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Sample records for chimaeric viruses confirm

  1. Chimaeric Virus-Like Particles Derived from Consensus Genome Sequences of Human Rotavirus Strains Co-Circulating in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jere, Khuzwayo C.; O'Neill, Hester G.; Potgieter, A. Christiaan; van Dijk, Alberdina A.

    2014-01-01

    Rotavirus virus-like particles (RV-VLPs) are potential alternative non-live vaccine candidates due to their high immunogenicity. They mimic the natural conformation of native viral proteins but cannot replicate because they do not contain genomic material which makes them safe. To date, most RV-VLPs have been derived from cell culture adapted strains or common G1 and G3 rotaviruses that have been circulating in communities for some time. In this study, chimaeric RV-VLPs were generated from the consensus sequences of African rotaviruses (G2, G8, G9 or G12 strains associated with either P[4], P[6] or P[8] genotypes) characterised directly from human stool samples without prior adaptation of the wild type strains to cell culture. Codon-optimised sequences for insect cell expression of genome segments 2 (VP2), 4 (VP4), 6 (VP6) and 9 (VP7) were cloned into a modified pFASTBAC vector, which allowed simultaneous expression of up to four genes using the Bac-to-Bac Baculovirus Expression System (BEVS; Invitrogen). Several combinations of the genome segments originating from different field strains were cloned to produce double-layered RV-VLPs (dRV-VLP; VP2/6), triple-layered RV-VLPs (tRV-VLP; VP2/6/7 or VP2/6/7/4) and chimaeric tRV-VLPs. The RV-VLPs were produced by infecting Spodoptera frugiperda 9 and Trichoplusia ni cells with recombinant baculoviruses using multi-cistronic, dual co-infection and stepwise-infection expression strategies. The size and morphology of the RV-VLPs, as determined by transmission electron microscopy, revealed successful production of RV-VLPs. The novel approach of producing tRV-VLPs, by using the consensus insect cell codon-optimised nucleotide sequence derived from dsRNA extracted directly from clinical specimens, should speed-up vaccine research and development by by-passing the need to adapt rotaviruses to cell culture. Other problems associated with cell culture adaptation, such as possible changes in epitopes, can also be circumvented

  2. Molecular confirmation of Maize rayado fino virus as the Brazilian corn streak virus

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond,Rosemarie Wahnbaeck; Bedendo,Ivan Paulo

    2005-01-01

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV), present in various countries in Latin America, has shown similarities to corn streak virus that occurs in Brazil, regarding pathogenic, serological and histological characteristics. In the current report both virus were molecularly compared to confirm the similarities between them. MRFV was identified by nucleic acid hybridization in samples of maize tissues exhibiting symptoms of "corn stunt" disease, collected from two Brazilian States - São Paulo and Minas G...

  3. Heme regulates the expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of chimaeric genes containing 5'-flanking soybean leghemoglobin sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E O; Marcker, K A; Villadsen, IS

    1986-01-01

    The TM1 yeast mutant was transformed with a 2 micron-derived plasmid (YEp24) which carries a chimaeric gene containing the Escherichia coli chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene fused to the 5'- and 3'-flanking regions of the soybean leghemoglobin (Lb) c3 gene. Expression of the chimaeric...

  4. The complete genome sequence of a virus associated with cotton blue disease, cotton leafroll dwarf virus, confirms that it is a new member of the genus Polerovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distéfano, Ana J; Bonacic Kresic, Ivan; Hopp, H Esteban

    2010-11-01

    Cotton blue disease is the most important virus disease of cotton in the southern part of America. The complete nucleotide sequence of the ssRNA genome of the cotton blue disease-associated virus was determined for the first time. It comprised 5,866 nucleotides, and the deduced genomic organization resembled that of members of the genus Polerovirus. Sequence homology comparison and phylogenetic analysis confirm that this virus (previous proposed name cotton leafroll dwarf virus) is a member of a new species within the genus Polerovirus.

  5. Serial Head and Brain Imaging of 17 Fetuses With Confirmed Zika Virus Infection in Colombia, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Saavedra, Miguel; Reefhuis, Jennita; Piraquive, Juan Pablo; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Badell, Martina L; Moore, Cynthia A; Mercado, Marcela; Valencia, Diana; Jamieson, Denise J; Beltran, Mauricio; Sanz-Cortes, Magda; Rivera-Casas, Ana Maria; Yepez, Mayel; Parra, Guido; Ospina Martinez, Martha; Honein, Margaret A

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate fetal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging findings among a series of pregnant women with confirmed Zika virus infection to evaluate the signs of congenital Zika syndrome with respect to timing of infection. We conducted a retrospective case series of pregnant women referred to two perinatal clinics in Barranquilla and Ibagué, Colombia, who had findings consistent with congenital Zika syndrome and Zika virus infection confirmed in maternal, fetal, or neonatal samples. Serial ultrasound measurements, fetal magnetic resonance imaging results, laboratory results, and perinatal outcomes were evaluated. We describe 17 cases of confirmed prenatal maternal Zika virus infection with adverse fetal outcomes. Among the 14 symptomatic women, the median gestational age for maternal Zika virus symptoms was 10 weeks (range 7-14 weeks of gestation). The median time between Zika virus symptom onset and microcephaly (head circumference less than 3 standard deviations below the mean) was 18 weeks (range 15-24 weeks). The earliest fetal head circumference measurement consistent with microcephaly diagnosis was at 24 weeks of gestation. The earliest sign of congenital Zika syndrome was talipes equinovarus, which in two patients was noted first at 19 weeks of gestation. Common findings on fetal magnetic resonance imaging were microcephaly, ventriculomegaly, polymicrogyria, and calcifications. Our analysis suggests a period of at least 15 weeks between maternal Zika virus infection in pregnancy and development of microcephaly and highlights the importance of serial and detailed neuroimaging.

  6. Essential Medications for Patients With Suspected or Confirmed Ebola Virus Disease in Resource-Limited Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, William F; Ready, Selena D; Chapman, John Tyson; Kulick, Corrinne; Shields, Anastasia; Wang, Jialynn; Andrews, Kimberly; Childs, Richard W; Bell, Carlos; Kosyak, Alexandr; Pham, Jade

    2017-09-01

    In 2014, the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) Commissioned Corps deployed to Monrovia, Liberia, to operate a 25-bed Ebola treatment unit (ETU) constructed by the U.S. Military. The ETU was named the Monrovia Medical Unit (MMU) and was constructed from an U.S. Air Force Expeditionary Medical Support (EMEDS) unit with modifications on the basis of consultation from Médecins Sans Frontières, the World Health Organization, and expert panels from the U.S. Department of Defense and Department of Health and Human Services. From November 12, 2014, to April 30, 2015, 42 patients (18 confirmed Ebola virus disease [EVD] and 24 suspected EVD) from nine countries were treated by USPHS providers at the MMU. The medications used in the MMU were primarily procured from the EMEDS 25-bed pharmacy cache. However, specific formulary additions were made for treatment of EVD. Using the MMU pharmacy dispensing data, we compared and contrasted the medications used in the MMU with recommendations in published EVD treatment guidelines for austere settings. After comparing and contrasting the MMU pharmacy dispensing data with publications with EVD medication recommendations applicable to resource-limited settings, 101 medications were included in the USPHS Essential Medications for the Management of EVD List (EML) for an austere, isolated clinical environment. Because Ebola outbreaks often occur in remote areas, proactive planning, improved preparedness, and optimal patient care for EVD are needed, especially in the context of austere environments with a scarcity of resources. We developed the EML to assist in the planning for future Ebola outbreaks in a remote clinical environment and to provide a list of medications that have been used in an ETU. The EML is a comprehensive medication list that builds on the existing publications with EVD treatment recommendations applicable to supply-constrained clinical environments. As well, it is a resource for the provision of medications when

  7. Dynamics of virus shedding and in situ confirmation of chelonid herpesvirus 5 in Hawaiian green turtles with Fibropapillomatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Dagenais, Julie; Balazs, George H.; Schettle, Nelli; Ackermann, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Cancers in humans and animals can be caused by viruses, but virus-induced tumors are considered to be poor sites for replication of intact virions (lytic replication). Fibropapillomatosis (FP) is a neoplastic disease associated with a herpesvirus, chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5), that affects green turtles globally. ChHV5 probably replicates in epidermal cells of tumors, because epidermal intranuclear inclusions (EIIs) contain herpesvirus-like particles. However, although EIIs are a sign of herpesvirus replication, they have not yet been firmly linked to ChHV5. Moreover, the dynamics of viral shedding in turtles are unknown, and there are no serological reagents to confirm actual presence of the specific ChHV5 virus in tissues. The investigators analyzed 381 FP tumors for the presence of EIIs and found that overall, about 35% of green turtles had lytic replication in skin tumors with 7% of tumors showing lytic replication. A few (11%) turtles accounted for more than 30% cases having lytic viral replication, and lytic replication was more likely in smaller tumors. To confirm that turtles were actively replicating ChHV5, a prerequisite for shedding, the investigators used antiserum raised against F-VP26, a predicted capsid protein of ChHV5 that localizes to the host cell nucleus during viral replication. This antiserum revealed F-VP26 in EIIs of tumors, thus confirming the presence of replicating ChHV5. In this light, it is proposed that unlike other virus-induced neoplastic diseases, FP is a disease that may depend on superspreaders, a few highly infectious individuals growing numerous small tumors permissive to viral production, for transmission of ChHV5.

  8. Dynamics of Virus Shedding and In Situ Confirmation of Chelonid Herpesvirus 5 in Hawaiian Green Turtles With Fibropapillomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T M; Dagenais, J; Balazs, G H; Schettle, N; Ackermann, M

    2015-11-01

    Cancers in humans and animals can be caused by viruses, but virus-induced tumors are considered to be poor sites for replication of intact virions (lytic replication). Fibropapillomatosis (FP) is a neoplastic disease associated with a herpesvirus, chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5), that affects green turtles globally. ChHV5 probably replicates in epidermal cells of tumors, because epidermal intranuclear inclusions (EIIs) contain herpesvirus-like particles. However, although EIIs are a sign of herpesvirus replication, they have not yet been firmly linked to ChHV5. Moreover, the dynamics of viral shedding in turtles are unknown, and there are no serological reagents to confirm actual presence of the specific ChHV5 virus in tissues. The investigators analyzed 381 FP tumors for the presence of EIIs and found that overall, about 35% of green turtles had lytic replication in skin tumors with 7% of tumors showing lytic replication. A few (11%) turtles accounted for more than 30% cases having lytic viral replication, and lytic replication was more likely in smaller tumors. To confirm that turtles were actively replicating ChHV5, a prerequisite for shedding, the investigators used antiserum raised against F-VP26, a predicted capsid protein of ChHV5 that localizes to the host cell nucleus during viral replication. This antiserum revealed F-VP26 in EIIs of tumors, thus confirming the presence of replicating ChHV5. In this light, it is proposed that unlike other virus-induced neoplastic diseases, FP is a disease that may depend on superspreaders, a few highly infectious individuals growing numerous small tumors permissive to viral production, for transmission of ChHV5. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. The Criteria to Confirm the Role of Epstein-Barr Virus in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Di Gu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC, but it remains obscure whether EBV is a viral cause of, or only an accompaniment of, NPC. We will discuss the accumulated evidence pointing to the relationship between EBV infection and NPC initiation from epidemiologic, pathogenic, molecular oncogenic, and experimental animal studies. We believe that convincing evidence from these perspectives must be provided before we can ascertain the causal role of EBV infection in NPC. Specifically, (1 epidemiological studies should reveal EBV infection as a risk factor; (2 the introduction of EBV into an animal model should produce NPC; (3 in the animal model NPC, the main molecular event(s or the involved signaling pathway(s should be identical to that in human NPC; and (4 finally and most importantly, prevention of EBV infection or clearance of EBV from infected individuals must be able to reduce the incidence rate of NPC.

  10. Long-term culture of chicken primordial germ cells isolated from embryonic blood and production of germline chimaeric chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Mitsuru; Harumi, Takashi; Kuwana, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    Production of germline chimaeric chickens by the transfer of cultured primordial germ cells (PGC) is a useful system for germline manipulation. A novel culture system was developed for chicken PGC isolated from embryonic blood. The isolated PGC were cultured on feeder cells derived from chicken embryonic fibroblast. The cultured PGC formed colonies and they proliferated about 300-times during the first 30 days. The cultured PGC retained the ability to migrate to recipient gonads and were also chicken VASA homologue (CVH)-positive. Female PGC were present in the mixed-sex PGC populations cultured for more than 90 days and gave rise to viable offspring efficiently via germline chimaeric chickens. Male cultured PGC were transferred to recipient embryos and produced putative chimaeric chickens. The DNA derived from the cultured PGC was detected in the sperm samples of male putative chimaeric chickens, but no donor derived offspring were obtained. Donor-derived offspring were also obtained from germline chimaeric chickens by the transfer of frozen-thawed cultured PGC. The culture method for PGC developed in the present study is useful for manipulation of the germline in chickens, such as preservation of genetic resources and gene transfer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Immune responses of a chimaeric protein vaccine containing Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antigens and LTB against experimental M. hyopneumoniae infection in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioro, Silvana B; Sácristan, Rubén Del Pozo; Michiels, Annelies; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Conceição, Fabricio R; Dellagostin, Odir A; Maes, Dominiek

    2014-08-06

    A recombinant chimaeric protein containing three Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antigens (C-terminal portion of P97, heat shock protein P42, and NrdF) fused to an adjuvant, the B subunit of heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LTB), was used to immunize pigs against enzootic pneumonia. The systemic and local immune responses, as well as the efficacy of the chimaeric protein in inducing protection against experimental M. hyopneumoniae infection were evaluated. In total, 60 male piglets, purchased from a M. hyopneumoniae-free herd, at 4 weeks of age were randomly allocated to six different experimental groups of 10 animals each: recombinant chimaeric protein by intramuscular (IM) (1) or intranasal (IN) (2) administration, commercial bacterin by IM administration (3), and the adjuvant LTB by IM (4, control group A) or IN (5, control group B) administration. All groups were immunized at 24 and 38 days of age and challenged at 52 days of age. The sixth group that was not challenged was used as the negative control (IN [n=5] or IM [n=5] administration of the LTB adjuvant). Compared with the non-challenged group, administration of the chimaeric protein induced significant (Phyopneumoniae infection in pigs. This lack of effectiveness points towards the need for further studies to improve the efficacy of this subunit-based vaccine approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Outbreak of Zika Virus Infection, Chiapas State, Mexico, 2015, and First Confirmed Transmission by Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerbois, Mathilde; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso; Azar, Sasha R; Danis-Lozano, Rogelio; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia M; Leal, Grace; Garcia-Malo, Iliana R; Diaz-Gonzalez, Esteban E; Casas-Martinez, Mauricio; Rossi, Shannan L; Del Río-Galván, Samanta L; Sanchez-Casas, Rosa M; Roundy, Christopher M; Wood, Thomas G; Widen, Steven G; Vasilakis, Nikos; Weaver, Scott C

    2016-11-01

     After decades of obscurity, Zika virus (ZIKV) has spread through the Americas since 2015 accompanied by congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Although these epidemics presumably involve transmission by Aedes aegypti, no direct evidence of vector involvement has been reported, prompting speculation that other mosquitoes such as Culex quinquefasciatus could be involved.  We detected an outbreak of ZIKV infection in southern Mexico in late 2015. Sera from suspected ZIKV-infected patients were analyzed for viral RNA and antibodies. Mosquitoes were collected in and around patient homes and tested for ZIKV.  Of 119 suspected ZIKV-infected patients, 25 (21%) were confirmed by RT-PCR of serum collected 1-8 days after the onset of signs and symptoms including rash, arthralgia, headache, pruritus, myalgia, and fever. Of 796 mosquitoes collected, A. aegypti yielded ZIKV detection by RT-PCR in 15 of 55 pools (27.3%). No ZIKV was detected in C. quinquefasciatus ZIKV sequences derived from sera and mosquitoes showed a monophyletic relationship suggestive of a point source introduction from Guatemala.  These results demonstrate the continued, rapid northward progression of ZIKV into North America with typically mild disease manifestations, and implicate A. aegypti for the first time as a principal vector in North America. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Zika emergence in the French Territories of America and description of first confirmed cases of Zika virus infection on Martinique, November 2015 to February 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daudens-Vaysse, Elise; Ledrans, Martine; Gay, Noellie; Ardillon, Vanessa; Cassadou, Sylvie; Najioullah, Fatiha; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Rousset, Dominique; Herrmann, Cécile; Cesaire, Raymond; Maquart, Marianne; Flusin, Olivier; Matheus, Séverine; Huc-Anaïs, Patricia; Jaubert, Josiane; Criquet-Hayot, Anne; Hoen, Bruno; Djossou, Felix; Locatelli-Jouans, Corinne; Blateau, Alain; McKenzie, Anne-Marie; Melin, Mathilde; Saint-Martin, Patrick; Dorléans, Frédérique; Suivant, Claudine; Carvalho, Luisiane; Petit-Sinturel, Marion; Andrieu, Audrey; Noël, Harold; Septfons, Alexandra; Gallay, Anne; Paty, Marie-Claire; Filleul, Laurent; Cabié, André

    2016-07-14

    Following of the emergence of Zika virus in Brazil in 2015, an epidemiological surveillance system was quickly implemented in the French overseas Territories of America (FTA) according to previous experience with dengue and chikungunya and has detected first cases of Zika. General practitioners and medical microbiologists were invited to report all clinically suspected cases of Zika, laboratory investigations were systematically conducted (RT-PCR). On 18 December, the first autochthonous case of Zika virus infection was confirmed by RT-PCR on French Guiana and Martinique, indicating introduction of Zika virus in FTA. The viral circulation of Zika virus was then also confirmed on Guadeloupe and Saint-Martin. We report here early findings on 203 confirmed cases of Zika virus infection identified by RT-PCR or seroneutralisation on Martinique Island between 24 November 2015 and 20 January 2016. All cases were investigated. Common clinical signs were observed (maculopapular rash, arthralgia, fever, myalgia and conjunctival hyperaemia) among these patients, but the rash, the foundation of our case definition, may be absent in a significant proportion of patients (16%). These results are important for the implementation of a suspected case definition, the main tool for epidemiological surveillance, in territories that may be affected by ZIKV emergence, including Europe. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  14. DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF A TEST FOR DETECTION OF SECRETORY IgA FOR CONFIRMATION OF ABSENCE OF FMD VIRUS CIRCULATION

    OpenAIRE

    D.N. AFONINA; N.YE. KAMALOVA; A.V. KAN’HINA; A.M. TIMINA

    2014-01-01

    In Russia the preventive vaccination dominates over other protective and preventive measures against foot and mouth disease (FMD). However, the development of the subclinical infection in immune animals should not be ruled out as these animals become virus carriers and pose a potential threat for susceptible animal population. Therefore, the design and reduction to practice of tests for identification of virus-carrier animals continues to be relevant. Secretory immunoglobulins A (sIgA) provid...

  15. High virulence differences among phylogenetically distinct isolates of the fish rhabdovirus viral hemorrhagic septicaemia virus are not explained by variability of the surface glycoprotein G or the non-virion protein Nv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einer-Jensen, Katja; Harmache, Abdallah; Biacchesi, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    -related novirhabdovirus [infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV)], four chimaeric IHNV–VHSV recombinant viruses were generated. These chimaeric viruses included substitution of the IHNV glyco- (G) or non-structural (Nv) protein with their counterparts from either a trout-derived or a marine VHSV strain....... Comparative challenge experiments in rainbow trout fingerlings revealed similar levels of survival induced by the recombinant (r)IHNV–VHSV chimaeric viruses regardless of whether the G or Nv genes originated from VHSV isolated from a marine fish species or from rainbow trout. Interestingly, recombinant IHNV...... gained higher virulence following substitution of the G gene with those of the VHSV strains, whilst the opposite was the case following substitution of the Nv genes....

  16. Confirmation and phylogenetic analysis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus in free-living rabbits from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Bildt, M. W. G.; van Bolhuis, G. H.; van Zijderveld, F.; van Riel, D.; Drees, J. M.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Kuiken, T.

    2006-01-01

    The number of free-living European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in the Netherlands has declined dramatically in recent years. Although rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) infection has been implicated as a possible cause of this decline, the definitive diagnosis has not been reported. We

  17. Evolutionary analysis of whole-genome sequences confirms inter-farm transmission of Aleutian mink disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagberg, Emma Elisabeth; Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Larsen, Lars E

    2017-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is a frequently encountered pathogen associated with mink farming. Previous phylogenetic analyses of AMDV have been based on shorter and more conserved parts of the genome, e.g. the partial NS1 gene. Such fragments are suitable for detection but are less useful...... direction of spread. It was however impossible to infer transmission pathways from the partial NS1 gene tree, since all samples from the case farms branched out from a single internal node. A sliding window analysis showed that there were no shorter genomic regions providing the same phylogenetic resolution...

  18. Chimaera and its modern virus-like descendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, R; Gerlich, W H; Krüger, D H

    1996-01-01

    Chimaera was a monster in ancient Greek mythology combining elements from different animal species in its body. Modern molecular biology enabled the generation of harmless but useful chimaeras consisting of elements from different nonrelated viruses. The objective is that the resulting chimaeras form highly immunogenic virus-like particles (VLPs). Such chimaeric VLPs can be used as highly efficient carriers for sequential and conformational B cell epitopes and T cell epitopes. Most VLPs are readily produced in heterologous hosts and are easy to purify. This article deals with various systems of VLPs described in this topical issue of Intervirology and makes comparisons with chimaeric replication-competent viruses, recombinant virus vectors expressing foreign proteins, and DNA vaccines.

  19. Inactivated recombinant plant virus protects dogs from a lethal challenge with canine parvovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langeveld, J.P.M.; Brennan, F.R.; Martinez-Torrecuadrada, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    A vaccine based upon a recombinant plant virus (CPMV-PARVO1), displaying a peptide derived from the VP2 capsid protein of canine parvovirus (CPV), has previously been described. To date, studies with the vaccine have utilized viable plant chimaeric particles (CVPs). In this study, CPMV-PARVO1...

  20. Symptoms on apple and pear indicators after back-transmission from Nicotiana occidentalis confirm the identity of apple stem pitting virus with pear vein yellows virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leone, G.; Lindner, J.L.; Meer, van der F.A.; Schoen, C.D.; Jongedijk, G.

    1998-01-01

    Isolates of apple stem pitting virus (ASPV) from diseased apple trees were maintained in Nicotiana occidentalis then back-transmitted mechanically from the herbaceous host to apple seedlings and indexed by double budding on apple and pear indicators for the following syndromes: apple stem pitting,

  1. Molecular confirmation of Maize rayado fino virus as the Brazilian corn streak virus Confirmação molecular do 'Maize rayado fino virus' como vírus da estria do milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie Wahnbaeck Hammond

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV, present in various countries in Latin America, has shown similarities to corn streak virus that occurs in Brazil, regarding pathogenic, serological and histological characteristics. In the current report both virus were molecularly compared to confirm the similarities between them. MRFV was identified by nucleic acid hybridization in samples of maize tissues exhibiting symptoms of "corn stunt" disease, collected from two Brazilian States - São Paulo and Minas Gerais. The coat protein gene and 3'non-translated region of MRFV were amplified from infected tissues by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR using MRFV-specific primers, and were characterized by nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the cloned PCR products. Phylogenetic analysis of the relationships between the Brazilian isolates and isolates obtained from Latin America and the United States reveals a close relationship to isolates from Brazil, Peru and Bolivia. Results support the proposal that the Brazilian corn streak virus be regarded as an isolate of MRFV and provide evidence for the presence of MRFV in "corn stunt' disease in Brazil.O vírus do rayado fino do milho (MRFV, presente em vários países da América Latina, tem mostrado semelhança ao vírus da risca do milho que ocorre no Brasil, em relação a características patogênicas, sorológicas e histológicas. No presente trabalho, ambos os vírus foram comparados molecularmente, visando confirmar a similaridade entre os mesmos. O MRFV foi identificado por hibridização de ácido nucléico em amostras de tecido que apresentavam sintomas de enfezamento, coletadas nos estados de São Paulo e Minas Gerais. O gene da capa protéica e a região 3' não traduzida do MRFV foram amplificados, a partir de tecidos infectados, através da transcrição reversa por reação em cadeia da polimerase (RT-PCR, usando-se os iniciadores específicos para o vírus, obtendo-se a seq

  2. Ability To Serologically Confirm Recent Zika Virus Infection in Areas with Varying Past Incidence of Dengue Virus Infection in the United States and U.S. Territories in 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Nicole P; Staples, J Erin; Powell, Krista; Rabe, Ingrid B; Fischer, Marc; Powers, Ann M; Kosoy, Olga I; Mossel, Eric C; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge L; Beltran, Manuela; Hancock, W Thane; Toews, Karrie-Ann E; Ellis, Esther M; Ellis, Brett R; Panella, Amanda J; Basile, Alison J; Calvert, Amanda E; Laven, Janeen; Goodman, Christin H; Gould, Carolyn V; Martin, Stacey W; Thomas, Jennifer D; Villanueva, Julie; Mataia, Mary L; Sciulli, Rebecca; Gose, Remedios; Whelen, A Christian; Hills, Susan L

    2018-01-01

    Cross-reactivity within flavivirus antibody assays, produced by shared epitopes in the envelope proteins, can complicate the serological diagnosis of Zika virus (ZIKAV) infection. We assessed the utility of the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) to confirm recent ZIKAV infections and rule out misleading positive immunoglobulin M (IgM) results in areas with various levels of past dengue virus (DENV) infection incidence. We reviewed PRNT results of sera collected for diagnosis of ZIKAV infection from 1 January through 31 August 2016 with positive ZIKAV IgM results, and ZIKAV and DENV PRNTs were performed. PRNT result interpretations included ZIKAV, unspecified flavivirus, DENV infection, or negative. For this analysis, ZIKAV IgM was considered false positive for samples interpreted as a DENV infection or negative. In U.S. states, 208 (27%) of 759 IgM-positive results were confirmed to be ZIKAV compared to 11 (21%) of 52 in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI), 15 (15%) of 103 in American Samoa, and 13 (11%) of 123 in Puerto Rico. In American Samoa and Puerto Rico, more than 80% of IgM-positive results were unspecified flavivirus infections. The false-positivity rate was 27% in U.S. states, 18% in the USVI, 2% in American Samoa, and 6% in Puerto Rico. In U.S. states, the PRNT provided a virus-specific diagnosis or ruled out infection in the majority of IgM-positive samples. Almost a third of ZIKAV IgM-positive results were not confirmed; therefore, providers and patients must understand that IgM results are preliminary. In territories with historically higher rates of DENV transmission, the PRNT usually could not differentiate between ZIKAV and DENV infections. This is a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Foreign copyrights may apply.

  3. Discordant human T-lymphotropic virus screening with Western blot confirmation: evaluation of the dual-test algorithm for US blood donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramer, Susan L; Townsend, Rebecca L; Foster, Gregory A; Johnson, Ramona; Weixlmann, Barbara; Dodd, Roger Y

    2018-03-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) blood donation screening has used a dual-testing algorithm beginning with either a chemiluminescent immunoassay or enzyme-linked immunosorbent screening assay (ELISA). Before the availability of a licensed HTLV supplemental assay, repeat-reactive (RR) samples on a first assay (Assay 1) were retested with a second screening assay (Assay 2). Donors with RR results by Assay 2 were deferred from blood donation and further tested using an unlicensed supplemental test to confirm reactivity while nonreactive (NR) donors remained eligible for donation until RR on a subsequent donation. This "dual-test" algorithm was replaced in May 2016 with the requirement that all RRs by Assay 1 be further tested by a licensed HTLV supplemental test (Western blot [WB]). In this study, we have requalified the dual-test algorithm using the available licensed HTLV WB. We tested 100 randomly selected HTLV RRs on screening Assay 1 (Abbott PRISM chemiluminescent immunoassay) but NR on screening Assay 2 (Avioq ELISA) by a Food and Drug Administration-licensed WB (MP Biomedicals) to ensure that no confirmed positives were among those that were RR by Assay 1 but NR by Assay 2. Of the 100 samples evaluated, 79 of 100 were WB seronegative, 21 of 100 indeterminate, and 0 of 100 seropositive. Of the 79 of 100 seronegative specimens, 73 of 79 did not express any bands on WB. We demonstrated that none of the 100 samples RR on Assay 1 but NR on Assay 2 were confirmed positive. This algorithm prevents such donors from requiring further testing and from being deferred. © 2018 AABB.

  4. The potential of the combination of CRISPR/Cas9 and pluripotent stem cells to provide human organs from chimaeric pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wanyou; Dai, Yifan; Mou, Lisha; Cooper, David K C; Shi, Deshun; Cai, Zhiming

    2015-03-23

    Clinical organ allotransplantation is limited by the availability of deceased human donors. However, the transplantation of human organs produced in other species would provide an unlimited number of organs. The pig has been identified as the most suitable source of organs for humans as organs of any size would be available. Genome editing by RNA-guided endonucleases, also known as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/Cas9), in combination with induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), may have the potential to enable the creation of human organs from genetically-modified chimaeric pigs. These could potentially provide an unlimited supply of organs that would not be rejected by the recipient's immune system. However, substantial research is needed to prove that this approach will work. Genetic modification of chimaeric pigs could also provide useful models for developing therapies for various human diseases, especially in relation to drug development.

  5. Hepatitis C virus sequences from different patients confirm the existence and transmissibility of subtype 2q, a rare subtype circulating in the metropolitan area of Barcelona, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martró, Elisa; Valero, Ana; Jordana-Lluch, Elena; Saludes, Verónica; Planas, Ramón; González-Candelas, Fernando; Ausina, Vicente; Bracho, Maria Alma

    2011-05-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been classified into six genotypes and more than 70 subtypes with distinct geographical and epidemiological distributions. While 18 genotype 2 subtypes have been proposed, only 5 have had their complete sequence determined. The aim of this study was to characterize HCV isolates from three patients from the Barcelona metropolitan area of Spain for whom commercial genotyping methods provided discordant results. Full-length genome sequencing was carried out for 2 of the 3 patients; for the third patient only partial NS5B sequences could be obtained. The generated sequences were subjected to phylogenetic, recombination, and identity analyses. Sequences covering most of the HCV genome (9398 and 9566  nt in length) were obtained and showed a 90.3% identity to each other at the nucleotide level, while both sequences differed by 17.5-22.6% from the other fully sequenced genotype 2 subtypes. No evidence of recombination was found. The NS5B phylogenetic tree showed that sequences from the three patients cluster together with the only representative sequence of the provisionally designed 2q subtype, which also corresponds to a patient from Barcelona. Phylogenetic analysis of the full coding sequence showed that subtype 2q was more closely related to subtype 2k. The results obtained in this study suggest that subtype 2q now meets the requirements for confirmed designation status according to consensus criteria for HCV classification and nomenclature, and its epidemiological value is ensured as it has spread among several patients in the Barcelona metropolitan area. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. In Silico Prediction and Experimental Confirmation of HA Residues Conferring Enhanced Human Receptor Specificity of H5N1 Influenza A Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmier, Sonja; Mostafa, Ahmed; Haarmann, Thomas; Bannert, Norbert; Ziebuhr, John; Veljkovic, Veljko; Dietrich, Ursula; Pleschka, Stephan

    2015-06-01

    Newly emerging influenza A viruses (IAV) pose a major threat to human health by causing seasonal epidemics and/or pandemics, the latter often facilitated by the lack of pre-existing immunity in the general population. Early recognition of candidate pandemic influenza viruses (CPIV) is of crucial importance for restricting virus transmission and developing appropriate therapeutic and prophylactic strategies including effective vaccines. Often, the pandemic potential of newly emerging IAV is only fully recognized once the virus starts to spread efficiently causing serious disease in humans. Here, we used a novel phylogenetic algorithm based on the informational spectrum method (ISM) to identify potential CPIV by predicting mutations in the viral hemagglutinin (HA) gene that are likely to (differentially) affect critical interactions between the HA protein and target cells from bird and human origin, respectively. Predictions were subsequently validated by generating pseudotyped retrovirus particles and genetically engineered IAV containing these mutations and characterizing potential effects on virus entry and replication in cells expressing human and avian IAV receptors, respectively. Our data suggest that the ISM-based algorithm is suitable to identify CPIV among IAV strains that are circulating in animal hosts and thus may be a new tool for assessing pandemic risks associated with specific strains.

  7. Detection, isolation and confirmation of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in human, ticks and animals in Ahmadabad, India, 2010-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra T Mourya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In January 2011, human cases with hemorrhagic manifestations in the hospital staff were reported from a tertiary care hospital in Ahmadabad, India. This paper reports a detailed epidemiological investigation of nosocomial outbreak from the affected area of Ahmadabad, Gujarat, India. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Samples from 3 suspected cases, 83 contacts, Hyalomma ticks and livestock were screened for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF virus by qRT-PCR of which samples of two medical professionals (case C and E and the husband of the index case (case D were positive for CCHFV. The sensitivity and specificity of indigenous developed IgM ELISA to screen CCHFV specific antibodies in human serum was 75.0% and 97.5% respectively as compared to commercial kit. About 17.0% domestic animals from Kolat, Ahmadabad were positive for IgG antibodies while only two cattle and a goat showed positivity by qRT-PCR. Surprisingly, 43.0% domestic animals (Buffalo, cattle, sheep and goat showed IgG antibodies in the adjoining village Jivanpara but only one of the buffalo was positive for CCHFV. The Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks were positive in PCR and virus isolation. CCHFV was isolated from the blood sample of case C, E in Vero E-6 cells and Swiss albino mice. In partial nucleocapsid gene phylogeny from CCHFV positive human samples of the years 2010 and 2011, livestock and ticks showed this virus was similar to Tajikistan (strain TAJ/H08966, which belongs in the Asian/middle east genetic lineage IV. CONCLUSIONS: The likely source of CCHFV was identified as virus infected Hyalomma ticks and livestock at the rural village residence of the primary case (case A. In addition, retrospective sample analysis revealed the existence of CCHFV in Gujarat and Rajasthan states before this outbreak. An indigenous developed IgM ELISA kit will be of great use for screening this virus in India.

  8. Use of palivizumab and infection control measures to control an outbreak of respiratory syncytial virus in a neonatal intensive care unit confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, K

    2011-04-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a potentially life-threatening infection in premature infants. We report an outbreak involving four infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of our hospital that occurred in February 2010. RSV A infection was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Palivizumab was administered to all infants in the NICU. There were no additional symptomatic cases and repeat RSV surveillance confirmed that there was no further cross-transmission within the unit. The outbreak highlighted the infection control challenge of very high bed occupancy in the unit and the usefulness of molecular methods in facilitating detection and management.

  9. Zika emergence in the French Territories of America and description of first confirmed cases of Zika virus infection on Martinique, November 2015 to February 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Daudens-Vaysse , Elise; Ledrans , Martine; Gay , Noellie; Ardillon , Vanessa; Cassadou , Sylvie; Najioullah , Fatiha; Leparc-Goffart , Isabelle; Rousset , Dominique; Herrmann , Cécile; Cesaire , Raymond; Maquart , Marianne; Flusin , Olivier; Matheus , Séverine; Huc-Anais , Patricia; Jaubert , Josiane

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Following of the emergence of Zika virus in Brazil in 2015, an epidemiological surveillance system was quickly implemented in the French overseas Territories of America (FTA) according to previous experience with dengue and chikungunya and has detected first cases of Zika. General practitioners and medical microbiologists were invited to report all clinically suspectedcases of Zika, laboratory investigations were systematically conducted (RT-PCR). On 18 December, the f...

  10. Detection and confirmation of PPR virus antigen in sheep and goats by sandwich-ELISA and RT-PCR in Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Saritha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Peste des petits ruminants (PPR is a highly contagious disease of domestic and wild small ruminants. Rapid and accurate laboratory assay are essential to enable the implementation of appropriate control strategies to restrict the spread of PPR. The present study was designed to detect the PPR virus (PPRV antigen (N-gene in nasal swabs and tissue samples. A total of 195 samples comprising of 138 nasal swabs from PPR suspected sheep (n=72 and goats (n=66, and 57 tissue samples comprising of lymph nodes from dead sheep (n=39 and goats (n=18 were collected from certain parts of Andhra Pradesh. The samples were subjected to sandwich-ELISA followed by RT-PCR for confirmatory diagnosis. In this study, PPRV could be detected in 27.53% (n=38/138 nasal swabs and 49.12% (n=28/57 tissue samples. Data showed that PPRV infection is widespread in the Andhra Pradesh, India.

  11. Case-based reported mortality associated with laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H1N1 2009 virus infection in the Netherlands: the 2009-2010 pandemic season versus the 2010-2011 influenza season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timen Aura

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In contrast to seasonal influenza epidemics, where the majority of deaths occur amongst elderly, a considerable part of the 2009 pandemic influenza related deaths concerned relatively young people. In the Netherlands, all deaths associated with laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H1N1 2009 virus infection had to be notified, both during the 2009-2010 pandemic season and the 2010-2011 influenza season. To assess whether and to what extent pandemic mortality patterns were reverting back to seasonal patterns, a retrospective analyses of all notified fatal cases associated with laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H1N1 2009 virus infection was performed. Methods The notification database, including detailed information about the clinical characteristics of all notified deaths, was used to perform a comprehensive analysis of all deceased patients with a laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H1N1 2009 virus infection. Characteristics of the fatalities with respect to age and underlying medical conditions were analysed, comparing the 2009-2010 pandemic and the 2010-2011 influenza season. Results A total of 65 fatalities with a laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H1N1 2009 virus infection were notified in 2009-2010 and 38 in 2010-2011. During the pandemic season, the population mortality rates peaked in persons aged 0-15 and 55-64 years. In the 2010-2011 influenza season, peaks in mortality were seen in persons aged 0-15 and 75-84 years. During the 2010-2011 influenza season, the height of first peak was lower compared to that during the pandemic season. Underlying immunological disorders were more common in the pandemic season compared to the 2010-2011 season (p = 0.02, and cardiovascular disorders were more common in the 2010-2011 season (p = 0.005. Conclusions The mortality pattern in the 2010-2011 influenza season still resembled the 2009-2010 pandemic season with a peak in relatively young age groups, but concurrently a clear shift toward

  12. Comparison of the prevalence of human papilloma virus infection in histopathologically confirmed premalignant oral lesions and healthy oral mucosa by brush smear detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Torre, Daniel; Burtscher, Doris; Edlinger, Michael; Sölder, Elisabeth; Widschwendter, Andreas; Rasse, Michael; Puelacher, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    The role of human papilloma virus (HPV) infections in oral carcinogenesis is an important topic of research in maxillofacial oncology. Nevertheless, the association between such infections in the oral cavity and the development of oral precancerous lesions remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between oral HPV infections and oral leukoplakia or erythroplakia. The case control study included 118 patients with manifest oral leukoplakia or erythroplakia, who underwent surgical biopsy, including a histopathologic grading of the lesion, and 100 control patients without any oral lesions. HPV detection was achieved with a noninvasive brush smear method (Digene Cervical Sampler, Hybrid Capture II-Test). Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the associations. A significant association was found between high-risk oral HPV infection and the presence of oral premalignant lesions (P = .001). Among all other evaluated parameters, only smoking showed a significant association with the presence of oral lesions. Oral HPV infections may play a role in the pathogenesis of premalignant oral lesions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative epidemiology of human infections with avian influenza A H7N9 and H5N1 viruses in China: a population-based study of laboratory-confirmed cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowling, Benjamin J; Jin, Lianmei; Lau, Eric H Y; Liao, Qiaohong; Wu, Peng; Jiang, Hui; Tsang, Tim K; Zheng, Jiandong; Fang, Vicky J; Chang, Zhaorui; Ni, Michael Y; Zhang, Qian; Ip, Dennis K M; Yu, Jianxing; Li, Yu; Wang, Liping; Tu, Wenxiao; Meng, Ling; Wu, Joseph T; Luo, Huiming; Li, Qun; Shu, Yuelong; Li, Zhongjie; Feng, Zijian; Yang, Weizhong; Wang, Yu; Leung, Gabriel M; Yu, Hongjie

    2013-07-13

    The novel influenza A H7N9 virus emerged recently in mainland China, whereas the influenza A H5N1 virus has infected people in China since 2003. Both infections are thought to be mainly zoonotic. We aimed to compare the epidemiological characteristics of the complete series of laboratory-confirmed cases of both viruses in mainland China so far. An integrated database was constructed with information about demographic, epidemiological, and clinical variables of laboratory-confirmed cases of H7N9 (130 patients) and H5N1 (43 patients) that were reported to the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention until May 24, 2013. We described disease occurrence by age, sex, and geography, and estimated key epidemiological variables. We used survival analysis techniques to estimate the following distributions: infection to onset, onset to admission, onset to laboratory confirmation, admission to death, and admission to discharge. The median age of the 130 individuals with confirmed infection with H7N9 was 62 years and of the 43 with H5N1 was 26 years. In urban areas, 74% of cases of both viruses were in men, whereas in rural areas the proportions of the viruses in men were 62% for H7N9 and 33% for H5N1. 75% of patients infected with H7N9 and 71% of those with H5N1 reported recent exposure to poultry. The mean incubation period of H7N9 was 3·1 days and of H5N1 was 3·3 days. On average, 21 contacts were traced for each case of H7N9 in urban areas and 18 in rural areas, compared with 90 and 63 for H5N1. The fatality risk on admission to hospital was 36% (95% CI 26-45) for H7N9 and 70% (56-83%) for H5N1. The sex ratios in urban compared with rural cases are consistent with exposure to poultry driving the risk of infection--a higher risk in men was only recorded in urban areas but not in rural areas, and the increased risk for men was of a similar magnitude for H7N9 and H5N1. However, the difference in susceptibility to serious illness with the two different viruses

  14. Polymethacrylate Coated Electrospun PHB Fibers as a Functionalized Platform for Bio-Diagnostics: Confirmation Analysis on the Presence of Immobilized IgG Antibodies against Dengue Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Hosseini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a combination of far field electrospinning (FFES and free-radical polymerization has been used to create a unique platform for protein immobilization via the physical attachment of biomolecules to the surface of the fiber mats. The large specific surface area of the fibers with its tailored chemistry provides a desirable platform for effective analyte-surface interaction. The detailed analysis of protein immobilization on a newly developed bio-receptive surface plays a vital role to gauge its advantages in bio-diagnostic applications. We relied on scanning electron microscopy (SEM, diameter range analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, along with thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, water-in-air contact angle analysis (WCA, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and atomic force microscopy (AFM to study our developed platforms and to provide valuable information regarding the presence of biomolecular entities on the surface. Detailed analyses of the fiber mats before and after antibody immobilization have shown obvious changes on the surface of the bioreceptive surface including: (i an additional peak corresponding to the presence of an antibody in TGA analysis; (ii extra FTIR peaks corresponding to the presence of antibodies on the coated fiber platforms; and (iii a clear alteration in surface roughness recorded by AFM analysis. Confirmation analyses on protein immobilization are of great importance as they underlay substantial grounds for various biosensing applications.

  15. Roles of the C-terminal domains of human dihydrodiol dehydrogenase isoforms in the binding of substrates and modulators: probing with chimaeric enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, K; Hara, A; Deyashiki, Y; Iwasa, H; Kume, T; Ishikura, S; Shiraishi, H; Katagiri, Y

    1998-01-01

    Human liver dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (DD; EC 1.3.1.20) exists in isoforms (DD1, DD2 and DD4) composed of 323 amino acids. DD1 and DD2 share 98% amino acid sequence identity, but show lower identities (approx. 83%) with DD4, in which a marked difference is seen in the C-terminal ten amino acids. DD4 exhibits unique catalytic properties, such as the ability to oxidize both (R)- and (S)-alicyclic alcohols equally, high dehydrogenase activity for bile acids, potent inhibition by steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and activation by sulphobromophthalein and clofibric acid derivatives. In this study, we have prepared chimaeric enzymes, in which we exchanged the C-terminal 39 residues between the two enzymes. Compared with DD1, CDD1-4 (DD1 with the C-terminal sequence of DD4) had increased kcat/Km values for 3alpha-hydroxy-5beta-androstanes and bile acids of 3-9-fold and decreased values for the other substrates by 5-100-fold. It also became highly sensitive to DD4 inhibitors such as phenolphthalein and hexoestrol. Another chimaeric enzyme, CDD4-1 (DD4 with the C-terminal sequence of DD1), showed the same (S)-stereospecificity for the alicyclic alcohols as DD1, had decreased kcat/Km values for bile acids with 7beta- or 12alpha-hydroxy groups by more than 120-fold and was resistant to inhibition by betamethasone. In addition, the activation effects of sulphobromophthalein and bezafibrate decreased or disappeared for CDD4-1. The recombinant DD4 with the His314-->Pro (the corresponding residue of DD1) mutation showed intermediate changes in the properties between those of wild-type DD4 and CDD4-1. The results indicate that the binding of substrates, inhibitors and activators to the enzymes is controlled by residues in their C-terminal domains; multiple residues co-ordinately act as determinants for substrate specificity and inhibitor sensitivity. PMID:9820821

  16. Comparison of a newly developed automated and quantitative hepatitis C virus (HCV) core antigen test with the HCV RNA assay for clinical usefulness in confirming anti-HCV results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesli, Recep; Polat, Hakki; Terzi, Yuksel; Kurtoglu, Muhammet Guzel; Uyar, Yavuz

    2011-12-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global health care problem. Diagnosis of HCV infection is mainly based on the detection of anti-HCV antibodies as a screening test with serum samples. Recombinant immunoblot assays are used as supplemental tests and for the final detection and quantification of HCV RNA in confirmatory tests. In this study, we aimed to compare the HCV core antigen test with the HCV RNA assay for confirming anti-HCV results to determine whether the HCV core antigen test may be used as an alternative confirmatory test to the HCV RNA test and to assess the diagnostic values of the total HCV core antigen test by determining the diagnostic specificity and sensitivity rates compared with the HCV RNA test. Sera from a total of 212 treatment-naive patients were analyzed for anti-HCV and HCV core antigen both with the Abbott Architect test and with the molecular HCV RNA assay consisting of a reverse transcription-PCR method as a confirmatory test. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the HCV core antigen assay compared to the HCV RNA test were 96.3%, 100%, 100%, and 89.7%, respectively. The levels of HCV core antigen showed a good correlation with those from the HCV RNA quantification (r = 0.907). In conclusion, the Architect HCV antigen assay is highly specific, sensitive, reliable, easy to perform, reproducible, cost-effective, and applicable as a screening, supplemental, and preconfirmatory test for anti-HCV assays used in laboratory procedures for the diagnosis of hepatitis C virus infection.

  17. SSX and the synovial-sarcoma-specific chimaeric protein SYT-SSX co-localize with the human Polycomb group complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulez, M; Saurin, A J; Freemont, P S; Knight, J C

    1999-04-29

    Chromosome translocation t(X;18)(p11.2;q11.2) is unique to synovial sarcomas and results in an 'in frame' fusion of the SYT gene with the SSX1 or closely-related SSX2 gene. Wild-type SYT and SSX proteins, and the SYT-SSX chimaeric proteins, can modulate transcription in gene reporter assays. To help elucidate the role of these proteins in cell function and neoplasia we have performed immunolabelling experiments to determine their subcellular localization in three cell types. Transient expression of epitope-tagged proteins produced distinctive nuclear staining patterns. The punctate staining of SYT and SYT-SSX proteins showed some similarities. We immunolabelled a series of endogenous nuclear antigens and excluded the SYT and SYT-SSX focal staining from association with these domains (e.g. sites of active transcription, snRNPs). In further experiments we immunolabelled the Polycomb group (PcG) proteins RING1 or BMI-1 and showed that SSX and SYT-SSX proteins, but not SYT, co-localized with these markers. Consistent with this we show that SSX and SYT-SSX associate with chromatin, and also associate with condensed chromatin at metaphase. Noteably, SSX produced a dense signal over the surface of metaphase chromosomes whereas SYT-SSX produced discrete focal staining. Our data indicate that SSX and SYT-SSX proteins are recruited to nuclear domains occupied by PcG complexes, and this provides us with a new insight into the possible function of wild-type SSX and the mechanism by which the aberrant SYT-SSX protein might disrupt fundamental mechanisms controlling cell division and cell fate.

  18. Analysis of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using high-sensitivity HBsAg assays in hepatitis B virus carriers in whom HBsAg seroclearance was confirmed by conventional assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Itaru; Nakajima, Tomoaki; Suii, Hirokazu; Tatsumi, Ryoji; Yamaguchi, Masakatsu; Kimura, Mutsuumi; Arakawa, Tomohiro; Kuwata, Yasuaki; Ohmura, Takumi; Hige, Shuhei; Karino, Yoshiyasu; Toyota, Joji

    2018-02-01

    We investigated the utility of high-sensitivity hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) assays compared with conventional HBsAg assays. Using serum samples from 114 hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers in whom HBsAg seroclearance was confirmed by conventional HBsAg assays (cut-off value, 0.05 IU/mL), the amount of HBsAg was re-examined by high-sensitivity HBsAg assays (cut-off value, 0.005 IU/mL). Cases negative for HBsAg in both assays were defined as consistent cases, and cases positive for HBsAg in the high-sensitivity HBsAg assay only were defined as discrepant cases. There were 55 (48.2%) discrepant cases, and the range of HBsAg titers determined by high-sensitivity HBsAg assays was 0.005-0.056 IU/mL. Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of nucleos(t)ide analog therapy, liver cirrhosis, and negative anti-HBs contributed to the discrepancies between the two assays. Cumulative anti-HBs positivity rates among discrepant cases were 12.7%, 17.2%, 38.8%, and 43.9% at baseline, 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years, respectively, whereas the corresponding rates among consistent cases were 50.8%, 56.0%, 61.7%, and 68.0%, respectively. Hepatitis B virus DNA negativity rates were 56.4% and 81.4% at baseline, 51.3% and 83.3% at 1 year, and 36.8% and 95.7% at 3 years, among discrepant and consistent cases, respectively. Hepatitis B surface antigen reversion was observed only in discrepant cases. Re-examination by high-sensitivity HBsAg assays revealed that HBsAg was positive in approximately 50% of cases. Cumulative anti-HBs seroconversion rates and HBV-DNA seroclearance rates were lower in these cases, suggesting a population at risk for HBsAg reversion. © 2017 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  19. CERN confirms LHC schedule

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    The CERN Council held its 125th session on 20 June. Highlights of the meeting included confirmation that the LHC is on schedule for a 2007 start-up, and the announcement of a new organizational structure in 2004.

  20. Performance Confirmation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, E.N.

    2000-01-01

    As described, the purpose of the Performance Confirmation Plan is to specify monitoring, testing, and analysis activities for evaluating the accuracy and adequacy of the information used to determine that performance objectives for postclosure will be met. This plan defines a number of specific performance confirmation activities and associated test concepts in support of the MGR that will be implemented to fulfill this purpose. In doing so, the plan defines an approach to identify key factors and processes, predict performance, establish tolerances and test criteria, collect data (through monitoring, testing, and experiments), analyze these data, and recommend appropriate action. The process of defining which factors to address under performance confirmation incorporates input from several areas. In all cases, key performance confirmation factors are those factors which are: (1) important to safety, (2) measurable and predictable, and (3) relevant to the program (i.e., a factor that is affected by construction, emplacement, or is a time-dependent variable). For the present version of the plan, performance confirmation factors important to safety are identified using the principal factors from the RSS (CRWMS M and O 2000a) (which is derived from TSPA analyses) together with other available performance assessment analyses. With this basis, key performance confirmation factors have been identified, and test concepts and test descriptions have been developed in the plan. Other activities are also incorporated into the performance confirmation program outside of these key factors. Additional activities and tests have been incorporated when they are prescribed by requirements and regulations or are necessary to address data needs and model validation requirements relevant to postclosure safety. These other activities have been included with identified factors to construct the overall performance confirmation program

  1. Performance Confirmation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, E.N.

    2000-01-01

    As described, the purpose of the Performance Confirmation Plan is to specify monitoring, testing, and analysis activities for evaluating the accuracy and adequacy of the information used to determine that performance objectives for postclosure will be met. This plan defines a number of specific performance confirmation activities and associated test concepts in support of the MGR that will be implemented to fulfill this purpose. In doing so, the plan defines an approach to identify key factors and processes, predict performance, establish tolerances and test criteria, collect data (through monitoring, testing, and experiments), analyze these data, and recommend appropriate action. The process of defining which factors to address under performance confirmation incorporates input from several areas. In all cases, key performance confirmation factors are those factors which are: (1) important to safety, (2) measurable and predictable, and (3) relevant to the program (i.e., a factor that i s affected by construction, emplacement, or is a time-dependent variable). For the present version of the plan, performance confirmation factors important to safety are identified using the principal factors from the RSS (CRWMS M and O 2000a) (which is derived from TSPA analyses) together with other available performance assessment analyses. With this basis, key performance confirmation factors have been identified, and test concepts and test descriptions have been developed in the plan. Other activities are also incorporated into the performance confirmation program outside of these key factors. Additional activities and tests have been incorporated when they are prescribed by requirements and regulations or are necessary to address data needs and model validation requirements relevant to postclosure safety. These other activities have been included with identified factors to construct the overall performance confirmation program

  2. Repository performance confirmation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    Repository performance confirmation links the technical bases of repository science and societal acceptance. This paper explores the myriad aspects of what has been labeled performance confirmation in U.S. programs, which involves monitoring as a collection of distinct activities combining technical and social significance in radioactive waste management. This paper is divided into four parts: (1) A distinction is drawn between performance confirmation monitoring and other testing and monitoring objectives; (2) A case study illustrates confirmation activities integrated within a long-term testing and monitoring strategy for Yucca Mountain; (3) A case study reviews compliance monitoring developed and implemented for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant; and (4) An approach for developing, evaluating and implementing the next generation of performance confirmation monitoring is presented. International interest in repository monitoring is exhibited by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme 'Monitoring Developments for Safe Repository Operation and Staged Closure' (MoDeRn) Project. The MoDeRn partners are considering the role of monitoring in a phased approach to the geological disposal of radioactive waste. As repository plans advance in different countries, the need to consider monitoring strategies within a controlled framework has become more apparent. The MoDeRn project pulls together technical and societal experts to assimilate a common understanding of a process that could be followed to develop a monitoring program. A fundamental consideration is the differentiation of confirmation monitoring from the many other testing and monitoring activities. Recently, the license application for Yucca Mountain provided a case study including a technical process for meeting regulatory requirements to confirm repository performance as well as considerations related to the preservation of retrievability. The performance confirmation plan developed as part of the

  3. Plutonian Moon confirmed

    Science.gov (United States)

    In late February, two separate observations confirmed the 1978 discovery by U.S. Naval Observatory scientist James W. Christy of a moon orbiting the planet Pluto. According to the U.S. Naval Observatory, these two observations were needed before the International Astronomical Society (IAS) would officially recognize the discovery.Two types of observations of the moon, which was named Charon after the ferryman in Greek mythology who carried the dead to Pluto's realm, were needed for confirmation: a transit, in which the moon passes in front of Pluto, and an occultation, in which the moon passes behind the planet. These two phenomena occur only during an 8-year period every 124 years that had been calculated to take place during 1984-1985. Both events were observed in late February.

  4. Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Structural Proteins Are the Primary Viral Determinants of Non-Viraemic Transmission between Ticks whereas Non-Structural Proteins Affect Cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasnatinov, Maxim A; Tuplin, Andrew; Gritsun, Dmitri J; Slovak, Mirko; Kazimirova, Maria; Lickova, Martina; Havlikova, Sabina; Klempa, Boris; Labuda, Milan; Gould, Ernest A; Gritsun, Tamara S

    2016-01-01

    Over 50 million humans live in areas of potential exposure to tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). The disease exhibits an estimated 16,000 cases recorded annually over 30 European and Asian countries. Conventionally, TBEV transmission to Ixodes spp. ticks occurs whilst feeding on viraemic animals. However, an alternative mechanism of non-viraemic transmission (NVT) between infected and uninfected ticks co-feeding on the same transmission-competent host, has also been demonstrated. Here, using laboratory-bred I. ricinus ticks, we demonstrate low and high efficiency NVT for TBEV strains Vasilchenko (Vs) and Hypr, respectively. These virus strains share high sequence similarity but are classified as two TBEV subtypes. The Vs strain is a Siberian subtype, naturally associated with I. persulcatus ticks whilst the Hypr strain is a European subtype, transmitted by I. ricinus ticks. In mammalian cell culture (porcine kidney cell line PS), Vs and Hypr induce low and high cytopathic effects (cpe), respectively. Using reverse genetics, we engineered a range of viable Vs/Hypr chimaeric strains, with substituted genes. No significant differences in replication rate were detected between wild-type and chimaeric viruses in cell culture. However, the chimaeric strain Vs[Hypr str] (Hypr structural and Vs non-structural genomic regions) demonstrated high efficiency NVT in I. ricinus whereas the counterpart Hypr[Vs str] was not transmitted by NVT, indicating that the virion structural proteins largely determine TBEV NVT transmission efficiency between ticks. In contrast, in cell culture, the extent of cpe was largely determined by the non-structural region of the TBEV genome. Chimaeras with Hypr non-structural genes were more cytotoxic for PS cells when compared with Vs genome-based chimaeras.

  5. Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Structural Proteins Are the Primary Viral Determinants of Non-Viraemic Transmission between Ticks whereas Non-Structural Proteins Affect Cytotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim A Khasnatinov

    Full Text Available Over 50 million humans live in areas of potential exposure to tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV. The disease exhibits an estimated 16,000 cases recorded annually over 30 European and Asian countries. Conventionally, TBEV transmission to Ixodes spp. ticks occurs whilst feeding on viraemic animals. However, an alternative mechanism of non-viraemic transmission (NVT between infected and uninfected ticks co-feeding on the same transmission-competent host, has also been demonstrated. Here, using laboratory-bred I. ricinus ticks, we demonstrate low and high efficiency NVT for TBEV strains Vasilchenko (Vs and Hypr, respectively. These virus strains share high sequence similarity but are classified as two TBEV subtypes. The Vs strain is a Siberian subtype, naturally associated with I. persulcatus ticks whilst the Hypr strain is a European subtype, transmitted by I. ricinus ticks. In mammalian cell culture (porcine kidney cell line PS, Vs and Hypr induce low and high cytopathic effects (cpe, respectively. Using reverse genetics, we engineered a range of viable Vs/Hypr chimaeric strains, with substituted genes. No significant differences in replication rate were detected between wild-type and chimaeric viruses in cell culture. However, the chimaeric strain Vs[Hypr str] (Hypr structural and Vs non-structural genomic regions demonstrated high efficiency NVT in I. ricinus whereas the counterpart Hypr[Vs str] was not transmitted by NVT, indicating that the virion structural proteins largely determine TBEV NVT transmission efficiency between ticks. In contrast, in cell culture, the extent of cpe was largely determined by the non-structural region of the TBEV genome. Chimaeras with Hypr non-structural genes were more cytotoxic for PS cells when compared with Vs genome-based chimaeras.

  6. CONFIRMATION OF CIRCUMSTELLAR PHOSPHINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agúndez, M.; Cernicharo, J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, C/ Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 3, E-28049 Cantoblanco (Spain); Decin, L. [Sterrenkundig Instituut Anton Pannekoek, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, NL-1098 Amsterdam (Netherlands); Encrenaz, P. [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, 61 Av. de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Teyssier, D. [European Space Astronomy Centre, Urb. Villafranca del Castillo, P.O. Box 50727, E-28080 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-08-01

    Phosphine (PH{sub 3}) was tentatively identified a few years ago in the carbon star envelopes IRC +10216 and CRL 2688 from observations of an emission line at 266.9 GHz attributable to the J = 1-0 rotational transition. We report the detection of the J = 2-1 rotational transition of PH{sub 3} in IRC +10216 using the HIFI instrument on board Herschel, which definitively confirms the identification of PH{sub 3}. Radiative transfer calculations indicate that infrared pumping in excited vibrational states plays an important role in the excitation of PH{sub 3} in the envelope of IRC +10216, and that the observed lines are consistent with phosphine being formed anywhere between the star and 100 R {sub *} from the star, with an abundance of 10{sup –8} relative to H{sub 2}. The detection of PH{sub 3} challenges chemical models, none of which offer a satisfactory formation scenario. Although PH{sub 3} holds just 2% of the total available phosphorus in IRC +10216, it is, together with HCP, one of the major gas phase carriers of phosphorus in the inner circumstellar layers, suggesting that it could also be an important phosphorus species in other astronomical environments. This is the first unambiguous detection of PH{sub 3} outside the solar system, and is a further step toward a better understanding of the chemistry of phosphorus in space.

  7. Molecular analysis of partial VP-2 gene amplified from rectal swab samples of diarrheic dogs in Pakistan confirms the circulation of canine parvovirus genetic variant CPV-2a and detects sequences of feline panleukopenia virus (FPV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nisar; Riaz, Adeel; Zubair, Zahra; Saqib, Muhammad; Ijaz, Sehrish; Nawaz-Ul-Rehman, Muhammad Shah; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed; Mubin, Muhammad

    2018-03-15

    The infection in dogs due to canine parvovirus (CPV), is a highly contagious one with high mortality rate. The present study was undertaken for a detailed genetic analysis of partial VP2 gene i.e., 630 bp isolated from rectal swab samples of infected domestic and stray dogs from all areas of district Faisalabad. Monitoring of viruses is important, as continuous prevalence of viral infection might be associated with emergence of new virulent strains. In the present study, 40 rectal swab samples were collected from diarrheic dogs from different areas of district Faisalabad, Pakistan, in 2014-15 and screened for the presence of CPV by immunochromatography. Most of these dogs were stray dogs showing symptoms of diarrhea. Viral DNA was isolated and partial VP2 gene was amplified using gene specific primer pair Hfor/Hrev through PCR. Amplified fragments were cloned in pTZ57R/T (Fermentas) and completely sequenced. Sequences were analyzed and assembled by the Lasergene DNA analysis package (v8; DNAStar Inc., Madison, WI, USA). The results with immunochromatography showed that 33/40 (82%) of dogs were positive for CPV. We were able to amplify a fragment of 630 bp from 25 samples. In 25 samples the sequences of CPV-2a were detected showing the amino acid substitution Ser297Ala and presence of amino acid (426-Asn) in partial VP2 protein. Interestingly the BLAST analysis showed the of feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) sequences in 3 samples which were already positive for new CPV-2a, with 99% sequence homology to other FPV sequences present in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis showed clustering of partial CPV-VP-2 gene with viruses from China, India, Japan and Uruguay identifying a new variant, whereas the 3 FPV sequences showed immediate ancestral relationship with viruses from Portugal, South Africa and USA. Interesting observation was that CPV are clustering away from the commercial vaccine strains. In this work we provide a better understanding of CPV prevailing in Pakistan

  8. [Mumps vaccine virus transmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otrashevskaia, E V; Kulak, M V; Otrashevskaia, A V; Karpov, I A; Fisenko, E G; Ignat'ev, G M

    2013-01-01

    In this work we report the mumps vaccine virus shedding based on the laboratory confirmed cases of the mumps virus (MuV) infection. The likely epidemiological sources of the transmitted mumps virus were children who were recently vaccinated with the mumps vaccine containing Leningrad-Zagreb or Leningrad-3 MuV. The etiology of the described cases of the horizontal transmission of both mumps vaccine viruses was confirmed by PCR with the sequential restriction analysis.

  9. Scrapping of student bursaries confirmed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Chris

    2016-07-27

    Student bursaries for nurses will be scrapped from next year, the government has confirmed. Undergraduate nursing and midwifery students in England will now face tuition fees and student loans from August 2017.

  10. Selective enrichment of volatiles confirmed

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pater, Imke

    2018-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide gas is detected above Uranus's main cloud deck, confirming the prevalence of H2S ice particles as the main cloud component and a strongly unbalanced nitrogen/sulfur ratio in the planet's deep atmosphere.

  11. Opinion dynamics with confirmation bias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armen E Allahverdyan

    Full Text Available Confirmation bias is the tendency to acquire or evaluate new information in a way that is consistent with one's preexisting beliefs. It is omnipresent in psychology, economics, and even scientific practices. Prior theoretical research of this phenomenon has mainly focused on its economic implications possibly missing its potential connections with broader notions of cognitive science.We formulate a (non-Bayesian model for revising subjective probabilistic opinion of a confirmationally-biased agent in the light of a persuasive opinion. The revision rule ensures that the agent does not react to persuasion that is either far from his current opinion or coincides with it. We demonstrate that the model accounts for the basic phenomenology of the social judgment theory, and allows to study various phenomena such as cognitive dissonance and boomerang effect. The model also displays the order of presentation effect-when consecutively exposed to two opinions, the preference is given to the last opinion (recency or the first opinion (primacy -and relates recency to confirmation bias. Finally, we study the model in the case of repeated persuasion and analyze its convergence properties.The standard Bayesian approach to probabilistic opinion revision is inadequate for describing the observed phenomenology of persuasion process. The simple non-Bayesian model proposed here does agree with this phenomenology and is capable of reproducing a spectrum of effects observed in psychology: primacy-recency phenomenon, boomerang effect and cognitive dissonance. We point out several limitations of the model that should motivate its future development.

  12. Performance Confirmation Data Acquisition System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.W. Markman

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify and analyze concepts for the acquisition of data in support of the Performance Confirmation (PC) program at the potential subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Review the criteria for design as presented in the Performance Confirmation Data Acquisition/Monitoring System Description Document, by way of the Input Transmittal, Performance Confirmation Input Criteria (CRWMS M and O 1999c). (2) Identify and describe existing and potential new trends in data acquisition system software and hardware that would support the PC plan. The data acquisition software and hardware will support the field instruments and equipment that will be installed for the observation and perimeter drift borehole monitoring, and in-situ monitoring within the emplacement drifts. The exhaust air monitoring requirements will be supported by a data communication network interface with the ventilation monitoring system database. (3) Identify the concepts and features that a data acquisition system should have in order to support the PC process and its activities. (4) Based on PC monitoring needs and available technologies, further develop concepts of a potential data acquisition system network in support of the PC program and the Site Recommendation and License Application

  13. Bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozere, I.; Sele, A.; Ozolina, A.

    2005-01-01

    Tuberculosis in children and adults is a growing problem with important public health implications. In Latvia the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in children up to age 14 has increased from 7,1 per 100000 in 1992 to 28,8 per 100000 in 2003. The diagnosis of TB is confirmed by isolation and identification of M. tuberculosis (MT) from clinical specimen. Confirmation of the disease, however, is difficult in children due to poor bacilli excretion and even under the best circumstances only about 30-40% of pediatric TB cases are proved bacteriologically. Of the 370 pediatric TB cases diagnosed between January 1, 2001 and December 1, 2003 in Latvia, 53 (14,3%) were confirmed bacteriologically. The clinical, radiological, immunological and anamnestic features of confirmed TB can serve as cornerstones for diagnosing of TB, when culture is not available. Objective To evaluate the sensitivity of diagnostic criteria of TB, clinical and radiological manifestation of TB and drug susceptibility of MT isolated also. Methods All consecutive children (53 in total) up to age 14 diagnosed with bacteriologically confirmed TB during 01.01.2001. -01.12.2003. were prospectively evaluated for reasons mentioned above. Results Of the 53 children identified all but one had respiratory tract TB. 17(32,1 %) children were under 4 years of age, 9 (17%) children were 5-9 years old, but 27 (50,9%) patients were 10-14 years old. During evaluation data on TB source case were found in addition in 13 children and total TB contact history was positive in 37 (69,8%) patients. All clinical and radiographical forms of respiratory tract TB were diagnosed. The most common encountered forms were intrathoracic adenopathy in 10 (18,9%) cases and TB pneumonia in 6 (11,3%) cases in children aged 10-14 years. lnthrathoracic adenopathy associated with segmental parenchymal lesion was the most common form in children under 4 years of age -7 (13,2%) cases respectively. Conclusions 1. The clinical and radiological

  14. Model confirmation in climate economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millner, Antony; McDermott, Thomas K. J.

    2016-01-01

    Benefit–cost integrated assessment models (BC-IAMs) inform climate policy debates by quantifying the trade-offs between alternative greenhouse gas abatement options. They achieve this by coupling simplified models of the climate system to models of the global economy and the costs and benefits of climate policy. Although these models have provided valuable qualitative insights into the sensitivity of policy trade-offs to different ethical and empirical assumptions, they are increasingly being used to inform the selection of policies in the real world. To the extent that BC-IAMs are used as inputs to policy selection, our confidence in their quantitative outputs must depend on the empirical validity of their modeling assumptions. We have a degree of confidence in climate models both because they have been tested on historical data in hindcasting experiments and because the physical principles they are based on have been empirically confirmed in closely related applications. By contrast, the economic components of BC-IAMs often rely on untestable scenarios, or on structural models that are comparatively untested on relevant time scales. Where possible, an approach to model confirmation similar to that used in climate science could help to build confidence in the economic components of BC-IAMs, or focus attention on which components might need refinement for policy applications. We illustrate the potential benefits of model confirmation exercises by performing a long-run hindcasting experiment with one of the leading BC-IAMs. We show that its model of long-run economic growth—one of its most important economic components—had questionable predictive power over the 20th century. PMID:27432964

  15. Inactivated recombinant plant virus protects dogs from a lethal challenge with canine parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeveld, J P; Brennan, F R; Martínez-Torrecuadrada, J L; Jones, T D; Boshuizen, R S; Vela, C; Casal, J I; Kamstrup, S; Dalsgaard, K; Meloen, R H; Bendig, M M; Hamilton, W D

    2001-06-14

    A vaccine based upon a recombinant plant virus (CPMV-PARVO1), displaying a peptide derived from the VP2 capsid protein of canine parvovirus (CPV), has previously been described. To date, studies with the vaccine have utilized viable plant chimaeric particles (CVPs). In this study, CPMV-PARVO1 was inactivated by UV treatment to remove the possibility of replication of the recombinant plant virus in a plant host after manufacture of the vaccine. We show that the inactivated CVP is able to protect dogs from a lethal challenge with CPV following parenteral immunization with the vaccine. Dogs immunized with the inactivated CPMV-PARVO1 in adjuvant displayed no clinical signs of disease and shedding of CPV in faeces was limited following CPV challenge. All immunized dogs elicited high titres of peptide-specific antibody, which neutralized CPV in vitro. Levels of protection, virus shedding and VP2-specific antibody were comparable to those seen in dogs immunized with the same VP2- peptide coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). Since plant virus-derived vaccines have the potential for cost-effective manufacture and are not known to replicate in mammalian cells, they represent a viable alternative to current replicating vaccine vectors for development of both human and veterinary vaccines.

  16. Ebola Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Rangare Lakshman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The disease Ebola takes its name from the Ebola River situated near a village in the Democratic Republic of Congo, where the disease first appeared in 1976. It is caused by a virus from the Filoviridae family (filovirus. The present outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD concerns four countries in West Africa, namely Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Nigeria till date. Further to widespread transmission of the disease, it has been declared as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organisation on 8 August 2014. As of 4 August 2014, countries have reported 1,711 cases (1,070 confirmed, 436 probable, 205 suspect, including 932 deaths. This review paper enlightens about the awareness of Ebola virus and its preventive measures. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000: 296-305

  17. Performance confirmation data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAffee, D.A.; Raczka, N.T.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the Viability Assessment (VA) work, this QAP-3-9 document presents and evaluates a comprehensive set of viable concepts for collecting Performance Confirmation (PC) related data. The concepts include: monitoring subsurface repository air temperatures, humidity levels and gaseous emissions via the subsurface ventilation systems, and monitoring the repository geo-technical parameters and rock mass from bore-holes located along the perimeter main drifts and throughout a series of human-rated Observation Drifts to be located in a plane 25 meters above the plane of the emplacement drifts. A key element of this document is the development and analysis of a purposed multi-purpose Remote Inspection Gantry that would provide direct, real-time visual, thermal, and radiological monitoring of conditions inside operational emplacement drifts and close-up observations of in-situ Waste Packages. Preliminary finite-element analyses are presented that indicate the technological feasibility of operating an inspection gantry inside the operational emplacement drifts for short inspection missions lasting 2--3 hours. Overall reliability, availability, and maintainability of the PC data collection concepts are discussed. Preliminary concepts for PC data collection network are also provided

  18. Performance confirmation data acquisition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAffee, D.A.; Raczka, N.T. [Yucca Mountain Project, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1997-12-31

    As part of the Viability Assessment (VA) work, this QAP-3-9 document presents and evaluates a comprehensive set of viable concepts for collecting Performance Confirmation (PC) related data. The concepts include: monitoring subsurface repository air temperatures, humidity levels and gaseous emissions via the subsurface ventilation systems, and monitoring the repository geo-technical parameters and rock mass from bore-holes located along the perimeter main drifts and throughout a series of human-rated Observation Drifts to be located in a plane 25 meters above the plane of the emplacement drifts. A key element of this document is the development and analysis of a purposed multi-purpose Remote Inspection Gantry that would provide direct, real-time visual, thermal, and radiological monitoring of conditions inside operational emplacement drifts and close-up observations of in-situ Waste Packages. Preliminary finite-element analyses are presented that indicate the technological feasibility of operating an inspection gantry inside the operational emplacement drifts for short inspection missions lasting 2--3 hours. Overall reliability, availability, and maintainability of the PC data collection concepts are discussed. Preliminary concepts for PC data collection network are also provided.

  19. Ebola Virus and Marburg Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebola virus and Marburg virus Overview Ebola virus and Marburg virus are related viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers — illnesses marked by severe bleeding (hemorrhage), organ failure and, in many ...

  20. Nairobi sheep disease virus/Ganjam virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M D, Baron; B, Holzer

    2015-08-01

    Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) is a tick-borne virus which causes a severe disease in sheep and goats, and has been responsible for several outbreaks of disease in East Africa. The virus is also found in the Indian subcontinent, where it is known as Ganjam virus. The virus only spreads through the feeding of competent infected ticks, and is therefore limited in its geographic distribution by the distribution of those ticks, Rhipicephalus appendiculata in Africa and Haemaphysalis intermedia in India. Animals bred in endemic areas do not normally develop disease, and the impact is therefore primarily on animals being moved for trade or breeding purposes. The disease caused by NSDV has similarities to several other ruminant diseases, and laboratory diagnosis is necessary for confirmation. There are published methods for diagnosis based on polymerase chain reaction, for virus growth in cell culture and for other simple diagnostic tests, though none has been commercialised. There is no established vaccine against NSDV, although cell-culture attenuated strains have been developed which show promise and could be put into field trials if it were deemed necessary. The virus is closely related to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, and studies on NSDV may therefore be useful in understanding this important human pathogen.

  1. Dual Infection of Novel Influenza Viruses A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 in a Cluster of Cambodian Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    influenza viruses as well as the avian influenza virus A/H5N1...on full genome sequencing. This incident confirms dual influenza virus infections and highlights the risk of zoonotic and seasonal influenza viruses ...North American swine influenza viruses , North American avian influenza viruses , human influenza viruses , and a Eurasian swine influenza virus . 18

  2. Calibration and Confirmation in Geophysical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werndl, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    For policy decisions the best geophysical models are needed. To evaluate geophysical models, it is essential that the best available methods for confirmation are used. A hotly debated issue on confirmation in climate science (as well as in philosophy) is the requirement of use-novelty (i.e. that data can only confirm models if they have not already been used before. This talk investigates the issue of use-novelty and double-counting for geophysical models. We will see that the conclusions depend on the framework of confirmation and that it is not clear that use-novelty is a valid requirement and that double-counting is illegitimate.

  3. ECHO virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001340.htm ECHO virus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that can lead ...

  4. DIAGNOSTICS OF VIRUS PHYTOPATHOGENS FRUIT TREE PLUM POX VIRUS, PRUNUS NECROTIC RINGSPOT VIRUS AND PRUNUS DWARF VIRUS BY BIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Július Rozák

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of viral phytopathogen Plum pox virus, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prunus dwarf virus in selected localities of Slovakia and diagnose them using a molecular and biological methods. Forty samples of fruit trees of the genus Prunus, twenty samples from intensive plantings and twenty samples from wild subject were analysed. Biological diagnostic by using biological indicators Prunus persica cv. GF 305, Prunus serrulata cv. Schirofugen and molecular diagnostic by mRT-PCR were applied. Five samples with Plum pox virus were infected. The two samples positive for Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and one sample for Prunus dwarf virus were confirmed. The two samples were found to be infected with two viruses Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prunus dwarf virus. This work focuses on two techniques, their application to the diagnosis of stone fruit viruses and their routinely used for sanitary and certification programmes.

  5. Confirmation of Essure placement using transvaginal ultrasound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veersema, Sebastiaan; Vleugels, Michel; Koks, Caroline; Thurkow, Andreas; van der Vaart, Huub; Brölmann, Hans

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the protocol for confirmation of satisfactory Essure placement using transvaginal ultrasound. Prospective multicenter cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Outpatient departments of 4 teaching hospitals in the Netherlands. Eleven hundred forty-five women who underwent

  6. escherichia coli serotypes confirmed in experimental mammary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    VARIATIONS IN VIRULENCE OF THREE (3) ESCHERICHIA COLI. SEROTYPES CONFIRMED IN ... ows are susceptible to E. coli infection because. E. coli exist in the .... Coli infections in mice: A laboratory animal model for research in.

  7. Experience with confirmation measurement at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, R.S.; Wagner, R.P.; Hsue, F.

    1985-01-01

    Confirmation measurements are used at Los Alamos in support of incoming and outgoing shipment accountibility and for support of both at 235 U and Pu inventories. Statistical data are presented to show the consistency of measurements on items of identical composition and on items measured at two facilitis using similar instruments. A description of confirmation measurement techniques used in support of 235 U and Pu inventories and a discussion on the ability of the measurements to identify items with misstated SNM are given

  8. Experience with confirmation measurement at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, R.S.; Wagner, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    Confirmation measurements are used at Los Alamos in support of incoming and outgoing shipment accountability and for support of both 235 U and Pu inventories. Statistical data are presented to show the consistency of measurements on items of identical composition and on items measured at two facilities using similar instruments. A description of confirmation measurement techniques used in support of 235 U and Pu inventories and a discussion on the ability of the measurements to identify items with misstated SNM are given

  9. Challenges for molecular and serological ZIKV infection confirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcelos, Zilton Farias Meira; Azevedo, Renata Campos; Thompson, Nathália; Gomes, Leonardo; Guida, Letícia; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes

    2018-01-01

    Zika Virus (ZIKV), member of Flaviviridae family and Flavivirus genus, has recently emerged as international public health emergency after its association with neonatal microcephaly cases. Clinical diagnosis hindrance involves symptom similarities produced by other arbovirus infections, therefore laboratory confirmation is of paramount importance. The most reliable test available is based on ZIKV RNA detection from body fluid samples. However, short viremia window periods and asymptomatic infections diminish the success rate for RT-PCR positivity. Beyond molecular detection, all serology tests in areas where other Flavivirus circulates proved to be a difficult task due to the broad range of cross-reactivity, especially with dengue pre-exposed individuals. Altogether, lack of serological diagnostic tools brings limitations to any retrospective evaluation. Those studies are central in the context of congenital infection that could occur asymptomatically and mask prevalence and risk rates.

  10. A New Way to Confirm Planet Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    What was the big deal behind the Kepler news conference yesterday? Its not just that the number of confirmed planets found by Kepler has more than doubled (though thats certainly exciting news!). Whats especially interesting is the way in which these new planets were confirmed.Number of planet discoveries by year since 1995, including previous non-Kepler discoveries (blue), previous Kepler discoveries (light blue) and the newly validated Kepler planets (orange). [NASA Ames/W. Stenzel; Princeton University/T. Morton]No Need for Follow-UpBefore Kepler, the way we confirmed planet candidates was with follow-up observations. The candidate could be validated either by directly imaging (which is rare) or obtaining a large number radial-velocity measurements of the wobble of the planets host star due to the planets orbit. But once Kepler started producing planet candidates, these approaches to validation became less feasible. A lot of Kepler candidates are small and orbit faint stars, making follow-up observations difficult or impossible.This problem is what inspired the development of whats known as probabilistic validation, an analysis technique that involves assessing the likelihood that the candidates signal is caused by various false-positive scenarios. Using this technique allows astronomers to estimate the likelihood of a candidate signal being a true planet detection; if that likelihood is high enough, the planet candidate can be confirmed without the need for follow-up observations.A breakdown of the catalog of Kepler Objects of Interest. Just over half had previously been identified as false positives or confirmed as candidates. 1284 are newly validated, and another 455 have FPP of1090%. [Morton et al. 2016]Probabilistic validation has been used in the past to confirm individual planet candidates in Kepler data, but now Timothy Morton (Princeton University) and collaborators have taken this to a new level: they developed the first code thats designed to do fully

  11. Using Daily Horoscopes To Demonstrate Expectancy Confirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Geoffrey D.; Munro, James E.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a classroom demonstration that uses daily horoscopes to show the effect that expectation can have on judgment. Addresses the preparation, procedure, and results of the demonstration, and student evaluations. States that the demonstration appears to be effective for teaching students about expectancy confirmation. (CMK)

  12. Nonintrusive irradiated fuel inventory confirmation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowdy, E.J.; Nicholson, N.; Caldwell, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    Successful tests showing correlation between the intensity of the Cerenkov glow surrounding irradiated fuel assemblies in water-filled spent fuel storage ponds and the exposure and cooling times of assemblies have been concluded. Fieldable instruments used in subsequent tests confirmed that such measurements can be made easily and rapidly, without fuel assembly movement or the introduction of apparatus into the storage ponds

  13. Confirmation of Essure placement using transvaginal ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veersema, Sebastiaan; Vleugels, Michel; Koks, Caroline; Thurkow, Andreas; van der Vaart, Huub; Brölmann, Hans

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the protocol for confirmation of satisfactory Essure placement using transvaginal ultrasound. Prospective multicenter cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Outpatient departments of 4 teaching hospitals in the Netherlands. Eleven hundred forty-five women who underwent hysteroscopic sterilization using the Essure device between March 2005 and December 2007. Transvaginal ultrasound examination 12 weeks after uncomplicated successful bilateral placement or as indicated according to the transvaginal ultrasound protocol after 4 weeks, and hysterosalpingography (HSG) at 12 weeks to confirm correct placement of the device after 3 months. The rate of successful placement was 88.4% initially. In 164 women (15%), successful placement was confirmed at HSG according the protocol. In 9 patients (0.84%), incorrect position of the device was observed at HSG. The cumulative pregnancy rate after 18 months was 3.85 per thousand women. Transvaginal ultrasound should be the first diagnostic test used to confirm the adequacy of hysteroscopic Essure sterilization because it is minimally invasive, averts ionizing radiation, and does not decrease the effectiveness of the Essure procedure. Copyright © 2011 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. West Nile virus meningitis in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pilalas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of West Nile virus lineage 2 in central Macedonia, Greece, in 2010 resulted in large outbreaks for 5 consecutive years. We report a case of viral meningitis in an individual infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1, which preceded the recognition of the outbreak and was confirmed retrospectively as West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease.

  15. PERFORMANCE CONFIRMATION IN-SITU INSTRUMENTATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N.T. Raczka

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify and analyze the types of in-situ instruments and methods that could be used in support of the data acquisition portion of the Performance Confirmation (PC) program at the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The PC program will require geomechanical , geophysical, thermal, and hydrologic instrumentation of several kinds. This analysis is being prepared to document the technical issues associated with each type of measurement during the PC period. This analysis utilizes the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M andO 1999a) as its starting point. The scope of this analysis is primarily on the period after the start of waste package emplacement and before permanent closure of the repository, a period lasting between 15 and 300 years after last package emplacement (Stroupe 2000, Attachment 1, p. 1). The primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Review the design criteria as presented in the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M andO 1999a). The scope of this analysis will be limited to the instrumentation related to parameters that require continuous monitoring of the conditions underground. (2) Preliminary identification and listing of the data requirements and parameters as related to the current repository layout in support of PC monitoring. (3) Preliminary identification of methods and instrumentation for the acquisition of the required data. Although the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M andO 1999a) defines a broad range of data that must be obtained from a variety of methods, the focus of this analysis is on instrumentation related to the performance of the rock mass and the formation of water in the repository environment, that is obtainable from in-situ observation, testing, and monitoring

  16. Heat Flux Inhibition by Whistlers: Experimental Confirmation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichler, D.

    2002-01-01

    Heat flux in weakly magnetized collisionless plasma is, according to theoretical predictions, limited by whistler turbulence that is generated by heat flux instabilities near threshold. Observations of solar wind electrons by Gary and coworkers appear to confirm the limit on heat flux as being roughly the product of the magnetic energy density and the electron thermal velocity, in agreement with prediction (Pistinner and Eichler 1998)

  17. Avian influenza viruses in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik Peiris, J S

    2009-04-01

    Past pandemics arose from low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. In more recent times, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, LPAI H9N2 and both HPAI and LPAI H7 viruses have repeatedly caused zoonotic disease in humans. Such infections did not lead to sustained human-to-human transmission. Experimental infection of human volunteers and seroepidemiological studies suggest that avian influenza viruses of other subtypes may also infect humans. Viruses of the H7 subtype appear to have a predilection to cause conjunctivitis and influenza-like illness (ILI), although HPAI H7N7 virus has also caused fatal respiratory disease. Low pathogenic H9N2 viruses have caused mild ILI and its occurrence may be under-recognised for this reason. In contrast, contemporary HPAI H5N1 viruses are exceptional in their virulence for humans and differ from human seasonal influenza viruses in their pathogenesis. Patients have a primary viral pneumonia progressing to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Over 380 human cases have been confirmed to date, with an overall case fatality of 63%. The zoonotic transmission of avian influenza is a rare occurrence, butthe greater public health concern is the adaptation of such viruses to efficient human transmission, which could lead to a pandemic. A better understanding of the ecology of avian influenza viruses and the biological determinants of transmissibility and pathogenicity in humans is important for pandemic preparedness.

  18. A female Viking warrior confirmed by genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenstierna-Jonson, Charlotte; Kjellström, Anna; Zachrisson, Torun; Krzewińska, Maja; Sobrado, Veronica; Price, Neil; Günther, Torsten; Jakobsson, Mattias; Götherström, Anders; Storå, Jan

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study has been to confirm the sex and the affinity of an individual buried in a well-furnished warrior grave (Bj 581) in the Viking Age town of Birka, Sweden. Previously, based on the material and historical records, the male sex has been associated with the gender of the warrior and such was the case with Bj 581. An earlier osteological classification of the individual as female was considered controversial in a historical and archaeological context. A genomic confirmation of the biological sex of the individual was considered necessary to solve the issue. Genome-wide sequence data was generated in order to confirm the biological sex, to support skeletal integrity, and to investigate the genetic relationship of the individual to ancient individuals as well as modern-day groups. Additionally, a strontium isotope analysis was conducted to highlight the mobility of the individual. The genomic results revealed the lack of a Y-chromosome and thus a female biological sex, and the mtDNA analyses support a single-individual origin of sampled elements. The genetic affinity is close to present-day North Europeans, and within Sweden to the southern and south-central region. Nevertheless, the Sr values are not conclusive as to whether she was of local or nonlocal origin. The identification of a female Viking warrior provides a unique insight into the Viking society, social constructions, and exceptions to the norm in the Viking time-period. The results call for caution against generalizations regarding social orders in past societies. © 2017 The Authors American Journal of Physical Anthropology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Troubleshooting Requests e-mail Confirmation

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2004-01-01

    In an ongoing effort to improve quality of the repair requests, a new e-mail confirmation automatic system will be implemented starting from the 21st October. All repair requests transmitted to the TCR (72201) or the FM Helpdesk (77777) will be confirmed in an e-mail to the requestor, provided that the latter has a valid e-mail address in the HR database. The e-mail will contain a reference number, a brief description of the problem, the location and a contact where more information can be obtained. A second e-mail will be sent when the processing of the repair request is finished. We hope that this initiative will improve the transparency and quality of our service. Helpdesk Troubleshooting Requests (reminder) We remind you that all the repair requests and other communication concerning the CERN machine buildings have to be transmitted to the TCR via 72201, whereas the ones concerning tertiary buildings are handled directly by the FM helpdesk under the phone number 77777, i.e. problems on systems and equ...

  20. Kepler Confirmation of Multi-Planet Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, W. D.

    2011-10-01

    The NASA Kepler spacecraft has detected 170 candidate multi-planet systems in the first two quarters of data released in February 2011 by Borucki et al. (2011). These systems comprise 115 double candidate systems, 45 triple candidate sys- tems, and 10 systems with 4 or more candidate planets. The architecture and dynamics of these systems were discussed by Lissauer et al. (2011), and a comparison of candidates in single- and multi-planet systems was presented by Latham et al. (2011). Proceeding from "planetary candidate" systems to confirmed and validated multi-planet systems is a difficult process, as most of these systems orbit stars too faint to obtain extremely precise (1ms-1) radial velocity confimation. Here, we discuss in detail the use of transit timing vari- ations (cf. e.g. Holman et al., 2010) to confirm planets near a mean motion resonance. We also discuss extensions to the BLENDER validation (Torres et al., 2004, 2011; Fressin et al., 2011) to validate planets in multi-planet systems. Kepler was competitively selected as the tenth Discovery mission. Funding for the Kepler Mis- sion is provided by NASA's Science Mission Direc- torate. We are deeply grateful for the very hard work of the entire Kepler team.

  1. Chikungunya virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikungunya virus infection; Chikungunya ... Where Chikungunya is Found Before 2013, the virus was found in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Indian and Pacific oceans. In late 2013, outbreaks occurred for the first time in the ...

  2. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through blood transfusions. There have been outbreaks of Zika virus in the United States, Africa, Southeast Asia, the ... not travel to areas where there is a Zika virus outbreak. If you do decide to travel, first ...

  3. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Funding CDC Activities For Healthcare Providers Clinical Evaluation & Disease Sexual Transmission HIV Infection & Zika Virus Testing for Zika Test Specimens – At Time of Birth Diagnostic Tests Understanding Zika Virus Test Results ...

  4. Magnetic resonance tomography in confirmed multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlenbrock, D.; Dickmann, E.; Beyer, H.K.; Gehlen, W.; Josef-Hospital, Bochum; Knappschafts-Krankenhaus Bochum

    1985-01-01

    The authors report on 21 cases of confirmed multiple sclerosis examined by both CT and magnetic resonance tomography. To safeguard the results, strict criteria were applied in accordance with the suggestions made by neurological work teams. Pathological lesons were seen in 20 patients; the MR image did not reveal anything abnormal in one case. On the average, 10.3 lesions were seen in the MR tomogram, whereas CT images showed on the average only 2.1 foci. The size and number of lesions in the MR tomogram were independent of the duration of the disease, the presented clinical symptoms, or the type of treatment at the time of examination. Evidently the sensitivity of MR tomography is very high in MS patients, but it has not yet been clarified to what extent this applies also to the specificity. Further research is mandatory. First experiences made by us show that lesions of a similar kind can also occur in diseases such as malignant lymphoma involving the brain, in vitamin B 12 deficiency syndrome, or encephalitis, and can become manifest in the MR tomogram. (orig.) [de

  5. Web-Based Honorarium Confirmation System Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisswani, N. W.; Catur Bawa, I. G. N. B.

    2018-01-01

    Improving services in academic environment can be applied by regulating salary payment process for all employees. As a form of control to maintain financial transparency, employees should have information concerning salary payment process. Currently, notification process of committee honorarium will be accepted by the employees in a manual manner. The salary will be received by the employee bank account and to know its details, they should go to the accounting unit to find out further information. Though there are some employees entering the accounting unit, they still find difficulty to obtain information about detailed honor information that they received in their accounts. This can be caused by many data collected and to be managed. Based on this issue, this research will design a prototype of web-based system for accounting unit system in order to provide detailed financial transaction confirmation to employee bank accounts that have been informed through mobile banking system. This prototype will be developed with Waterfall method through testing on final users after it is developed through PHP program with MySQL as DBMS

  6. Novel RNA viruses within plant parasitic cyst nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruark, Casey L; Gardner, Michael; Mitchum, Melissa G; Davis, Eric L; Sit, Tim L

    2018-01-01

    The study of invertebrate-and particularly nematode-viruses is emerging with the advancement of transcriptome sequencing. Five single-stranded RNA viruses have now been confirmed within the economically important soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines). From previous research, we know these viruses to be widespread in greenhouse and field populations of SCN. Several of the SCN viruses were also confirmed within clover (H. trifolii) and beet (H. schachtii) cyst nematodes. In the presented study, we sequenced the transcriptomes of several inbred SCN populations and identified two previously undiscovered viral-like genomes. Both of these proposed viruses are negative-sense RNA viruses and have been named SCN nyami-like virus (NLV) and SCN bunya-like virus (BLV). Finally, we analyzed publicly available transcriptome data of two potato cyst nematode (PCN) species, Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis. From these data, a third potential virus was discovered and called PCN picorna-like virus (PLV). PCN PLV is a positive-sense RNA virus, and to the best of our knowledge, is the first virus described within PCN. The presence of these novel viruses was confirmed via qRT-PCR, endpoint PCR, and Sanger sequencing with the exception of PCN PLV due to quarantine restrictions on the nematode host. While much work needs to be done to understand the biological and evolutionary significance of these viruses, they offer insight into nematode ecology and the possibility of novel nematode management strategies.

  7. Manned in Situ Confirmation of Lunar Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerené, S. P. B.; Hummeling, R. W. J.; Ockels, W. J.

    A study is performed to investigate the feasibility of a manned expedition to the Moon using the European Ariane-5 launcher. The primary objective of this lunar mission is to confirm the presence of water at the South-Pole craters. It is believed that these permanently shadowed craters contain water in the form of ice. Secondary objective is to perform lunar surface science and making a first step towards a lunar outpost. Early results show that a minimum of two Ariane-5 launches is required. In this `two Ariane' scenario the first launch will bring a Lunar Landing Vehicle (LLV) into low lunar orbit. The second will launch two astronauts in a Crew Transfer Vehicle into a rendez- vous trajectory with the LLV. Arrived at the Moon, the astronauts will enter the LLV, undock from the CTV and land at the designated site located near the rim of the South-Pole Shackleton crater. The transfer strategy for both spacecraft will be the so-called direct transfer, taking about four days. At arrival the LLV will start mapping the landing site at a ground resolution of one meter. As a consequence of the polar orbit, the CTV has to arrive fourteen days later and surface operations can take about twelve days, accumulating in a total mission-duration of 36 days. 32 days for the CTV and 22 days for the LLV. In case a `two Ariane' flight does not posses sufficient capabilities also a `three Ariane' scenario is developed, in which the LLV is split-up into two stages and launched separately. These two will dock at the Moon forming a descent stage and an ascent stage. The third launch will be a CTV. During surface operations, astronauts will set up a solar power unit, install the sample retrieval system and carry out surface science. Samples of the crater floor will be retrieved by means of a probe or robot guided along a cable suspended over the crater rim. Also, this paper shows the way in which European astronauts can be brought to the Moon for other future missions, like the

  8. New frontiers in oncolytic viruses: optimizing and selecting for virus strains with improved efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundstrom K

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Kenneth Lundstrom PanTherapeutics, Lutry, Switzerland Abstract: Oncolytic viruses have demonstrated selective replication and killing of tumor cells. Different types of oncolytic viruses – adenoviruses, alphaviruses, herpes simplex viruses, Newcastle disease viruses, rhabdoviruses, Coxsackie viruses, and vaccinia viruses – have been applied as either naturally occurring or engineered vectors. Numerous studies in animal-tumor models have demonstrated substantial tumor regression and prolonged survival rates. Moreover, clinical trials have confirmed good safety profiles and therapeutic efficacy for oncolytic viruses. Most encouragingly, the first cancer gene-therapy drug – Gendicine, based on oncolytic adenovirus type 5 – was approved in China. Likewise, a second-generation oncolytic herpes simplex virus-based drug for the treatment of melanoma has been registered in the US and Europe as talimogene laherparepvec. Keywords: immunotherapy, viral vectors, clinical trials, drug approval

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Encephalomyocarditis Virus from Dogs in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Ya-Kun; Liang, Lin; Tang, Qing-Hai; Zhou, Ling; Shi, Li-Jun; Cong, Ying-Ying; Lin, Wen-Cheng; Cui, Shang-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is as a potential zoonotic agent with a wide host range. Here, we describe an EMC virus isolate, identified as EMCV C15, which was successfully obtained from the serum of dogs from animal hospitals. Virus production in cell culture was confirmed by EMCV-specific

  10. Phytophthora viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guohong; Hillman, Bradley I

    2013-01-01

    Phytophthora sp. is a genus in the oomycetes, which are similar to filamentous fungi in morphology and habitat, but phylogenetically more closely related to brown algae and diatoms and fall in the kingdom Stramenopila. In the past few years, several viruses have been characterized in Phytophthora species, including four viruses from Phytophthora infestans, the late blight pathogen, and an endornavirus from an unnamed Phytophthora species from Douglas fir. Studies on Phytophthora viruses have revealed several interesting systems. Phytophthora infestans RNA virus 1 (PiRV-1) and PiRV-2 are likely the first members of two new virus families; studies on PiRV-3 support the establishment of a new virus genus that is not affiliated with established virus families; PiRV-4 is a member of Narnaviridae, most likely in the genus Narnavirus; and Phytophthora endornavirus 1 (PEV1) was the first nonplant endornavirus at the time of reporting. Viral capsids have not been found in any of the above-mentioned viruses. PiRV-1 demonstrated a unique genome organization that requires further examination, and PiRV-2 may have played a role in late blight resurgence in 1980s-1990s. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Schmallenberg Virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    explore the potential of this infection crossing the species barrier and thereby .... The virus targets mainly the brain of the unborn animal resulting in neurological ... The virus is located in the blood of the adult infected animal or in the central ...

  12. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Zika Virus Credit: NIAID A female Aedes mosquito. This type of mosquito can transmit Zika, ... transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Zika virus can be transmitted from an infected pregnant woman ...

  13. CHANDIPURA VIRUS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. CHANDIPURA VIRUS. First isolated from a village called Chandipura near Nagpur in 1965 in India. Belongs to rhabdoviridae family. Used as a Model System to study RNA virus multiplication in the infected cell at molecular level. Notes:

  14. Comparative analysis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) and new RHDV2 virus antigenicity, using specific virus-like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárcena, Juan; Guerra, Beatriz; Angulo, Iván; González, Julia; Valcárcel, Félix; Mata, Carlos P; Castón, José R; Blanco, Esther; Alejo, Alí

    2015-09-24

    In 2010 a new Lagovirus related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) emerged in France and has since rapidly spread throughout domestic and wild rabbit populations of several European countries. The new virus, termed RHDV2, exhibits distinctive genetic, antigenic and pathogenic features. Notably, RHDV2 kills rabbits previously vaccinated with RHDV vaccines. Here we report for the first time the generation and characterization of RHDV2-specific virus-like particles (VLPs). Our results further confirmed the differential antigenic properties exhibited by RHDV and RHDV2, highlighting the need of using RHDV2-specific diagnostic assays to monitor the spread of this new virus.

  15. Virus isolation for diagnosing dengue virus infections in returning travelers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teichmann, D.; Göbels, K.; Niedrig, M.; Sim-Brandenburg, J.-W.; Làge-Stehr, J.; Grobusch, M. P.

    2003-01-01

    Dengue fever is recognized as one of the most frequent imported acute febrile illnesses affecting European tourists returning from the tropics. In order to assess the value of virus isolation for the diagnosis of dengue fever, 70 cases of dengue fever confirmed in German travelers during the period

  16. Ganjam virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudeep, A B; Jadi, R S; Mishra, A C

    2009-11-01

    Ganjam virus (GANV), a member of genus Nairovirus of family Bunyavirdae is of considerable veterinary importance in India. Though, predominantly tick borne, GANV was also isolated from mosquitoes, man and sheep. Neutralizing and complement fixing antibodies to GANV have been detected in animal and human sera collected from different parts of the country. Thirty three strains of GANV have been isolated from India, mainly from Haemaphysalis ticks. The virus replicated in certain vertebrate and mosquito cell lines and found pathogenic to laboratory animals. One natural infection and five laboratory-acquired infections in men were also reported. GANV is antigenically related to Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) of Africa, which is highly pathogenic for sheep and goats causing 70-90 per cent mortality among the susceptible population. Recent molecular studies have demonstrated that GANV is an Asian variant of NSDV and both these viruses are related to the dreaded Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) group viruses. The versatility of the virus to replicate in different arthropod species, its ability to infect sheep, goat and man makes it an important zoonotic agent.

  17. Viruses in the Oceanic Basement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia D. Nigro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial life has been detected well into the igneous crust of the seafloor (i.e., the oceanic basement, but there have been no reports confirming the presence of viruses in this habitat. To detect and characterize an ocean basement virome, geothermally heated fluid samples (ca. 60 to 65°C were collected from 117 to 292 m deep into the ocean basement using seafloor observatories installed in two boreholes (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program [IODP] U1362A and U1362B drilled in the eastern sediment-covered flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Concentrations of virus-like particles in the fluid samples were on the order of 0.2 × 105 to 2 × 105 ml−1 (n = 8, higher than prokaryote-like cells in the same samples by a factor of 9 on average (range, 1.5 to 27. Electron microscopy revealed diverse viral morphotypes similar to those of viruses known to infect bacteria and thermophilic archaea. An analysis of virus-like sequences in basement microbial metagenomes suggests that those from archaeon-infecting viruses were the most common (63 to 80%. Complete genomes of a putative archaeon-infecting virus and a prophage within an archaeal scaffold were identified among the assembled sequences, and sequence analysis suggests that they represent lineages divergent from known thermophilic viruses. Of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR-containing scaffolds in the metagenomes for which a taxonomy could be inferred (163 out of 737, 51 to 55% appeared to be archaeal and 45 to 49% appeared to be bacterial. These results imply that the warmed, highly altered fluids in deeply buried ocean basement harbor a distinct assemblage of novel viruses, including many that infect archaea, and that these viruses are active participants in the ecology of the basement microbiome.

  18. Viruses in the Oceanic Basement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Olivia D; Jungbluth, Sean P; Lin, Huei-Ting; Hsieh, Chih-Chiang; Miranda, Jaclyn A; Schvarcz, Christopher R; Rappé, Michael S; Steward, Grieg F

    2017-03-07

    Microbial life has been detected well into the igneous crust of the seafloor (i.e., the oceanic basement), but there have been no reports confirming the presence of viruses in this habitat. To detect and characterize an ocean basement virome, geothermally heated fluid samples (ca. 60 to 65°C) were collected from 117 to 292 m deep into the ocean basement using seafloor observatories installed in two boreholes (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program [IODP] U1362A and U1362B) drilled in the eastern sediment-covered flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Concentrations of virus-like particles in the fluid samples were on the order of 0.2 × 10 5 to 2 × 10 5  ml -1 ( n = 8), higher than prokaryote-like cells in the same samples by a factor of 9 on average (range, 1.5 to 27). Electron microscopy revealed diverse viral morphotypes similar to those of viruses known to infect bacteria and thermophilic archaea. An analysis of virus-like sequences in basement microbial metagenomes suggests that those from archaeon-infecting viruses were the most common (63 to 80%). Complete genomes of a putative archaeon-infecting virus and a prophage within an archaeal scaffold were identified among the assembled sequences, and sequence analysis suggests that they represent lineages divergent from known thermophilic viruses. Of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-containing scaffolds in the metagenomes for which a taxonomy could be inferred (163 out of 737), 51 to 55% appeared to be archaeal and 45 to 49% appeared to be bacterial. These results imply that the warmed, highly altered fluids in deeply buried ocean basement harbor a distinct assemblage of novel viruses, including many that infect archaea, and that these viruses are active participants in the ecology of the basement microbiome. IMPORTANCE The hydrothermally active ocean basement is voluminous and likely provided conditions critical to the origins of life, but the microbiology of this vast habitat is not

  19. Powassan (POW) Virus Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professionals Related Topics For International Travelers Powassan Virus Disease Basics Download this fact sheet formatted for ... Virus Disease Fact Sheet (PDF) What is Powassan virus? Powassan virus is a tickborne flavivirus that is ...

  20. Herpes simplex encephalitis: MRI findings in two cases confirmed by polymerase chain reaction assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.W.; Kim, I.O.; Kim, W.S.; Yeon, K.M. [Dept. of Radiology and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Lee, H.-J.; Hwang, Y.S. [Dept. of Paediatrics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type I causes a fulminant necrotising meningoencephalitis distinguished from other encephalitides by its focal and often haemorrhagic nature. Specific antiviral therapy with acyclovir can significantly improve the prognosis. We present MRI findings of two cases of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) confirmed by PCR analysis, focusing on the serial changes after acyclovir therapy: gyral swelling, high signal intensity on T2-weighted images in the subfrontal region, temporal lobe and insula in the initial stage, then regional extension with enhancement and haemorrhage despite appropriate acyclovir therapy, and finally encephalomalacia and brain atrophy. (orig.)

  1. Herpes simplex encephalitis: MRI findings in two cases confirmed by polymerase chain reaction assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.W.; Kim, I.O.; Kim, W.S.; Yeon, K.M.; Lee, H.-J.; Hwang, Y.S.

    2001-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type I causes a fulminant necrotising meningoencephalitis distinguished from other encephalitides by its focal and often haemorrhagic nature. Specific antiviral therapy with acyclovir can significantly improve the prognosis. We present MRI findings of two cases of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) confirmed by PCR analysis, focusing on the serial changes after acyclovir therapy: gyral swelling, high signal intensity on T2-weighted images in the subfrontal region, temporal lobe and insula in the initial stage, then regional extension with enhancement and haemorrhage despite appropriate acyclovir therapy, and finally encephalomalacia and brain atrophy. (orig.)

  2. Inactivation of Zika virus in human breast milk by prolonged storage or pasteurization

    OpenAIRE

    Pfaender, Stephanie; Vielle, Nathalie J.; Ebert, Nadine; Steinmann, Eike; Alves, Marco P.; Thiel, Volker

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy poses a serious risk for pregnant women as it can cause severe birth defects. Even though the virus is mainly transmitted via mosquitos, human-to-human transmission has been described. Infectious viral particles have been detected in breast milk of infected women which raised concerns regarding the safety of breastfeeding in areas of Zika virus transmission or in case of a suspected or confirmed Zika virus infection. In this study, we show that Zika virus...

  3. Vaccine effectiveness against medically attended laboratory-confirmed influenza in Japan, 2011-2012 Season.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoi Suzuki

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza during the 2011-2012 season in Japan using a test-negative case-control study design. The effect of co-circulating non-influenza respiratory viruses (NIRVs on VE estimates was also explored. Nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected from outpatients with influenza-like illnesses (ILIs in a community hospital in Nagasaki, Japan. Thirteen respiratory viruses (RVs, including influenza A and B, were identified from the samples using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The difference in VE point estimates was assessed using three different controls: ILI patients that tested negative for influenza, those that tested negative for all RVs, and those that tested positive for NIRVs. The adjusted VE against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza using all influenza-negative controls was 5.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], -60.5 to 44.1. The adjusted VEs using RV-negative and NIRV-positive controls were -1.5% (95% CI, -74.7 to 41 and 50% (95% CI, -43.2 to 82.5, respectively. Influenza VE was limited in Japan during the 2011-2012 season. Although the evidence is not conclusive, co-circulating NIRVs may affect influenza VE estimates in test-negative case-control studies.

  4. The dengue virus type 2 envelope protein fusion peptide is essential for membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Claire Y.-H.; Butrapet, Siritorn; Moss, Kelly J.; Childers, Thomas; Erb, Steven M.; Calvert, Amanda E.; Silengo, Shawn J.; Kinney, Richard M.; Blair, Carol D.; Roehrig, John T.

    2010-01-01

    The flaviviral envelope (E) protein directs virus-mediated membrane fusion. To investigate membrane fusion as a requirement for virus growth, we introduced 27 unique mutations into the fusion peptide of an infectious cDNA clone of dengue 2 virus and recovered seven stable mutant viruses. The fusion efficiency of the mutants was impaired, demonstrating for the first time the requirement for specific FP AAs in optimal fusion. Mutant viruses exhibited different growth kinetics and/or genetic stabilities in different cell types and adult mosquitoes. Virus particles could be recovered following RNA transfection of cells with four lethal mutants; however, recovered viruses could not re-infect cells. These viruses could enter cells, but internalized virus appeared to be retained in endosomal compartments of infected cells, thus suggesting a fusion blockade. Mutations of the FP also resulted in reduced virus reactivity with flavivirus group-reactive antibodies, confirming earlier reports using virus-like particles.

  5. Complete blood count changes in an individual with confirmed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Her close contacts showed no evidence of Lassa virus infection. Conclusion: This report adds to the literature on the natural history of Lassa fever; and that individuals may survive Lassa fever with conservative management of symptoms of the disease and its complications. Keywords: Lassa fever; viral hemorrhagic fever, ...

  6. SARS virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... consequence.Protein spike similar. HE gene absent. 2787 nucleotides. Largest genome. Jumps species by genetic deletion. < 300 compounds screened. Glycyrrhizin (liquorics/mullatha) seems attractive. Antivirals not effective. Vaccines – animal model only in monkeys. Killed corona or knockout weakened virus as targets.

  7. Development of the Performance Confirmation Program at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G.D. LeCain; D. Barr; D. Weaver; R. Snell; S.W. Goodin; F.D. Hansen

    2006-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Performance Confirmation program consists of tests, monitoring activities, experiments, and analyses to evaluate the adequacy of assumptions, data, and analyses that form the basis of the conceptual and numerical models of flow and transport associated with a proposed radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The Performance Confirmation program uses an eight-stage risk-informed, performance-based approach. Selection of the Performance Confirmation activities (a parameter and a test method) for inclusion in the Performance Confirmation program was done using a risk-informed performance-based decision analysis. The result of this analysis and review was a Performance Confirmation base portfolio that consists of 20 activities. The 20 Performance Confirmation activities include geologic, hydrologic, and construction/engineering testing. Several of the activities were initiated during site characterization and are ongoing. Others activities will commence during construction and/or post emplacement and will continue until repository closure

  8. Poliomyelitis in Osun State, Nigeria: Two Confirmed Cases After 6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Clinico-epidemological characteristics of two confirmed cases of poliomyelitis detected by Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance in Osun State of Nigeria after almost 6 years of the last confirmed case in the State was reported to provide information for formulating possible aetiological hypothesis and to adequately ...

  9. The role of laboratory confirmations and molecular epidemiology in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review reports on the role of laboratory confirmation and molecular epidemiology in global eradication of measles. The role of laboratory confirmation and molecular epidemiology in defining the origins of measles outbreaks cannot be overemphasized. New serological tests based on recombinant proteins detect only a ...

  10. Confirmed inguinal lymphogranuloma venereum genovar L2c in a man who had sex with men, Slovenia, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matičič, Mojca; Klavs, Irena; Videčnik Zorman, Jerneja; Vidmar Vovko, Darja; Kogoj, Rok; Keše, Darja

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory-confirmed lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) case in Slovenia was reported in 2015, in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative man presenting with inguinal lymphadenopathy. He reported unprotected insertive anal intercourse with two male partners in Croatia. Variant L2c of Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in clinical samples. Although the patient was eventually cured, the recommended treatment regimen with doxycycline had to be prolonged.

  11. An alternative method to achieve metrological confirmation in measurement process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeta, M.; Rubio, E. M.; Sanz, A.; Sevilla, L.

    2012-04-01

    Metrological confirmation process must be designed and implemented to ensure that metrological characteristics of the measurement system meet metrological requirements of the measurement process. The aim of this paper is to present an alternative method to the traditional metrological requirements about the relationship between tolerance and measurement uncertainty, to develop such confirmation processes. The proposed way to metrological confirmation considers a given inspection task of the measurement process into the manufacturing system, and it is based on the Index of Contamination of the Capability, ICC. Metrological confirmation process is then developed taking into account the producer risks and economic considerations on this index. As a consequence, depending on the capability of the manufacturing process, the measurement system will be or will not be in adequate state of metrological confirmation for the measurement process.

  12. Widespread Usutu virus outbreak in birds in the Netherlands, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijks, JM; Kik, ML; Slaterus, R; Foppen, RPB; Stroo, A; IJzer, J; Stahl, J; Gröne, A; Koopmans, MGP; van der Jeugd, HP; Reusken, CBEM

    2016-01-01

    We report a widespread Usutu virus outbreak in birds in the Netherlands. Viral presence had been detected through targeted surveillance as early as April 2016 and increased mortality in common blackbirds and captive great grey owls was noticed from August 2016 onwards. Usutu virus infection was confirmed by post-mortem examination and RT-PCR. Extensive Usutu virus activity in the Netherlands in 2016 underlines the need to monitor mosquito activity and mosquito-borne infections in 2017 and beyond. PMID:27918257

  13. Culture confirmation of tuberculosis cases in Birmingham, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayer, Kalbir S; Sitch, Alice J; Dedicoat, Martin; Wood, Annette L

    2013-10-01

    The proportion of culture-confirmed tuberculosis (TB) cases in Birmingham had gradually decreased to less than 65% in 2008. Reasons for this were unclear, therefore this study assessed diagnostic methods used for confirming TB and reviewed factors involved in positive culture. A cross-sectional study was carried out. A list of notified TB cases for Birmingham in those aged 16 y and over in 2009 was collated. Where no positive culture was recorded, further data were collected from hospital databases and case notes. Of 449 TB cases, 419 (93%) had samples taken for culture testing. Of all cases, 309 (69%) were confirmed by culture testing; of those receiving culture testing, 73% were confirmed. Pulmonary TB was identified as a predictor of positive culture in both the unadjusted and adjusted analyses: odds ratio (OR) 2.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-3.19, and OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.29-4.17, respectively. Gender, age, ethnicity, UK born, and treatment delay were not significantly associated with positive culture. Of 140 cases not confirmed by culture, 129 (92%) had their diagnosis supported by at least one other test. The vast majority of TB cases had microbiological specimens taken to help confirm the disease. Furthermore, culture confirmation rates in Birmingham were meeting national targets in 2009. However culture confirmation rates were significantly lower in extrapulmonary TB, therefore further work is suggested in this group. The role of other investigations (e.g. interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA), Mantoux) is unclear. Further collaboration between clinicians, histopathologists, and microbiologists is advised to ensure samples are sent appropriately and culture confirmation is optimized.

  14. Influenza (Flu) Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Influenza (Flu) Viruses Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook ... influenza circulate and cause illness. More Information about Flu Viruses Types of Influenza Viruses Influenza A and ...

  15. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your ...

  16. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  17. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  18. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  19. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page ... Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus if you ...

  20. Computer Viruses: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmion, Dan

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the early history and current proliferation of computer viruses that occur on Macintosh and DOS personal computers, mentions virus detection programs, and offers suggestions for how libraries can protect themselves and their users from damage by computer viruses. (LRW)

  1. Experimental fossilisation of viruses from extremophilic Archaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Orange

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of viruses at different stages of the origin of life has recently been reconsidered. It appears that viruses may have accompanied the earliest forms of life, allowing the transition from an RNA to a DNA world and possibly being involved in the shaping of tree of life in the three domains that we know presently. In addition, a large variety of viruses has been recently identified in extreme environments, hosted by extremophilic microorganisms, in ecosystems considered as analogues to those of the early Earth. Traces of life on the early Earth were preserved by the precipitation of silica on the organic structures. We present the results of the first experimental fossilisation by silica of viruses from extremophilic Archaea (SIRV2 – Sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped virus 2, TPV1 – Thermococcus prieurii virus 1, and PAV1 – Pyrococcus abyssi virus 1. Our results confirm that viruses can be fossilised, with silica precipitating on the different viral structures (proteins, envelope over several months in a manner similar to that of other experimentally and naturally fossilised microorganisms. This study thus suggests that viral remains or traces could be preserved in the rock record although their identification may be challenging due to the small size of the viral particles.

  2. Zika Virus Infection: Current Concerns and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Ranjan, Aruna; Chu, Jian Feng; Foo, Wei Lim; Chai, Zhi Xin; Lau, Eileen YinYien; Ye, Heuy Mien; Theam, Xi Jin; Lok, Yen Ling

    2016-12-01

    The Zika virus outbreaks highlight the growing importance need for a reliable, specific and rapid diagnostic device to detect Zika virus, as it is often recognized as a mild disease without being identified. Many Zika virus infection cases have been misdiagnosed or underreported because of the non-specific clinical presentation. The aim of this review was to provide a critical and comprehensive overview of the published peer-reviewed evidence related to clinical presentations, various diagnostic methods and modes of transmission of Zika virus infection, as well as potential therapeutic targets to combat microcephaly. Zika virus is mainly transmitted through bites from Aedes aegypti mosquito. It can also be transmitted through blood, perinatally and sexually. Pregnant women are advised to postpone or avoid travelling to areas where active Zika virus transmission is reported, as this infection is directly linked to foetal microcephaly. Due to the high prevalence of Guillain-Barre syndrome and microcephaly in the endemic area, it is vital to confirm the diagnosis of Zika virus. Zika virus infection had been declared as a public health emergency and of international concern by the World Health Organisation. Governments and agencies should play an important role in terms of investing time and resources to fundamentally understand this infection so that a vaccine can be developed besides raising awareness.

  3. Molecular Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) in Kadun State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis C virus genotype 1b was found in the entire HCV RNA positive sample. Conclusions: The findings of 6.2% prevalence of HCV infection based on HCV RNA test confirmed that there is Hepatitis C virus in ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  4. Postmortem Findings for 7 Neonates with Congenital Zika Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Anastácio Q; Cavalcante, Diane I M; Franco, Luciano M; Araújo, Fernanda M C; Sousa, Emília T; Valença-Junior, José Telmo; Rolim, Dionne B; Melo, Maria E L; Sindeaux, Pedro D T; Araújo, Marialva T F; Pearson, Richard D; Wilson, Mary E; Pompeu, Margarida M L

    2017-07-01

    Postmortem examination of 7 neonates with congenital Zika virus infection in Brazil revealed microcephaly, ventriculomegaly, dystrophic calcifications, and severe cortical neuronal depletion in all and arthrogryposis in 6. Other findings were leptomeningeal and brain parenchymal inflammation and pulmonary hypoplasia and lymphocytic infiltration in liver and lungs. Findings confirmed virus neurotropism and multiple organ infection.

  5. Bovine immunodeficiency-like virus: inactivation in milk by pasteurisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venables, C; Lysons, R; Horigan, M; Stagg, D; Dawson, M

    1997-03-15

    Bioassay was used to determine whether bovine immunodeficiency-like virus (BIV) in milk was inactivated by pasteurisation. Three groups of three calves were inoculated with virus (BIV isolate FL112), milk seeded with virus and milk seeded with virus that had been pasteurised before inoculation, respectively. Seroconversion to BIV was monitored for 12 months by an indirect immunofluorescence assay. The presence of BIV proviral DNA in peripheral blood was determined by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The animals were euthanized and virus isolation and PCR were attempted on peripheral blood mononunclear cells, prescapular lymph node and spleen. Transmission of BIV was confirmed in the groups that were inoculated with the virus and with the virus in milk, but no evidence of its transmission was demonstrated in the group that received the pasteurised inoculum.

  6. Genetic and antigenic characterization of Bungowannah virus, a novel pestivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, P D; Frost, M J; King, K R; Finlaison, D S; Hornitzky, C L; Gu, X; Richter, M; Reimann, I; Dauber, M; Schirrmeier, H; Beer, M; Ridpath, J F

    2015-08-05

    Bungowannah virus, a possible new species within the genus Pestivirus, has been associated with a disease syndrome in pigs characterized by myocarditis with a high incidence of stillbirths. The current analysis of the whole-genome and antigenic properties of this virus confirms its unique identity, and further suggests that this virus is both genetically and antigenically remote from previously recognized pestiviruses. There was no evidence of reactivity with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that are generally considered to be pan-reactive with other viruses in the genus, and there was little cross reactivity with polyclonal sera. Subsequently, a set of novel mAbs has been generated which allow detection of Bungowannah virus. The combined data provide convincing evidence that Bungowannah virus is a member of the genus Pestivirus and should be officially recognized as a novel virus species. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dengue virus receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Hidari, Kazuya I.P.J.; Suzuki, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Dengue virus is an arthropod-borne virus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Dengue virus causes fever and hemorrhagic disorders in humans and non-human primates. Direct interaction of the virus introduced by a mosquito bite with host receptor molecule(s) is crucial for virus propagation and the pathological progression of dengue diseases. Therefore, elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between dengue virus and its receptor(s) in both humans and mosquitoes is essent...

  8. Computer Virus and Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Tutut Handayani; Soenarto Usna,Drs.MMSI

    2004-01-01

    Since its appearance the first time in the mid-1980s, computer virus has invited various controversies that still lasts to this day. Along with the development of computer systems technology, viruses komputerpun find new ways to spread itself through a variety of existing communications media. This paper discusses about some things related to computer viruses, namely: the definition and history of computer viruses; the basics of computer viruses; state of computer viruses at this time; and ...

  9. Consumer satisfaction and confirmation of habits of comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent; Andersen, Christian; Andersen, Morten Purup

    2014-01-01

    the formation of consumer satisfaction; the perspective is that of the confirmation paradigm within advertisement research. Inductive advertisements support cognitive habit formation through confirmation, and the confirmation paradigm explains exactly consumer satisfaction with reference to confirmation. Hence......The purpose of this article is twofold: First, within a Peircean framework it shall be demonstrated how there is a relation between the compositional structure of certain types of print advertisements and their bringing about inductive comprehension, and how the consumer can be understood...... as a bundle of habits. It is the assumption that advertising that supports an inductive effect particularly appeals to the cognitive tendency of habit formation in the consumer. Second, it is asked whether advertisements that predominantly invite inductive processes of comprehension also influence...

  10. Detection and confirmation of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-08-20

    Aug 20, 2013 ... mental water samples, as well as for confirmation of clinical isolates. Keywords: ... Monitoring the presence of V. cholerae in drinking water sources ... have several advantages: they are rapid, sensitive, highly selective and do ...

  11. First confirmed record of Elodea canadensis Michx. (Hydrocharitaceae in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulis Georgios

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper confirms the presence of Elodea canadensis Michx. in Greece and outlines the history of contradictory relevant reports. This is also the first report of the species′ presence in the transboundary lake Great Prespa.

  12. CERN confirms goal of 2007 start-up for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    Speaking at the 131st session of CERN Council on 17 December 2004, the Director-General, Robert Aymar, confirmed that the top priority is to maintain the goal of starting up the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2007.

  13. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  14. Scientists confirm delay in testing new CERN particle accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Scientists seeking to uncover the secrets of the universe will have to wait a little longer after the CERN laboratory inswitzerland on Monday confirmed a delay in tests of a massive new particle accelerator." (1 page)

  15. Confirmation of the absolute configuration of (−)-aurantioclavine

    KAUST Repository

    Behenna, Douglas C.; Krishnan, Shyam; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2011-01-01

    We confirm our previous assignment of the absolute configuration of (-)-aurantioclavine as 7R by crystallographically characterizing an advanced 3-bromoindole intermediate reported in our previous synthesis. This analysis also provides additional

  16. A recombinant canine distemper virus expressing a modified rabies virus glycoprotein induces immune responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhili; Wang, Jigui; Yuan, Daoli; Wang, Shuang; Sun, Jiazeng; Yi, Bao; Hou, Qiang; Mao, Yaping; Liu, Weiquan

    2015-06-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) and rabies virus (RV) are two important pathogens of the dog. CDV, a member of the morbillivirus genus, has shown promise as an expression vector. The glycoprotein from RV is a main contributor to protective immunity and capable of eliciting the production of virus-neutralizing antibodies. In this study, we recovered an attenuated strain of canine distemper virus and constructed a recombinant virus, rCDV-RV-G, expressing a modified (R333Q) rabies virus glycoprotein (RV-G) of RV Flury strain LEP. RV-G expression by the recombinant viruses was confirmed. Furthermore, G was proved to be incorporated into the surface of CDV particles. While replication of the recombinant virus was slightly reduced compared with the parental CDV, it stably expressed the RV-G over ten serial passages. Inoculation of mice induced specific neutralizing antibodies against both RV-G and CDV. Therefore, the rCDV-RV-G has the potential as a vaccine that may be used to control rabies virus infection in dogs and other animals.

  17. The Significance of Wild Plants in the Evolutionary Ecology of Three Major Viruses Infecting Cultivated Sweetpotato in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Tugume Kajungu, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    The studies presented in this thesis contribute to the understanding of evolutionary ecology of three major viruses threatening cultivated sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas Lam) in East Africa: Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV; genus Potyvirus; Potyviridae), Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV; genus Crinivirus; Closteroviridae) and Sweet potato mild mottle virus (SPMMV; genus Ipomovirus; Potyviridae). The viruses were serologically detected and the positive results confirmed b...

  18. Pepino mosaic virus, a first report of a virus infecting tomato in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fakhro

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report of Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV occurring in tomato plants grown in plastic greenhouses in a Mediterranean city in Syria. One tomato fruit from sixty samples tested positive for this virus by DAS-ELISA. Biotest assay, RT-PCR, and sequencing confirmed the presence of PepMV. The highest sequence identity of the Syrian isolate was with the EU-tomato strains of PepMV.

  19. Polyarthropathy in a cat seropositive for feline synctial-forming virus and feline immunodeficiency virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.M.; Brown, N.O.; Denardo, G.

    1994-01-01

    A four-year-old, neutered male, domestic shorthair cat presented witha polyarthropathy. Indirect immunofluorescence assays revealed seropositive results for both feline synctial-forming virus (FeSFV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Direct relationships between viral infections and polyarthropathy are not confirmed, however, possible correlations are discussed. Mechanisms of lentivirus infections and polyarthropathy in the cat are reviewed in order to theorize a potential relationship among these disease processes

  20. Differential diagnosis of feline leukemia virus subgroups using pseudotype viruses expressing green fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Megumi; Sato, Eiji; Miura, Tomoyuki; Baba, Kenji; Shimoda, Tetsuya; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2010-06-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is classified into three receptor interference subgroups, A, B and C. In this study, to differentiate FeLV subgroups, we developed a simple assay system using pseudotype viruses expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). We prepared gfp pseudotype viruses, named gfp(FeLV-A), gfp(FeLV-B) and gfp(FeLV-C) harboring envelopes of FeLV-A, B and C, respectively. The gfp pseudotype viruses completely interfered with the same subgroups of FeLV reference strains on FEA cells (a feline embryonic fibroblast cell line). We also confirmed that the pseudotype viruses could differentiate FeLV subgroups in field isolates. The assay will be useful for differential diagnosis of FeLV subgroups in veterinary diagnostic laboratories in the future.

  1. Confirmation of a novel siadenovirus species detected in raptors: partial sequence and phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Endre R; Benko, Mária

    2009-03-01

    Partial genome characterisation of a novel adenovirus, found recently in organ samples of multiple species of dead birds of prey, was carried out by sequence analysis of PCR-amplified DNA fragments. The virus, named as raptor adenovirus 1 (RAdV-1), has originally been detected by a nested PCR method with consensus primers targeting the adenoviral DNA polymerase gene. Phylogenetic analysis with the deduced amino acid sequence of the small PCR product has implied a new siadenovirus type present in the samples. Since virus isolation attempts remained unsuccessful, further characterisation of this putative novel siadenovirus was carried out with the use of PCR on the infected organ samples. The DNA sequence of the central genome part of RAdV-1, encompassing nine full (pTP, 52K, pIIIa, III, pVII, pX, pVI, hexon, protease) and two partial (DNA polymerase and DBP) genes and exceeding 12 kb pairs in size, was determined. Phylogenetic tree reconstructions, based on several genes, unambiguously confirmed the preliminary classification of RAdV-1 as a new species within the genus Siadenovirus. Further study of RAdV-1 is of interest since it represents a rare adenovirus genus of yet undetermined host origin.

  2. Surgical protocol for confirmed or suspected cases of Ebola and other highly transmissible diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badia, Josep M; Rubio-Pérez, Inés; Arias Díaz, Javier; Guirao Garriga, Xavier; Serrablo, Alejandro; Jover Navalón, José M

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of viral haemorrhagic fevers such as Ebola can lead to imported cases in Europe and America. The eventuality of surgery in the setting of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is low, but the Spanish Association of Surgeons elaborated a surgical protocol for EVD. Elective surgical procedures are not indicated. Emergency cases can be considered in: persons under investigation, possible cases and early confirmed cases. In some conditions usually treated by surgery a medical treatment can be tested. All cases must be treated in high technology hospitals. These hospitals must be equipped with adequate means for healthcare provider's protection. All members of the healthcare team should practice thorough simulation prior to caring for a possible Ebola patient. This protocol is based on international guidelines on use of Personal Protective Equipment, protocols of other scientific societies, and specific recommendations for the operating room environment. Copyright © 2015 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Association between nasopharyngeal load of Streptococcus pneumoniae, viral coinfection, and radiologically confirmed pneumonia in Vietnamese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Huong Thi Thu; Yoshida, Lay Myint; Suzuki, Motoi; Nguyen, Hien Anh Thi; Nguyen, Cat Dinh Lien; Nguyen, Ai Thi Thuy; Oishi, Kengo; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Watanabe, Kiwao; Vu, Thiem Dinh

    2011-01-01

    The interplay between nasopharyngeal bacterial carriage, viral coinfection, and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) is poorly understood. We explored this association in Vietnamese children aged less than 5 years. A hospital-based case-control study of pediatric LRTIs was conducted in Nha Trang, Vietnam. A total of 550 hospitalized children (274 radiologically confirmed pneumonia [RCP] and 276 other LRTIs) were enrolled and 350 healthy controls were randomly selected from the community. Polymerase chain reaction-based methods were used to measure bacterial loads of Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP), Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis and to detect 13 respiratory viruses and bacterial serotypes in nasopharyngeal samples of study participants. The median nasopharyngeal bacterial load of SP was substantially higher in children with RCP compared with healthy controls or children with other LRTIs (P RCP or other LRTIs groups. An increased load of SP in the nasopharynx was associated with RCP, viral coinfection, and presence of pneumococcal capsule.

  4. Zika Virus: An Emerging Worldwide Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan A. Rather

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ZIKA virus (ZIKV poses a severe threat to the world. Recent outbreaks of ZIKV after 2007 along with its quick transmission have made this virus a matter of international concern. The virus shows symptoms that are similar to those caused in the wake of dengue virus (DENV and other flaviviruses, which makes it difficult to discern the viral infection. Diagnosis is further complicated as the virus cross-reacts with antibodies of other viruses. Currently, molecular diagnosis of the virus is being performed by RT-PCR and IgM-captured enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA. The real brunt of the virus is, however, borne by children and adults alike. Case studies of the ZIKV outbreaks in the French Polynesia and other places have suggested that there is a close link between the ZIKV and Gullian-Barre syndrome (GBS. The GBS has closely followed in areas facing ZIKV outbreaks. Although solid evidence is yet to emerge, clinical data integration has revealed a large number of ZIKV patients having GBS. Moreover, the amniotic fluids, blood cord, and miscarriage tissues of mothers have been detected with ZIKV, which indicates that the virus either gets transferred from mother to fetus or seeks direct entry in the fetus, causing microcephaly and other brain anomalies in the newborn babies. Studies on mice have confirmed the link between the ZIKV infection during pregnancy and microcephaly in babies. Reports have highlighted the sexual transmission of the ZIKV, as it has been detected in the semen and saliva of affected persons. The intensity with which the ZIKA is spreading can collapse the health sector of several countries, which are poor. A comprehensive strategy is a need of an hour to combat this virus so as to prevent its transmission and avert the looming threat. At the same time, more research on the cure of the ZIKV is imperative.

  5. Investigating Ebola virus pathogenicity using molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Morena; Collu, Francesca; Macpherson, James; Michaelis, Martin; Fraternali, Franca; Wass, Mark N

    2017-08-11

    Ebolaviruses have been known to cause deadly disease in humans for 40 years and have recently been demonstrated in West Africa to be able to cause large outbreaks. Four Ebolavirus species cause severe disease associated with high mortality in humans. Reston viruses are the only Ebolaviruses that do not cause disease in humans. Conserved amino acid changes in the Reston virus protein VP24 compared to VP24 of other Ebolaviruses have been suggested to alter VP24 binding to host cell karyopherins resulting in impaired inhibition of interferon signalling, which may explain the difference in human pathogenicity. Here we used protein structural analysis and molecular dynamics to further elucidate the interaction between VP24 and KPNA5. As a control experiment, we compared the interaction of wild-type and R137A-mutant (known to affect KPNA5 binding) Ebola virus VP24 with KPNA5. Results confirmed that the R137A mutation weakens direct VP24-KPNA5 binding and enables water molecules to penetrate at the interface. Similarly, Reston virus VP24 displayed a weaker interaction with KPNA5 than Ebola virus VP24, which is likely to reduce the ability of Reston virus VP24 to prevent host cell interferon signalling. Our results provide novel molecular detail on the interaction of Reston virus VP24 and Ebola virus VP24 with human KPNA5. The results indicate a weaker interaction of Reston virus VP24 with KPNA5 than Ebola virus VP24, which is probably associated with a decreased ability to interfere with the host cell interferon response. Hence, our study provides further evidence that VP24 is a key player in determining Ebolavirus pathogenicity.

  6. Racial athletic stereotype confirmation in college football recruiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Grant; Good, Jessica J; Gross, Alexi R

    2015-01-01

    The present study tested real-world racial stereotype use in the context of college athletic recruiting. Stereotype confirmation suggests that observers use stereotypes as hypotheses and interpret relevant evidence in a biased way that confirms their stereotypes. Shifting standards suggest that the evaluative standard to which we hold a target changes as a function of their group membership. We examined whether stereotype confirmation and shifting standards effects would be seen in college football coaches during recruiting. College football coaches evaluated a Black or White player on several attributes and made both zero- and non-zero-sum allocations. Results suggested that coaches used the evidence presented to develop biased subjective evaluations of the players based on race while still maintaining equivalent objective evaluations. Coaches also allocated greater overall resources to the Black recruit than the White recruit.

  7. Molecular Confirmation of Salmonella typhimuriumin Poultry from Kathmandu Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar Adhikari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A prevalence study was carried to isolate Salmonella typhimurium from blood (n= 50 and gut samples (n=100 of poultry in Kathmandu valley during early 2016. Salmonella typhimurium bacteria isolated in the selective media were biochemically confirmed based on Bergey’s Manual. Two sets of oligonucleotide primers-the genus specific 16S rRNA and the organism specific invA were employed for molecular level confirmation by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR assay. The amplified fragments in 1% agarose gel observed at 406bp and 285bp, respectively confirmed the isolates to be Salmonella typhimurium. Of 150 samples tested, Salmonella typhimurium were isolated from 49 samples, among which nine were from blood (18% and forty from the gut (40%. The present result indicated an alarmingly high level of Salmonella typhimurium, which can result inzoonotic infection in humans owing to increased contact with poultry and consumption of poultry products in the Kathmandu valley.

  8. Eric Besson: the financial advantage of nuclear energy is confirmed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    The French minister of energy, E. Besson said that the study of the Court of Auditors on the real costs of nuclear energy confirmed the competitiveness of nuclear power. The Court of Auditors confirmed also that public expenditures in favor of nuclear energy are balanced by the gain through the tax on nuclear facilities. The Court of Auditors confirms also that dismantlement charges and charges for the management of radioactive wastes are included in the present costs of nuclear energy at an adequate level with today's knowledge. The total cost of nuclear energy is very competitive, it ranges form 32.5 euros/MWh to 49.5 euros/MWh according to the cost accounting method used. One of major parameters for cost elaboration is the knowledge of the lengths of the operating life of the power plant. The longer the extension is, the lower is the investment cost. (A.C.)

  9. Thumb rule of visual angle: a new confirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, C; Ortega, F; Beltran, F S

    1994-02-01

    The classical thumb rule of visual angle was reexamined. Hence, the visual angle was measured as a function of a thumb's width and the distance between eye and thumb. The measurement of a thumb's width when held at arm's length was taken on 67 second-year students of psychology. The visual angle was about 2 degrees as R. P. O'Shea confirmed in 1991. Also, we confirmed a linear relationship between the size of a thumb's width at arm's length and the visual angle.

  10. Comparison of camelpox viruses isolated in Dubai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, M; Meyer, H; Wernery, U; Kaaden, O R

    1996-03-01

    Between October 1993 and March 1994, outbreaks of pox-like exanthemas were observed in several camel raising farms in Dubai. Scabs from twenty camels with either local or generalized lesions were examined, seven of them had previously been vaccinated with a modified live camelpox virus vaccine. Inspection of scabs by electron microscopy confirmed an infection with orthopox viruses (OPV) in 10 animals and with parapox virus in one camel. Investigation of the scabs by polymerase chain reaction and dot blot assay revealed the presence of OPV in 15 or 13 samples, respectively. OPV could be isolated in cell culture in 14 cases. Restriction enzyme profiles characterized all isolates as camelpox virus. Their DNA patterns were virtually identical displaying only slight variations in the terminal fragments. In contrast, the vaccine strain showed a distinct restriction enzyme profile, indicating that it was not involved in the infections.

  11. Confirming psychogenic nonepileptic seizures with video-EEG: sex matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe, Katherine H; Grade, Madeline; Stonnington, Cynthia M; Driver-Dunckley, Erika; Locke, Dona E C

    2012-03-01

    The influence of gender on psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) diagnosis was examined retrospectively in 439 subjects undergoing video-EEG (vEEG) for spell classification, of whom 142 women and 42 men had confirmed PNES. The epileptologist's predicted diagnosis was correct in 72% overall. Confirmed epilepsy was correctly predicted in 94% men and 88% women. In contrast, confirmed PNES was accurately predicted in 86% women versus 61% men (p=0.003). Sex-based differences in likelihood of an indeterminate admission were not observed for predicted epilepsy or physiologic events, but were for predicted PNES (39% men, 12% women, p=0.0002). More frequent failure to record spells in men than women with predicted PNES was not explained by spell frequency, duration of monitoring, age, medication use, or personality profile. PNES are not only less common in men, but also more challenging to recognize in the clinic, and even when suspected more difficult to confirm with vEEG. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Confirmation of the absolute configuration of (−)-aurantioclavine

    KAUST Repository

    Behenna, Douglas C.

    2011-04-01

    We confirm our previous assignment of the absolute configuration of (-)-aurantioclavine as 7R by crystallographically characterizing an advanced 3-bromoindole intermediate reported in our previous synthesis. This analysis also provides additional support for our model of enantioinduction in the palladium(II)-catalyzed oxidative kinetic resolution of secondary alcohols. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Confirmation of antibodies against L-tryptophan-like epitope in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rachel Oneya

    2016-09-07

    Sep 7, 2016 ... controls confirming previous results obtained with a lower number of patients in Congo. ... searching trypanosomes and white blood cells count in CSF: 13 in ... The well plate was then filled with 200 µL of diluted (2,000-fold).

  14. Evaluation of histologically confirmed carcinoma of the cervix in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data collected was analysed with SPSS version 20.0 software and presented in tables and charts. Results: Sixty two patients with histological confirmation of ... The commonest histological type of cervical cancer was squamous cell carcinoma accounting for 88.9%. Twenty (44.4%) patients were referred for radiotherapy and ...

  15. Exploratory laparotomy in the management of confirmed necrotizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    confirmed NEC who undergo laparotomy remain high in infants despite optimal medical and surgical care. Ann. Pediatr Surg 11:123–126 c 2015 Annals of Pediatric. Surgery. ... Radcliffe Hospital, Headley Way, Headington, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK e-mail: ... The institutional review board of the John Radcliffe. Hospital, Oxford ...

  16. 18 CFR 300.10 - Application for confirmation and approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS FOR FEDERAL POWER MARKETING ADMINISTRATIONS CONFIRMATION AND APPROVAL OF THE RATES OF FEDERAL POWER MARKETING ADMINISTRATIONS Filing Requirements § 300.10... with applicable laws and that it is the lowest possible rate consistent with sound business principles...

  17. Theory-Led Confirmation Bias and Experimental Persona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Questionnaire and interview findings from a survey of three Year 8 (ages 12-13 years) science practical lessons (n = 52) demonstrate how pupils' data collection and inference making were sometimes biased by desires to confirm a personal theory. A variety of behaviours are described where learners knowingly rejected anomalies, manipulated…

  18. Factors associated with child sexual abuse confirmation at forensic examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welington dos Santos Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study is identify potential factors associated with child sexual abuse confirmation at forensic examinations. The forensic files of children under 12 years of age reporting sexual abuse at the Nina Rodrigues Institute of Forensic Medicine in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil between January 2008 and December 2009 were reviewed. A multivariate analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with finding evidence of sexual abuse in forensic examinations. The proportion of cases confirmed by the forensic physician based on material evidence was 10.4%. Adjusted analysis showed that the variables place of birth, type of abuse reported, family relationship between the child and the perpetrator, and the interval between the reported abuse and the forensic examination were not independently associated with finding forensic evidence of sexual abuse. A report of penetration was associated with a five-fold greater likelihood of confirmation, while the victim being 10-11 years of age was associated with a two-fold of abuse confirmation than younger children. These findings should be taken into consideration when drawing up guidelines for the multidisciplinary evaluation of children suspected of being victims of sexual abuse and in deciding whether to refer the child for forensic examination.

  19. Psychotherapy of Depression: A Self-Confirmation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, John D. W.

    1989-01-01

    Concepts of self-confirmation, interpersonal diagnosis, and prototype construction are used to integrate research and clinical findings concerning depression. Various theoretical accounts and bodies of data that fit within this integrative conceptual framework are examined, and implications for psychotherapy are discussed. (SLD)

  20. Confirmation of radiation pressure effects in laser--plasma interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attwood, D.T.; Sweeney, D.W.; Auerbach, J.M.; Lee, P.H.Y.

    1977-10-01

    Interferometric data resolved in 1μm and 15 psec confirms the dominant role of radiation pressure during high intensity laser-plasma interactions. Specifically observed manifestations include electron density profiles steepened to 1 μm scale length, clearly defined upper and lower density shelves, and small and large scale deformation of transverse isodensity surfaces

  1. Laboratory-confirmed Congenital Rubella Syndrome at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Laboratory-confirmed Congenital Rubella Syndrome at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka,. Zambia-Case Reports. 1,2. 3. 3. 4 ... microcephaly. Rubella Immunoglobulin M (IgM) results were positive. The third case, a girl, was seen at twelve weeks and brought in for slow growth rate. On.

  2. Confirmation of antibodies against L-tryptophan-like epitope in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Confirmation of antibodies against L-tryptophan-like epitope in human African trypanosomosis serological diagnostic. ... number of patients in Congo. A diagnostic test based on this synthetic epitope, especially in combination with other tests, might improve the HAT diagnostic test in field conditions. Key words: Tryptophan ...

  3. Epstein - Barr Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Štorkánová, Lenka

    2011-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus Bachelor thesis summarizes the findings of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), its general characteristics, transmission and spread of the virus, symptoms of disease and subsequent therapy and recovery. More specifically, it focuses on infectious mononucleosis, as well as more generally to other diseases, which the Epstein-Barr virus causes. It includes details of the vaccine against EB virus. There are the statistics on the incidence of infectious mononucleosis.

  4. [Epidemiological investigation on confirmed cases of schistosomiasis in Hubei Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan-Yan, Chen; Shun-Xiang, Cai; Guo, Li; Ying, Xiao; Xiao-Wei, Shan; Juan, Zhang; Jian-Bing, Liu

    2016-05-10

    To grasp the distribution and epidemiology of confirmed cases of schistosomiasis in Hubei Province, so as to provide the evidence for promoting the prevention and control work. The confirmed cases of schistosomiasis in Hubei Province from 2010 to 2014 were epidemiologically investigated, and the prevalence characteristics and main influencing factors were analyzed. A total of 10 102 confirmed cases from 2010 to 2014 were surveyed. There were 1 062 local infected patients, accounting for 10.51% and including 354 repeated infections and 17 newly infected. There were 290 foreigninfected patients, accounting for 2.87%, with 206 repeated infection cases and 84 newly infected. There were 8 750 historical patients, including 2 229 patients who leaked the former schistosomiasis investigations, accounting for 22.06%; 570 patients missed treatment, accounting for 5.64%; 3 640 patients were treated with non-standard therapy, accounting for 36.03%; 2 311 patients were treated with poor medication efficacy, accounting for 22.88%. The multivariate non-conditional Logistic regression, targeting at confirmed cases in 2014, showed that, for the leaking investigations, the potential risk factors included the age, educational level, and latrine renovation ( b >0, OR >1), the protective factors were the times of previous treatment, cattle feeding in villager team, and Oncomelania hupensis snails in surroundings ( b <0, OR <1); for the treatment-missing, the age, educational level, snails in the surroundings of residence were risk factors ( b <0, OR <1); for the substandard treatment, the risk factors included the occupation and snails in the surroundings of residence ( b >0, OR >1), and the educational level and snails in the own field were protective factors ( b <0, OR <1). The epidemiological investigation on the confirmed cases of schistosomiasis could grasp the epidemic factors so as to improve the management and carry out the scientific control.

  5. Easy and Rapid Detection of Mumps Virus by Live Fluorescent Visualization of Virus-Infected Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadanobu Takahashi

    Full Text Available Mumps viruses show diverse cytopathic effects (CPEs of infected cells and viral plaque formation (no CPE or no plaque formation in some cases depending on the viral strain, highlighting the difficulty in mumps laboratory studies. In our previous study, a new sialidase substrate, 2-(benzothiazol-2-yl-4-bromophenyl 5-acetamido-3,5-dideoxy-α-D-glycero-D-galacto-2-nonulopyranosidonic acid (BTP3-Neu5Ac, was developed for visualization of sialidase activity. BTP3-Neu5Ac can easily and rapidly perform histochemical fluorescent visualization of influenza viruses and virus-infected cells without an antiviral antibody and cell fixation. In the present study, the potential utility of BTP3-Neu5Ac for rapid detection of mumps virus was demonstrated. BTP3-Neu5Ac could visualize dot-blotted mumps virus, virus-infected cells, and plaques (plaques should be called focuses due to staining of infected cells in this study, even if a CPE was not observed. Furthermore, virus cultivation was possible by direct pick-up from a fluorescent focus. In conventional methods, visible appearance of the CPE and focuses often requires more than 6 days after infection, but the new method with BTP3-Neu5Ac clearly visualized infected cells after 2 days and focuses after 4 days. The BTP3-Neu5Ac assay is a precise, easy, and rapid assay for confirmation and titration of mumps virus.

  6. Phocine Distemper Virus in Seals, East Coast, United States, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, J.A. Philip; Melia, Mary M.; Doherty, Nadine V.; Nielsen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    In 2006 and 2007, elevated numbers of deaths among seals, constituting an unusual mortality event, occurred off the coasts of Maine and Massachusetts, United States. We isolated a virus from seal tissue and confirmed it as phocine distemper virus (PDV). We compared the viral hemagglutinin, phosphoprotein, and fusion (F) and matrix (M) protein gene sequences with those of viruses from the 1988 and 2002 PDV epizootics. The virus showed highest similarity with a PDV 1988 Netherlands virus, which raises the possibility that the 2006 isolate from the United States might have emerged independently from 2002 PDVs and that multiple lineages of PDV might be circulating among enzootically infected North American seals. Evidence from comparison of sequences derived from different tissues suggested that mutations in the F and M genes occur in brain tissue that are not present in lung, liver, or blood, which suggests virus persistence in the central nervous system. PMID:21291591

  7. Virus-Vectored Influenza Virus Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Ralph A.; Tompkins, S. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Despite the availability of an inactivated vaccine that has been licensed for >50 years, the influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. Constant evolution of circulating influenza virus strains and the emergence of new strains diminishes the effectiveness of annual vaccines that rely on a match with circulating influenza strains. Thus, there is a continued need for new, efficacious vaccines conferring cross-clade protection to avoid the need for biannual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines. Recombinant virus-vectored vaccines are an appealing alternative to classical inactivated vaccines because virus vectors enable native expression of influenza antigens, even from virulent influenza viruses, while expressed in the context of the vector that can improve immunogenicity. In addition, a vectored vaccine often enables delivery of the vaccine to sites of inductive immunity such as the respiratory tract enabling protection from influenza virus infection. Moreover, the ability to readily manipulate virus vectors to produce novel influenza vaccines may provide the quickest path toward a universal vaccine protecting against all influenza viruses. This review will discuss experimental virus-vectored vaccines for use in humans, comparing them to licensed vaccines and the hurdles faced for licensure of these next-generation influenza virus vaccines. PMID:25105278

  8. Histopathology confirms white-nose syndrome in bats in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikula, Jiri; Bandouchova, Hana; Novotny, Ladislav; Meteyer, Carol U; Zukal, Jan; Irwin, Nancy R; Zima, Jan; Martínková, Natália

    2012-01-01

    White-nose syndrome, associated with the fungal skin infection geomycosis, caused regional population collapse in bats in North America. Our results, based on histopathology, show the presence of white-nose syndrome in Europe. Dermatohistopathology on two bats (Myotis myotis) found dead in March 2010 with geomycosis in the Czech Republic had characteristics resembling Geomyces destructans infection in bats confirmed with white-nose syndrome in US hibernacula. In addition, a live M. myotis, biopsied for histopathology during hibernation in April 2011, had typical fungal infection with cupping erosion and invasion of muzzle skin diagnostic for white-nose syndrome and conidiospores identical to G. destructans that were genetically confirmed as G. destructans.

  9. Histopathology confirms white-nose syndrome in bats in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikula, J.; Bandouchova, H.; Novotny, L.; Meteyer, C.U.; Zukal, J.; Irwin, N.R.; Zima, J.; Martinkova, N.

    2012-01-01

    White-nose syndrome, associated with the fungal skin infection geomycosis, caused regional population collapse in bats in North America. Our results, based on histopathology, show the presence of white-nose syndrome in Europe. Dermatohistopathology on two bats (Myotis myotis) found dead in March 2010 with geomycosis in the Czech Republic had characteristics resembling Geomyces destructans infection in bats confirmed with white-nose syndrome in US hibernacula. In addition, a live M. myotis, biopsied for histopathology during hibernation in April 2011, had typical fungal infection with cupping erosion and invasion of muzzle skin diagnostic for white-nose syndrome and conidiospores identical to G. destructans that were genetically confirmed as G. destructans. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2012.

  10. Caldwell Ranch Exploration and Confirmation Project, Northwest Geysers, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Mark A.

    2013-04-25

    The purpose of the Caldwell Ranch Exploration and Confirmation Project was to drill, test, and confirm the present economic viability of the undeveloped geothermal reservoir in the 870 acre Caldwell Ranch area of the Northwest Geysers that included the CCPA No.1 steam field. All of the drilling, logging, and sampling challenges were met. Three abandoned wells, Prati 5, Prati 14 and Prati 38 were re-opened and recompleted to nominal depths of 10,000 feet in 2010. Two of the wells required sidetracking. The flow tests indicated Prati 5 Sidetrack 1 (P-5 St1), Prati 14 (P-14) and Prati 38 Sidetrack 2 (P-38 St2) were collectively capable of initially producing an equivalent of 12 megawatts (MWe) of steam using a conversion rate of 19,000 pounds of steam/hour

  11. Confirmation tests of PWR surveillance capsule shipping container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, N.; Ue, K.; Ohashi, M.; Asada, K.; Yoneda, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. carried out the confirmation tests to confirm the reliability of the PWR surveillance capsule shipping container and to collect cask design data using a 10-ton weight full scale model at Kobe Shipyard and Engine Works. This report presents the outline of these tests. The B Type container was a cylinder 3289 mm long, 1080 mm in diameter and designed in accordance with the new modified Japanese regulations similar to IAEA regulation. These tests consist of four 9 m drop tests, two 1 m puncture tests, a fire test and an immersion test. In conclusion, safetyness of this container has been proved and various technical data for cask design were also collected through these tests. (author)

  12. Confirmation of the decontamination ability using the dry blasting device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izuka, Hirotaka; Tsuhara, Yuuki; Ito, Hajime; Fukuda, Kazuhiro; Sugahara, Yasuhiro; Kanamori, Yoji

    2017-01-01

    The decontamination method of metallic waste was considered to reduce the radioactive waste in decommissioning a nuclear power plant. Stainless steel occupies most for the material of the system equipment of PWR. The contamination by radioactive materials is stuck in the surface in the equipment as the metal oxide (e.g. chromium oxide, iron oxide). The method of efficient abrasion by the dry blasting device was considered to remove metal oxide from stainless steel. The kind of blasting abrasives material and the abrasive operation condition (the blasting angle, rate) were considered to investigate the abrasion ability to stainless steel. The abrasive condition which was appropriate abrasive ability was investigated and appropriate blasting abrasives was selected to stainless steel. The decontamination test by selected blasting abrasives and abrasive operation condition was performed using samples and the relation between abrasive rate and activity concentration was confirmed. The metallic radioactive waste was confirmed to be able to decontaminate to the clearance level. (author)

  13. Confirmation of the definitive structure of Fleishmann's lactone by NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa Villar, Jose Daniel

    1993-01-01

    The reaction between 4-hydroxy-6-methyl-pyrone and ethyl-acetic-acetate produces a compound known since the beginning of the century, named Fleishman lactone in honor to its discover. The structure of this compound has been the aim of several researches due to its similarity with several poly-pyrones which are important in synthesis of important products. This work presents the accurate determination of the structure of the Fleishman lactone. The methodology is presented as well as confirmation tests

  14. Simultaneous Detection of Mixed Infection of Onion yellow dwarf virus and an Allexivirus in RT-PCR for Ensuring Virus Free Onion Bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Baranwal, V K; Joshi, Subodh; Arya, Meenakshi; Majumder, S

    2010-06-01

    Reduced seed production in onion is associated with Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), a filamentous Potyvirus. Onion is also infected with other filamentous virus particles suspected to be Allexivirus. RT-PCR was used to detect mixed infection of both the viruses in leaves and bulbs. A duplex RT-PCR was developed, which simultaneously detected the presence of these two viruses in winter (Rabi) onion bulb. In summer (Kharif) onion bulbs only Allexivirus was detected. The absence of OYDV in summer crop is discussed. The sequencing of RT-PCR amplified products confirmed the identity of OYDV and Allexivirus, the latter showing closer identity to Garlic virus C (GVC)/Garlic mite-borne mosaic virus. This makes the first detection of an Allexivirus in onion crop in India. The duplex RT-PCR to detect these viruses (OYDV and Allexivirus) would be an improvement for indexing of viruses in onion bulbs for seed production.

  15. First confirmation of Pseudogymnoascus destructans in British bats and hibernacula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, A M; Worledge, L; Miller, H; Drees, K P; Wright, P; Foster, J T; Sobek, C; Borman, A M; Fraser, M

    2015-07-18

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a fatal fungal infection of bats in North America caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans. P. destructans has been confirmed in Continental Europe but not associated with mass mortality. Its presence in Great Britain was unknown. Opportunistic sampling of bats in GB began during the winter of 2009. Any dead bats or samples from live bats with visible fungal growths were submitted to the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency for culture. Active surveillance by targeted environmental sampling of hibernacula was carried out during the winter of 2012/2013. Six hibernacula were selected by their proximity to Continental Europe. Five samples, a combination of surface swabs or sediment samples, were collected. These were sent to the Center for Microbial Genetics and Genomics, Northern Arizona University, for P. destructans PCR. Forty-eight incidents were investigated between March 2009 and July 2013. They consisted of 46 bat carcases and 31 other samples. A suspected P. destructans isolate was cultured from a live Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii) sampled in February 2013. This isolate was confirmed by the Mycology Reference Laboratory, Bristol (Public Health England), as P. destructans. A variety of fungi were isolated from the rest but all were considered to be saprophytic or incidental. P. destructans was also confirmed by the Center for Microbial Genetics and Genomics in five of the six sites surveyed. British Veterinary Association.

  16. Viruses infecting reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, Rachel E

    2011-11-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch's postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  17. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Marschang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  18. Emergence of Dengue virus serotype 3 on Mayotte Island, Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A serosurvey carried out in 2006 in Mayotte, a French overseas collectivity in the Indian Ocean, confirmed previous circulation of dengue virus (DENV) on the island, but since the set up of a laboratory-based surveillance of dengue-like illness in 2007, no case of DENV has been confirmed. In response to an outbreak of ...

  19. THE TRANSMISSION OF EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS BY AEDES AEGYPTI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, M H; Tenbroeck, C

    1935-10-31

    In confirming Kelser's work on the transmission of equine encephalomyelitis of the western type by Aëdes aegypti it has been learned that the mosquitoes must be fed virus of high titer if positive results are to be secured. A period of from 4 to 5 days after feeding either on infected guinea pigs or on brain containing virus must elapse before the disease is transmitted by biting, but after this time transmission regularly results for a period of about 2 months. By inoculation, virus can be demonstrated in the bodies of infected mosquitoes for the duration of life. Although virus multiplies in the mosquitoes and is generally distributed in their bodies, repeated attempts to demonstrate it in the eggs from females known to be infected as well as in larvae, pupae, and adults from such eggs have been uniformly negative. Larvae have not taken up virus added to the water in which they were living. Male mosquitoes have been infected with virus by feeding but they have not transmitted the virus to normal females, nor have males transmitted the virus from infected to normal females. When virus of the eastern instead of the western type is used transmission experiments with Aëdes aegypti are negative. Apparently this virus is incapable of penetrating the intestinal mucosa of the mosquito. If, however, it is inoculated into the body cavity by needle puncture it persists and transmission experiments are positive.

  20. Confirmation test of powder mixing process in J-MOX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Hiroshi; Osaka, Shuichi; Kurita, Ichiro

    2009-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd. (hereafter, JNFL) MOX Fuel Fabrication Plant (hereafter, J-MOX) is what fabricates MOX fuel for domestic light water power plants. Development of design concept of J-MOX was started mid 90's and the frame of J-MOX process was clarified around 2000 including adoption of MIMAS process as apart of J-MOX powder process. JNFL requires to take an answer to any technical question that has not been clarified ever before by world's MOX and/or Uranium fabricators before it commissions equipment procurement. J-MOX is to be constructed adjacent to the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) and to utilize MH-MOX powder recovered at RRP. The combination of the MIMAS process and the MH-MOX powder is what has never tried in the world. Therefore JNFL started a series of confirmation tests of which the most important is the powder test to confirm the applicability of MH-MOX powder to the MIMAS process. The MH-MOX powder, consisting of 50% plutonium oxide and 50% uranium oxide, originates JAEA development utilizing microwave heating (MH) technology. The powder test started with laboratory scale small equipment utilizing both uranium and the MOX powder in 2000, left a solution to tough problem such as powder adhesion onto equipment, and then was followed by a large scale equipment test again with uranium and the MOX powder. For the MOX test, actual size equipment within glovebox was manufactured and installed in JAEA plutonium fuel center in 2005, and based on results taken so far an understanding that the MIMAS equipment, with the MH-MOX powder, can present almost same quality MOX pellet as what is introduced as fabricated in Europe was developed. The test was finished at the end of Japanese fiscal year (JFY) 2007, and it was confirmed that the MOX pellets fabricated in this test were almost satisfied with the targeted specifications set for domestic LWR MOX fuels. (author)

  1. Zika virus disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel I Al-Afaleq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Zika virus is an arbovirus belonging to the virus family Flaviviridae. The virus was isolated in 1947 from a rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest of Uganda. The virus causes sporadic mild human infections in Africa and later in Asia. However, by 2007 a major shift in its infection pattern was noticed and thousands of human infections were reported in the State of Yap and Federated States of Micronesia. In the last 3 years, major outbreaks have continued to occur and the virus has spread to several Pacific and American countries. These outbreaks were mostly asymptomatic; however, there were more severe clinical signs associated with the infections. Those signs included microcephaly and Guillain–Barre syndrome. It is believed that various species of mosquitoes can biologically transmit the virus. However, Aedes aegypti is most widely associated with the Zika virus. Recently, new modes of virus transmission have been reported, including mother-to-fetus, sexual, blood transfusion, animal bites, laboratory exposure and breast milk. Differential diagnosis is very important as some other arboviruses such as yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, dengue virus, and chikungunya virus have similar clinical manifestations to the Zika virus infection as well as relating serologically to some of these viruses. Established laboratory diagnostic tests to detect the Zika virus are limited, with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction being the most widely used test. Taking into consideration the quickness of the spread of infection, size of the infected population and change of the infection severity pattern, the Zika virus infection merits collective efforts on all levels to prevent and control the disease. Limited research work and data, concurrent infection with other arboviruses, involvement of biological vectors, mass crowd events, human and trade movements and lack of vaccines are some of the challenges that we face in our efforts to prevent and

  2. A CoGeNT confirmation of the DAMA signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foot, R.

    2010-01-01

    The CoGeNT Collaboration has recently reported a rising low energy spectrum in their ultra low noise Germanium detector. This is particularly interesting as the energy range probed by CoGeNT overlaps with the energy region in which DAMA has observed their annual modulation signal. We show that the mirror dark matter candidate can simultaneously explain both the DAMA annual modulation signal and the rising low energy spectrum observed by CoGeNT. This constitutes a model dependent confirmation of the DAMA signal and adds weight to the mirror dark matter paradigm.

  3. U.S. Senate confirms new USGS director

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Shortly before adjourning in October, the U.S. Senate confirmed Charles Groat as the new director of the U.S. Geological Survey. Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt is expected to swear him in shortly as the agency's 13th director. Groat takes over from Thomas Casadevall, who has served as acting director since Gordon Eaton resigned in September 1997.Groat, an AGU member, has more than 25 years of experience in the Earth science fields, including energy and minerals resource assessment, groundwater occurrence and protection, geomorphic processes and landform evolution in desert areas, and coastal studies.

  4. [First confirmed case of laryngeal diphtheria in Djibouti].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeck, J L; Merle, C; Bimet, F; Kiredjian, M; Goullin, B; Teyssou, R

    2000-01-01

    The first bacteriologically confirmed case of laryngeal diphtheria in Djibouti was reported in 1998. It involved a three-year-old native-born infant who had been vaccinated during the first year of life with three doses of a combined vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, and pertussis. A rapid clinical improvement was observed under erythromycin treatment. Other cases of laryngeal diphtheria have been observed. It is important to reverse decreasing vaccinal coverage in Djibouti and to warn incoming travelers of the need to be adequate immunized against diphtheria. Enhanced epidemiologic surveillance of this disease is also needed.

  5. Analytical approach for confirming the achievement of LMFBR reliability goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingram, G.E.; Elerath, J.G.; Wood, A.P.

    1981-01-01

    The approach, recommended by GE-ARSD, for confirming the achievement of LMFBR reliability goals relies upon a comprehensive understanding of the physical and operational characteristics of the system and the environments to which the system will be subjected during its operational life. This kind of understanding is required for an approach based on system hardware testing or analyses, as recommended in this report. However, for a system as complex and expensive as the LMFBR, an approach which relies primarily on system hardware testing would be prohibitive both in cost and time to obtain the required system reliability test information. By using an analytical approach, results of tests (reliability and functional) at a low level within the specific system of interest, as well as results from other similar systems can be used to form the data base for confirming the achievement of the system reliability goals. This data, along with information relating to the design characteristics and operating environments of the specific system, will be used in the assessment of the system's reliability

  6. Use of urinary pregnanediol 3-glucuronide to confirm ovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecochard, R; Leiva, R; Bouchard, T; Boehringer, H; Direito, A; Mariani, A; Fehring, R

    2013-10-01

    Urinary hormonal markers may assist in increasing the efficacy of Fertility Awareness Based Methods (FABM). This study uses urinary pregnanediol-3a-glucuronide (PDG) testing to more accurately identify the infertile phase of the menstrual cycle in the setting of FABM. Secondary analysis of an observational and simulation study, multicentre, European study. The study includes 107 women and tracks daily first morning urine (FMU), observed the changes in cervical mucus discharge, and ultrasonography to identify the day of ovulation over 326 menstrual cycles. The following three scenarios were tested: (A) use of the daily pregnandiol-3a-glucuronide (PDG) test alone; (B) use of the PDG test after the first positive urine luteinizing hormone (LH) kit result; (C) use of the PDG test after the disappearance of fertile type mucus. Two models were used: (1) one day of PDG positivity; or (2) waiting for three days of PDG positivity before declaring infertility. After the first positivity of a LH test or the end of fertile mucus, three consecutive days of PDG testing over a threshold of 5μg/mL resulted in a 100% specificity for ovulation confirmation. They were respectively associated an identification of an average of 6.1 and 7.6 recognized infertile days. The results demonstrate a clinical scenario with 100% specificity for ovulation confirmation and provide the theoretical background for a future development of a competitive lateral flow assay for the detection of PDG in the urine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Isotopic Generation and Confirmation of the PWR Application Model?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L.B. Wimmer

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this calculation is to establish an isotopic database to represent commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) from pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in criticality analyses performed for the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Confirmation of the conservatism with respect to criticality in the isotopic concentration values represented by this isotopic database is performed as described in Section 3.5.3.1.2 of the ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2000). The isotopic database consists of the set of 14 actinides and 15 fission products presented in Section 3.5.2.1.1 of YMP 2000 for use in CSNF burnup credit. This set of 29 isotopes is referred to as the principal isotopes. The oxygen isotope from the UO 2 fuel is also included in the database. The isotopic database covers enrichments of 235 U ranging from 1.5 to 5.5 weight percent (wt%) and burnups ranging from approximately zero to 75 GWd per metric ton of uranium (mtU). The choice of fuel assembly and operating history values used in generating the isotopic database are provided is Section 5. Tables of isotopic concentrations for the 29 principal isotopes (plus oxygen) as a function of enrichment and burnup are provided in Section 6.1. Results of the confirmation of the conservatism with respect to criticality in the isotopic concentration values are provided in Section 6.2

  8. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a rare and deadly disease ...

  9. Hepatitis virus panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  10. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix. PMID:24281093

  11. Zika virus disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May 2015, the virus was discovered for the first time in Brazil. It has now spread to many territories, states, and countries in: Caribbean Islands Central America Mexico South America Pacific Islands Africa The virus ...

  12. Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Credit: CDC This is the ... the United States. Why Is the Study of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) a Priority for NIAID? In ...

  13. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    RSV; Palivizumab; Respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin; Bronchiolitis - RSV ... Crowe JE. Respiratory syncytial virus. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ...

  14. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix

  15. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, James S., E-mail: james.lawson@unsw.edu.au; Heng, Benjamin [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-04-30

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.

  16. Zika Virus - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Zika Virus URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Zika Virus - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  17. VIRUS FAMILIES – contd

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. VIRUS FAMILIES – contd. Minus strand RNA viruses. Rhabdovirus e.g. rabies. Paramyxovirus e.g. measles, mumps. Orthomyxovirus e.g. influenza. Retroviruses. RSV, HTLV, MMTV, HIV. Notes:

  18. Human Parainfluenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... CDC.gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) commonly cause respiratory illnesses in ...

  19. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy ...

  20. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ...

  1. Visualization of the African swine fever virus infection in living cells by incorporation into the virus particle of green fluorescent protein-p54 membrane protein chimera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernaez, Bruno; Escribano, Jose M.; Alonso, Covadonga

    2006-01-01

    Many stages of African swine fever virus infection have not yet been studied in detail. To track the behavior of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in the infected cells in real time, we produced an infectious recombinant ASFV (B54GFP-2) that expresses and incorporates into the virus particle a chimera of the p54 envelope protein fused to the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The incorporation of the fusion protein into the virus particle was confirmed immunologically and it was determined that p54-EGFP was fully functional by confirmation that the recombinant virus made normal-sized plaques and presented similar growth curves to the wild-type virus. The tagged virus was visualized as individual fluorescent particles during the first stages of infection and allowed to visualize the infection progression in living cells through the viral life cycle by confocal microscopy. In this work, diverse potential applications of B54GFP-2 to study different aspects of ASFV infection are shown. By using this recombinant virus it was possible to determine the trajectory and speed of intracellular virus movement. Additionally, we have been able to visualize for first time the ASFV factory formation dynamics and the cytophatic effect of the virus in live infected cells. Finally, we have analyzed virus progression along the infection cycle and infected cell death as time-lapse animations

  2. Contemporary North American influenza H7 viruses possess human receptor specificity: Implications for virus transmissibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belser, Jessica A; Blixt, Ola; Chen, Li-Mei

    2008-01-01

    Avian H7 influenza viruses from both the Eurasian and North American lineage have caused outbreaks in poultry since 2002, with confirmed human infection occurring during outbreaks in The Netherlands, British Columbia, and the United Kingdom. The majority of H7 infections have resulted in self-lim...

  3. What's West Nile Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth / For Kids / What's West Nile Virus? Print en español ¿Qué es el Virus del Nilo Occidental? What exactly is the West ...

  4. Characteristic of pandemic virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Characteristic of pandemic virus. The virus was highly transmissible. Risk of hospitalization was 2X and risk of death was about 11X more in comparison to seasonal influenza. Virus continues to be susceptible to Osaltamivir, the only drug available. Vaccines are available but ...

  5. Zika Virus Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is caused by a virus transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes. People with Zika virus disease can have symptoms including mild fever, skin ... framework. Q&A: Zika virus and complication ... mosquito from the Aedes genus, mainly Aedes aegypti in tropical regions. Aedes ...

  6. The Influence of Confirmation Bias on Memory and Source Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Peter; Casey, Bridgette; Griffin, Kaydee; Raymundo, Luis; Farrell, Christopher; Carrigan, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine whether recognition memory for information and/or its source are influenced by confirmation bias. During Phase 1, subjects were shown a summary about the issue of gun control and asked to indicate a position on the issue. During Phase 2, 12 abstracts (Experiment 1) or social media posts (Experiment 2) were shown, one at a time. Posts in Experiment 2 were associated with either friends or strangers. Participants indicated whether they wanted to read a more extensive version of each abstract (Experiment 1) or post (Experiment 2). Phase 3 was the memory phase. Thirty-two abstract titles (Experiment 1) or posts (Experiment 2) were shown one at a time. Participants indicated yes or no, and whether they recognized the titles/posts from the last phase. Recognition memory for information that supported the participants' viewpoint was higher than that for opposing information.

  7. Experimenter Confirmation Bias and the Correction of Science Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael; Coole, Hilary

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes a randomised educational experiment ( n = 47) that examined two different teaching methods and compared their effectiveness at correcting one science misconception using a sample of trainee primary school teachers. The treatment was designed to promote engagement with the scientific concept by eliciting emotional responses from learners that were triggered by their own confirmation biases. The treatment group showed superior learning gains to control at post-test immediately after the lesson, although benefits had dissipated after 6 weeks. Findings are discussed with reference to the conceptual change paradigm and to the importance of feeling emotion during a learning experience, having implications for the teaching of pedagogies to adults that have been previously shown to be successful with children.

  8. Confirmation of RAX gene involvement in human anophthalmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequeux, L; Rio, M; Vigouroux, A; Titeux, M; Etchevers, H; Malecaze, F; Chassaing, N; Calvas, P

    2008-10-01

    Microphthalmia and anophthalmia are at the severe end of the spectrum of abnormalities in ocular development. Mutations in several genes have been involved in syndromic and non-syndromic anophthalmia. Previously, RAX recessive mutations were implicated in a single patient with right anophthalmia, left microphthalmia and sclerocornea. In this study, we report the findings of novel compound heterozygous RAX mutations in a child with bilateral anophthalmia. Both mutations are located in exon 3. c.664delT is a frameshifting deletion predicted to introduce a premature stop codon (p.Ser222ArgfsX62), and c.909C>G is a nonsense mutation with similar consequences (p.Tyr303X). This is the second report of a patient with anophthalmia caused by RAX mutations. These findings confirm that RAX plays a major role in the early stages of eye development and is involved in human anophthalmia.

  9. Federal Court of Administration confirms preclusion of objections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    1. The preclusion established as a rule of law in sub-section 1 of sect. 3 of the Ordinance concerning the Procedure for Licensing Nuclear Installations is not only applicable to administrative proceedings, but also to administrative court proceedings. 2. In an advanced process situation, the preclusion rule of sub-section 1 of sect. 3 of the Ordinance concerning the Procedure for Licensing Nuclear Installations is applicable, this does not constitute a violation of the principle of having 'fair' proceedings. 3. Objections as defined by the above-mentioned regulation have to be presented with reference to the project and within the period allowed, during the licensing procedure concerning the project. The Federal Court of Administration has confirmed the preclusion of objections. The court dismissed the complainant's appeal against the non-admission of appeal ruled in the decision of the Administrative Court of Baden-Wuerttemberg of Nov. 7, 1980. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Model-independent confirmation of the $Z(4430)^-$ state

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Bauer, Thomas; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; van den Brand, Johannes; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Busetto, Giovanni; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carranza-Mejia, Hector; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Giani', Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gordon, Hamish; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; Hartmann, Thomas; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jezabek, Marek; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kaballo, Michael; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanciotti, Elisa; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Guoming; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manzali, Matteo; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Moran, Dermot; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Muresan, Raluca; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pazos Alvarez, Antonio; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perez Trigo, Eliseo; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Powell, Andrew; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Alexander; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Roa Romero, Diego; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruffini, Fabrizio; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Sabatino, Giovanni; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sapunov, Matvey; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Savrie, Mauro; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Seco, Marcos; Semennikov, Alexander; Senderowska, Katarzyna; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spinella, Franco; Spradlin, Patrick; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szilard, Daniela; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; Voss, Helge; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wu, Suzhi; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The decay $B^0\\to \\psi(2S) K^+\\pi^-$ is analyzed using $\\rm 3~fb^{-1}$ of $pp$ collision data collected with the LHCb detector. A model-independent description of the $\\psi(2S) \\pi$ mass spectrum is obtained, using as input the $K\\pi$ mass spectrum and angular distribution derived directly from data, without requiring a theoretical description of resonance shapes or their interference. The hypothesis that the $\\psi(2S)\\pi$ mass spectrum can be described in terms of $K\\pi$ reflections alone is rejected with more than 8$\\sigma$ significance. This provides confirmation, in a model-independent way, of the need for an additional resonant component in the mass region of the $Z(4430)^-$ exotic state.

  11. Improved statistical confirmation of margins for setpoints and transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutt, W.T.

    2001-01-01

    Framatome ANP Richland, Inc. has developed an integrated, automated, statistical methodology for Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). Margins for transients and calculated trips are confirmed using several new applications of probability theory. The methods used for combining statistics reduces the conservatisms inherent in conventional methods and avoids the numerical limitations and time constraints imposed by Monte Carlo techniques. The new methodology represents the state of the art in the treatment of uncertainties for reactor protection systems. It all but eliminates concerns with the calculated trips for PWRs and by improving the margin for all transients will allow for far more aggressive peaking limits and fuel management schemes. The automated nature of the bulk of this process saves Framatome ANP time and effort, minimizes the potential for errors and makes the analysis for all cycles and plants consistent. The enhanced margins remove analytical limitations from the customer and allow for more economical operation of the plant. (authors)

  12. Objective confirmation of asthma diagnosis improves medication adherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer, V; Stensen, L; Sverrild, A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The impact of diagnostic work-up in asthma management on medication redemption and probably also drug adherence is largely unknown, but we hypothesized that a confirmed diagnosis of asthma in a hospital-based out-patient clinic increases the willingness to subsequent medication...... redemption in a real life setting. METHODS: In a retrospective register-based study, 300 medical records of patients referred with possible asthma during one year were examined, of whom 171 had asthma (57%). One-year data on dispensed medicine was collected using the Danish Registry of Medicinal Product...... more frequently prescribed new therapy compared to those with unverified asthma (88.9% vs. 65.0%, respectively, p time redemption of prescriptions (72% vs. 64%, respectively, p = 0.3), whereas the second (52% vs. 27%, p = 0.001) and third or more asthma...

  13. The first confirmed case of Diphyllobothrium latum in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLN Santos

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Diphyllobothriasis is an infection of the small intestine by the broad tapeworm Diphyllobothrium sp. The associated symptomatology is nonspecific, but megaloblastic anemia is a well-described complication. Although the infection is common in temperate regions, descriptions in South America have so far been limited to Chile, Peru, and a few cases in Argentina. This paper presents the first confirmed Brazilian case of diphyllobothriasis. A 29-years-old woman living in Salvador (state of Bahia apparently acquired the infection from eating sushi. The diagnosis was based on fecal examination that revealed a large quantity of operculated eggs. A single dose of praziquantel (600 mg was sufficient to cure the infection.

  14. Confirmation test on confinement performance of improved glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, S.; Kanazawa, J.; Nakajima, M.; Sakuno, K.; Miyata, H.

    1995-01-01

    Glove boxes are used at nuclear facilities to confine radioactive materials by ensuring a high level of airtightness and negative internal pressure. The allowable rate of air leakage is 0.1% vol/hr or less at the pre-service inspection. The negative pressure value is normally maintained at about -30 mm H 2 O. Structural strength and confinement reliability of glove boxes during earthquake are major concerns, and most important glove boxes are designed to withstand seismic class A events is Japan. This paper describes vibration tests done to confirm that improve large-sized glove boxes maintain their confinement performance and structural strength even during earthquake and that the design analysis methods used are appropriate. (author). 1 ref., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  15. BUSTED BUTTE TEST FACILITY GROUND SUPPORT CONFIRMATION ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonabian, S.

    1998-01-01

    The main purpose and objective of this analysis is to confirm the validity of the ground support design for Busted Butte Test Facility (BBTF). The highwall stability and adequacy of highwall and tunnel ground support is addressed in this analysis. The design of the BBTF including the ground support system was performed in a separate document (Reference 5.3). Both in situ and seismic loads are considered in the evaluation of the highwall and the tunnel ground support system. In this analysis only the ground support designed in Reference 5.3 is addressed. The additional ground support installed (still work in progress) by the constructor is not addressed in this analysis. This additional ground support was evaluated by the A/E during a site visit and its findings and recommendations are addressed in this analysis

  16. Clinical epidemiological and echographic characterization of patients with confirmed dengue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Lopez, Jose Angel

    2010-01-01

    A descriptive and cross-sectional study of 902 patients with confirmed diagnosis of dengue and admitted at the 'Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso' General Hospital was carried out in Santiago de Cuba, from April to October, 2006, in order to characterize them from the clinical, epidemiological and echographic point of view. Women belonging to the 36-45 year-old group were the most affected and the abdominal pain constituted the main clinical symptom of alarm in all those affected. The echographic findings took place between the fourth and sixth days of clinical course, mainly in men, and the onset of the perivesicular edema was very early in this stage, with primacy in women. The patients with cholecystectomy presented fluid infiltration in the vesicular channel, while the loops of bowel were observed loosened and their walls were edematous

  17. The French methodology for EBS confirmation and demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plas, F.; Voinis, S.; Mayer, S.

    2007-01-01

    The December 30, 1991 French Waste Act entrusted ANDRA, the French national agency for radioactive waste management, with the task of assessing the feasibility of deep geological disposal of high- and medium-level long-lived waste (HLW and ILW, respectively C-waste and B-waste types in French) plus spent fuel (CU in French). In that context, the 'Dossier 2005 Argile' submitted by ANDRA presents the feasibility assessment - with regard to the technical capacity to accommodate all wastes, to reversibility, and to safety - of a radioactive waste disposal in a clay formation studied at the Meuse/Haute-Marne URL. This report was built upon an iterative approach between site characterisation, design, modelling, phenomenological analysis and safety analysis, in which two principles always guided the elaboration of the safety case: the principle of robustness - repository components must maintain their functionality given reasonable solicitations, taking into account uncertainties on the nature and level of these solicitations; and the principle of demonstrability - safety must be verified without requiring complex demonstrations, and based on multiple lines of evidence/argument (numerical simulation, qualitative arguments such as use of natural analogues, experiments and technological demonstrators). In that respect, the EBS definition, demonstration and confirmation of design is a part of the overall safety case. The 'Dossier 2005 Argile' was submitted to three independent peer reviews. The aim. of this article is to present the methodology that ANDRA implemented in the context of 'Dossier 2005 Argile' for defining, demonstrating and confirming the EBS design as well as the future programme with respect with the new Act of 28 June 2006. (author)

  18. XX males SRY negative: a confirmed cause of infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetro, Annalisa; Ciccone, Roberto; Giorda, Roberto; Patricelli, Maria Grazia; Della Mina, Erika; Forlino, Antonella; Zuffardi, Orsetta

    2011-10-01

    SOX9 is a widely expressed transcription factor playing several relevant functions during development and essential for testes differentiation. It is considered to be the direct target gene of the protein encoded by SRY and its overexpression in an XX murine gonad can lead to male development in the absence of Sry. Recently, a family was reported with a 178 kb duplication in the gene desert region ending about 500 kb upstream of SOX9 in which 46,XY duplicated persons were completely normal and fertile whereas the 46,XX ones were males who came to clinical attention because of infertility. We report a family with two azoospermic brothers, both 46,XX, SRY negative, having a 96 kb triplication 500 kb upstream of SOX9. Both subjects have been analyzed trough oligonucleotide array-CGH and the triplication was confirmed and characterised through qPCR, defining the minimal region of amplification upstream of SOX9 associated with 46,XX infertile males, SRY negative. Our results confirm that even in absence of SRY, complete male differentiation may occur, possibly driven by overexpression of SOX9 in the gonadal ridge, as a consequence of the amplification of a gene desert region. We hypothesize that this region contains gonadal specific long-range regulation elements whose alteration may impair the normal sex development. Our data show that normal XX males, with alteration in copy number or, possibly, in the critical sequence upstream to SOX9 are a new category of infertility inherited in a dominant way with expression limited to the XX background.

  19. Neuroimaging findings in children with retinopathy-confirmed cerebral malaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potchen, Michael J. [Michigan State University, Department of Radiology, 184 Radiology Building, East Lansing, MI 48824-1303 (United States)], E-mail: mjp@rad.msu.edu; Birbeck, Gretchen L. [Michigan State University, International Neurologic and Psychiatric Epidemiology Program, 324 West Fee Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)], E-mail: Gretchen.Birbeck@ht.msu.edu; DeMarco, J. Kevin [Michigan State University, Department of Radiology, 184 Radiology Building, East Lansing, MI 48824-1303 (United States)], E-mail: jkd@rad.msu.edu; Kampondeni, Sam D. [University of Malawi, Department of Radiology, Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre (Malawi)], E-mail: kamponde@msu.edu; Beare, Nicholas [St. Paul' s Eye Unit, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Prescot Street, Liverpool L7 8XP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: nbeare@btinternet.com; Molyneux, Malcolm E. [Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme, College of Medicine (Malawi); School of Tropical Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom)], E-mail: mmolyneux999@google.com; Taylor, Terrie E. [Michigan State University, College of Osteopathic Medicine, B309-B West Fee Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); University of Malawi, College of Medicine, Blantyre Malaria Project, Blantyre (Malawi)], E-mail: taylort@msu.edu

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To describe brain CT findings in retinopathy-confirmed, paediatric cerebral malaria. Materials and methods: In this outcomes study of paediatric cerebral malaria, a subset of children with protracted coma during initial presentation was scanned acutely. Survivors experiencing adverse neurological outcomes also underwent a head CT. All children had ophthalmological examination to confirm the presence of the retinopathy specific for cerebral malaria. Independent interpretation of CT images was provided by two neuroradiologists. Results: Acute brain CT findings in three children included diffuse oedema with obstructive hydrocephalus (2), acute cerebral infarctions in multiple large vessel distributions with secondary oedema and herniation (1), and oedema of thalamic grey matter (1). One child who was reportedly normal prior to admission had parenchymal atrophy suggestive of pre-existing CNS injury. Among 56 survivors (9-84 months old), 15 had adverse neurologic outcomes-11/15 had a follow-up head CT, 3/15 died and 1/15 refused CT. Follow-up head CTs obtained 7-18 months after the acute infection revealed focal and multifocal lobar atrophy correlating to regions affected by focal seizures during the acute infection (5/11). Other findings were communicating hydrocephalus (2/11), vermian atrophy (1/11) and normal studies (3/11). Conclusions: The identification of pre-existing imaging abnormalities in acute cerebral malaria suggests that population-based studies are required to establish the rate and nature of incidental imaging abnormalities in Malawi. Children with focal seizures during acute cerebral malaria developed focal cortical atrophy in these regions at follow-up. Longitudinal studies are needed to further elucidate mechanisms of CNS injury and death in this common fatal disease.

  20. Neuroimaging findings in children with retinopathy-confirmed cerebral malaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potchen, Michael J.; Birbeck, Gretchen L.; DeMarco, J. Kevin; Kampondeni, Sam D.; Beare, Nicholas; Molyneux, Malcolm E.; Taylor, Terrie E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To describe brain CT findings in retinopathy-confirmed, paediatric cerebral malaria. Materials and methods: In this outcomes study of paediatric cerebral malaria, a subset of children with protracted coma during initial presentation was scanned acutely. Survivors experiencing adverse neurological outcomes also underwent a head CT. All children had ophthalmological examination to confirm the presence of the retinopathy specific for cerebral malaria. Independent interpretation of CT images was provided by two neuroradiologists. Results: Acute brain CT findings in three children included diffuse oedema with obstructive hydrocephalus (2), acute cerebral infarctions in multiple large vessel distributions with secondary oedema and herniation (1), and oedema of thalamic grey matter (1). One child who was reportedly normal prior to admission had parenchymal atrophy suggestive of pre-existing CNS injury. Among 56 survivors (9-84 months old), 15 had adverse neurologic outcomes-11/15 had a follow-up head CT, 3/15 died and 1/15 refused CT. Follow-up head CTs obtained 7-18 months after the acute infection revealed focal and multifocal lobar atrophy correlating to regions affected by focal seizures during the acute infection (5/11). Other findings were communicating hydrocephalus (2/11), vermian atrophy (1/11) and normal studies (3/11). Conclusions: The identification of pre-existing imaging abnormalities in acute cerebral malaria suggests that population-based studies are required to establish the rate and nature of incidental imaging abnormalities in Malawi. Children with focal seizures during acute cerebral malaria developed focal cortical atrophy in these regions at follow-up. Longitudinal studies are needed to further elucidate mechanisms of CNS injury and death in this common fatal disease.

  1. Confirmation of identity and detection limit in neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yustina Tri Handayani; Slamet Wiyuniati; Tulisna

    2010-01-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) based on neutron capture by nuclides. Of the various possibilities of radionuclides that occur, radionuclides and gamma radiation which provides the identity of the element were analyzed and the best sensitivity should be determined. Confirmation for elements in sediment samples was done theoretically and experimentally. The result of confirmation shows that Al, V, Cr K, Na, Ca and Zn were analyzed based on radionuclides of Al-28, V-52, Cr-51 , K-42, Na-24, Ca-48, Zn-65. Elements of Mg, Mn, Fe, Co were analyzed based on radionuclides of Mg-27, Mn-56, Fe-59, Co-60 through peak which the highest value of combined probability of radiation emission and efficiency. Cu can be analyzed through Cu-64 or Cu-66, but the second is more sensitive. Detection limit is determined at a certain measurement conditions carried out by a laboratory. Detection limit in the NAA is determined based on the Compton continue area by Curie method. The detection limit of Al, V, Ca, Mg, Mn, As, K, Na, Mg, Ce, Co, Cr, Fe, La, Sc, and Zn in sediment samples are 240, 27, 4750, 2600, 21, 3.3 , 75, 1.4, 1.8, 0.5, 2.7, 29, 1, 0.05, and 37 ppm. Analysis of Cu in sediments which concentrations of 98.6 ppm, Cu-66 is not detected. Tests using pure standard solutions of Cu obtained detection limit of 0.12 µg, or 7.9 ppm in samples of 15 mg. In general, the detection limit obtained was higher than the detection limit of the reference, it was caused by the differences in the sample matrix and analytical conditions. (author)

  2. Inactivation of Zika virus in human breast milk by prolonged storage or pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaender, Stephanie; Vielle, Nathalie J; Ebert, Nadine; Steinmann, Eike; Alves, Marco P; Thiel, Volker

    2017-01-15

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy poses a serious risk for pregnant women as it can cause severe birth defects. Even though the virus is mainly transmitted via mosquitos, human-to-human transmission has been described. Infectious viral particles have been detected in breast milk of infected women which raised concerns regarding the safety of breastfeeding in areas of Zika virus transmission or in case of a suspected or confirmed Zika virus infection. In this study, we show that Zika virus is effectively inactivated in human breast milk after prolonged storage or upon pasteurization of milk. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)-Virus Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    At least six viruses have been found in highbush blueberry plantings in the Pacific Northwest: Blueberry mosaic virus, Blueberry red ringspot virus, Blueberry scorch virus, Blueberry shock virus, Tobacco ringspot virus, and Tomato ringspot virus. Six other virus and virus-like diseases of highbush b...

  4. Vectors expressing chimeric Japanese encephalitis dengue 2 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y; Wang, S; Wang, X

    2014-01-01

    Vectors based on self-replicating RNAs (replicons) of flaviviruses are becoming powerful tool for expression of heterologous genes in mammalian cells and development of novel antiviral and anticancer vaccines. We constructed two vectors expressing chimeric viruses consisting of attenuated SA14-14-2 strain of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in which the PrM/M-E genes were replaced fully or partially with those of dengue 2 virus (DENV-2). These vectors, named pJED2 and pJED2-1770 were transfected to BHK-21 cells and produced chimeric viruses JED2V and JED2-1770V, respectively. The chimeric viruses could be passaged in C6/36 but not BHK-21 cells. The chimeric viruses produced in C6/36 cells CPE 4-5 days after infection and RT-PCR, sequencing, immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and Western blot analysis confirmed the chimeric nature of produced viruses. The immunogenicity of chimeric viruses in mice was proved by detecting DENV-2 E protein-specific serum IgG antibodies with neutralization titer of 10. Successful preparation of infectious clones of chimeric JEV-DENV-2 viruses showed that JEV-based expression vectors are fully functional.

  5. Bluetongue virus in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hage, J; Lorusso, A; Carmine, I; Di Gennaro, A; Portanti, O; Olivieri, S; Casaccia, C; Pisciella, M; Teodori, L; Sghaier, S; Savini, G

    2013-10-01

    Since 2000, several incursions of bluetongue virus (BTV) occurred in the Mediterranean Basin involving European and surrounding Countries. The Middle East represents one of the most important gateways for the access of BTV in Europe. Limited data on the BTV situation in this area are available. In this perspective, an epidemiological survey on the presence of BTV in Lebanon was conducted. Of the 181 serum samples tested, 97 (mean = 53.6%; 95% CI: 46.3-60.7) resulted positive when tested for the presence of BTV antibodies by c-ELISA, of these 42 (mean = 42%; 95% CI: 32.8-51.8) serum samples were from sheep and 55 (mean = 67.9%; 95% CI: 57.1-77.1) serum samples were from goats. Fourteen blood samples (14/110; mean = 12.7%; 95% CI: 7.8-20.3), 6 (6/66; mean = 9.1%; 95% CI: 4.4-18.5) from sheep and 8 (8/44; mean = 18.2%; 95% CI: 9.6-32.0) from goats, were positive by qRT-PCR. The results with serum-neutralization assay and typing performed by RT-PCR confirmed that six BTV serotypes are currently circulating in Lebanon, and these serotypes are as follows: 1, 4, 6, 8, 16 and 24. This study is the first report that confirms the presence and circulation of BTV in Lebanon. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Viruses of asparagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassoli, Laura; Tiberini, Antonio; Vetten, Heinrich-Josef

    2012-01-01

    The current knowledge on viruses infecting asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is reviewed. Over half a century, nine virus species belonging to the genera Ilarvirus, Cucumovirus, Nepovirus, Tobamovirus, Potexvirus, and Potyvirus have been found in this crop. The potyvirus Asparagus virus 1 (AV1) and the ilarvirus Asparagus virus 2 (AV2) are widespread and negatively affect the economic life of asparagus crops reducing yield and increasing the susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stress. The main properties and epidemiology of AV1 and AV2 as well as diagnostic techniques for their detection and identification are described. Minor viruses and control are briefly outlined. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Understanding Ebola Virus Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Judson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus.

  8. Treatment of ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, Paul E; Grabenstein, John D; Salim, Abdulbaset M; Rybak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In March 2014, the largest Ebola outbreak in history exploded across West Africa. As of November 14, 2014, the World Health Organization has reported a total of 21,296 Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases, including 13,427 laboratory-confirmed EVD cases reported from the three most affected countries (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone). As the outbreak of EVD has spread, clinical disease severity and national EVD case-fatality rates have remained high (21.2-60.8%). Prior to 2013, several EVD outbreaks were controlled by using routine public health interventions; however, the widespread nature of the current EVD outbreak as well as cultural practices in the affected countries have challenged even the most active case identification efforts. In addition, although treatment centers provide supportive care, no effective therapeutic agents are available for EVD-endemic countries. The ongoing EVD outbreak has stimulated investigation of several different therapeutic strategies that target specific viral structures and mechanisms of Ebola viruses. Six to eight putative pharmacotherapies or immunologically based treatments have demonstrated promising results in animal studies. In addition, agents composed of small interfering RNAs targeting specific proteins of Ebola viruses, traditional hyperimmune globulin isolated from Ebola animal models, monoclonal antibodies, and morpholino oligomers (small molecules used to block viral gene expression). A number of EVD therapeutic agents are now entering accelerated human trials in EVD-endemic countries. The goal of therapeutic agent development includes postexposure prevention and EVD cure. As knowledge of Ebola virus virology and pathogenesis grows, it is likely that new therapeutic tools will be developed. Deployment of novel Ebola therapies will require unprecedented cooperation as well as investment to ensure that therapeutic tools become available to populations at greatest risk for EVD and its complications. In this article, we

  9. Impact of Drill and Blast Excavation on Repository Performance Confirmation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, R.; Francis, N.; Houseworth, J.; Kramer, N.

    2000-01-01

    There has been considerable work accomplished internationally examining the effects of drill and blast excavation on rock masses surrounding emplacement openings of proposed nuclear waste repositories. However, there has been limited discussion tying the previous work to performance confirmation models such as those proposed for Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This paper addresses a possible approach to joining the available information on drill and blast excavation and performance confirmation. The method for coupling rock damage data from drill and blast models to performance assessment models for fracture flow requires a correlation representing the functional relationship between the peak particle velocity (PPV) vibration levels and the potential properties that govern water flow rates in the host rock. Fracture aperture and frequency are the rock properties which may be most influenced by drill and blast induced vibration. If it can be shown (using an appropriate blasting model simulation) that the effect of blasting is far removed from the waste package in an emplacement drift, then disturbance to the host rock induced in the process of drill and blast excavation may be reasonably ignored in performance assessment calculations. This paper proposes that the CANMET (Canada Center for Mineral and Energy Technology) Criterion, based on properties that determine rock strength, may be used to define a minimum PPV. This PPV can be used to delineate the extent of blast induced damage. Initial applications have demonstrated that blasting models can successfully be coupled with this criterion to predict blast damage surrounding underground openings. The Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain has used a blasting model to generate meaningful estimates of near-field vibration levels and damage envelopes correlating to data collected from pre-existing studies conducted. Further work is underway to expand this application over a statistical distribution of geologic

  10. Managing a duopolistic water market with confirmed proposals. An experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Gallego, Aurora

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We report results from experimental water markets in which owners of two different sources of water supply water to households and farmers. The final water quality consumed by each type of consumer is determined through mixing of qualities from two different resources. We compare the standard duopolistic market structure with an alternative market clearing mechanism inspired by games with confirmed strategies (which have been shown to yield collusive outcomes. As in the static case, complex dynamic markets operating under a confirmed proposals protocol yield less efficient outcomes because coordination among independent suppliers has the usual effects of restricting output and increasing prices to the users. Our results suggest that, when market mechanisms are used to allocate water to its users, the rule of thumb used by competition authorities can also serve as a guide towards water market regulation.

    Se presentan resultados de un experimento con mercados acuíferos en el que los propietarios de agua de distinta calidad la ofrecen a hogares y agricultores. La calidad finalmente consumida por cada tipo de consumidor se determina a partir de una mezcla de las dos calidades. Se compara el duopolio estándar con una forma alternativa de cerrar el mercado que está inspirada en los juegos con propuestas confirmadas, que consiguen resultados relativamente más colusivos. Como en el caso estático, los mercados dinámicos y complejos que operan bajo un protocolo de propuestas confirmadas son menos eficientes porque la coordinación entre oferentes independientes tiene los efectos de restringir el output y de provocar un crecimiento de los precios. Nuestros resultados sugieren que cuando los mecanismos de mercado se utilizan para distribuir el agua a sus usuarios, la regla utilizada por parte de las autoridades de la competencia puede servir también como guía para la regulación de los mercados acuíferos.

  11. Protoplasts and plant viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakishi, H.; Lesney, M.S.; Carlson, P.

    1984-01-01

    The use of protoplasts in the study of plant viruses has attracted considerable attention since its inception in the late 1960s. This article is an attempt to assess the current status of protoplasts (primarily) and all cell cultures (in some instances) in studies of virus infection, virus replication, cytopathology, cross-protection, virus resistance, and the use of in vitro methods and genetic engineering to recover virus-resistant plants. These areas of study proved difficult to do entirely with whole plants or plant parts. However, because protoplasts could be synchronously infected with virus, they provided a valuable alternative means of following biochemical and cytological events in relation to the virus growth cycle in a more precise manner than previously possible

  12. Detection of dengue virus type 4 in Easter Island, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, J; Vera, L; Tognarelli, J; Fasce, R; Araya, P; Villagra, E; Roos, O; Mora, J

    2011-10-01

    We report the detection of dengue virus type 4 (DENV-4) for the first time in Easter Island, Chile. The virus was detected in serum samples of two patients treated at the Hospital in Easter Island. The two samples were IgM positive, and the infection was confirmed by RT-PCR and genetic sequencing; viral isolation was possible with one of them. The Easter Island isolates were most closely related to genotype II of dengue type 4.

  13. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Danish sheep: confirmation by DNA sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamsborg Stig M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an Ixodes ricinus transmitted bacterium, was investigated in two flocks of Danish grazing lambs. Direct PCR detection was performed on DNA extracted from blood and serum with subsequent confirmation by DNA sequencing. Methods 31 samples obtained from clinically normal lambs in 2000 from Fussingø, Jutland and 12 samples from ten lambs and two ewes from a clinical outbreak at Feddet, Zealand in 2006 were included in the study. Some of the animals from Feddet had shown clinical signs of polyarthritis and general unthriftiness prior to sampling. DNA extraction was optimized from blood and serum and detection achieved by a 16S rRNA targeted PCR with verification of the product by DNA sequencing. Results Five DNA extracts were found positive by PCR, including two samples from 2000 and three from 2006. For both series of samples the product was verified as A. phagocytophilum by DNA sequencing. Conclusions A. phagocytophilum was detected by molecular methods for the first time in Danish grazing lambs during the two seasons investigated (2000 and 2006.

  14. [TECOS: confirmation of the cardiovascular safety of sitaliptin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, A J; Paquot, N

    2015-10-01

    The cardiovascular safety of sitagliptin has been evaluated in TECOS ("Trial Evaluating Cardiovascular Outcomes with Sitagliptin"). TECOS recruited patients with type 2 diabetes and a history of cardiovascular disease who received, as add-on to their usual therapy, either sitagliptin (n = 7.257) or placebo (n = 7.266), with a median follow-up of 3 years. The primary cardiovascular outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina. Sitagliptin was noninferior to placebo for the primary composite cardiovascular outcome (hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval, 0.88 to 1.09; P<0.001). Rates of hospitalization for heart failure did not differ between the two groups (hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.20; P=0.98). The cardiovascular safety of sitagliptin, which was already shown in meta-analyses of phase II-III randomised controlled trials and in observational cohort studies in real life, is now confirmed in the landmark prospective cardiovascular outcome study TECOS.

  15. Captopril suppression: limitations for confirmation of primary aldosteronism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, Christina; Bergenfelz, Anders; Isaksson, Anders; Valdemarsson, Stig

    2011-09-01

    The aldosterone/renin ratio (ARR) is the first line screening test for primary aldosteronism (PA). However, in hypertensive patients with an increased ARR, PA needs to be confirmed by other means. A 25 mg oral captopril test was performed in 16 healthy subjects to obtain reference values for aldosterone and ARR at 120 minutes after the test. Subsequently these data were applied to 46 hypertensive patients screened for PA with an increased ARR. At 120 minutes after the captopril test ARR decreased in healthy subjects within a narrow range, but remained high in patients with PA and in patients with primary hypertension, especially for those with low renin characteristics. At 120 minutes after captopril, the range of ARR in primary hypertensive patients overlapped in 88% of the cases with the range of the ARR in the PA patients. Sensitivity and specificity of basal ARR and ARR after the captopril test to diagnose PA, calculated as receiver operator characteristics, showed an area under the curve of 0.595 for basal ARR and 0.664 for ARR at 120 minutes after the test. The ARR at 120 minutes after the captopril test is only marginally better than basal ARR in diagnosing PA in hypertensive patients screened with an increased ARR. Owing to an overall limited capacity to clearly discriminate PA from primary hypertension, the test could not therefore be recommended for the confirmatory diagnosis of PA.

  16. Computer assisted radionuclide angiography to confirm reversible ischemic cerebral dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buell, U.; Lanksch, W.; Tosch, U.; Kleinhans, E.; Steinhoff, H.

    1982-01-01

    Computer assisted radionuclide angiography (CARNA) was employed in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) or prolonged reversible ischemic neurologic deficit (PRIND) to establish the sensitivity of CARNA in detecting and quantifying changes of cerebral perfusion in such selected patients. Moreover, results of CARNA were compared with findings of cranial radiographic angiography (RGA) to obtain data on combined sensitivities of these methods. CARNA may be the preferred noninvasive procedure employed because it detects and quantifies the vascular supply disorder in patients with TIA and PRIND. If no computer assistance is used to evaluate cranial radionuclide angiography, results are considerable less accurate. Specifity of CARNA is 84.6%. If CARNA is negative (25.2% in TIA; 12.7% in PRIND), a further method must be employed to confirm the cranial vascular origin of the attack. This may be RGA in TIA and transmission computed axial tomography (T-CAT) T-CAT in PRIND. This diagnos - tic sequence lead to 92.4% true positive in TIA and to 93.2% true positives in PRIND

  17. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: Review of 408 biopsy-confirmed cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhitong Zou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF has now been virtually eliminated by the discovery of its association with gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs and the consequent reduced use of GBCA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in severe renal failure patients. This review of 408 biopsy-confirmed cases shows how to minimize NSF risk when performing GBCA-enhanced MRI or magnetic resonance angiography. The absence of any NSF cases in patients less than 8 years old or greater than 87 years old suggests that infants and elderly patients are already protected. Limiting GBCA dose to a maximum of 0.1 mMol/kg, dialyzing dialysis patients quickly following GBCA administration, delaying administration of GBCA in acute renal failure until after renal function returns or dialysis is initiated, and avoiding nonionic linear GBCA in renal failure patients, especially when there are pro-inflammatory conditions, appear to have reduced NSF risk to the point where safe GBCA-enhanced MRI is possible in most patients.

  18. Revised associative inference paradigm confirms relational memory impairment in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Kristan; Williams, Lisa E; Heckers, Stephan

    2012-07-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have widespread cognitive impairments, with selective deficits in relational memory. We previously reported a differential relational memory deficit in schizophrenia using the Associative Inference Paradigm (AIP), a task suggested by the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) initiative to examine relational memory. However, the AIP had limited feasibility for testing in schizophrenia because of high attrition of schizophrenia patients during training. Here we developed and tested a revised version of the AIP to improve feasibility. 30 healthy control and 37 schizophrenia subjects received 3 study-test sessions on 3 sets of paired associates: H-F1 (house paired with face), H-F2 (same house paired with new face), and F3-F4 (two novel faces). After training, subjects were tested on the trained, noninferential Face-Face pairs (F3-F4) and novel, inferential Face-Face pairs (F1-F2), constructed from the faces of the trained House-Face pairs. Schizophrenia patients were significantly more impaired on the inferential F1-F2 pairs than the noninferential F3-F4 pairs, providing evidence for a differential relational memory deficit. Only 8% of schizophrenia patients were excluded from testing because of poor training performance. The revised AIP confirmed the previous finding of a relational memory deficit in a larger and more representative sample of schizophrenia patients.

  19. Confirming theoretical pay constructs of a variable pay scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibangilizwe Ncube

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Return on the investment in variable pay programmes remains controversial because their cost versus contribution cannot be empirically justified. Research purpose: This study validates the findings of the model developed by De Swardt on the factors related to successful variable pay programmes. Motivation for the study: Many organisations blindly implement variable pay programmes without any means to assess the impact these programmes have on the company’s performance. This study was necessary to validate the findings of an existing instrument that validates the contribution of variable pay schemes. Research design, approach and method: The study was conducted using quantitative research. A total of 300 completed questionnaires from a non-purposive sample of 3000 participants in schemes across all South African industries were returned and analysed. Main findings: Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, it was found that the validation instrument developed by De Swardt is still largely valid in evaluating variable pay schemes. The differences between the study and the model were reported. Practical/managerial implications: The study confirmed the robustness of an existing model that enables practitioners to empirically validate the use of variable pay plans. This model assists in the design and implementation of variable pay programmes that meet critical success factors. Contribution/value-add: The study contributed to the development of a measurement instrument that will assess whether a variable pay plan contributes to an organisation’s success.

  20. Patient with confirmed LEOPARD syndrome developing multiple melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmant, Caroline; Franck, Deborah; Marot, Liliane; Matthijs, Gert; Sznajer, Yves; Blomme, Sandrine; Tromme, Isabelle

    2018-01-01

    LEOPARD syndrome, also known as Gorlin syndrome II, cardiocutaneous syndrome, lentiginosis profusa syndrome, Moynahan syndrome, was more recently coined as Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML), inside the RASopathies. Historically, the acronym LEOPARD refers to the presence of distinctive clinical features such as: lentigines (L), electrocardiographic/conduction abnormalities (E), ocular hypertelorism (O), pulmonary stenosis (P), genital abnormalities (A), retardation of growth (R), and sensorineural deafness (D). This condition is identified in 85% of patients with phenotype hallmarks caused by presence a germline point mutation in PTPN11 gene. Association of melanoma to NSML seems to be rare: to our knowledge, two patients so far were reported in the literature. We herein present a patient diagnosed with LEOPARD syndrome, in whom molecular investigation confirmed the presence of the c.1403C>T mutation in exon 12 of the PTPN11 gene, who developed four superficial spreading melanomas and three atypical lentiginous hyperplasias. Three of the melanomas were achromic or hypochromic, three were in situ, and one had a Breslow index under 0.5 mm. Dermoscopic examination showed some characteristic white structures in most of the lesions, which were a signature pattern and a key for the diagnosis.

  1. Confirmation of a blocked amino terminus of sulfhydryl oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janolino, V.G.; Morrison-Rowe, S.J.; Swaisgood, H.E.

    1990-01-01

    The isolation of sulfhydryl oxidase from bovine milk in a suitably pure form for sequencing was carried out by transient covalent affinity chromatography of diafiltered whey using cysteinylsuccinamidopropyl-glass as matrix. The glutathione-eluted proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE. By radiolabeling the affinity chromatography-purified enzyme with [ 14 C]iodoacetate before subjecting to SDS-PAGE, the sulfhydryl oxidase band was identified, because sulfhydryl oxidase is known to be inactivated by alkylation of one sulfhydryl group per mole. The results confirmed that sulfhydryl oxidase corresponds to the 85 (± 5)-kDa band observed on SDS-PAGE. The protein band corresponding to radiolabeled sulfhydryl oxidase was recovered from SDS-PAGE gels by electrophoretic elution and by electroblotting on polyvinylidene difluoride membrane and subjected to gas phase sequencing. Precautions were taken during electrophoretic elution to prevent reactions that result in N-terminal blocking. Both methods of protein recovery yielded negative results when subjected to sequence analysis indicating that the N-terminus of sulfhydryl oxidase is blocked

  2. CONFIRMATION OF FAINT DWARF GALAXIES IN THE M81 GROUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiboucas, Kristin [Gemini Observatory, 670 North A' ohoku Pl, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Jacobs, Bradley A.; Tully, R. Brent [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96821 (United States); Karachentsev, Igor D., E-mail: kchibouc@gemini.edu, E-mail: bjacobs@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: tully@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: ikar@luna.sao.ru [Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO), Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnij Arkhyz, Karachai-Cherkessian Republic 369167 (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-01

    We have followed up on the results of a 65 deg{sup 2} CFHT/MegaCam imaging survey of the nearby M81 Group searching for faint and ultra-faint dwarf galaxies. The original survey turned up 22 faint candidate dwarf members. Based on two-color HST ACS/WFC and WFPC2 photometry, we now confirm 14 of these as dwarf galaxy members of the group. Distances and stellar population characteristics are discussed for each. To a completeness limit of M{sub r{sup '}}= -10, we find a galaxy luminosity function slope of –1.27 ± 0.04 for the M81 Group. In this region, there are now 36 M81 Group members known, including 4 blue compact dwarfs; 8 other late types including the interacting giants M81, NGC 3077, and M82; 19 early type dwarfs; and at least 5 potential tidal dwarf galaxies. We find that the dSph galaxies in M81 appear to lie in a flattened distribution, similar to that found for the Milky Way and M31. One of the newly discovered dSph galaxies has properties similar to the ultra-faint dwarfs being found in the Local Group with a size R{sub e} ∼ 100 pc and total magnitude estimates M{sub r{sup '}}= -6.8 and M{sub I} ∼ –9.1.

  3. Pathological Confirmation of Optic Neuropathy in Familial Dysautonomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Santiesteban, Carlos E; Palma, Jose-Alberto; Hedges, Thomas R; Laver, Nora V; Farhat, Nada; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2017-03-01

    Clinical data suggest that optic neuropathy and retinal ganglion cell loss are the main cause of visual decline in patients with familial dysautonomia, but this has not previously been confirmed by pathological analyses. We studied retinas and optic nerves in 6 eyes from 3 affected patients obtained at autopsy. Analyses included routine neurohistology and immunohistochemistry for neurofilaments, cytochrome c oxidase (COX), and melanopsin-containing ganglion cells. We observed profound axon loss in the temporal portions of optic nerves with relative preservation in the nasal portions; this correlated with clinical and optical coherence tomography findings in 1 patient. Retinal ganglion cell layers were markedly reduced in the central retina, whereas melanopsin-containing ganglion cells were relatively spared. COX staining was reduced in the temporal portions of the optic nerve indicating reduced mitochondrial density. Axonal swelling with degenerating lysosomes and mitochondria were observed by electron microscopy. These findings support the concept that there is a specific optic neuropathy and retinopathy in patients with familial dysautonomia similar to that seen in other optic neuropathies with mitochondrial dysfunction. This raises the possibility that defective expression of the IkB kinase complex-associated protein (IKAP) resulting from mutations in IKBKAP affects mitochondrial function in the metabolism-dependent retinal parvocellular ganglion cells in this condition. © 2017 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Confirming the Value of Swimming-Performance Models for Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormehl, Shilo J; Robertson, Samuel J; Barker, Alan R; Williams, Craig A

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of existing performance models to assess the progression of male and female adolescent swimmers through a quantitative and qualitative mixed-methods approach. Fourteen published models were tested using retrospective data from an independent sample of Dutch junior national-level swimmers from when they were 12-18 y of age (n = 13). The degree of association by Pearson correlations was compared between the calculated differences from the models and quadratic functions derived from the Dutch junior national qualifying times. Swimmers were grouped based on their differences from the models and compared with their swimming histories that were extracted from questionnaires and follow-up interviews. Correlations of the deviations from both the models and quadratic functions derived from the Dutch qualifying times were all significant except for the 100-m breaststroke and butterfly and the 200-m freestyle for females (P motivation appeared to be synonymous with higher-level career performance. This mixed-methods approach helped confirm the validity of the models that were found to be applicable to adolescent swimmers at all levels, allowing coaches to track performance and set goals. The value of the models in being able to account for the expected performance gains during adolescence enables quantification of peripheral factors that could affect performance.

  5. Confirmation of Faint Dwarf Galaxies in the M81 Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiboucas, Kristin; Jacobs, Bradley A.; Tully, R. Brent; Karachentsev, Igor D.

    2013-11-01

    We have followed up on the results of a 65 deg2 CFHT/MegaCam imaging survey of the nearby M81 Group searching for faint and ultra-faint dwarf galaxies. The original survey turned up 22 faint candidate dwarf members. Based on two-color HST ACS/WFC and WFPC2 photometry, we now confirm 14 of these as dwarf galaxy members of the group. Distances and stellar population characteristics are discussed for each. To a completeness limit of M_{r^{\\prime }} = -10, we find a galaxy luminosity function slope of -1.27 ± 0.04 for the M81 Group. In this region, there are now 36 M81 Group members known, including 4 blue compact dwarfs; 8 other late types including the interacting giants M81, NGC 3077, and M82; 19 early type dwarfs; and at least 5 potential tidal dwarf galaxies. We find that the dSph galaxies in M81 appear to lie in a flattened distribution, similar to that found for the Milky Way and M31. One of the newly discovered dSph galaxies has properties similar to the ultra-faint dwarfs being found in the Local Group with a size Re ~ 100 pc and total magnitude estimates M_{r^{\\prime }} = -6.8 and MI ~ -9.1.

  6. Synthesis gas demonstration plant program, Phase I. Site confirmation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    With few reservations, the Baskett, Kentucky site exhibits the necessary characteristics to suggest compatibility with the proposed Synthesis Gas Demonstration Plant Project. An evaluation of a broad range of technical disciplinary criteria in consideration of presently available information indicated generally favorable conditions or, at least, conditions which could be feasibly accommodated in project design. The proximity of the Baskett site to market areas and sources of raw materials as well as a variety of transportation facilities suggests an overall favorable impact on Project economic feasibility. Two aspects of environmental engineering, however, have been identified as areas where the completion or continuation of current studies are required before removing all conditions on site suitability. The first aspect involves the current contradictory status of existing land use and planning ordinances in the site area. Additional investigation of the legality of, and local attitudes toward, these present plans is warranted. Secondly, terrestrial and aquatic surveys of plant and animal life species in the site area must be completed on a seasonal basis to confirm the preliminary conclusion that no exclusionary conditions exist.

  7. Imaging modalities used to confirm diaphragmatic hernia in small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.; Leveille, R.; Myer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    When a patient is presented for treatment following a traumatic accident such as being hit by a car, thoracic radiographs are usually an integral part of the overall diagnostic evaluation. Diagnosis at diaphragmatic hernia (DH) is often challenging in small animals. The thorax may contain substantial fluid, thereby masking the presence of cranially displaced abdominal soft tissues (e.g., liver or spleen). The most common cause of decreased radiographic visualization of the diaphragm on survey radiographs is pleural fluid; however, the second most common cause is DH. Obviously, if a gas-filledviscus is identified within the thoracic cavity on survey radiographs, the diagnosis of DH is straightforward and relatively routine. If, however, there is substantial pleural effusion and the herniated structure is a soft tissue parenchymal organ (e.g., liver or spleen), the diagnosis is less clearly defined on survey radiographs. This review discusses the various imaging modalities (survey, positional, and contrast-enhanced radiographs and ultrasonography) that can be used in the diagnosis or confirmation of DH

  8. Cytogenetically confirmed primary Ewing's sarcoma of the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golhar, Ankush; Ray, Samrat; Haugk, Beate; Singhvi, Suresh Kumar

    2017-05-04

    Ewing's sarcoma is a highly aggressive malignant tumour most commonly affecting long bones in children and adolescents. It is part of the Ewing's sarcoma family of tumours (ESFTs) that also include peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour and Askin's tumours. ESFTs share common cytogenetic aberrations, antigenic profiles and proto-oncogene expression with an overall similar clinical course. In 99% of ESFTs, genetic translocation with molecular fusion involves the EWSR1 gene on 22q12. Approximately 30% of ESFTs are extraosseous, most commonly occurring in the soft tissues of extremities, pelvis, retroperitoneum and chest wall. Primary presentation in solid organs is very rare but has been described in multiple sites including the pancreas. Accurate diagnosis of a Ewing's sarcoma in a solid organ is critical in facilitating correct treatment. We report the case of a 17-year-old girl with cytogenetically confirmed primary pancreatic Ewing's sarcoma and provide a brief review of the published literature. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Nervous System Injury and Neuroimaging of Zika Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shanshan; Zeng, Yu; Lerner, Alexander; Gao, Bo; Law, Meng

    2018-01-01

    In 2016, World Health Organization announced Zika virus infection and its neurological sequalae are a public health emergency of global scope. Preliminary studies have confirmed a relationship between Zika virus infection and certain neurological disorders, including microcephaly and Guillain–Barre syndrome (GBS). The neuroimaging features of microcephaly secondary to Zika virus infection include calcifications at the junction of gray–white matter and subcortical white matter with associated cortical abnormalities, diminution of white matter, large ventricles with or without hydrocephalus, cortical malformations, hypoplasia of cerebellum and brainstem, and enlargement of cerebellomedullary cistern. Contrast enhancement of the cauda equine nerve roots is the typical neuroimaging finding of GBS associated with Zika virus. This review describes the nervous system disorders and associated imaging findings seen in Zika virus infection, with the aim to improve the understanding of this disease. Imaging plays a key role on accurate diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of this disease. PMID:29740383

  10. Occurrence, Distribution and Properties of Alfalfa Mosaic Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Zadjaii

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa Mosaic Virus (AlflMV was recorded on 21 hosts comprising of four field crops, 14 vegetables, one ornamental plant and two new weed species (Heliotropium europaeum and Ammi majus belonging to nine families. The virus was identified and confirmed on the basis of its biological, serological (ELISA and physical properties. The leaves, stem and crown from systemically infected alfalfa plant contained high concentration of the virus. It was nonpersistently transmitted by cotton aphids (Aphis gossypii. The wide host range, including virus reservoirs, seed-borne infection and insect transmission account for high incidence and distribution of AlfMV in the country. The virus isolate had a dilution end point between 1 x 10-3 to l x 10-4, 65-67 °C thermal inactivation point and a few days in-vitro longevity and appears to be similar to the AlfMV-S strain.

  11. Zika virus infection – a new epidemic threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Pomorska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus, like dengue and yellow fever viruses, is an RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family. The virus is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization declared Zika virus a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, similarly as in the case of Ebola virus in 2014 and bird flu virus in 2009. Although the Zika virus commonly causes a mild flu-like illness, it can cause congenital infections in the foetus. Based on the recommendations of the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee, the World Health Organization confirmed the possible relationship between the increase in the incidence of Zika virus infections and an increased number of infants with microcephaly. The incidence of microcephaly in Brazil in 2015 was 10–20 times higher than in previous years. A total of 691 cases of travel-related Zika infections have been reported in the United States of America, including 206 pregnant women – with 11 cases of sexually transmitted infection; Guillain–Barré syndrome complication was identified in 2 cases. There is an emphasis on measures to prevent mosquito bites and eliminate mosquito breeding sites in the countries affected by the epidemic. Due to both, Zika virus isolation from sperm and the growing number of sexually transmitted infections, measures to prevent sexual transmission of Zika virus have also been taken. There is an ongoing research to develop vaccine against the Zika virus, however, the estimated time of vaccine development is several years.

  12. Structural protein relationships among eastern equine encephalitis viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strizki, J M; Repik, P M

    1994-11-01

    We have re-evaluated the relationships among the polypeptides of eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) viruses using SDS-PAGE and peptide mapping of individual virion proteins. Four to five distinct polypeptide bands were detected upon SDS-PAGE analysis of viruses: the E1, E2 and C proteins normally associated with alphavirus virions, as well as an additional more rapidly-migrating E2-associated protein and a high M(r) (HMW) protein. In contrast with previous findings by others, the electrophoretic profiles of the virion proteins of EEE viruses displayed a marked correlation with serotype. The protein profiles of the 33 North American (NA)-serotype viruses examined were remarkably homogeneous, with variation detected only in the E1 protein of two isolates. In contrast, considerable heterogeneity was observed in the migration profiles of both the E1 and E2 glycoproteins of the 13 South American (SA)-type viruses examined. Peptide mapping of individual virion proteins using limited proteolysis with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease confirmed that, in addition to the homogeneity evident among NA-type viruses and relative heterogeneity among SA-type viruses, the E1 and E2 proteins of NA- and SA-serotype viruses exhibited serotype-specific structural variation. The C protein was highly conserved among isolates of both virus serotypes. Endoglycosidase analyses of intact virions did not reveal substantial glycosylation differences between the glycoproteins of NA- and SA-serotype viruses. Both the HMW protein and the E2 protein (doublet) of EEE virus appeared to contain, at least in part, high-mannose type N-linked oligosaccharides. No evidence of O-linked glycans was found on either the E1 or the E2 glycoprotein. Despite the observed structural differences between proteins of NA- and SA-type viruses, Western blot analyses utilizing polyclonal antibodies indicated that immunoreactive epitopes appeared to be conserved.

  13. Histologically confirmed intracranial tumors managed at Enugu, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chika Anele Ndubuisi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is controversy about the global distribution of intracranial tumors (ICTs. The previous reports from Africa suggested low frequency and different pattern of distribution of brain tumors from what obtains in other continents. The limitations at that time, including paucity of diagnostic facilities and personnel, have improved. Objective: The objective of this study is to analyze the current trend and distribution of histology confirmed brain tumors managed in Enugu, in a decade. Methods: A retrospective analysis of ICTs managed between 2006 and 2015 at Memfys Hospital, Enugu. Only cases with conclusive histology report were analyzed. The World Health Organization ICT classification was used. Results: This study reviewed 252 patients out of 612 neuroimaging diagnosed brain tumors. Mean age was 42.8 years and male-to-female ratio was 1.2:1.0. Annual frequency increased from 11 in 2006 to 55 in 2015. Metastatic brain tumors accounted for 5.6%, and infratentorial tumors represented 16.3%. Frequency of the common primary tumors were meningioma (32.9%, glioma (23.8%, pituitary adenomas (13.5%, and craniopharyngioma (7.5% (P = 0.001. Vestibular schwannoma accounted for 1.2%. Meningioma did not have gender difference (P = 0.714. Medulloblastoma, glioma, and craniopharyngioma were the most common pediatric tumors. About 8.7% presented unconscious (P < 0.001. There was no significant difference between radiology and histology diagnosis (P = 0.932. Conclusion: Meningioma is the most frequent tumor with increasing male incidence, but the frequency of glioma is increasing. Metastasis, acoustic schwannoma, lymphoma, and germ cell tumors seem to be uncommon. Late presentation is the rule.

  14. Histopathologic criteria to confirm white-nose syndrome in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyer, Carol Uphoff; Buckles, Elizabeth L; Blehert, David S; Hicks, Alan C; Green, D Earl; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Thomas, Nancy J; Gargas, Andrea; Behr, Melissa J

    2009-07-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a cutaneous fungal disease of hibernating bats associated with a novel Geomyces sp. fungus. Currently, confirmation of WNS requires histopathologic examination. Invasion of living tissue distinguishes this fungal infection from those caused by conventional transmissible dermatophytes. Although fungal hyphae penetrate the connective tissue of glabrous skin and muzzle, there is typically no cellular inflammatory response in hibernating bats. Preferred tissue samples to diagnose this fungal infection are rostral muzzle with nose and wing membrane fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin. To optimize detection, the muzzle is trimmed longitudinally, the wing membrane is rolled, and multiple cross-sections are embedded to increase the surface area examined. Periodic acid-Schiff stain is essential to discriminate the nonpigmented fungal hyphae and conidia. Fungal hyphae form cup-like epidermal erosions and ulcers in the wing membrane and pinna with involvement of underlying connective tissue. In addition, fungal hyphae are present in hair follicles and in sebaceous and apocrine glands of the muzzle with invasion of tissue surrounding adnexa. Fungal hyphae in tissues are branching and septate, but the diameter and shape of the hyphae may vary from parallel walls measuring 2 microm in diameter to irregular walls measuring 3-5 microm in diameter. When present on short aerial hyphae, curved conidia are approximately 2.5 microm wide and 7.5 microm in curved length. Conidia have a more deeply basophilic center, and one or both ends are usually blunt. Although WNS is a disease of hibernating bats, severe wing damage due to fungal hyphae may be seen in bats that have recently emerged from hibernation. These recently emerged bats also have a robust suppurative inflammatory response.

  15. Physics of mind: Experimental confirmations of theoretical predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeller, Félix; Perlovsky, Leonid; Arseniev, Dmitry

    2018-02-02

    What is common among Newtonian mechanics, statistical physics, thermodynamics, quantum physics, the theory of relativity, astrophysics and the theory of superstrings? All these areas of physics have in common a methodology, which is discussed in the first few lines of the review. Is a physics of the mind possible? Is it possible to describe how a mind adapts in real time to changes in the physical world through a theory based on a few basic laws? From perception and elementary cognition to emotions and abstract ideas allowing high-level cognition and executive functioning, at nearly all levels of study, the mind shows variability and uncertainties. Is it possible to turn psychology and neuroscience into so-called "hard" sciences? This review discusses several established first principles for the description of mind and their mathematical formulations. A mathematical model of mind is derived from these principles. This model includes mechanisms of instincts, emotions, behavior, cognition, concepts, language, intuitions, and imagination. We clarify fundamental notions such as the opposition between the conscious and the unconscious, the knowledge instinct and aesthetic emotions, as well as humans' universal abilities for symbols and meaning. In particular, the review discusses in length evolutionary and cognitive functions of aesthetic emotions and musical emotions. Several theoretical predictions are derived from the model, some of which have been experimentally confirmed. These empirical results are summarized and we introduce new theoretical developments. Several unsolved theoretical problems are proposed, as well as new experimental challenges for future research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Analytical confirmation of Xanthium strumarium poisoning in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Christo J; Lessing, Dries; Rösemann, Magda; van Wilpe, Erna; Williams, June H

    2014-09-01

    Xanthium strumarium, commonly referred to as "cocklebur," rarely causes poisoning in cattle. When mature, this robust, annual weed bears numerous oval, brownish, spiny burs. Only the seeds in the burs and young seedlings (cotyledonary leaves) contain the toxic principle, carboxyatractyloside. In the Frankfort district of the Free State Province of South Africa, a herd of 150 Bonsmara cows were allowed to graze on the banks of a small river, where mature cocklebur was growing. Four cows died while grazing in this relatively small area. Clinical signs ranged from recumbency, apparent blindness, and hypersensitivity to convulsive seizures. During necropsy, burs completely matted with ingesta were located in the rumen content. The most distinctive microscopic lesions were severe, bridging centrilobular to midzonal hepatocyte necrosis and hemorrhage. Ultrastructurally, periacinar hepatocytes were necrotic, and novel electron-dense cytoplasmic needle-like crystals were observed, often in close association with peroxisomes. Carboxyatractyloside concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Carboxyatractyloside was present in rumen contents at 2.5 mg/kg; in burs removed from the rumen at 0.17 mg/kg; in liver at 66 ng/g, and was below the limit of quantitation in the kidney sample, estimated at approximately 0.8 ng/g. Based on the presence of the plants on the riverbank, the history of exposure, the clinical findings, the presence of burs in the rumen, and the microscopic and ultrastructural lesions, X. strumarium poisoning in the herd of cattle was confirmed and was supported by LC-HRMS. © 2014 The Author(s).

  17. Terra Data Confirm Warm, Dry U.S. Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    New maps of land surface temperature and snow cover produced by NASA's Terra satellite show this year's winter was warmer than last year's, and the snow line stayed farther north than normal. The observations confirm earlier National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration reports that the United States was unusually warm and dry this past winter. (Click to read the NASA press release and to access higher-resolution images.) For the last two years, a new sensor aboard Terra has been collecting the most detailed global measurements ever made of our world's land surface temperatures and snow cover. The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is already giving scientists new insights into our changing planet. Average temperatures during December 2001 through February 2002 for the contiguous United States appear to have been unseasonably warm from the Rockies eastward. In the top image the coldest temperatures appear black, while dark green, blue, red, yellow, and white indicate progressively warmer temperatures. MODIS observes both land surface temperature and emissivity, which indicates how efficiently a surface absorbs and emits thermal radiation. Compared to the winter of 2000-01, temperatures throughout much of the U.S. were warmer in 2001-02. The bottom image depicts the differences on a scale from dark blue (colder this year than last) to red (warmer this year than last). A large region of warm temperatures dominated the northern Great Plains, while the area around the Great Salt Lake was a cold spot. Images courtesy Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC, based upon data courtesy Zhengming Wan, MODIS Land Science Team member at the University of California, Santa Barbara's Institute for Computational Earth System Science

  18. Should we confirm our clinical diagnostic certainty by autopsies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podbregar, M; Voga, G; Krivec, B; Skale, R; Pareznik, R; Gabrscek, L

    2001-11-01

    To evaluate the frequency of diagnostic errors assessed by autopsies. Retrospective review of medical and pathological records in an 11-bed closed medical intensive care unit (ICU) at a 860-bed general hospital. Patients who died in the ICU between January 1998 and December 1999. Medical diagnoses were rated into three levels of clinical diagnostic certainty: complete certainty (group L1), minor diagnostic uncertainty (group L2), and major diagnostic uncertainty (group L3). The patients were divided into three error groups: group A, the autopsy confirmed the clinical diagnosis; group B, the autopsy demonstrated a new relevant diagnosis which would probably not have influenced the therapy and outcome; group C, the autopsy demonstrated a new relevant diagnosis which would probably have changed the therapy and outcome. The overall mortality was 20.3% (270/1331 patients). Autopsies were performed in 126 patients (46.9% of deaths), more often in younger patients (66.6+/-13.9 years vs 72.7+/-12.0 years, p<0.001), in patients with shorter ICU stay (4.7+/-5.6 days vs 6.7+/-8.7 days, p=0.054), and in patients in group L3 without chronic diseases (15/126 vs 1/144, p<0.001). Fatal but potentially treatable errors [group C, 12 patients (9.5%)] were found in 8.7%, 10.0%, and 10.5% of patients in groups L1, L2, and L3, respectively (NS between groups). An ICU length of stay shorter than 24 h was not related to the frequency of group C errors. Autopsies are performed more often in younger patients without chronic disease and in patients with a low clinical diagnostic certainty. No level of clinical diagnostic certainty could predict the pathological findings.

  19. Histopathologic criteria to confirm white-nose syndrome in bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyer, Carol U.; Buckles, Elizabeth L.; Blehert, David S.; Hicks, Alan C.; Green, David E.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Thomas, Nancy J.; Gargas, Andrea; Behr, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a cutaneous fungal disease of hibernating bats associated with a novel Geomyces sp. fungus. Currently, confirmation of WNS requires histopathologic examination. Invasion of living tissue distinguishes this fungal infection from those caused by conventional transmissible dermatophytes. Although fungal hyphae penetrate the connective tissue of glabrous skin and muzzle, there is typically no cellular inflammatory response in hibernating bats. Preferred tissue samples to diagnose this fungal infection are rostral muzzle with nose and wing membrane fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin. To optimize detection, the muzzle is trimmed longitudinally, the wing membrane is rolled, and multiple cross-sections are embedded to increase the surface area examined. Periodic acid-Schiff stain is essential to discriminate the nonpigmented fungal hyphae and conidia. Fungal hyphae form cup-like epidermal erosions and ulcers in the wing membrane and pinna with involvement of underlying connective tissue. In addition, fungal hyphae are present in hair follicles and in sebaceous and apocrine glands of the muzzle with invasion of tissue surrounding adnexa. Fungal hyphae in tissues are branching and septate, but the diameter and shape of the hyphae may vary from parallel walls measuring 2 ??m in diameter to irregular walls measuring 3-5 ??m in diameter. When present on short aerial hyphae, curved conidia are approximately 2.5 ??m wide and 7.5 ??m in curved length. Conidia have a more deeply basophilic center, and one or both ends are usually blunt. Although WNS is a disease of hibernating bats, severe wing damage due to fungal hyphae may be seen in bats that have recently emerged from hibernation. These recently emerged bats also have a robust suppurative inflammatory response.

  20. Confirming the least massive members of the Pleiades star cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Lodieu, N.; Manjavacas, E.

    2018-03-01

    We present optical photometry (i and Z band) and low-resolution spectroscopy (640-1015 nm) of very faint candidate members (J = 20.2-21.2 mag) of the Pleiades star cluster (120 Myr). The main goal is to address their cluster membership via photometric, astrometric, and spectroscopic studies, and to determine the properties of the least massive population of the cluster through the comparison of the data with younger and older spectral counterparts and state-of-the art model atmospheres. We confirm three bona fide Pleiades members that have extremely red optical and infrared colours, effective temperatures of ≈1150 and ≈1350 K, and masses in the interval 11-20 MJup, and one additional likely member that shares the same motion as the cluster but does not appear to be as red as the other members with similar brightness. This latter object requires further near-infrared spectroscopy to fully address its membership in the Pleiades. The optical spectra of two bona fide members were classified as L6-L7 and show features of K I, a tentative detection of Cs I, hydrides, and water vapour with an intensity similar to high-gravity dwarfs of related classification despite their young age. The properties of the Pleiades L6-L7 members clearly indicate that very red colours of L dwarfs are not a direct evidence of ages younger than ≈100 Myr. We also report on the determination of the bolometric corrections for the coolest Pleiades members. These data can be used to interpret the observations of the atmospheres of exoplanets orbiting stars.

  1. Full genome sequencing and genetic characterization of Eubenangee viruses identify Pata virus as a distinct species within the genus Orbivirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunatha N Belaganahalli

    Full Text Available Eubenangee virus has previously been identified as the cause of Tammar sudden death syndrome (TSDS. Eubenangee virus (EUBV, Tilligery virus (TILV, Pata virus (PATAV and Ngoupe virus (NGOV are currently all classified within the Eubenangee virus species of the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae. Full genome sequencing confirmed that EUBV and TILV (both of which are from Australia show high levels of aa sequence identity (>92% in the conserved polymerase VP1(Pol, sub-core VP3(T2 and outer core VP7(T13 proteins, and are therefore appropriately classified within the same virus species. However, they show much lower amino acid (aa identity levels in their larger outer-capsid protein VP2 (<53%, consistent with membership of two different serotypes - EUBV-1 and EUBV-2 (respectively. In contrast PATAV showed significantly lower levels of aa sequence identity with either EUBV or TILV (with <71% in VP1(Pol and VP3(T2, and <57% aa identity in VP7(T13 consistent with membership of a distinct virus species. A proposal has therefore been sent to the Reoviridae Study Group of ICTV to recognise 'Pata virus' as a new Orbivirus species, with the PATAV isolate as serotype 1 (PATAV-1. Amongst the other orbiviruses, PATAV shows closest relationships to Epizootic Haemorrhagic Disease virus (EHDV, with 80.7%, 72.4% and 66.9% aa identity in VP3(T2, VP1(Pol, and VP7(T13 respectively. Although Ngoupe virus was not available for these studies, like PATAV it was isolated in Central Africa, and therefore seems likely to also belong to the new species, possibly as a distinct 'type'. The data presented will facilitate diagnostic assay design and the identification of additional isolates of these viruses.

  2. [The great virus comeback].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forterre, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Viruses have been considered for a long time as by-products of biological evolution. This view is changing now as a result of several recent discoveries. Viral ecologists have shown that viral particles are the most abundant biological entities on our planet, whereas metagenomic analyses have revealed an unexpected abundance and diversity of viral genes in the biosphere. Comparative genomics have highlighted the uniqueness of viral sequences, in contradiction with the traditional view of viruses as pickpockets of cellular genes. On the contrary, cellular genomes, especially eukaryotic ones, turned out to be full of genes derived from viruses or related elements (plasmids, transposons, retroelements and so on). The discovery of unusual viruses infecting archaea has shown that the viral world is much more diverse than previously thought, ruining the traditional dichotomy between bacteriophages and viruses. Finally, the discovery of giant viruses has blurred the traditional image of viruses as small entities. Furthermore, essential clues on virus history have been obtained in the last ten years. In particular, structural analyses of capsid proteins have uncovered deeply rooted homologies between viruses infecting different cellular domains, suggesting that viruses originated before the last universal common ancestor (LUCA). These studies have shown that several lineages of viruses originated independently, i.e., viruses are polyphyletic. From the time of LUCA, viruses have coevolved with their hosts, and viral lineages can be viewed as lianas wrapping around the trunk, branches and leaves of the tree of life. Although viruses are very diverse, with genomes encoding from one to more than one thousand proteins, they can all be simply defined as organisms producing virions. Virions themselves can be defined as infectious particles made of at least one protein associated with the viral nucleic acid, endowed with the capability to protect the viral genome and ensure its

  3. Postmortem stability of Ebola virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Joseph; Bushmaker, Trenton; Fischer, Robert; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Judson, Seth; Munster, Vincent J

    2015-05-01

    The ongoing Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has highlighted questions regarding stability of the virus and detection of RNA from corpses. We used Ebola virus-infected macaques to model humans who died of Ebola virus disease. Viable virus was isolated <7 days posteuthanasia; viral RNA was detectable for 10 weeks.

  4. Localization of influenza virus proteins to nuclear dot 10 structures in influenza virus-infected cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yoshiko; Yoshioka, Kenichi; Suzuki, Chie; Awashima, Satoshi; Hosaka, Yasuhiro; Yewdell, Jonathan; Kuroda, Kazumichi

    2003-01-01

    We studied influenza virus M1 protein by generating HeLa and MDCK cell lines that express M1 genetically fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP). GFP-M1 was incorporated into virions produced by influenza virus infected MDCK cells expressing the fusion protein indicating that the fusion protein is at least partially functional. Following infection of either HeLa or MDCK cells with influenza A virus (but not influenza B virus), GFP-M1 redistributes from its cytosolic/nuclear location and accumulates in nuclear dots. Immunofluorescence revealed that the nuclear dots represent nuclear dot 10 (ND10) structures. The colocalization of authentic M1, as well as NS1 and NS2 protein, with ND10 was confirmed by immunofluorescence following in situ isolation of ND10. These findings demonstrate a previously unappreciated involvement of influenza virus with ND10, a structure involved in cellular responses to immune cytokines as well as the replication of a rapidly increasing list of viruses

  5. Nasoduodenal tube placement: Are two views necessary to confirm position?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, Anh-Vu; Done, Stephen; Otto, Randolph; Friedman, Seth; Stanescu, A.L.

    2017-01-01

    Nasoduodenal tube (NDT) placement is typically performed at the bedside and two-view abdominal radiographs are usually used to confirm tube position. Anecdotally, in most instances the lateral view is unnecessary and utilizes more than twice the radiation than an anteroposterior (AP) view alone. We hypothesize that NDT location can be determined using only the AP view, with the NDT position determined on two views utilized as the gold standard. A search was performed for all two- or three-view abdominal radiographs from September 2012 to September 2013 with the phrase ''ND tube'' in the reason field of the requisition. These studies were independently reviewed by two radiologists and scored for anatomical tube position in three different scenarios: AP view alone, the lateral view alone, and both views together, with the latter serving as the gold standard. The anatomical scores were subsequently grouped to reflect clinically significant scenarios. Comparative analysis was performed with the original and clinically grouped scores. A total of 102 patients and 306 separate two-view exams were evaluated. Of the 102 patients, 55 had at least two separate exams. Across raters, concordances of AP and lateral scores relative to the gold standard assessment were 88% and 73% for anatomical scores, and 91.5% and 86.4% for clinically grouped data. Trend differences for fewer errors were found with the AP compared to the lateral view. There were statistically significant group differences with a greater number of false-negative errors in the lateral data set. No clear differences were found when comparing AP and lateral ratings for false-positive errors. Upon review of the common errors, we determined a few imaging findings on AP radiographs that can help assess the need for an additional lateral view. A single AP view is sufficient to determine the NDT position in most cases. Two views should be reserved for cases where the NDT position cannot be

  6. Nasoduodenal tube placement: Are two views necessary to confirm position?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo, Anh-Vu; Done, Stephen; Otto, Randolph; Friedman, Seth; Stanescu, A.L. [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-09-15

    Nasoduodenal tube (NDT) placement is typically performed at the bedside and two-view abdominal radiographs are usually used to confirm tube position. Anecdotally, in most instances the lateral view is unnecessary and utilizes more than twice the radiation than an anteroposterior (AP) view alone. We hypothesize that NDT location can be determined using only the AP view, with the NDT position determined on two views utilized as the gold standard. A search was performed for all two- or three-view abdominal radiographs from September 2012 to September 2013 with the phrase ''ND tube'' in the reason field of the requisition. These studies were independently reviewed by two radiologists and scored for anatomical tube position in three different scenarios: AP view alone, the lateral view alone, and both views together, with the latter serving as the gold standard. The anatomical scores were subsequently grouped to reflect clinically significant scenarios. Comparative analysis was performed with the original and clinically grouped scores. A total of 102 patients and 306 separate two-view exams were evaluated. Of the 102 patients, 55 had at least two separate exams. Across raters, concordances of AP and lateral scores relative to the gold standard assessment were 88% and 73% for anatomical scores, and 91.5% and 86.4% for clinically grouped data. Trend differences for fewer errors were found with the AP compared to the lateral view. There were statistically significant group differences with a greater number of false-negative errors in the lateral data set. No clear differences were found when comparing AP and lateral ratings for false-positive errors. Upon review of the common errors, we determined a few imaging findings on AP radiographs that can help assess the need for an additional lateral view. A single AP view is sufficient to determine the NDT position in most cases. Two views should be reserved for cases where the NDT position cannot be

  7. Regulation of pharmacokinetics and targeting-confirmative personalized medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Keiichi

    2011-01-01

    Describedare the current developmental state of radiopharmaceuticals (RPs), trials to control the biobehavior (pharmacokinetics, PK) of RP based on molecular targeting strategy, and application of imaging to personalized medicare. RPs are currently used for imaging diagnosis mainly by positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and for treatment of various diseases. Molecular imaging, visualization of PK of RP molecule, is expected to greatly contribute to medicare hereafter. For instance, 123 I-IAMT (3-iodo-alpha-methyl-tyrosine), made resistant to metabolic degradation, has been found to be a selective probe of cerebral transporter (Tp) function of amino acids (AA). Dopamine analogues are under development aiming to diagnosis of dopaminergic function before, during and post therapy of Parkinsonism by such molecular imaging. The diagnostic problem of the distribution of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in PET to other normal organs than tumor may be solved by recent active studies of RP post-FDG for AA analogues as an AA Tp probe like 18 F-FAMT (3-fluoro-AMT). RP imaging where its PK in an individual patient can be quantitated, is also applicable to decide the personalized effective, safe dose. Control of RP PK by Tp inhibitor and by serum protein binding replacing agent has been shown possible for 125 I-IAMT in the mouse tumor and for 123 I-IMP (N-isopropyl-p-iodo-amphetamine) in the monkey brain, respectively. Internal RP therapy is effective for cancers without specifying their lesion site. 131 I-iodide is prescribed for thyroid diseases and the diagnostic 123 I-iodide is used for decision of the most appropriate dose in the same patient. Treatment/monitoring use of recent 90 Y-/ 111 In-CD20 antibody anti-cancer assures the safety of patients. Next generation personalized medicare, the targeting confirmative therapy, will be in practice to avoid adverse effect and promote efficacy with therapeutic strategy decided by

  8. Comparative genome and evolutionary analysis of naturally occurring Beilong virus in brown and black rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Patrick C Y; Wong, Annette Y P; Wong, Beatrice H L; Lam, Carol S F; Fan, Rachel Y Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-11-01

    Recently, we reported the presence of Beilong virus in spleen and kidney samples of brown rats and black rats, suggesting that these rodents could be natural reservoirs of Beilong virus. In this study, four genomes of Beilong virus from brown rats and black rats were sequenced. Similar to the Beilong virus genome sequenced from kidney mesangial cell line culture, those of J-virus from house mouse and Tailam virus from Sikkim rats, these four genomes from naturally occurring Beilong virus also contain the eight genes (3'-N-P/V/C-M-F-SH-TM-G-L-5'). In these four genomes, the attachment glycoprotein encoded by the G gene consists of 1046 amino acids; but for the original Beilong virus genome sequenced from kidney mesangial cell line, the G CDS was predicted to be prematurely terminated at position 2205 (TGG→TAG), resulting in a 734-amino-acid truncated G protein. This phenomenon of a lack of nonsense mutation in naturally occurring Beilong viruses was confirmed by sequencing this region of 15 additional rodent samples. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the cell line and naturally occurring Beilong viruses were closely clustered, without separation into subgroups. In addition, these viruses were further clustered with J-virus and Tailam virus, with high bootstrap supports of >90%, forming a distinct group in Paramyxoviridae. Brown rats and black rats are natural reservoirs of Beilong virus. Our results also supports that the recently proposed genus, Jeilongvirus, should encompass Beilong virus, J-virus and Tailam virus as members. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Zika Virus Infection Among U.S. Pregnant Travelers - August 2015-February 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney-Delman, Dana; Hills, Susan L; Williams, Charnetta; Galang, Romeo R; Iyengar, Preetha; Hennenfent, Andrew K; Rabe, Ingrid B; Panella, Amanda; Oduyebo, Titilope; Honein, Margaret A; Zaki, Sherif; Lindsey, Nicole; Lehman, Jennifer A; Kwit, Natalie; Bertolli, Jeanne; Ellington, Sascha; Igbinosa, Irogue; Minta, Anna A; Petersen, Emily E; Mead, Paul; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Jamieson, Denise J

    2016-03-04

    After reports of microcephaly and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in infants of mothers infected with Zika virus during pregnancy, CDC issued a travel alert on January 15, 2016, advising pregnant women to consider postponing travel to areas with active transmission of Zika virus. On January 19, CDC released interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with travel to an affected area, and an update was released on February 5. As of February 17, CDC had received reports of nine pregnant travelers with laboratory-confirmed Zika virus disease; 10 additional reports of Zika virus disease among pregnant women are currently under investigation. No Zika virus-related hospitalizations or deaths among pregnant women were reported. Pregnancy outcomes among the nine confirmed cases included two early pregnancy losses, two elective terminations, and three live births (two apparently healthy infants and one infant with severe microcephaly); two pregnancies (approximately 18 weeks' and 34 weeks' gestation) are continuing without known complications. Confirmed cases of Zika virus infection were reported among women who had traveled to one or more of the following nine areas with ongoing local transmission of Zika virus: American Samoa, Brazil, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Samoa. This report summarizes findings from the nine women with confirmed Zika virus infection during pregnancy, including case reports for four women with various clinical outcomes. U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure during pregnancy should follow CDC guidelines for patient evaluation and management. Zika virus disease is a nationally notifiable condition. CDC has developed a voluntary registry to collect information about U.S. pregnant women with confirmed Zika virus infection and their infants. Information about the registry is in preparation and will be available on the CDC website.

  10. Genetic characterization of dengue virus type 3 isolates in the State of Rio de Janeiro, 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Miagostovich, M.P.; Santos, F.B. dos; Simone, T.S. de; Costa, E.V.; Filippis, A.M.B.; Schatzmayr, H.G.; Nogueira, R.M.R.

    2002-01-01

    The genetic characterization of dengue virus type 3 (DEN-3) strains isolated from autochthonous cases in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2001 is presented. Restriction site-specific (RSS)-PCR performed on 22 strains classified the Brazilian DEN-3 viruses as subtype C, a subtype that contains viruses from Sri Lanka, India, Africa and recent isolates from Central America. Nucleic acid sequencing (positions 278 to 2550) of one DEN-3 strain confirmed the origin of these strains, since gen...

  11. Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pougnet, Laurence; Thill, Chloé; Pougnet, Richard; Auvinet, Henri; Giacardi, Christophe; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2016-12-01

    A 21-year old woman from New-Caledonia had 40 ̊C fever with vomiting, arthralgia, myalgia, and measles-like rash. Etiological analyses showed primary infection with Zika virus. Because of severe clinical presentation, she was hospitalized in the intensive care unit of the Brest military Hospital. Zika virus is mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. If they settle in Metropolitan France, Zika virus might also spread there.

  12. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) What is Ebola Virus Disease? ...

  13. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) What is Ebola Virus Disease? ...

  14. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) What is Ebola Virus Disease? ...

  15. A new global threat for the public safety: Zika virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Bicheru

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus, the etiological agent of Zika fever, is transmitted by mosquitoes and has been affecting the South American continent starting with 2015. It was reported in several European countries, carried by the people who returned from Latin America, as reported by the health authorities in those countries. Today, according to the World Health Organization (WHO, the virus suspected to cause serious birth defects in the fetus has also been confirmed in 21 of the 55 countries of South America, but also in other states from Europe and North America. Zika virus is a single stranded positive sense RNA virus belonging to Flavivirus genus (family Flaviviridae and was first identified in 1947 in Uganda rainforest Zika. The increased number of cases of microcephaly, in children from northern Brazil, suggested a connection with Zika virus, but it has not yet been proven. Also, the virus can be transmitted sexually and through blood or blood products. Diagnosis of the infection is made using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. So far, there is no specific antiviral treatment or vaccine against the infection with Zika virus. The best form of prevention is to avoid mosquito bites. WHO has estimated that the spread of Zika virus, transmitted through mosquito bite, is “a global public health emergency”. The priority is to protect pregnant women and to control the mosquitoes.

  16. Prevalence of asymptomatic Zika virus infection: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinart, Mariona; Elias, Vanessa; Reveiz, Ludovic

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective To conduct a systematic review to estimate the prevalence of asymptomatic Zika virus infection in the general population and in specific population groups. Methods We searched PubMed®, Embase® and LILACS online databases from inception to 26 January 2018. We included observational epidemiological studies where laboratory testing was used to confirm positive exposure of participants to Zika virus and in which Zika virus symptom status was also recorded. We excluded studies in which having symptoms of Zika virus was a criterion for inclusion. The main outcome assessed was percentage of all Zika virus-positive participants who were asymptomatic. We used a quality-effects approach and the double arcsine transformation for the meta-analysis. Findings We assessed 753 studies for inclusion, of which 23 were included in the meta-analysis, totalling 11 305 Zika virus-positive participants. The high degree of heterogeneity in the studies (I2 = 99%) suggests that the pooled prevalence of asymptomatic Zika virus-positive participants was probably not a robust estimate. Analysis based on subgroups of the population (general population, returned travellers, blood donors, adults with Guillain–Barré syndrome, pregnant women and babies with microcephaly) was not able to explain the heterogeneity. Funnel and Doi plots showed major asymmetry, suggesting selection bias or true heterogeneity. Conclusion Better-quality research is needed, using standardized methods, to determine the true prevalence of asymptomatic Zika virus and whether it varies between populations or over time. PMID:29904223

  17. Yeast for virus research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Richard Yuqi

    2017-01-01

    Budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) are two popular model organisms for virus research. They are natural hosts for viruses as they carry their own indigenous viruses. Both yeasts have been used for studies of plant, animal and human viruses. Many positive sense (+) RNA viruses and some DNA viruses replicate with various levels in yeasts, thus allowing study of those viral activities during viral life cycle. Yeasts are single cell eukaryotic organisms. Hence, many of the fundamental cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation or programed cell death are highly conserved from yeasts to higher eukaryotes. Therefore, they are particularly suited to study the impact of those viral activities on related cellular activities during virus-host interactions. Yeasts present many unique advantages in virus research over high eukaryotes. Yeast cells are easy to maintain in the laboratory with relative short doubling time. They are non-biohazardous, genetically amendable with small genomes that permit genome-wide analysis of virologic and cellular functions. In this review, similarities and differences of these two yeasts are described. Studies of virologic activities such as viral translation, viral replication and genome-wide study of virus-cell interactions in yeasts are highlighted. Impacts of viral proteins on basic cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation and programed cell death are discussed. Potential applications of using yeasts as hosts to carry out functional analysis of small viral genome and to develop high throughput drug screening platform for the discovery of antiviral drugs are presented. PMID:29082230

  18. Viruses infecting marine molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzul, Isabelle; Corbeil, Serge; Morga, Benjamin; Renault, Tristan

    2017-07-01

    Although a wide range of viruses have been reported in marine molluscs, most of these reports rely on ultrastructural examination and few of these viruses have been fully characterized. The lack of marine mollusc cell lines restricts virus isolation capacities and subsequent characterization works. Our current knowledge is mostly restricted to viruses affecting farmed species such as oysters Crassostrea gigas, abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta or the scallop Chlamys farreri. Molecular approaches which are needed to identify virus affiliation have been carried out for a small number of viruses, most of them belonging to the Herpesviridae and birnaviridae families. These last years, the use of New Generation Sequencing approach has allowed increasing the number of sequenced viral genomes and has improved our capacity to investigate the diversity of viruses infecting marine molluscs. This new information has in turn allowed designing more efficient diagnostic tools. Moreover, the development of experimental infection protocols has answered some questions regarding the pathogenesis of these viruses and their interactions with their hosts. Control and management of viral diseases in molluscs mostly involve active surveillance, implementation of effective bio security measures and development of breeding programs. However factors triggering pathogen development and the life cycle and status of the viruses outside their mollusc hosts still need further investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Rabies Virus Transmission in Solid Organ Transplantation, China, 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuilian; Zhang, Heng; Luo, Meiling; Chen, Jingfang; Yao, Dong; Chen, Faming; Liu, Ruchun; Chen, Tianmu

    2017-09-01

    We report rabies virus transmission among solid organ transplantation recipients in Changsha, China, in 2016. Two recipients were confirmed to have rabies and died. Our findings suggest that more attention should be paid to the possibility of rabies virus transmission through organ transplantation for clinical and public health reasons.

  20. Human Infection with Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus - China

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... response operations Diseases Biorisk reduction Disease outbreak news Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus – China ... Region (SAR) notified WHO of a laboratory-confirmed human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus and ...

  1. High frequency intergenomic recombination of suid herpesvirus 1 (SHV-1, Aujeszkys-disease virus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Lomniczi, B.

    1993-01-01

    Examples are given of observations made with field isolates of suid herpesvirus 1 (SHV-1) which indicate that intergenomic recombination is a common phenomenon associated with the virus. This was further confirmed by experimental co-infection of a pig with 2 virus strains with different, stable...

  2. Evidence for RNA recombination between distinct isolates of Pepino mosaic virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasiów-Jaroszewska, B.; Kuzniar, A.; Peters, S.A.; Leunissen, J.A.M.; Pospieszny, H.

    2010-01-01

    Genetic recombination plays an important role in the evolution of virus genomes. In this study we analyzed publicly available genomic sequences of Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) for recombination events using several bioinformatics tools. The genome-wide analyses not only confirm the presence of

  3. A Novel H1N2 Influenza Virus Related to the Classical and Human Influenza Viruses from Pigs in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yafen; Wu, Xiaowei; Wang, Nianchen; Ouyang, Guowen; Qu, Nannan; Cui, Jin; Qi, Yan; Liao, Ming; Jiao, Peirong

    2016-01-01

    Southern China has long been considered to be an epicenter of pandemic influenza viruses. The special environment, breeding mode, and lifestyle in southern China provides more chances for wild aquatic birds, domestic poultry, pigs, and humans to be in contact. This creates the opportunity for interspecies transmission and generation of new influenza viruses. In this study, we reported a novel reassortant H1N2 influenza virus from pigs in southern China. According to the phylogenetic trees and homology of the nucleotide sequence, the virus was confirmed to be a novel triple-reassortant H1N2 virus containing genes from classical swine (PB2, PB1, HA, NP, and NS genes), triple-reassortant swine (PA and M genes), and recent human (NA gene) lineages. It indicated that the novel reassortment virus among human and swine influenza viruses occurred in pigs in southern China. The isolation of the novel reassortant H1N2 influenza viruses provides further evidence that pigs are "mixing vessels," and swine influenza virus surveillance in southern China will provide important information about genetic evaluation and antigenic variation of swine influenza virus to formulate the prevention and control measures for the viruses.

  4. Identification of viral epitopes recognized by the immune system following vaccination and challenge with the H7N9 avian influenza virus from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    In March of 2013, the first cases of H7N9 influenza were reported in humans in China, and shortly thereafter the virus was confirmed from poultry in live bird markets. Since that time the virus has persisted in both human and avian populations. The genetic composition of these H7N9 influenza virus...

  5. Feature Detection, Characterization and Confirmation Methodology: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Apps, John; Doughty, Christine; Gwatney, Hope; Onishi, Celia Tiemi; Trautz, Robert; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2007-03-01

    This is the final report of the NUMO-LBNL collaborative project: Feature Detection, Characterization and Confirmation Methodology under NUMO-DOE/LBNL collaboration agreement, the task description of which can be found in the Appendix. We examine site characterization projects from several sites in the world. The list includes Yucca Mountain in the USA, Tono and Horonobe in Japan, AECL in Canada, sites in Sweden, and Olkiluoto in Finland. We identify important geologic features and parameters common to most (or all) sites to provide useful information for future repository siting activity. At first glance, one could question whether there was any commonality among the sites, which are in different rock types at different locations. For example, the planned Yucca Mountain site is a dry repository in unsaturated tuff, whereas the Swedish sites are situated in saturated granite. However, the study concludes that indeed there are a number of important common features and parameters among all the sites--namely, (1) fault properties, (2) fracture-matrix interaction (3) groundwater flux, (4) boundary conditions, and (5) the permeability and porosity of the materials. We list the lessons learned from the Yucca Mountain Project and other site characterization programs. Most programs have by and large been quite successful. Nonetheless, there are definitely 'should-haves' and 'could-haves', or lessons to be learned, in all these programs. Although each site characterization program has some unique aspects, we believe that these crosscutting lessons can be very useful for future site investigations to be conducted in Japan. One of the most common lessons learned is that a repository program should allow for flexibility, in both schedule and approach. We examine field investigation technologies used to collect site characterization data in the field. An extensive list of existing field technologies is presented, with some discussion on usage and limitations

  6. Feature Detection, Characterization and Confirmation Methodology: Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Apps, John; Doughty, Christine; Gwatney, Hope; Onishi, Celia Tiemi; Trautz, Robert; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2007-01-01

    This is the final report of the NUMO-LBNL collaborative project: Feature Detection, Characterization and Confirmation Methodology under NUMO-DOE/LBNL collaboration agreement, the task description of which can be found in the Appendix. We examine site characterization projects from several sites in the world. The list includes Yucca Mountain in the USA, Tono and Horonobe in Japan, AECL in Canada, sites in Sweden, and Olkiluoto in Finland. We identify important geologic features and parameters common to most (or all) sites to provide useful information for future repository siting activity. At first glance, one could question whether there was any commonality among the sites, which are in different rock types at different locations. For example, the planned Yucca Mountain site is a dry repository in unsaturated tuff, whereas the Swedish sites are situated in saturated granite. However, the study concludes that indeed there are a number of important common features and parameters among all the sites--namely, (1) fault properties, (2) fracture-matrix interaction (3) groundwater flux, (4) boundary conditions, and (5) the permeability and porosity of the materials. We list the lessons learned from the Yucca Mountain Project and other site characterization programs. Most programs have by and large been quite successful. Nonetheless, there are definitely 'should-haves' and 'could-haves', or lessons to be learned, in all these programs. Although each site characterization program has some unique aspects, we believe that these crosscutting lessons can be very useful for future site investigations to be conducted in Japan. One of the most common lessons learned is that a repository program should allow for flexibility, in both schedule and approach. We examine field investigation technologies used to collect site characterization data in the field. An extensive list of existing field technologies is presented, with some discussion on usage and limitations. Many of the

  7. A novel recombinant pseudorabies virus expressing parvovirus VP2 gene: Immunogenicity and protective efficacy in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Guo, Wanzhu; Xu, Zhiwen; Yan, Qigui; Luo, Yan; Shi, Qian; Chen, Dishi; Zhu, Ling; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2011-06-16

    Porcine parvovirus (PPV) VP2 gene has been successfully expressed in many expression systems resulting in self-assembly of virus-like particles (VLPs) with similar morphology to the native capsid. Here, a pseudorabies virus (PRV) system was adopted to express the PPV VP2 gene. A recombinant PRV SA215/VP2 was obtained by homologous recombination between the vector PRV viral DNA and a transfer plasmid. Then recombinant virus was purified with plaque purification, and its identity confirmed by PCR amplification, Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) analyses. Electronic microscopy of PRV SA215/VP2 confirmed self-assembly of both pseudorabies virus and VLPs from VP2 protein. Immunization of piglets with recombinant virus elicited PRV-specific and PPV-specific humoral immune responses and provided complete protection against a lethal dose of PRV challenges. Gilts immunized with recombinant viruses induced PPV-specific antibodies, and significantly reduced the mortality rate of (1 of 28) following virulent PPV challenge compared with the control (7 of 31). Furthermore, PPV virus DNA was not detected in the fetuses of recombinant virus immunized gilts. In this study, a recombinant PRV SA215/VP2 virus expressing PPV VP2 protein was constructed using PRV SA215 vector. The safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of the recombinant virus were demonstrated in piglets and primiparous gilts. This recombinant PRV SA215/VP2 represents a suitable candidate for the development of a bivalent vaccine against both PRV and PPV infection.

  8. Update: Ongoing Zika Virus Transmission - Puerto Rico, November 1, 2015-July 7, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Laura; Bello-Pagan, Melissa; Lozier, Matthew; Ryff, Kyle R; Espinet, Carla; Torres, Jomil; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Febo, Mitchelle Flores; Dirlikov, Emilio; Martinez, Alma; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge; Garcia, Myriam; Segarra, Marangely Olivero; Malave, Graciela; Rivera, Aidsa; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie; Rosinger, Asher; Kuehnert, Matthew J; Chung, Koo-Whang; Pate, Lisa L; Harris, Angela; Hemme, Ryan R; Lenhart, Audrey; Aquino, Gustavo; Zaki, Sherif; Read, Jennifer S; Waterman, Stephen H; Alvarado, Luisa I; Alvarado-Ramy, Francisco; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Thomas, Dana; Sharp, Tyler M; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda

    2016-08-05

    Zika virus is a flavivirus transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, and infection can be asymptomatic or result in an acute febrile illness with rash (1). Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a cause of microcephaly and other severe birth defects (2). Infection has also been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) (3) and severe thrombocytopenia (4,5). In December 2015, the Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDH) reported the first locally acquired case of Zika virus infection. This report provides an update to the epidemiology of and public health response to ongoing Zika virus transmission in Puerto Rico (6,7). A confirmed case of Zika virus infection is defined as a positive result for Zika virus testing by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for Zika virus in a blood or urine specimen. A presumptive case is defined as a positive result by Zika virus immunoglobulin M (IgM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA)* and a negative result by dengue virus IgM ELISA, or a positive test result by Zika IgM MAC-ELISA in a pregnant woman. An unspecified flavivirus case is defined as positive or equivocal results for both Zika and dengue virus by IgM ELISA. During November 1, 2015-July 7, 2016, a total of 23,487 persons were evaluated by PRDH and CDC Dengue Branch for Zika virus infection, including asymptomatic pregnant women and persons with signs or symptoms consistent with Zika virus disease or suspected GBS; 5,582 (24%) confirmed and presumptive Zika virus cases were identified. Persons with Zika virus infection were residents of 77 (99%) of Puerto Rico's 78 municipalities. During 2016, the percentage of positive Zika virus infection cases among symptomatic males and nonpregnant females who were tested increased from 14% in February to 64% in June. Among 9,343 pregnant women tested, 672 had confirmed or presumptive Zika virus infection, including 441 (66%) symptomatic women and 231 (34%) asymptomatic

  9. Elimination of Ebola Virus Transmission in Liberia - September 3, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawo, Luke; Fallah, Mosoka; Kateh, Francis; Nagbe, Thomas; Clement, Peter; Gasasira, Alex; Mahmoud, Nuha; Musa, Emmanuel; Lo, Terrence Q; Pillai, Satish K; Seeman, Sara; Sunshine, Brittany J; Weidle, Paul J; Nyensweh, Tolbert

    2015-09-11

    Following 42 days since the last Ebola virus disease (Ebola) patient was discharged from a Liberian Ebola treatment unit (ETU), September 3, 2015, marks the second time in a 4-month period that the World Health Organization (WHO) has declared Liberia free of Ebola virus transmission (1). The first confirmed Ebola cases in West Africa were identified in southeastern Guinea on March 23, 2014, and within 1 week, cases were identified and confirmed in Liberia (1). Since then, Liberia has reported 5,036 confirmed and probable Ebola cases and 4,808 Ebola-related deaths. The epidemic in Liberia peaked in late summer and early fall of 2014, when more than 200 confirmed and probable cases were reported each week .

  10. Pepino mosaic virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlugt, van der R.A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) is a relatively new plant virus that has become a signifi cant agronomical problem in a relatively short period of time. It is a member of the genus Potexvirus within the family Flexiviridae and is readily mechanically transmissible. It is capable of infecting tomato

  11. Avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza that is adapted to avian host species. Although the virus can be isolated from numerous avian species, the natural host reservoir species are dabbling ducks, shorebirds and gulls. Domestic poultry species (poultry being defined as birds that are rais...

  12. Hepatitis viruses overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis is major cause of morbidity or mortality worldwide, particularly in the developing world. The major causes of infective hepatitis are hepatitis viruses. A, B, C, D or E. In the acute phase, there are no clinical features that can reliably differentiate between these viruses. Infection may be asymptomatic or can present as.

  13. Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank

    2013-01-01

    This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.......This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus....

  14. Tobacco ringspot virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), and its vector, the dagger nematodes (Xiphinema americanum and related species) are widely distributed throughout the world. Cucumber, melon, and watermelon are particularly affected by TRSV. Symptoms can vary with plant age, the strain of the virus, and environment...

  15. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus, or RSV, causes cold-like symptoms but can be serious for infants and older adults. In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Eileen Schneider discusses this common virus and offers tips to prevent its spread.

  16. Viruses in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel, Ellen

    2011-09-21

    The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. Viruses as causes of direct loss of threatened species, such as the chelonid fibropapilloma associated herpesvirus and ranaviruses in farmed and wild tortoises and turtles, have re-focused attention back to the characterisation of the viruses as well as diagnosis and pathogenesis in the host itself.

  17. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmonds, Peter; Becher, Paul; Bukh, Jens

    2017-01-01

    The Flaviviridae is a family of small enveloped viruses with RNA genomes of 9000-13 000 bases. Most infect mammals and birds. Many flaviviruses are host-specific and pathogenic, such as hepatitis C virus in the genus Hepacivirus. The majority of known members in the genus Flavivirus are arthropod...

  18. ICTV virus taxonomy profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purdy, Michael A.; Harrison, Tim J.; Jameel, S.; Meng, X.J.; Okamoto, H.; Poel, Van Der W.H.M.; Smith, Donald B.; Lefkowitz, Elliot J.; Davison, Andrew J.; Siddell, Stuart G.; Simmonds, Peter; Adams, Michael J.; Smith, Donald B.; Orton, Richard J.; Knowles, Nick J.

    2017-01-01

    The family Hepeviridae includes enterically transmitted small non-enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses. It includes the genera Piscihepevirus, whose members infect fish, and Orthohepevirus, whose members infect mammals and birds. Members of the genus Orthohepevirus include hepatitis E virus, which

  19. Viruses of the Archaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prangishvili,, David; Basta, Tamara; Garrett, Roger Antony

    2016-01-01

    Viruses infecting members of Archaea, the third domain of life, constitute an integral, yet unique part of the virosphere. Many of these viruses, specifically the species that infect hyperthermophilic hosts, display morphotypes – for example, bottle shaped, spindle shaped, droplet shaped, coil sh...

  20. Strategy as a Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obed Madsen, Søren

    This article is based on virus theory (Røvik, 2007, 2011), and proposes to develop a framework that defines technology as a virus that penetrates the organism of an organization. The framework develops a new vocabulary, which can help in analyzing technologies and their negative effects on actors...... and organizations. In this paper, the virus theory is used to analyze a strategy process in an organization as an example of a technology. It shows how the strategy over time creates a memory loss, where the managers who are exposed to the virus forget their critique of the new strategy concept. The article also...... shows how resistant can be understood as being immune to a virus, since the strategy concepts bears resemblance to a former strategy concept. The article also argues that there should be more focus on the negative impacts of management tool and especially how organizations and managers are dealing...

  1. Searching for the Advantages of Virus Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Paul E.

    2003-02-01

    Sex (genetic exchange) is a nearly universal phenomenon in biological populations. But this is surprising given the costs associated with sex. For example, sex tends to break apart co-adapted genes, and sex causes a female to inefficiently contribute only half the genes to her offspring. Why then did sex evolve? One famous model poses that sex evolved to combat Muller's ratchet, the mutational load that accrues when harmful mutations drift to high frequencies in populations of small size. In contrast, the Fisher-Muller Hypothesis predicts that sex evolved to promote genetic variation that speeds adaptation in novel environments. Sexual mechanisms occur in viruses, which feature high rates of deleterious mutation and frequent exposure to novel or changing environments. Thus, confirmation of one or both hypotheses would shed light on the selective advantages of virus sex. Experimental evolution has been used to test these classic models in the RNA bacteriophage φ6, a virus that experiences sex via reassortment of its chromosomal segments. Empirical data suggest that sex might have originated in φ6 to assist in purging deleterious mutations from the genome. However, results do not support the idea that sex evolved because it provides beneficial variation in novel environments. Rather, experiments show that too much sex can be bad for φ6 promiscuity allows selfish viruses to evolve and spread their inferior genes to subsequent generations. Here I discuss various explanations for the evolution of segmentation in RNA viruses, and the added cost of sex when large numbers of viruses co-infect the same cell.

  2. Sequence recombination and conservation of Varroa destructor virus-1 and deformed wing virus in field collected honey bees (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    Full Text Available We sequenced small (s RNAs from field collected honeybees (Apis mellifera and bumblebees (Bombuspascuorum using the Illumina technology. The sRNA reads were assembled and resulting contigs were used to search for virus homologues in GenBank. Matches with Varroadestructor virus-1 (VDV1 and Deformed wing virus (DWV genomic sequences were obtained for A. mellifera but not B. pascuorum. Further analyses suggested that the prevalent virus population was composed of VDV-1 and a chimera of 5'-DWV-VDV1-DWV-3'. The recombination junctions in the chimera genomes were confirmed by using RT-PCR, cDNA cloning and Sanger sequencing. We then focused on conserved short fragments (CSF, size > 25 nt in the virus genomes by using GenBank sequences and the deep sequencing data obtained in this study. The majority of CSF sites confirmed conservation at both between-species (GenBank sequences and within-population (dataset of this study levels. However, conserved nucleotide positions in the GenBank sequences might be variable at the within-population level. High mutation rates (Pi>10% were observed at a number of sites using the deep sequencing data, suggesting that sequence conservation might not always be maintained at the population level. Virus-host interactions and strategies for developing RNAi treatments against VDV1/DWV infections are discussed.

  3. Varroa destructor Macula-like virus, Lake Sinai virus and other new RNA viruses in wild bumblebee hosts (Bombus pascuorum, Bombus lapidarius and Bombus pratorum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmentier, Laurian; Smagghe, Guy; de Graaf, Dirk C; Meeus, Ivan

    2016-02-01

    Pollinators such as bumblebees (Bombus spp.) are in decline worldwide which poses a threat not only for ecosystem biodiversity but also to human crop production services. One main cause of pollinator decline may be the infection and transmission of diseases including RNA viruses. Recently, new viruses have been discovered in honeybees, but information on the presence of these in wild bumblebees is largely not available. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of new RNA viruses in Bombus species, and can report for the first time Varroa destructor Macula-like virus (VdMLV) and Lake Sinai virus (LSV) infection in multiple wild bumblebee hosts of Bombus pascuorum, Bombus lapidarius and Bombus pratorum. We sampled in 4 locations in Flanders, Belgium. Besides, we confirmed Slow bee paralysis virus (SBPV) in wild bumblebees, but no positive samples were obtained for Big Sioux river virus (BSRV). Secondly, we screened for the influence of apiaries on the prevalence of these viruses. Our results indicated a location effect for the prevalence of VdMLV in Bombus species, with a higher prevalence in the proximity of honeybee apiaries mainly observed in one location. For LSV, the prevalence was not different in the proximity or at a 1.5 km-distance of apiaries, but we reported a different isolate with similarities to LSV-2 and "LSV-clade A" as described by Ravoet et al. (2015), which was detected both in Apis mellifera and Bombus species. In general, our results indicate the existence of a disease pool of new viruses that seems to be associated to a broad range of Apoidae hosts, including multiple Bombus species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus does not pose a risk to blood recipient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Roger Y; Hackett, John; Linnen, Jeffrey M; Dorsey, Kerri; Wu, Yanyun; Zou, Shimian; Qiu, Xiaoxing; Swanson, Priscilla; Schochetman, Gerald; Gao, Kui; Carrick, James M; Krysztof, David E; Stramer, Susan L

    2012-02-01

    When xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) was first reported in association with chronic fatigue syndrome, it was suggested that it might offer a risk to blood safety. Thus, the prevalence of the virus among blood donors and, if present, its transmissibility by transfusion need to be defined. Two populations of routine blood donor samples (1435 and 13,399) were obtained for prevalence evaluations; samples from a linked donor-recipient repository were also evaluated. Samples were tested for the presence of antibodies to XMRV-related recombinant antigens and/or for XMRV RNA, using validated, high-throughput systems. The presence of antibodies to XMRV could not be confirmed among a total of 17,249 blood donors or recipients (0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0%-0.017%); 1763 tested samples were nonreactive for XMRV RNA (0%; 95% CI, 0%-0.17%). Evidence of infection was absent from 109 recipients and 830 evaluable blood samples tested after transfusion of a total of 3741 blood components. XMRV and related murine leukemia virus (MLV) markers are not present among a large population of blood donors and evidence of transfusion transmission could not be detected. Thus, these viruses do not currently pose a threat to blood recipient safety and further actions relating to XMRV and MLV are not justified. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  5. Dengue virus-like particles mimic the antigenic properties of the infectious dengue virus envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Stefan W; Thomas, Ashlie; White, Laura; Stoops, Mark; Corten, Markus; Hannemann, Holger; de Silva, Aravinda M

    2018-04-02

    The 4 dengue serotypes (DENV) are mosquito-borne pathogens that are associated with severe hemorrhagic disease. DENV particles have a lipid bilayer envelope that anchors two membrane glycoproteins prM and E. Two E-protein monomers form head-to-tail homodimers and three E-dimers align to form "rafts" that cover the viral surface. Some human antibodies that strongly neutralize DENV bind to quaternary structure epitopes displayed on E protein dimers or higher order structures forming the infectious virus. Expression of prM and E in cell culture leads to the formation of DENV virus-like particles (VLPs) which are smaller than wildtype virus particles and replication defective due to the absence of a viral genome. There is no data available that describes the antigenic landscape on the surface of flavivirus VLPs in comparison to the better studied infectious virion. A large panel of well characterized antibodies that recognize epitope of ranging complexity were used in biochemical analytics to obtain a comparative antigenic surface view of VLPs in respect to virus particles. DENV patient serum depletions were performed the show the potential of VLPs in serological diagnostics. VLPs were confirmed to be heterogeneous in size morphology and maturation state. Yet, we show that many highly conformational and quaternary structure-dependent antibody epitopes found on virus particles are efficiently displayed on DENV1-4 VLP surfaces as well. Additionally, DENV VLPs can efficiently be used as antigens to deplete DENV patient sera from serotype specific antibody populations. This study aids in further understanding epitopic landscape of DENV VLPs and presents a comparative antigenic surface view of VLPs in respect to virus particles. We propose the use VLPs as a safe and practical alternative to infectious virus as a vaccine and diagnostic antigen.

  6. Computer Viruses: Pathology and Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, John R.; Lamon, William E.

    1992-01-01

    Explains how computer viruses were originally created, how a computer can become infected by a virus, how viruses operate, symptoms that indicate a computer is infected, how to detect and remove viruses, and how to prevent a reinfection. A sidebar lists eight antivirus resources. (four references) (LRW)

  7. Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) infecting Lycopersicon esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, El Sayed E; Saber, Ghada A; Fattouh, Faiza A

    2010-01-01

    Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) was detected in tomato crop (Lycopersicon esculentum) in Egypt with characteristic mosaic leaf deformation, stunting, and bushy growth symptoms. TBSV infection was confirmed serologically by ELISA and calculated incidence was 25.5%. Basic physicochemical properties of a purified TBSV Egh isolate were identical to known properties of tombusviruses of isometric 30-nm diameter particles, 41-kDa coat protein and the genome of approximately 4800 nt. This is the first TBSV isolate reported in Egypt. Cloning and partial sequencing of the isolate showed that it is more closely related to TBSV-P and TBSV-Ch than TBSV-Nf and TBSV-S strains of the virus. However, it is distinct from the above strains and could be a new strain of the virus which further confirms the genetic diversity of tombusviruses.

  8. Data-driven identification of potential Zika virus vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michelle V; Dallas, Tad A; Han, Barbara A; Murdock, Courtney C; Drake, John M

    2017-01-01

    Zika is an emerging virus whose rapid spread is of great public health concern. Knowledge about transmission remains incomplete, especially concerning potential transmission in geographic areas in which it has not yet been introduced. To identify unknown vectors of Zika, we developed a data-driven model linking vector species and the Zika virus via vector-virus trait combinations that confer a propensity toward associations in an ecological network connecting flaviviruses and their mosquito vectors. Our model predicts that thirty-five species may be able to transmit the virus, seven of which are found in the continental United States, including Culex quinquefasciatus and Cx. pipiens. We suggest that empirical studies prioritize these species to confirm predictions of vector competence, enabling the correct identification of populations at risk for transmission within the United States. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22053.001 PMID:28244371

  9. Mechanism of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus entry into cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrow, P; Oldstone, M B

    1994-01-01

    The path that the arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) uses to enter rodent fibroblastic cell lines was dissected by infectivity and inhibition studies and immunoelectron microscopy. Lysosomotropic weak bases (chloroquine and ammonium chloride) and carboxylic ionophores (monensin and nigericin) inhibited virus entry, assessed as virus nucleoprotein expression at early times post-infection, indicating that the entry process involved a pH-dependent fusion step in intracellular vesicles. That entry occurred in vesicles rather than by direct fusion of virions with the plasma membrane was confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy. The vesicles involved were large (150-300 nm diameter), smooth-walled, and not associated with clathrin. Unlike classical phagocytosis, virus uptake in these vesicles was a microfilament-independent process, as it was not blocked by cytochalasins. LCMV entry into rodent fibroblast cell lines thus involves viropexis in large smooth-walled vesicles, followed by a pH-dependent fusion event inside the cell.

  10. Incidence of viruses in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevremović Darko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A large-scale survey for highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. viruses in Serbia was performed from 2011 to 2015. A total of 81 leaf samples from 15 locations were collected and analyzed for the presence of 8 viruses. Serological ELISA assay was performed to determine the presence of: Blueberry scorch virus (BlScV, Blueberry shock virus (BlShV, Blueberry shoestring virus (BSSV, Blueberry leaf mottle virus (BLMoV, Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV and Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV. All samples were tested for the presence of Blueberry red ringspot virus (BRRV by PCR and for Blueberry mosaic-associated virus (BlMaV by RT-PCR test. The analyses confirmed the presence of BlMaV in 8 (9.9% samples and BRRV in 1 (1.2% sample. No BlScV, BlShV, BLMoV, BSSV, TRSV or ToRSV viruses were detected in any of the analyzed samples.

  11. Incidence of Viral Diseases and Occurrence of Three Unreported Viruses in Yams in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joong-Hwan Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available During 2012 to 2014, a survey for the presence of viral diseases in yam plants was carried out in a field of the Institute for Bioresources Research in Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea. A total of 88 leaf samples were collected and tested by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using specific primer sets. Eighty-one samples were positive for Broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV2, Chinese yam necrotic mosaic virus (ChYNMV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Japanese yam mosaic virus (JYMV, and Yam mild mosaic virus (YMMV, whereas Yam mosaic virus (YMV was not detected. Additionally, seven samples were negative for all viruses. Several samples exhibited mixed (double and triple infections. Three viruses (CMV, JYMV, and YMMV were detected for the first time in yam plants in Korea. A BLAST search showed that three viruses shared nucleotide identities with CMV-Ca (98%, JYMV-O2 (91%, and YMMV-TG_NH_1 (86%. Thus, our findings confirmed that yam plants cultivated in Korea were infected with multiple viruses with three of these viruses reported for the first time in Korea.

  12. XMRV: A New Virus in Prostate Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloia, Amanda L.; Sfanos, Karen S.; Isaacs, William B.; Zheng, Qizhi; Maldarelli, Frank; De Marzo, Angelo M.; Rein, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Several recent papers have reported the presence of a gammaretrovirus, termed “XMRV” (xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus) in prostate cancers (PCa). If confirmed, this could have enormous implications for the detection, prevention, and treatment of PCa. However, other papers report failure to detect XMRV in PCa. We tested nearly 800 PCa samples, using a combination of real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The PCR reactions were simultaneously monitored for amplification of a single-copy human gene, in order to confirm the quality of the sample DNA and its suitability for PCR. Controls demonstrated that the PCR assay could detect the XMRV in a single infected cell, even in the presence of a 10,000-fold excess of uninfected human cells. The IHC used two rabbit polyclonal antisera, each prepared against a purified MLV protein. Both antisera always stained XMRV-infected or – transfected cells, but never stained control cells. No evidence for XMRV in PCa was obtained in these experiments. We discuss possible explanations for the discrepancies in the results from different laboratories. It is possible that XMRV is not actually circulating in the human population; even if it is, the data do not seem to support a causal role for this virus in PCa. PMID:20966126

  13. [Viral encephalitis virus, a new bioterrorist menace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigaudeau, Sophie; Micol, Romain; Bricaire, François; Bossi, Philippe

    2005-01-29

    Often responsible for little known infections, today viral encephalitis viruses appear as a new bioterrorist menace, because of their easy production and their great pathogenic potential. Spraying is the best way to permit the rapid diffusion of certain encephalitis viruses. Diagnosis of viral encephalitis, predominating in tropical surroundings, is difficult. In the majority of cases, symptoms differ little from those of common flu. With supplementary examinations, the biological abnormalities are usually non-specific. There are no characteristic images on scans or MRI. Identification of the virus in the nasopharynx, blood or cerebrospinal fluid, in serology, PCR or RT-PCR permits confirmation of the virus. Treatment is essentially symptomatic and relies on appropriate reanimation measures. Ribavirin can be indicated in some cases such as the Rift Valley fever, but is formally contraindicated in West Nile encephalitis. The aim of terrorist groups who would use this type of weapon is more to provoke panic and disorganisation than to kill as many people as possible.

  14. Viruses in cystic fibrosis patients' airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billard, Lisa; Le Berre, Rozenn; Pilorgé, Léa; Payan, Christopher; Héry-Arnaud, Geneviève; Vallet, Sophie

    2017-11-01

    Although bacteria have historically been considered to play a major role in cystic fibrosis (CF) airway damage, a strong impact of respiratory viral infections (RVI) is also now recognized. Emerging evidence confirms that respiratory viruses are associated with deterioration of pulmonary function and exacerbation and facilitation of bacterial colonization in CF patients. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current knowledge on respiratory viruses in CF airways, to discuss the resulting inflammation and RVI response, to determine how to detect the viruses, and to assess their clinical consequences, prevalence, and interactions with bacteria. The most predominant are Rhinoviruses (RVs), significantly associated with CF exacerbation. Molecular techniques, and especially multiplex PCR, help to diagnose viral infections, and the coming rise of metagenomics will extend knowledge of viral populations in the complex ecosystem of CF airways. Prophylaxis and vaccination are currently available only for Respiratory syncytial and Influenza virus (IV), but antiviral molecules are being tested to improve CF patients' care. All the points raised in this review highlight the importance of taking account of RVIs and their potential impact on the CF airway ecosystem.

  15. Zika virus infection: a public health emergency!

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Muhammad Salman Haider; Qureshi, Bakhtawar Wajeeha; Khan, Ramsha

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus belongs to the family of Flaviviridae. The Flaviviridae family also includes other human pathogens like West Nile virus (WNV), Yellow fever virus (YFV), mosquito transmitted Dengue virus (DENV), Tick borne encephalitic virus (TBEV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Zika virus is a mosquito-borne disease and is transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquito.

  16. Development of transgenic watermelon resistant to Cucumber mosaic virus and Watermelon mosaic virus by using a single chimeric transgene construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Yi; Ku, Hsin-Mei; Chiang, Yi-Hua; Ho, Hsiu-Yin; Yu, Tsong-Ann; Jan, Fuh-Jyh

    2012-10-01

    Watermelon, an important fruit crop worldwide, is prone to attack by several viruses that often results in destructive yield loss. To develop a transgenic watermelon resistant to multiple virus infection, a single chimeric transgene comprising a silencer DNA from the partial N gene of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) fused to the partial coat protein (CP) gene sequences of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) and Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) was constructed and transformed into watermelon (cv. Feeling) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Single or multiple transgene copies randomly inserted into various locations in the genome were confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Transgenic watermelon R(0) plants were individually challenged with CMV, CGMMV or WMV, or with a mixture of these three viruses for resistance evaluation. Two lines were identified to exhibit resistance to CMV, CGMMV, WMV individually, and a mixed inoculation of the three viruses. The R(1) progeny of the two resistant R(0) lines showed resistance to CMV and WMV, but not to CGMMV. Low level accumulation of transgene transcripts in resistant plants and small interfering (si) RNAs specific to CMV and WMV were readily detected in the resistant R(1) plants by northern blot analysis, indicating that the resistance was established via RNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Loss of the CGMMV CP-transgene fragment in R1 progeny might be the reason for the failure to resistant CGMMV infection, as shown by the absence of a hybridization signal and no detectable siRNA specific to CGMMV in Southern and northern blot analyses. In summary, this study demonstrated that fusion of different viral CP gene fragments in transgenic watermelon contributed to multiple virus resistance via PTGS. The construct and resistant watermelon lines developed in this study could be used in a watermelon breeding program for resistance to multiple viruses.

  17. Progression of experimental chronic Aleutian mink disease virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Chriél, Mariann; Hansen, Mette Sif

    2016-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is found world-wide and has a major impact on mink health and welfare by decreasing reproduction and fur quality. In the majority of mink, the infection is subclinical and the diagnosis must be confirmed by serology or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Increased ...

  18. Ebolavirus Vaccines: Progress in the Fight Against Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Xin; Yao, Hang-Ping; Wu, Nan-Ping; Gao, Hai-Nv; Wu, Hai-Bo; Jin, Chang-Zhong; Lu, Xiang-Yun; Xie, Tian-Shen; Li, Lan-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Ebolaviruses are highly infectious pathogens that cause lethal Ebola virus disease (EVD) in humans and non-human primates (NHPs). Due to their high pathogenicity and transmissibility, as well as the potential to be misused as a bioterrorism agent, ebolaviruses would threaten the health of global populations if not controlled. In this review, we describe the origin and structure of ebolaviruses and the development of vaccines from the beginning of the 1980s, including conventional ebolavirus vaccines, DNA vaccines, Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs), vaccinia virus-based vaccines, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV)-like replicon particles, Kunjin virus-based vaccine, recombinant Zaire Ebolavirusx2206;VP30, recombinant cytomegalovirus (CMV)-based vaccines, recombinant rabies virus (RABV)-based vaccines, recombinant paramyxovirus-based vaccines, adenovirus-based vaccines and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based vaccines. No licensed vaccine or specific treatment is currently available to counteract ebolavirus infection, although DNA plasmids and several viral vector approaches have been evaluated as promising vaccine platforms. These vaccine candidates have been confirmed to be successful in protecting NHPs against lethal infection. Moreover, these vaccine candidates were successfully advanced to clinical trials. The present review provides an update of the current research on Ebola vaccines, with the aim of providing an overview on current prospects in the fight against EVD. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. A minireview of marine algal virus — Coccolithoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingwen; Xu, Miaomiao; Zheng, Tianling

    2015-04-01

    Coccolithophorid is unicellular marine microalgae with a global distribution in temperate and sub-temperate oceanic regions and has the ability to produce `the coccoliths'. It is considered to be the second most productive calcifying organism on earth and becoming an important factor in the global carbonate cycle. Emiliania huxleyi is one of the only two bloom-forming coccolithophores and becomes a species crucial to the study of global biogeochemical cycles and climate modeling. Coccolithoviruse is a recently discovered group of viruses infecting the marine coccolithophorid E. huxleyi. They are a major cause of coccolithophore bloom termination, and DMSP concentration is increasing in the process of viral lysis. Phylogenetic evidences support that some genes are functional both in E. huxleyi and its virus (EhV). Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of multiple functionally coupled enzymes occurs in E. huxleyi and its DNA virus EhV has been confirmed, which contributes to the diversification and adaptation of plankton in the oceans and also critically regulates virus-host infection by allowing viruses to control host metabolic pathways for their replication. Therefore, it is of particular interest to understand this host-virus interaction. On this issue, we have made a minireview of coccolithoviruses focusing on the basic characteristics, phylogenesis, horizontal gene transfer and the interaction between the host and its viruses, as well as its important role in global biogeochemical cycling.

  20. Ebolavirus Vaccines: Progress in the Fight Against Ebola Virus Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xin Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ebolaviruses are highly infectious pathogens that cause lethal Ebola virus disease (EVD in humans and non-human primates (NHPs. Due to their high pathogenicity and transmissibility, as well as the potential to be misused as a bioterrorism agent, ebolaviruses would threaten the health of global populations if not controlled. In this review, we describe the origin and structure of ebolaviruses and the development of vaccines from the beginning of the 1980s, including conventional ebolavirus vaccines, DNA vaccines, Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs, vaccinia virus-based vaccines, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV-like replicon particles, Kunjin virus-based vaccine, recombinant Zaire Ebolavirus∆VP30, recombinant cytomegalovirus (CMV-based vaccines, recombinant rabies virus (RABV-based vaccines, recombinant paramyxovirus-based vaccines, adenovirus-based vaccines and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-based vaccines. No licensed vaccine or specific treatment is currently available to counteract ebolavirus infection, although DNA plasmids and several viral vector approaches have been evaluated as promising vaccine platforms. These vaccine candidates have been confirmed to be successful in protecting NHPs against lethal infection. Moreover, these vaccine candidates were successfully advanced to clinical trials. The present review provides an update of the current research on Ebola vaccines, with the aim of providing an overview on current prospects in the fight against EVD.

  1. Hepatitis A virus antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, J.; Kselikova, M.; Urbankova, J.

    1980-01-01

    A description is presented of a radioimmunoassay designed to prove the presence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus (HA Ab, anti-Ha) using an Abbott HAVAB set. This proof as well as the proof of the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis B virus is based on competition between a normal antibody against hepatitis A virus and a 125 I-labelled antibody for the binding sites of a specific antigen spread all over the surface of a tiny ball; this is then indirect proof of the antibody under investigation. The method is described of reading the results from the number of impulses per 60 seconds: the higher the titre of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in the serum examined, the lower the activity of the specimen concerned. The rate is reported of incidence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in a total of 68 convalescents after hepatitis A; the antibody was found in 94.1%. The immunoglobulin made from the convalescents' plasma showed the presence of antibodies in dilutions as high as 1:250 000 while the comparable ratio for normal immunoglobulin Norga was only 1:2500. Differences are discussed in the time incidence of the antibodies against the hepatitis A virus, the antibodies against the surface antigen of hepatitis B, and the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis V virus. (author)

  2. Ocular Tropism of Respiratory Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Paul A.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism. PMID:23471620

  3. Polarisation confirmed

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    The polarisation of photons emitted in the decay of a bottom quark into a strange quark, as predicted by the Standard Model, has just been observed for the first time by the LHCb collaboration. More detailed research is still required to determine the value of this polarisation with precision.   In this LHCb event, K, π and γ are emitted from a B+ → K+π-π+γ decay. This was investigated by the LHCb collaboration in order to study the photon (γ) polarisation.   If we imagine that photons are like little spinning tops which spin around an axis aligned with their direction of propagation, we can identify two types of photons. Those that are “right-handed” turn in the same direction as a corkscrew, and those that are “left-handed” turn in the opposite direction. If for a large number of decays of a given type we can observe an imbalance between the production of right-han...

  4. Influence of the Leader protein coding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus on virus replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) Leader (L) protein is produced in two forms, Lab and Lb, differing only at their amino-termini, due to the use of separate initiation codons, usually 84 nt apart. It has been shown previously, and confirmed here, that precise deletion of the Lab coding......, in the context of the virus lacking the Lb coding region, was also tolerated by the virus within BHK cells. However, precise loss of the Lb coding sequence alone blocked FMDV replication in primary bovine thyroid cells. Thus, the requirement for the Leader protein coding sequences is highly dependent...... on the nature and extent of the residual Leader protein sequences and on the host cell system used. FMDVs precisely lacking Lb and with the Lab initiation codon modified may represent safer seed viruses for vaccine production....

  5. VHS virus - present situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    of the worldwide distribution of the disease will be given. Virus evolution: Recent studies indicate that only a few amino acid changes in the structural proteins of VHSV can change the virulence patterns significantly, thereby coming closer to assessing the risk of none to low virulent viruses becoming high...... virulent. Virulence factors both depend on the ability of VHSV to enter a cell and on the speed and efficiencyof virus replication in the cells. Apparently the viral nucleocapsid protein plays a very important role for the later and seems to be the target for determination of a virulence marker....

  6. Zika virus in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veasna Duong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of Zika cases in Asia are explored.

  7. Zika virus in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Veasna Duong; Philippe Dussart; Philippe Buchy

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of...

  8. Zika virus in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Veasna; Dussart, Philippe; Buchy, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of Zika cases in Asia are explored. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Viruses in reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Ellen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. Viruses as causes of direct loss of threatened species, such as the chelonid fibropapilloma associated herpesvirus and ranaviruses in farmed and wild tortoises and turtles, have re-focused attention back to the characterisation of the viruses as well as diagnosis and pathogenesis in the host itself. 1. Introduction 2. Methods for working with reptilian viruses 3. Reptilian viruses described by virus families 3.1. Herpesviridae 3.2. Iridoviridae 3.2.1 Ranavirus 3.2.2 Erythrocytic virus 3.2.3 Iridovirus 3.3. Poxviridae 3.4. Adenoviridae 3.5. Papillomaviridae 3.6. Parvoviridae 3.7. Reoviridae 3.8. Retroviridae and inclusion body disease of Boid snakes 3.9. Arboviruses 3.9.1. Flaviviridae 3

  10. BS-virus-finder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Shengjie; Hu, Xuesong; Xu, Fengping

    2018-01-01

    Background: DNA methylation plays a key role in the regulation of gene expression and carcinogenesis. Bisulfite sequencing studies mainly focus on calling SNP, DMR, and ASM. Until now, only a few software tools focus on virus integration using bisulfite sequencing data. Findings: We have developed...... a new and easy-to-use software tool, named BS-virus-finder (BSVF, RRID:SCR_015727), to detect viral integration breakpoints in whole human genomes. The tool is hosted at https://github.com/BGI-SZ/BSVF. Conclusions: BS-virus-finder demonstrates high sensitivity and specificity. It is useful in epigenetic...

  11. Are endogenous feline leukemia viruses really endogenous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, H; Jarrett, O; Hosie, M J; Willett, B J

    2011-10-15

    Full length endogenous feline leukemia virus (FeLV) proviruses exist within the genomes of many breeds of domestic cat raising the possibility that they may also exist in a transmissible exogenous form. Such viruses would share receptor usage with the recombinant FeLV-B subgroup, a viral subgroup that arises in vivo by recombination between exogenous subgroup A virus (FeLV-A) and endogenous FeLV. Accordingly, all isolates of FeLV-B made to date have contained a "helper" FeLV-A, consistent with their recombinatorial origin. In order to assess whether endogenous viruses are transmitted between cats, we examined primary isolates of FeLV for which the viral subgroup had been determined for the presence of a subgroup B virus that lacked an FeLV-A. Here we describe the identification of two primary field isolates of FeLV (2518 and 4314) that appeared to contain subgroup B virus only by classical interference assays, raising the possibility of between-host transmission of endogenous FeLV. Sequencing of the env gene and U3 region of the 3' long terminal repeat (LTR) confirmed that both viral genomes contained endogenous viral env genes. However the viral 3' LTRs appeared exogenous in origin with a putative 3' recombination breakpoint residing at the 3' end of the env gene. Further, the FeLV-2518 virions also co-packaged a truncated FeLV-A genome containing a defective env gene, termed FeLV-2518(A) whilst no helper subgroup A viral genome was detected in virions of FeLV-4314. The acquisition of an exogenous LTR by the endogenous FeLV in 4314 may have allowed a recombinant FeLV variant to outgrow an exogenous FeLV-A virus that was presumably present during first infection. Given time, a similar evolution may also occur within the 2518 isolate. The data suggest that endogenous FeLVs may be mobilised by acquisition of exogenous LTRs yielding novel viruses that type biologically as FeLV-B. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of human papilloma virus and human herpes virus types 1-7 in human nasal polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaravinos, Apostolos; Bizakis, John; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2009-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV), herpes simplex virus-1/-2 (HSV-1/-2), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpes virus-6/-7 (HHV-6/-7) in 23 human nasal polyps by applying PCR. Two types of control tissues were used: adjacent inferior/middle turbinates from the patients and inferior/middle turbinates from 13 patients undergoing nasal corrective surgery. EBV was the virus most frequently detected (35%), followed by HPV (13%), HSV-1 (9%), and CMV (4%). The CMV-positive polyp was simultaneously positive for HSV-1. HPV was also detected in the adjacent turbinates (4%) and the adjacent middle turbinate (4%) of one of the HPV-positive patients. EBV, HSV, and CMV were not detected in the adjacent turbinates of the EBV-, HSV- or CMV-positive patients. All mucosae were negative for the VZV, HHV-6, and HHV-7. This is the first study to deal with the involvement of a comparable group of viruses in human nasal polyposis. The findings support the theory that the presence of viral EBV markedly influences the pathogenesis of these benign nasal tumors. The low incidence of HPV detected confirms the hypothesis that HPV is correlated with infectious mucosal lesions to a lesser extent than it is with proliferative lesions, such as inverted papilloma. The low incidence of HSV-1 and CMV confirms that these two herpes viruses may play a minor role in the development of nasal polyposis. Double infection with HSV-1 and CMV may also play a minor, though causative, role in nasal polyp development. VZV and HHV-6/-7 do not appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of these mucosal lesions.

  13. Ferrets Infected with Bundibugyo Virus or Ebola Virus Recapitulate Important Aspects of Human Filovirus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Robert; He, Shihua; Kroeker, Andrea; de La Vega, Marc-Antoine; Audet, Jonathan; Wong, Gary; Urfano, Chantel; Antonation, Kym; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Kobinger, Gary P; Qiu, Xiangguo

    2016-10-15

    Bundibugyo virus (BDBV) is the etiological agent of a severe hemorrhagic fever in humans with a case-fatality rate ranging from 25 to 36%. Despite having been known to the scientific and medical communities for almost 1 decade, there is a dearth of studies on this pathogen due to the lack of a small animal model. Domestic ferrets are commonly used to study other RNA viruses, including members of the order Mononegavirales To investigate whether ferrets were susceptible to filovirus infections, ferrets were challenged with a clinical isolate of BDBV. Animals became viremic within 4 days and succumbed to infection between 8 and 9 days, and a petechial rash was observed with moribund ferrets. Furthermore, several hallmarks of human filoviral disease were recapitulated in the ferret model, including substantial decreases in lymphocyte and platelet counts and dysregulation of key biochemical markers related to hepatic/renal function, as well as coagulation abnormalities. Virological, histopathological, and immunohistochemical analyses confirmed uncontrolled BDBV replication in the major organs. Ferrets were also infected with Ebola virus (EBOV) to confirm their susceptibility to another filovirus species and to potentially establish a virus transmission model. Similar to what was seen with BDBV, important hallmarks of human filoviral disease were observed in EBOV-infected ferrets. This study demonstrates the potential of this small animal model for studying BDBV and EBOV using wild-type isolates and will accelerate efforts to understand filovirus pathogenesis and transmission as well as the development of specific vaccines and antivirals. The 2013-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus in West Africa has highlighted the threat posed by filoviruses to global public health. Bundibugyo virus (BDBV) is a member of the genus Ebolavirus and has caused outbreaks in the past but is relatively understudied, likely due to the lack of a suitable small animal model. Such a model for BDBV is

  14. The condensation of water on adsorbed viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, José María; Tatti, Francesco; Chuvilin, Andrey; Mam, Keriya; Ondarçuhu, Thierry; Bittner, Alexander M

    2013-11-26

    The wetting and dewetting behavior of biological nanostructures and to a greater degree single molecules is not well-known even though their contact with water is the basis for all biology. Here, we show that environmental electron microscopy (EM) can be applied as a means of imaging the condensation of water onto viruses. We captured the formation of submicrometer water droplets and filaments on single viral particles by environmental EM and by environmental transmission EM. The condensate structures are compatible with capillary condensation between adsorbed virus particles and with known droplet shapes on patterned surfaces. Our results confirm that such droplets exist down to condensation/evaporation cycle as expected from their stability in air and water. Moreover we developed procedures that overcome problems of beam damage and of resolving structures with a low atomic number.

  15. Screening Criteria for Ophthalmic Manifestations of Congenital Zika Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zin, Andrea A; Tsui, Irena; Rossetto, Julia; Vasconcelos, Zilton; Adachi, Kristina; Valderramos, Stephanie; Halai, Umme-Aiman; Pone, Marcos Vinicius da Silva; Pone, Sheila Moura; Silveira Filho, Joel Carlos Barros; Aibe, Mitsue S; da Costa, Ana Carolina C; Zin, Olivia A; Belfort, Rubens; Brasil, Patricia; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes

    2017-09-01

    Current guidelines recommend screening eye examinations for infants with microcephaly or laboratory-confirmed Zika virus infection but not for all infants potentially exposed to Zika virus in utero. To evaluate eye findings in a cohort of infants whose mothers had polymerase chain reaction-confirmed Zika virus infection during pregnancy. In this descriptive case series performed from January 2 through October 30, 2016, infants were examined from birth to 1 year of age by a multidisciplinary medical team, including a pediatric ophthalmologist, from Fernandes Figueira Institute, a Ministry of Health referral center for high-risk pregnancies and infectious diseases in children in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Mother-infant pairs from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, who presented with suspected Zika virus infection during pregnancy were referred to our institution and had serum, urine, amniotic fluid, or placenta samples tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction for Zika virus. Description of eye findings, presence of microcephaly or other central nervous system abnormalities, and timing of infection in infants with confirmed Zika virus during pregnancy. Eye abnormalities were correlated with central nervous system findings, microcephaly, and the timing of maternal infection. Of the 112 with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed Zika virus infection in maternal specimens, 24 infants (21.4%) examined had eye abnormalities (median age at first eye examination, 31 days; range, 0-305 days). Ten infants (41.7%) with eye abnormalities did not have microcephaly, and 8 (33.3%) did not have any central nervous system findings. Fourteen infants with eye abnormalities (58.3%) were born to women infected in the first trimester, 8 (33.3%) in the second trimester, and 2 (8.3%) in the third trimester. Optic nerve and retinal abnormalities were the most frequent findings. Eye abnormalities were statistically associated with microcephaly (odds ratio [OR], 19.1; 95% CI, 6.0-61.0), other central

  16. Ebola Virus Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast provides general information about Ebola virus disease and the outbreak in West Africa. The program contains remarks from CDC Director Dr. Tom Frieden, as well as a brief description of CDC’s response efforts.

  17. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG ... Virus and Pregnancy Infographic Resources & Publications Committee Opinions Practice Bulletins Patient Education Green Journal Clinical Updates Practice ...

  18. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dues Follow us: Women's Health Care Physicians Contact Us My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus ...

  19. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ... pregnant. Related: Zika Virus and Pregnancy Infographic Resources & Publications Committee Opinions Practice Bulletins Patient Education Green Journal ...

  20. CLASSIFICATION OF VIRUSES

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. CLASSIFICATION OF VIRUSES. On basis of morphology. On basis of chemical composition. On basis of structure of genome. On basis of mode of replication. Notes:

  1. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and ... on Patient Safety For Patients Patient FAQs Spanish Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & Governance ...

  2. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus ... and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September ...

  3. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus ... Infographic Resources & Publications Committee Opinions Practice ... Coding Health Info Technology Professional Liability Managing Your ...

  4. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  5. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ... pregnant. Related: Zika Virus and Pregnancy ... Committee Opinions Practice Bulletins Patient Education Green Journal ...

  6. Hepatitis E Virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Before the discovery of hepatitis E virus (HEV), many epidemics of hepatitis in ... HEV was discovered in 1983 in the ... HEV infection is increased by HIV infection in pregnancy. (Caron et al. .... immunosuppressive therapy on the natural history.

  7. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy ... Council on Patient Safety For Patients Patient FAQs Spanish Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  8. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Login My ACOG Join Pay Dues Follow us: Women's Health Care Physicians Contact Us My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus ...

  9. VIRUS instrument enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2014-08-01

    The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

  10. The virus of management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Peter; Frankel, Christian

    2003-01-01

    The virus metaphor may be used in studies of management knowledge not only as a way ofdescribing diffusion processes but also as a way of thinking about viral elements of knowledgeproduction. In the present article, organizational viruses are viewed as ensembles of basicdistinctions...... that are constitutive of concrete bodies of knowledge and which form mutable enginesof organizational self-descriptions. Organizational viruses, we contend, are both characterized bystability in terms of their basic productive configuration, while at the same time allowing for a highdegree of variation in terms...... of concrete management knowledge and practice. The article isstructured as follows. After the introduction, we first develop the notion of organizational virus asinto an analytical approach. Second, we discern in the work of Frederick Taylor on scientificmanagement and Max Weber on bureaucracy, two quite...

  11. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and ... Bulletins Patient Education Green Journal Clinical Updates ... Annual Meeting CME Overview CREOG Meetings Calendar Congressional ...

  12. Extensive sequence divergence among bovine respiratory syncytial viruses isolated during recurrent outbreaks in closed herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Viuff, B.

    2000-01-01

    and veal calf production units) in different years and from all confirmed outbreaks in Denmark within a short period. The results showed that identical viruses were isolated within a herd during outbreaks and that viruses from recurrent infections varied by up to 11% in sequence even in closed herds......The nucleotides coding for the extracellular part of the G glycoprotein and the full SH protein of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) were sequenced from viruses isolated from numerous outbreaks of BRSV infection. The isolates included viruses isolated from the same herd (closed dairy farms....... It is possible that a quasispecies variant swarm of BRSV persisted in some of the calves in each herd and that a new and different highly fit virus type (master and consensus sequence) became dominant and spread from a single animal in connection with each new outbreak. Based on the high level of diversity...

  13. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-04

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus, or RSV, causes cold-like symptoms but can be serious for infants and older adults. In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Eileen Schneider discusses this common virus and offers tips to prevent its spread.  Created: 2/4/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Viral Diseases (DVD).   Date Released: 2/13/2013.

  14. Genome packaging in viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Siyang; Rao, Venigalla B.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Genome packaging is a fundamental process in a viral life cycle. Many viruses assemble preformed capsids into which the genomic material is subsequently packaged. These viruses use a packaging motor protein that is driven by the hydrolysis of ATP to condense the nucleic acids into a confined space. How these motor proteins package viral genomes had been poorly understood until recently, when a few X-ray crystal structures and cryo-electron microscopy structures became available. Here we discu...

  15. Viruses and Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Jussi Oskari; Jacobson, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a heterogeneous disease that develops as an interplay between the immune system and environmental stimuli in genetically susceptible individuals. There is increasing evidence that viruses may play a role in MS pathogenesis acting as these environmental triggers. However, it is not known if any single virus is causal, or rather several viruses can act as triggers in disease development. Here, we review the association of different viruses to MS with an emphasis on two herpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6). These two agents have generated the most impact during recent years as possible co-factors in MS disease development. The strongest argument for association of EBV with MS comes from the link between symptomatic infectious mononucleosis and MS and from seroepidemiological studies. In contrast to EBV, HHV-6 has been found significantly more often in MS plaques than in MS normal appearing white matter or non-MS brains and HHV-6 re-activation has been reported during MS clinical relapses. In this review we also suggest new strategies, including the development of new infectious animal models of MS and antiviral MS clinical trials, to elucidate roles of different viruses in the pathogenesis of this disease. Furthermore, we introduce the idea of using unbiased sequence-independent pathogen discovery methodologies, such as next generation sequencing, to study MS brain tissue or body fluids for detection of known viral sequences or potential novel viral agents. PMID:22583435

  16. A multiplex PCR for detection of six viruses in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjuan; Zhu, Shanyuan; Hong, Weiming; Wang, Anping; Zuo, Weiyong

    2017-10-01

    In this study, six pairs of specific primers that can amplify DNA fragments of different sizes were designed and synthesized according to viral protein gene sequences published in GenBank. Then, a multiplex PCR method was established for rapid detection of duck hepatitis virus 1, duck plague virus, duck Tembusu virus, muscovy duck parvovirus, muscovy duck reovirus, and duck H9N2 avian influenza virus, and achieve simple and rapid detection of viral diseases in ducks. Single PCR was used to confirm primer specificity, and PCR conditions were optimized to construct a multiplex PCR system. Specificity and sensitivity assays were also developed. The multiplex PCR was used to detect duck embryos infected with mixed viruses and those with clinically suspected diseases to verify the feasibility of the multiplex PCR. Results show that the primers can specifically amplify target fragments, without any cross-amplification with other viruses. The multiplex PCR system can amplify six DNA fragments from the pooled viral genomes and specifically detect nucleic acids of the six duck susceptible viruses when the template amount is 10 2 copies/μl. In addition, the system can be used to detect viral nucleic acids in duck embryos infected with the six common viruses. The detection results for clinical samples are consistent with those detected by single PCR. Therefore, the established multiplex PCR method can perform specific, sensitive, and high-throughput detection of six duck-infecting viruses and can be applied to clinical identification and diagnosis of viral infection in ducks. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. In vivo thermoterapy: attempt to eliminate virus in potato tuber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayu Astarini, Ida; Margareth, Deborah; Temaja, I. Gede Rai Maya

    2018-03-01

    Potato is one of an important vegetable crop in Indonesia, including Bali. Main potato production areas in Bali are at Bedugul region, 1.200 m above sea level. Potato production in Bali continued to decrease due to diseases infection, such as early blight, late blight, black leg and virus diseases. Potato farmers in Bali usually set aside their harvest as seed potatoes, resulting in virus diseases being carried out on the next planting seasons and eventually would decrease potato production both in quantity and quality. Four types of virus were confirmed: PVY, PVX, PVS and PRLV. A number of studies have reported thermotherapy technique has been employed to eliminate potato virus in vitro. However, this technique is not readily available for farmers, since there is no established tissue culture laboratory to support. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a more practical method. The objective of this study was to eliminate virus on seed potatoes using thermotherapy on tuber. Seed potatoes with 1 cm sprout which were virus positive were placed on sterile charred rice paddy husk, and then put into a humidified incubator. Tubers were exposed to 37°C for four days followed by 34°C for three days alternately for two weeks and three weeks duration. Four tubers received heat exposure regime for each virus type. After thermotherapy, potato tubers were transferred to pots containing charred rice paddy husk and maintain for three weeks until new leaves emerge for virus analyses. Results show that seed tubers experienced delayed growth after thermotherapy. Control plants sprout one week after thermotherapy, while treated plants were not yet sprouting. Experiment is currently underway. It is expected that heat treatment on tuber will give a practical method for farmers to eliminate virus of seed potatoes.

  18. Transmission of Influenza A Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause respiratory infections that range from asymptomatic to deadly in humans. Widespread outbreaks (pandemics) are attributable to ‘novel’ viruses that possess a viral hemagglutinin (HA) gene to which humans lack immunity. After a pandemic, these novel viruses form stable virus lineages in humans and circulate until they are replaced by other novel viruses. The factors and mechanisms that facilitate virus transmission among hosts and the establishment of novel lineages are not completely understood, but the HA and basic polymerase 2 (PB2) proteins are thought to play essential roles in these processes by enabling avian influenza viruses to infect mammals and replicate efficiently in their new host. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the contributions of HA, PB2, and other viral components to virus transmission and the formation of new virus lineages. PMID:25812763

  19. Evolutionary ecology of virus emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, John J

    2017-02-01

    The cross-species transmission of viruses into new host populations, termed virus emergence, is a significant issue in public health, agriculture, wildlife management, and related fields. Virus emergence requires overlap between host populations, alterations in virus genetics to permit infection of new hosts, and adaptation to novel hosts such that between-host transmission is sustainable, all of which are the purview of the fields of ecology and evolution. A firm understanding of the ecology of viruses and how they evolve is required for understanding how and why viruses emerge. In this paper, I address the evolutionary mechanisms of virus emergence and how they relate to virus ecology. I argue that, while virus acquisition of the ability to infect new hosts is not difficult, limited evolutionary trajectories to sustained virus between-host transmission and the combined effects of mutational meltdown, bottlenecking, demographic stochasticity, density dependence, and genetic erosion in ecological sinks limit most emergence events to dead-end spillover infections. Despite the relative rarity of pandemic emerging viruses, the potential of viruses to search evolutionary space and find means to spread epidemically and the consequences of pandemic viruses that do emerge necessitate sustained attention to virus research, surveillance, prophylaxis, and treatment. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. Confirmação molecular do 'Maize rayado fino virus' como vírus da estria do milho

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, Rosemarie Wahnbaeck; Bedendo, Ivan Paulo

    2005-01-01

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV), present in various countries in Latin America, has shown similarities to corn streak virus that occurs in Brazil, regarding pathogenic, serological and histological characteristics. In the current report both virus were molecularly compared to confirm the similarities between them. MRFV was identified by nucleic acid hybridization in samples of maize tissues exhibiting symptoms of "corn stunt" disease, collected from two Brazilian States - São Paulo and Minas G...

  1. Subclinical avian influenza A(H5N1) virus infection in human, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, Mai Quynh; Horby, Peter; Fox, Annette; Nguyen, Hien Tran; Le Nguyen, Hang Khanh; Hoang, Phuong Mai Vu; Nguyen, Khanh Cong; de Jong, Menno D.; Jeeninga, Rienk E.; Rogier van Doorn, H.; Farrar, Jeremy; Wertheim, Heiman F. L.

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory-confirmed cases of subclinical infection with avian influenza A(H5N1) virus in humans are rare, and the true number of these cases is unknown. We describe the identification of a laboratory-confirmed subclinical case in a woman during an influenza A(H5N1) contact investigation in northern

  2. A neonatal murine model for evaluation of enterovirus E HY12 virus infection and pathogenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Gai

    Full Text Available HY12 viruses are enteroviruses recently isolated from cattle characterized by severe respiratory and digestive disease with high morbidity and mortality in China. While the viruses exhibit unique biological and molecular characters distinct from known enterovirus E, the pathogenicity and viral pathogenesis remains largely unknown.Neonatal mice of Balb/C, ICR, and Kunming strain are infected with HY12 to determine the susceptible mouse strain. The minimal infection dose, the virus infection routes, the pathogenicity and tissue tropism for HY12 were determined by infecting susceptible mice with HY12 viruses, and confirmed by different approaches including virus isolation and recovery, virus detection, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry.A murine model for HY12 infection was successfully established and employed to investigate the pathogenicity of HY12 viruses. ICR mouse strain is the most susceptible strain for HY12 infection with a minimal infective dose as 2×106TCID50/mouse. HY12 viruses have the capability of infecting ICR suckling mice via all infection routes including intranasal administration, oral administration, intraperitoneal injection, subcutaneous injection, and intramuscular injection, which are confirmed by the isolation and recovery of viruses from HY12-infected mice; detection of viruses by RT-PCR; observations of pathological lesions and inflammatory cell infiltrations in the intestine, lung, liver, and brain; uncovering of HY12 virus antigens in majority of tissues, especially in intestine, lung, and infected brain of mice by immunohistochemistry assay.A neonatal murine model for HY12 infection is successfully established for determining the susceptible mouse strain, the minimal infective dose, the infection route, the viral pathogenicity and the tropism of HY12, thus providing an invaluable model system for elucidating the pathogenesis of HY12 viruses and the elicited immunity.

  3. RNA viruses in hymenopteran pollinators: evidence of inter-Taxa virus transmission via pollen and potential impact on non-Apis hymenopteran species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajwinder Singh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Although overall pollinator populations have declined over the last couple of decades, the honey bee (Apis mellifera malady, colony collapse disorder (CCD, has caused major concern in the agricultural community. Among honey bee pathogens, RNA viruses are emerging as a serious threat and are suspected as major contributors to CCD. Recent detection of these viral species in bumble bees suggests a possible wider environmental spread of these viruses with potential broader impact. It is therefore vital to study the ecology and epidemiology of these viruses in the hymenopteran pollinator community as a whole. We studied the viral distribution in honey bees, in their pollen loads, and in other non-Apis hymenopteran pollinators collected from flowering plants in Pennsylvania, New York, and Illinois in the United States. Viruses in the samples were detected using reverse transcriptase-PCR and confirmed by sequencing. For the first time, we report the molecular detection of picorna-like RNA viruses (deformed wing virus, sacbrood virus and black queen cell virus in pollen pellets collected directly from forager bees. Pollen pellets from several uninfected forager bees were detected with virus, indicating that pollen itself may harbor viruses. The viruses in the pollen and honey stored in the hive were demonstrated to be infective, with the queen becoming infected and laying infected eggs after these virus-contaminated foods were given to virus-free colonies. These viruses were detected in eleven other non-Apis hymenopteran species, ranging from many solitary bees to bumble bees and wasps. This finding further expands the viral host range and implies a possible deeper impact on the health of our ecosystem. Phylogenetic analyses support that these viruses are disseminating freely among the pollinators via the flower pollen itself. Notably, in cases where honey bee apiaries affected by CCD harbored honey bees with Israeli Acute Paralysis virus (IAPV, nearby

  4. Association of Paramecium bursaria Chlorella viruses with Paramecium bursaria cells: ultrastructural studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchenko, Varvara V; Gavrilova, Olga V; Rautian, Maria S; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

    2012-05-01

    Paramecium bursaria Chlorella viruses were observed by applying transmission electron microscopy in the native symbiotic system Paramecium bursaria (Ciliophora, Oligohymenophorea) and the green algae Chlorella (Chlorellaceae, Trebouxiophyceae). Virus particles were abundant and localized in the ciliary pits of the cortex and in the buccal cavity of P. bursaria. This was shown for two types of the symbiotic systems associated with two types of Chlorella viruses - Pbi or NC64A. A novel quantitative stereological approach was applied to test whether virus particles were distributed randomly on the Paramecium surface or preferentially occupied certain zones. The ability of the virus to form an association with the ciliate was investigated experimentally; virus particles were mixed with P. bursaria or with symbiont-free species P. caudatum. Our results confirmed that in the freshwater ecosystems two types of P. bursaria -Chlorella symbiotic systems exist, those without Chlorella viruses and those associated with a large amount of the viruses. The fate of Chlorella virus particles at the Paramecium surface was determined based on obtained statistical data and taking into account ciliate feeding currents and cortical reorganization during cell division. A life cycle of the viruses in the complete symbiotic system is proposed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Contamination of infectious RD-114 virus in vaccines produced using non-feline cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Rokusuke; Sato, Eiji; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    All domestic cats have a replication-competent endogenous retrovirus, termed RD-114 virus, in their genome and several feline cell lines produce RD-114 viruses. Recently, we found that a portion of live attenuated feline and canine vaccines produced using feline cell lines was contaminated with infectious RD-114 viruses. In this study, we expanded our survey and examined canine vaccines produced using 'non-feline' cell lines. Consequently, we found two vaccines containing RD-114 viral RNA by reverse transcriptase (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time RT-PCR. We also confirmed the presence of infectious RD-114 virus in the vaccines by the LacZ marker rescue assay and PCR to detect proviral DNA in TE671 cells (human rhabdomyosarcoma cells) inoculated with the vaccines. It is impossible to investigate the definitive cause of contamination with RD-114 virus; however, we suspect that a seed canine parvovirus type 2 was contaminated with RD-114 virus, because many canine parvoviruses have been isolated and attenuated using feline cell lines. To exclude RD-114 virus from live attenuated vaccines, we must pay attention to the contamination of seed viruses with RD-114 virus in addition to avoiding feline cell lines producing RD-114 virus when manufacturing vaccines. Copyright © 2010 The International Association for Biologicals. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Possible sexual transmission of Ebola virus - Liberia, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Athalia; Davies-Wayne, Gloria J; Cordier-Lassalle, Thierry; Cordier-Lasalle, Thierry; Blackley, David J; Laney, A Scott; Williams, Desmond E; Shinde, Shivam A; Badio, Moses; Lo, Terrence; Mate, Suzanne E; Ladner, Jason T; Wiley, Michael R; Kugelman, Jeffrey R; Palacios, Gustavo; Holbrook, Michael R; Janosko, Krisztina B; de Wit, Emmie; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Munster, Vincent J; Pettitt, James; Schoepp, Randal J; Verhenne, Leen; Evlampidou, Iro; Kollie, Karsor K; Sieh, Sonpon B; Gasasira, Alex; Bolay, Fatorma; Kateh, Francis N; Nyenswah, Tolbert G; De Cock, Kevin M

    2015-05-08

    On March 20, 2015, 30 days after the most recent confirmed Ebola Virus Disease (Ebola) patient in Liberia was isolated, Ebola was laboratory confirmed in a woman in Monrovia. The investigation identified only one epidemiologic link to Ebola: unprotected vaginal intercourse with a survivor. Published reports from previous outbreaks have demonstrated Ebola survivors can continue to harbor virus in immunologically privileged sites for a period of time after convalescence. Ebola virus has been isolated from semen as long as 82 days after symptom onset and viral RNA has been detected in semen up to 101 days after symptom onset. One instance of possible sexual transmission of Ebola has been reported, although the accompanying evidence was inconclusive. In addition, possible sexual transmission of Marburg virus, a filovirus related to Ebola, was documented in 1968. This report describes the investigation by the Government of Liberia and international response partners of the source of Liberia's latest Ebola case and discusses the public health implications of possible sexual transmission of Ebola virus. Based on information gathered in this investigation, CDC now recommends that contact with semen from male Ebola survivors be avoided until more information regarding the duration and infectiousness of viral shedding in body fluids is known. If male survivors have sex (oral, vaginal, or anal), a condom should be used correctly and consistently every time.

  7. Characterization of the neutralization determinants of equine arteritis virus using recombinant chimeric viruses and site-specific mutagenesis of an infectious cDNA clone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasuriya, Udeni B.R.; Dobbe, Jessika C.; Heidner, Hans W.; Smalley, Victoria L.; Navarrette, Andrea; Snijder, Eric J.; MacLachlan, N. James

    2004-01-01

    We have used an infectious cDNA clone of equine arteritis virus (EAV) and reverse genetics technology to further characterize the neutralization determinants in the GP5 envelope glycoprotein of the virus. We generated a panel of 20 recombinant viruses, including 10 chimeric viruses that each contained the ORF5 (which encodes GP5) of different laboratory, field, and vaccine strains of EAV, a chimeric virus containing the N-terminal ectodomain of GP5 of a European strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and 9 mutant viruses with site-specific substitutions in their GP5 proteins. The neutralization phenotype of each recombinant chimeric/mutant strain of EAV was determined with EAV-specific monoclonal antibodies and EAV strain-specific polyclonal equine antisera and compared to that of their parental viruses from which the substituted ORF5 was derived. The data unequivocally confirm that the GP5 ectodomain contains critical determinants of EAV neutralization. Furthermore, individual neutralization sites are conformationally interactive, and the interaction of GP5 with the unglycosylated membrane protein M is likely critical to expression of individual epitopes in neutralizing conformation. Substitution of individual amino acids within the GP5 ectodomain usually resulted in differences in neutralization phenotype of the recombinant viruses, analogous to differences in the neutralization phenotype of field strains of EAV and variants generated during persistent infection of EAV carrier stallions

  8. Virus surveys of Capsicum spp. in the Republic of Benin reveal the prevalence of pepper vein yellows virus and the identification of a previously uncharacterised polerovirus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afouda, Leonard; Kone, Daouda; Zinsou, Valerien; Dossou, Laurence; Kenyon, Lawrence; Winter, Stephan; Knierim, Dennis

    2017-06-01

    Surveys were conducted in 2014 and 2015 in Southern and Northern Benin, respectively, to identify the viruses infecting peppers (Capsicum spp.). The samples were screened by ELISA for cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), pepper veinal mottle virus (PVMV), potato virus Y (PVY) and tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). A generic reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was used to test for the presence of poleroviruses. ELISA tests confirmed the prevalence of all viruses, while the RT-PCR detected pepper vein yellows virus (PeVYV) which is reported for the first time in Benin. A further, divergent polerovirus isolate was detected from a single pepper sample originating from southern Benin. Screening of samples collected from solanaceous plants during virus surveys in Mali (conducted in 2009) also detected this divergent polerovirus isolate in two samples from African eggplants. The complete genome sequence was obtained from the Mali isolate using transcriptome sequencing and by conventional Sanger sequencing of overlapping RT-PCR products. Based on the sequence characteristics of this isolate we propose a new polerovirus species, African eggplant yellowing virus (AeYV).

  9. [Zika virus infection during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, O; Vauloup-Fellous, C; D'Ortenzio, E; Huissoud, C; Carles, G; Benachi, A; Faye, A; Luton, D; Paty, M-C; Ayoubi, J-M; Yazdanpanah, Y; Mandelbrot, L; Matheron, S

    2016-05-01

    A Zika virus epidemic is currently ongoing in the Americas. This virus is linked to congenital infections with potential severe neurodevelopmental dysfunction. However, incidence of fetal infection and whether this virus is responsible of other fetal complications are still unknown. National and international public health authorities recommend caution and several prevention measures. Declaration of Zika virus infection is now mandatory in France. Given the available knowledge on Zika virus, we suggest here a review of the current recommendations for management of pregnancy in case of suspicious or infection by Zika virus in a pregnant woman. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Spillover of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus from Domestic to Wild Ruminants in the Serengeti Ecosystem, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Mana; Sayalel, Kuya; Muniraju, Murali; Eblate, Ernest; Fyumagwa, Robert; Shilinde, Ligge; Mdaki, Maulid; Keyyu, Julius; Parida, Satya; Kock, Richard

    2015-12-01

    We tested wildlife inhabiting areas near domestic livestock, pastures, and water sources in the Ngorongoro district in the Serengeti ecosystem of northern Tanzania and found 63% seropositivity for peste des petits ruminants virus. Sequencing of the viral genome from sick sheep in the area confirmed lineage II virus circulation.

  11. Comparison of cobas HCV GT against Versant HCV Genotype 2.0 (LiPA) with confirmation by Sanger sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusrina, Falah; Chua, Cui Wen; Lee, Chun Kiat; Chiu, Lily; Png, Tracy Si-Yu; Khoo, Mui Joo; Yan, Gabriel; Lee, Guan Huei; Yan, Benedict; Lee, Hong Kai

    2018-05-01

    Correct identification of infecting hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype is helpful for targeted antiviral therapy. Here, we compared the HCV genotyping performance of the cobas HCV GT assay against the Versant HCV Genotype 2.0 (LiPA) assay, using 97 archived serum samples. In the event of discrepant or indeterminate results produced by either assay, the core and NS5B regions were sequenced. Of the 97 samples tested by the cobas, 25 (26%) were deemed indeterminate. Sequencing analyses confirmed 21 (84%) of the 25 samples as genotype 6 viruses with either subtype 6m, 6n, 6v, 6xa, or unknown subtype. Of the 97 samples tested by the LiPA, thirteen (13%) were deemed indeterminate. Seven (7%) were assigned with genotype 1, with unavailable/inconclusive results from the core region of the LiPA. Notably, the 7 samples were later found to be either genotype 3 or 6 by sequencing analyses. Moreover, 1 sample by the LiPA was assigned as genotypes 4 (cobas: indeterminate) but were later found to be genotype 3 by sequencing analyses, highlighting its limitation in assigning the correct genotype. The cobas showed similar or slightly higher accuracy (100%; 95% CI 94-100%) compared to the LiPA (99%; 95% CI 92-100%). Twenty-six percent of the 97 samples tested by the cobas had indeterminate results, mainly due to its limitation in identifying genotype 6 other than subtypes 6a and 6b. This presents a significant assay limitation in Southeast Asia, where genotype 6 infection is highly prevalent. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 78 FR 21045 - Confirmation, Portfolio Reconciliation, Portfolio Compression, and Swap Trading Relationship...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 23 RIN 3038-AC96 Confirmation, Portfolio Reconciliation, Portfolio Compression, and Swap Trading Relationship Documentation Requirements for Swap Dealers... CFTC published final rules setting forth requirements for swap confirmation, portfolio reconciliation...

  13. Measles virus polypeptides in purified virions and in infected cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainionpaeae, R.; Ziola, B.; Salmi, A.

    1978-01-01

    A wild-type measles virus was radiolabeled during growth in VERO cells and purified by two successive potassium tartrate gradient centrifugations. The virion polypeptide composition was determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis employing two different buffer systems. Six virus-specific polypeptides were consistently detected. The largest (L) had a molecular weight (MW) of greater than 150,000. The second largest polypeptide, G (MW 79,000), was the only glycoprotein found. The proteins designated polypeptide 2 (MW 66 to 70,000) and nucleocapsid protein or NP (MW 61,000) were phosphorylated. The remaining virus-coded proteins were polypeptide 5 (MW 40,000) and the matrix or M protein (MW 37,000). Measles virions also contained a polypeptide (MW 42,000) thought to be actin due to co-migration with this component of uninfected cells. Analysis of in vitro 3 H-acetic anhydride radiolabeled virions confirmed the presence of these seven polypeptides. Acetic anhydride also labeled a protein designated polypeptide 4 (MW 53,000) which was not consistently radiolabeled in vivo, as well as several other minor proteins believed to be cellular in origin. Synthesis of the six virus-specific structural polypeptides was detected in lysates of infected cells by SDS-polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis. Virus specificity of polypeptide 4 could not be confirmed due to the similar MW of several cellular polypeptides. Two non-virion, but virus-specified polypeptides, of MW 38,000 and 18,000 were also detected. Synthesis of the virus structural proteins was in the same proportions as the polypeptides found in virions except for under production of polypeptide G and over production of polypeptide 2. (author)

  14. Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction : Perangkat Diagnostic Alternatif untuk Melacak Virus Nipah (REAL TIME POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION : AN ALTERNATIVE DIAGNOSTIC TOOL TO DETECT NIPAH VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrawati Sendow

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nipah is a dangerous zoonotic disease with a high social, economical and psychological impact. Fruitbat Pteropus sp. is one of the nipah virus  reservoir host. As the virus is categorized as a dangerous zoonoticdisease that cause fatal in human, all works related to live virus should be conducted in a laboratory withBSL4 facilities. The detection of nipah virus using real time PCR to replace virus isolastion can thereforebe conducted in a laboratory without BSL4 facilities. The results was further  confirmed at referencelaboratory at   Australian Animal Health Laboratory ( AAHL Geelong, Australia, indicated that nipahvirus can be detected in saliva of fruit bat P. vampyrus in Medan North Sumatera.

  15. Recombinant Vaccinia Virus: Immunization against Multiple Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkus, Marion E.; Piccini, Antonia; Lipinskas, Bernard R.; Paoletti, Enzo

    1985-09-01

    The coding sequences for the hepatitis B virus surface antigen, the herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D, and the influenza virus hemagglutinin were inserted into a single vaccinia virus genome. Rabbits inoculated intravenously or intradermally with this polyvalent vaccinia virus recombinant produced antibodies reactive to all three authentic foreign antigens. In addition, the feasibility of multiple rounds of vaccination with recombinant vaccinia virus was demonstrated.

  16. An Ultrasensitive Mechanism Regulates Influenza Virus-Induced Inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E Shoemaker

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses present major challenges to public health, evident by the 2009 influenza pandemic. Highly pathogenic influenza virus infections generally coincide with early, high levels of inflammatory cytokines that some studies have suggested may be regulated in a strain-dependent manner. However, a comprehensive characterization of the complex dynamics of the inflammatory response induced by virulent influenza strains is lacking. Here, we applied gene co-expression and nonlinear regression analysis to time-course, microarray data developed from influenza-infected mouse lung to create mathematical models of the host inflammatory response. We found that the dynamics of inflammation-associated gene expression are regulated by an ultrasensitive-like mechanism in which low levels of virus induce minimal gene expression but expression is strongly induced once a threshold virus titer is exceeded. Cytokine assays confirmed that the production of several key inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 6 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1, exhibit ultrasensitive behavior. A systematic exploration of the pathways regulating the inflammatory-associated gene response suggests that the molecular origins of this ultrasensitive response mechanism lie within the branch of the Toll-like receptor pathway that regulates STAT1 phosphorylation. This study provides the first evidence of an ultrasensitive mechanism regulating influenza virus-induced inflammation in whole lungs and provides insight into how different virus strains can induce distinct temporal inflammation response profiles. The approach developed here should facilitate the construction of gene regulatory models of other infectious diseases.

  17. Transmission potential of Zika virus infection in the South Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, Hiroshi; Kinoshita, Ryo; Mizumoto, Kenji; Yasuda, Yohei; Nah, Kyeongah

    2016-04-01

    Zika virus has spread internationally through countries in the South Pacific and Americas. The present study aimed to estimate the basic reproduction number, R0, of Zika virus infection as a measurement of the transmission potential, reanalyzing past epidemic data from the South Pacific. Incidence data from two epidemics, one on Yap Island, Federal State of Micronesia in 2007 and the other in French Polynesia in 2013-2014, were reanalyzed. R0 of Zika virus infection was estimated from the early exponential growth rate of these two epidemics. The maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of R0 for the Yap Island epidemic was in the order of 4.3-5.8 with broad uncertainty bounds due to the small sample size of confirmed and probable cases. The MLE of R0 for French Polynesia based on syndromic data ranged from 1.8 to 2.0 with narrow uncertainty bounds. The transmissibility of Zika virus infection appears to be comparable to those of dengue and chikungunya viruses. Considering that Aedes species are a shared vector, this finding indicates that Zika virus replication within the vector is perhaps comparable to dengue and chikungunya. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Viruses, definitions and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libia Herrero-Uribe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are known to be abundant, ubiquitous, and to play a very important role in the health and evolution of life organisms. However, most biologists have considered them as entities separate from the realm of life and acting merely as mechanical artifacts that can exchange genes between different organisms. This article reviews some definitions of life organisms to determine if viruses adjust to them, and additionally, considers new discoveries to challenge the present definition of viruses. Definitions of life organisms have been revised in order to validate how viruses fit into them. Viral factories are discussed since these mini-organelles are a good example of the complexity of viral infection, not as a mechanical usurpation of cell structures, but as a driving force leading to the reorganization and modification of cell structures by viral and cell enzymes. New discoveries such as the Mimivirus, its virophage and viruses that produce filamentous tails when outside of their host cell, have stimulated the scientific community to analyze the current definition of viruses. One way to be free for innovation is to learn from life, without rigid mental structures or tied to the past, in order to understand in an integrated view the new discoveries that will be unfolded in future research. Life processes must be looked from the complexity and trans-disciplinarity perspective that includes and accepts the temporality of the active processes of life organisms, their interdependency and interrelation among them and their environment. New insights must be found to redefine life organisms, especially viruses, which still are defined using the same concepts and knowledge of the fifties. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 993-998. Epub 2011 September 01.Los virus son abundantes, ubicuos, y juegan un papel muy importante en la salud y en la evolución de los organismos vivos. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los biólogos los siguen considerado como entidades separadas

  19. Full Genomic Characterization of a Saffold Virus Isolated in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Leguia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available While studying respiratory infections of unknown etiology we detected Saffold virus in an oropharyngeal swab collected from a two-year-old female suffering from diarrhea and respiratory illness. The full viral genome recovered by deep sequencing showed 98% identity to a previously described Saffold strain isolated in Japan. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the Peruvian Saffold strain belongs to genotype 3 and is most closely related to strains that have circulated in Asia. This is the first documented case report of Saffold virus in Peru and the only complete genomic characterization of a Saffold-3 isolate from the Americas.

  20. Plasmodium Parasitemia Associated With Increased Survival in Ebola Virus-Infected Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenke, Kyle; Adjemian, Jennifer; Munster, Vincent J; Marzi, Andrea; Falzarano, Darryl; Onyango, Clayton O; Ochieng, Melvin; Juma, Bonventure; Fischer, Robert J; Prescott, Joseph B; Safronetz, David; Omballa, Victor; Owuor, Collins; Hoenen, Thomas; Groseth, Allison; Martellaro, Cynthia; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Zemtsova, Galina; Self, Joshua; Bushmaker, Trenton; McNally, Kristin; Rowe, Thomas; Emery, Shannon L; Feldmann, Friederike; Williamson, Brandi N; Best, Sonja M; Nyenswah, Tolbert G; Grolla, Allen; Strong, James E; Kobinger, Gary; Bolay, Fatorma K; Zoon, Kathryn C; Stassijns, Jorgen; Giuliani, Ruggero; de Smet, Martin; Nichol, Stuart T; Fields, Barry; Sprecher, Armand; Massaquoi, Moses; Feldmann, Heinz; de Wit, Emmie

    2016-10-15

    The ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa has resulted in 28 646 suspected, probable, and confirmed Ebola virus infections. Nevertheless, malaria remains a large public health burden in the region affected by the outbreak. A joint Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Institutes of Health diagnostic laboratory was established in Monrovia, Liberia, in August 2014, to provide laboratory diagnostics for Ebola virus. All blood samples from suspected Ebola virus-infected patients admitted to the Médecins Sans Frontières ELWA3 Ebola treatment unit in Monrovia were tested by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for the presence of Ebola virus and Plasmodium species RNA. Clinical outcome in laboratory-confirmed Ebola virus-infected patients was analyzed as a function of age, sex, Ebola viremia, and Plasmodium species parasitemia. The case fatality rate of 1182 patients with laboratory-confirmed Ebola virus infections was 52%. The probability of surviving decreased with increasing age and decreased with increasing Ebola viral load. Ebola virus-infected patients were 20% more likely to survive when Plasmodium species parasitemia was detected, even after controlling for Ebola viral load and age; those with the highest levels of parasitemia had a survival rate of 83%. This effect was independent of treatment with antimalarials, as this was provided to all patients. Moreover, treatment with antimalarials did not affect survival in the Ebola virus mouse model. Plasmodium species parasitemia is associated with an increase in the probability of surviving Ebola virus infection. More research is needed to understand the molecular mechanism underlying this remarkable phenomenon and translate it into treatment options for Ebola virus infection. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  1. An approach for identification of unknown viruses using sequencing-by-hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoski, Sarah E; Meyer, Hermann; Ibrahim, Sofi

    2015-09-01

    Accurate identification of biological threat agents, especially RNA viruses, in clinical or environmental samples can be challenging because the concentration of viral genomic material in a given sample is usually low, viral genomic RNA is liable to degradation, and RNA viruses are extremely diverse. A two-tiered approach was used for initial identification, then full genomic characterization of 199 RNA viruses belonging to virus families Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Filoviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae. A Sequencing-by-hybridization (SBH) microarray was used to tentatively identify a viral pathogen then, the identity is confirmed by guided next-generation sequencing (NGS). After optimization and evaluation of the SBH and NGS methodologies with various virus species and strains, the approach was used to test the ability to identify viruses in blinded samples. The SBH correctly identified two Ebola viruses in the blinded samples within 24 hr, and by using guided amplicon sequencing with 454 GS FLX, the identities of the viruses in both samples were confirmed. SBH provides at relatively low-cost screening of biological samples against a panel of viral pathogens that can be custom-designed on a microarray. Once the identity of virus is deduced from the highest hybridization signal on the SBH microarray, guided (amplicon) NGS sequencing can be used not only to confirm the identity of the virus but also to provide further information about the strain or isolate, including a potential genetic manipulation. This approach can be useful in situations where natural or deliberate biological threat incidents might occur and a rapid response is required. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. St. Louis encephalitis virus possibly transmitted through blood transfusion-Arizona, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkat, Heather; Adams, Laura; Sunenshine, Rebecca; Krow-Lucal, Elisabeth; Levy, Craig; Kafenbaum, Tammy; Sylvester, Tammy; Smith, Kirk; Townsend, John; Dosmann, Melissa; Kamel, Hany; Patron, Roberto; Kuehnert, Matthew; Annambhotla, Pallavi; Basavaraju, Sridhar V; Rabe, Ingrid B

    2017-12-01

    St. Louis encephalitis virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that infrequently causes epidemic central nervous system infections. In the United States, blood donors are not screened for St. Louis encephalitis virus infection, and transmission through blood transfusion has not been reported. During September 2015, St. Louis encephalitis virus infection was confirmed in an Arizona kidney transplant recipient. An investigation was initiated to determine the infection source. The patient was interviewed, and medical records were reviewed. To determine the likelihood of mosquito-borne infection, mosquito surveillance data collected at patient and blood donor residences in timeframes consistent with their possible exposure periods were reviewed. To investigate other routes of exposure, organ and blood donor and recipient specimens were obtained and tested for evidence of St. Louis encephalitis virus infection. The patient presented with symptoms of central nervous system infection. Recent St. Louis encephalitis virus infection was serologically confirmed. The organ donor and three other organ recipients showed no laboratory or clinical evidence of St. Louis encephalitis virus infection. Among four donors of blood products received by the patient via transfusion, one donor had a serologically confirmed, recent St. Louis encephalitis virus infection. Exposure to an infected mosquito was unlikely based on the patient's minimal outdoor exposure. In addition, no St. Louis encephalitis virus-infected mosquito pools were identified around the patient's residence. This investigation provides evidence of the first reported possible case of St. Louis encephalitis virus transmission through blood product transfusion. Health care providers and public health professionals should maintain heightened awareness for St. Louis encephalitis virus transmission through blood transfusion in settings where outbreaks are identified. © 2017 AABB.

  3. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis remain major infections around the world. In Angola, about 166 000 individuals are living with HIV, representing a prevalence of 1.98% in adults between 15 and 49 years of age. In a 2003 study in Luanda, 4.5% ...

  4. [Viruses and civilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastel, C

    1999-01-01

    A few million years ago, when primates moved from the east African forest to the savannah, they were already infected with endogenous viruses and occultly transmitted them to the prime Homo species. However it was much later with the building of the first large cities in Mesopotamia that interhuman viral transmission began in earnest. Spreading was further enhanced with the organization of the Egyptian, Greek, Roman, and Arab empires around the Mediterranean. Discovery of the New World in 1492 led to an unprecedented clash of civilizations and the destruction of pre-Columbian Indian civilizations. It also led to a rapid spread of viruses across the Atlantic Ocean with the emergence of yellow fever and appearance of smallpox and measles throughout the world. However the greatest opportunities for worldwide viral development have been created by our present, modern civilization. This fact is illustrated by epidemic outbreaks of human immunodeficiency virus, Venezuela hemorrhagic fever, Rift valley fever virus, and monkey pox virus. Close analysis underscores the major role of human intervention in producing these events.

  5. Nipah Virus (NiV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Nipah Virus (NiV) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Nipah virus (NiV) is a member of the family Paramyxoviridae , ...

  6. Epstein-Barr virus test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003513.htm Epstein-Barr virus antibody test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Epstein-Barr virus antibody test is a blood test to detect ...

  7. Special Issue: Honey Bee Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Gisder

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pollination of flowering plants is an important ecosystem service provided by wild insect pollinators and managed honey bees. Hence, losses and declines of pollinating insect species threaten human food security and are of major concern not only for apiculture or agriculture but for human society in general. Honey bee colony losses and bumblebee declines have attracted intensive research interest over the last decade and although the problem is far from being solved we now know that viruses are among the key players of many of these bee losses and bumblebee declines. With this special issue on bee viruses we, therefore, aimed to collect high quality original papers reflecting the current state of bee virus research. To this end, we focused on newly discovered viruses (Lake Sinai viruses, bee macula-like virus, or a so far neglected virus species (Apis mellifera filamentous virus, and cutting edge technologies (mass spectrometry, RNAi approach applied in the field.

  8. Special Issue: Honey Bee Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke

    2015-01-01

    Pollination of flowering plants is an important ecosystem service provided by wild insect pollinators and managed honey bees. Hence, losses and declines of pollinating insect species threaten human food security and are of major concern not only for apiculture or agriculture but for human society in general. Honey bee colony losses and bumblebee declines have attracted intensive research interest over the last decade and although the problem is far from being solved we now know that viruses are among the key players of many of these bee losses and bumblebee declines. With this special issue on bee viruses we, therefore, aimed to collect high quality original papers reflecting the current state of bee virus research. To this end, we focused on newly discovered viruses (Lake Sinai viruses, bee macula-like virus), or a so far neglected virus species (Apis mellifera filamentous virus), and cutting edge technologies (mass spectrometry, RNAi approach) applied in the field. PMID:26702462

  9. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014- ...

  10. Characterization of sheep pox virus vaccine for cattle against lumpy skin disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuppurainen, Eeva S M; Pearson, Caroline R; Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna; Knowles, Nick J; Amareen, Shadi; Frost, Lorraine; Henstock, Mark R; Lamien, Charles E; Diallo, Adama; Mertens, Peter P C

    2014-09-01

    Lumpy skin disease is of significant economic impact for the cattle industry in Africa. The disease is currently spreading aggressively in the Near East, posing a threat of incursion to Europe and Asia. Due to cross-protection within the Capripoxvirus genus, sheep pox virus (SPPV) vaccines have been widely used for cattle against lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). In the Middle East and the Horn of Africa these vaccines have been associated with incomplete protection and adverse reactions in cattle post-vaccination. The present study confirms that the real identity of the commonly used Kenyan sheep and goat pox vaccine virus (KSGP) O-240 is not SPPV but is actually LSDV. The low level attenuation of this virus is likely to be not sufficient for safe use in cattle, causing clinical disease in vaccinated animals. In addition, Isiolo and Kedong goat pox strains, capable of infecting sheep, goats and cattle are identified for potential use as broad-spectrum vaccine candidates against all capripox diseases. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of sheep pox virus vaccine for cattle against lumpy skin disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuppurainen, Eeva S.M.; Pearson, Caroline R.; Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna; Knowles, Nick J.; Amareen, Shadi; Frost, Lorraine; Henstock, Mark R.; Lamien, Charles E.; Diallo, Adama; Mertens, Peter P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Lumpy skin disease is of significant economic impact for the cattle industry in Africa. The disease is currently spreading aggressively in the Near East, posing a threat of incursion to Europe and Asia. Due to cross-protection within the Capripoxvirus genus, sheep pox virus (SPPV) vaccines have been widely used for cattle against lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). In the Middle East and the Horn of Africa these vaccines have been associated with incomplete protection and adverse reactions in cattle post-vaccination. The present study confirms that the real identity of the commonly used Kenyan sheep and goat pox vaccine virus (KSGP) O-240 is not SPPV but is actually LSDV. The low level attenuation of this virus is likely to be not sufficient for safe use in cattle, causing clinical disease in vaccinated animals. In addition, Isiolo and Kedong goat pox strains, capable of infecting sheep, goats and cattle are identified for potential use as broad-spectrum vaccine candidates against all capripox diseases. PMID:24973760

  12. Pathogenesis and transmission of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus in ferrets and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belser, Jessica A; Gustin, Kortney M; Pearce, Melissa B; Maines, Taronna R; Zeng, Hui; Pappas, Claudia; Sun, Xiangjie; Carney, Paul J; Villanueva, Julie M; Stevens, James; Katz, Jacqueline M; Tumpey, Terrence M

    2013-09-26

    On 29 March 2013, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention confirmed the first reported case of human infection with an avian influenza A(H7N9) virus. The recent human infections with H7N9 virus, totalling over 130 cases with 39 fatalities to date, have been characterized by severe pulmonary disease and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This is concerning because H7 viruses have typically been associated with ocular disease in humans, rather than severe respiratory disease. This recent outbreak underscores the need to better understand the pathogenesis and transmission of these viruses in mammals. Here we assess the ability of A/Anhui/1/2013 and A/Shanghai/1/2013 (H7N9) viruses, isolated from fatal human cases, to cause disease in mice and ferrets and to transmit to naive animals. Both H7N9 viruses replicated to higher titre in human airway epithelial cells and in the respiratory tract of ferrets compared to a seasonal H3N2 virus. Moreover, the H7N9 viruses showed greater infectivity and lethality in mice compared to genetically related H7N9 and H9N2 viruses. The H7N9 viruses were readily transmitted to naive ferrets through direct contact but, unlike the seasonal H3N2 virus, did not transmit readily by respiratory droplets. The lack of efficient respiratory droplet transmission was corroborated by low receptor-binding specificity for human-like α2,6-linked sialosides. Our results indicate that H7N9 viruses have the capacity for efficient replication in mammals and human airway cells and highlight the need for continued public health surveillance of this emerging virus.

  13. Zika virus: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Rawal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Zika virus has been in the news for quite some time due to the ongoing recent outbreak in the Southern America, which started in December 2015. It has been declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organization in February 2016 owing to its association with the congenital deformities, particularly microcephaly in infants borne to the infected mothers. The rapid spread of the virus throughout the United States of America and subsequently to Asia has raised serious international concerns. Its spread to countries neighboring India is a serious threat to the Indian population. This review article gives an overview about the virus, its diagnosis, clinical features, and the management.

  14. Archaeal virus-host interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quax, T.E.F.

    2013-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis provides novel insights in several aspects of the molecular

    biology of archaea, bacteria and their viruses.

    Three fundamentally different groups of viruses are associated with the three domains of life.

    Archaeal viruses are

  15. Rhabdomyolysis Associated with Parainfluenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miltiadis Douvoyiannis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza virus is the most frequently reported viral cause of rhabdomyolysis. A 7-year-old child is presented with rhabdomyolysis associated with parainfluenza type 2 virus. Nine cases of rhabdomyolysis associated with parainfluenza virus have been reported. Complications may include electrolyte disturbances, acute renal failure, and compartment syndrome.

  16. Global emergence of Zika virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Tjan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV belongs to the flaviviruses (family Flaviviridae, which includes dengue, yellow fever, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. Zika virus was isolated in 1947, in the Zika forest near Kampala, Uganda, from one of the rhesus monkeys used as sentinel animals in a yellow fever research program.

  17. Control of Newcastle disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), also know as avian paramyxovirus serotype 1, is an important poultry pathogen worldwide. In naive poultry, the virulent forms of the virus cause high mortality. Because of this the virus is reportable to the World Organization for Animal Health and can be an important ...

  18. An introduction to computer viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.R.

    1992-03-01

    This report on computer viruses is based upon a thesis written for the Master of Science degree in Computer Science from the University of Tennessee in December 1989 by David R. Brown. This thesis is entitled An Analysis of Computer Virus Construction, Proliferation, and Control and is available through the University of Tennessee Library. This paper contains an overview of the computer virus arena that can help the reader to evaluate the threat that computer viruses pose. The extent of this threat can only be determined by evaluating many different factors. These factors include the relative ease with which a computer virus can be written, the motivation involved in writing a computer virus, the damage and overhead incurred by infected systems, and the legal implications of computer viruses, among others. Based upon the research, the development of a computer virus seems to require more persistence than technical expertise. This is a frightening proclamation to the computing community. The education of computer professionals to the dangers that viruses pose to the welfare of the computing industry as a whole is stressed as a means of inhibiting the current proliferation of computer virus programs. Recommendations are made to assist computer users in preventing infection by computer viruses. These recommendations support solid general computer security practices as a means of combating computer viruses.

  19. SARS – virus jumps species

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SARS – virus jumps species. Coronavirus reshuffles genes; Rotteir et al, Rotterdam showed the virus to jump from cats to mouse cells after single gene mutation ? Human disease due to virus jumping from wild or domestic animals; Present favourite animal - the cat; - edible or domestic.

  20. Computer Bytes, Viruses and Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmore, Teddy B.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a history of computer viruses, explains various types of viruses and how they affect software or computer operating systems, and describes examples of specific viruses. Available vaccines are explained, and precautions for protecting programs and disks are given. (nine references) (LRW)

  1. Monoclonal antibodies against plant viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, E.; Dietzgen, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Ever since antigenic properties of plant viruses were discovered antisera have been raised and used for plant virus diagnosis and for the analysis of virus structure as well. From the early qualitative diagnosis method of precipitating the virus in clarified sap of an infected plant and the first quantitative application of the precipitin test vast progress has been made with regard to the development of highly sensitive and highly quantitative methods for virus detection. Of equal importance was the improvement of methods for separating virus from host cell components since the specificity of antisera raised against a virus could be increased by using an antigen for immunization highly concentrated and largely freed from contaminating host substances. The introduction of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) into plant virology allows detection of virus in nanogram quantities. Still, the conventionally raised antisera, no matter how pure an antigen was used for immunization, are polyclonal. They contain products of thousands of different antibody-secreting plasma cell clones which can be directed against all antigenic determinants (epitopes) of the virus, but also against antigens of the host plant that may not have been entirely separated from the immunizing virus during the purification procedure. Even after cross adsorption of polyclonal antisera some residual heterogeneity can be expected to remain. Within these boundaries the information gained with polyclonal antisera on virus structure and on virus diagnosis has to be interpreted

  2. Zika virus: Current concerns in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Bhardwaj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With confirmation of Zika virus (ZIKV presence in India, screening of a large number of febrile illness samples yielded only four positive cases. In this review, we address the current concern with context to India. The possible reasons for low level of Zika prevalence in India have been discussed, by extracting some probable explanations from previous experience of chikungunya virus-vector model/studies. In the current context, it is hypothesized that Indian mosquito strains have lower susceptibility gradient/threshold for ZIKV. The very low positivity in the humans also indicates low levels of mosquito-human-mosquito transmission cycle. There is also a need to look for the existence of any such animal cycle/sylvatic involvement in India. The recently detected four cases in India show local transmission of ZIKV suggesting that ZIKV might have been present in India since long time. The earlier vector-virus relationship studies with chikungunya suggested that in due course of time, ZIKV might become a major public health concern in the future.

  3. Virus Nilam: Identifikasi, Karakter Biologi dan Fisik, Serta Upaya Pengendaliannya

    OpenAIRE

    Miftakhurohmah, Miftakhurohmah; Noveriza, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Infeksi virus pada tanaman nilam dapat menyebabkan penurunan produksi dan kualitas minyak. Sembilan jenis virus diidentifikasi menginfeksi tanaman nilam, yaitu Patchouli mosaic virus (PatMoV), Patchouli mild mosaic virus (PatMMV), Telosma mosaic virus (TeMV), Peanut stripe virus (PStV), Patchouli yellow mosaic virus (PatYMV), Tobacco necrosis virus (TNV), Broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV2), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), dan Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV). Kesembilan virus tersebut memiliki genom ...

  4. Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoar, Bruce R.

    2004-01-01

    Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is a complicated disease to discuss as it can result in a wide variety of disease problems from very mild to very severe. BVD can be one of the most devastating diseases cattle encounter and one of the hardest to get rid of when it attacks a herd. The viruses that cause BVD have been grouped into two genotypes, Type I and Type II. The disease syndrome caused by the two genotypes is basically the same, however disease caused by Type II infection is often more severe...

  5. Virus en Endodoncia

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Vigueras, Scarlette; Salazar Navarrete, Luis; Pérez Tomás, Ricardo; Segura Egea, Juan José; Viñas, Miguel; López-López, José

    2014-01-01

    La infección endodóntica es la infección que afecta al sistema de conductos radiculares y, sin duda, es el principal agente etiológico de las periodontitis apicales. Además, de las bacterias patógenas endodónticas, se ha buscado en los últimos años asociar la presencia de virus en distintos tipos de patología endodóntica. Los virus que más se han buscado y asociado son los pertenecientes a la familia herpesvirus, los cuales se han encontrado presentes en patologías periapicales principalmente...

  6. Sensing of RNA viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2012-01-01

    pathogen-associated molecular patterns have emerged in great detail. This review presents an overview of our current knowledge regarding the receptors used to detect RNA virus invasion, the molecular structures these receptors sense, and the involved downstream signaling pathways.......Our knowledge regarding the contribution of the innate immune system in recognizing and subsequently initiating a host response to an invasion of RNA virus has been rapidly growing over the last decade. Descriptions of the receptors involved and the molecular mechanisms they employ to sense viral...

  7. [ZIKA--VIRUS INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velev, V

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the knowledge of the scientific community for Zika-virus infection. It became popular because of severe congenital damage causes of CNS in newborns whose mothers are infected during pregnancy, as well as the risk of pandemic distribution. Discusses the peculiarities of the biology and ecology of vectors--blood-sucking mosquitoes Aedes; stages in the spread of infection and practical problems which caused during pregnancy. Attention is paid to the recommendations that allow leading national and international medical organizations to deal with the threat Zika-virus infection.

  8. Epidemiology of Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, David S

    2016-11-01

    Zika virus is an arbovirus belonging to the Flaviviridae family known to cause mild clinical symptoms similar to those of dengue and chikungunya. Zika is transmitted by different species of Aedes mosquitoes. Nonhuman primates and possibly rodents play a role as reservoirs. Direct interhuman transmission has also been reported. Human cases have been reported in Africa and Asia, Easter Island, the insular Pacific region, and Brazil. Its clinical profile is that of a dengue-like febrile illness, but recently associated Guillain-Barre syndrome and microcephaly have appeared. There is neither a vaccine nor prophylactic medications available to prevent Zika virus infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Viruses in renovated waters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nupen, EM

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available , for permission to present this paper. ?8? References 1. REPORT. CONMITTEE ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ANAGEMEZIT OF PME SANITARY ENGINEERING DIVISION (1970). Engineering evaluation of virus hazard in water. Jour. Eng. Div. Proc. Am. Soc. Civ. Eng. SA 1, 7112... Water Systems, Austin, Texas, 1974 13. CARESON, G.F., WOODA.RD, F.E., WENTWORTII, D.P. and SPRODI, O.J. (1968) Virus inactivation on clay particles in natural waters. Journ. Wat. Pollut. Cont. Fed., 4Q R39, 7116. 14. MOSJ~EY, J.W. (1967...

  10. Tenosinovitis por virus Chikungunya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Seijo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta a la consulta un hombre proveniente de la República Dominicana con una tenosinovitis del extensor del dedo medio derecho; en la convalecencia inmediata, segunda curva febril luego de 48 horas de permanecer asintomático de una enfermedad febril aguda, y marcada astenia, exantema pruriginoso, poliartralgias con impotencia funcional y rigidez articular generalizada. Los exámenes bioquímicos no aportaron datos de interés para el diagnóstico. La serología para virus dengue fue negativa. La detección de IgM y de anticuerpos neutralizantes para virus Chikungunya (CHIKV fueron positivos.

  11. Case report: microcephaly associated with Zika virus infection, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattar, Salim; Ojeda, Carolina; Arboleda, Janna; Arrieta, German; Bosch, Irene; Botia, Ingrid; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Perez-Yepes, Carlos; Gerhke, Lee; Montero, German

    2017-06-13

    Recently there has been a large outbreak of Zika virus infections in Colombia, South America. The epidemic began in September 2015 and continued to April 2017, for the total number of Zika cases reported of 107,870. For those confirmed Zika cases, there were nearly 20,000 (18.5%) suspected to be pregnant women, resulting in 157 confirmed cases of microcephaly in newborns reported by their health government agency. There is a clear under-estimation of the total number of cases and in addition no prior publications have been published to demonstrate the clinical aspects of the Zika infection in Colombia. We characterized one Zika presentation to be able to compare and contrast with other cases of Zika infection already reported in the literature. In this case report, we demonstrate congenital microcephaly at week 19 of gestation in a 34-year-old mother who showed symptoms compatible with Zika virus infection from Sincelejo, State of Sucre, in the Colombian Caribbean. Zika virus RNA was detected in the placenta using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). At week 25, the fetus weigh estimate was 770 g, had a cephalic perimeter of 20.2 cm (5th percentile), ventriculomegaly on the right side and dilatation of the fourth ventricle. At week 32, the microcephaly was confirmed with a cephalic perimeter of 22 cm, dilatation of the posterior atrium to 13 mm, an abnormally small cerebellum (29 mm), and an augmented cisterna magna. At birth (39 weeks by cesarean section), the head circumference was 27.5 cm, and computerized axial tomography (Siemens Corp, 32-slides) confirmed microcephaly with calcifications. We report a first case of maternal Zika virus infection associated with fetal microcephaly in Colombia and confirmed similar presentation to those observed previous in Brazil, 2015-2016.

  12. Resistance to Two Heterologous Neurotropic Oncolytic Viruses, Semliki Forest Virus and Vaccinia Virus, in Experimental Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Boeuf, Fabrice; Lemay, Chantal; De Silva, Naomi; Diallo, Jean-Simon; Cox, Julie; Becker, Michelle; Choi, Youngmin; Ananth, Abhirami; Sellers, Clara; Breton, Sophie; Roy, Dominic; Falls, Theresa; Brun, Jan; Hemminki, Akseli; Hinkkanen, Ari; Bell, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Attenuated Semliki Forest virus (SFV) may be suitable for targeting malignant glioma due to its natural neurotropism, but its replication in brain tumor cells may be restricted by innate antiviral defenses. We attempted to facilitate SFV replication in glioma cells by combining it with vaccinia virus, which is capable of antagonizing such defenses. Surprisingly, we found parenchymal mouse brain tumors to be refractory to both viruses. Also, vaccinia virus appears to be sensitive to SFV-induced antiviral interference. PMID:23221568

  13. Pathogenic characteristics of a novel triple-reasserted H1N2 swine influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huili; Tao, Jie; Zhang, Pengchao; Yin, Xiuchen; Ha, Zhuo; Zhang, Chunling

    2016-07-01

    A novel triple reasserted H1N2 virus A/swine/Shanghai/1/2007 (SH07) was isolated from nasal swabs of weaned pig showing clinical symptoms of coughing and sneezing. To explore the virus characteristics, mice, chickens and pigs were selected for pathogenicity study. Pigs inoculated intranasally with 10(6) TCID50 SH07 showed clinical symptoms with coughing and sneezing, but no death. The virus nuclear acid was detected in many tissues using real-time PCR, which was mainly distributed in respiratory system particularly in the lungs. The virus was low-pathogenic to chickens with 10(6) TCID50 dose inoculation either via intramuscular or intranasal routes. However virus nuclear acid detection and virus isolation confirmed that the virus can also be found in nasal and rectum. When virus was inoculated into mice by intramuscular or intranasal routes we observed 100% and 80% lethality respectively. The third generation of samples passaged on MDCK cell were SIV positive in indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using antiserum against H1N2 SIV. Furthermore, the lungs of mice showed obvious lesion with interstitial pneumonia. Data in our study suggest that SH07 is preferentially pathogenic to mammals rather than birds although it is a reasserting virus with the fragments from swine, human and avian origin. Copyright © 2016 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Clinical analysis of two cases of imported children Zika virus infection in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, C G; Xu, Y; Jiang, H Q; Yin, Y X; Zhang, J H; Zhu, W J; Liang, X J; Chen, M X; Ye, J W; Tan, L M; Luo, D; Gong, S T

    2016-05-01

    To analyze the clinical characteristics, outcome and diagnosis of two cases of imported children Zika virus infection in China. A retrospective analysis was performed on clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome of two cases of imported children with Zika virus infection in February 2016 in Enping People's Hospital of Guangdong. Two cases of children with imported Zika virus infection resided in an affected area of Venezuela, 8-year-old girl and her 6 year-old brother. The main findings on physical examination included the following manifestations: fever, rash, and conjunctivitis. The rash was first limited to the abdomen, but extended to the torso, neck and face, and faded after 3-4 d. The total number of white blood cells was not high and liver function was normal. The diagnosis of two cases of Zika virus infection was confirmed by the expert group of Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, according to the epidemiological history, clinical manifestations and Zika virus nucleic acid detection results.Treatment of Zika virus infection involves supportive care. Two Zika virus infection children had a relatively benign outcome. At present, Zika virus infection in children is an imported disease in China. No specific therapy is available for this disease. Information on long-term outcomes among infants and children with Zika virus disease is limited, routine pediatric care is advised for these infants and children.

  15. Report on Influenza A and B Viruses: Their Coinfection in a Saudi Leukemia Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad N. Almajhdi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Influenza A and B viruses are the leading cause of respiratory infections in children worldwide, particularly in developing countries. There is a lack of data on coinfection of influenza A and B viruses circulating in Saudi Arabia. In this study, we aimed to identify the circulation of influenza viruses that contribute to respiratory tract infections in Saudi children. Methods. We collected 80 nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs from hospitalized children with acute respiratory illness (ARI at Riyadh during the period extended from October 2010 till April 2011. Samples were tested for the common respiratory viruses including influenza viruses by RT-PCR. Results. Overall, 6 samples were found positive for influenza A and/or B viruses. Among these positive clinical samples, only one collected sample from a female one-year-old immunocompromised child with leukemia showed a coinfection with influenza A and B viruses. In present study coinfection was confirmed by inoculation of the clinical specimen in specific pathogenfree embryonating chicken eggs and identification of the virus isolates by hemagglutination and one-step RT-PCR. Conclusion. This study opens the scene for studying the role of influenza virus’s coinfection in disease severity and virus evolution. Further studies are required to better understand the clinical importance of viral coinfection.

  16. Notes from the Field: Zika Virus-Associated Neonatal Birth Defects Surveillance - Texas, January 2016-July 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Noemi Borsay; Broussard, Kelly; Evert, Nicole; Canfield, Mark

    2017-08-11

    On November 28, 2016, the Texas Department of State Health Services (Texas DSHS) reported its first confirmed case of local mosquitoborne Zika virus transmission in the city of Brownsville, located in south Texas along the U.S.-Mexico border. Zika virus infection during pregnancy has been linked to adverse congenital outcomes including microcephaly, neural tube defects, early brain malformations, structural eye abnormalities, congenital deafness, and limb contractures (1). On January 1, 2016, Texas DSHS established enhanced surveillance to identify women with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy and suspected cases of Zika virus-associated birth defects among completed pregnancies.

  17. Possible Association Between Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly - Brazil, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Ribeiro, Erlane M; Feitosa, Ian M L; Horovitz, Dafne D G; Cavalcanti, Denise P; Pessoa, André; Doriqui, Maria Juliana R; Neri, Joao Ivanildo; Neto, Joao Monteiro de Pina; Wanderley, Hector Y C; Cernach, Mirlene; El-Husny, Antonette S; Pone, Marcos V S; Serao, Cassio L C; Sanseverino, Maria Teresa V

    2016-01-29

    In early 2015, an outbreak of Zika virus, a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, was identified in northeast Brazil, an area where dengue virus was also circulating. By September, reports of an increase in the number of infants born with microcephaly in Zika virus-affected areas began to emerge, and Zika virus RNA was identified in the amniotic fluid of two women whose fetuses had been found to have microcephaly by prenatal ultrasound. The Brazil Ministry of Health (MoH) established a task force to investigate the possible association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and a registry for incident microcephaly cases (head circumference ≥2 standard deviations [SD] below the mean for sex and gestational age at birth) and pregnancy outcomes among women suspected to have had Zika virus infection during pregnancy. Among a cohort of 35 infants with microcephaly born during August-October 2015 in eight of Brazil's 26 states and reported to the registry, the mothers of all 35 had lived in or visited Zika virus-affected areas during pregnancy, 25 (71%) infants had severe microcephaly (head circumference >3 SD below the mean for sex and gestational age), 17 (49%) had at least one neurologic abnormality, and among 27 infants who had neuroimaging studies, all had abnormalities. Tests for other congenital infections were negative. All infants had a lumbar puncture as part of the evaluation and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were sent to a reference laboratory in Brazil for Zika virus testing; results are not yet available. Further studies are needed to confirm the association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and to understand any other adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with Zika virus infection. Pregnant women in Zika virus-affected areas should protect themselves from mosquito bites by using air conditioning, screens, or nets when indoors, wearing long sleeves and pants, using permethrin-treated clothing and gear

  18. RNA viruses in the sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Andrew S; Rise, Matthew L; Culley, Alexander I; Steward, Grieg F

    2009-03-01

    Viruses are ubiquitous in the sea and appear to outnumber all other forms of marine life by at least an order of magnitude. Through selective infection, viruses influence nutrient cycling, community structure, and evolution in the ocean. Over the past 20 years we have learned a great deal about the diversity and ecology of the viruses that constitute the marine virioplankton, but until recently the emphasis has been on DNA viruses. Along with expanding knowledge about RNA viruses that infect important marine animals, recent isolations of RNA viruses that infect single-celled eukaryotes and molecular analyses of the RNA virioplankton have revealed that marine RNA viruses are novel, widespread, and genetically diverse. Discoveries in marine RNA virology are broadening our understanding of the biology, ecology, and evolution of viruses, and the epidemiology of viral diseases, but there is still much that we need to learn about the ecology and diversity of RNA viruses before we can fully appreciate their contributions to the dynamics of marine ecosystems. As a step toward making sense of how RNA viruses contribute to the extraordinary viral diversity in the sea, we summarize in this review what is currently known about RNA viruses that infect marine organisms.

  19. Zika Virus: An Emerging Worldwide Threat

    OpenAIRE

    Irfan A. Rather; Jameel B. Lone; Vivek K. Bajpai; Woon K. Paek; Jeongheui Lim

    2017-01-01

    ZIKA virus (ZIKV) poses a severe threat to the world. Recent outbreaks of ZIKV after 2007 along with its quick transmission have made this virus a matter of international concern. The virus shows symptoms that are similar to those caused in the wake of dengue virus (DENV) and other flaviviruses, which makes it difficult to discern the viral infection. Diagnosis is further complicated as the virus cross-reacts with antibodies of other viruses. Currently, molecular diagnosis of the virus is bei...

  20. Ebola virus acceptors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... genome sequencing centre; HSP, High scoring Segment pair;. NHGRI, National ... the genome of the rhesus monkey (rhesus macaque, Macaca mulatta). The sequencing and comparative analysis was funded by the National ... Definition. Accession ..... Marburg virus genomics and association with a large.

  1. Zika virus and placenta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beuy Joob; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus infection is the new arboviral infection problem. The serious outcome of infection and induction of abnormal infant become the big issue in reproductive medicine. The pathogenesis and pathology of the placenta in the affected case is an interesting issue. Here, the authors focus and discuss on this topic in this short article.

  2. Viruses of haloarchaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Alison W S; Williams, Timothy J; Erdmann, Susanne; Papke, R Thane; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

    2014-11-13

    In hypersaline environments, haloarchaea (halophilic members of the Archaea) are the dominant organisms, and the viruses that infect them, haloarchaeoviruses are at least ten times more abundant. Since their discovery in 1974, described haloarchaeoviruses include head-tailed, pleomorphic, spherical and spindle-shaped morphologies, representing Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Pleolipoviridae, Sphaerolipoviridae and Fuselloviridae families. This review overviews current knowledge of haloarchaeoviruses, providing information about classification, morphotypes, macromolecules, life cycles, genetic manipulation and gene regulation, and host-virus responses. In so doing, the review incorporates knowledge from laboratory studies of isolated viruses, field-based studies of environmental samples, and both genomic and metagenomic analyses of haloarchaeoviruses. What emerges is that some haloarchaeoviruses possess unique morphological and life cycle properties, while others share features with other viruses (e.g., bacteriophages). Their interactions with hosts influence community structure and evolution of populations that exist in hypersaline environments as diverse as seawater evaporation ponds, to hot desert or Antarctic lakes. The discoveries of their wide-ranging and important roles in the ecology and evolution of hypersaline communities serves as a strong motivator for future investigations of both laboratory-model and environmental systems.

  3. Viruses of Haloarchaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison W. S. Luk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In hypersaline environments, haloarchaea (halophilic members of the Archaea are the dominant organisms, and the viruses that infect them, haloarchaeoviruses are at least ten times more abundant. Since their discovery in 1974, described haloarchaeoviruses include head-tailed, pleomorphic, spherical and spindle-shaped morphologies, representing Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Pleolipoviridae, Sphaerolipoviridae and Fuselloviridae families. This review overviews current knowledge of haloarchaeoviruses, providing information about classification, morphotypes, macromolecules, life cycles, genetic manipulation and gene regulation, and host-virus responses. In so doing, the review incorporates knowledge from laboratory studies of isolated viruses, field-based studies of environmental samples, and both genomic and metagenomic analyses of haloarchaeoviruses. What emerges is that some haloarchaeoviruses possess unique morphological and life cycle properties, while others share features with other viruses (e.g., bacteriophages. Their interactions with hosts influence community structure and evolution of populations that exist in hypersaline environments as diverse as seawater evaporation ponds, to hot desert or Antarctic lakes. The discoveries of their wide-ranging and important roles in the ecology and evolution of hypersaline communities serves as a strong motivator for future investigations of both laboratory-model and environmental systems.

  4. Apple mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), a member of the ilarvirus group, naturally infects Betula, Aesculus, Humulus, and several crop genera in the family Rosaceae (Malus, Prunus, Rosa and Rubus). ApMV was first reported in Rubus in several blackberry and raspberry cultivars in the United States and subsequentl...

  5. ICTV virus taxonomy profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García, María Laura; Bó, Dal Elena; Graça, da John V.; Gago-Zachert, Selma; Hammond, John; Moreno, Pedro; Natsuaki, Tomohide; Pallás, Vicente; Navarro, Jose A.; Reyes, Carina A.; Luna, Gabriel Robles; Sasaya, Takahide; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E.; Vaira, Anna María; Verbeek, Martin; Lefkowitz, Elliot J.; Davison, Andrew J.; Siddell, Stuart G.; Simmonds, Peter; Adams, Michael J.; Smith, Donald B.; Orton, Richard J.; Sanfaçon, Hélène

    2017-01-01

    The Ophioviridae is a family of filamentous plant viruses, with single-stranded negative, and possibly ambisense, RNA genomes of 11.3-12.5 kb divided into 3-4 segments, each encapsidated separately. Virions are naked filamentous nucleocapsids, forming kinked circles of at least two different contour

  6. Viruses of the Archaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basta, T.; Garrett, Roger Antony; Prangishvili,, David

    2009-01-01

    Double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) viruses that infect members of the third domain of life, the Archaea, are diverse and exceptional in both their morphotypes and their genomic properties. The majority of characterized species infect hyperthermophilic hosts and carry morphological featur...

  7. Animal Models of Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Michael P; Nagamine, Claude M

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus has garnered great attention over the last several years, as outbreaks of the disease have emerged throughout the Western Hemisphere. Until quite recently Zika virus was considered a fairly benign virus, with limited clinical severity in both people and animals. The size and scope of the outbreak in the Western Hemisphere has allowed for the identification of severe clinical disease that is associated with Zika virus infection, most notably microcephaly among newborns, and an association with Guillian–Barré syndrome in adults. This recent association with severe clinical disease, of which further analysis strongly suggested causation by Zika virus, has resulted in a massive increase in the amount of both basic and applied research of this virus. Both small and large animal models are being used to uncover the pathogenesis of this emerging disease and to develop vaccine and therapeutic strategies. Here we review the animal-model–based Zika virus research that has been performed to date. PMID:28662753

  8. Archaeal viruses of the sulfolobales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdmann, Susanne; Garrett, Roger Antony

    2015-01-01

    in CRISPR loci of Sulfolobus species from a second coinfecting conjugative plasmid or virus (Erdmann and Garrett, Mol Microbiol 85:1044-1056, 2012; Erdmann et al. Mol Microbiol 91:900-917, 2014). Here we describe, firstly, the isolation of archaeal virus mixtures from terrestrial hot springs...... with an environmental virus mixture isolated from Yellowstone National Park (Erdmann and Garrett, Mol Microbiol 85:1044-1056, 2012). Experimental studies of isolated genetic elements from this mixture revealed that SMV1 (S ulfolobus Monocauda Virus 1), a tailed spindle-shaped virus, can induce spacer acquisition...... and the techniques used both to infect laboratory strains with these virus mixtures and to obtain purified virus particles. Secondly, we present the experimental conditions required for activating SMV1-induced spacer acquisition in two different Sulfolobus species....

  9. Evolutionary History and Phylogeography of Rabies Viruses Associated with Outbreaks in Trinidad

    OpenAIRE

    Seetahal, Janine F. R.; Velasco-Villa, Andres; Allicock, Orchid M.; Adesiyun, Abiodun A.; Bissessar, Joseph; Amour, Kirk; Phillip-Hosein, Annmarie; Marston, Denise A.; McElhinney, Lorraine M.; Shi, Mang; Wharwood, Cheryl-Ann; Fooks, Anthony R.; Carrington, Christine V. F.

    2013-01-01

    Bat rabies is an emerging disease of public health significance in the Americas. The Caribbean island of Trinidad experiences periodic outbreaks within the livestock population. We performed molecular characterisation of Trinidad rabies virus (RABV) and used a Bayesian phylogeographic approach to investigate the extent to which outbreaks are a result of in situ evolution versus importation of virus from the nearby South American mainland. Trinidadian RABV sequences were confirmed as bat varia...

  10. [The immune status of the population of the Crimea to the tick-borne encephalitis virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markeshin, S Ia; Karavanov, A S; Kovin, V V; Zakharova, T F; Evstratov, Iu V; Bychkova, M V; Evstaf'ev, I L

    1991-10-01

    The immune status of the Crimean population with respect to tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus has been studied. The results of the study confirm the existence of natural foci of TBE in the Crimea. The most active and potentially dangerous foci are located in forests of the mountain area of the peninsula. The study has revealed that humans are mainly exposed to the risk of contacting TBE virus infection during their work and rest in the forest.

  11. Atypical oral presentation of herpes simplex virus infection in a patient after orthotopic liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, E M; Karp, D L; Wu, T C; Corio, R L

    1994-01-01

    An atypical oral presentation of herpes simplex virus infection in a 49-year-old woman after orthotopic liver transplantation is reported. Clinically, the differential diagnosis included chronic hyperplastic candidiasis, nodular leukoplakia of undetermined etiology, and malignant neoplasm. An excisional biopsy revealed herpesvirus infection, and immunoperoxidase staining confirmed herpes simplex virus infection. This report describes the clinical and histologic appearance of these lesions and the course and treatment of the patient.

  12. Detection of yellow fever virus genomes from four imported cases in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shujuan; Pan, Yang; Lyu, Yanning; Liang, Zhichao; Li, Jie; Sun, Yulan; Dou, Xiangfeng; Tian, Lili; Huo, Da; Chen, Lijuan; Li, Xinyu; Wang, Quanyi

    2017-07-01

    Yellow fever virus (YFV), as the first proven human-pathogenic virus, is still a major public health problem with a dramatic upsurge in recent years. This is a report on four imported cases of yellow fever virus into China identified by whole genome sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis was performed and the results showed that these four viruses were highly homologous with Angola 71 strains (AY968064). In addition, effective mutations of amino acids were not observed in the E protein domain of four viruses, thus confirming the effectiveness of the YFV-17D vaccine (X03700). Although there is low risk of local transmission in most part of China, the increasing public health risk of YF caused by international exchange should not be ignored. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. [Role of hepatitis A and E viruses in the development of autoimmune diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakimchuk, K S; Malinnikova, E Iu; Poleshchuk, V F; Mikhaĭlov, M I

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms of development of autoimmune diseases may be associated with a complex of genetic, immune, hormonal, and infectious factors. Autoimmune diseases include a wide range of systemic and organ-specific diseases, including autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). It is currently assumed that the pathogenesis of AIH is due to compromised immune regulation in the presence of an exogenous triggering factor. Exogenous factors, such as viruses, may be triggers of AIH. There may be different ways of initiating an autoimmune response by viruses, which includes nonspecific T-lymphocyte activation and molecular mimicry. There is much evidence supporting the initiating role of hepatitis viruses in the development of AIH and other autoimmune diseases. The development of AIH symptoms during hepatitis A and E virus infections has been described elsewhere. The creation of animal models of viral hepatitis is required to confirm the hypothesis that the viruses trigger the development of AIH and other autoimmune manifestations.

  14. Itaya virus, a Novel Orthobunyavirus Associated with Human Febrile Illness, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hontz, Robert D.; Guevara, Carolina; Halsey, Eric S.; Silvas, Jesus; Santiago, Felix W.; Widen, Steven G.; Wood, Thomas G.; Casanova, Wilma; Vasilakis, Nikos; Watts, Douglas M.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Ebihara, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Our genetic analyses of uncharacterized bunyaviruses isolated in Peru identified a possible reassortant virus containing small and large gene segment sequences closely related to the Caraparu virus and a medium gene segment sequence potentially derived from an unidentified group C orthobunyavirus. Neutralization tests confirmed serologic distinction among the newly identified virus and the prototype and Caraparu strains. This virus, named Itaya, was isolated in 1999 and 2006 from febrile patients in the cities of Iquitos and Yurimaguas in Peru. The geographic distance between the 2 cases suggests that the Itaya virus could be widely distributed throughout the Amazon basin in northeastern Peru. Identification of a new Orthobunyavirus species that causes febrile disease in humans reinforces the need to expand viral disease surveillance in tropical regions of South America. PMID:25898901

  15. Transmission and reassortment of avian influenza viruses at the Asian-North American interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andrew M; Pearce, John M; Ely, Craig R; Guy, Lisa M Sheffield; Irons, David B; Derksen, Dirk V; Ip, Hon S

    2010-10-25

    Twenty avian influenza viruses were isolated from seven wild migratory bird species sampled at St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. We tested predictions based on previous phylogenetic analyses of avian influenza viruses that support spatially dependent trans-hemispheric gene flow and frequent interspecies transmission at a location situated at the Asian-North American interface. Through the application of phylogenetic and genotypic approaches, our data support functional dilution by distance of trans-hemispheric reassortants and interspecific virus transmission. Our study confirms infection of divergent avian taxa with nearly identical avian influenza strains in the wild. Findings also suggest that H16N3 viruses may contain gene segments with unique phylogenetic positions and that further investigation of how host specificity may impact transmission of H13 and H16 viruses is warranted. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Itaya virus, a Novel Orthobunyavirus Associated with Human Febrile Illness, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hontz, Robert D; Guevara, Carolina; Halsey, Eric S; Silvas, Jesus; Santiago, Felix W; Widen, Steven G; Wood, Thomas G; Casanova, Wilma; Vasilakis, Nikos; Watts, Douglas M; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Ebihara, Hideki; Aguilar, Patricia V

    2015-05-01

    Our genetic analyses of uncharacterized bunyaviruses isolated in Peru identified a possible reassortant virus containing small and large gene segment sequences closely related to the Caraparu virus and a medium gene segment sequence potentially derived from an unidentified group C orthobunyavirus. Neutralization tests confirmed serologic distinction among the newly identified virus and the prototype and Caraparu strains. This virus, named Itaya, was isolated in 1999 and 2006 from febrile patients in the cities of Iquitos and Yurimaguas in Peru. The geographic distance between the 2 cases suggests that the Itaya virus could be widely distributed throughout the Amazon basin in northeastern Peru. Identification of a new Orthobunyavirus species that causes febrile disease in humans reinforces the need to expand viral disease surveillance in tropical regions of South America.

  17. Continental synchronicity of human influenza virus epidemics despite climactic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoghegan, Jemma L; Saavedra, Aldo F; Duchêne, Sebastián; Sullivan, Sheena; Barr, Ian; Holmes, Edward C

    2018-01-01

    The factors that determine the pattern and rate of spread of influenza virus at a continental-scale are uncertain. Although recent work suggests that influenza epidemics in the United States exhibit a strong geographical correlation, the spatiotemporal dynamics of influenza in Australia, a country and continent of approximately similar size and climate complexity but with a far smaller population, are not known. Using a unique combination of large-scale laboratory-confirmed influenza surveillance comprising >450,000 entries and genomic sequence data we determined the local-level spatial diffusion of this important human pathogen nationwide in Australia. We used laboratory-confirmed influenza data to characterize the spread of influenza virus across Australia during 2007-2016. The onset of established epidemics varied across seasons, with highly synchronized epidemics coinciding with the emergence of antigenically distinct viruses, particularly during the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic. The onset of epidemics was largely synchronized between the most populous cities, even those separated by distances of >3000 km and those that experience vastly diverse climates. In addition, by analyzing global phylogeographic patterns we show that the synchronized dissemination of influenza across Australian cities involved multiple introductions from the global influenza population, coupled with strong domestic connectivity, rather than through the distinct radial patterns of geographic dispersal that are driven by work-flow transmission as observed in the United States. In addition, by comparing the spatial structure of influenza A and B, we found that these viruses tended to occupy different geographic regions, and peak in different seasons, perhaps indicative of moderate cross-protective immunity or viral interference effects. The highly synchronized outbreaks of influenza virus at a continental-scale revealed here highlight the importance of coordinated public health responses in the

  18. Evolutionary relationship of alfalfa mosaic virus with cucumber mosaic virus and brome mosaic virus

    OpenAIRE

    Savithri, HS; Murthy, MRN

    1983-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of the non-structural protein (molecular weight 35,000; 3a protein) from three plant viruses - cucumber mosaic, brome mosaic and alfalfa mosaic have been systematically compared using the partial genomic sequences for these three viruses already available. The 3a protein of cucumber mosaic virus has an amino acid sequence homology of 33.7% with the corresponding protein of brome mosaic virus. A similar protein from alfalfa mosaic virus has a homology of 18.2% and 14.2...

  19. Frog virus 3 ORF 53R, a putative myristoylated membrane protein, is essential for virus replication in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitley, Dexter S.; Yu, Kwang; Sample, Robert C.; Sinning, Allan; Henegar, Jeffrey; Norcross, Erin; Chinchar, V. Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Although previous work identified 12 complementation groups with possible roles in virus assembly, currently only one frog virus 3 protein, the major capsid protein (MCP), has been linked with virion formation. To identify other proteins required for assembly, we used an antisense morpholino oligonucleotide to target 53R, a putative myristoylated membrane protein, and showed that treatment resulted in marked reductions in 53R levels and a 60% drop in virus titers. Immunofluorescence assays confirmed knock down and showed that 53R was found primarily within viral assembly sites, whereas transmission electron microscopy detected fewer mature virions and, in some cells, dense granular bodies that may represent unencapsidated DNA-protein complexes. Treatment with a myristoylation inhibitor (2-hydroxymyristic acid) resulted in an 80% reduction in viral titers. Collectively, these data indicate that 53R is an essential viral protein that is required for replication in vitro and suggest it plays a critical role in virion formation.

  20. Towards quantitative viromics for both double-stranded and single-stranded DNA viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Roux

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Viruses strongly influence microbial population dynamics and ecosystem functions. However, our ability to quantitatively evaluate those viral impacts is limited to the few cultivated viruses and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA viral genomes captured in quantitative viral metagenomes (viromes. This leaves the ecology of non-dsDNA viruses nearly unknown, including single-stranded DNA (ssDNA viruses that have been frequently observed in viromes, but not quantified due to amplification biases in sequencing library preparations (Multiple Displacement Amplification, Linker Amplification or Tagmentation. Methods Here we designed mock viral communities including both ssDNA and dsDNA viruses to evaluate the capability of a sequencing library preparation approach including an Adaptase step prior to Linker Amplification for quantitative amplification of both dsDNA and ssDNA templates. We then surveyed aquatic samples to provide first estimates of the abundance of ssDNA viruses. Results Mock community experiments confirmed the biased nature of existing library preparation methods for ssDNA templates (either largely enriched or selected against and showed that the protocol using Adaptase plus Linker Amplification yielded viromes that were ±1.8-fold quantitative for ssDNA and dsDNA viruses. Application of this protocol to community virus DNA from three freshwater and three marine samples revealed that ssDNA viruses as a whole represent only a minor fraction (<5% of DNA virus communities, though individual ssDNA genomes, both eukaryote-infecting Circular Rep-Encoding Single-Stranded DNA (CRESS-DNA viruses and bacteriophages from the Microviridae family, can be among the most abundant viral genomes in a sample. Discussion Together these findings provide empirical data for a new virome library preparation protocol, and a first estimate of ssDNA virus abundance in aquatic systems.

  1. A novel sampling method to detect airborne influenza and other respiratory viruses in mechanically ventilated patients: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Alicia B; Tang, Benjamin; Shojaei, Maryam; Barnes, Lachlan S; Nalos, Marek; Oliver, Brian G; McLean, Anthony S

    2018-04-17

    Respiratory viruses circulate constantly in the ambient air. The risk of opportunistic infection from these viruses can be increased in mechanically ventilated patients. The present study evaluates the feasibility of detecting airborne respiratory viruses in mechanically ventilated patients using a novel sample collection method involving ventilator filters. We collected inspiratory and expiratory filters from the ventilator circuits of mechanically ventilated patients in an intensive care unit over a 14-month period. To evaluate whether we could detect respiratory viruses collected in these filters, we performed a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction on the extracted filter membrane with primers specific for rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus A and B, parainfluenza virus (type 1, 2 and 3) and human metapneumovirus. For each patient, we also performed a full virology screen (virus particles, antibody titres and virus-induced biomarkers) on respiratory samples (nasopharyngeal swab, tracheal aspirate or bronchoalveolar fluid) and blood samples. Respiratory viruses were detected in the ventilator filters of nearly half the patients in the study cohort (n = 33/70). The most common virus detected was influenza A virus (n = 29). There were more viruses detected in the inspiratory filters (n = 18) than in the expiratory filters (n = 15). A third of the patients with a positive virus detection in the ventilator filters had a hospital laboratory confirmed viral infection. In the remaining cases, the detected viruses were different from viruses already identified in the same patient, suggesting that these additional viruses come from the ambient air or from cross-contamination (staff or visitors). In patients in whom new viruses were detected in the ventilator filters, there was no evidence of clinical signs of an active viral infection. Additionally, the levels of virus-induced biomarker in these patients were not

  2. Hepatitis E virus coinfection with hepatotropic viruses in Egyptian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Salama, Osama Saad; Mansour, Fathy Awaad; Hossein, Shaimaa

    2008-06-01

    Major hepatotropic viruses continue to be important causes of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries. This work was carried out to detect the seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) markers in children with acute viral hepatitis due to hepatotropic viruses (A, B and C) and non-A, non-B, non-C acute hepatitis, and to ascertain the influence of HEV superinfection in individuals infected with hepatitis viruses (A, B and C). We studied prospectively 162 children with sporadic acute hepatitis who reported to our hospital. Thirteen healthy controls were also included in the study. Laboratory investigations were performed, including complete liver function tests. Complete serological profiles for hepatitis viruses A, B, C and E were evaluated. HEV immunoglobulin G was detected with highest percentage among patients with hepatitis B (56.7%), followed by patients with hepatitis C virus (52.0%), hepatitis A virus (34.1%) and combined hepatitis B and C viruses (30.0%). The detection rate among patients with non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis was 7.1%. HEV immunoglobulin M was found in 4.5% of hepatitis A virus patients and in 3.3% of hepatitis B patients. The prevalence of HEV immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M correlated with the levels of hepatic aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in patients with dual markers of infection with hepatitis E and other viruses compared to patients with acute hepatitis due to A and C viruses. HEV serological markers are common among children with acute viral hepatitis, especially from hepatitis C and B viruses. There may be increased sensitivity to HEV coinfection in association with hepatitis B and C infections. Dual infection with HEV and other hepatotropic viruses was associated with greater elevation of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases.

  3. Detection of 12 respiratory viruses by duplex real time PCR assays in respiratory samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvia, Rosaria; Corcioli, Fabiana; Ciccone, Nunziata; Della Malva, Nunzia; Azzi, Alberta

    2015-12-01

    Different viruses can be responsible for similar clinical manifestations of respiratory infections. Thus, the etiological diagnosis of respiratory viral diseases requires the detection of a large number of viruses. In this study, 6 duplex real-time PCR assays, using EvaGreen intercalating dye, were developed to detect 12 major viruses responsible for respiratory diseases: influenza A and B viruses, enteroviruses (including enterovirus spp, and rhinovirus spp), respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, coronaviruses group I (of which CoV 229E and CoV NL63 are part) and II (including CoV OC43 and CoV HKU1), parainfluenza viruses type 1, 2, 3 and 4, human adenoviruses and human bocaviruses. The 2 target viruses of each duplex reaction were distinguishable by the melting temperatures of their amplicons. The 6 duplex real time PCR assays were applied for diagnostic purpose on 202 respiratory samples from 157 patients. One hundred fifty-seven samples were throat swabs and 45 were bronchoalveolar lavages. The results of the duplex PCR assays were confirmed by comparison with a commercial, validated, assay; in addition, the positive results were confirmed by sequencing. The analytical sensitivity of the duplex PCR assays varied from 10(3) copies/ml to 10(4) copies/ml. For parainfluenza virus 2 only it was 10(5) copies/ml. Seventy clinical samples (35%) from 55 patients (30 children and 25 adults) were positive for 1 or more viruses. In adult patients, influenza A virus was the most frequently detected respiratory virus followed by rhinoviruses. In contrast, respiratory syncytial virus was the most common virus in children, followed by enteroviruses, influenza A virus and coronavirus NL63. The small number of samples/patients does not allow us to draw any epidemiological conclusion. Altogether, the results of this study indicate that the 6 duplex PCR assays described in this study are sensitive, specific and cost-effective. Thus, this assay could be

  4. Lagos bat virus transmission in an Eidolon helvum bat colony, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freuling, Conrad M; Binger, Tabea; Beer, Martin; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Schatz, Juliane; Fischer, Melina; Hanke, Dennis; Hoffmann, Bernd; Höper, Dirk; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Oppong, Samual K; Drosten, Christian; Müller, Thomas

    2015-12-02

    A brain sample of a straw-coloured fruit bat (Eidolon helvum) from Ghana without evident signs of disease tested positive by generic Lyssavirus RT-PCR and direct antigen staining. Sequence analysis confirmed the presence of a Lagos bat virus belonging to phylogenetic lineage A. Virus neutralization tests using the isolate with sera from the same group of bats yielded neutralizing antibodies in 74% of 567 animals. No cross-neutralization was observed against a different Lagos bat virus (lineage B). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A simple and rapid characterization of influenza virus isolates by monoclonal antibodies in radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostolansky, F.; Styk, B.; Russ, G.

    1986-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay is described with infectious allantoic fluid directly bound to solid phase, suitable for the detection and further characterization of influenza virus isolates. This simple and rapid method was applied for the description of isolates obtained from different regions of Czechoslovakia during the influenza epidemic in 1983. The results confirmed that all 13 examined isolates represented influenza A viruses possessing H3 subtype haemagglutinin very similar to haemagglutinin of influenza viruses A/Bangkok/1/79 (H3N2), A/Belgium/2/81 (H3N2) and A/Philippines/2/82 (H3N2). (author)

  6. Disruption of Specific RNA-RNA Interactions in a Double-Stranded RNA Virus Inhibits Genome Packaging and Virus Infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Teodoro; Sung, Po-Yu; Roy, Polly

    2015-12-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes hemorrhagic disease in economically important livestock. The BTV genome is organized into ten discrete double-stranded RNA molecules (S1-S10) which have been suggested to follow a sequential packaging pathway from smallest to largest segment during virus capsid assembly. To substantiate and extend these studies, we have investigated the RNA sorting and packaging mechanisms with a new experimental approach using inhibitory oligonucleotides. Putative packaging signals present in the 3'untranslated regions of BTV segments were targeted by a number of nuclease resistant oligoribonucleotides (ORNs) and their effects on virus replication in cell culture were assessed. ORNs complementary to the 3' UTR of BTV RNAs significantly inhibited virus replication without affecting protein synthesis. Same ORNs were found to inhibit complex formation when added to a novel RNA-RNA interaction assay which measured the formation of supramolecular complexes between and among different RNA segments. ORNs targeting the 3'UTR of BTV segment 10, the smallest RNA segment, were shown to be the most potent and deletions or substitution mutations of the targeted sequences diminished the RNA complexes and abolished the recovery of viable viruses using reverse genetics. Cell-free capsid assembly/RNA packaging assay also confirmed that the inhibitory ORNs could interfere with RNA packaging and further substitution mutations within the putative RNA packaging sequence have identified the recognition sequence concerned. Exchange of 3'UTR between segments have further demonstrated that RNA recognition was segment specific, most likely acting as part of the secondary structure of the entire genomic segment. Our data confirm that genome packaging in this segmented dsRNA virus occurs via the formation of supramolecular complexes formed by the interaction of specific sequences located in the 3' UTRs. Additionally, the inhibition of packaging in-trans with inhibitory ORNs

  7. Symbiotic virus at the evolutionary intersection of three types of large DNA viruses; iridoviruses, ascoviruses, and ichnoviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Bigot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ascovirus, DpAV4a (family Ascoviridae, is a symbiotic virus that markedly increases the fitness of its vector, the parasitic ichneumonid wasp, Diadromus puchellus, by increasing survival of wasp eggs and larvae in their lepidopteran host, Acrolepiopsis assectella. Previous phylogenetic studies have indicated that DpAV4a is related to the pathogenic ascoviruses, such as the Spodoptera frugiperda ascovirus 1a (SfAV1a and the lepidopteran iridovirus (family Iridoviridae, Chilo iridescent virus (CIV, and is also likely related to the ancestral source of certain ichnoviruses (family Polydnaviridae. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To clarify the evolutionary relationships of these large double-stranded DNA viruses, we sequenced the genome of DpAV4a and undertook phylogenetic analyses of the above viruses and others, including iridoviruses pathogenic to vertebrates. The DpAV4a genome consisted of 119,343 bp and contained at least 119 open reading frames (ORFs, the analysis of which confirmed the relatedness of this virus to iridoviruses and other ascoviruses. CONCLUSIONS: Analyses of core DpAV4a genes confirmed that ascoviruses and iridoviruses are evolutionary related. Nevertheless, our results suggested that the symbiotic DpAV4a had a separate origin in the iridoviruses from the pathogenic ascoviruses, and that these two types shared parallel evolutionary paths, which converged with respect to virion structure (icosahedral to bacilliform, genome configuration (linear to circular, and cytopathology (plasmalemma blebbing to virion-containing vesicles. Our analyses also revealed that DpAV4a shared more core genes with CIV than with other ascoviruses and iridoviruses, providing additional evidence that DpAV4a represents a separate lineage. Given the differences in the biology of the various iridoviruses and ascoviruses studied, these results provide an interesting model for how viruses of different families evolved from one another.

  8. A novel recombinant pseudorabies virus expressing parvovirus VP2 gene: Immunogenicity and protective efficacy in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Dishi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine parvovirus (PPV VP2 gene has been successfully expressed in many expression systems resulting in self-assembly of virus-like particles (VLPs with similar morphology to the native capsid. Here, a pseudorabies virus (PRV system was adopted to express the PPV VP2 gene. Methods A recombinant PRV SA215/VP2 was obtained by homologous recombination between the vector PRV viral DNA and a transfer plasmid. Then recombinant virus was purified with plaque purification, and its identity confirmed by PCR amplification, Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence (IFA analyses. Electronic microscopy of PRV SA215/VP2 confirmed self-assembly of both pseudorabies virus and VLPs from VP2 protein. Results Immunization of piglets with recombinant virus elicited PRV-specific and PPV-specific humoral immune responses and provided complete protection against a lethal dose of PRV challenges. Gilts immunized with recombinant viruses induced PPV-specific antibodies, and significantly reduced the mortality rate of (1 of 28 following virulent PPV challenge compared with the control (7 of 31. Furthermore, PPV virus DNA was not detected in the fetuses of recombinant virus immunized gilts. Conclusions In this study, a recombinant PRV SA215/VP2 virus expressing PPV VP2 protein was constructed using PRV SA215 vector. The safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of the recombinant virus were demonstrated in piglets and primiparous gilts. This recombinant PRV SA215/VP2 represents a suitable candidate for the development of a bivalent vaccine against both PRV and PPV infection.

  9. Detection of selected plant viruses by microarrays

    OpenAIRE

    HRABÁKOVÁ, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this master thesis was the simultaneous detection of four selected plant viruses ? Apple mosaic virus, Plum pox virus, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prune harf virus, by microarrays. The intermediate step in the process of the detection was optimizing of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

  10. Virus-host interaction in feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniwaki, Sueli Akemi; Figueiredo, Andreza Soriano; Araujo, João Pessoa

    2013-12-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection has been the focus of several studies because this virus exhibits genetic and pathogenic characteristics that are similar to those of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). FIV causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in cats, nevertheless, a large fraction of infected cats remain asymptomatic throughout life despite of persistent chronic infection. This slow disease progression may be due to the presence of factors that are involved in the natural resistance to infection and the immune response that is mounted by the animals, as well as due to the adaptation of the virus to the host. Therefore, the study of virus-host interaction is essential to the understanding of the different patterns of disease course and the virus persistence in the host, and to help with the development of effective vaccines and perhaps the cure of FIV and HIV infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Single virus genomics: a new tool for virus discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Zeigler Allen

    Full Text Available Whole genome amplification and sequencing of single microbial cells has significantly influenced genomics and microbial ecology by facilitating direct recovery of reference genome data. However, viral genomics continues to suffer due to difficulties related to the isolation and characterization of uncultivated viruses. We report here on a new approach called 'Single Virus Genomics', which enabled the isolation and complete genome sequencing of the first single virus particle. A mixed assemblage comprised of two known viruses; E. coli bacteriophages lambda and T4, were sorted using flow cytometric methods and subsequently immobilized in an agarose matrix. Genome amplification was then achieved in situ via multiple displacement amplification (MDA. The complete lambda phage genome was recovered with an average depth of coverage of approximately 437X. The isolation and genome sequencing of uncultivated viruses using Single Virus Genomics approaches will enable researchers to address questions about viral diversity, evolution, adaptation and ecology that were previously unattainable.

  12. Understanding Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John S

    2017-01-01

    This article describes what pediatric healthcare professionals should know about Zika virus (ZIKV). ZIKV is classified as an arthropod-borne, single-stranded RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family and genus Flavivirus. ZIKV is not new. The virus was first discovered almost 70 years ago in Uganda. The first isolate of the virus was found in rhesus monkeys in the Zika Forrest, hence the nomenclature. The primary route of ZIKV transmission to humans is through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito-primarily Aedes aegypti. When the mosquito bites individuals infected with the virus, mosquitos then become the vector of transmitting the infection to others. Women can also pass ZIKV to their fetus during pregnancy and at the time of delivery. ZIKV can also be transmitted through sexual activity from an individual who is infected with the virus to his or her partners. It is estimated that approximately 18% of individuals infected with ZIKV will go on to develop symptoms. When symptoms develop, it is usually within 3-12 days, although this may vary. Most often, symptoms are mild and self-limited. The most common symptoms are fever, arthralgia, maculopapular rash, and conjunctivitis lasting up to seven days. Less frequent symptoms include headache, vertigo, myalgia, vomiting, and diarrhea. At present, there is no vaccine available to prevent ZIKV and no specific antiviral treatment. Supportive care consisting of rest, hydration, analgesics, antihistamines, and antipyretics is recommended as needed. Given that there is no vaccine or treatment for ZIKV, considerable efforts must be focused on prevention. One of the most effective ways of preventing ZIKV infection is through avoiding mosquito bites, especially when traveling to or residing in areas where transmission is present. Precautions should include wearing appropriate attire with the objective of having as little skin exposed as possible, use of screens for windows and doors, and use of insect repellent. What is

  13. Soundness confirmation through cold test of the system equipment of HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Masato; Shinohara, Masanori; Iigaki, Kazuhiko; Tochio, Daisuke; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Shimazaki, Yosuke

    2014-01-01

    HTTR was established at the Oarai Research and Development Center of Japan Atomic Energy Agency, for the purpose of the establishment and upgrading of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor technology infrastructure. Currently, it performs a safety demonstration test in order to demonstrate the safety inherent in high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. After the Great East Japan Earthquake, it conducted confirmation test for the purpose of soundness survey of facilities and equipment, and it confirmed that the soundness of the equipment was maintained. After two years from the confirmation test, it has not been confirmed whether the function of dynamic equipment and the soundness such as the airtightness of pipes and containers are maintained after receiving the influence of damage or deterioration caused by aftershocks generated during two years or aging. To confirm the soundness of these facilities, operation under cold state was conducted, and the obtained plant data was compared with confirmation test data to evaluate the presence of abnormality. In addition, in order to confirm through cold test the damage due to aftershocks and degradation due to aging, the plant data to compare was supposed to be the confirmation test data, and the evaluation on abnormality of the plant data of machine starting time and normal operation data was performed. (A.O.)

  14. Strategic use of preference confirmation in group decision making : The role of competition and dissent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toma, C.; Gilles, I.; Butera, F.

    2013-01-01

    The present research investigates the moderating role of goal interdependence and dissent on individual preference confirmation in hidden-profile tasks. We propose that preference confirmation can be used strategically to deal with competition and dissent likely to arise in group decision making. In

  15. 16 CFR 1633.5 - Prototype pooling and confirmation testing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prototype pooling and confirmation testing... Prototype pooling and confirmation testing requirements. (a) Prototype pooling. One or more manufacturers may rely on a qualified prototype produced by another manufacturer or prototype developer provided...

  16. 77 FR 55903 - Confirmation, Portfolio Reconciliation, Portfolio Compression, and Swap Trading Relationship...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... Vol. 77 Tuesday, No. 176 September 11, 2012 Part II Commodity Futures Trading Commission 17 CFR Part 23 Confirmation, Portfolio Reconciliation, Portfolio Compression, and Swap Trading Relationship... FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 23 RIN 3038-AC96 Confirmation, Portfolio Reconciliation, Portfolio...

  17. A novel CYBB mutation with the first genetically confirmed case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of a child with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) presenting with recurrent mycobacterial infections and invasive Aspergillus fumigatus disease is described. Genetic analysis confirmed X-linked CGD with a novel mutation in exon 10 of the CYBB gene – the first South African report of genetically confirmed CGD.

  18. 77 FR 18305 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Report of Passengers Denied Confirmed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... Confirmed Space--BTS Form 251 AGENCY: Research & Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In compliance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of... BTS collecting reports on the number of passengers holding confirmed reservations that voluntarily or...

  19. Monitoring of West Nile virus, Usutu virus and Meaban virus in waterfowl used as decoys and wild raptors in southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado-Tarifa, E; Napp, S; Lecollinet, S; Arenas, A; Beck, C; Cerdà-Cuéllar, M; Fernández-Morente, M; García-Bocanegra, I

    2016-12-01

    In the last decade, the number of emerging flaviviruses described worldwide has increased considerably, with wild birds acting as the main reservoir hosts of these viruses. We carried out an epidemiological survey to determine the seroprevalence of antigenically related flaviviruses, particularly West Nile virus (WNV), Usutu virus (USUV) and Meaban virus (MBV), in waterfowl used as decoys and wild raptors in Andalusia (southern Spain), the region considered to have the highest risk of flaviviruses circulation in Spain. The overall flaviviruses seroprevalence according to bELISA was 13.0% in both in decoys (n=1052) and wild raptors (n=123). Specific antibodies against WNV, USUV and MBV were confirmed by micro virus neutralization tests in 12, 38 and 4 of the seropositive decoys, respectively. This is the first study on WNV and USUV infections in decoys and the first report of MBV infections in waterfowl and raptors. Moreover we report the first description of WNV infections in short-toed snake eagle (Circaetus gallicus) and Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus). The seropositivity obtained indicates widespread but not homogeneous distribution of WNV and USUV in Andalusia. The results also confirm endemic circulation of WNV, USUV and MBV in both decoys and wild raptors in southern Spain. Our results highlight the need to implement surveillance and control programs not only for WNV but also for other related flaviviruses. Further research is needed to determine the eco-epidemiological role that waterfowl and wild raptors play in the transmission of emerging flaviviruses, especially in decoys, given their close interactions with humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Transient Hearing Loss in Adults Associated With Zika Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinhaes, Eriko S; Santos, Luciane A; Dias, Lislane; Andrade, Nilvano A; Bezerra, Victor H; de Carvalho, Anderson T; de Moraes, Laise; Henriques, Daniele F; Azar, Sasha R; Vasilakis, Nikos; Ko, Albert I; Andrade, Bruno B; Siqueira, Isadora C; Khouri, Ricardo; Boaventura, Viviane S

    2017-03-01

    In 2015, during the outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil, we identified 3 cases of acute hearing loss after exanthematous illness. Serology yielded finding compatible with ZIKV as the cause of a confirmed (n = 1) and a probable (n = 2) flavivirus infection, indicating an association between ZIKV infection and transient hearing loss. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  1. [Zika virus infection or the future of infectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio Sallent, Lluís; Roure Díez, Sílvia; Fernández Rivas, Gema

    2016-10-07

    Zika virus belongs to the Flaviridae, an extended phylogenetic family containing dengue or yellow fever, viruses whose shared main vector are Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The virus originally came from Central African simian reservoirs and, from there, expanded rapidly across the Pacific to South America. The disease is an example of exantematic fever usually mild. Mortality is very low and mainly limited to secondary Guillain-Barré or fetal microcephaly cases. Diagnostic confirmation requires a RT-PCR in blood up to the 5th day from the onset or in urine up to the 10-14th day. Specific IgM are identifiable from the 5th symptomatic day. Clinically, a suspected case should comply with: a) a journey to epidemic areas; b) a clinically compatible appearance with fever and skin rash, and c) a generally normal blood count/basic biochemistry. There is some evidence that causally relates Zika virus infection with fetal microcephaly. While waiting for definitive data, all pregnant women coming from Central or South America should be tested for Zika virus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of tick-borne encephalitis virus from Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavtchoutko, V; Vene, S; Haglund, M; Forsgren, M; Duks, A; Kalnina, V; Hörling, J; Lundkvist, A

    2000-02-01

    Viruses of the tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) antigenic complex, within the family Flaviviridae, cause a variety of diseases including uncomplicated febrile illness, encephalitis, meningo-encephalitis, hemorrhagic fever and chronic disease in humans, domesticated animals or wildlife species. TBE is a serious problem in Latvia with up to a 1,000 patients confirmed serologically annually 1994-1995. No previous data had been reported on the causative agent of TBE in Latvia. In the present study, a virus was isolated from serum of a patient with clinical symptoms of an acute TBE infection. Nucleotide sequence information obtained by direct reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the serological characteristics of the isolated virus strain, designated TBE-Latvia-1-96, indicated a closer relationship to the Vasilchenko strain, isolated in Novosibirsk (Siberia, Russia), as compared to the western European or far eastern subtypes of TBE viruses. In a mouse neurovirulence assay, a significant difference in survival rates (days) was shown between Latvia-1-96 and the western European TBE virus subtype. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Bovine epizootic encephalomyelitis caused by Akabane virus in southern Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Shogo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Akabane virus is a member of the genus Orthobunyavirus in the family Bunyaviridae. It is transmitted by hematophagous arthropod vectors such as Culicoides biting midges and is widely distributed in temperate to tropical regions of the world. The virus is well known as a teratogenic pathogen which causes abortions, stillbirths, premature births and congenital abnormalities with arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly syndrome in cattle, sheep and goats. On the other hand, it is reported that the virus rarely induces encephalomyelitis in cattle by postnatal infection. A first large-scale epidemic of Akabane viral encephalomyelitis in cattle occurred in the southern part of Japan from summer to autumn in 2006. The aim of this study is to define the epidemiological, pathological and virological properties of the disease. Results Nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis was observed in cattle that showed neurological symptoms such as astasia, ataxia, opisthotonus and hypersensitivity in beef and dairy farms by histopathological analysis. Akabane viral antigen and genome were consistently detected from the central nervous system of these animals, and the virus was isolated not only from them but also from the blood samples of clinically healthy calves in the epidemic area. The isolates were classified into genogroup I a containing the Iriki strain, which caused encephalitis of calves almost twenty years ago in Japan. Most of the affected cattle possessed the neutralizing antibody against Akabane virus. Seroconversion of the cohabitated and sentinel cattle in the epidemic area was also confirmed during an outbreak of the disease. Conclusion The ecological and epidemiological data we have obtained so far demonstrated that the Akabane virus is not endemic in Japan. No evidence of Akabane virus circulation was observed in 2005 through nation-wide serological surveillance, suggesting that a new strain belonging to genogroup I a invaded southern Japan

  4. Modes of transmission of influenza B virus in households.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J Cowling

    Full Text Available While influenza A and B viruses can be transmitted via respiratory droplets, the importance of small droplet nuclei "aerosols" in transmission is controversial.In Hong Kong and Bangkok, in 2008-11, subjects were recruited from outpatient clinics if they had recent onset of acute respiratory illness and none of their household contacts were ill. Following a positive rapid influenza diagnostic test result, subjects were randomly allocated to one of three household-based interventions: hand hygiene, hand hygiene plus face masks, and a control group. Index cases plus their household contacts were followed for 7-10 days to identify secondary infections by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR testing of respiratory specimens. Index cases with RT-PCR-confirmed influenza B were included in the present analyses. We used a mathematical model to make inferences on the modes of transmission, facilitated by apparent differences in clinical presentation of secondary infections resulting from aerosol transmission. We estimated that approximately 37% and 26% of influenza B virus transmission was via the aerosol mode in households in Hong Kong and Bangkok, respectively. In the fitted model, influenza B virus infections were associated with a 56%-72% risk of fever plus cough if infected via aerosol route, and a 23%-31% risk of fever plus cough if infected via the other two modes of transmission.Aerosol transmission may be an important mode of spread of influenza B virus. The point estimates of aerosol transmission were slightly lower for influenza B virus compared to previously published estimates for influenza A virus in both Hong Kong and Bangkok. Caution should be taken in interpreting these findings because of the multiple assumptions inherent in the model, including that there is limited biological evidence to date supporting a difference in the clinical features of influenza B virus infection by different modes.

  5. Hexon-chimaeric adenovirus serotype 5 vectors circumvent pre-existing anti-vector immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, Diane M.; Nanda, Anjali; Havenga, Menzo J. E.; Abbink, Peter; Lynch, Diana M.; Ewald, Bonnie A.; Liu, Jinyan; Thorner, Anna R.; Swanson, Patricia E.; Gorgone, Darci A.; Lifton, Michelle A.; Lemckert, Angelique A. C.; Holterman, Lennart; Chen, Bing; Dilraj, Athmanundh; Carville, Angela; Mansfield, Keith G.; Goudsmit, Jaap; Barouch, Dan H.

    2006-01-01

    A common viral immune evasion strategy involves mutating viral surface proteins in order to evade host neutralizing antibodies. Such immune evasion tactics have not previously been intentionally applied to the development of novel viral gene delivery vectors that overcome the critical problem of

  6. Genetic Confirmation of Mungbean (Vigna radiata) and Mashbean (Vigna mungo) Interspecific Recombinants using Molecular Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ghulam; Hameed, Amjad; Rizwan, Muhammad; Ahsan, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad J; Iqbal, Nayyer

    2015-01-01

    Molecular confirmation of interspecific recombinants is essential to overcome the issues like self-pollination, environmental influence, and inadequacy of morphological characteristics during interspecific hybridization. The present study was conducted for genetic confirmation of mungbean (female) and mashbean (male) interspecific crosses using molecular markers. Initially, polymorphic random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), universal rice primers (URP), and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers differentiating parent genotypes were identified. Recombination in hybrids was confirmed using these polymorphic DNA markers. The NM 2006 × Mash 88 was most successful interspecific cross. Most of true recombinants confirmed by molecular markers were from this cross combination. SSR markers were efficient in detecting genetic variability and recombination with reference to specific chromosomes and particular loci. SSR (RIS) and RAPD identified variability dispersed throughout the genome. In conclusion, DNA based marker assisted selection (MAS) efficiently confirmed the interspecific recombinants. The results provided evidence that MAS can enhance the authenticity of selection in mungbean improvement program.

  7. Case report: microcephaly associated with Zika virus infection, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Mattar, Salim; Ojeda, Carolina; Arboleda, Janna; Arrieta, German; Bosch, Irene; Botia, Ingrid; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Perez-Yepes, Carlos; Gerhke, Lee; Montero, German

    2017-01-01

    Background Recently there has been a large outbreak of Zika virus infections in Colombia, South America. The epidemic began in September 2015 and continued to April 2017, for the total number of Zika cases reported of 107,870. For those confirmed Zika cases, there were nearly 20,000 (18.5%) suspected to be pregnant women, resulting in 157 confirmed cases of microcephaly in newborns reported by their health government agency. There is a clear under-estimation of the total nu...

  8. Seed Transmission of Beet Curly Top Virus and Beet Curly Top Iran Virus in a Local Cultivar of Petunia in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anabestani, Ameneh; Behjatnia, Seyed Ali Akbar; Izadpanah, Keramat; Tabein, Saeid

    2017-01-01

    Beet curly top virus (BCTV) and beet curly top Iran virus (BCTIV) are known as the causal agents of curly top disease in beet and several other dicotyledonous plants in Iran. These viruses are transmitted by Circulifer species, and until now, there has been no confirmed report of their seed transmission. A percentage (38.2–78.0%) of the seedlings developed from the seeds of a petunia local cultivar under insect-free conditions showed stunting, interveinal chlorosis, leaf curling, and vein swelling symptoms, and were infected by BCTV when tested by PCR. Presence of BCTV in seed extracts of petunia local cultivar was confirmed by PCR and IC-PCR, followed by sequencing. Agroinoculation of curly top free petunia plants with a BCTV infectious clone resulted in BCTV infection of plants and their developed seeds. These results show the seed infection and transmission of BCTV in a local cultivar of petunia. Similar experiments performed with BCTIV showed that this virus is also seed transmissible in the same cultivar of petunia, although with a lower rate (8.8–18.5%). Seed transmission of curly top viruses may have significant implications in the epidemiology of these viruses. PMID:29035342

  9. First Laboratory Confirmation of Salmonid Alphavirus Type 2 (SAV2 Infection in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borzym Ewa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify the genotype of Polish isolates of salmonid alphaviruses (SAV and to find the origin of the virus. Samples for virus isolation included the kidneys, spleen, and liver pooled from 10 fish. A typical cytopathic effect was observed after inoculation of samples on cell lines. Total RNA was extracted from cell culture supernatant and submitted to RT-PCR with primers amplifying two informative regions of the genome: a conserved region in the E2 gene and a variable region in the nsP3 gene. The sequences revealed that the strain from Poland belonged to subtype SAV 2, indicating a very strong genetic identity with isolates from Italy and France.

  10. Dengue Virus and Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas S. Heaton

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Several independent groups have published that autophagy is required for optimal RNA replication of dengue virus (DENV. Initially, it was postulated that autophagosomes might play a structural role in replication complex formation. However, cryo-EM tomography of DENV replication complexes showed that DENV replicates on endoplasmic reticulum (ER cisternae invaginations and not on classical autophagosomes. Recently, it was reported that autophagy plays an indirect role in DENV replication by modulating cellular lipid metabolism. DENV-induced autophagosomes deplete cellular triglycerides that are stored in lipid droplets, leading to increased β-oxidation and energy production. This is the first example of a virus triggering autophagy to modulate cellular physiology. In this review, we summarize these data and discuss new questions and implications for autophagy during DENV replication.

  11. Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borucki, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-05

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus capable of causing large outbreaks of encephalitis in humans and horses. In North America, EEEV infection has a very high mortality rate in humans, and survivors often suffer severe neurological sequelae. Interestingly, EEEV infections from South American isolates are generally subclinical. Although EEEV is divided into two antigenic varieties and four lineages, only eleven isolates have been sequenced and eight of these are from the North American variety (Lineage I). Most sequenced strains were collected from mosquitoes and only one human isolate has been sequenced. EEEV isolates exist from a variety of hosts, vectors, years, and geographical locations and efforts should focus on sequencing strains that represent this diversity.

  12. Uukuniemi virus, Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Zelená, Hana; Papadopoulou, Elpida; Mrázek, Jakub

    2018-04-20

    Following the identification of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome and Heartland viruses, the interest on tick-borne phleboviruses has increased rapidly. Uukuniemi virus has been proposed as a model for tick-borne phleboviruses. However, the number of available sequences is limited. In the current study we performed whole-genome sequencing on two Uukuniemi viral strains isolated in 2000 and 2004 from Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Czech Republic. Both strains cluster together with Potepli63 strain isolated in the country in 1963. Although the Czech strains were isolated many years apart, a high identity was seen at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, suggesting that UUKV has a relatively stable genome. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Pathogenesis of Congenital Rubella Virus Infection in Human Fetuses: Viral Infection in the Ciliary Body Could Play an Important Role in Cataractogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thong Van Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation: Our study based on the pathological examination demonstrated that the rubella virus infection occurred via systemic organs of human fetuses. This fact was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and direct detection of viral RNA in multiple organs. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report demonstrating that the rubella virus infection occurred via systemic organs of the human body. Importantly, virus infection of the ciliary body could play an important role in cataractogenesis.

  14. Mokola virus infection : description of recent South African cases and a review of the virus epidemiology : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.F. Von Teichman

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Five cases of Mokola virus, a lyssavirus related to rabies, are described. The cases occurred in cats from the East London, Pinetown and Pietermaritzburg areas of South Africa from February 1996 to February 1998. Each of the cats was suspected of being rabid and their brains were submitted for laboratory confirmation. Four of the cases were positive, but with atypical fluorescence, and 1 was negative. Mokola virus infection was identified by anti-lyssavirus nucleocapsid monoclonal antibody typing. As in rabies cases, the predominant clinical signs were of unusual behaviour. Aggression was present, but only during handling. Four of the 5 cats had been vaccinated for rabies, which is consistent with other studies that show that rabies vaccination does not appear to protect against Mokola virus. Since Mokola may be confused with rabies, the incidence of Mokola virus may be more common in Africa than is currently reported. As human infections may be fatal, the emergence of this virus is a potential threat to public health.

  15. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Dudas, Robert A.; Karron, Ruth A.

    1998-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of viral lower respiratory tract illness (LRI) in infants and children worldwide and causes significant LRI in the elderly and in immunocompromised patients. The goal of RSV vaccination is to prevent serious RSV-associated LRI. There are several obstacles to the development of successful RSV vaccines, including the need to immunize very young infants, who may respond inadequately to vaccination; the existence of two antigenically d...

  16. Ebola Virus Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-08-08

    This podcast provides general information about Ebola virus disease and the outbreak in West Africa. The program contains remarks from CDC Director Dr. Tom Frieden, as well as a brief description of CDC’s response efforts.  Created: 8/8/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/8/2014.

  17. Thermoactivation of viruses by microwaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahnel, H.; von Brodorotti, H.S.

    1981-01-01

    Eight different viruses, suspended in drinking water, were examined for their ability to be inactivated by microwaves from a microwave oven. Up to a virus content of 10/sup 5/ TCID/sub 50//ml inactivation was successful within a few minutes of microwave treatment and occurred in parallel to the heat stability of the viruses. Evidence for direct effects of microwaves on viruses could not be detected. 7 of the viruses studied were inactivated rapidly when temperatures of 50 to 65/sup 0/C under microwave treatment were reached in the flowing water, while a bovine parvovirus was only inactivated by temperatures above 90/sup 0/C. The advantages of a thermal virus-decontamination of fluids and material by microwaves are discussed.

  18. Molecular characterization and experimental host range of an isolate of Wissadula golden mosaic St. Thomas virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, A M; Mujaddad-ur-Rehman, Malik; Brown, J K; Reddy, C; Wang, A; Fondong, V; Roye, M E

    2009-12-01

    Partial genome segments of a begomovirus were previously amplified from Wissadula amplissima exhibiting yellow-mosaic and leaf-curl symptoms in the parish of St. Thomas, Jamaica and this isolate assigned to a tentative begomovirus species, Wissadula golden mosaic St. Thomas virus. To clone the complete genome of this isolate of Wissadula golden mosaic St. Thomas virus, abutting primers were designed to PCR amplify its full-length DNA-A and DNA-B components. Sequence analysis of the complete begomovirus genome obtained, confirmed that it belongs to a distinct begomovirus species and this isolate was named Wissadula golden mosaic St. Thomas virus-[Jamaica:Albion:2005] (WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05]). The genome of WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] is organized similar to that of other bipartite Western Hemisphere begomoviruses. Phylogenetic analyses placed the genome components of WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] in the Abutilon mosaic virus clade and showed that the DNA-A component is most closely related to four begomovirus species from Cuba, Tobacco leaf curl Cuba virus, Tobacco leaf rugose virus, Tobacco mottle leaf curl virus, and Tomato yellow distortion leaf virus. The putative Rep-binding-site motif in the common region of WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] was observed to be identical to that of Chino del tomate virus-Tomato [Mexico:Sinaloa:1983], Sida yellow mosaic Yucatan virus-[Mexico:Yucatan:2005], and Tomato leaf curl Sinaloa virus-[Nicaragua:Santa Lucia], suggesting that WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] is capable of forming viable pseudo-recombinants with these begomoviruses, but not with other members of the Abutilon mosaic virus clade. Biolistic inoculation of test plant species with partial dimers of the WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] DNA-A and DNA-B components showed that the virus was infectious to Nicotiana benthamiana and W. amplissima and the cultivated species Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean) and Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato). Infected W. amplissima plants developed symptoms similar to symptoms observed under field

  19. [Nosocomial virus infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, H J

    1986-12-01

    Enveloped viruses, e.g. influenza- or varicella viruses may cause highly contagious airborne infections. Their spread is difficult to control, also in hospitals. In the case of influenza and varicella immune prophylaxis and chemotherapy/chemoprophylaxis are possible. This is of particular significance, since varicella and zoster are of increasing importance for immunocompromized patients. Diarrhea is caused to a large extent by viruses. Rotavirus infections play an important role in infancy, and are frequently acquired in the hospital. In a study on infectious gastroenteritis of infants in a hospital we were able to show that 30 percent of all rotavirus infections were of nosocomial origin. Admission of a rotavirus-excreting patient (or personnel) may start a long chain of rotavirus infections on pediatric wards. Even careful hygienic measures in the hospital can hardly prevent the spread of enterovirus infections. Such infections may be severe and lethal for newborns, as shown by us in a study on an outbreak of echovirus 11 disease on a maternity ward. We have recently obtained data on the "stickiness" of enteroviruses on human skin. This could explain essential features of the spread of enteroviruses in the population.

  20. Viruses manipulate the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Forest; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2009-05-14

    Marine viruses affect Bacteria, Archaea and eukaryotic organisms and are major components of the marine food web. Most studies have focused on their role as predators and parasites, but many of the interactions between marine viruses and their hosts are much more complicated. A series of recent studies has shown that viruses have the ability to manipulate the life histories and evolution of their hosts in remarkable ways, challenging our understanding of this almost invisible world.

  1. Virus Information Update CIAC-2301

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-21

    a tune through a sound card. Byway is reported to be in the wild internationally, especially in Venezuela, Mexico , Bulgaria, UK and USA. REMOVAL NOTE...1482, Varicella Type: Program. Disk Location: Features: Damage: Size: See Also: Notes: v6-146: This virus was written to hurt users of the TBCLEAN...antivirus package. If you have a file infected with the Varicella virus, and if you tried to clean this virus infected file with tbclean, what would

  2. Molecular epidemiology of influenza A(H1N1pdm09 viruses from Pakistan in 2009-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Bashir Aamir

    Full Text Available In early 2009, a novel influenza A(H1N1 virus that emerged in Mexico and United States rapidly disseminated worldwide. The spread of this virus caused considerable morbidity with over 18000 recorded deaths. The new virus was found to be a reassortant containing gene segments from human, avian and swine influenza viruses.The first case of human infection with A(H1N1pdm09 in Pakistan was detected on 18(th June 2009. Since then, 262 laboratory-confirmed cases have been detected during various outbreaks with 29 deaths (as of 31(st August 2010. The peak of the epidemic was observed in December with over 51% of total respiratory cases positive for influenza. Representative isolates from Pakistan viruses were sequenced and analyzed antigenically. Sequence analysis of genes coding for surface glycoproteins HA and NA showed high degree of high levels of sequence identity with corresponding genes of regional viruses circulating South East Asia. All tested viruses were sensitive to Oseltamivir in the Neuraminidase Inhibition assays.Influenza A(H1N1pdm09 viruses from Pakistan form a homogenous group of viruses. Their HA genes belong to clade 7 and show antigenic profile similar to the vaccine strain A/California/07/2009. These isolates do not show any amino acid changes indicative of high pathogenicity and virulence. It is imperative to continue monitoring of these viruses for identification of potential variants of high virulence or drug resistance.

  3. Identification of human hnRNP C1/C2 as a dengue virus NS1-interacting protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noisakran, Sansanee; Sengsai, Suchada; Thongboonkerd, Visith; Kanlaya, Rattiyaporn; Sinchaikul, Supachok; Chen, Shui-Tein; Puttikhunt, Chunya

    2008-01-01

    Dengue virus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is a key glycoprotein involved in the production of infectious virus and the pathogenesis of dengue diseases. Very little is known how NS1 interacts with host cellular proteins and functions in dengue virus-infected cells. This study aimed at identifying NS1-interacting host cellular proteins in dengue virus-infected cells by employing co-immunoprecipitation, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry. Using lysates of dengue virus-infected human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293T), immunoprecipitation with an anti-NS1 monoclonal antibody revealed eight isoforms of dengue virus NS1 and a 40-kDa protein, which was subsequently identified by quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS/MS) as human heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) C1/C2. Further investigation by co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization confirmed the association of hnRNP C1/C2 and dengue virus NS1 proteins in dengue virus-infected cells. Their interaction may have implications in virus replication and/or cellular responses favorable to survival of the virus in host cells

  4. Advances in virus research. Volume 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauffer, M.A.; Maramorosch, K.

    1984-01-01

    This book contains nine chapters. Some of the titles are: Molecular Biology of Wound Tumor Virus; The Application of Monoclonal Antibodies in the Study of Viruses; Prions: Novel Infectious Pathogens; and Monoclonal Antibodies Against Plant Viruses

  5. A virus-MIPs fluorescent sensor based on FRET for highly sensitive detection of JEV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Caishuang; Wang, Huan; He, Kui; Chen, Chunyan; Chen, Xiaoming; Gong, Hang; Cai, Changqun

    2016-11-01

    Major stumbling blocks in the recognition and detection of virus are the unstable biological recognition element or the complex detection means. Here a fluorescent sensor based on virus-molecular imprinted polymers (virus-MIPs) was designed for specific recognition and highly sensitive detection of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). The virus-MIPs were anchored on the surface of silica microspheres modified by fluorescent dye, pyrene-1-carboxaldehyde (PC). The fluorescence intensity of PC can be enhanced by the principle of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), where virus acted as energy donor and PC acted as energy acceptor. The enhanced fluorescence intensity was proportional to the concentration of virus in the range of 24-960pM, with a limit of detection (LOD, 3σ) of 9.6pM, and the relative standard deviation was 1.99%. In additional, the specificity study confirmed the resultant MIPs has high-selectivity for JEV. This sensor would become a new key for the detection of virus because of its high sensitive, simple operation, high stability and low cost. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. RECOVIR Software for Identifying Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Sugoto; Fox, George E.; Zhu, Dianhui

    2013-01-01

    Most single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses mutate rapidly to generate a large number of strains with highly divergent capsid sequences. Determining the capsid residues or nucleotides that uniquely characterize these strains is critical in understanding the strain diversity of these viruses. RECOVIR (an acronym for "recognize viruses") software predicts the strains of some ssRNA viruses from their limited sequence data. Novel phylogenetic-tree-based databases of protein or nucleic acid residues that uniquely characterize these virus strains are created. Strains of input virus sequences (partial or complete) are predicted through residue-wise comparisons with the databases. RECOVIR uses unique characterizing residues to identify automatically strains of partial or complete capsid sequences of picorna and caliciviruses, two of the most highly diverse ssRNA virus families. Partition-wise comparisons of the database residues with the corresponding residues of more than 300 complete and partial sequences of these viruses resulted in correct strain identification for all of these sequences. This study shows the feasibility of creating databases of hitherto unknown residues uniquely characterizing the capsid sequences of two of the most highly divergent ssRNA virus families. These databases enable automated strain identification from partial or complete capsid sequences of these human and animal pathogens.

  7. About Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthcare Professionals Clinical Overview Laboratory Diagnosis HPIV Seasons Resources & References About Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Symptoms & Illnesses Lists symptoms and ...

  8. Virions at the gates: receptors and the host-virus arms race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, John M

    2013-01-01

    All viruses need to bind to specific receptor molecules on the surface of target cells to initiate infection. Virus-receptor binding is highly specific, and this specificity determines both the species and the cell type that can be infected by a given virus. In some well-studied cases, the virus-binding region on the receptor has been found to be unrelated to the receptor's normal cellular function. Resistance to virus infection can thus evolve by selection of mutations that alter amino acids in the binding region with minimal effect on normal function. This sort of positive selection can be used to infer the history of the host-virus "arms race" during their coevolution. In a new study, Demogines et al. use a combination of phylogenetic, structural, and virological analysis to infer the history and significance of positive selection on the transferrin receptor TfR1, a housekeeping protein required for iron uptake and the cell surface receptor for at least three different types of virus. The authors show that only two parts of the rodent TfR1 molecule have been subject to positive selection and that these correspond to the binding sites for two of these viruses-the mouse mammary tumor virus (a retrovirus) and Machupo virus (an arenavirus). They confirmed this result by introducing the inferred binding site mutations into the wild-type protein and testing for receptor function. Related arenaviruses are beginning to spread in human populations in South America as the cause of often fatal hemorrhagic fevers, and, although Demogines et al. could find no evidence of TfR1 mutations in this region that might have been selected as a consequence of human infection, the authors identified one such mutation in Asian populations that affects infection with these viruses.

  9. Virions at the gates: receptors and the host-virus arms race.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Coffin

    Full Text Available All viruses need to bind to specific receptor molecules on the surface of target cells to initiate infection. Virus-receptor binding is highly specific, and this specificity determines both the species and the cell type that can be infected by a given virus. In some well-studied cases, the virus-binding region on the receptor has been found to be unrelated to the receptor's normal cellular function. Resistance to virus infection can thus evolve by selection of mutations that alter amino acids in the binding region with minimal effect on normal function. This sort of positive selection can be used to infer the history of the host-virus "arms race" during their coevolution. In a new study, Demogines et al. use a combination of phylogenetic, structural, and virological analysis to infer the history and significance of positive selection on the transferrin receptor TfR1, a housekeeping protein required for iron uptake and the cell surface receptor for at least three different types of virus. The authors show that only two parts of the rodent TfR1 molecule have been subject to positive selection and that these correspond to the binding sites for two of these viruses-the mouse mammary tumor virus (a retrovirus and Machupo virus (an arenavirus. They confirmed this result by introducing the inferred binding site mutations into the wild-type protein and testing for receptor function. Related arenaviruses are beginning to spread in human populations in South America as the cause of often fatal hemorrhagic fevers, and, although Demogines et al. could find no evidence of TfR1 mutations in this region that might have been selected as a consequence of human infection, the authors identified one such mutation in Asian populations that affects infection with these viruses.

  10. Wild Birds in Romania Are More Exposed to West Nile Virus Than to Newcastle Disease Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paştiu, Anamaria Ioana; Pap, Péter László; Vágási, Csongor István; Niculae, Mihaela; Páll, Emőke; Domşa, Cristian; Brudaşcă, Florinel Ghe; Spînu, Marina

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of West Nile virus (WNV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in wild and domestic birds from Romania. During 2011-2014, 159 plasma samples from wild birds assigned to 11 orders, 27 families, and 61 species and from 21 domestic birds (Gallus gallus domesticus, Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) were collected. The sera were assayed by two commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) kits for antibodies against WNV and NDV. We found a high prevalence of WNV antibodies in both domestic (19.1%) and wild (32.1%) birds captured after the human epidemic in 2010. Moreover, the presence of anti-NDV antibodies among wild birds from Romania (5.4%) was confirmed serologically for the first time, as far as we are aware. Our findings provide evidence that wild birds, especially resident ones are involved in local West Nile and Newcastle disease enzootic and epizootic cycles. These may allow virus maintenance and spread and also enhance the chance of new outbreaks.

  11. Comparison of the Outcomes of Individuals With Medically Attended Influenza A and B Virus Infections Enrolled in 2 International Cohort Studies Over a 6-Year Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dwyer, Dominic E; Lynfield, Ruth; Losso, Marcelo H

    2017-01-01

    Background: Outcome data from prospective follow-up studies comparing infections with different influenza virus types/subtypes are limited. Methods: Demographic, clinical characteristics and follow-up outcomes for adults with laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2), or B virus infect...

  12. Virus Diseases Infecting Almond Germplasm in Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Adeeb Saad; Yusuf Abou-Jawdah; Zahi Kanaan-Atallah

    2000-01-01

    Cultivated and wild almond species were surveyed for virus diseases. Four viruses infected cultivated almonds (Prunus dulcis): Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), Prune dwarf virus (PDV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) and Apple mosaic virus (ApMV). Only ACLSV and ApMV were detected on wild almonds, (Prunus orientalis and P. korschinskii). The occurence of PNRSV or PDV on seeds used for the production of rootstocks, on seedlings in nurseries, and on mother plants reve...

  13. A simple, rapid and inexpensive method for localization of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus and Potato leafroll virus in plant and insect vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanim, Murad; Brumin, Marina; Popovski, Smadar

    2009-08-01

    A simple, rapid, inexpensive method for the localization of virus transcripts in plant and insect vector tissues is reported here. The method based on fluorescent in situ hybridization using short DNA oligonucleotides complementary to an RNA segment representing a virus transcript in the infected plant or insect vector. The DNA probe harbors a fluorescent molecule at its 5' or 3' ends. The protocol: simple fixation, hybridization, minimal washing and confocal microscopy, provides a highly specific signal. The reliability of the protocol was tested by localizing two phloem-limited plant virus transcripts in infected plants and insect tissues: Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) (Begomovirus: Geminiviridae), exclusively transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) in a circulative non-propagative manner, and Potato leafroll virus (Polerovirus: Luteoviridae), similarly transmitted by the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Transcripts for both viruses were localized specifically to the phloem sieve elements of infected plants, while negative controls showed no signal. TYLCV transcripts were also localized to the digestive tract of B. tabaci, confirming TYLCV route of transmission. Compared to previous methods for localizing virus transcripts in plant and insect tissues that include complex steps for in-vitro probe preparation or antibody raising, tissue fixation, block preparation, sectioning and hybridization, the method described below provides very reliable, convincing, background-free results with much less time, effort and cost.

  14. 75 FR 49813 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: MAGNASTOR System, Revision 1, Confirmation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... Storage Casks: MAGNASTOR System, Revision 1, Confirmation of Effective Date AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... spent fuel storage regulations at 10 CFR 72.214 to revise the MAGNASTOR System listing to include...

  15. CONFIRMATION OF THE PRESENCE OF RIPARIA RIPARIA IN ITE WETLANDS, SOUTHWEST OF PERU

    OpenAIRE

    Vizcarra, Jhonson

    2011-01-01

    The presence of Riparia riparia (Linnaeus, 1758) in Ite Wetlands is confirmed. Two individuals were observed in January 2011. This record occurs 13 years after the first mention of its presence in these wetlands.

  16. [Confirming Indicators of Qualitative Results by Chromatography-mass Spectrometry in Biological Samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S D; Zhang, D M; Zhang, W; Zhang, W F

    2017-04-01

    Because of the exist of complex matrix, the confirming indicators of qualitative results for toxic substances in biological samples by chromatography-mass spectrometry are different from that in non-biological samples. Even in biological samples, the confirming indicators are different in various application areas. This paper reviews the similarities and differences of confirming indicators for the analyte in biological samples by chromatography-mass spectrometry in the field of forensic toxicological analysis and other application areas. These confirming indicators include retention time (RT), relative retention time (RRT), signal to noise (S/N), characteristic ions, relative abundance of characteristic ions, parent ion-daughter ion pair and abundance ratio of ion pair, etc. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine.

  17. Miscarriage after sonographic confirmation of an ongoing pregnancy in women with moderate and severe obesity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Dwyer, Vicky

    2012-01-01

    To compare the incidence of spontaneous miscarriage in women with moderate to severe obesity to that in women with a normal BMI after sonographic confirmation of the foetal heart rate in the first trimester.

  18. Infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae in children with or without radiologically confirmed pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafne C. Andrade

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Among children with clinical diagnosis of community‐acquired pneumonia submitted to chest radiograph, those with radiologically confirmed pneumonia present a higher rate of infection by S. pneumoniae when compared with those with a normal chest radiograph.

  19. Design of a multiplex PCR assay for the simultaneous detection and confirmation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Callaghan, Isabelle

    2010-05-01

    To improve the detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by designing a multiplex PCR assay using two N gonorrhoeae-specific genes as targets, thereby providing detection and confirmation of a positive result simultaneously.

  20. Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and Hepatitis B Virus Among Homeless and Nonhomeless United States Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noska, Amanda J; Belperio, Pamela S; Loomis, Timothy P; O'Toole, Thomas P; Backus, Lisa I

    2017-07-15

    Veterans are disproportionately affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV). Homeless veterans are at particularly high risk for HIV, HCV, and HBV due to a variety of overlapping risk factors, including high rates of mental health disorders and substance use disorders. The prevalence of HIV, HCV, and HBV among homeless veterans nationally is currently unknown. This study describes national testing rates and prevalence of HIV, HCV, and HBV among homeless veterans. Using data from the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Corporate Warehouse Data from 2015, we evaluated HIV, HCV, and HBV laboratory testing and infection confirmation rates and diagnoses on the Problem List for nonhomeless veterans and for veterans utilizing homeless services in 2015. Among 242740 homeless veterans in VA care in 2015, HIV, HCV, and HBV testing occurred in 63.8% (n = 154812), 78.1% (n = 189508), and 52.8% (n = 128262), respectively. The HIV population prevalence was 1.52% (3684/242740) among homeless veterans, compared with 0.44% (23797/5424685) among nonhomeless veterans. The HCV population prevalence among homeless veterans was 12.1% (29311/242740), compared with 2.7% (148079/5424685) among nonhomeless veterans, while the HBV population prevalence was 0.99% (2395/242740) for homeless veterans and 0.40% (21611/5424685) among nonhomeless veterans. To our knowledge this work represents the most comprehensive tested prevalence and population prevalence estimates of HIV, HCV, and HBV among homeless veterans nationally. The data demonstrate high prevalence of HIV, HCV, and HBV among homeless veterans, and reinforce the need for integrated healthcare services along with homeless programming. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.