information for fish culturist to effectively manage the processing of their products. Processing of fish into forms for human consumption or suitable to be used as a supplement in animal food has been neglected in fish culture practices. This may be due to the high technology required in some of the processes and the fact that those involved in actual fish production are ignorant of the different processing methods. In other to prevent fish deterioration, every fish processor must strive to employ the best method possible in handing fish to maximize returns on processing investment. Fish canning, mince fish, fish silage, acid silage, fermented silage, composition of silage, nutritional value of fish silage, fish meal, raw materials for fish meal production, general processes in fish meal production: wet process, dry process, composition and quality, problems in fish processing, production of fish meal locally, local alternatives, comparison between fish silage and fish meal, product evaluation, quality control assessment methods, fish storage, fish anatomy and physiology, chemical composition of fish, fish spoilage types, fish off-flavor management and control, off-flavor mechanism, offflavor in live fish, other causes of off-flavor in fish, natural chemicals in fish, culture system and fish off-flavor control are reviewed to provide information for fish culturist to effectively manage the processing of their products.

  1. TRANSGENIC FISH MODEL IN ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Sharma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A number of experiments and the use of drugs have been performed in fish. The fish may be used as model organism in various biological experiments, including environmental toxicology. Aquatic animals are being engineered to increase aquaculture production, for medical and industrial research, and for ornamental reasons. Fish have been found to play an important role in assessing potential risks associated with exposure to toxic substances in aquatic environment. Hence, it has been thought that the development of transgenic fish can enhance the use of fish in environmental toxicology. India has developed experimental transgenics of rohu fish, zebra fish, cat fish and singhi fish. Genes, promoters and vectors of indigenous origin are now available for only two species namely rohu and singhi for engineering growth. Development of fish model carrying identical transgenes to those found in rodents is beneficial and has shown that several aspects of in vivo mutagenesis are similar between the two classes of vertebrates. Fish shows the frequencies of spontaneous mutations similar to rodents and respond to mutagen exposure consistent with known mutagenic mechanisms. The feasibility of in vivo mutation analysis using transgenic fish has been demonstrated and the potential value of transgenic fish as a comparative animal model has been illustrated. Therefore, the transgenic fish can give the significant contribution to study the environmental toxicity in animals as a whole.

  2. DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH in buccal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Cortés-Gutiérrez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH is a recently developed technique that allows cell-by-cell detection and quantification of DNA breakage in the whole genome or within specific DNA sequences. The present investigation was conducted to adapt the methodology of DBD-FISH to the visualization and evaluation of DNA damage in buccal epithelial cells. DBD-FISH revealed that DNA damage increased significantly according to H2O2 concentration (r2=0.91. In conclusion, the DBD-FISH technique is easy to apply in buccal cells and provides prompt results that are easy to interpret. Future studies are needed to investigate the potential applicability of a buccal cell DBD-FISH model to human biomonitoring and nutritional work.

  3. DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH) in buccal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, E I; Dávila-Rodríguez, M I; Fernández, J L; López-Fernández, C; Gosálvez, J

    2012-12-28

    DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH) is a recently developed technique that allows cell-by-cell detection and quantification of DNA breakage in the whole genome or within specific DNA sequences. The present investigation was conducted to adapt the methodology of DBD-FISH to the visualization and evaluation of DNA damage in buccal epithelial cells. DBD-FISH revealed that DNA damage increased significantly according to H2O2 concentration (r2=0.91). In conclusion, the DBD-FISH technique is easy to apply in buccal cells and provides prompt results that are easy to interpret. Future studies are needed to investigate the potential applicability of a buccal cell DBD-FISH model to human biomonitoring and nutritional work.

  4. Development of Entrepreneurship Skill Training Module for Youths Participation in Fish Preservation and Marketing Occupation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K. Obiyai

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study developed entrepreneurship skill training modules for empowering youths that want to venture into fish preservation and marketing occupation. The study was conducted in Bayelsa. The design used for the study is research and Development design. The sample was forty (40, consisting 30 agricultural extension agents, which were randomly selected and 10 university teachers, which were selected through purposive sampling techniques. A structured questionnaire, which adapted a four-point rating scale, was employed. The data collected was analyzed by mean and standard deviation. The result revealed that twentyseven (27 entrepreneurial skills are needed for the development of training module for fish preservation and marketing occupation. The study therefore recommended that fish farmers should be given credit facilities to enable them provide storage and processing facilities for themselves to avoid wastage, extension officers should trained periodically to enhance their performance, and training should be organized for fish farmers already in the business and intending fish farmers.

  5. The ethics of fish welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J C

    2009-12-01

    The topic of fish welfare in the context of commercial fisheries is a difficult one. From traditionally anthropocentric or human-centred perspectives, fishes are simply objects for humans to use as they see fit. When it is argued that anthropocentrism is arbitrary, it may appear that a strong animal rights position is the only recourse, with the result that humans ought not to use animals in the first place, if it is at all possible. It can be argued that both positions fail to view human beings as part of the natural world. If human beings are viewed as part of the world from which they live, then it has to be asked what it means to be respectful of the animals which humans use and from which they live. From this perspective, concern for the welfare of the fishes humans eat is simply what should be expected from humans as good citizens in the community of living creatures.

  6. Picornaviruses and reoviruses of fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, J.R.; Ahne, Winfried; Kurstak, E.

    1989-01-01

    The number of fish viruses isolated in cell culture or observed by electron microscopy continues to increase rapidly. Until recently, most viruses that were isolated from finfish and characterized were found to be members of the Rhabdoviridae, Iridoviridae, or Herpesviridae (Wolf and Mann 1980). In a comprehensive review of fish viruses published in 1984, there were no picornaviruses and only two reoviruses listed (Wolf 1984). The expansion of aquaculture into the rearing of new species at high density in different geographic areas, and the use of improved methods of detection that include newly developed cell lines and increased sampling effort, have led to the discovery of fish viruses representing nearly all families of animal viruses. Among the newest additions, are a member of the family Picornaviridae and several new viruses that belong within the Reoviridae.

  7. DNA vaccines for aquacultured fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, N; LaPatra, S E

    2005-04-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) vaccination is based on the administration of the gene encoding the vaccine antigen, rather than the antigen itself. Subsequent expression of the antigen by cells in the vaccinated hosts triggers the host immune system. Among the many experimental DNA vaccines tested in various animal species as well as in humans, the vaccines against rhabdovirus diseases in fish have given some of the most promising results. A single intramuscular (IM) injection of microgram amounts of DNA induces rapid and long-lasting protection in farmed salmonids against economically important viruses such as infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). DNA vaccines against other types of fish pathogens, however, have so far had limited success. The most efficient delivery route at present is IM injection, and suitable delivery strategies for mass vaccination of small fish have yet to be developed. In terms of safety, no adverse effects in the vaccinated fish have been observed to date. As DNA vaccination is a relatively new technology, various theoretical and long-term safety issues related to the environment and the consumer remain to be fully addressed, although inherently the risks should not be any greater than with the commercial fish vaccines that are currently used. Present classification systems lack clarity in distinguishing DNA-vaccinated animals from genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which could raise issues in terms of licensing and public acceptance of the technology. The potential benefits of DNA vaccines for farmed fish include improved animal welfare, reduced environmental impacts of aquaculture activities, increased food quality and quantity, and more sustainable production. Testing under commercial production conditions has recently been initiated in Canada and Denmark.

  8. Chemical avoidance responses of fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Keith B

    2016-05-01

    The hydrosphere is a repository for all of our waste and mistakes, be they sewage, garbage, process-affected waters, runoff, and gases. For fish living in environments receiving undesirable inputs, moving away seems an obvious way to avoid harm. While this should occur, there are numerous examples where it will not. The inability to avoid harmful environments may lead to sensory impairments that in turn limit the ability to avoid other dangers or locate benefits. For avoidance to occur, the danger must first be perceived, which may not happen if the fish is 'blinded' in some capacity. Second, the danger must be recognized for what it is, which may also not happen if the fish is cognitively confused or impaired. Third, it is possible that the fish may not be able to leave the area, or worse, learns to prefer a toxic environment. Concerning generating regulations around avoidance, there are two possibilities: that an avoidance threshold be used to set guidelines for effluent release with the intention of driving fishes away; the second is to set a contaminant concentration that would not affect the avoidance or attraction responses to other cues. With the complexities of the modern world in which we release diverse pollutants, from light to municipal effluents full of 1000s of chemicals, to the diversity present in ecosystems, it is impossible to have avoidance data on every stimulus-species combination. Nevertheless, we may be able to use existing avoidance response data to predict the likelihood of avoidance of untested stimuli. Where we cannot, this review includes a framework that can be used to direct new research. This review is intended to collate existing avoidance response data, provide a framework for making decisions in the absence of data, and suggest studies that would facilitate the prediction of risk to fish health in environments receiving intentional and unintentional human-based chemical inputs.

  9. Fish-based groups for ecological assessment in rivers: the importance of environmental drivers on taxonomic and functional traits of fish assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matono P.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of river-types is of practical value, serving as groups for which assessment procedures can be developed and applied. An abiotic typology was set by the Portuguese Water Agency, mainly based on 6 major morphoclimatic regions. However, to be biologically meaningful, this typology should fit the distribution patterns of the biological quality elements communities proposed in Water Framework Directive under the lowest possible human pressure. This study aimed to identify and characterize fish-based geographical groups for continental Portugal and their environmental and geographical discriptors, using taxonomic and functional traits. Sampling took place between 2004 and 2006 during Spring. Fish fauna from 155 reference sites was analysed using a multivariate approach. Cluster Analysis on fish composition identified 10 fish-groups, expressing a clear correspondence to the river basin level, due to the restrict basin distribution of many species. Groups showed a wider aggregation in 4 regions with a larger geographical correspondence, statistically supported by Similarity Analysis, both on fish composition and mostly on fish metrics/guilds. Principal Components Analysis revealed major environmental drivers associated to fish-groups and fish-regions. Fish-groups were hierarchically grouped over major and local regions, expressing a large-scale response to a North-South environmental gradient defined by temperature, precipitation, mineralization and altitude, and a regional scale response mainly to drainage area and flow discharge. From North to South, fish-regions were related to the morphoclimatic regions. Results contributed to reduce redundance in abiotic river-types and set the final typology for Portuguese rivers, constituting a fundamental tool for planning and managing water resources.

  10. Effect of aquaculture on world fish supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, R L; Goldburg, R J; Primavera, J H; Kautsky, N; Beveridge, M C; Clay, J; Folke, C; Lubchenco, J; Mooney, H; Troell, M

    2000-06-29

    Global production of farmed fish and shellfish has more than doubled in the past 15 years. Many people believe that such growth relieves pressure on ocean fisheries, but the opposite is true for some types of aquaculture. Farming carnivorous species requires large inputs of wild fish for feed. Some aquaculture systems also reduce wild fish supplies through habitat modification, wild seedstock collection and other ecological impacts. On balance, global aquaculture production still adds to world fish supplies; however, if the growing aquaculture industry is to sustain its contribution to world fish supplies, it must reduce wild fish inputs in feed and adopt more ecologically sound management practices.

  11. Fish Oncology: Diseases, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergneau-Grosset, Claire; Nadeau, Marie-Eve; Groff, Joseph M

    2017-01-01

    The scientific literature contains a wealth of information concerning spontaneous fish neoplasms, although ornamental fish oncology is still in its infancy. The occurrence of fish neoplasms has often been associated with oncogenic viruses and environmental insults, making them useful markers for environmental contaminants. The use of fish, including zebrafish, as models of human carcinogenesis has been developed and knowledge gained from these models may also be applied to ornamental fish, although more studies are required. This review summarizes information available about fish oncology pertaining to veterinary clinicians.

  12. Primitive Form of Bony Fish Unveiled

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ With over 50,000 species,Osteichthyans, or bony fish, accounts for 98% of the present-day vertebrates. Bony fish falls into two groups: actinopterygians, meaning ray-finned bony fish, and sarcopterygians,meaning lobe-finned bony fish. The huge morphotype difference of the two catagories cast doubts on research into the origin and evolution of bony fish. The recent discovery of a primitive fish species by CAS researchers and their overseas colleagues provides a missing link between the two lineages, unveiling unique features for understanding primitive bony vertebrates.

  13. Isolation and identification of bacteria from marine market fish Scomberomorus guttatus (Bloch and Schneider, 1801) from Madurai district, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthiga Rani, M; Chelladurai, G; Jayanthi, G

    2016-09-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the hygienic quality and freshness of fish Indo-pacific King Mackerel "Scomberomorus guttatus" through the investigation of the occurrence of bacteria which is an indicator for fish quality. Fishes were collected every fortnight from Madurai fish market on monthly twice of January 2014 to March 2014. Skin surface of the fish was examined. Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were identified by Biochemical tests (IMViC Tests). Among the six bacterial species E. coli and K. pneumonia were found in all the collected samples where as other bacterial species were not found. The result of this study revealed that raw fish sold in Madurai fish market has high contamination so the presence of the bacterial species has strongly suggested the urgent need to improve the quality control systems in Madurai fish market.

  14. ELECTRON MICROSCOPE EVIDENCE OF VIRUS INFECTION IN CULTURED MARINE FISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Electron microscope investigation on the red sea bream (Pagrosomus major), bastard halibut (Paralichthys olivaceus) and stone flounder (Kareius bicoloratus) in North China revealed virus infection in the bodies of the dead and diseased fish. These viruses included the lymphocystis disease virus (LDV), parvovirus, globular virus, and a kind of baculavirus which was not discovered and reported before and is now tentatively named baculavirus of stone flounder (Kareius bicoloratus).

  15. Chicken and Fish Maw Gruel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Mince the chicken breast, add egg white and chicken broth, and cook until the mixture thickens.Slice the soaked fish maw, and cleanse in lukewarm water. Slice the cooked ham and then shred. Put green soya beans in a wok and scald. Rinse in cold water to retain the original color.Heat some lard in a wok, add spring onion sections, stir-fry until their fragrance exudes, and remove the onion. Add chicken broth, salt, the Shaoxing wine, spring onion and ginger mixture, and fish maw slices. Bring to the boil, turn down the heat

  16. Solar Cookers for Fish Village

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JERMAY; JAMSU; KEVIN; STUART

    2002-01-01

    Collecting wood was areal pain in the fore-head. We used to goto the forest to collectwood thirty times or so eachwinter regardless of the snowor wind. We had to get up anhour or so after midnight andafter doing our chores wewould head off to the forest.We didn’t return until dusk,"said Ms.Zhongcujia,aged 52and a resident of Niamu orFish Village,located in JiancaCounty,Malho TibetanAutonomous Prefecture,Qinghai Province,China. FishVillage is nestled on a denud-ed west-facing mountainslope.

  17. Conservation physiology of marine fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian; Peck, Myron A.; Antognarelli, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    At the end of May, 17 scientists involved in an EU COST Action on Conservation Physiology of Marine Fishes met in Oristano, Sardinia, to discuss how physiology can be better used in modelling tools to aid in management of marine ecosystems. Current modelling approaches incorporate physiology...... to different extents, ranging from no explicit consideration to detailed physiological mechanisms, and across scales from a single fish to global fishery resources. Biologists from different sub-disciplines are collaborating to rise to the challenge of projecting future changes in distribution and productivity...

  18. [Imported tropical fish causes ciguatera fish poisoning in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Katharina; Eisenblätter, Anneka; Vetter, Irina; Ebbecke, Martin; Friedemann, Miriam; Desel, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Ciguatera is a seafood-borne illness caused by consumption of tropical fish contaminated with ciguatoxins, lipophilic polyethers that are produced in benthic dinoflagellates and accumulate through the marine food chain. Ciguatera cases in Europe usually occur in travellers returning from tropical and subtropical regions of the Pacific and Carribean, where ciguatera is endemic. In 2012, several cases of ciguatera occurred in Germany due to sale of contaminated fish products originating from the Indian Ocean. Although the symptomatology in these cases were typical of ciguatera, with patients reporting gastrointestinal discomfort including nausea, vomiting and diarrhea as well as neurological effects including widespread intense pruritus, paresthesias, hypothermia or altered temperature sensation and diffuse pain, correct diagnosis was delayed in all cases due to lack of awareness of the treating medical practitioners. In light of increasing global mobility, trade, and occurrence of ciguatoxic fish in previously non-endemic areas, ciguatera should be considered as a possible diagnosis if gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occur shortly after consumption of fish.

  19. Optimizing fish sampling for fish - mercury bioaccumulation factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder Eikenberry, Barbara C.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Knightes, Christopher D.; Journey, Celeste A.; Chasar, Lia C.; Brigham, Mark E.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Fish Bioaccumulation Factors (BAFs; ratios of mercury (Hg) in fish (Hgfish) and water (Hgwater)) are used to develop Total Maximum Daily Load and water quality criteria for Hg-impaired waters. Both applications require representative Hgfish estimates and, thus, are sensitive to sampling and data-treatment methods. Data collected by fixed protocol from 11 streams in 5 states distributed across the US were used to assess the effects of Hgfish normalization/standardization methods and fish sample numbers on BAF estimates. Fish length, followed by weight, was most correlated to adult top-predator Hgfish. Site-specific BAFs based on length-normalized and standardized Hgfish estimates demonstrated up to 50% less variability than those based on non-normalized Hgfish. Permutation analysis indicated that length-normalized and standardized Hgfish estimates based on at least 8 trout or 5 bass resulted in mean Hgfish coefficients of variation less than 20%. These results are intended to support regulatory mercury monitoring and load-reduction program improvements.

  20. The Adaptation of Fishing Instruments by a Farmers' Community in the Thung Kula Area, in North Eastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worawan Ubonlert

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In a historical study of the ancient communities in the area of Thung Kula, it was revealed that there are important resources including rice, fish, salt and iron. Salt is used in making fermented fish (known locally as Pla Daek, a culinary culture which has been prevalent in the ethnic groups of Laos and Khmer. The availability of rice and fish in Thung Kula has continued to this day. Thung Kula farmers have extended their fishing sources from the government-owned places to their own fields or ponds. Approach: They use fishing instruments that had been developed out of folk wisdom in combination with the new technology in order to increase the fishing yields adequate for their own consumption and for commerce. The present research aimed to study the adaptation of fishing instruments of the farmers at Ban Ta Yuak, Thung Luang sub-district, Suwannaphum district, Roi-Et province. The studied area was Thung Kula in the North East of Thailand. The research method was qualitative. Data were collected from relevant documents and from field studies with 25 informants. Structured and unstructured interviews were conducted with local tradesmen, consumers, fishing-instrument shop owners. Results: The results were presented descriptively below. The adaptation of fishing instruments of Ban Ta Yuak farmers began with the increased population, the changing ecological systems as a result of the government’s construction of reservoirs, canals, public ponds and the market-oriented economy which had attracted the local fishing markets across the Thung Kula area. Ban Ta Yuak farmers have then adapted their fishing instruments to fit the available kinds of fish and the ecological systems of the local water sources. With assistance from the government, the farmers have their own fishing ponds. It was found that prior to the application of the national economic and social plan of 1962 these farmers created simple fishing instruments such as Sai (a

  1. Application of Passive Sampling to Characterise the Fish Exometabolome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Viant

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The endogenous metabolites excreted by organisms into their surrounding environment, termed the exometabolome, are important for many processes including chemical communication. In fish biology, such metabolites are also known to be informative markers of physiological status. While metabolomics is increasingly used to investigate the endogenous biochemistry of organisms, no non-targeted studies of the metabolic complexity of fish exometabolomes have been reported to date. In environmental chemistry, Chemcatcher® (Portsmouth, UK passive samplers have been developed to sample for micro-pollutants in water. Given the importance of the fish exometabolome, we sought to evaluate the capability of Chemcatcher® samplers to capture a broad spectrum of endogenous metabolites excreted by fish and to measure these using non-targeted direct infusion mass spectrometry metabolomics. The capabilities of C18 and styrene divinylbenzene reversed-phase sulfonated (SDB-RPS Empore™ disks for capturing non-polar and polar metabolites, respectively, were compared. Furthermore, we investigated real, complex metabolite mixtures excreted from two model fish species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus. In total, 344 biological samples and 28 QC samples were analysed, revealing 646 and 215 m/z peaks from trout and stickleback, respectively. The measured exometabolomes were principally affected by the type of Empore™ (Hemel Hempstead, UK disk and also by the sampling time. Many peaks were putatively annotated, including several bile acids (e.g., chenodeoxycholate, taurocholate, glycocholate, glycolithocholate, glycochenodeoxycholate, glycodeoxycholate. Collectively these observations show the ability of Chemcatcher® passive samplers to capture endogenous metabolites excreted from fish.

  2. Reversible parasympathetic dysautonomia following stinging attributed to the box jelly fish (Chironex fleckeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, R P; Selliah, K

    1984-10-01

    Following a box jelly fish sting, a 52 year old Chinese fisherman developed acute abdominal distension, inability to pass urine and failure of erection. Examination revealed gaseous abdominal distension and a distended urinary bladder. Absence of lachrimation and absence of changes in the R-R interval in the ECG during breathing and carotid sinus massage gave further evidence of parasympathetic dysautonomia. The patient made a complete recovery. The case highlights the occurrence of reversible parasympathetic dysautonomia following box jelly fish sting.

  3. Neuronal feedback between brain and inner ear for growth of otoliths in fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anken, R. H.; Edelmann, E.; Rahmann, H.

    Previous investigations revealed that fish inner ear otolith growth (concerning otolith size and calcium-incorporation) depends on the amplitude and the direction of gravity, suggesting the existence of a (negative) feedback mechanism. In search for the regulating unit, the vestibular nerve was unilaterally transected in neonate swordtail fish ( Xiphophorus helleri) which were subsequently incubated in the calcium-tracer alizarin-complexone. Calcium incorporation ceased on the transected head sides, indicating that calcium uptake is neurally regulated.

  4. Development of a Microwave System for Highly-Efficient Drying of Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuttapong PIANROJ

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Dried fish is an important product of Nakhon Si Thammarat province, located in southern Thailand. Fish are conventionally dried using heat from the sun or heat from burning wood as energy sources. These drying methods have problems such as low efficiency and environmental problems. Exploiting the strong electric dipole of the water molecules in the fish, which allows the fish to absorb microwave energy effectively, we have developed a novel microwave heating system for the efficient drying of fish. The system utilizes a high-voltage power supply so that the magnetron can generate a microwave field continuously, and its output power can be adjusted from 0 - 200 W making it very different to commercial microwave oven. The waveguide is designed for effective transmission of microwave fields into the multi-mode heating cavity. The experimental results reveal that heat produced by the microwave system causes evaporation of moisture from the fish making it possible to produce high quality dried fish. The drying process also shows a dependence of fish surface temperature and moisture content on the radiation time and microwave power.

  5. Pathological and ecological host consequences of infection by an introduced fish parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, J Robert; Pegg, Josephine; Williams, Chris F

    2011-01-01

    The infection consequences of the introduced cestode fish parasite Bothriocephalus acheilognathi were studied in a cohort of wild, young-of-the-year common carp Cyprinus carpio that lacked co-evolution with the parasite. Within the cohort, parasite prevalence was 42% and parasite burdens were up to 12% body weight. Pathological changes within the intestinal tract of parasitized carp included distension of the gut wall, epithelial compression and degeneration, pressure necrosis and varied inflammatory changes. These were most pronounced in regions containing the largest proportion of mature proglottids. Although the body lengths of parasitized and non-parasitized fish were not significantly different, parasitized fish were of lower body condition and reduced weight compared to non-parasitized conspecifics. Stable isotope analysis (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) revealed trophic impacts associated with infection, particularly for δ(15)N where values for parasitized fish were significantly reduced as their parasite burden increased. In a controlled aquarium environment where the fish were fed ad libitum on an identical food source, there was no significant difference in values of δ(15)N and δ(13)C between parasitized and non-parasitized fish. The growth consequences remained, however, with parasitized fish growing significantly slower than non-parasitized fish, with their feeding rate (items s(-1)) also significantly lower. Thus, infection by an introduced parasite had multiple pathological, ecological and trophic impacts on a host with no experience of the parasite.

  6. Fish pollution with anthropogenic 137Cs in the southern Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewska, Tamara; Suplińska, Maria

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on changes in (137)Cs activity concentrations in three fish species from the southern Baltic Sea: cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus) and flounder (Platichtys flesus), in the period 2000-2010. During the study period a marked decline in cesium activity concentration in fish muscle tissue was observed, which reflected changes in radionuclide activity concentration in seawater. No statistically significant temporal trends were determined in changes of concentration factors (CF(fish/seawater)) calculated for the examined fish species. The analysis of (137)Cs activity as a function of ichthyological parameters revealed the lack of a relationship between radionuclide activity concentrations in herring muscle tissue and the fish age in an narrow age range (2-4 years). However, a reverse proportionality of total fish mass, as well as body length, against (137)Cs activity concentrations in muscles was well documented. The latter observation can be the direct result of the dilution effect related to the increase of fish body weight. (137)Cs activity concentration in muscle tissue of the five fish species forms a declining sequence: Gadus morhua, Platichthys flesus, Clupea harengus, Perca fluviatilis and Neogobius melanostomus.

  7. Enhancing fish performance in Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquaculture currently is the fastest growing agricultural industry and must continue to grow to meet the world’s increasing demand for seafood. Continued growth will depend upon advances in fish genetics and nutrition, and improvements in culture system design and management. The number and complexi...

  8. Rivulid Fishes of the Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedeman, J.J.

    1958-01-01

    The present paper is chiefly based on the Rivulid fishes collected by Dr. P. Wagenaar Hummelinck in the Antilles during the years 1930, 1936, 1937, and 1955, and in addition on some specimens collected by various other investigators at earlier dates. Some of the specimens, in particular those belong

  9. Offshore Fish Community: Ecological Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The offshore (>80 m) fish community of Lake Superior is made up of predominately native species. The most prominent species are deepwater sculpin, kiyi, cisco, siscowet lake trout, burbot, and the exotic sea lamprey. Bloater and shortjaw cisco are also found in the offshore zone...

  10. Consumer perceptions of farmed fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Machiel J.; Banović, Marija; Guerrero, Lluis; Krystallis, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate possible cross-cultural consumer segments
    in the EU aquaculture market and provide direction and focus for marketing strategies for farmed
    fish products.
    Design/methodology/approach – Selected psychographic constructs (i.e. category i

  11. Fish and wildlife research in Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Problems, information needs, research facilities, current research, and documents related to long term planning of fish and wildlife research in Alaska. Appendices...

  12. Fishing Plan Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge 1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of public fishing at Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge are as follows: 1. To provide public access to waters of Lake Champlain and the Missisquoi...

  13. Intersex fish : Endocrine disruption in smallmouth bass

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Intersex and abnormal vitellogenin in smallmouth bass from portions of the Potomac watershed pose a threat to fish resources. This fact sheet summarizes studies that...

  14. Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge : Wildlife list

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This checklist is a comprehensive list of Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge wildlife species. The checklist contains all wildlife species documented on the...

  15. Umatilla - Umatilla Slough Rough Fish Eradication

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the proposed action is to enhance environmental conditions in the Whitcomb Island Slough by reducing the population of rough fish, including common...

  16. Fish Creek, South Fork Koyukuk, Koyukuk

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The intent of this study was to gather general information on the wildlife, human use, and terrain in the Fish Creek (east boundary) to Koyukuk (west boundary)...

  17. Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge habitat map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Habitat map for Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. This habitat map was created along with the National Vegetation Classification (NVC) map of the refuge. Refuge...

  18. Fishing Plan: Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the Fishing Plan for Sherburne NWR. The Plan provides an introduction to the Refuge, information about conformance with statutory authorities, a statement...

  19. Fish Aggregation Sites in the Florida Keys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spawning aggregations are an important event in the life-history of many coral reef fish species. During short time periods (typically during full moons), fish will...

  20. Sport Fishing Plan : Meredosia National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the Sport Fishing Plan for Meredosia NWR. The Plan provides an introduction to the Refuge, information about conformance with statutory authorities, a...

  1. Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge: Summer Fishing Regulation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memorandum summarizes the summer fishing regulation for Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge as submitted to the Federal Register. This regulation defines areas...

  2. Southeast Alaska ESI: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for anadromous fish streams in Southeast Alaska. Vector lines in this data set represent locations of fish streams....

  3. Erwin National Fish Hatchery [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Erwin National Fish Hatchery. It was generated from rectified aerial photography,...

  4. Fungal decay of traditional fishing craft

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gupta, R.

    , their role in the biodeterioration process, traditional and modern preventive methods, their economics with suggestions for future work. This study becomes important in view of the fishing industry turning towards traditional fishing craft for low energy...

  5. Oxygen Uptake - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  6. Dissolved Oxygen - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  7. Fish Springs NWR Water Use Report : 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) for 2010. A general background is presented on historical spring water...

  8. Status report on Fish Springs pond snail

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides a life history of the pond snail (Lymnaea Hinkleyia pilsbryi) at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The following information is included;...

  9. Southeast Alaska ESI: FISHPT (Fish Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for anadromous fish streams in Southeast Alaska. Vector points in this data set represent locations of fish streams....

  10. Northeast Commercial Fishing Vessel Cost Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Typically, commercial fishing businesses incur three major types of costs: fixed or annual costs; which are incurred annually irrespective of whether any fishing...

  11. Inspection report: Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses results of a reconnaissance trip conducted at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The following is outlined; land condition, presence of...

  12. McNary - Rough Fish Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the action is to enhance environmental conditions in the McNary Slough by reducing the population of rough fish, including common carp (Cyprinus...

  13. PRICE TRANSMISSION AND HOUSEHOLDS DEMAND ELASTICITY FOR FROZEN FISH UNDER FUEL SUBSIDY REFORM IN DELTA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achoja Felix Odemero

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel subsidy removal is assumed to translate to general increase in the cost of operating business such as fish marketing.The response of price of fish and corresponding demand elasticity are welfare issues worthy of investigation in Nigeria. The present study evaluates price transmission in fish marketing system by analysing the response of fish market indices to fuel subsidy reform in Nigeria. Primary data collected with structured questionnaire from purposively selected 78 frozen fish marketers, were analysed with descriptive statistics and regression model. A test of hypothesis shows a significant price transmission of about 100% (P < 0.05. Marketing cost increased by 31.8% and profitability dropped by 24.20%, confirming negative effect of new price regime. The result further revealed a 0.05% drop in quantity of frozen fish demanded by households. It was recommended that economic measures should be introduced by the government to cushion the effect of fuel policy removal.

  14. Fish as Hosts of Vibrio cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Malka; Izhaki, Ido

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of pandemic cholera, is abundant in marine and freshwater environments. Copepods and chironomids are natural reservoirs of this species. However, the ways V. cholerae is globally disseminated are as yet unknown. Here we review the scientific literature that provides evidence for the possibility that some fish species may be reservoirs and vectors of V. cholerae. So far, V. cholerae has been isolated from 30 fish species (22 freshwater; 9 marine). V. cholerae O1 was reported in a few cases. In most cases V. cholerae was isolated from fish intestines, but it has also been detected in gills, skin, kidney, liver and brain tissue. In most cases the fish were healthy but in some, they were diseased. Nevertheless, Koch postulates were not applied to prove that V. cholerae and not another agent was the cause of the disease in the fish. Evidence from the literature correlates raw fish consumption or fish handling to a few cholera cases or cholera epidemics. Thus, we can conclude that V. cholerae inhabits some marine and freshwater fish species. It is possible that fish may protect the bacteria in unfavorable habitats while the bacteria may assist the fish to digest its food. Also, fish may disseminate the bacteria in the aquatic environment and may transfer it to waterbirds that consume them. Thus, fish are reservoirs of V. cholerae and may play a role in its global dissemination. PMID:28293221

  15. Development of DNA vaccines for fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heppell, Joël; Lorenzen, Niels; Armstrong, Neil K.;

    1998-01-01

    with traditional methods of immunization, but little is known on its efficacy in fish. The luciferase and lacZ reporter genes were used to characterize expression of plasmid-encoded genes in rainbow trout and zebra fish injected intramuscularly. For a given dose of DNA, the luciferase activity was higher in fish...

  16. Area-based management and fishing efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchal, P.; Ulrich, Clara; Pastoors, M.

    2002-01-01

    linear model (GLM) analysis of the index of fishing power. The fishing efficiency of Danish gill-netters and, to some extent, Danish seiners, has overall increased inside the 'plaice box', whilst remaining relatively stable outside. However, the fishing efficiency of the other exemption fleets has...

  17. Perceptions of European stakeholders of pulse fishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, M.L.; Trapman, B.K.; Rasenberg, M.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    This research project examines the concerns and questions of European stakeholders about pulse fishing, in order to assess to what extent the knowledge agenda on pulse fishing covers these issues. To get a first impression of the concerns about pulse fishing, and to get an idea of the stakeholders t

  18. An Indicator for ecosystem externalities in fishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Jonsen, Lars; Andersen, Ken Haste; Vestergaard, Niels

    a benefit indicator that explicitly divides the consequences of fishing into internal and external benefits. This analysis demonstrates that the forage fish fleet has a notable economic impact on the large fish fleet, but the reverse is not true. The impact can be either negative or positive, which entails...

  19. An indicator for ecosystem externalities in fishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Jonsen, Lars; Andersen, Ken Haste; Vestergaard, Niels

    2016-01-01

    a benefit indicator that explicitly divides the consequences of fishing into internal and external benefits. This analysis demonstrates that the forage fish fleet has a notable economic impact on the large fish fleet, but the reverse is not true. The impact can be either negative or positive, which entails...

  20. Sport Fishing Plan: Parker River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Sport Fishing Plan summarizes the objectives of the Fishing Program on Parker River NWR. A description of the program is provided along with fishing regulations.

  1. Experimental hydrodynamics of fish locomotion: functional insights from wake visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Eliot G; Lauder, George V

    2002-04-01

    Despite enormous progress during the last twenty years in understanding the mechanistic basis of aquatic animal propulsion-a task involving the construction of a substantial data base on patterns of fin and body kinematics and locomotor muscle function-there remains a key area in which biologists have little information: the relationship between propulsor activity and water movement in the wake. How is internal muscular force translated into external force exerted on the water? What is the pattern of fluid force production by different fish fins (e.g., pectoral, caudal, dorsal) and how does swimming force vary with speed and among species? These types of questions have received considerable attention in analyses of terrestrial locomotion where force output by limbs can be measured directly with force plates. But how can forces exerted by animals moving through fluid be measured? The advent of digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) has provided an experimental hydrodynamic approach for quantifying the locomotor forces of freely moving animals in fluids, and has resulted in significant new insights into the mechanisms of fish propulsion. In this paper we present ten "lessons learned" from the application of DPIV to problems of fish locomotion over the last five years. (1) Three-dimensional DPIV analysis is critical for reconstructing wake geometry. (2) DPIV analysis reveals the orientation of locomotor reaction forces. (3) DPIV analysis allows calculation of the magnitude of locomotor forces. (4) Swimming speed can have a major impact on wake structure. (5) DPIV can reveal interspecific differences in vortex wake morphology. (6) DPIV analysis can provide new insights into the limits to locomotor performance. (7) DPIV demonstrates the functional versatility of fish fins. (8) DPIV reveals hydrodynamic force partitioning among fins. (9) DPIV shows that wake interaction among fins may enhance thrust production. (10) Experimental hydrodynamic analysis can provide

  2. Streptococcus dysgalactiae: An emerging pathogen of fishes and mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdelsalam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (GCSD has gained special interest of aquatic health experts throughout the past few years due to its interesting veterinary and public health importance. Increasing records of GCSD infections in farmed fishes have been documented through diverse worldwide aquatic habitats in Japan, China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Taiwan and Brazil. Despite the intraspecies/interspecies dynamic spread of fish GCSD, yet, the genetic basis of its virulence remains unknown. This gap in knowledge is the main reason behind inability to develop a competent vaccine to control the disease in aquatic animals. However, the authors have concluded that the virulence of GCSD is mainly based on its cell surface properties such as high hemagglutination and hydrophobic properties which determine the main adhesive/invasive pathogenic mechanism of the pathogen where GCSD isolates were able to adhere to and invade fish epithelial cell line in vitro. Most recently, the molecular pathogenesis investigations have revealed that, serum opacity factor [SOF], superantigen and streptolysin S genes might be the most important virulence factors that have contributed to the swift propagation of streptococcal infection among aquatic and mammalian species. In conclusion, the current research based review has emphasized the current knowledge gap in epidemiology and control of fish GCSD. To bridge this current gap, a swift future development of high tech/accurate molecular research is highly needed to better understand the pathogenic mechanisms of GCSD.

  3. Predicting the Presence of Large Fish through Benthic Geomorphic Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, F.; Sautter, L.; Levine, N. S.; Kracker, L.

    2013-12-01

    Marine Protected Areas are critical in sustaining the resilience of fish populations to commercial fishing operations. Using acoustic data to survey these areas promises efficiency, accuracy, and minimal environmental impact. In July, 2013, the NOAA Ship Pisces collected bathymetric, backscatter and water column data for 10 proposed MPA sites along the U.S. Southeast Atlantic continental shelf. A total of 205 km2 of seafloor were mapped between Mayport, FL and Wilmington, NC, using the SIMRAD ME70 and EK60 echosounder systems. These data were processed in Caris HIPS, QPS FMGT, MATLAB and ArcGIS. The backscatter and bathymetry reveal various benthic geomorphic features, including flat sand, rippled sand, and rugose hard bottom. Water column data directly above highly rugose hardbottom contains the greatest counts for large fish populations. Using spatial statistics, such as a geographically weighted regression model, we aim to identify features of the benthic profile, including rugosity, curvature and slope, that can predict the presence of large fish. The success of this approach will greatly expedite fishery surveys, minimize operational cost and aid in making timely management decisions.

  4. Comparative visual ecophysiology of mid-Atlantic temperate reef fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrij Z. Horodysky

    2013-11-01

    The absolute light sensitivities, temporal properties, and spectral sensitivities of the visual systems of three mid-Atlantic temperate reef fishes (Atlantic spadefish [Ephippidae: Chaetodipterus faber], tautog [Labridae: Tautoga onitis], and black sea bass [Serranidae: Centropristis striata] were studied via electroretinography (ERG. Pelagic Atlantic spadefish exhibited higher temporal resolution but a narrower dynamic range than the two more demersal foragers. The higher luminous sensitivities of tautog and black sea bass were similar to other benthic and demersal coastal mid-Atlantic fishes. Flicker fusion frequency experiments revealed significant interspecific differences at maximum intensities that correlated with lifestyle and habitat. Spectral responses of the three species spanned 400–610 nm, with high likelihood of cone dichromacy providing the basis for color and contrast discrimination. Significant day-night differences in spectral responses were evident in spadefish and black sea bass but not tautog, a labrid with characteristic structure-associated nocturnal torpor. Atlantic spadefish responded to a wider range of wavelengths than did deeper-dwelling tautog or black sea bass. Collectively, these results suggest that temperate reef-associated fishes are well-adapted to their gradient of brighter to dimmer photoclimates, representative of their unique ecologies and life histories. Continuing anthropogenic degradation of water quality in coastal environments, at a pace faster than the evolution of visual systems, may however impede visual foraging and reproductive signaling in temperate reef fishes.

  5. Culture dependent bacteria in commercial fishes: Qualitative assessment and molecular identification using 16S rRNA gene sequencing

    KAUST Repository

    Alikunhi, Nabeel M.

    2016-05-27

    Fish contaminations have been extensively investigated in Saudi coasts, but studies pertaining to bacterial pathogens are meager. We conducted qualitative assessment and molecular identification of culture dependent bacteria in 13 fish species collected from three fishing sites and a local fish market in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The bacterial counts of gills, skin, gut and muscle were examined on agar plates of Macconkey’s (Mac), Eosin methylene blue (EMB) and Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salts (TCBS) culture media. Bacterial counts exhibited interspecific, locational and behavioral differences. Mugil cephalus exhibited higher counts on TCBS (all body-parts), Mac (gills, muscle and gut) and EMB (gills and muscle). Samples of Area I were with higher counts, concurrent to seawater and sediment samples, revealing the influence of residing environment on fish contamination. Among feeding habits, detritivorous fish harbored higher bacterial counts, while carnivorous group accounted for lesser counts. Counts were higher in skin of fish obtained from market compared to field samples, revealing market as a major source of contamination. Bacterial counts of skin were positively correlated with other body-parts indicating influence of surface bacterial biota in overall quality of fish. Hence, hygienic practices and proper storage facilities in the Jeddah fish market is recommended to prevent adverse effect of food-borne illness in consumers. Rahnella aquatilis (Enterobacteriaceae) and Photobacterium damselae (Vibrionaceae) were among the dominant species identified from fish muscle samples using Sanger sequencing of 16S rRNA. This bacterial species are established human pathogens capable of causing foodborne illness with severe antibiotic resistance. Opportunistic pathogens such as Hafnia sp. (Enterobacteriaceae) and Pseudomonas stutzeri (Pseudomonadaceae) were also identified from fish muscle. These findings indicate bacterial contamination risk in commonly consumed fish of

  6. Fish Protection: Cooperative research advances fish-friendly turbine design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Richard S.; Ahmann, Martin L.; Trumbo, Bradly A.; Foust, Jason

    2012-12-01

    Renewable hydropower is a tremendous resource within the Pacific Northwest that is managed with considerable cost and consideration for the safe migration of salmon. Recent research conducted in this region has provided results that could lower the impacts of hydro power production and make the technology more fish-friendly. This research is now being applied during a period when a huge emphasis is being made to develop clean, renewable energy sources.

  7. Parvalbumin--the major tropical fish allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dawn Li-Chern; Neo, Keng Hwee; Yi, Fong Cheng; Chua, Kaw Yan; Goh, Denise Li-Meng; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Giam, Yoke Chin; Van Bever, Hugo P S; Lee, Bee Wah

    2008-08-01

    Fish allergy is common in countries where consumption is high. Asian nations are amongst the world's largest consumers of fish but the allergen profiles of tropical fish are unknown. This study sought to evaluate the allergenicity of four commonly consumed tropical fish, the threadfin (Polynemus indicus), Indian anchovy (Stolephorus indicus), pomfret (Pampus chinensis) and tengirri (Scomberomorus guttatus). Immunoglobulin E (IgE) cross-reactivity with parvalbumin of cod fish (Gad c 1), the major fish allergen, was also studied. Detection of tropical fish and cod specific-IgE was performed by UniCap assay, and skin prick tests were also carried out. The IgE-binding components of tropical fish were identified using IgE immunoblot techniques, and cross-reactivity with Gad c 1 was assessed by ELISA inhibition and IgE immunoblot inhibition. Clinically, nine of 10 patients studied were allergic to multiple fish. All patients exhibited detectable specific-IgE to cod fish (10 of 10 skin prick test positive, eight of 10 UniCap assay positive) despite lack of previous exposure. The major allergen of the four tropical fish was the 12-kDa parvalbumin. IgE cross-reactivity of these allergens to Gad c 1 was observed to be moderate to high in the tropical fish studied. Parvalbumins are the major allergens in commonly consumed tropical fish. They are cross-reactive with each other as well as with Gad c 1. Commercial tests for cod fish appear to be sufficient for the detection of tropical fish specific-IgE.

  8. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.23 Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised...

  9. Heat reveals faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinreich, Bernhard [Solarschmiede GmbH, Muenchen (Germany). Engineering Dept.

    2010-07-01

    Gremlins cannot hide from the all-revealing view of a thermographic camera, whereby it makes no difference whether it is a roof-mounted system or a megawatt-sized farm. Just as diverse are the range of faults that, with the growing level of expertise, can now be detected and differentiated with even greater detail. (orig.)

  10. Fish & Wildlife Annual Project Summary, 1983.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-07-01

    BPA's Division of Fish and Wildlife was created in 1982 to develop, coordinate and manage BPA's fish and wildlife program. Division activities protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife resources impacted by hydroelectric development and operation in the Columbia River Basin. At present the Division spends 95% of its budget on restoration projects. In 1983, 83 projects addressed all aspects of the anadromous fish life cycle, non-migratory fish problems and the status of wildlife living near reservoirs.

  11. Functional aspects of emotions in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittilsen, Silje

    2013-11-01

    There is an ongoing scientific discussion on whether fish have emotions, and if so how they experience them? The discussion has incorporated important areas such as brain anatomy and function, physiological and behavioural responses, and the cognitive abilities that fish possess. Little attention has however, been directed towards what functional aspects emotions ought to have in fish. If fish have emotions - why? The elucidation of this question and an assessment of the scientific evidences of emotions in fish in an evolutionary and functional framework would represent a valuable contribution in the discussion on whether fish are emotional creatures. Here parts of the vast amount of literature from both biology and psychology relating to the scientific field of emotions, animal emotion, and the functional aspects that emotions fulfil in the lives of humans and animals are reviewed. Subsequently, by viewing fish behaviour, physiology and cognitive abilities in the light of this functional framework it is possible to infer what functions emotions may serve in fish. This approach may contribute to the vital running discussion on the subject of emotions in fish. In fact, if it can be substantiated that emotions are likely to serve a function in fish similar to that of other higher vertebrate species, the notion that fish do have emotions will be strengthened.

  12. Fishing down nutrients on coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgeier, Jacob E.; Valdivia, Abel; Cox, Courtney; Layman, Craig A.

    2016-08-01

    Fishing is widely considered a leading cause of biodiversity loss in marine environments, but the potential effect on ecosystem processes, such as nutrient fluxes, is less explored. Here, we test how fishing on Caribbean coral reefs influences biodiversity and ecosystem functions provided by the fish community, that is, fish-mediated nutrient capacity. Specifically, we modelled five processes of nutrient storage (in biomass) and supply (via excretion) of nutrients, as well as a measure of their multifunctionality, onto 143 species of coral reef fishes across 110 coral reef fish communities. These communities span a gradient from extreme fishing pressure to protected areas with little to no fishing. We find that in fished sites fish-mediated nutrient capacity is reduced almost 50%, despite no substantial changes in the number of species. Instead, changes in community size and trophic structure were the primary cause of shifts in ecosystem function. These findings suggest that a broader perspective that incorporates predictable impacts of fishing pressure on ecosystem function is imperative for effective coral reef conservation and management.

  13. [Progress in transgenic fish techniques and application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xing; Tian, Yuan-Yuan; Gao, Feng-Ying

    2011-05-01

    Transgenic technique provides a new way for fish breeding. Stable lines of growth hormone gene transfer carps, salmon and tilapia, as well as fluorescence protein gene transfer zebra fish and white cloud mountain minnow have been produced. The fast growth characteristic of GH gene transgenic fish will be of great importance to promote aquaculture production and economic efficiency. This paper summarized the progress in transgenic fish research and ecological assessments. Microinjection is still the most common used method, but often resulted in multi-site and multi-copies integration. Co-injection of transposon or meganuclease will greatly improve the efficiency of gene transfer and integration. "All fish" gene or "auto gene" should be considered to produce transgenic fish in order to eliminate misgiving on food safety and to benefit expression of the transferred gene. Environmental risk is the biggest obstacle for transgenic fish to be commercially applied. Data indicates that transgenic fish have inferior fitness compared with the traditional domestic fish. However, be-cause of the genotype-by-environment effects, it is difficult to extrapolate simple phenotypes to the complex ecological interactions that occur in nature based on the ecological consequences of the transgenic fish determined in the laboratory. It is critical to establish highly naturalized environments for acquiring reliable data that can be used to evaluate the environ-mental risk. Efficacious physical and biological containment strategies remain to be crucial approaches to ensure the safe application of transgenic fish technology.

  14. Selectivity of fish ladders: a bottleneck in Neotropical fish movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sérgio Agostinho

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although dozens of fish ladders have been constructed at dams of Brazilian reservoirs, there are few studies evaluating their efficiency as a tool for the conservation of Neotropical ichthyofauna, especially for migratory species. Therefore, the present study evaluated the selectivity of the species that entered and ascended the fish ladder located next to Lajeado Dam (Luis Eduardo Magalhães Hydroelectric Power Plant on the Tocantins River. Samples were taken monthly from November, 2002 through October, 2003, in the resting pools of the ladder, using cast nets, and in the downstream stretch, using gillnets. The selectivity of the ladder in attracting fish was evaluated by comparing the occurrence, relative abundance, dominance and the congruence of abundance ranks of migratory and non-migratory species in the ladder and in the stretch of river immediately downstream. Species richness and fish abundance in the resting pools were used to evaluate selectivity along the ladder. The effects on selectivity by temporal variations in water level downriver and maximum flow velocity in the fish ladder were also analyzed. Out of the 130 species recorded downriver, 62.3% were caught in the ladder, and migratory species were clearly favored. However, more than 2/3 of the catch belonged to only three species (Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Psectrogaster amazonica and Oxydoras niger. Although the majority of the species that entered the ladder were able to reach its top, there was a sharp reduction in abundance of individuals towards the top. Temporal variations in the water level below the dam influenced richness and abundance of fish concentrated downstream and in the ladder, with lower values during periods of low water. In the ladder, a maximum flow velocity of 2.3 m/s, although also selective, proved to be more appropriate for fish ascension than a velocity of 2.8 m/s. It was concluded that the entry and ascension of the fish in the ladder were not congruent with

  15. Thermal effects on fish ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutant, Charles C.

    1976-01-01

    Of all the environmental factors that influence aquatic organisms, temperature is the most all-pervasive. There is always an environmental temperature while other factors may or may not be present to exert their effects. Fish are, for all practical purposes, thermal conformers, or obligate poikilotherms. That is, they are able to exert little significant influence on maintaining a certain body temperature by specialized metabolic or behavioral means. Their body temperature thus fluctuates nearly in concert with the temperature of their aquatic medium (although particularly large, actively-moving fish such as tuna have deep muscle temperatures slightly higher than the water). Intimate contact at the gills of body fluids with the outside water and the high specific heat of water provide a very efficient heat exchanger that insures this near identity of internal and external temperatures.

  16. Stanley E. Fish's Speech Acts

    OpenAIRE

    García Landa, José Ángel

    2009-01-01

    Stanley Fish es el máximo exponente norteamericano de la estética de la recepción postestructuralista, y se cuenta entre quienes extendieron a la literatura la teoría pragmalingüística de los actos de habla. También es célebre su crítica de la lingüística formalista. Este artículo critica sus teorías sobre la arbitrariedad del significado literario tomando como punto de partida las insuficiencias de su teoría del lenguaje, y más en particular la interpretación que hace Fish de la estructura d...

  17. Biotechnology Applications in Fish Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makbule Baylan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to put cultured species on the market with high quality and few casualties, many important studies are carried out. Most of the researches are conducted in the development of feed and feed ingredients 30-60% of the production cost in farming. Therefore, in aquaculture, an interest in alternative feed ingredients is moving at a very fast rate. In this context, the use of enzymes, probiotics and prebiotics in animal feed has steadily increased in recent years with reasons such as effective control of fish diseases and prevention of infection, strengthening the immune system of fish, increase of the digestibility, reduction of the feed cost, reduction of larval-term mortality, provision of increase in growth, live weight gain, and getting rid of the negative effects of stress.

  18. Freshwater fishes of Tsitsikamma National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Russell

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the distribution and relative abundance of freshwater fishes in the Tsitsikamma National Park. Fish assemblages in six river systems were sampled in 2001, with a total of 323 fish from eight species recorded. Indigenous fish collected included four freshwater species (Pseudobarbus afer, Pseudobarbus tenuis, Sandelia capensis, Anguilla mossambica, three estuarine species (Monodactylus falciformis, Caffrogobius gilchristi, Myxus capensis, and one alien (Micropterus salmoides. One additional indigenous species (Galaxias zebratus and two aliens (Salmo trutta, Oncorhynchus mykiss could potentially occur within the park. The topography and locality of the park presents a unique opportunity to meaningfully conserve the endangered P. tenuis as well as other fish characteristic of the eastern reaches of the Cape Floristic Region. Management action is required to minimise opportunities for further establishment and spread of alien fish species and to conserve indigenous fish assemblages within the park.

  19. Fish intake in pregnancy and child growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stratakis, N.; Roumeliotaki, T.; Oken, E.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Maternal fish intake in pregnancy has been shown to influence fetal growth. The extent to which fish intake affects childhood growth and obesity remains unclear. OBJECTIVE To examine whether fish intake in pregnancy is associated with offspring growth and the risk of childhood overweight...... through middle childhood compared with women with lower fish intake (3 times/week or less). High fish intake during pregnancy (>3 times/week) was associated with increased risk of rapid infant growth, with an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 1.22 (95%CI, 1.05-1.42) and increased risk of offspring overweight/obesity...... among boys (aOR, 1.11 [95%CI, 0.92-1.34]; P = .02 for interaction). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE High maternal fish intake during pregnancy was associated with increased risk of rapid growth in infancy and childhood obesity. Our findings are in line with the fish intake limit proposed by the US Food...

  20. Key Contributors to Variations in Fish Mercury Within and Among Freshwater Reservoirs in Oklahoma, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhao; Lynch, Robert A.; Schaider, Laurel A.

    2017-01-01

    Elevated fish mercury (Hg) concentrations in freshwater ecosystems worldwide are a significant human and ecological health concern. Mercury bioaccumulation and biomagnification in lakes and reservoirs are controlled by numerous biogeochemical and ecological factors, contributing to variability in fish Hg concentrations both within and among systems. We measured total mercury concentrations ([THg]) and stable isotopes (δ15N, δ13C) in over 30 fish species in two connected subtropical freshwater reservoirs (Grand Lake and Lake Hudson, Oklahoma, USA), their tributaries, and local farm ponds, all of which are potentially impacted by nearby atmospheric Hg sources. We also conducted an inter-system analysis among 61 reservoirs in Oklahoma to explore biological, chemical and physical factors associated with fish [THg] across systems. We found that [THg] for most species in Grand Lake and Lake Hudson were relatively low compared to other reservoirs in Oklahoma. There were significant spatial variations in many species within and between Grand Lake and Lake Hudson, even after accounting for length and/or trophic position (based on δ15N). Fish in local farm ponds, commonly used in the agricultural regions for raising game fish, had 2–17 times higher [THg] than fish of similar length in nearby reservoirs. The inter-system analysis revealed that pH, water color, rainfall, and nutrients are the best predictors of fish [THg] across systems. Our results provide insight into the key factors associated with fish [THg] variations both within and across systems, and may be useful for exposure assessment and for identifying sites and water bodies prone to high fish [THg] as monitoring priorities. PMID:26729635

  1. Multicolor FISHs for simultaneous detection of genes and DNA segments on human chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Nobuyoshi; Maekawa, Masahiko; Asai, Satoko; Shimizu, Yoshiko

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a convenient multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) (five-, four-, three-, and two-color FISHs) for detecting specific genes/DNA segments on the human chromosomes. As a foundation of multicolor FISH, we first isolated 80 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) probes that specifically detect the peri-centromeres (peri-CEN) and subtelomeres (subTEL) of 24 different human chromosomes (nos. 1~22, X, and Y) by screening our homemade BAC library (Keio BAC library) consisting of 200,000 clones. Five-color FISH was performed using human DNA segments specific for peri-CEN or subTEL, which were labeled with five different fluorescent dyes [7-diethylaminocoumarin (DEAC): blue, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC): green, rhodamine 6G (R6G): yellow, TexRed: red, and cyanine5 (Cy5): purple]. To observe FISH signals under a fluorescence microscope, five optic filters were carefully chosen to avoid overlapping fluorescence emission. Five-color FISH and four-color FISH enabled us to accurately examine the numerical anomaly of human chromosomes. Three-color FISH using two specific BAC clones, that distinguish 5' half of oncogene epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) from its 3' half, revealed the amplification and truncation of EGFR in EGFR-overproducing cancer cells. Moreover, two-color FISH readily detected a fusion gene in leukemia cells such as breakpoint cluster region (BCR)/Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homologue (ABL) on the Philadelphia (Ph') chromosome with interchromosomal translocation. Some other successful cases such as trisomy 21 of Down syndrome are presented. Potential applications of multicolor FISH will be discussed.

  2. The functional role of tabular structures for large reef fishes: avoiding predators or solar irradiance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry, J. T.; Bellwood, D. R.

    2015-06-01

    Large reef fishes may often be seen sheltering under tabular structures on coral reefs. There are two principle explanations for this behaviour: avoidance of predation or avoidance of solar irradiance. This study sought supporting evidence to distinguish between these two explanations by examining the usage of tabular structures on a shallow mid-shelf reef of the Great Barrier Reef at midday and sunset. If predation avoidance is most important, usage should increase towards sunset; conversely, if avoidance of solar radiation is most important, more fishes should use cover at midday. Underwater video observations revealed that tabular structures were extensively used by large reef fishes at midday, being characterised by numerous species, especially Lutjanidae and Haemulidae. In contrast, at sunset, tabular structures were used by significantly fewer large reef fishes, being characterised mostly by species of unicornfish ( Naso spp.). Resident times of fishes using tabular structures were also significantly longer at midday (28:06 ± 5:55 min) than at sunset (07:47 ± 2:19 min). The results suggest that the primary function of tabular structures for large reef fishes is the avoidance of solar irradiance. This suggestion is supported by the position of fishes when sheltering. The majority of large reef fishes were found to shelter under the lip of tabular structure, facing outwards. This behaviour is thought to allow protection from harmful downwelling UV-B irradiance while allowing the fish to retain photopic vision and survey more of the surrounding area. These findings help to explain the importance of tabular structures for large reef fishes on coral reefs, potentially providing a valuable energetic refuge from solar irradiance.

  3. Complete genome sequence of the fish pathogen Flavobacterium branchiophilum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchon, Marie; Barbier, Paul; Bernardet, Jean-François; Loux, Valentin; Vacherie, Benoit; Barbe, Valérie; Rocha, Eduardo P C; Duchaud, Eric

    2011-11-01

    Members of the genus Flavobacterium occur in a variety of ecological niches and represent an interesting diversity of lifestyles. Flavobacterium branchiophilum is the main causative agent of bacterial gill disease, a severe condition affecting various cultured freshwater fish species worldwide, in particular salmonids in Canada and Japan. We report here the complete genome sequence of strain FL-15 isolated from a diseased sheatfish (Silurus glanis) in Hungary. The analysis of the F. branchiophilum genome revealed putative mechanisms of pathogenicity strikingly different from those of the other, closely related fish pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum, including the first cholera-like toxin in a non-Proteobacteria and a wealth of adhesins. The comparison with available genomes of other Flavobacterium species revealed a small genome size, large differences in chromosome organization, and fewer rRNA and tRNA genes, in line with its more fastidious growth. In addition, horizontal gene transfer shaped the evolution of F. branchiophilum, as evidenced by its virulence factors, genomic islands, and CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) systems. Further functional analysis should help in the understanding of host-pathogen interactions and in the development of rational diagnostic tools and control strategies in fish farms.

  4. A Stochastic Production Investigation of Fish Farms in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Onumah

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the stochastic production frontier approach to analyse the technical efficiency and its determinants of fish farms in Ghana using a cross-section data of 150 farms. It considers the explicit effects of family and hired labour on production by setting the log-value of the zero-observation of these two sources of labour to zero with dummy variables. Results demonstrate that expected elasticities of mean output with respect to all input variables are positive and significant. Findings also show that family and hired labour used for fish farming in Ghana may be equally productive. Fish farms in Ghana are revealed to be characterised by technology with increasing return to scale. The combined effects of operational and farm specific factors are found to influence efficiency. The study further reveals that inclusion of interaction between some exogenous variables in the inefficiency model is significant in explaining the variation in efficiency. Results also suggest that small pond operators are more efficient than farms with large ponds. Mean technical efficiency is estimated to be 78 percent.

  5. I was A Little Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗梅; 周瑜

    2005-01-01

    I was a little fish, living in a beautiful river. The river was not wide but long,its water was warm and clean. It was my comfortable home.l swam up and down freely every day.I had a lot of good friends. They often came to see me.We got together,singing, dancing and travelling, the grass by the river was green, the sky above it was blue. Howhappy we were!

  6. Available lysine in canned fish

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, D. Ramananda; Gadre, Ujjwala V.

    1984-01-01

    Otolithus argenteus was canned in brine by heat processing at two different steam pressures either at 0.70 kg/cm super(2) or 1.05 kg/cm super(2) for 25 minutes. The nutritive value of canned fish as evaluated by the total nitrogen and available lysine did not alter much either during heat processing or during storage over a period of nine months at 28 degree plus or minus 5 degree C.

  7. Synchronized Swimming of Two Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumoutsakos, Petros; Novati, Guido; Abbati, Gabriele; Hejazialhosseini, Babak; van Rees, Wim

    2015-11-01

    We present simulations of two, self-propelled, fish-like swimmers that perform synchronized moves in a two-dimensional, viscous fluid. The swimmers learn to coordinate by receiving a reward for their synchronized actions. We analyze the swimming patterns emerging for different rewards in terms of their hydrodynamic efficiency and artistic impression. European Research Council (ERC) Advanced Investigator Award (No. 2-73985-14).

  8. Fish populations surviving estrogen pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedekind, Claus

    2014-02-10

    Among the most common pollutants that enter the environment after passing municipal wastewater treatment are estrogens, especially the synthetic 17α-ethinylestradiol that is used in oral contraceptives. Estrogens are potent endocrine disruptors at concentrations frequently observed in surface waters. However, new genetic analyses suggest that some fish populations can be self-sustaining even in heavily polluted waters. We now need to understand the basis of this tolerance.

  9. Habitat quality and fish population

    OpenAIRE

    Tafesse Tirkaso, Wondmagegn; Gren, Ing-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Degradation of marine ecosystem due to, among others, eutrophication and climate change, has been of concern for sustainable fishery management worldwide, but studies on associated impacts on fish populations are rare. The purpose of this study is to estimate effects of nutrient loads, which cause eutrophication, on the perch population at the Swedish east coast. To this end, we use a modified Gordon-Schaefer logistic growth model for econometric estimation of perch population on the Swedish ...

  10. Fish demand and supply projections

    OpenAIRE

    Sverdrup-Jensen, S.

    1997-01-01

    It has been predicted that the global demand for fish for human consumption will increase by more than 50% over the next 15 years. The FAO has projected that the increase in supply will originate primarily from marine fisheries, aquaculture and to a lesser extent from inland fisheries, but with a commensurate price increase. However, there are constraints to increased production in both marine and inland fisheries, such as overfishing, overexploitation limited potential increase and environme...

  11. Translational medicine in fish-derived peptides: from fish endocrinology to human physiology and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazuhiro

    2004-02-01

    Recent studies have revealed the importance of fish-derived peptide hormones to human endocrinology. These peptides include melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), urocortins (human urotensin-I), and urotensin-II. MCH, a hypothalamic peptide, is a potent stimulator on appetite. Urocortins, e.g. urocortin 1 and urocortin 3 (stresscopin), are endogenous ligands for the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors, particularly CRF type 2 receptor, that mediates a vasodilator action, a positive inotropic action and a central appetite-inhibiting action. These actions mediated by CRF type 2 receptor may ameliorate the stress response. Human urotensin-II is a potent vasoconstrictor peptide, while it acts as a vasodilator on some arteries. Human urotensin-II is expressed in various types of cells and tissues, including cardiovascular tissues, as well as many types of tumor cells. Thus, these fish-derived peptides appear to play important roles in human physiology, such as appetite regulation, stress response and cardiovascular regulation, and also in diseases, for example, obesity, cardiovascular diseases and tumors. Development of antagonists/agonists against the receptors for these peptides may open new strategies for the treatment of various diseases, including obesity-related diseases, hypertension, heart failure and malignant tumors.

  12. Nutritive value of fish meal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain M.E.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to find out the variations in the chemical composition of different types of fish meal available in the metropolitan areas of Chittagong, Bangladesh. Fifteen different types of fish meal samples were collected from study areas. Chemical analyses of the samples were carried out in triplicate for dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, crude fiber (CF, nitrogen free extract (NFE, ether extract (EE and total ash (TA in the animal nutrition and poultry research and training centre (PRTC laboratory, Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Metabolizable energy (ME was estimated mathematically for all samples by using standard formula. Results indicated that, DM, CP, NFE, EE, TA and ME content significantly differed (P0.05 variation was found in the CF contents of the samples. DM content varied from 86.7 to 96.7%, CP content varied from 31.3 to 61.2%, EE content varied from 0.8 to 23.5%, NFE content varied from 0.6 to 14.6%, Ash content varied from 13.3 to 36.7% and ME content varied from 1788.4 to 3478.8 kcal/kg. It could therefore be inferred that, the chemical composition of fish meal available in the local market are widely variable. Therefore, every sample needs to be analyzed before use for ration formulation.

  13. [Toxicity of puffer fish fins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Shunichi; Ichimaru, Shunichi; Arakawa, Osamu; Takatani, Tomohiro; Noguchi, Tamao; Ishizaki, Shoichiro; Nagashima, Yuji

    2007-10-01

    Puffer fish is prized as a Japanese traditional food and its fin is also used in the cuisine. However, whether the fin is edible or not is determined for convenience from the toxicity of skin, since little information is available about the toxicity of puffer fish fins. In the present study, we examined the toxicity of fins and skin of three toxic species, Takifugu vermicularis, T. snyderi, and T. porphyreus. The toxicity of T. vermicularis fins (< 5-52.4 MU/g) was significantly lower than that of skin (<5-1200 MU/g). HPLC analysis showed that tetrodotoxin was a major toxic principle irrespective of the toxicity value in each tissue of T. vermicularis. In the case of T. snyderi and T. porphyreus, the toxicity of fins was at almost the same level as that of the skin. The toxicity (< 10-12 MU/g) of caudal fins of T. porphyreus was apparently increased to 16.5-22.0 MU/g by drying. However, the toxin amounts in the dried fins were slightly decreased as compared with those of the non-dried fins. These results demonstrate that puffer fish with toxic skin also have toxic fins.

  14. Fish ladders: safe fish passage or hotspot for predation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Antonio Agostinho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish ladders are a strategy for conserving biodiversity, as they can provide connectivity between fragmented habitats and reduce predation on shoals that accumulate immediately below dams. Although the impact of predation downstream of reservoirs has been investigated, especially in juvenile salmonids during their downstream movements, nothing is known about predation on Neotropical fish in the attraction and containment areas commonly found in translocation facilities. This study analysed predation in a fish passage system at the Lajeado Dam on the Tocantins River in Brazil. The abundance, distribution, and the permanence (time spent of large predatory fish along the ladder, the injuries imposed by piranhas during passage and the presence of other vertebrate predators were investigated. From December 2002 to October 2003, sampling was conducted in four regions (downstream, along the ladder, in the forebay, and upstream of the reservoir using gillnets, cast nets and counts or visual observations. The captured fish were tagged with thread and beads, and any mutilations were registered. Fish, birds and dolphins were the main predator groups observed, with a predominance of the first two groups. The entrance to the ladder, in the downstream region, was the area with the highest number of large predators and was the only region with relevant non-fish vertebrates. The main predatory fish species were Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Hydrolycus armatus, and Serrasalmus rhombeus. Tagged individuals were detected predating along the ladder for up to 90 days. Mutilations caused by Serrasalmus attacks were noted in 36% of species and 4% of individuals at the top of the ladder. Our results suggested that the high density of fish in the restricted ladder environment, which is associated with injuries suffered along the ladder course and the presence of multiple predator groups with different predation strategies, transformed the fish corridor into a hotspot for

  15. SPECTRAL AND SPATIAL SELECTIVITY OF LUMINANCE VISION IN REEF FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike E Siebeck

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Luminance vision has high spatial resolution and is used for form vision and texture discrimination. In humans, birds and bees luminance channel is spectrally selective – it depends on the signals of the long-wavelength sensitive photoreceptors (bees or on the sum of long- and middle- wavelength sensitive cones (humans, but not on the signal of the short-wavelength sensitive (blue photoreceptors. The reasons of such selectivity are not fully understood. The aim of this study is to reveal the inputs of cone signals to high resolution luminance vision in reef fish. 16 freshly caught damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis, were trained to discriminate stimuli differing either in their colour or in their fine patterns (stripes vs. cheques. Three colours (‘bright green’, ‘dark green’ and ‘blue’ were used to create two sets of colour and two sets of pattern stimuli. The ‘bright green’ and ‘dark green’ were similar in their chromatic properties for fish, but differed in their lightness; the ‘dark green’ differed from ‘blue’ in the signal for the blue cone, but yielded similar signals in the long-wavelength and middle-wavelength cones. Fish easily learned to discriminate ‘bright green’ from ‘dark green’ and ‘dark green’ from ‘blue’ stimuli. Fish also could discriminate the fine patterns created from ‘dark green’ and ‘bright green’. However, fish failed to discriminate fine patterns created from ‘blue’ and ‘dark green’ colours, i.e. the colours that provided contrast for the blue-sensitive photoreceptor, but not for the long-wavelength sensitive one. High resolution luminance vision in damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis, does not have input from the blue-sensitive cone, which may indicate that the spectral selectivity of luminance channel is a general feature of visual processing in both aquatic and terrestrial animals.

  16. Combating iodine and iron deficiencies through the double fortification of fish sauce, mixed fish sauce, and salt brine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavasit, Visith; Nopburabutr, Preeyacha; Kongkachuichai, Ratchanee

    2003-06-01

    Two iodine and seven iron compounds were tested for use in the fortification of pure fish sauce, mixed fish sauce, and salt brine for cooking as a means to combat iodine and iron deficiencies. Ferrous sulfate, sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, ferric ammonium citrate, and ferrous lactate were combined with potassium iodide with no effect on sensory quality. Product shelf-life testing revealed that no iron or iodine losses occurred during a three-month storage period. Although the color of most products darkened, the color was not significantly different from that of nonfortified products after two to three months. Sensory home-use tests revealed that the fortified products were acceptable to highly acceptable, with only 1.2% to 8.2% of the dishes cooked using the fortified products being reported as discolored. The cost of fortification was minimal, at 0.13 to 2.73 baht per bottle (750 ml) (42 baht = US$1). Consequently, these products show a potential for inclusion in national programs for the prevention of micronutrient deficiencies in Asian countries where fish sauce and its products are routinely consumed.

  17. Consumer evaluation of fish quality as basis for fish market segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Vermeir, Iris; Brunsø, Karen

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on consumer evaluation of fish quality and its association with fish consumption, risk and benefit beliefs and information processing variables. Cross-sectional data were collected from a sample of 429 consumers in March 2003 in Belgium. Two dimensions shape fish quality...... evaluation: personal relevance attached to fish quality and self-confidence in fish quality evaluation, which allow segmenting the market in four fish consumer segments. The segments are typified as Uninvolved, Uncertain, Self-confident and Connoisseurs, and have distinctive behavioural, attitudinal...... and socio-demographic profiles. The Uninvolved are mainly young males, have the lowest fish consumption level, weakest belief in health benefits from eating fish, and lowest interest in both search and credence information cues. Uncertain fish consumers are mainly females, with a tendency of lower education...

  18. [Progress on the degeneration mechanism of cave fishes' eyes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xian; Ning, Tiao; Xiao, Heng

    2012-08-01

    Attempts to understand the degeneration of the eyes in cave fish has largely been explained by either various extents of gradual degeneration, ranging from partial to total loss, observed in various species or by acceleration of loss caused by dark environments. However, neither the theory of biological evolution developed by Charles Darwin nor the neutral theory of molecular evolution formulated by Kimura Motoo adequately explains these phenomena. Recent trends in utilizing multidisciplinary research, however, have yielded better results, helping reveal a more complex picture of the mechanisms of degeneration. Here, we summarize the current progress of the research via morphology and anatomy, development biology, animal behavior science and molecular genetics, and offer some perspectives on the ongoing research into the development and degeneration of eyes in cave fish.

  19. Global imprint of historical connectivity on freshwater fish biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Murilo S; Oberdorff, Thierry; Hugueny, Bernard; Leprieur, Fabien; Jézéquel, Céline; Cornu, Jean-François; Brosse, Sébastien; Grenouillet, Gael; Tedesco, Pablo A

    2014-09-01

    The relative importance of contemporary and historical processes is central for understanding biodiversity patterns. While several studies show that past conditions can partly explain the current biodiversity patterns, the role of history remains elusive. We reconstructed palaeo-drainage basins under lower sea level conditions (Last Glacial Maximum) to test whether the historical connectivity between basins left an imprint on the global patterns of freshwater fish biodiversity. After controlling for contemporary and past environmental conditions, we found that palaeo-connected basins displayed greater species richness but lower levels of endemism and beta diversity than did palaeo-disconnected basins. Palaeo-connected basins exhibited shallower distance decay of compositional similarity, suggesting that palaeo-river connections favoured the exchange of fish species. Finally, we found that a longer period of palaeo-connection resulted in lower levels of beta diversity. These findings reveal the first unambiguous results of the role played by history in explaining the global contemporary patterns of biodiversity.

  20. Total mercury content in fish und molluscs from Adriatic sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedrina-Dragojevic, I. [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Dept. of Food Chemistry; Dragojevic, D. [Water Quality Dept., Waterworks, Zagreb (Croatia); Bujan, M. [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Dept. of Chemistry

    2002-07-01

    In regard to a long known and still persisting problem of the ecosystem loaded with mercury, total mercury contents in different species of fish and molluscs in the Adriatic Sea have been followed in an interval of 12 years. Total mercury concentrations were determined by cold vapour atomic adsorption spectrometry (CVAAS) at 253. 7 nm after digestion of the edible of fish tissues. The results of analysis reveal positive shifts and unlike the samples in a previous study all the investigated samples meet the conditions of the Public Health Regulations on the quantity of pesticides, mycotoxins, metals, histamine and similar substances that may occur in foodstuff and on other conditions as to the standards of foodstuff and objects of general use, which fixed the total Hg content at maximum of 0.5 mg/kg on the basis of fresh mass. (orig.)

  1. FISH NUTRITION: BIBLIOMETRIC ANALYSIS IN BRAZIL AND THE WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fanttini POLESE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Science of fish nutrition is an important issue and of great importance from the point of view of developing new diets with respect to the nutritional requirements of various fish species and the environment, with many published articles addressing the subject. The objective of this study was to make a bibliometric analysis to identify trends in publications worldwide and in Brazil. Took place during the month of December 2011, searches the Scopus base and recorded information related to the main countries, authors, publishing and institutions vehicles. The study revealed that Brazil, besides occupying Featured number of articles on the subject, including having a center of excellence in the subject, presented high growth rates of articles, compared to global rates. Further, it was found that most of the articles on the topic is concentrated in a few authors, institutions and journals.

  2. Stability and generalization in seed dispersal networks: a case study of frugivorous fish in Neotropical wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Sandra Bibiana; Arujo, Joisiane K; Penha, Jerry; Nunes da Cunha, Catia; Bobier, Karen E; Anderson, Jill T

    2016-08-31

    When species within guilds perform similar ecological roles, functional redundancy can buffer ecosystems against species loss. Using data on the frequency of interactions between fish and fruit, we assessed whether co-occurring frugivores provide redundant seed dispersal services in three species-rich Neotropical wetlands. Our study revealed that frugivorous fishes have generalized diets; however, large-bodied fishes had greater seed dispersal breadth than small species, in some cases, providing seed dispersal services not achieved by smaller fish species. As overfishing disproportionately affects big fishes, the extirpation of these species could cause larger secondary extinctions of plant species than the loss of small specialist frugivores. To evaluate the consequences of frugivore specialization for network stability, we extracted data from 39 published seed dispersal networks of frugivorous birds, mammals and fish (our networks) across ecosystems. Our analysis of interaction frequencies revealed low frugivore specialization and lower nestedness than analyses based on binary data (presence-absence of interactions). In that case, ecosystems may be resilient to loss of any given frugivore. However, robustness to frugivore extinction declines with specialization, such that networks composed primarily of specialist frugivores are highly susceptible to the loss of generalists. In contrast with analyses of binary data, recently developed algorithms capable of modelling interaction strengths provide opportunities to enhance our understanding of complex ecological networks by accounting for heterogeneity of frugivore-fruit interactions.

  3. Fish community structure and distribution in a macro-tidal inshore habitat in the Irish Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Boris; Longmore, Craig; O'Leary, Áine; Mariani, Stefano

    2007-10-01

    Estuaries, lagoons and mudflat habitats represent a crucial biodiversity component in coastal waters and may act as vital nurseries and shelters for the juvenile stages of many commercial fish species. A study of the spatial distribution of inshore fish fauna around the shallow coastal habitats of North Bull Island (Dublin Bay, Ireland) was carried out during summer and autumn of 2005, in order to characterise the fish community present therein. Four stations were examined, situated along a putative environmental gradient, between the mudflat and the open sea shore. Stations were surveyed at both high and low tide and sampling was repeated weekly for eight weeks, spanning over four spring and four neap tidal events. A total of 17 fish species were caught, belonging to 13 families. The community was largely dominated by the lesser sandeel ( Ammodytes tobianus) and the common goby ( Pomatoschistus microps). Ordination techniques were used to generate hypotheses as to the general patterns in the fish community; Shannon-Wiener index was employed to estimate spatial, temporal and tidal trends in diversity; and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to test for the influence of time of the year, habitat, tidal phase and tidal state on the spatial distribution of fishes. Results reveal that time of the year and habitat variation across the environmental gradient are the major factors in determining fish community structure. The influence of tidal dynamics seem to have a lesser impact on the overall community, but can significantly and variably affect the distribution of individual species.

  4. Chlamydial infections of fish: diverse pathogens and emerging causes of disease in aquaculture species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stride, M C; Polkinghorne, A; Nowak, B F

    2014-05-14

    Chlamydial infections of fish are emerging as an important cause of disease in new and established aquaculture industries. To date, epitheliocystis, a skin and gill disease associated with infection by these obligate intracellular pathogens, has been described in over 90 fish species, including hosts from marine and fresh water environments. Aided by advances in molecular detection and typing, recent years have seen an explosion in the description of these epitheliocystis-related chlamydial pathogens of fish, significantly broadening our knowledge of the genetic diversity of the order Chlamydiales. Remarkably, in most cases, it seems that each new piscine host studied has revealed the presence of a phylogenetically unique and novel chlamydial pathogen, providing researchers with a fascinating opportunity to understand the origin, evolution and adaptation of their traditional terrestrial chlamydial relatives. Despite the advances in this area, much still needs to be learnt about the epidemiology of chlamydial infections in fish if these pathogens are to be controlled in farmed environments. The lack of in vitro methods for culturing of chlamydial pathogens of fish is a major hindrance to this field. This review provides an update on our current knowledge of the taxonomy and diversity of chlamydial pathogens of fish, discusses the impact of these infections on the health, and highlights further areas of research required to understand the biology and epidemiology of this important emerging group of fish pathogens of aquaculture species.

  5. Fin-Body Interaction and its Hydrodynamic Benefits in Fish's Steady Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Geng; Ren, Yan; Dong, Haibo; Lauder, George

    2016-11-01

    In many past studies on fish swimming, the hydrodynamics of fish caudal fins were investigated separately. However, fish body inevitably interacts with the caudal fin since the fin flaps in the wake of the body during swimming. In this work, an integrated experimental and computational approach has been used to investigate hydrodynamic performance improvement and the vortex dynamics associated with the fin-body interactions of a jack fish in steady swimming. Realistic 3D jack fish geometry and the undulatory kinematics are reconstructed based on the output of a high-speed photogrammetry system. Hydrodynamic performance and wake structures are simulated by an in-house immersed-boundary-method flow solver. It is found that the body-fin interactions enhance the thrust production of the caudal fin by more than 30% compared to that produced by an isolated caudal fin. Further analysis on the vortex dynamics has shown that the vortices shed from the posterior part of the fish body are captured by the leading edge portion of the caudal fin. This further enhances the strength of the leading-edge vortex attaching to the caudal fin and results in larger thrust production. This work reveals a potential performance enhancement mechanism in fish's steady swimming. This work was supported by NSF CBET-1313217 and ONR MURI N00014-14-1-0533.

  6. Polyphasic characterization of Aeromonas salmonicida isolates recovered from salmonid and non-salmonid fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamanka, A.; Loch, T.P.; Cipriano, R.C.; Faisal, M.

    2013-01-01

    Michigan's fisheries rely primarily upon the hatchery propagation of salmonid fish for release in public waters. One limitation on the success of these efforts is the presence of bacterial pathogens, including Aeromonas salmonicida, the causative agent of furunculosis. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of A. salmonicida in Michigan fish, as well as to determine whether biochemical or gene sequence variability exists among Michigan isolates. A total of 2202 wild, feral and hatchery-propagated fish from Michigan were examined for the presence of A. salmonicida. The examined fish included Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), coho salmon, O. kisutcha (Walbaum), steelhead trout, O. mykiss (Walbaum), Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill), and yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill). Among these, 234 fish yielded a brown pigment-producing bacterium that was presumptively identified as A. salmonicida. Further phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses identified representative isolates as Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and revealed some genetic and biochemical variability. Logistic regression analyses showed that infection prevalence varied according to fish species/strain, year and gender, whereby Chinook salmon and females had the highest infection prevalence. Moreover, this pathogen was found in six fish species from eight sites, demonstrating its widespread nature within Michigan.

  7. Assessment of micronuclei induction in peripheral erythrocytes of fish exposed to xenobiotics under controlled conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolognesi, Claudia [Environmental Carcinogenesis Unit, National Institute for Research on Cancer, L.go Rosanna Benzi, 10, 16132 Genoa (Italy)]. E-mail: claudia.bolognesi@istge.it; Perrone, Emanuela [Environmental Carcinogenesis Unit, National Institute for Research on Cancer, L.go Rosanna Benzi, 10, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Roggieri, Paola [Environmental Carcinogenesis Unit, National Institute for Research on Cancer, L.go Rosanna Benzi, 10, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Pampanin, Daniela M. [IRIS - International Research Institute of Stavanger AS, Mekjarvik 12, N-4070 Randaberg (Norway); Sciutto, Andrea [Environmental Carcinogenesis Unit, National Institute for Research on Cancer, L.go Rosanna Benzi, 10, 16132 Genoa (Italy)

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to standardize and to assess the predictive value of the cytogenetic analysis by MN test in fish erythrocytes as a biomarker for marine environmental contamination. MN frequency baseline in erythrocytes was evaluated in a number of fish species from a reference area (S. Teresa, La Spezia Gulf) and genotoxic potential of a number of common chemical contaminants and mixtures was determined in fish experimentally exposed in aquarium under controlled conditions. Fish (Scophthalmus maximus) were exposed for 3 weeks to 50 ppb of single chemicals (dialkyl phthalate, bisphenol A, tetrabromodiphenyl ether), 30 ppb nonylphenol and mixtures (North Sea oil and North Sea oil with alkylated phenols). Chromosomal damage was determined as micronuclei (MN) frequency in fish erythrocytes. Nuclear anomalies such as blebbed, notched and lobed nuclei were also recorded. Significant increase in MN frequency was observed in erythrocytes of fish exposed to bisphenol A and tetrabromodiphenylether. Chemical mixture North Sea oil + alkylated phenols induced the highest MN frequency (2.95 micronucleated cells/1000 cells compared to 1 MNcell/1000 cells in control animals). The study results revealed that micronucleus test, as an index of cumulative exposure, appears to be a sensitive model to evaluate genotoxic compounds in fish under controlled conditions.

  8. Resolution of ray-finned fish phylogeny and timing of diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near, Thomas J; Eytan, Ron I; Dornburg, Alex; Kuhn, Kristen L; Moore, Jon A; Davis, Matthew P; Wainwright, Peter C; Friedman, Matt; Smith, W Leo

    2012-08-21

    Ray-finned fishes make up half of all living vertebrate species. Nearly all ray-finned fishes are teleosts, which include most commercially important fish species, several model organisms for genomics and developmental biology, and the dominant component of marine and freshwater vertebrate faunas. Despite the economic and scientific importance of ray-finned fishes, the lack of a single comprehensive phylogeny with corresponding divergence-time estimates has limited our understanding of the evolution and diversification of this radiation. Our analyses, which use multiple nuclear gene sequences in conjunction with 36 fossil age constraints, result in a well-supported phylogeny of all major ray-finned fish lineages and molecular age estimates that are generally consistent with the fossil record. This phylogeny informs three long-standing problems: specifically identifying elopomorphs (eels and tarpons) as the sister lineage of all other teleosts, providing a unique hypothesis on the radiation of early euteleosts, and offering a promising strategy for resolution of the "bush at the top of the tree" that includes percomorphs and other spiny-finned teleosts. Contrasting our divergence time estimates with studies using a single nuclear gene or whole mitochondrial genomes, we find that the former underestimates ages of the oldest ray-finned fish divergences, but the latter dramatically overestimates ages for derived teleost lineages. Our time-calibrated phylogeny reveals that much of the diversification leading to extant groups of teleosts occurred between the late Mesozoic and early Cenozoic, identifying this period as the "Second Age of Fishes."

  9. Hypocaloric diet associated with the consumption of jam enriched with microencapsulated fish oil decreases insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Paula Soares de Oliveira Carvalho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The metabolic syndrome is related to the increase in cardiovascular diseases. Polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish oil help in reducing cardiovascular risk factors and are natural bindings of PPARy2. Objective: To evaluate the impact of hypocaloric diet associated with microencapsulated fish oil supplementation in women with metabolic syndrome. Methods: We conducted a randomized, single-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial with adult women who presented metabolic syndrome (n = 30 for 90 days. The volunteers were divided into two groups: placebo group (n = 15 and microencapsulated fish oil group (n = 15 (3 g/day of microencapsulated fish oil containing 0.41 g/day of eico-sapentaenoic acid and decosahexaneoic acid. Anthropometric, body composition, clinical and laboratory parameters were assessed before and after the intervention. Paired t-test was used for comparisons within groups and Student's t-test for comparison between groups. We considered p < 0.05 as significant values. Results: The comparison between groups revealed a significant reduction of blood glucose, insulinemia and the homeostasis model assessment in the microencapsulated fish oil group after 90 days, as opposed to the placebo group. We also observed reduction of the systolic arterial pressure in the microencapsulated fish oil group. Conclusion: A hypocaloric diet associated with the consumption of microencapsulated fish oil was effective in reducing blood glucose, insulinemia and insulin resistance in women with MS.

  10. Cadmium concentration in three species of freshwater fishes from Keuretoe River, Northern Aceh, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A. Sarong

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of present study was to evaluate cadmium (Cd concentration in some freshwater fishes found in Keuretoe Rivers and to determine the most effective freshwater fishes (Osphronemus goramy, Anguilla marmorata and Hemibagrus nemurus in accumulating of cadmium. A total of three sampling locations were determined using the purposive of random sampling. A total of three individual fishes at every sampling location were collected, the tissues were processed for Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS and data were analyzed by Anova followed by Duncan multiple range test. The result revealed that the cadmium concentration ranges between 0.0064 ppm and 0.0260 ppm. Anova test showed that the sampling locations did not significantly affect the cadmium accumulation in fishes, but the fish species gave significantly effect on the cadmium accumulation in their tissue. The Duncan test showed that high cadmium accumulation was found in gourami at Station 2 and in mottled eel at Station 1, the concentrations were significantly different from Cd content in bagrid catfish at all sampling locations. The higher of cadmium pollution was recorded in Station 3 and gourami accumulated higher cadmium than other fishes studied. Keuretoe River is contaminated with cadmium and the fishes should not be consumed.

  11. Geographical origin of Amazonian freshwater fishes fingerprinted by ⁸⁷Sr/⁸⁶Sr ratios on fish otoliths and scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouilly, Marc; Point, David; Sondag, Francis; Henry, Manuel; Santos, Roberto V

    2014-08-19

    Calcified structures such as otoliths and scales grow continuously throughout the lifetime of fishes. The geochemical variations present in these biogenic structures are particularly relevant for studying fish migration and origin. In order to investigate the potential of the (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio as a precise biogeochemical tag in Amazonian fishes, we compared this ratio between the water and fish otoliths and scales of two commercial fish species, Hoplias malabaricus and Schizodon fasciatus, from three major drainage basins of the Amazon: the Madeira, Solimões, and Tapajós rivers, displaying contrasted (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios. A comparison of the (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios between the otoliths and scales of the same individuals revealed similar values and were very close to the Sr isotopic composition of the local river where they were captured. This indicates, first, the absence of Sr isotopic fractionation during biological uptake and incorporation into calcified structures and, second, that scales may represent an interesting nonlethal alternative for (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio measurements in comparison to otoliths. Considering the wide range of (87)Sr/(86)Sr variations that exist across Amazonian rivers, we used variations of (87)Sr/(86)Sr to discriminate fish origin at the basin level, as well as at the sub-basin level between the river and savannah lakes of the Beni River (Madeira basin).

  12. Estimating the worldwide extent of illegal fishing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Agnew

    Full Text Available Illegal and unreported fishing contributes to overexploitation of fish stocks and is a hindrance to the recovery of fish populations and ecosystems. This study is the first to undertake a world-wide analysis of illegal and unreported fishing. Reviewing the situation in 54 countries and on the high seas, we estimate that lower and upper estimates of the total value of current illegal and unreported fishing losses worldwide are between $10 bn and $23.5 bn annually, representing between 11 and 26 million tonnes. Our data are of sufficient resolution to detect regional differences in the level and trend of illegal fishing over the last 20 years, and we can report a significant correlation between governance and the level of illegal fishing. Developing countries are most at risk from illegal fishing, with total estimated catches in West Africa being 40% higher than reported catches. Such levels of exploitation severely hamper the sustainable management of marine ecosystems. Although there have been some successes in reducing the level of illegal fishing in some areas, these developments are relatively recent and follow growing international focus on the problem. This paper provides the baseline against which successful action to curb illegal fishing can be judged.

  13. Estimating the worldwide extent of illegal fishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, David J; Pearce, John; Pramod, Ganapathiraju; Peatman, Tom; Watson, Reg; Beddington, John R; Pitcher, Tony J

    2009-01-01

    Illegal and unreported fishing contributes to overexploitation of fish stocks and is a hindrance to the recovery of fish populations and ecosystems. This study is the first to undertake a world-wide analysis of illegal and unreported fishing. Reviewing the situation in 54 countries and on the high seas, we estimate that lower and upper estimates of the total value of current illegal and unreported fishing losses worldwide are between $10 bn and $23.5 bn annually, representing between 11 and 26 million tonnes. Our data are of sufficient resolution to detect regional differences in the level and trend of illegal fishing over the last 20 years, and we can report a significant correlation between governance and the level of illegal fishing. Developing countries are most at risk from illegal fishing, with total estimated catches in West Africa being 40% higher than reported catches. Such levels of exploitation severely hamper the sustainable management of marine ecosystems. Although there have been some successes in reducing the level of illegal fishing in some areas, these developments are relatively recent and follow growing international focus on the problem. This paper provides the baseline against which successful action to curb illegal fishing can be judged.

  14. Duration of pregnancy in relation to fish oil supplementation and habitual fish intake: a randomised clinical trial with fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, SF; Østerdal, ML; Salvig, JD;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of fish oil supplementation on duration of pregnancy, conditional on the woman's habitual fish intake. DESIGN: Multicentre 1:1 randomised clinical trial of effect of fish oil in a high-risk population of pregnant women in whom habitual fish intake was assessed...... at randomisation. SETTING: Nineteen university delivery wards in seven European countries. SUBJECTS: Pregnant women with preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), or pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) in a previous pregnancy (group 1, n=495); with twin pregnancies (group 2, n=367......); or with suspicion of IUGR or threatening preeclampsia in the current pregnancy (group 3, n=106). Women were stratified into low, middle, or high fish consumers. METHODS: The intervention group received fish oil capsules providing 2.7 g long-chain n-3 fatty acids per day (n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA...

  15. Duration of pregnancy in relation to fish oil supplementation and habitual fish intake: a randomised clinical trial with fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Østerdal, M L; Salvig, J D;

    2007-01-01

    at randomisation. SETTING: Nineteen university delivery wards in seven European countries. SUBJECTS: Pregnant women with preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), or pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) in a previous pregnancy (group 1, n=495); with twin pregnancies (group 2, n=367......OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of fish oil supplementation on duration of pregnancy, conditional on the woman's habitual fish intake. DESIGN: Multicentre 1:1 randomised clinical trial of effect of fish oil in a high-risk population of pregnant women in whom habitual fish intake was assessed......); or with suspicion of IUGR or threatening preeclampsia in the current pregnancy (group 3, n=106). Women were stratified into low, middle, or high fish consumers. METHODS: The intervention group received fish oil capsules providing 2.7 g long-chain n-3 fatty acids per day (n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA...

  16. Hydrokinetic turbine effects on fish swimming behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Hammar

    Full Text Available Hydrokinetic turbines, targeting the kinetic energy of fast-flowing currents, are under development with some turbines already deployed at ocean sites around the world. It remains virtually unknown as to how these technologies affect fish, and rotor collisions have been postulated as a major concern. In this study the effects of a vertical axis hydrokinetic rotor with rotational speeds up to 70 rpm were tested on the swimming patterns of naturally occurring fish in a subtropical tidal channel. Fish movements were recorded with and without the rotor in place. Results showed that no fish collided with the rotor and only a few specimens passed through rotor blades. Overall, fish reduced their movements through the area when the rotor was present. This deterrent effect on fish increased with current speed. Fish that passed the rotor avoided the near-field, about 0.3 m from the rotor for benthic reef fish. Large predatory fish were particularly cautious of the rotor and never moved closer than 1.7 m in current speeds above 0.6 ms(-1. The effects of the rotor differed among taxa and feeding guilds and it is suggested that fish boldness and body shape influenced responses. In conclusion, the tested hydrokinetic turbine rotor proved non-hazardous to fish during the investigated conditions. However, the results indicate that arrays comprising multiple turbines may restrict fish movements, particularly for large species, with possible effects on habitat connectivity if migration routes are exploited. Arrays of the investigated turbine type and comparable systems should therefore be designed with gaps of several metres width to allow large fish to pass through. In combination with further research the insights from this study can be used for guiding the design of hydrokinetic turbine arrays where needed, so preventing ecological impacts.

  17. Fish gut microbiota analysis differentiates physiology and behavior of invasive Asian carp and indigenous American fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lin; Amberg, Jon; Chapman, Duane; Gaikowski, Mark; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2014-03-01

    Gut microbiota of invasive Asian silver carp (SVCP) and indigenous planktivorous gizzard shad (GZSD) in Mississippi river basin were compared using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Analysis of more than 440 000 quality-filtered sequences obtained from the foregut and hindgut of GZSD and SVCP revealed high microbial diversity in these samples. GZSD hindgut (GZSD_H) samples (n=23) with >7000 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) exhibited the highest alpha-diversity indices followed by SVCP foregut (n=15), GZSD foregut (n=9) and SVCP hindgut (SVCP_H) (n=24). UniFrac distance-based non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed that the microbiota of GZSD_H and SVCP_H were clearly separated into two clusters: samples in the GZSD cluster were observed to vary by sampling location and samples in the SVCP cluster by sampling date. NMDS further revealed distinct microbial community between foregut to hindgut for individual GZSD and SVCP. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were detected as the predominant phyla regardless of fish or gut type. The high abundance of Cyanobacteria observed was possibly supported by their role as the fish's major food source. Furthermore, unique and shared OTUs and OTUs in each gut type were identified, three OTUs from the order Bacteroidales, the genus Bacillariophyta and the genus Clostridium were found significantly more abundant in GZSD_H (14.9-22.8%) than in SVCP_H (0.13-4.1%) samples. These differences were presumably caused by the differences in the type of food sources including bacteria ingested, the gut morphology and digestion, and the physiological behavior between GZSD and SVCP.

  18. First report of blood parasites in fishes from Kashmir and their effect on the haematological profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, N.; Yousuf, A.R.; Rather, M.I.; Ahmad, F.; Yaseen, T.

    2013-01-01

    Cyprinus carpio communis Linnaeus, Carassius carassius Linnaeus, Schizothorax curvifrons Heckel and Triplophysa marmorata species of fishes were captured from Anchar Lake and river Jhelum of Kashmir Himalaya for hematological and parasitological analysis. During the investigation haemoflagellates from the genus Babesiosoma and Trypanosoma were recorded in the blood smears. Trypanosomes were present in all the species except C. carpio, whereas Babesiosoma were only found in T. marmorata. Haematological analysis revealed a significant (p<0.01) reduction in red blood cell count in the fishes infected with Babesiosoma and Trypanosoma. A significant decrease (p<0.05) was recorded in haemoglobin value and packed cell volume in the infected fishes in comparison to the non-infected fishes. PMID:26623319

  19. Catch per unit effort, maximum sustainable yield and exploitation of demersal fish of Omani artisanal fishery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MedhatAbd El Barr

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate exploitation status of the stocks of demersal fishes in Omani artisanal fisheries. Methods: Time-series data between 2005 and 2014 on catches and effort represented by the number of fishing boats were used to estimate catch per unit effort and maximum sustainable yields applying Schaefer surplus production model. Regression analyses were made online using GraphPad software. Results: The study revealed that increasing the number of boats on the fishery caused a decrease of catch per unit effort of some species. Maximum sustainable yields and exploitation status were estimated for these species applying. Conclusions: Some demersal fish species were found to be caught in quantities exceeding maximum sustainable yields during some fishing seasons indicating overexploitation of their stocks.

  20. Isolation of Birnavirus serogroup B in wild and aquacultured fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Mellergaard, Stig; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    and the Kattegat. Surveillance of aquacultured fish, mainly rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), for VHS, IHN and IPN, in Denmark during the previous 30 years, have resulted in Birnavirus serogroup B isolations twice. These isolations were from healthy rainbow trout. Samples sent to the Danish Veterinary......During cruises with Danish research vessels more than 17,000 wild marine fish belonging to 41 different species were sampled and examined virologically. Birnavirus serogroup B was isolated from 7 marine fish species: plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), dab (Limanda limanda), flounder (Platichthys...... Laboratory for virological examination and characterisation have revealed the presence of Birnavirus serogroup B in haddock (ML Melanogrammus aeglefinus), plaice and dab from wild marine fish caught by Irish fishermen and from Icelandic farmed halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus)....

  1. TypeScript revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Maharry, Dan

    2013-01-01

    TypeScript Revealed is a quick 100-page guide to Anders Hejlsberg's new take on JavaScript. With this brief, fast-paced introduction to TypeScript, .NET, Web and Windows 8 application developers who are already familiar with JavaScript will easily get up to speed with TypeScript and decide whether or not to start incorporating it into their own development. TypeScript is 'JavaScript for Application-scale development'; a superset of JavaScript that brings to it an additional object-oriented-like syntax familiar to .NET programmers that compiles down into simple, clean JavaScript that any browse

  2. TA3 - Dosimetry and instrumentation supply of the M-Fish technique to the Fish-3 painting technique for analysing translocations: A radiotherapy-treated patient study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouzoulet, F.; Roch-Lefevre, S.; Giraudet, A.L.; Vaurijoux, A.; Voisin, P.A.; Buard, V.; Delbos, M.; Voisin, Ph.; Roy, L. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Lab. de Dosimetrie Biologique, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Bourhis, J. [Laboratoire UPRES EA 27-10, Radiosensibilite des Tumeurs et Tissus sains, PR1, 94 - Villejuif (France)

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: Currently, the chromosome translocation study is the best method to estimate the dose of an old radiation exposure. Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (F.I.S.H.) technique allows an easy detection of this kind of aberrations. However, as only a few number of chromosomes is usually painted, some bias could skew the result. To evaluate the advantage of using full genome staining (M-F.I.S.H. technique) compared with three chromosomes labelling (F.I.S.H.-3 painting), we compared translocation yields in radiotherapy treated patients. Methods: Chromosome aberration analyses were performed on peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures of two patients treated for a throat cancer by radiotherapy. Blood samples were obtained, before, along the treatment and six or four months later. For each sample, a dicentrics analysis was performed together with translocation analysis either with F.I.S.H.-3 painting or M-F.I.S.H.. Results: By confronting results from the F.I.S.H.-3 painting technique and the M-F.I.S.H. technique, significant differences were revealed. The translocations yield seemed to be stable with the F.I.S.H.-3 painting technique whereas it is not the case with the M-F.I.S.H. technique. This difference in results was explained by the bias induced by F.I.S.H.-3 Painting technique in the visualisation of complex aberrations. Furthermore, we found the presence of a clone bearing a translocation involving a painted chromosome. Conclusions: According to the potential bias of F.I.S.H.-3 painting on translocations study, the M-F.I.S.H. technique should provide more precise and reproducible results. Because of its more difficult implement, it seems hardly applicable to retrospective dosimetry instead of F.I.S.H.-3 painting technique. (authors)

  3. Revealing the programming process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because the textb......One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because...... the textbook medium is static and therefore ill-suited to expose the process of programming. We have found that process recordings in the form of captured narrated programming sessions are a simple, cheap, and efficient way of providing the revelation.We identify seven different elements of the programming...... process for which process recordings are a valuable communication media in order to enhance the learning process. Student feedback indicates both high learning outcome and superior learning potential compared to traditional classroom teaching....

  4. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring in Idaho, 1992 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, A.Douglas

    1993-12-01

    This report documents the progress of Idaho Department of Fish and Game`s fish health monitoring during the past five years and will serve as a completion report for the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Project. Anadromous fish at twelve IDFG facilities were monitored for various pathogens and organosomatic analyses were performed to anadromous fish prior to their release. A fish disease database has been developed and data is presently being entered. Alternate funding has been secured to continue fish health monitoring.

  5. Perceptions about mercury and lead in fish consumed in Lake Albert fishing communities Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Tamale; Francis, Ejobi; Charles, Muyanja; Naigaga, Irene; Jesca, Nakavuma; Micheal, Ocaido; Anne, Katuhoire; Deborah, Amulen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Fish consumption is a lifestyle in fishing communities influenced by individual and communal perceptions. However, information about individual perceptions about fish consumption in the vulnerable fishing community in a developing country is lacking. Without this study, the benefits of fish consumption in a vulnerable community may not be realized. Data collection was executed using key informant interviews and survey structured questionnaires. The key informants include fisheries, community development, veterinary, community and environmental officers. The household heads were the respondents. The Qualitative data was organized and queried using QSR Nvivo 10 and quantitative data analyzed with SPSS version 22. The perceived benefits of eating fish are health, income, nutrition and manhood. The perceived risks are Stigma and ill health. The factors increasing fish consumption are heedless of fish consumption benefits (p = 0.041) and household size i.e. number of adults more than seven (p = 0.020). Those decreasing are methods of preparation of fish i.e. boiling and frying (p = 0.019 and p = 0.010) and oblivious about organizations dealing with fishing activities (p = 0.029). An awareness campaign is needed to demystify the health benefits and fallacies of fish consumption. The knowledge on individual perceptions associated with fish consumption will increase fish consumption but with fewer risks.

  6. Analysis of the parasitic copepod species richness among Mediterranean fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raibaut, André; Combes, Claude; Benoit, Françoise

    1998-06-01

    The Mediterranean ichthyofauna is composed of 652 species belonging to 405 genera and 117 families. Among these, 182 were studied for their parasitic copepods. The analysis of all the works conducted on these crustacea yielded 226 species distributed in 88 genera and 20 families. For each fish species we have established a file providing the species name of the fish, its family, its geographical distribution within the Mediterranean and some of its bio-ecological characteristics. Within each file, all the parasitic copepod species reported on each host species were listed. This allowed to know the species richness (SR) of these hosts. We thus produced 182 files within which 226 copepod species are distributed. A program was created under the Hypercard software, in order to analyse our data. Two parameters were studied. The first one is the mean species richness (MSR), which corresponds to the mean of the different SR found on the different host species. The second is the parasite-host ratio (P/H), which is the ratio of the number of copepod species by the number of host species. These parameters are calculated by our program for all the 182 species of Mediterranean fishes retained in our investigation, on the first hand, and, on the second hand, for one particular group of fish species. We used the following variables to investigate their correlations with copepod species richness: taxonomy—fish families, genera and species; biometry—maximal size of the adult fish; eco-ethology—mode of life (benthic, pelagic or nectonic), displacements (sedentary, migratory with environmental change, or migratory without environmental change), behaviour (solitary or gregarious). Other variables (colour, food, reproduction, abundance, distribution area) were also analysed but did not reveal any clear correlation. Providing that our study does not rely on quantitative (prevalence, intensity) but qualitative basis our aim was only to reveal some tendencies. These tendencies are

  7. FishCam - A semi-automatic video-based monitoring system of fish migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzert, Frederik; Mader, Helmut

    2016-04-01

    One of the main objectives of the Water Framework Directive is to preserve and restore the continuum of river networks. Regarding vertebrate migration, fish passes are widely used measure to overcome anthropogenic constructions. Functionality of this measure needs to be verified by monitoring. In this study we propose a newly developed monitoring system, named FishCam, to observe fish migration especially in fish passes without contact and without imposing stress on fish. To avoid time and cost consuming field work for fish pass monitoring, this project aims to develop a semi-automatic monitoring system that enables a continuous observation of fish migration. The system consists of a detection tunnel and a high resolution camera, which is mainly based on the technology of security cameras. If changes in the image, e.g. by migrating fish or drifting particles, are detected by a motion sensor, the camera system starts recording and continues until no further motion is detectable. An ongoing key challenge in this project is the development of robust software, which counts, measures and classifies the passing fish. To achieve this goal, many different computer vision tasks and classification steps have to be combined. Moving objects have to be detected and separated from the static part of the image, objects have to be tracked throughout the entire video and fish have to be separated from non-fish objects (e.g. foliage and woody debris, shadows and light reflections). Subsequently, the length of all detected fish needs to be determined and fish should be classified into species. The object classification in fish and non-fish objects is realized through ensembles of state-of-the-art classifiers on a single image per object. The choice of the best image for classification is implemented through a newly developed "fish benchmark" value. This value compares the actual shape of the object with a schematic model of side-specific fish. To enable an automatization of the

  8. Marine soundscape shaped by fishing activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lossent, Julie; Grall, Jacques; Chauvaud, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Marine communities face anthropogenic pressures that degrade ecosystems. Because underwater soundscapes carry information about habitat quality, we explored whether destructive impacts of fishing could be evaluated via the soundscape. Maerl beds are recognized as biodiversity hotspots and they experience major worldwide degradation owing to fishing. We collected field acoustic recordings in maerl beds exposed to different fishing practices. We found that unfished maerl beds were threefold louder and exhibited sound frequencies more diversified than those recorded in fished maerl beds. Analyses of associated fauna samples indicated that snapping shrimps provided a major contribution to the maerl bed soundscape. Moreover, sea urchins and squat lobsters most likely contributed to differences between the soundscapes of unfished and fished maerl beds. Our results supported the idea that the soundscape can provide valuable information on maerl bed ecosystem health related to fishing activity. PMID:28280559

  9. FISH CANCER DEVELOPED BY ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri S.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The pollution of rivers and streams with chemical contaminants has become one of the most critical environmental problems. Fish living in a polluted water reservoir use the contaminated water to rinse their gills; this results in the deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the fish body. Contamination of foodstuffs by heavy metals such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, nickel and lead has poses a potential carcinogenic threat to humans. Arsenic and cadmium appear to be the most harmful to the fish. Several cancers in fish appear to be the result of exposure to different environmental pollutants/chemicals. High frequencies of liver and skin cancers in brown bullheads are associated with high concentrations of PAHs and some metals in the environmental sediments. Taking these facts in view, the present article gives the emphasis on the fish cancer caused by various environmental pollutants, suggesting that fish species are truly suffer from different cancers/tumours.

  10. Do large predatory fish track ocean oxygenation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Tais W; Hammarlund, Emma U

    2011-01-01

    The Devonian appearance of 1-10 meter long armored fish (placoderms) coincides with geochemical evidence recording a transition into fully oxygenated oceans.1 A comparison of extant fish shows that the large individuals are less tolerant to hypoxia than their smaller cousins. This leads us to hypothesize that Early Paleozoic O(2) saturation levels were too low to support >1 meter size marine, predatory fish. According to a simple model, both oxygen uptake and oxygen demand scale positively with size, but the demand exceeds supply for the largest fish with an active, predatory life style. Therefore, the largest individuals may lead us to a lower limit on oceanic O(2) concentrations. Our presented model suggests 2-10 meter long predators require >30-50% PAL while smaller fish would survive at oxygen pressure acted as an evolutionary barrier for fish to grow much above ∼1 meter before the Devonian oxygenation.

  11. Hybrid seine for full fish community collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, James E.; Waldt, Emily M.; Abbett, Ross; David, Anthony; Snyder, James

    2013-01-01

    Seines are simple and effective fish collection gears, but the net mesh size influences how well the catch represents the fish communities. We designed and tested a hybrid seine with a dual-mesh bag (1/4″ and 1/8″) and compared the fish assemblage collected by each mesh. The fine-mesh net retained three times as many fish and collected more species (as many as eight), including representatives of several rare species, than did the coarser mesh. The dual-mesh bag permitted us to compare both sizes and species retained by each layer and to develop species-specific abundance correction factors, which allowed comparison of catches with the coarse-mesh seine used for earlier collections. The results indicate that a hybrid seine with coarse-mesh wings and a fine-mesh bag would enhance future studies of fish communities, especially when small-bodied fishes or early life stages are the research focus.

  12. Distribution of fish in seagrass, mangroves and coral reefs: life-stage dependent habitat use in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaxion-Harm, Jessica; Saunders, James; Speight, Martin R

    2012-06-01

    Many coral reef fish exhibit habitat partitioning throughout their lifetimes. Such patterns are evident in the Caribbean where research has been predominantly conducted in the Eastern region. This work addressed the paucity of data regarding Honduran reef fish distribution in three habitat types (seagrass, mangroves, and coral reefs), by surveying fish on the islands of Utila and Cayos Cochinos off the coast of Honduras (part of the Mesoamerican barrier reef). During July 2nd - Aug 27th 2007 and June 22nd - Aug 17th, 2008, visual surveys (SCUBA and snorkel) were performed in belt transects in different areas: eleven coral reef, six seagrass beds, and six mangroves sites. Juvenile densities and total habitat surface area were used to calculate nursery value of seagrass and mangroves. A total of 113 fish species from 32 families were found during underwater surveys. Multi-dimensional analyses revealed distinct clusters of fish communities in each habitat type by separating fish associated with seagrass beds, mangroves, and coral reefs. Coral reefs showed the highest mean fish species richness and were dominated by adult fish, while juvenile fish characterized seagrass beds and mangrove sites. Habitat use differed widely at the fish species level. Scarus iseri (Striped Parrotfish), the most abundant fish in this study, were found in all three habitat types, while Lutjanus apodus (Schoolmaster Snapper) juveniles were located primarily in mangroves before migrating to coral reefs. Many species used seagrass beds and mangroves as nurseries; however, the nursery value could not be generalized at the family level. Furthermore, for some fish species, nursery value varied between islands and sites. Our results suggest that connectivity of seagrass, mangrove, and coral reef sites at a species and site levels, should be taken into consideration when implementing policy and conservation practices.

  13. Paramyxoviruses of fish: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Theodore R; Batts, William N.; Kibenge, Frederick S. B.; Godoy, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    The first fish paramyxovirus was isolated from normal adult Chinook salmon returning to a coastal hatchery in Oregon in the fall of 1982. Subsequently, the virus was isolated from other stocks of adult Chinook salmon and one stock of adult coho salmon in California, Oregon, Washington and Alaska, leading to its designation as the Pacific salmon paramyxovirus (PSPV). The slow-growing virus can be isolated from tissues and ovarian fluids of healthy adult fish returning to spawn and apparently causes no clinical signs of disease or mortality. In 1995, a different and widely disseminated paramyxovirus was isolated from farmed Atlantic salmon in Norway and was designated as Atlantic salmon paramyxovirus (ASPV). Although this virus caused no disease or mortality when injected into juvenile Atlantic salmon, ASPV has been associated with proliferative gill inflammation in sea-reared yearling fish; however, additional infectious agents may be involved in the etiology of the condition. Sequence analysis of PSPV and ASPV isolates using the polymerase gene established their placement in the family Paramyxoviridaeand has shown the two viruses to be closely related but sufficiently different from each other and from other known paramyxoviruses to possibly represent new genera within the family. The viruses can be diagnosed by isolation in cell culture with final confirmation by molecular methods. Other paramyxovirus-like agents have been observed or isolated from rainbow trout in Germany, from seabream in Japan associated with epithelial necrosis, from turbot in Spain associated with erythrocytic inclusion bodies and buccal/opercular hemorrhaging and from koi and common carp associated with gill necrosis in the European Union.

  14. Dachang International Fishing Tackle City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Dachang International Fishing Tackle City, in the National Industrial Park, Dachang Hui Autonomous County, Hebei Province, is 40 kilometers west of Beijing, adjacent to state highway 102.The complex was completed in April 1999, and occupies an area of 50,000 square meters with a floorage of 40,000 square meters. It comprises 368 business and display units, and a 2,100-square-meter exhibition hall. To date, 128 companies from China’s mainland, Taiwan, Japan and the Republic of Korea have set up retail outlets here. The largest of

  15. Capacity and Capacity Utilization in Fishing Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkley, James E; Squires, Dale

    1999-01-01

    Excess capacity of fishing fleets is one of the most pressing problems facing the world's fisheries and the sustainable harvesting of resource stocks. Considerable confusion persists over the definition and measurement of capacity and capacity utilization in fishing. Fishing capacity and capacity utilization, rather than capital (or effort) utilization, provide the appropriate framework. This paper provides both technological-economic and economic definitions of capacity and excess capacity i...

  16. Aquaculture, Capture Fisheries, and Wild Fish Stocks

    OpenAIRE

    Shan Jiang

    2007-01-01

    In a general equilibrium model, this paper examines how the rise of aquaculture and the decline of wild fish stocks are related. Two factors, population growth and technological improvement in aquaculture, have been studied in an aquaculture restricted entry case and an aquaculture free entry case. Both factors raise aquaculture production, while changes in wild fish stocks hinge on entry conditions. In the restricted entry case, population growth reduces wild fish stocks, but technological p...

  17. Detecting the Nonlinearity of Fish Acoustic Signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Xinmin; YIN Li

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the nonlinearity of fish acoustic signals by using the surrogate data method.We compare the difference of three test statistics - time-irreversibility Trey, correlation dimension D2 and auto mutual information function Ⅰbetween the original data and the surrogate data.We come to the conclusion that there exists nonlinearity in the fish acoustic signals and there exist deterministic nonlinear components; therefore nonlinear dynamic theory can be used to analyze fish acoustic signals.

  18. NB Power`s fish handling facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, C. N. [New Brunswick Power, Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Fish handling facilities at the various hydroelectric power generating stations of New Brunswick Power on the St. John River, were described. The facilities described included the fish hoist at the Beechwood Generating Station , the fish ladder at the Tobique Generating Station and a trap and truck operation at the Mactaquac Station. Details of operating arrangements were provided. Operating issues, solutions and ongoing efforts to improve operations further, were discussed. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Sustainable Fishing Fleet; a Systems Engineering Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Utne, Ingrid Bouwer

    2007-01-01

    Many fisheries have significant challenges related to sustainable development, such as overexploitation and overcapacity in the fishing fleet. Overcapacity leads to increased pressure on fish resources, reduced profitability, and environmental problems such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and acidification fromfuel consumption. Sustainable management of the fish resources is an important objective in Norway, but overcapacity is a problem in several Norwegian fleet segments. Important issues...

  20. Evaluating microcystin exposure risk through fish consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Poste, Amanda E.; Hecky, Robert E.; Guildford, Stephanie J.

    2011-01-01

    Microcystin is a cyanobacterial hepatotoxin that is found worldwide, and poses a serious threat to the ecological communities in which it is found as well as to those who rely on these waters for drinking, sanitation, or as a food source. Microcystin is known to accumulate in fish and other aquatic biota, however the prevalence of microcystin in fish tissue and the human health risks posed by microcystin exposure through fish consumption remain poorly resolved. Here we show that microcystin i...

  1. A review of Dichlorvos toxicity in fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCHISMITA DAS

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the wide majority of pesticides, dichlorvos (2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate, a organophosphate compound, is commonly used as agricultural insecticide. It is extremely toxic to non target organisms like fish and hampers fish health through impairment of metabolism, sometimes leading to death. As one of the few organophosphates still registered for use, dichlorvos has elicited worldwide concern for many reasons. This study is a review of potential adverse effects of dichlorvos in fish

  2. Reactions of fish to microorganisms in wastewater.

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    Fish were inoculated with various microorganisms present in wastewater. A threshold concentration was determined over which these microorganisms were recovered from the muscles. The threshold concentrations were different for bacteria, bacteriophages, and polio 1 LSc virus. The threshold values were lower when fish were inoculated than when they were immersed in water containing these organisms. Depuration experiments were efficient when the fish did not contain high concentrations of bacteri...

  3. Illegal Fishing: The Case of Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    The fisheries sector plays an important role in the economy of Mozambique, contributing to 40-50 per cent of the country’s foreign exchange earnings. The extensive coast supporting diverse fisheries makes Mozambique a sensitive place for illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing. This paper discuss the relation between IUU fishing and the surveillance capacity, the length of the coastal zone, the commercial value of the resources and the national fishing capacity of ...

  4. Assessing effects of stocked trout on nongame fish assemblages in southern Appalachian Mountain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, D.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Fisheries managers are faced with the challenge of balancing the management of recreational fisheries with that of conserving native species and preserving ecological integrity. The negative effects that nonnative trout species exert on native trout are well documented and include alteration of competitive interactions, habitat use, and production. However, the effects that nonnative trout may exert on nongame fish assemblages are poorly understood. Our objectives were to quantify the effects of trout stocking on native nongame fish assemblages intensively on one newly stocked river, the North Toe River, North Carolina, and extensively on other southern Appalachian Mountain streams that are annually stocked with trout. In the intensive study, we adopted a before-after, control-impact (BACI) experimental design to detect short-term effects on the nongame fish assemblage and found no significant differences in fish density, species richness, species diversity, or fish microhabitat use associated with trout stocking. We observed differences in fish microhabitat use between years, however, which suggests there is a response to environmental changes, such as the flow regime, which influence available habitat. In the extensive study, we sampled paired stocked and unstocked stream reaches to detect long-term effects from trout stocking; however, we detected no differences in nongame fish density, species richness, species diversity, or population size structure between paired sites. Our results revealed high inherent system variation caused by natural and anthropogenic factors that appear to overwhelm any acute or chronic effect of stocked trout. Furthermore, hatchery-reared trout may be poor competitors in a natural setting and exert a minimal or undetectable impact on native fish assemblages in these streams. These findings provide quantitative results necessary to assist agencies in strategic planning and decision making associated with trout fisheries, stream

  5. Fishing the line near marine reserves in single and multispecies fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Julie B; Tetreault, Irene; Gaines, Steven D; Nisbet, Roger M

    2007-06-01

    Throughout the world "fishing the line" is a frequent harvesting tactic in communities where no-take marine reserves are designated. This practice of concentrating fishing effort at the boundary of a marine reserve is predicated upon the principle of spillover, the net export of stock from the marine reserve to the surrounding unprotected waters. We explore the consequences and optimality of fishing the line using a spatially explicit theoretical model. We show that fishing the line: (1) is part of the optimal effort distribution near no-take marine reserves with mobile species regardless of the cooperation level among harvesters; (2) has a significant impact on the spatial patterns of catch per unit effort (CPUE) and fish density both within and outside of the reserve; and (3) can enhance total population size and catch simultaneously under a limited set of conditions for overexploited populations. Additionally, we explore the consequences of basing the spatial distribution of fishing effort for a multispecies fishery upon the optimality of the most mobile species that exhibits the greatest spillover. Our results show that the intensity of effort allocated to fishing the line should instead be based upon more intermediate rates of mobility within the targeted community. We conclude with a comparison between model predictions and empirical findings from a density gradient study of two important game fish in the vicinity of a no-take marine-life refuge on Santa Catalina Island, California (USA). These results reveal the need for empirical studies to account for harvester behavior and suggest that the implications of spatial discontinuities such as fishing the line should be incorporated into marine-reserve design.

  6. Android Emotions Revealed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a method for designing facial interfaces for sociable android robots with respect to the fundamental rules of human affect expression. Extending the work of Paul Ekman towards a robotic direction, we follow the judgment-based approach for evaluating facial expressions to test...... in which case an android robot like the Geminoid|DK –a duplicate of an Original person- reveals emotions convincingly; when following an empirical perspective, or when following a theoretical one. The methodology includes the processes of acquiring the empirical data, and gathering feedback on them. Our...... findings are based on the results derived from a number of judgments, and suggest that before programming the facial expressions of a Geminoid, the Original should pass through the proposed procedure. According to our recommendations, the facial expressions of an android should be tested by judges, even...

  7. A survey of chemical constituents in National Fish Hatchery Fish feed

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Recent studies have demonstrated that of various fish feeds contain significant concentrations of contaminants, many of which can bioaccumulate and bioconcentrate in...

  8. Enviromental contaminants in Puget Sound fish - Histological Preparation and Chemical Analyses of Puget Sound Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As part of a long-term contaminant-monitoring program of fish in Puget Sound and Georgia Basin, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) and NWFSC have...

  9. EPA Office of Water (OW): Fish Consumption Advisories and Fish Tissue Sampling Stations NHDPlus Indexed Datasets

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Fish Consumption Advisories dataset contains information on Fish Advisory events that have been indexed to the EPA Office of Water NHDPlus v2.1 hydrology and...

  10. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine fish species in South Florida. Vector polygons in this data set represent fish...

  11. Some Principles and Requirements in Fish Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    J.F.N. Abowei; A.T. Ekubo

    2011-01-01

    Fish, especially when reared in high densities, require a high-quality, nutritionally complete, balanced diet to grow rapidly and remain healthy. Fish gut is a tubular structure beginning from the mouth and ending at the annus. Many fish chew their food and have the ability to secrete mucus substances from the mucus gland. In fish, the enzymes are liberated into the lumen of the gut and the products of their action absorbed (extra cellular digestion). Chromium oxide (Cr2O3) mixed with prepare...

  12. Transaction of Marine Fishing Right: Theoretical Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Jishen; Long Wenjun

    2008-01-01

    The difference between fishermen's fishing catch and the optimal fishing catch is the basic reason for the transaction of marine fishing rights (TMFR). The effects of productive cost, non-productive cost, use-cost, transaction cost, productive revenue and non-productive revenue on the TMFR and the optimal fishing catch are analyzed. This paper draws following conclusions: the non-productive revenue has a positive effect on the TMFR, and other factors, such as non-productive cost, usecost and transaction cost, have a negative effect; the TMFR will promote the resource allocation; the high transaction cost may affect the implementation of TMFR.

  13. ARTIFICIAL FISH PROPAGATION IN KANEV RESERVOIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Gurbik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of the dynamics of structural parameters of fish fauna of the Kanev reservoir, we determined the major measures for artificial fish propagation (stocking, which would allow increasing their commercial stocks and maintain biological diversity. It was found that main biological factors, which defined the conditions of existence of fish at different stages of their life cycle in the Kanev reservoir was as a whole favorable for providing sufficient efficiency of measures for stocking it with juveniles of commercially and environmentally valuable fishes. With current state of fish fauna and possibilities of fish hatcheries, the priority in the part of artificial maintenance of fish populations should be given to pike-perch, wels, and tench. An increase of amounts of commercial catches should be based first of all on full-scale stocking with silver and bighead carps, the created stock of which will be available for effective exploitation at a regime, which is protective for native fish fauna. The current bioproductive potential allows increasing the indices of the stock of commercially valuable species up to 120 kg/ha that is twice more than the actual indices for 2012-2013. Key words: fish fauna, artificial propagation, commercial stock, Kanev reservoir.

  14. Effect of ice storage on muscle protein properties and qualities of emulsion fish sausage from bigeye snapper (Priacanthus tayenus and lizardfish (Saurida undosquamis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittayanont, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical changes in fish muscle and natural actomyosin (NAM from bigeye snapper (Priacanthus tayenus and lizardfish (Saurida undosquamis muscle during 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 days of iced storage were studied. Myosin heavy chain (MHC of NAM extracted from two fish species was degraded throughout iced storage. However, no changes in actin were observed. The total volatile base (TVB. trimethylamine (TMA and surface hydrophobicity increased, while the total sulfhydryl content and emulsion capacity of NAM from both fish species decreased significantly as the storage time increased (p<0.05. A Texture ProfileAnalysis (TPA and shear force of emulsion fish sausages prepared from two fish species kept in ice for 0, 4, 8 and 12 days were investigated. The results showed that hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness and shear force of sausage prepared from fish kept in ice were lower than those produced from fresh fish. However, no significant differences in adhesiveness were observed. Cooking loss of emulsion fish sausage from two fish species increased throughout storage time (p<0.05. The texture of bigeye snapper sausage was better than that of lizardfish sausages. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM micrographs of emulsion fish sausage from two fish species revealed bigger voids, thicker strands and less continuity of protein strands with increasing storage time. More microstructural changes were observed in sausages from lizardfish, compared to those in sausages from bigeye snapper.

  15. Food poisonings by ingestion of cyprinid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

    2014-01-28

    Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5α-cyprinol sulfate (5α-cholestane-3α, 7α, 12α, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans.

  16. Epigenetic’s role in fish pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cal Delgado

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The agouti coat colour gene encodes a paracrine signalling molecule whose differential expression produces the characteristic dorsal-ventral pigment pattern observed in most mammals. We have recently demonstrated that this well-characterised mechanism from mammals also applies to fish with their much more complex pigment patterns. However, the developmental mechanism through which agouti acts to establish these colour differences remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to explore the molecular mechanisms that regulate agouti gene expression by in-vivo functional characterization of the agouti promoter and identification of possible putative regulatory elements that govern basal promoter activity. Specifically, the investigation was focused on the occurrence and role of CpG dinucleotides methylation in the agouti putative promoter sequence and on a possible epigenetic level of regulation of agouti expression. We report here expression analyses of eGFP expression from transgenic zebrafish containing an 8kb-agouti-Tol2-eGFP construct. eGFP expression was specifically found in the brain area and neural tube of Tol2 transposon vector transgenic embryos. Computer-based analysis revealed a putative CpG island immediately proximal to the translation start site. Global inhibition of methylation with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine promoted agouti production in association with decreasing CpG methylation. Taken together, these data identify a contributory role for DNA methylation in regulating agouti expression in zebrafish embryogenesis.

  17. Occurrence of monogeneans on freshwater fishes in Iran: Dactylogyrus spp. on cultured Iranian fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, B; Molnár, K

    1990-01-01

    Thirteen Dactylogyrus spp. were found on cultured fishes in five Iranian fish farms. Besides typical Dactylogyrus vastator, specimens with small anchors were often found in goldfish, which were designated as D. vastator forma minor. Rutilus frisii kutum, a fish cultured only in Iran, was infected by two Dactylogyrus spp. during its short period of prerearing in Iranian fish farms. All Dactylogyrus found are new for the Iranian fauna.

  18. The influence of fisher knowledge on the susceptibility of reef fish aggregations to fishing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Robinson

    Full Text Available Reef fishes that exhibit predictable aggregating behaviour are often considered vulnerable to overexploitation. However, fisher knowledge of this behaviour is often heterogeneous and, coupled with socioeconomic factors that constrain demand for or access to aggregated fish, will influence susceptibility to fishing. At two case study locations in Papua New Guinea, Ahus and Karkar islands, we conducted interview-based surveys to examine how local context influenced heterogeneity in knowledge of fish aggregations. We then explored the role of fisher knowledge in conferring susceptibility to fishing relative to socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort. Local heterogeneity in knowledge of aggregating behaviour differed between our case studies. At Ahus, variable access rights among fishers and genders to the main habitats were sources of heterogeneity in knowledge. By contrast, knowledge was more homogenous at Karkar and the sole source of variation was gear type. Differences between locations in the susceptibility of aggregations to fishing depended primarily on socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort rather than catchability. While Ahus fishers were knowledgeable of fish aggregations and used more selective gears, Karkar fishers were less constrained by tenure in their access to aggregation habitat. However, fishing effort was greater at Ahus and likely related to high dependency on fishing, greater access to provincial capital markets than Karkar and a weakening of customary management. Moreover, highly efficient fishing techniques have emerged at Ahus to exploit the non-reproductive aggregating behaviour of target species. Understanding how knowledge is structured within fishing communities and its relation to socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort is important if customary practices for conservation, such as tambu areas, are to be supported. The findings of this study call for a holistic approach to assessing the risks posed to reef fish

  19. The influence of fisher knowledge on the susceptibility of reef fish aggregations to fishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jan; Cinner, Joshua E; Graham, Nicholas A J

    2014-01-01

    Reef fishes that exhibit predictable aggregating behaviour are often considered vulnerable to overexploitation. However, fisher knowledge of this behaviour is often heterogeneous and, coupled with socioeconomic factors that constrain demand for or access to aggregated fish, will influence susceptibility to fishing. At two case study locations in Papua New Guinea, Ahus and Karkar islands, we conducted interview-based surveys to examine how local context influenced heterogeneity in knowledge of fish aggregations. We then explored the role of fisher knowledge in conferring susceptibility to fishing relative to socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort. Local heterogeneity in knowledge of aggregating behaviour differed between our case studies. At Ahus, variable access rights among fishers and genders to the main habitats were sources of heterogeneity in knowledge. By contrast, knowledge was more homogenous at Karkar and the sole source of variation was gear type. Differences between locations in the susceptibility of aggregations to fishing depended primarily on socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort rather than catchability. While Ahus fishers were knowledgeable of fish aggregations and used more selective gears, Karkar fishers were less constrained by tenure in their access to aggregation habitat. However, fishing effort was greater at Ahus and likely related to high dependency on fishing, greater access to provincial capital markets than Karkar and a weakening of customary management. Moreover, highly efficient fishing techniques have emerged at Ahus to exploit the non-reproductive aggregating behaviour of target species. Understanding how knowledge is structured within fishing communities and its relation to socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort is important if customary practices for conservation, such as tambu areas, are to be supported. The findings of this study call for a holistic approach to assessing the risks posed to reef fish aggregations by fishing

  20. Microgravity promotes osteoclast activity in medaka fish reared at the international space station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatani, Masahiro; Mantoku, Akiko; Takeyama, Kazuhiro; Abduweli, Dawud; Sugamori, Yasutaka; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Ohya, Keiichi; Suzuki, Hiromi; Uchida, Satoko; Sakimura, Toru; Kono, Yasushi; Tanigaki, Fumiaki; Shirakawa, Masaki; Takano, Yoshiro; Kudo, Akira

    2015-09-21

    The bone mineral density (BMD) of astronauts decreases specifically in the weight-bearing sites during spaceflight. It seems that osteoclasts would be affected by a change in gravity; however, the molecular mechanism involved remains unclear. Here, we show that the mineral density of the pharyngeal bone and teeth region of TRAP-GFP/Osterix-DsRed double transgenic medaka fish was decreased and that osteoclasts were activated when the fish were reared for 56 days at the international space station. In addition, electron microscopy observation revealed a low degree of roundness of mitochondria in osteoclasts. In the whole transcriptome analysis, fkbp5 and ddit4 genes were strongly up-regulated in the flight group. The fish were filmed for abnormal behavior; and, interestingly, the medaka tended to become motionless in the late stage of exposure. These results reveal impaired physiological function with a change in mechanical force under microgravity, which impairment was accompanied by osteoclast activation.