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Sample records for chilo infuscatellus lepidoptera

  1. Silencing of molt-regulating transcription factor gene, CiHR3, affects growth and development of sugarcane stem borer, Chilo infuscatellus.

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    Zhang, Yu-liang; Zhang, Shu-zhen; Kulye, Mahesh; Wu, Su-ran; Yu, Nai-tong; Wang, Jian-hua; Zeng, Hong-mei; Liu, Zhi-xin

    2012-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a technology for conducting functional genomic studies and a potential tool for crop protection against insect pests. Development of reliable methods for production and delivery of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is the major challenge for efficient pest control. In this study, Chilo infuscatellus Snellen (Crambidae: Lepidoptera) was fed with CiHR3 dsRNA expressed in bacteria or synthesized in vitro. The dsRNA ingested by C. infuscatellus successfully triggered silencing of the molt-regulating transcription factor CiHR3, an important gene for insect growth and development, and caused significant abnormalities and weight loss in insects within seven days of treatment. This study is an ideal example of feeding-based RNAi mediated by dsRNA expressed in bacteria or synthesized in vitro. The results also suggested that feeding-based RNA interference is a potential method for the management of C. infuscatellus.

  2. Comparative studies on the fecundity, egg survival, larval feeding, and development of Chilo partellus and Chilo orichalcociliellus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on five grasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ofomata, V.C.; Overholt, W.A.; Huis, van A.; Egwuatu, R.I.

    2000-01-01

    Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) and Chilo orichalcociliellus Strand (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) are gramineous stem borers that occur sympatrically in the southern coastal area of Kenya. Evidence over a 30-yr period indicates that the indigenous stem borer, C. orichalcociliellus, is being gradually displaced

  3. Morphological and phylogenetic analysis of a microsporidium (Nosema sp.) isolated from rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

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    Xing, Dongxu; Yang, Qiong; Liao, Sentai; Han, Lanzhi; Li, Qingrong; Zhao, Chaoyi; Xiao, Yang; Ye, Mingqiang

    2017-10-01

    A new microsporidium was isolated from Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), one of the most important rice pests in China. The morphology and molecular systematics of this novel microsporidium were described in this study. The spores were long oval and measured 3.17 × 1.64 μm on fresh smears. Ultrastructure of the spores was characteristic for the genus Nosema: a diplokaryon, 10-12 polar filament coils of the same type, and posterior vacuole. Small subunit rRNA gene sequence data and phylogenetic analysis further confirmed that the microsporidian species from C. suppressalis belong to the true Nosema sub-group of the genus Nosema. Besides, the microsporidium Nosema sp. CS could cause systemic infection of Bombyx mori and infect silkworms through vertical transmission. Therefore, mulberry field pest control should be carefully monitored, and sanitation of mulberry leaves is essential to control the pebrine disease in sericulture.

  4. Responses of striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), from Taiwan to a range of insecticides.

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    Cheng, Xuan; Chang, Cheng; Dai, Shu-Mei

    2010-07-01

    Information on the insecticide susceptibility of striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is essential for an effective pest management programme. An early detection of resistance development can prompt the modification of current control methods and increase the lifespan of insecticides through the rotation of chemicals with different modes of action. In this study, the susceptibility of this pest in Taiwan to four classes of insecticides has been examined. Over 1000-fold resistance to carbofuran was detected in C. suppressalis collected from Chiayi and Changhua prefectures, with estimated LC(50) values of > 3 mg cm(-2). In addition, 61-fold resistance to cartap was found in the Chiayi population. On the other hand, all tested populations of rice stem borer were still relatively susceptible to chlorpyrifos, fipronil and permethrin, with LC(50) values ranging from 30 to 553 ng cm(-2). Chilo suppressalis populations collected from the central parts of Taiwan have a higher degree of resistance to the tested insecticides than those from northern areas. The occurrence of high resistance to carbofuran in the Chiayi and Changhua areas suggests that this compound should be replaced with chemicals having a different mode of action, such as chlorpyrifos, fipronil and permethrin, to which low cross-resistance has been detected. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Diapause, signal and molecular characteristics of overwintering Chilo suppressalis (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

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    Lu, Ming-Xing; Cao, Shuang-Shuang; Du, Yu-Zhou; Liu, Zhong-Xian; Liu, Pingyang; Li, Jianyong

    2013-11-14

    Diapause is a complex and dynamic process. Chilo suppressalis, an important rice pest in Asia enters facultative diapause as larvae. Our results demonstrated in Yangzhou, China, diapause was initiated between September 4 and 12, 2010. After diapause termination, C. suppressalis remained in quiescence in the field for as long as three months. The average time between collection of field larvae of C. suppressalis and their pupation decreased as the season progressed from fall to next spring. Unexpectedly, the pupated ratio of female to male in the initiation of diapause was 0.22. The abundance of hsp90, hsp70, hsp60 and CsAQP1 all peaked on January 8 or 15, 2011. Nitric oxide (NO) is a secondary messenger that is positively correlated with the diapause of C. suppressalis. Among several geographically separated populations of C. suppressalis, there are no significant differences in the mRNA levels of hsp70, hsp60 or CsAQP1.

  6. Resistance Monitoring of Four Insecticides and a Description of an Artificial Diet Incorporation Method for Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

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    Shuijin, Huang; Qiong, Chen; Wenjing, Qin; Yang, Sun; Houguo, Qin

    2017-10-16

    Chilo suppressalis (Walker; Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is one of the most damaging rice pests in China. Insecticides play a major role in its management. We describe how we monitored the resistance of C. suppressalis to four insecticides in seven field populations from Jiangxi, Hubei, and Hunan Provinces, China, in 2014-2016. The topical application method for resistance monitoring was suitable for triazophos, monosultap, and abamectin. The conventional rice seedling dipping method proved ineffective for testing chlorantraniliprole so the new artificial diet incorporation method was substituted. This new method provided more consistent results than the other methods, once baseline toxicity data had been established. All populations had moderate to high resistance to triazophos from 2014 to 2016. Monosultap resistance in two populations increased from low in 2014 to moderate in 2016 and the other five populations showed moderate to high-level resistance throughout. Abamectin resistance in three populations increased from sensitive or low in 2014 to moderate in 2015-2016, and the other populations had moderate to high levels of resistance. Resistance to chlorantraniliprole increased from sensitive or low in 2014 to moderate to high in 2016. These results suggested that resistance management strategies should be developed according to the needs of a specific location. It was suggested that, in these localities, organophosphate insecticides should be prohibited, the application of nereistoxin, macrolide antibiotic, and diamide insecticides should be limited, and other insecticides, including spinetoram and methoxyfenozide, that exhibited no resistance should be used rationally and in rotation to delay resistance development. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Purification and characterization of hemocyte phenoloxidases in Chilo suppressalis walker (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

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    Mirhaghparast Seyyedeh Kimia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, two phenoloxidases (POs from the larvae of Chilo suppressalis Walker were extracted and purified by column chromatography using Sepharyl G-100 and DEAE-Cellulose fast flow column. Two proteins possessing PO activity, named as POI and POII, were extracted by purification, 5.08- and 5.62-fold, respectively, with 8.94% and 7.31% recoveries, respectively. Also, the specific activities of POI and POII were 0.478 and 0.529 U/mg protein, respectively. Finally, the molecular weights of POI and POII were calculated as 94.6 and 95.7 kDa, respectively. Kinetic parameters of the purified phenoloxidases by Lineweaver-Burk analysis were Vmax of 2.27 and 1.11 U/mg protein and Km of 15.51 and 17.31 mM for POI and POII, respectively. Mg2+ and Cu2+ significantly increased the PO activities. Ca2+ decreased the activity of POI and showed no statistical effects on POII activity. EDTA and DTC significantly inhibited the activities of the purified enzymes, while triethylenetetramine hexaacetic acid (TTHA and RGTA showed no significant effects on enzymatic activities.

  8. Expression and Enzyme Activity of Catalase in Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Is Responsive to Environmental Stresses.

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    Lu, Yanhui; Bai, Qi; Zheng, Xusong; Lu, Zhongxian

    2017-08-01

    Catalase (CAT) is an important antioxidant enzyme that protects organisms against oxidative stresses by eliminating hydrogen peroxide. In this study, we cloned and characterized a full-length cDNA of CAT from Chilo suppressalis (CsCAT) and examined the influence of environmental stresses on CsCAT expression and enzyme activity. The cDNA contains a 1659-bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 553 amino acids most closely related (90.14%) to Papilio polytes catalases. The CsCAT was expressed in all developmental stages with the highest expression in the fat body, and the CsCAT enzyme activity closely mirrored its observed mRNA expression patterns. The CsCAT mRNA was up-regulated when the larvae were exposed to high temperature (≥30 °C), insecticides (abamectin and chlorantraniliprole), chemicals (H2O2, CHP, CdCl2, and CuSO4), and a dead-end trap plant (vetiver grass), and the CsCAT enzyme activity again mirrored the observed CsCAT expression patterns. These results suggest that up-regulation of CsCAT may enhance the defense response of C. suppressalis by weakening the effects of environmental stresses, and provide insight into the role of CsCAT during development of C. suppressalis. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Transition and Transversion Mutations Are Biased towards GC in Transposons of Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

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    Guang-Hua Luo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Transposons are often regulated by their hosts, and as a result, there are transposons with several mutations within their host organisms. To gain insight into the patterns of the variations, nucleotide substitutions and indels of transposons were analysed in Chilo suppressalis Walker. The CsuPLE1.1 is a member of the piggyBac-like element (PLE family, which belongs to the DNA transposons, and the Csu-Ty3 is a member of the Ty3/gypsy family, which belongs to the RNA transposons. Copies of CsuPLE1.1 and Csu-Ty3 were cloned separately from different C. suppressalis individuals, and then multiple sequence alignments were performed. There were numerous single-base substitutions in CsuPLE1.1 and Csu-Ty3, but only a few insertion and deletion mutations. Similarly, in both transposons, the occurring frequencies of transitions were significantly higher than transversions (p ≤ 0.01. In the single-base substitutions, the most frequently occurring base changes were A→G and T→C in both types of transposons. Additionally, single-base substitution frequencies occurring at positions 1, 2 or 3 (pos1, pos2 or pos3 of a given codon in the element transposase were not significantly different. Both in CsuPLE1.1 and Csu-Ty3, the patterns of nucleotide substitution had the same characteristics and nucleotide mutations were biased toward GC. This research provides a perspective on the understanding of transposon mutation patterns.

  10. Immune response of Chilo suppressalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae to different entomopathogenic fungi.

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    Zibaee, A; Malagoli, D

    2014-04-01

    The current study reports mortality and effects on cellular immune response of several entomopathogenic fungi including isoleates BB1, BB2 and BB3 of Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Isaria fumosoroseus and Lecanicilium lecanii against larvae of Chilo suppressalis. Prohemocytes, granulocytes, plasmatocytes and oenocytoids were identified as the main circulating hemocytes in the hemolymph of larvae using Giemsa staining solution. Entomopathogenic fungi caused differential mortality on larvae: BB1, BB3, M. anisopliae lead to the highest mortality on larvae and L. lecanii caused the lowest mortality. The highest numbers of total hemocytes were observed 3 h post-injection of B. bassiana isolates and 6 h for the other treatments. The highest numbers of plasmatocytes were observed 3 h post-injection of BB1 and Tween 80, whereas BB2, BB3, M. anisopliae, I. fumosoroseus and L. lecani caused plasmatocyte increase 6 h post-injection. Similar results were obtained in case of granulocytes but only Tween 80 showed the highest number of hemocytes 3 h post-injection. The highest numbers of nodules were found at various time intervals after injection of fungal isolates and latex bead. The highest activities of phenoloxidase were observed 12 h post-injection by BbB1, BbB3, M. anisopliae and latex bead; 3-6 h post-injection by BbB2, 6 h post-injection by I. fumosoroseus and 3-6 h post-injection by L. lecanii. Our data demonstrate the possibility of utilizing different fungal extracts in the field to help reduce the risk of resistance evolution in C. suppressalis and encourage experimentations aimed to increase the number of biological control agent for insect pests such as the striped rice stem borer C. suppressalis.

  11. Changes in cellular immune responses of Chilo suppressalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Crambidae due to pyriproxyfen treatment

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    Mirhaghparast Seyyedeh Kimia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pyriproxyfen were determined on the cellular immunity and phenoloxidase activity in the 4th instar larvae of Chilo suppressalis Walker. The bioassay results revealed the effective concentrations of: 10L : 18C, 30L : 72C and 50L : 190C μg · ml−1. The sole effect of 18 and 72 μg · ml−1 concentrations at intervals of 1–3 h caused a higher number of total hemocytes in the treated larvae than the control, but the reverse results were observed after 6–24 h. The number of plasmatocytes was lower than that of the control for intervals of 3–24 h but the number of granulocytes was higher than the control after 1–3 h although no significant differences were observed at the other times. In the treated larvae, the activities of phenoloxidase were higher and lower than those of the control after 1–3 h and 6–24 h, respectively. The combined effects of pyriproxyfen and the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana isolate B3 caused higher numbers of total hemocytes, plasmatocytes, and granulocytes in the treated larvae by use of the three concentrations of pyriproxyfen, at intervals of 6 and 12 h. Although the numbers of nodules in the larvae treated with concentrations of 18 μg · ml−1 were higher than those of other treatments, the overall numbers were lower than those of the control. Finally, the activity of phenoloxidase in the treated larvae was higher than that of the control, at intervals of 6 and 12 h post-treatment. Findings of the current study indicate an intervening role of pyriproxyfen in the cellular immunity of C. suppressalis to entomopathogenic objects.

  12. Susceptibility of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), to flubendiamide in China.

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    Wu, Min; Zhang, Shuai; Yao, Rong; Wu, Shunfan; Su, Jianya; Gao, Congfen

    2014-06-01

    The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is an important rice pest in China, and has evolved resistance to several classes of insecticides. Flubendiamide is a phthalic diamide insecticide that shows selective insecticidal activity against lepidopterous insects. The susceptibility of 40 field populations of C. suppressalis, collected in 2011 and 2012 in seven provinces of south-eastern China, to flubendiamide was determined through rice seedling dipping bioassay method. Of these 40 populations, seven populations that were seldom exposed to flubendiamide were used to set up the baseline sensitivity, and the LC50 value was 0.092 mg/L. Variation in susceptibility among the 40 field populations was high (34-fold). The range of mean lethal concentration (LC50) values in response to this chemical was between 0.032 mg/L (FS11) and 1.090 mg/L (JH12) across the populations. Substantial variations of the susceptibility to flubendiamide were detected among different geographic populations. There was no significant difference observed between years for most populations, except for populations from Jinhua and Lujiang. Resistance ratios to the chemical ranged from 0.8 to 11.8, indicating that most colonies remained susceptible or showed certain decrease in susceptibility. It was found that 16 of the 40 populations had some level of resistance. However, moderate level of resistance was discovered in only one population from JH12 from Zhejiang province (11.8-fold). Other 15 populations showed low level of resistance (5.1-9.3-fold) to flubendiamide. These data are useful in future monitoring programs for detecting any changes in susceptibility as a result of using flubendiamide.

  13. Cloning, expression and functional analysis of a general odorant-binding protein 2 gene of the rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

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    Gong, Z-J; Zhou, W-W; Yu, H-Z; Mao, C-G; Zhang, C-X; Cheng, J A; Zhu, Z-R

    2009-06-01

    A full-length cDNA encoding a general odorant binding protein 2 (GOBP2) was cloned from the antennae of the rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), by the combination of reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR (RACE-PCR). The cDNA contains a 489 bp open reading frame, which encodes a 162 amino acid protein, termed as Ch. suppressalis GOBP2 (CsupGOBP2). CsupGOBP2 is similar in the number of amino acids and protein sequence to GOBP2s in other species of Lepidoptera. RT-PCR results showed that CsupGOBP2 mRNA was highly expressed in the adult antennae of both females and males, as was CsupGOBP2 protein as revealed by Western blot analysis. CsupGOBP2 expressed in Escherichia coli was purified by affinity chromatography, refolding and gel filtration from the inclusion body. Fluorescence emission spectra and competitive binding assays by using N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine as first binding ligand and odorants as potential competitors revealed that the CsupGOBP2 protein has significant affinity to cis-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald), the main component of Ch. suppressalis pheromone and to laurinaldehyd and benzaldehyde, two general plant volatile aldehydes.

  14. Aprostocetus (Ootetrastichus) theioneurus (Masi) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae): a hyperparasitoid on the cereal stem borer Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salle, J.La

    1993-01-01

    Aprostocetus (Ootetrastichus) theioneurus (Masi) is recorded from Kenya as a hyperparasitoid on Chilo partellus through the braconid Cotesia sesamiae. This is the first known species of the subgenus Ootetrastichus which is not a primary endoparasitoid of eggs. Diagnostic characters are given for

  15. [Detection and analysis of symbiotic bacteria, Arsenophonus and Wolbachia, in striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)].

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    Chai, Huan-Na; Wu, Hai-Yan; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2013-12-01

    In this study, 23S rDNA from Arsenophonus and wsp gene from Wolbachia were amplified by PCR method using specific primers to study their symbiosis in Chilo suppressalis from 20 locations of China. The results indicated that Arsenophonus and Wolbachia infection rates differed widely in C. suppressalis populations. The infection rates of Arsenophonus ranged from 5.0% to 50.0% in five geographical populations from Harbin, Huishui, Jilin, Nanyang, and Yangzhou. Wolbachia ranged from 25.0% to 40.0% in three geographical populations from Hanzhong, Nanning, and Yangzhou. Their symbiosis was not observed in C. suppressalis of other locations. The sequences of 23S rDNA gene which named csArs were exactly the same in the five populations. However, the sequences of wsp from the three strains of Wolbachia showed wChisup1 belonged to supergroup A, wChisup5 and wChisup6 belonged to supergroup B. The results showed the strains of Arsenophonus from C. suppressalis of the five different locations were identical, whereas the strains of Wolbachia were phylogenetically diverse. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that 23S rDNA and wsp sequences found in C. suppressalis were exactly the same with or very closely related to relevant sequences in other species.

  16. Molecular characterization and expression profiles of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

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    Xu, Gang; Wu, Shun-Fan; Teng, Zi-Wen; Yao, Hong-Wei; Fang, Qi; Huang, Jia; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2017-06-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are members of the cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel (cysLGIC) superfamily, mediating fast synaptic cholinergic transmission in the central nervous system in insects. Insect nAChRs are the molecular targets of economically important insecticides, such as neonicotinoids and spinosad. Identification and characterization of the nAChR gene family in the rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, could provide beneficial information about this important receptor gene family and contribute to the investigation of the molecular modes of insecticide action and resistance for current and future chemical control strategies. We searched our C. suppressalis transcriptome database using Bombyx mori nAChR sequences in local BLAST searches and obtained the putative nAChR subunit complementary DNAs (cDNAs) via reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. Similar to B. mori, C. suppressalis possesses 12 nAChR subunits, including nine α-type and three β-type subunits. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed the expression profiles of the nAChR subunits in various tissues, including the brain, subesophageal ganglion, thoracic ganglion, abdominal ganglion, hemocytes, fat body, foregut, midgut, hindgut and Malpighian tubules. Developmental expression analyses showed clear differential expression of nAChR subunits throughout the C. suppressalis life cycle. The identification of nAChR subunits in this study will provide a foundation for investigating the diverse roles played by nAChRs in C. suppressalis and for exploring specific target sites for chemicals that control agricultural pests while sparing beneficial species. ©2016 The Authors Insect Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Construction and analysis of antennal cDNA library from rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), and expression profiles of putative odorant-binding protein and chemosensory protein genes.

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    Gong, Zhong-Jun; Liu, Su; Jiang, Yan-Dong; Zhou, Wen-Wu; Liang, Qing-Mei; Cheng, Jiaan; Zhang, Chuan-Xi; Zhu, Zeng-Rong; Gurr, Geoff M

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we constructed a high-quality cDNA library from the antennae of the Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). A total of 1,235 colonies with inserts greater than 0.7 kb were sequenced and analyzed. Homology searching coupled with bioinformatics analysis identified 15 and 7 cDNA sequences, respectively, encoding putative odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs). A phylogenetic tree of CsupCSPs showed that each CsupCSP has orthologs in Manduca sexta and Bombyx mori with strong bootstrapping support. One CSP was either very specific or more related to the CSPs of another species than to conspecific CSP. The expression profiles of the OBPs and CSPs in different tissues were measured by real-time quantitative PCR. The results revealed that of the 11 OBP genes, the transcript levels of CsupOBP1, CsupOBP5, and CsupOBP7 were higher in both male and female antennae than those in other tissues. And CsupCSP7 was highly expressed in both male and female antennae. Based on these results, the possible physiological functions of CsupOBPs and CsupCSPs were discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Effects of the endoparasitoid Cotesia chilonis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitism, venom, and calyx fluid on cellular and humoral immunity of its host Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae.

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    Teng, Zi-Wen; Xu, Gang; Gan, Shi-Yu; Chen, Xuan; Fang, Qi; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2016-02-01

    The larval endoparasitoid Cotesia chilonis injects venom and bracoviruses into its host Chilo suppressalis during oviposition. Here we study the effects of the polydnavirus (PDV)-carrying endoparasitoid C. chilonis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitism, venom and calyx fluid on host cellular and humoral immunity, specifically hemocyte composition, cellular spreading, encapsulation and melanization. Total hemocyte counts (THCs) were higher in parasitized larvae than in unparasitized larvae in the late stages following parasitization. While both plasmatocyte and granulocyte fractions and hemocyte mortality did not differ between parasitized and unparasitized hosts, in vitro spreading behavior of hemocytes was inhibited significantly by parasitism throughout the course of parasitoid development. C. chilonis parasitism suppressed the encapsulation response and melanization in the early stages. Venom alone did not alter cellular immune responses, including effects on THCs, mortality, hemocyte composition, cell spreading and encapsulation, but venom did inhibit humoral immunity by reducing melanization within 6h after injection. In contrast to venom, calyx fluid had a significant effect on cell spreading, encapsulation and melanization from 6h after injection. Dose-response injection studies indicated the effects of venom and calyx fluid synergized, showing a stronger and more persistent reduction in immune system responses than the effect of either injected alone. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Combined transcriptome and metabolome analyses to understand the dynamic responses of rice plants to attack by the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

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    Liu, Qingsong; Wang, Xingyun; Tzin, Vered; Romeis, Jörg; Peng, Yufa; Li, Yunhe

    2016-12-07

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.), which is a staple food for more than half of the world's population, is frequently attacked by herbivorous insects, including the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis. C. suppressalis substantially reduces rice yields in temperate regions of Asia, but little is known about how rice plants defend themselves against this herbivore at molecular and biochemical level. In the current study, we combined next-generation RNA sequencing and metabolomics techniques to investigate the changes in gene expression and in metabolic processes in rice plants that had been continuously fed by C. suppressalis larvae for different durations (0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h). Furthermore, the data were validated using quantitative real-time PCR. There were 4,729 genes and 151 metabolites differently regulated when rice plants were damaged by C. suppressalis larvae. Further analyses showed that defense-related phytohormones, transcript factors, shikimate-mediated and terpenoid-related secondary metabolism were activated, whereas the growth-related counterparts were suppressed by C. suppressalis feeding. The activated defense was fueled by catabolism of energy storage compounds such as monosaccharides, which meanwhile resulted in the increased levels of metabolites that were involved in rice plant defense response. Comparable analyses showed a correspondence between transcript patterns and metabolite profiles. The current findings greatly enhance our understanding of the mechanisms of induced defense response in rice plants against C. suppressalis infestation at molecular and biochemical levels, and will provide clues for development of insect-resistant rice varieties.

  20. Developmental and hormone-induced changes of mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activities during the last instar larval development of maize stem borer, Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

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    VenkatRao, V; Chaitanya, R K; Naresh Kumar, D; Bramhaiah, M; Dutta-Gupta, A

    2016-12-01

    The energy demand for structural remodelling in holometabolous insects is met by cellular mitochondria. Developmental and hormone-induced changes in the mitochondrial respiratory activity during insect metamorphosis are not well documented. The present study investigates activities of enzymes of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) namely, NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase or complex I, Succinate: ubiquinone oxidoreductase or complex II, Ubiquinol:ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase or complex III, cytochrome c oxidase or complex IV and F1F0ATPase (ATPase), during Chilo partellus development. Further, the effect of juvenile hormone (JH) analog, methoprene, and brain and corpora-allata-corpora-cardiaca (CC-CA) homogenates that represent neurohormones, on the ETC enzyme activities was monitored. The enzymatic activities increased from penultimate to last larval stage and thereafter declined during pupal development with an exception of ATPase which showed high enzyme activity during last larval and pupal stages compared to the penultimate stage. JH analog, methoprene differentially modulated ETC enzyme activities. It stimulated complex I and IV enzyme activities, but did not alter the activities of complex II, III and ATPase. On the other hand, brain homogenate declined the ATPase activity while the injected CC-CA homogenate stimulated complex I and IV enzyme activities. Cumulatively, the present study is the first to show that mitochondrial ETC enzyme system is under hormone control, particularly of JH and neurohormones during insect development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos; Agassiz, David; Augustin, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    We provide a comprehensive overview of those Lepidopteran invasions to Europe that result from increasing globalisation and also review expansion of species within Europe. A total of 97 non-native Lepidoptera species (about 1% of the known fauna), in 20 families and 11 superfamilies have establis...

  2. Cloning, functional characterization, and expression profiles of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase gene from the Asiatic rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

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    Liu, Su; Liang, Qing-Mei; Huang, Yuan-Jie; Yuan, Xin; Zhou, Wen-Wu; Qiao, Fei; Cheng, Jiaan; Gurr, Geoff M; Zhu, Zeng-Rong

    2013-01-01

    NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is one of the most important components of the cytochrome P450 enzyme system. It catalyzes electron transfer from NADPH to all known P450s, thus plays central roles not only in the metabolism of exogenous xenobiotics but also in the regulation of endogenous hormones in insects. In this study, a full-length cDNA encoding of a CPR (named CsCPR) was isolated from the Asiatic rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methods. The cDNA contains a 2061 bp open reading frame, which encodes an enzyme of 686 amino acid residues, with a calculated molecular mass of 77.6 kDa. The deduced peptide has hallmarks of typical CPR, including an N-terminal membrane anchor and the FMN, FAD and NADPH binding domains. The N-terminal-truncated protein fused with a 6 × His·tag was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) cells and purified, specific activity and the Km values of the recombinant enzyme were determined. Tissue- and developmental stage-dependent expression of CsCPR mRNA was investigated by real-time quantitative PCR. The CsCPR mRNA was noticeably expressed in the digestive, metabolic, and olfactory organs of the larvae and adults of C. suppressalis. Our initial results would provide valuable information for further study on the interactions between CPR and cytochrome P450 enzyme systems. © 2013.

  3. Comparison of dose responses and resistance ratios in four populations of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), to 20 insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yue Ping; Gao, Cong Fen; Chen, Wen Ming; Huang, Li Qin; Zhou, Wei Jun; Liu, Xu Gan; Shen, Jin Liang; Zhu, Yu Cheng

    2008-03-01

    Chemical control is a major strategy for suppressing the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker). Owing to their high toxicity and increasing resistance development in the target insect, many insecticides will be phased out entirely in 2007 in China. Alternatives with relatively low toxicity are urgently needed to replace traditional chemicals for rice stem borer control. In this study, the authors examined four field populations of C. suppressalis for their toxicological responses to more than 20 insecticides, including a few low-toxicity organophosphates and many novel pesticides. Interpopulation resistance levels to 12 conventional insecticides were also compared. Based on LD(50) values, the rice stem borer was most sensitive to avermectins and fipronil (LD(50) stem borers exhibited the least sensitivity to endosulfan (LD(50) > 100 ng larva(-1)) and monosultap (LD(50) > 1000 ng larva(-1)). Insect growth regulators and chitin synthase inhibitors showed great efficacy against C. suppressalis, especially against populations that had developed resistance to conventional insecticides. Four field populations showed variable tolerance levels to many insecticides. LYG05 was the most susceptible population, only with a low level of resistance to monosultap (RR = 6.6). NC05 and GL05 populations exhibited intermediate tolerance levels with RR values up to 20.4 and 52.8 respectively. RA05 was the most resistant population to many insecticides, with resistance ratios up to 76.2. The results from this study provide valuable information for selection and adoption of new alternative insecticides and for resistance management of the rice stem borer. (c) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Parasitism and Suitability of Fertilized and Nonfertilized Eggs of the Rice Striped Stem Borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), for Trichogramma Parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xu; Qu, Yu-Li; Wu, Zhi-Yi; Lin, Ying; Ruan, Chang-Chun; Desneux, Nicolas; Zang, Lian-Sheng

    2016-08-01

    Parasitoids can utilize the nutrition of host eggs to culture their own offsprings. Host qualities, including size, age, and species, influence parasitism preference and fitness of the parasitoid offsprings. However, an interesting question here is whether the parasitoids have the ability of recognizing fertilized and nonfertilized host eggs. In this study, we investigated the performance of three indigenous Trichogramma species (Trichogramma japonicum Ashmead, Trichogramma dendrolimi Matsumura, and Trichogramma chilonis Ishii) on fertilized and nonfertilized eggs of their native host, Chilo suppressalis (Walker). The results showed that the three Trichogramma species tested could recognize fertilized and nonfertilized eggs of C. suppressalis The different fertilization status eggs of C. suppressalis were all accepted by T. japonicum, T. chilonis, and T. dendrolimi with a clear tendency that they preferred to parasitize fertilized eggs whether under no-choice or choice conditions. All Trichogramma species successfully completed development in parasitized eggs of C. suppressalis regardless if the host eggs were fertilized or not. There was similar adult emergence rate, development time, and female progeny between fertilized and nonfertilized eggs for all Trichogramma species with an exception of development for T. chilonis Trichogramma chilonis had shorter developmental time in fertilized eggs than in nonfertilized ones. Whether in fertilized or nonfertilized eggs, T. dendrolimi had longer development time than other two Trichogramma species. However, T. dendrolimi had the largest percentage of female progeny on fertilized eggs, followed by T. japonicum, and T. chilonis had the least percentage of female progeny. The present study indicates that Trichogramma can recognize fertilized and nonfertilized host eggs and use the nonfertilized eggs to finish offspring development. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society

  5. Expression of Cry1Ab protein in a marker-free transgenic Bt rice line and its efficacy in controlling a target pest, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanan; Zhang, Lei; Li, Yunhe; Liu, Yanmin; Han, Lanzhi; Zhu, Zhen; Wang, Feng; Peng, Yufa

    2014-04-01

    A marker-free Bt transgenic rice line, mfb-MH86, was recently developed in China, which contains a cry1Ab gene driven by a ubiquitin promoter. This Bt gene confers resistance to a range of lepidopteran species, including the striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker). The expression of Cry1Ab protein in mfb-MH86 leaves, stems and leaf sheaths (hereinafter referred to as stems), and roots was evaluated throughout the rice-growing season using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, mfb-MH86 resistance to C. suppressalis, a major pest of rice, was evaluated in a laboratory bioassay with field-collected rice stems. Cry1Ab protein levels of mfb-MH86 were highest in leaves (9.71-34.09 μg/g dry weight [DW]), intermediate in stems (7.66-18.51 μg/g DW), and lowest in roots (1.95-13.40 μg/g DW). In all tissues, Cry1Ab levels in mfb-MH86 were higher in seedling and tillering stages than in subsequent growth stages. In the laboratory bioassay, mortality of C. suppressalis after 6 d of feeding on mfb-MH86 stems was 100% throughout the rice-growing season; mortality of C. suppressalis when feeding on stems of the nontransformed isoline, MH86, ranged from 15.0 to 38.3%. The results indicate that Cry1Ab protein levels in mfb-MH86 stems are sufficient to protect plants against C. suppressalis throughout the rice-growing season. Although our results are promising, further comprehensive evaluations of mfb-MH86, including field surveys, will be needed before commercial use.

  6. 'heterotic effects and association of 'chilo partellus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-05-05

    May 5, 1993 ... and third-instar Chilo partellus larvae. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 65: 75430. Mulumba. MN and 5.). Mock, W78. Improvement of yield potential of Eto. Blan'co maize (Zea mays L.) populations by breeding for plant traits. Egyptian Journal of Genetics and Cytology 7: 40—5 1. Ochieng, R.S., RO.

  7. Responses of tropical maize landraces to damage by Chilo partellus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Munyiri

    2013-03-13

    Mar 13, 2013 ... The potential to manage insect pests using host-plant resistance exists, but has not been exploited adequately. The objective of this study was to determine the resistance of 75 tropical maize landraces through artificial infestation with Chilo partellus Swinhoe. The trial was laid in alpha-lattice design and.

  8. Quality of field collected and laboratory reared Chilo partellus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of laboratory reared stem borer species for screening of maize varieties is usually questioned by end user cereal breeders. A quality check study was performed in a screen house at KARI-Katumani to evaluate the quality of eight-year old laboratory reared stem borer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe). The evaluation ...

  9. Differential resistance reaction of maize genotypes to maize stem borer (Chilo partellus Swinhoe at Chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanashyam Bhandari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize stem borer (MSB, Chilo partellus Swinhoe, Lepidoptera: Pyralidae is one of the most important insect pest of maize in Nepal. Host plant resistance is the cost-effective, ecologically sound and stable approach to reduce damage by stem borers. Forty four maize genotypes were screened for resistance to maize stem borer at the research field of National Maize Research Program, Rampur during spring seasons (March to June of two consecutive years 2013 and 2014. The maize genotypes were evaluated in randomized complete block design with three replications and data were collected on foliar damage rating, tunnel length and number of exit holes made by the borer. The foliar damage and tunnel length damage were significant for genotypes for both the years. The exit holes were not significant in 2013 but significant in 2014 ranging from 2-6 scale. The foliar rating ranged from 2 to 5.5 in 2013 and 1.1 to 4.5 in 2014 on a 1-9 rating scale. The highly resistant genotypes (10 cm scale. The least susceptible genotypes (<5 cm were RampurSO3F8, RampurSO3FQ02 and RampurS10F18. The genotypes having least exit holes (2.0 in 2014 were RampurSO3F8, RampurSO3FQ02, RampurS10F18. Thus less damage parameters were observed in R-POP-2, RML-5/RML-8, RampurSO3F8, RampurSO3FQ02 and RampurS10F18 and therefore they can be used as parents or as sources of resistance in breeding program.

  10. Gender Systems and Women's Labor Force Participation in the Salmon Industry in Chiloe, Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramirez, E.; Ruben, R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper, which follows the emergence of the salmon industry in the 1990s in Chiloe, Chile, demonstrates that factors restricting women's participation in labor force and wage differences between women and men are related to the gender systems operating in Chiloe. Results indicate that these

  11. Genome-wide analysis of esterase-like genes in the striped rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baoju; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yang; Han, Ping; Li, Fei; Han, Zhaojun

    2015-06-01

    The striped rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, a destructive pest of rice, has developed high levels of resistance to certain insecticides. Esterases are reported to be involved in insecticide resistance in several insects. Therefore, this study systematically analyzed esterase-like genes in C. suppressalis. Fifty-one esterase-like genes were identified in the draft genomic sequences of the species, and 20 cDNA sequences were derived which encoded full- or nearly full-length proteins. The putative esterase proteins derived from these full-length genes are overall highly diversified. However, key residues that are functionally important including the serine residue in the active site are conserved in 18 out of the 20 proteins. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of these genes have homologues in other lepidoptera insects. Genes CsuEst6, CsuEst10, CsuEst11, and CsuEst51 were induced by the insecticide triazophos, and genes CsuEst9, CsuEst11, CsuEst14, and CsuEst51 were induced by the insecticide chlorantraniliprole. Our results provide a foundation for future studies of insecticide resistance in C. suppressalis and for comparative research with esterase genes from other insect species.

  12. Exploring the midgut transcriptome and brush border membrane vesicle proteome of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weihua; Zhang, Zan; Peng, Chuanhua; Wang, Xiaoping; Li, Fei; Lin, Yongjun

    2012-01-01

    The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is one of the most detrimental pests affecting rice crops. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins has been explored as a means to control this pest, but the potential for C. suppressalis to develop resistance to Bt toxins makes this approach problematic. Few C. suppressalis gene sequences are known, which makes in-depth study of gene function difficult. Herein, we sequenced the midgut transcriptome of the rice stem borer. In total, 37,040 contigs were obtained, with a mean size of 497 bp. As expected, the transcripts of C. suppressalis shared high similarity with arthropod genes. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis were used to classify the gene functions in C. suppressalis. Using the midgut transcriptome data, we conducted a proteome analysis to identify proteins expressed abundantly in the brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Of the 100 top abundant proteins that were excised and subjected to mass spectrometry analysis, 74 share high similarity with known proteins. Among these proteins, Western blot analysis showed that Aminopeptidase N and EH domain-containing protein have the binding activities with Bt-toxin Cry1Ac. These data provide invaluable information about the gene sequences of C. suppressalis and the proteins that bind with Cry1Ac.

  13. Genetic diversity of rice stem borer (Chilo suppressalis Walker from Northern Iran and comparison with other countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shayanmehr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Crambidae is considered the major pest of rice in Iran. Because of the serious damage on rice in Northern Iran, the present study was conducted to investigate genetic diversity within populations of C. suppressalis, from Mazandaran using a template of cytochrome oxidase I gene, 750 bps, (COI. Later the haplotypes from Iran were compared with those found in other countries. According to the results of this study, there is very low genetic diversity (two haplotypes among different populations of this pest in populations of Northern Iran. The genetic similarity and low levels of genetic diversity of these populations suggest that the pest colonization occurred relatively recently and there is high gene flow between these populations of the province. In addition, haplotypes of Mazandaran province are different with those found in other countries. The similarity of Iranian population (Simorgh with one population from China indicated that China might be the origin of C. suppresalis.

  14. Identification and expression profiles of neuropeptides and their G protein-coupled receptors in the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Gu, Gui-Xiang; Teng, Zi-Wen; Wu, Shun-Fan; Huang, Jia; Song, Qi-Sheng; Ye, Gong-Yin; Fang, Qi

    2016-06-29

    In insects, neuropeptides play important roles in the regulation of multiple physiological processes by binding to their corresponding receptors, which are primarily G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The genes encoding neuropeptides and their associated GPCRs in the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis were identified by a transcriptomic analysis and were used to identify potential targets for the disruption of physiological processes and the protection of crops. Forty-three candidate genes were found to encode the neuropeptide precursors for all known insect neuropeptides except for arginine-vasopressin-like peptide (AVLP), CNMamide, neuropeptide-like precursors 2-4 (NPLP2-4), and proctolin. In addition, novel alternative splicing variants of three neuropeptide genes (allatostatin CC, CCHamide 1, and short neuropeptide F) are reported for the first time, and 51 putative neuropeptide GPCRs were identified. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that 44 of these GPCRs belong to the A-family (or rhodopsin-like), 5 belong to the B-family (or secretin-like), and 2 are leucine-rich repeat-containing GPCRs. These GPCRs and their likely ligands were also described. qRT-PCR analyses revealed the expression profiles of the neuropeptide precursors and GPCR genes in various tissues of C. suppressalis. Our study provides fundamental information that may further our understanding of neuropeptidergic signaling systems in Lepidoptera and aid in the design of peptidomimetics, pseudopeptides or small molecules capable of disrupting the physiological processes regulated by these signaling molecules and their receptors.

  15. Ryanodine receptor genes of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis: Molecular cloning, alternative splicing and expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Y C; Sheng, C W; Casida, John E; Zhao, C Q; Han, Z J

    2017-01-01

    The ryanodine receptor (RyR) of the calcium release channel is the main target of anthranilic and phthalic diamide insecticides which have high selective insecticidal activity relative to mammalian toxicity. In this study, the full-length cDNA of Chilo suppressalis RyR (CsRyR) was isolated and characterized. The CsRyR mRNA has an open reading frame (ORF) of 15,387bp nucleotides, which encodes 5128 amino acids with GenBank ID: KR088972. Comparison of protein sequences showed that CsRyR shared high identities with other insects of 77-96% and lower identity to mammals and nematodes with only 42-45%. One alternative splicing site (KENLG) unique to Lepidoptera was found and two exclusive exons of CsRyR (I /II) were revealed. Spatial and temporal expression of CsRyR mRNA was at the highest relative level in 3rd instar larvae and head (including brain and muscle), and at the lowest expression level in egg and fat body. The expression levels of whole body CsRyR mRNA were increased remarkably after injection of 4th instar larvae with chlorantraniliprole at 0.004 to 0.4μg/g. This structural and functional information on CsRyR provides the basis for further understanding the selective action of chlorantraniliprole and possibly other diamide insecticides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Exploring the midgut transcriptome and brush border membrane vesicle proteome of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Ma

    Full Text Available The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, is one of the most detrimental pests affecting rice crops. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins has been explored as a means to control this pest, but the potential for C. suppressalis to develop resistance to Bt toxins makes this approach problematic. Few C. suppressalis gene sequences are known, which makes in-depth study of gene function difficult. Herein, we sequenced the midgut transcriptome of the rice stem borer. In total, 37,040 contigs were obtained, with a mean size of 497 bp. As expected, the transcripts of C. suppressalis shared high similarity with arthropod genes. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis were used to classify the gene functions in C. suppressalis. Using the midgut transcriptome data, we conducted a proteome analysis to identify proteins expressed abundantly in the brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV. Of the 100 top abundant proteins that were excised and subjected to mass spectrometry analysis, 74 share high similarity with known proteins. Among these proteins, Western blot analysis showed that Aminopeptidase N and EH domain-containing protein have the binding activities with Bt-toxin Cry1Ac. These data provide invaluable information about the gene sequences of C. suppressalis and the proteins that bind with Cry1Ac.

  17. Gender Systems and Women’s Labor Force Participation in the Salmon Industry in Chiloé, Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramirez, Eduardo; Ruben, R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper, which follows the emergence of the salmon industry in the 1990s in Chiloé, Chile, demonstrates that factors restricting women’s participation in labor force and wage differences between women and men are related to the gender systems operating in Chiloe. Results indicate that these

  18. Page 1 Studies on the Anatomy of Sugarcane Moth Borers—IV ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Studies on the Anatomy of Sugarcane Moth Borers—IV. EXPLANATION OF PLATES. PLATE XXVI. Fore Wings. FIG. I. Scirpophaga nivella. FIG. 2. Chilo tumidicostalis. FIG. 3. Chilo zonellus. FIG. 4. Chilotraea infuscatellus. FIG. 5, Chilotrava auricilia. FIG. 6. Bissetia steniellus. FIG. 7. Emmalocera depressella. FIG. 8.

  19. Enhanced insecticidal activity of Chilo iridescent virus expressing an insect specific neurotoxin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nalcacioglu, Remziye; Muratoglu, Hacer; Yesilyurt, Aydın; Oers, van Monique M.; Vlak, Just M.; Demirbag, Zihni

    2016-01-01

    Previously we have generated a recombinant Chilo iridescent virus (CIV) by inserting the green fluorescent protein gene (gfp) into the CIV 157L open reading frame (ORF) locus and showed that this recombinant (rCIV-Δ157L-gfp) was fully infectious both in cell culture as well as in insect larvae.

  20. Effect of laboratory rearing period to the quality of Chilo partellus as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Mutisya

    2013-07-26

    Jul 26, 2013 ... 74-76. Onyango FO, Ochieng-Odero (1994). Continuos rearing of the maize stemborer Busseola fusca on artificial diet. Entomologia. Experimentalis et Applicata. 73:139-144. Reddy SKV, Walker PT (1990). A review of the yield losses in graminaceous crops caused by Chilo spp. Insect Sci. Appl. 11:563-.

  1. Open reading frame 193R of Chilo iridescent virus encodes a functional inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ince, I.A.; Westenberg, M.; Vlak, J.M.; Demirbag, Z.; Nalcacioglu, R.; Oers, van M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Programmed cell death or apoptosis is a major defense mechanism in insects in response to viral infections. The genome of Chilo iridescent virus (CIV) has three ORFs with homology to baculovirus inhibitor of apoptosis (iap) genes. The proteins encoded by the 157L, 193R, and 332L ORFs contain 152,

  2. The Chilo iridescent virus DNA polymerase promoter contains an essential AAAAT motif

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nalcacioglu, R.; Ince, I.A.; Vlak, J.M.; Demirbag, Z.; Oers, van M.M.

    2007-01-01

    The delayed-early DNA polymerase promoter of Chilo iridescent virus (CIV), officially known as Invertebrate iridescent virus, was fine mapped by constructing a series of increasing deletions and by introducing point mutations. The effects of these mutations were examined in a luciferase reporter

  3. The Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera) of Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Sangmi Lee; Catherine Mercado

    2016-01-01

    Panama has among the most diverse Lepidoptera fauna of many regions or habitats, and the micromoth family Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera) is one of the largest families of microlepidoptera in the world. However, only 6% of neotropical gelechiid species have been reported in Panama, with 49 species from 28 genera. Here, 49 species of Gelechiidae in Panama are cataloged alphabetically.

  4. ChiloKey, an interactive identification tool for the geophilomorph centipedes of Europe (Chilopoda, Geophilomorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonato, Lucio; Minelli, Alessandro; Lopresti, Massimo; Cerretti, Pierfilippo

    2014-01-01

    ChiloKey is a matrix-based, interactive key to all 179 species of Geophilomorpha (Chilopoda) recorded from Europe, including species of uncertain identity and those whose morphology is known partially only. The key is intended to assist in identification of subadult and adult specimens, by means of microscopy and simple dissection techniques whenever necessary. The key is freely available through the web at: http://www.biologia.unipd.it/chilokey/ and at http://www.interactive-keys.eu/chilokey/.

  5. Transgenic rice plants expressing cry1Ia5 gene are resistant to stem borer (Chilo agamemnon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaieb, Reda E A

    2010-01-01

    The stem borer, Chilo agamemnon Bles., is the most serious insect pest in rice fields of the Egyptian Nile Delta. To induce rice plant resistance to Chilo agamemnon, the cry1Ia5 gene was introduced to rice plants (Oryza sativa L.). The integration of the cry1Ia5 gene into the plant genome was confirmed using PCR and Southern blot analyses. The obtained plantlets were transferred to the greenhouse until seeds were collected. Northern blot analysis of the T1 plants confirmed the expression of the cry1Ia5 gene. The insecticidal activity of the transgenic plants against the rice stem borer Chilo agamemnon were tested. The third larval instars were fed on stem cuts from three transgenic lines (L1, L2 and L3) as well as cuts from the control (gfp-transgenic) plants for one week and the mortality percentage was daily recorded. Transgenic line-3 showed the highest mortality percentage after one day (50%) followed by L2 (25%) then L1 (0%). Two days post treatment the mortality percentage increased to 70, 45 and 25% for transgenic lines 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Mortality of 100% was recorded four days post treatment, while those fed on the gfp-transgenic rice (control) showed 0% mortality. Thus, transgenic plants showed high resistance to stem borers and can serve as a novel genetic resource in breeding programs. Transgenic plants expressing BT protein were normal in phenotype with as good seed setting as the nontransgenic control plants.

  6. leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le faux ver rose Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera : Tortricidae) est une espèce carpophage du cotonnier. En Côte d'Ivoire, elle est difficilement contrôlée par les traitements insecticides et ses infestations sont en forte croissance au cours de ces dix dernières années. En vue de mettre en place une stratégie de gestion.

  7. Mutaciones culturales de Chiloé: los mitos y las leyendas en la modernidad neoliberal isleña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Mansilla Torres

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El conflicto entre tradición y modernidad cultural de las islas de Chiloé, Chile, agudizado a partir de la década de 1980 cuando Chiloé se convierte en un centro de producción acuícola para la exportación a gran escala, re vive, en los umbrales del siglo XXI, el mito fundacional de las islas: Ten-ten Vilú, la serpiente de la tierra que defiende a los humanos, y Cai-cai Vilú, la serpiente del agua que quiere exterminarlos. Chiloé se halla en una etapa si no refundacional sí de profundas mutaciones de su identidad, etapa en la que, nuevamente, como en los orígenes mitológicos, se enfrentan fuerzas, al parecer irreconciliables, que tensionan el modo de ser, de habitar y de soñar de los chilotes.

  8. RNA interference in Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terenius, Ole; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Garbutt, Jennie S.

    2011-01-01

    Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. However, in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) RNAi has many times proven to be difficult to achieve. Most of the negative results have been anecdotal and the positive...... is particularly successful in the family Saturniidae and in genes involved in immunity. On the contrary, gene expression in epidermal tissues seems to be most difficult to silence. In addition, gene silencing by feeding dsRNA requires high concentrations for success. Possible causes for the variability of success...

  9. Estimates of Abundance and Trend of Chilean Blue Whales off Isla de Chiloé, Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Galletti Vernazzani

    Full Text Available Since 1970, blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus have been seen feeding in the waters off southern Chile during the summer and autumn (December to May. Investigation of the genetic, acoustic and morphological characteristics of these blue whales shows that they are a distinct but unnamed subspecies, called the Chilean blue whales. Photo-identification surveys have been conducted in the waters off northwestern Isla Grande de Chiloé, southern Chile from 2004-2012 and Isla Chañaral, central Chile in 2012. Over this time, 1,070 blue whales were encountered yielding, after photo-quality control, 318 and 267 unique photographs of the left and right side of the flank respectively. Using mark-recapture analysis of left and right side photographs collected from Isla Grande de Chiloé (2004-2012, open population models estimate that ~570-760 whales are feeding seasonally in this region. POPAN superpopulation abundance estimates for the same feeding ground in 2012 are 762 (95% confidence intervals, CI = 638-933 and 570 (95% CI 475-705 for left and right side datasets respectively, very similar to results from closed population models. Estimates of trend revealed strong variation in abundance, peaking in 2009 and [suggesting] fluctuating use in the survey area over time, likely related to the density of their prey. High inter-annual return rates suggest a degree of site-fidelity of individuals to Isla Grande de Chiloé and that the number of whales using this feeding ground is relatively small.

  10. Estimates of Abundance and Trend of Chilean Blue Whales off Isla de Chiloé, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galletti Vernazzani, Barbara; Jackson, Jennifer A; Cabrera, Elsa; Carlson, Carole A; Brownell, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    Since 1970, blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) have been seen feeding in the waters off southern Chile during the summer and autumn (December to May). Investigation of the genetic, acoustic and morphological characteristics of these blue whales shows that they are a distinct but unnamed subspecies, called the Chilean blue whales. Photo-identification surveys have been conducted in the waters off northwestern Isla Grande de Chiloé, southern Chile from 2004-2012 and Isla Chañaral, central Chile in 2012. Over this time, 1,070 blue whales were encountered yielding, after photo-quality control, 318 and 267 unique photographs of the left and right side of the flank respectively. Using mark-recapture analysis of left and right side photographs collected from Isla Grande de Chiloé (2004-2012), open population models estimate that ~570-760 whales are feeding seasonally in this region. POPAN superpopulation abundance estimates for the same feeding ground in 2012 are 762 (95% confidence intervals, CI = 638-933) and 570 (95% CI 475-705) for left and right side datasets respectively, very similar to results from closed population models. Estimates of trend revealed strong variation in abundance, peaking in 2009 and [suggesting] fluctuating use in the survey area over time, likely related to the density of their prey. High inter-annual return rates suggest a degree of site-fidelity of individuals to Isla Grande de Chiloé and that the number of whales using this feeding ground is relatively small.

  11. Reawakening of large earthquakes in south central Chile: The 2016 Mw 7.6 Chiloé event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, S.; Moreno, M.; Melnick, D.; del Campo, F.; Poli, P.; Baez, J. C.; Leyton, F.; Madariaga, R.

    2017-07-01

    On 25 December 2016, the Mw 7.6 Chiloé earthquake broke a plate boundary asperity in south central Chile near the center of the rupture zone of the Mw 9.5 Valdivia earthquake of 1960. To gain insight on decadal-scale deformation trends and their relation with the Chiloé earthquake, we combine geodetic, teleseismic, and regional seismological data. GPS velocities increased at continental scale after the 2010 Maule earthquake, probably due to a readjustment in the mantle flow and an apparently abrupt end of the viscoelastic mantle relaxation following the 1960 Valdivia earthquake. It also produced an increase in the degree of plate locking. The Chiloé earthquake occurred within the region of increased locking, breaking a circular patch of 15 km radius at 30 km depth, located near the bottom of the seismogenic zone. We propose that the Chiloé earthquake is a first sign of the seismic reawakening of the Valdivia segment, in response to the interaction between postseismic viscoelastic relaxation and changes of interseismic locking between Nazca and South America.

  12. Investigations of biodeterioration by fungi in historic wooden churches of Chiloé, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Rodrigo; Párraga, Mario; Navarrete, José; Carrasco, Ivo; de la Vega, Eduardo; Ortiz, Manuel; Herrera, Paula; Jurgens, Joel A; Held, Benjamin W; Blanchette, Robert A

    2014-04-01

    The use of wood in construction has had a long history and Chile has a rich cultural heritage of using native woods for building churches and other important structures. In 2000, UNESCO designated a number of the historic churches of Chiloé, built entirely of native woods, as World Heritage Sites. These unique churches were built in the late 1700 s and throughout the 1800 s, and because of their age and exposure to the environment, they have been found to have serious deterioration problems. Efforts are underway to better understand these decay processes and to carryout conservation efforts for the long-term preservation of these important structures. This study characterized the types of degradation taking place and identified the wood decay fungi obtained from eight historic churches in Chiloé, seven of them designated as UNESCO World Heritage sites. Micromorphological observations identified white, brown and soft rot in the structural woods and isolations provided pure cultures of fungi that were identified by sequencing of the internal transcribed region of rDNA. Twenty-nine Basidiomycota and 18 Ascomycota were found. These diverse groups of fungi represent several genera and species not previously reported from Chile and demonstrates a varied microflora is causing decay in these historic buildings.

  13. Anholts sommerfugle (Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Bygebjerg, Rune; Meedom, Peter

    2008-01-01

    temporary resident. Most records are based on voucher material, the depository of which is stated at http://zoologi.snm.ku.dk/forskning/entomology/. A list of all 1160 species is given, and comments are added for rare, dubious or otherwise interesting records. A considerable part of Anholt consists of open......  The Lepidoptera fauna of the Danish island of Anholt is surveyed, and 1160 species are recorded. Anholt is situated in Kattegat 44 km from Denmark and 47 km from Sweden. The history and environment of the island are briefly discussed, with special focus on the flora, and earlier studies...... on Anholt within these two periods, but examples on species which seem to have disappeared from the island during the last 20-30 years, and other which have colonized Anholt during that period, are discussed under comments ("kommentarer"). We consider a number of the species found in Anholt as only...

  14. Changes in insecticide resistance of the rice striped stem borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jianya; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Wu, Min; Gao, Congfen

    2014-02-01

    Application of insecticides is the most important method to control Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), and continuous use of individual insecticides has driven the rapid development of insecticide resistance in C. suppressalis during the past 30 yr. Monitoring insecticide resistance provides information essential for integrated pest management. Insecticide resistance of field populations to monosultap, triazophos, chlorpyrifos, and abamectin in China was examined in 2010 and 2011. The results indicated that the resistance levels of 14 field populations to four insecticides were significantly different. Four populations showed moderate resistance, and other populations possessed low-level resistance or were susceptible to monosultap. Nine populations displayed an extremely high or a high level of resistance to triazophos, whereas four populations were sensitive to this agent. Five populations exhibited a low level of resistance to abamectin, while the others remained sensitive. When compared with historical data, resistance to monosultap and triazophos decreased significantly, and the percentage of populations with high-level or extremely high-level resistance was obviously reduced. By contrast, the resistance to abamectin increased slightly. The increasing and decreasing resistance levels reported in this study highlight the different evolutionary patterns of insecticide resistance in C. suppressalis. An overreliance on one or two insecticides may promote rapid development of resistance. Slow development of resistance to abamectin, which was used mainly in mixtures with other insecticides, implies that the use of insecticide mixtures may be an effective method to delay the evolution of resistance to insecticides.

  15. Coprologic survey of endoparasites from Darwin's fox (Pseudalopex fulvipes) in Chiloé, Chile Muestreo coprológico de endoparásitos del zorro de Darwin (Pseudalopex fulvipes) en Chiloé, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    JE Jiménez; C Briceño; H Alcaíno; P Vásquez; S Funk; D González-Acuña

    2012-01-01

    A total of 189 faecal samples of the critically endangered Darwin's fox (Pseudalopex fulvipes [Martin, 1837]), from different areas within Chiloé Island in southern Chile were examined for parasites eggs and oocysts using the sugar flotation technique. The results showed that 21.2% of the samples were positive to either one of nine helminthes and one protozoan. The parasites with the highest prevalence were an ascarid nematode and a Spirometra species of cestode. Other identified endoparasite...

  16. Estimates of Abundance and Trend on a Blue Whale Feeding Ground off Isla de Chiloé, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Galletti Vernazzani, Barbara; Jackson, Jennifer A.; Cabrera, Elsa; Carlson, Carole A.; Brownell, Jr. , Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    Since 1970, blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) have been seen feeding in the waters off southern Chile during the summer and autumn (December to May). Investigation of the genetic, acoustic and morphological characteristics of these blue whales shows that they are a distinct but unnamed subspecies, called the Chilean blue whales. Photo-identification surveys have been conducted in the waters off northwestern Isla Grande de Chilo?, southern Chile from 2004?2012 and Isla Cha?aral, central Chil...

  17. Expansion of Magellanic Moorland during the late Pleistocene: Palynological evidence from northern Isla de Chiloé, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagrán, Carolina

    1988-11-01

    The late Quaternary vegetation of northern Isla de Chiloé is inferred from palynological analysis of a section in the Río Negro drainage (42°03'S, 73°50'W). At ca. 30,500 yr B.P., maxima of Astelia and Donatia occurred, suggesting wetland development. From that time until ca. 27,000 yr B.P., steppe indicators such as Compositae/Gramineae dominated, suggesting drier conditions. After 27,000 yr B.P., the moorland shrub Dacrydium gradually increased, reaching a maximum by 18,000 yr B.P. At this time Astelia increased again, suggesting development of cushion bog during cold and wet conditions. The glacial-postglacial transition is characterized by a marked change from peaty sediments to clays, a decrease in the cushion bog flora, and the prevalence of Gramineae/ Compositae and swamp taxa. This vegetation prevailed until ca.7000 yr B.P. when forest taxa became dominant. The floristic pattern inferred from the pollen spectra of the Rio Negro section suggests that the late Pleistocene vegetation of Chiloé resembled modern Magellanic Moorland vegetation (52°-56°lat S). Based on climatic conditions presently associated with Magellanic Moorland, its occurrence in Chiloé at low elevations during the late Pleistocene implies a decrease in average temperature of at least 4°C and an increase in annual precipitation of at least 1500 mm.

  18. Overview: Identification characters of Lepidoptera eggs (Insecta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are 160,000 species of described Lepidoptera, or moths and butterflies, on Earth. The egg stage is the least known biological stage of moths and butterflies and there have been very few comparative studies. The purpose of this video is to provide the few, major characteristics of Lepidoptera...

  19. Efektivitas Jumlah Telur Corcyra cephalonica Terparasitasi Trichogramma sp. terhadap Persentase Telur yang Terparasit dan Jumlah Larva Penggerek Batang Tebu Bergaris (Chilo sacchariphagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yati Setiati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hama penggerek batang merupakan hama yang paling penting pada tanaman tebu. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh telur Corcyra cephalonica yang terparasitasi Trichogramma sp. terhadap hama penggerek batang tebu bergaris (Chilo sacchariphagus. Serta untuk mengetahui jumlah telur Corcyra cephalonica yang terparasitasi Trichogramma sp. yang paling efektif terhadap pengendalian hama penggerek batang tebu bergaris (Chilo sacchariphagus Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di PT. PG Rajawali II Unit Puslit Agro (pusat penelitian Agronomi Desa Sumber Jatitujuh-Majalengka, dari bulan April sampai bulan Juni 2015. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa pada parasitasi penggerek batang tebu bergaris (Chilo saccaripagus perlakuan 5 pias (750 butir telur Trichogamma sp. memiliki jumlah larva terendah rata-rata 4,33 larva dengan persentasi telur yang terparasit 92,23%.  Stem borer is the most important pest in sugarcane. This study aimed to determine the effect of Corcyra cephalonica eggs which were parasited by Trichogramma sp. On striped cane stem borer (Chilo sacchariphagus. As well as to determine the number of eggs of Corcyra cephalonica parasited by Trichogramma sp. The research was conducted at PT. PG Rajawali II Unit Center for Agro (Agronomy research centers Sumber Jatitujuh Village Majalengka ,from April to June 2015. The result showed that in parasitism of striped cane stem borer (Chilo saccaripagus treatment of 5 “pias” (750 eggs of Trichogamma sp. had the lowest number of larvae on average 4,33 larvae with parasited eggs percentage of 92,23%. 

  20. Multiple miRNAs jointly regulate the biosynthesis of ecdysteroid in the holometabolous insects, Chilo suppressalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kang; Sun, Yang; Xiao, Huamei; Ge, Chang; Li, Fei; Han, Zhaojun

    2017-12-01

    The accurate rise and fall of active hormones is important for insect development. The ecdysteroids must be cleared in a timely manner. However, the mechanism of suppressing the ecdysteroid biosynthesis at the right time remains unclear. Here, we sequenced a small RNA library of Chilo suppressalis and identified 300 miRNAs in this notorious rice insect pest. Microarray analysis yielded 54 differentially expressed miRNAs during metamorphosis development. Target prediction and in vitro dual-luciferase assays confirmed that seven miRNAs (two conserved and five novel miRNAs) jointly targeted three Halloween genes in the ecdysteroid biosynthesis pathway. Overexpression of these seven miRNAs reduced the titer of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), induced mortality, and retarded development, which could be rescued by treatment with 20E. Comparative analysis indicated that the miRNA regulation of metamorphosis development is a conserved process but that the miRNAs involved are highly divergent. In all, we present evidence that both conserved and lineage-specific miRNAs have crucial roles in regulating development in insects by controlling ecdysteroid biosynthesis, which is important for ensuring developmental convergence and evolutionary diversity. © 2017 He et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  1. Sustainable development? Salmon aquaculture and late modernity in the archipelago of Chiloé, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R. Barton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chiloé is an archipelago that has, since the 1980s, become one of the motors of the Chilean economy. Salmon aquaculture swiftly transformed the tradition of isolation and poverty that had defined the local identity and livelihoods. This is now changing due to the rapid experience of modernity. This modernity is driven by transnational capital and large-scale state intervention in the promotion of salmon aquaculture and its current central role in defining development in the islands. While this sector has generated private and public employment and infrastructure, there has also been an important shift in the expectations and aspirations of the local population, towards increased hybridization and also a mercantilization of island culture. The success of salmon production reveals that the conditions of isolation can be transformed, and even benefits reaped from integration into the modern world –globalised, capitalist and rational, rather than traditional– however it also entails risks for the sustainability of fragile socio-ecological systems, including the existence of traditional and alternative livelihoods.

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of the first caspase in the Striped Stem Borer, Chilo suppressalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming-Xing; Du, Yu-Zhou; Cao, Shuang-Shuang; Liu, Pingyang; Li, Jianyong

    2013-05-15

    Apoptosis is executed through the activity of the caspases that are aspartyl-specific proteases. In this study, we isolated the caspase gene (Cscaspase-1) of Chilo suppressalis (one of the leading pests responsible for destruction of rice crops). It possesses the open reading frame (ORF) of 295 amino acids including prodomain, large subunit and small subunits, and two cleavage sites (Asp23 and Asp194) were found to be located among them. In addition to these profiles, Cscaspase-1 contains two active sites (His134 and Cys176). Genomic analysis demonstrated there was no intron in the genome of Cscaspase-1. The Cscaspase-1 transcripts were found in all tissues of the fifth instar larvae, and higher levels were found in the midgut, hindgut and Malpighian tubules. Examination of Cscaspase-1 expression in different developmental stages indicated low constitutive levels in the eggs and early larvae stages, and higher abundances were exhibited in the last larvae and pupae stages. The relative mRNA levels of Cscaspase-1 were induced by heat and cold temperatures. For example, the highest increase of Cscaspase-1 transcription was at -3 °C and 36 °C respectively. In a word, Cscaspase-1 plays a role of effector in the apoptosis of C. suppressalis. It also correlates with development, metamorphosis and thermotolerance of C. suppreassalis.

  3. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of the First Caspase in the Striped Stem Borer, Chilo suppressalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingyang Liu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is executed through the activity of the caspases that are aspartyl-specific proteases. In this study, we isolated the caspase gene (Cscaspase-1 of Chilo suppressalis (one of the leading pests responsible for destruction of rice crops. It possesses the open reading frame (ORF of 295 amino acids including prodomain, large subunit and small subunits, and two cleavage sites (Asp23 and Asp194 were found to be located among them. In addition to these profiles, Cscaspase-1 contains two active sites (His134 and Cys176. Genomic analysis demonstrated there was no intron in the genome of Cscaspase-1. The Cscaspase-1 transcripts were found in all tissues of the fifth instar larvae, and higher levels were found in the midgut, hindgut and Malpighian tubules. Examination of Cscaspase-1 expression in different developmental stages indicated low constitutive levels in the eggs and early larvae stages, and higher abundances were exhibited in the last larvae and pupae stages. The relative mRNA levels of Cscaspase-1 were induced by heat and cold temperatures. For example, the highest increase of Cscaspase-1 transcription was at −3 °C and 36 °C respectively. In a word, Cscaspase-1 plays a role of effector in the apoptosis of C. suppressalis. It also correlates with development, metamorphosis and thermotolerance of C. suppreassalis.

  4. Characterization of cysteine protease-like genes in the striped rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhao-Yu; Wan, Pin-Jun; Li, Guo-Qing; Xia, Yong-Gui; Han, Zhao-Jun

    2014-02-01

    The striped rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is a major pest for rice production in China and the rest of Southeast Asia. Chemical control is the main means to alleviate losses due to this pest, which causes serious environmental pollution. An effective and environmentally friendly approach is needed for the management of the striped rice stem borer. Cysteine proteases in insects could be useful targets for pest management either through engineering plant protease inhibitors, targeting insect digestive cysteine proteases, or through RNA interference-based silencing of cysteine proteases, disrupting developmental regulation of insects. In this study, eight cysteine protease-like genes were identified and partially characterized. The genes CCO2 and CCL4 were exclusively expressed in the larval gut, and their expression was affected by the state of nutrition in the insect. The expression of CCL2, CCL3, and CCO1 was significantly affected by the type of host plant, suggesting a role in host plant - insect interactions. Our initial characterization of the striped rice stem borer cysteine protease-like genes provides a foundation for further research on this important group of genes in this major insect pest of rice.

  5. Cloning and characterization of serpin-like genes from the striped rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhao-Yu; Wan, Pin-Jun; Cheng, Xiong-Feng; Zhang, Yang; Li, Guo-Qing; Han, Zhao-Jun

    2013-06-01

    Serpins, also called serine proteinase inhibitors, are widely distributed in eukaryotes. In insects, serpins play important roles in regulating immune responses, gut physiology, and other processes. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of 12 serpin-like cDNAs from the striped rice stem borer (Chilo suppressalis), a major rice pest. The putative proteins share significant sequence similarity with known insect serpins, especially those from lepidopterons. Analysis of functional domains revealed that nine of the cloned serpins are putative trypsin- or chymotrypsin-like inhibitors; two are mixed-type serpins that may act as inhibitors for trypsins, elastases, or thrombin; and the remaining one is truncate. The potential functions of these serpins in interacting with host plants were also investigated by analyzing tissue-specific expression and the impact of different host plant genotypes on gene expression. Our results provide a foundation for future studies on the role of serpins in gut physiology in the striped rice stem borer, and also useful information for comparative analyses of serpins from different insect species.

  6. Pharmacological characterization of dopamine receptors in the rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Wu, Shun-Fan; Gu, Gui-Xiang; Teng, Zi-Wen; Ye, Gong-Yin; Huang, Jia

    2017-04-01

    Dopamine is an important neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in both vertebrates and invertebrates and is the most abundant monoamine present in the central nervous system of insects. A complement of functionally distinct dopamine receptors mediate the signal transduction of dopamine by modifying intracellular Ca(2+) and cAMP levels. In the present study, we pharmacologically characterized three types of dopamine receptors, CsDOP1, CsDOP2 and CsDOP3, from the rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis. All three receptors show considerable sequence identity with orthologous dopamine receptors. The phylogenetic analysis also clusters the receptors within their respective groups. Transcript levels of CsDOP1, CsDOP2 and CsDOP3 were all expressed at high levels in the central nervous system, indicating their important roles in neural processes. After heterologous expression in HEK 293 cells, CsDOP1, CsDOP2 and CsDOP3 were dose-dependently activated by dopamine and synthetic dopamine receptor agonists. They can also be blocked by different series of antagonists. This study offers important information on three dopamine receptors from C. suppressalis that will provide the basis for forthcoming studies investigating their roles in behaviors and physiology, and facilitate the development of new insecticides for pest control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Knockdown of Cs-Spook induces delayed larval molting in rice striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Muhammad Faisal; Li, Yao; Ge, Chang; Sun, Yang; Yang, Qiupu; Li, Fei

    2015-03-01

    Spook has essential roles in the biogenesis of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E). The function of spook in the rice striped stem borer (SSB) Chilo suppressalis remains unclear, prompting our hypothesis that it exerts actions similar to those reported for other insect species. Here we amplified the full-length transcript of spook (Cs-Spook) in SSB by 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Cs-Spook has conserved P450 motifs such as Helix-C, Helix-I, Helix-K, and PERF motif (PxxFxPxRF). It was highly expressed in late instar larvae but less so in newly molted larvae. Cs-Spook was highly expressed in prothoracic glands. Cs-Spook was knocked down by dsRNA treatments. Compared with controls, the gene expression level was reduced to 9% at 24 h post injection (PI), 33% at 48 h PI, and 24% at 72 h PI. The ecdysteroid titer decreased significantly in the dsRNA-treated group (P < 0.05), resulting in delayed larval development. The delayed development in dsRNA-treatment group was rescued by treating with 20-E. Our work demonstrates that Cs-Spook participates in the biogenesis of 20-E and regulates the molt of SSB, as seen in other species. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Phylogeny and Evolution of Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitter, Charles; Davis, Donald R; Cummings, Michael P

    2017-01-31

    Until recently, deep-level phylogeny in Lepidoptera, the largest single radiation of plant-feeding insects, was very poorly understood. Over the past two decades, building on a preceding era of morphological cladistic studies, molecular data have yielded robust initial estimates of relationships both within and among the ∼43 superfamilies, with unsolved problems now yielding to much larger data sets from high-throughput sequencing. Here we summarize progress on lepidopteran phylogeny since 1975, emphasizing the superfamily level, and discuss some resulting advances in our understanding of lepidopteran evolution.

  9. Parasitization by Cotesia chilonis influences gene expression in fatbody and hemocytes of Chilo suppressalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Fan Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During oviposition many parasitoid wasps inject various factors, such as polydnaviruses (PDVs, along with eggs that manipulate the physiology and development of their hosts. These manipulations are thought to benefit the parasites. However, the detailed mechanisms of insect host-parasitoid interactions are not fully understood at the molecular level. Based on recent findings that some parasitoids influence gene expression in their hosts, we posed the hypothesis that parasitization by a braconid wasp, Cotesia chilonis, influences the expression of genes responsible for development, metabolism and immune functions in the fatbody and hemocytes of its host, Chilo suppressalis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We obtained 39,344,452 reads, which were assembled into 146,770 scaffolds, and 76,016 unigenes. Parasitization impacted gene expression in fatbody and hemocytes. Of these, 8096 fatbody or 5743 hemocyte unigenes were down-regulated, and 2572 fatbody or 1452 hemocyte unigenes were up-regulated. Gene ontology data showed that the majority of the differentially expressed genes are involved in enzyme-regulated activity, binding, transcription regulator activity and catalytic activity. qPCR results show that most anti-microbial peptide transcription levels were up-regulated after parasitization. Expression of bracovirus genes was detected in parasitized larvae with 19 unique sequences identified from six PDV gene families including ankyrin, CrV1 protein, cystatin, early-expressed (EP proteins, lectin, and protein tyrosine phosphatase. CONCLUSIONS: The current study supports our hypothesis that parasitization influences the expression of fatbody and hemocyte genes in the host, C. suppressalis. The general view is that manipulation of host metabolism and immunity benefits the development and emergence of the parasitoid offsprings. The accepted beneficial mechanisms include the direct impact of parasitoid-associated virulence factors such as

  10. Characterization of a β-adrenergic-like octopamine receptor from the rice stem borer (Chilo suppressalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shun-Fan; Yao, Yao; Huang, Jia; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2012-08-01

    Octopamine, the invertebrate counterpart of adrenaline and noradrenaline, plays a key role in regulation of many physiological and behavioral processes in insects. It modulates these functions through binding to specific octopamine receptors, which are typical rhodopsin-like G-protein coupled receptors. A cDNA encoding a seven-transmembrane receptor was cloned from the nerve cord of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, viz. CsOA2B2, which shares high sequence similarity to CG6989, a Drosophila β-adrenergic-like octopamine receptor (DmOctβ2R). We generated an HEK-293 cell line that stably expresses CsOA2B2 in order to examine the functional and pharmacological properties of this receptor. Activation of CsOA2B2 by octopamine increased the production of cAMP in a dose-dependent manner (EC(50)=2.33 nmol l(-1)), with a maximum response at 100 nmol l(-1). Tyramine also activated the receptor but with much less potency than octopamine. Dopamine and serotonin had marginal effects on cAMP production. Using a series of known agonists and antagonists for octopamine receptors, we observed a rather unique pharmacological profile for CsOA2B2 through measurements of cAMP. The rank order of potency of the agonists was naphazoline > clonidine. The activated effect of octopamine is abolished by co-incubation with phentolamine, mianserin or chlorpromazine. Using in vivo pharmacology, CsOA2B2 antagonists mianserin and phentolamine impaired the motor ability of individual rice stem borers. The results of the present study are important for a better functional understanding of this receptor as well as for practical applications in the development of environmentally sustainable pesticides.

  11. Chilo iridescent virus (CIV) ORF 012L encodes a protein with both exonuclease and endonuclease functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizman, Yesim Akturk; Muratoglu, Hacer; Sandalli, Cemal; Nalcacioglu, Remziye; Demirbag, Zihni

    2016-11-01

    Chilo iridescent virus (CIV) is the type member of the genus Iridovirus within the family Iridoviridae. The virions of CIV contain a single linear dsDNA molecule that is circularly permuted and terminally redundant. The genome of CIV contains an open reading frame (ORF 012L) encoding a protein homologous to exonuclease II of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In this study, we focused on the characterization of CIV ORF 012L. The target ORF was cloned into the pET28a vector, expressed in E. coli strain BL21 (DE3) pLysS with an N-terminal His tag and purified to homogeneity by using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Biochemical characterization of the purified CIV 012L confirmed that this viral protein is a functional 5'-3' exonuclease that digests 3'-biotin-labelled oligonucleotides and linear double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecules from their 5' termini in a highly processive manner. CIV 012L also has a potent endonuclease activity on dsDNA in vitro. In addition, CIV 012L converted supercoiled plasmid DNA (replicative form I, RFI) into the open circular form (RFII) and then open circular form into linear form (RFIII). Endonuclease activity of CIV 012L was optimal in the presence of 10 mM Mg(2+) or 30 mM Mn(2+) ions and at 150 mM NaCl or KCl salt concentrations. The highest endonuclease activity was obtained at pH 8, and it reached a maximum at 55 °C. The CIV 012L protein showed deficiencies for both double- and single-stranded RNAs.

  12. Development and relative fitness of Cry1C resistance in Chilo suppressalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui; Chen, Geng; Chen, Fajun; Han, Lanzhi; Peng, Yufang

    2018-03-01

    Chilo suppressalis is an important lepidopteran rice pest in the rice-growing areas of China, and the development of transgenic rice expressing the Cry1C insecticidal protein has provided a useful strategy for controlling this pest. However, insect resistance is a major threat to the durability of cry1C rice. Thus, evaluation of the risk of insect resistance before the commercial use of cry1C rice is crucial. This study investigated the development of C. suppressalis resistance to Cry1C protein and the relative fitness of Cry1C-resistant and -susceptible strains on different Bt rice lines. The LC 50 value of the Cry1C-resistant strain increased 42.6-fold after 41 generations of selection, and the estimated realized heritability (h 2 ) of Cry1C resistance was 0.096 in C. suppressalis. Moreover, the Cry1C-resistant strain displayed high fitness on the cry1C line, but not on the cry1Ab and cry1Ab + cry1C lines and was not cross-resistant to Cry1Ab. These findings suggest that C. suppressalis has the potential to develop resistance to Cry1C, although the rate of evolution is low. The pyramiding of the cry1A and cry1C genes in Bt rice is an effective strategy for delaying the evolution of resistance in C. suppressalis and sustainably maintaining the utility of Bt rice. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Characterization of a tyramine receptor type 2 from hemocytes of rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shun-Fan; Xu, Gang; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2015-04-01

    Calcium acts as a second messenger in many cell types, including insect hemocytes. Intracellular calcium level has a definite role in innate and adaptive immune signaling. Biogenic amines such as octopamine (OA), tyramine (TA), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) play various important physiological roles in insects by activating distinct G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that share a putative seven transmembrane domain structure. OA and 5-HT have been shown that can mediate insect hemocytic immune reactions to infections and invasions. Here, we showed that TA increase hemocyte spreading in the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis. Furthermore, we cloned a cDNA encoding a tyramine receptor type 2 from the hemocytes in the C. suppressalis, viz., CsTA2, which shares high sequence similarity to members of the invertebrate tyramine receptor family. The CsTA2 receptor was stably expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells, and its ligand response has been examined. Receptor activation with TA induced a dose-dependent increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in cells, with an EC50 value of 18.7±5.3 nM, whereas OA, DA, 5-HT and other potential agonists did not have this response. The mRNA is present in various tissues including nerve cord, hemocytes, fat body, midgut, Malpighian tubules, and epidermis in the larval stage. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry assay displayed that CsTA2 was detected and presented on hemocytes. We also showed that TA induced Ca(2+) release from the hemocytes of C. suppressalis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Diapause induction, maintenance and termination in the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hai-Jun; Mou, Feng-Chen; Zhu, Xing-Fen; Xue, Fang-Sen

    2010-11-01

    The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, enters facultative diapause as fully grown larvae in response to short-day conditions during the autumn. Our results showed that the critical night length for diapause induction in C. suppressalis was between 10 h 22 min and 10h 45 min at 22, 25 and 28 degrees C, 11 h 18 min at 31 degrees C, and between 10 h 5 min and 10 h 20 min under field conditions (average temperature ranged from 27.2 to 30.7 degrees C). The diapause incidence declined in ultra-long nights (18-22 h scotophases) and DD, and increased in ultra-short nights (2-6 h scotophases) and LL. Moreover, we found that the third instar was the stage most sensitive to the photoperiod, and night length played an essential role in the initiation of diapause. Night-interruption experiments with a 1-h light pulse at LD 12:12 (light 12:dark 12) exhibited two troughs of diapause inhibition, with one occurring in early scotophase and the other in late scotophase. Field observations for six years showed that most larvae entered winter diapause in August in response to declining day lengths, despite the high temperatures prevailing during August. By periodically transferring the field-collected overwintering larvae to different photoperiods and temperatures, the results showed that photoperiod had a significant influence on diapause development during the early phase of diapause, while high temperature significantly accelerated the termination of larval diapause. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Management of stem borer (Chilo partellus Swinhoe in maize using conventional pesticides in Chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraswati Neupane

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The stem borer (Chilo partellus Swinhoe is one of the most destructive pests of maize crop. Research experimentations were carried out on maize to control stem borer using conventional pesticides under field condition during summer season of two consecutive years from 2015 to 2016 at Rampur, Chitwan. All used pesticides had significant effect (P≤0.05 on percent damage and crop yield over control. In 2015, the lower percent damage (5.3% with higher crop yield (4.52 t ha-1 and lowest insect score (1.00 was observed in plot sprayed with spinosad 45% EC at 0.5 ml L-1 of water followed by plot treated with chloropyriphos 50% EC+cypermethrin 5%EC @1.5ml L-1 of water with percent damage of 6.60%, crop yield (4.23 t ha-1 and insect score of 1.60. Almost similar trend of insect incidence along with damage percentage and yield data were observed in 2016. The higher percent damage control (79.06% was observed at the plot sprayed after spinosad 45% EC at 0.5 ml L-1 of water with higher crop yield (4.58 t ha-1 and lowest insect score (1.00 followed by the plot treated with imidacloprid 17.8% @ 0.5 ml L-1 of water with percent damage control of 73.10 %, crop yield (3.38 t/ha and insect sore 1.50. The highest percent damage (20.63% was observed in the control plot with lower yield (0.95 t ha-1 and highest insect score (6.00. Over the years, spinosad 45% EC at 0.5 ml L-1 of water was effective bio-pesticide to control maize stem borer damage and also increase the yield.

  16. Experimental infection with low and high pathogenicity H7N3 Chilean avian influenza viruses in Chiloe wigeon (Anas sibilatrix) and cinnamon teal (Anas cyanoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá e Silva, Mariana; Mathieu-Benson, Christian; Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Swayne, David E

    2011-09-01

    Two different wild duck species common in Chile and neighboring countries, Chiloe wigeon (Anas sibilatrix) and cinnamon teal (Anas cyanoptera), were intranasally inoculated with 10(6) mean embryo infective dose (EID50) of the H7N3 low pathogenicity (LP) avian influenza virus (AIV) (A/chicken/Chile/176822/02) or high pathogenicity (HP) AIV (A/chicken/Chile/ 184240-1/02), in order to study the infectivity and pathobiology of these viruses. None of the virus-inoculated ducks had clinical signs or died, but most seroconverted by 14 days postinoculation (DPI), indicating a productive virus infection. Both LPAIV and HPAIV were isolated from oral swabs from two of six Chiloe wigeons and from oral and/or cloacal swabs from all five of the cinnamon teal at 2 DPI. Both LPAIV and HPAIV were efficiently transmitted to cinnamon teal contacts but not to Chiloe wigeon contacts. This study demonstrates that the cinnamon teal and Chiloe wigeons were susceptible to infection with both Chilean H7N3 LPAIV and HPAIV, but only the cinnamon teal showed contact transmission of the virus between birds, suggesting that the cinnamon teal has the potential to be a reservoir for these viruses, especially the LPAIV, as was demonstrated in 2001 with isolation of a genetically related H7N3 LPAIV strain in a cinnamon teal in Bolivia. However, the definitive source of the H7N3 Chilean LPAIV still remains unknown.

  17. Identification and Functional Analysis of the First Aquaporin from Striped Stem Borer, Chilo suppressalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Xing Lu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins are integral membrane proteins some of which form high capacity water-selective channels, promoting water permeation across cell membranes. In this study, we isolated the aquaporin transcript (CsDrip1 of Chilo suppressalis, one of the important rice pests. CsDrip1 included two variants, CsDrip1_v1 and CsDrip1_v2. Although CsDrip1_v2 sequence (>409 bp was longer than CsDrip1_v1, they possessed the same open reading frame (ORF. Protein structure and topology of CsDrip1 was analyzed using a predicted model, and the results demonstrated the conserved properties of insect water-specific aquaporins, including 6 transmembrane domains, 2 NPA motifs, ar/R constriction region (Phe69, His194, Ser203, and Arg209 and the C-terminal peptide sequence ending in “SYDF.” Our data revealed that the Xenopus oocytes expressing CsDrip1 indicated CsDrip1 could transport water instead of glycerol, trehalose and urea. Further, the transcript of CsDrip1 expressed ubiquitously but differentially in different tissues or organs and developmental stages of C. suppressalis. CsDrip1 mRNA exhibited the highest level of expression within hindgut and the third instar larvae. Regardless of pupae and adults, there were significantly different expression levels of CsDrip1 gene between male and female. Different from at low temperature, the transcript of CsDrip1 in larvae exposed to high temperature was increased significantly. Moreover, the mRNA levels of CsDrip1 in the third instar larvae, the fifth instar larvae, pupae (male and female, and adults (male and female under different humidities were investigated. However, the mRNA levels of CsDrip1 of only female and male adults were changed remarkably. In conclusions, CsDrip1 plays important roles in maintaining water homeostasis in this important rice pest.

  18. De remeros a pasajeros: Memorias de viajes y cambios sociales en una isla de Chiloé, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Andrés Yáñez Aguilar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El artículo aborda los viajes marítimos que hombres y mujeres de isla Quehui (Archipiélago de Chiloé, Región de los Lagos, Chile realizaban para llegar a Castro (capital provincial, en la primera mitad del siglo XX. El autor se apoya en relatos ofrecidos por pobladores locales y rinde cuenta del entorno social de la comunidad en torno a tales rutinas. El texto describe la aparición de la lancha a motor, que reemplaza  las prácticas anteriores de navegación, y su impacto social en los isleños. La construcción del texto se apoya en un trabajo de campo realizado en la zona de estudio, la utilización de la técnica de entrevistas y una revisión bibliográfica.

  19. Binding of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxins with brush border membrane vesicles of maize stem borer (Chilo partellus Swinhoe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Nain, Vikrant; Lakhanpaul, Suman; Kumar, P A

    2011-02-01

    Maize stem borer (Chilo partellus) is a major insect pest of maize and sorghum in Asia and Africa. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) δ-endotoxins have been found effective against C. partellus, both in diet-overlay assay and in transgenic plants. Gene stacking as one of the resistance management strategies in Bt maize requires an understanding of receptor sharing and binding affinity of δ-endotoxins. In the present study, binding affinity of three fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled Cry1A toxins showed high correlation with the toxicity of respective δ-endotoxins. Competitive binding studies showed that Cry1Ab toxins share some of the binding sites with Cry1Aa and Cry1Ac with low affinity and that Cry1Ab may have additional binding sites that are unavailable to the other two toxins tested. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fatty acid profile of plasma, muscle and adipose tissues in Chilota lambs grazing on two different low quality pasture types in Chiloé Archipelago (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Maria A; Dannenberger, Dirk; Rivero, Jordana; Pulido, Ruben; Nuernberg, Karin

    2014-11-01

    There is no information about the effect of different pasture types on tissue fatty acid profiles of a native rustic lamb breed of the Chiloe Archipelago, the Chilota. Eight Chilota lambs were grazed on a 'Calafatal' pasture (CP), a typical secondary succession of Chiloé Archipelago (Chile) and eight Chilota lambs were located to graze on naturalized pasture (NP) of Chiloé. Botanical, chemical and lipid composition of the two types of pastures and of different lamb tissues (muscle, subcutaneous - and tail adipose tissues) and plasma were performed. Both pasture types induced high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and CLAcis-9,trans-11 proportions in Chilota meat. Thus, in muscle, Chilota lambs grazing CP showed higher sum PUFA, sum n-6 PUFA proportion and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio compared with Chilota lambs grazing NP. In tail fats of Chilota lambs grazing CP significantly higher proportions of 18:3n-3, sum saturated fatty acids, sum PUFA, n-3 and n-6 PUFA were detected compared with Chilota lambs grazing NP. Feeding of different pasture types (CP vs. NP) caused significant differences in fatty acid composition of muscle and the two fat depots in Chilota lambs, but also point to tissue-specific responses of de novo synthesized fatty acid deposition in the tissues. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. (JE Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) annually cause enormous loss to the producers and their combat has become a worldwide challenge mainly due to several reports of pesticides resistance. Today, one of the best alternatives used in this combat is the application of natural insecticides such ...

  2. Nieuwe en interessante Microlepidoptera uit Nederland (Lepidoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieukerken, van E.J.; Gielis, C.; Huisman, K.J.; Koster, J.C.; Küchlein, J.H.; Wolf, van der H.W.; Wolschrijn, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    New and interesting Microlepidoptera from The Netherlands (Lepidoptera). This is the fourth 'annual' compilation of Microlepidoptera collected in The Netherlands, the first three having been published in Entomologische Berichten (vols 45: 89-104 [1985]; 46: 137-156 [1986]; 48: 69-81 [1988]). The

  3. Evolution of sexual dimorphism in the Lepidoptera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, C.E.; Zwaan, B.J.; Brakefield, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Among the animals, the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) are second only to beetles in number of described species and are known for their striking intra- and interspecific diversity. Within species, sexual dimorphism is a source of variation in life history (e.g., sexual size dimorphism and

  4. The Impact of Pareuchaetes pseudoinsulata (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The abundance and effectiveness of Pareuchaetes pseudoinsulata Rego Barros (Lepidoptera:Arctiidae) in controlling the Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (L.) ... Insect data was collected using line transects of 100 metres long and 100 metres apart and the removal, sweep net and direct count methods were used and ...

  5. A study of the river basins and limnology of five humic lakes on Chiloé Island Estudio de la cuenca y limnología en cinco lagos húmicos de la Isla Chiloé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. VILLALOBOS

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available From November 1996 to October 1997, the river basins of five humic lakes on Chiloé Island were studied monthly: Lakes Natri, Tepuhueico, Tarahuín, Huillinco and Cucao. The objective of this study was to know the catchment area, river basin and the main physical, chemical and biological characteristics of these humic lakes. The trophic status, the actual loading, and the mass balances of phosphorus and nitrogen were determined in relation to anthropogenic activities. Lakes Cucao and Huillinco were characterized by a marine influence. All the lakes had brown coloured waters, caused by humic substances, which limit their transparency. Lake Natri was the deepest (58 m, whereas Lake Tepuhueico had the shallowest depth (25 m. Total phosphorus and nitrogen fluctuated between 23.5 and 35 µg L-1 and 197 and 380 mug L-1 (annual average in lakes Natri, Tepuhueico and Tarahuín, respectively. Lakes Cucao and Huillinco showed extremely high concentrations of total nitrogen (annual average or = 3,000 mug L-1 and total phosphorus (= 223 and 497 mug L-1, and were classified as hyper-eutrophic. Lake Tarahuín registered the greatest diversity of phytoplankton, with 55 species, including Ceratium hirundinella which also occurred in lakes Cucao and Tarahuín. The diversity of the zooplankton community varied across these lakes. The presence of Diaptomus diabolicus (Tumeodiaptomus d. Dussart 1979 (Cucao, Huillinco and Tepuhueico is noteworthy since this extends its geographical distribution to the south

  6. Massive salp outbreaks in the inner sea of Chiloé Island (Southern Chile: possible causes and ecological consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Giesecke

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available During 2010 several massive salp outbreaks of the Subantarctic species Ihlea magalhanica were recorded in the inner sea of Chiloé Island (ISCh, Southern Chile, affecting both phytoplankton abundance and salmon farmers by causing high fish mortality. First outbreaks were recorded during February 2010 when Ihlea magalhanica reached up to 654,000 ind m-3 close to the net pens in Maillen Island and consecutive outbreaks could be followed during March and from October to November 2010. One month prior to the first recorded salp outbreak, the adjacent oceanic region and ISCh showed a sharp decline of ca. 1.0°C in sea surface temperature and an atypical pattern of oceanic sea surface currents, changing from a predominantly meridional (northward to a zonal (eastward direction, probably causing a massive Subantarctic Water parcel to enter the ISCh. During the outbreaks, surface chlorophyll concentration decreased from an historical mean of 13.8 to less than 4 mg Chl-a m-3, and did not return to normal conditions throughout the entire year, and similar results were also observed in phytoplankton abundance. The abundance of salp aggregations were highest close to the salmon net pens, which acted as physical barriers, and may have favored the successful reproduction and persistence of the outbreaks during 2010. The possible impact of these outbreaks on phytoplankton quality and quantity, as well as potential scenarios for the development of further outbreaks is discussed.

  7. Transgenic rice plants expressing a modified cry1Ca1 gene are resistant to Spodoptera litura and Chilo suppressalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Mohsin Abbas; Ye, Gongyin; Yao, Hongwei; You, Taek H; Loit, Evelin; Dean, Donald H; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Altosaar, Illimar

    2009-11-01

    Nucleotide sequence encoding the truncated insecticidal Cry1Ca1 protein from Bacillus thuringiensis was extensively modified based on the codon usage of rice genes. The overall G + C contents of the synthetic cry1Ca1 coding sequence were raised to 65% with an additional bias of enriching for G and C ending codons as preferred by monocots. The synthetic gene was introduced into the Chinese japonica variety, Xiushui 11, by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgenic rice plants harboring this gene were highly resistant to Chilo suppressalis and Spodoptera litura larvae as revealed by insect bioassays. High levels of Cry1Ca1 protein were obtained in the leaves of transgenic rice, which were effective in achieving 100% mortality of S. litura and C. suppressalis larvae. The levels of Cry1Ca1 expression in the leaves of these transgenic plants were up to 0.34% of the total soluble proteins. The larvae of C. suppressalis and S. litura could consume a maximum of 1.89 and 4.89 mm2 of transgenic leaf area whereas the consumption of nontransgenic leaves by these larvae was significantly higher; 58.33 and 61.22 mm2, respectively. Analysis of R1 transgenic plants indicated that the cry1Ca1 was inherited by the progeny plants and provided complete protection against C. suppressalis and S. litura larvae.

  8. Cloning and characterization of trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like genes in the striped rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhao-Yu; Wan, Pin-Jun; Han, Zhao-Jun

    2012-04-01

    Serine proteinases including trypsins and chymotrypsins play various important roles in insects, including food digestion, immune defense, and zymogen activation. Studies on insect serine proteinases could reveal their feeding preference (polyphagous and monophagous) and facilitate identification of protease inhibitors, which can be engineered for pest management. In this paper, 11 transcripts encoding trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like proteins were cloned from the striped rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker). All the predicted proteins share high sequence similarity with known trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like proteins from either lepidopterans or dipterans, and most of the proteins have conserved motifs that are characteristics of serine proteinases. Among the 11 cloned genes, six were expressed predominantly and one exclusively in the midgut of the insect, three were expressed relatively evenly in examined tissues, and one was not expressed in either the gut or hemolymph based on RT-PCR results. The seven genes that were predominantly or exclusively expressed in the gut were also affected by feeding on different host plants. The genes that were expressed in the gut and were affected by host plants are likely to encode digestive proteinases. The identification of trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like genes in this insect species is the first step towards further comparative studies and for identification of insect-specific proteinase inhibitors, which might be engineered to protect rice plants against the striped rice stem borer, which is one of the destructive pests of rice.

  9. Life-history responses of the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis to temperature change: Breaking the temperature-size rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dao-Meng; He, Hai-Min; Zou, Chao; Xiao, Hai-Jun; Xue, Fang-Sen

    2016-10-01

    Temperature is a key environmental factor for ectotherms and affects a large number of life history traits. In the present study, development time from hatching to pupation and adult eclosion, pupal and adult weights of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis were examined at 22, 25, 28 and 31°C under L18:D 6. Larval and pupal times were significantly decreased with increasing rearing temperature and growth rate was positively correlated with temperature. Larval and pupal developmental times were not significantly different between females and males. The relationship between body weight and rearing temperature in C. suppressalis did not follow the temperature-size rule (TSR), both males and females gained the highest body weight at 31°C. Females were significantly larger than males at all temperatures, showing a female biased sex size dimorphism (SSD). Contrary to Rensch's rule, SSD and body weight in C. suppressalis tended to increase with rising temperature. Male pupae lost significantly more weight at metamorphosis compared to females. We discuss the adaptive significance of the reverse-TSR in the moth's life history. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Spatial Distribution and Minimum Sample Size for Overwintering Larvae of the Rice Stem Borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker) in Paddy Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbab, A

    2014-10-01

    The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), feeds almost exclusively in paddy fields in most regions of the world. The study of its spatial distribution is fundamental for designing correct control strategies, improving sampling procedures, and adopting precise agricultural techniques. Field experiments were conducted during 2011 and 2012 to estimate the spatial distribution pattern of the overwintering larvae. Data were analyzed using five distribution indices and two regression models (Taylor and Iwao). All of the indices and Taylor's model indicated random spatial distribution pattern of the rice stem borer overwintering larvae. Iwao's patchiness regression was inappropriate for our data as shown by the non-homogeneity of variance, whereas Taylor's power law fitted the data well. The coefficients of Taylor's power law for a combined 2 years of data were a = -0.1118, b = 0.9202 ± 0.02, and r (2) = 96.81. Taylor's power law parameters were used to compute minimum sample size needed to estimate populations at three fixed precision levels, 5, 10, and 25% at 0.05 probabilities. Results based on this equation parameters suggesting that minimum sample sizes needed for a precision level of 0.25 were 74 and 20 rice stubble for rice stem borer larvae when the average larvae is near 0.10 and 0.20 larvae per rice stubble, respectively.

  11. Synergistic activity between Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxins against maize stem borer (Chilo partellus Swinhoe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, P; Nain, V; Lakhanpaul, S; Kumar, P A

    2010-07-01

    To select a toxin combination for the management of maize stem borer (Chilo partellus) and to understand possible mechanism of synergism among Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxins tested. Three Cry1A toxins were over expressed in Escherichia coli strain JM105 and used for diet overlay insect bioassay against C. partellus neonate larvae, both alone and in combinations. Probit analysis revealed that the three Cry1A toxins tested have synergistic effect against C. partellus larvae. In vitro binding analysis of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled Cry1A toxins to midgut brush border membrane vesicle (BBMV) shows that increase in toxicity is directly correlated to an increase in binding of toxin mix. A high Cry1Ac to Cry1Ab ratio leads to an increase in efficacy of these toxins towards C. partellus larvae and this increase in toxicity comes from an increase in toxin binding. Use of Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac combination could be an effective approach to control C. partellus. Furthermore, we show it first time that possible reason behind increase in toxicity of synergistic Cry1A proteins is an increase in toxin binding.

  12. RNAi in the striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, establishes a functional role for aminopeptidase N in Cry1Ab intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X Y; Du, L X; Liu, C X; Gong, L; Han, L Z; Peng, Y F

    2017-02-01

    The striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, is a major target pest of transgenic rice expressing the Cry1Ab protein from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in China. Evolution of resistance in this pest is a major threat to the durability of Bt rice. Since Bt exerts its activity through binding to specific receptors in the midgut of target insects, identification of functional Cry1Ab receptors in the midgut of C. suppressalis larvae is crucial to evaluate potential resistance mechanisms and develop effective strategies for delaying insect resistance. In this work, we identified the putative Cry1Ab toxin-binding protein, aminopeptidase-N (APN), in the midgut of C. suppressalis by ligand blot and mass spectrometry. After cloning the full-length cDNAs encoding APN isoforms from the C. suppressalis larval midgut, we studied their spatiotemporal expression in different gut tissues and developmental stages. Furthermore, RNA interference (RNAi) against C. suppressalis aminopeptidases (CsAPNs) was employed to illustrate a functional role for CsAPNs in Cry1Ab toxicity to C. suppressalis larvae using injection and oral delivery of Stealth™ siRNA. Down-regulating the expression of CsAPNs by RNAi was closely associated with reduced susceptibility of C. suppressalis to Cry1Ab. These data provide the first direct evidence that CsAPNs participate in the mode of Cry1Ab action and may act as the functional receptor of Cry1A in C. suppressalis larvae. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Dopamine modulates hemocyte phagocytosis via a D1-like receptor in the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shun-Fan; Xu, Gang; Stanley, David; Huang, Jia; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2015-07-16

    Dopamine (DA) is a signal moiety bridging the nervous and immune systems. DA dysregulation is linked to serious human diseases, including addiction, schizophrenia, and Parkinson's disease. However, DA actions in the immune system remain incompletely understood. In this study, we found that DA modulates insect hemocyte phagocytosis using hemocytes prepared from the rice stem borer (RSB), Chilo suppressalis. We investigated whether insect hemocytes are capable of de novo DA production. Here we show that exposing hemocytes to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) led to induction of DA-generating enzymes. Exogenous DA induced rapid phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in naïve hemocytes. Activation of ERK was inhibited by preincubating with a DOP1 receptor antagonist. Thus, DA signaling via the DOP1 receptor may contribute to early hemocyte activation. DA synthesized and released from hemocytes may act in an autocrine mechanism to stimulate or maintain phagocytic activity. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that inhibition of DA synthesis with α-methyl-DL-tyrosine methyl ester hydrochloride or blockage of DOP1 receptor with antagonist SCH23390 impaired hemocyte phagocytosis. Topical DA application also significantly decreased RSB mortality following challenge with the insect pathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana. We infer that a DA-dependent signaling system operates in hemocytes to mediate phagocytotic functions.

  14. stockées Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PR BOKO

    herba alba, sur la population d'insectes ravageurs des denrées stockées Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera). Le bio-pesticide agit avec un double mécanisme d'action. Administré chez les adultes, l'huile essentielle provoque un taux de mortalité significatif par rapport aux témoins. Alors que son administration sur les.

  15. Presencia de visón americano (Neovison vison, Schreber 1777) en Chiloé, Chile: ¿inicio de una invasión biológica?

    OpenAIRE

    G. Vergara; J. Valenzuela

    2015-01-01

    El visón americano fue introducido en Chile en la década de 1930 y actualmente presenta una amplia distribución geográfica. Sin embargo, no se han reportado poblaciones establecidas en muchos sistemas insulares. El día 6 de febrero de 2013, fue hallado un individuo juvenil en Chacao, Chiloé, Chile. El Canal de Chacao representa la única barrera biogeográfica a la isla de Chiloé, con una distancia mínima al continente de 2 km. Se presume que el individuo sorteó esta barrera por sus propios med...

  16. First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Chile. The presence of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae is reported for the first time in Chile, from the Azapa valley, Arica.

  17. Molecular cloning and pharmacological characterisation of a tyramine receptor from the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shun-Fan; Huang, Jia; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2013-01-01

    Tyramine (TA) and octopamine (OA) are considered to be the invertebrate counterparts of the vertebrate adrenergic transmitters. Because these two phenolamines are the only biogenic amines whose physiological significance is presumably restricted to invertebrates, the attention of pharmacologists has been focused on the corresponding receptors, which are believed to represent promising targets for novel insecticides. For example, the formamidine pesticides, such as chlordimeform and amitraz, have been shown to activate OA receptors. A full-length cDNA (designated CsTyR1) from the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), has been obtained through homology cloning in combination with rapid amplification of cDNA ends/polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR). The mRNA of CsTyR1 is present in various tissues, including hemocytes, fat body, midgut, Malpighian tubules, nerve cord and epidermis, and it is found predominantly in the larval nerve cord with 16-80-fold enrichment compared with other tissues. The authors generated a HEK 293 cell line stably expressing CsTyR1 in order to examine functional and pharmacological properties of this receptor. Both TA and OA at 0.01-100 µM can reduce forskolin-stimulated intracellular cAMP levels in a dose-dependent manner (TA, EC(50) = 369 nM; OA, EC(50) = 978 nM). In agonist assays, activation of CsTyR1 by clonidine and amitraz but not by naphazoline and chlordimeform can also significantly inhibit forskolin-stimulated cAMP production. The inhibitory effect of TA at 10 µM is eliminated by coincubation with yohimbine, phentolamine or chlorpromazine (each 10 µM). This study represents a comprehensive molecular and pharmacological characterisation of a tyramine receptor in the rice stem borer. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Chile. The presence of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae is reported for the first time in Chile, from the Azapa valley, Arica.Primeiro registro de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae no Chile. A presença de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera; Pieridae é mencionada pela primeira vez para o Chile, no vale de Azapa, Arica.

  19. Necrópolis chilotas: un caso en la diversidad patrimonial de un territorio insular/Chiloé’s necropolis: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bravo Sánchez, José

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Chiloé, en su condición de ínsula, se expresa en una riqueza cultural fuertemente territorializada, capaz de defenderse de las invasivas influencias foráneas. Merece la pena destacar una de las vigas que sostiene su andamiaje cultural: el poder omnipresente de la religión. En este sentido, sobresalen los cementerios chilotes como un ejemplo claro de simbiosis cultural religiosa que se manifiesta en una arquitectura mortuoria singular que enriquece al espacio y paisaje religioso de cada localidad./Chiloé, in its condition of island, it's express in a cultural wealth, heavily territorialized, with a capacity of defense of the invaders foreign influences. It's worth while to highlight at one of the girders that supports its cultural scaffolding: the omnipresent power of the religion. In this sense, chilotes cemeteries project like a clearly example of cultural symbiosis that it's exposes in a singular mortuary architecture that riches at religious space and landscape of each settlement.

  20. Finite-fault slip model of the 2016 Mw 7.5 Chiloé earthquake, southern Chile, estimated from Sentinel-1 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenbin

    2017-05-01

    Subduction earthquakes have been widely studied in the Chilean subduction zone, but earthquakes occurring in its southern part have attracted less research interest primarily due to its lower rate of seismic activity. Here I use Sentinel-1 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data and range offset measurements to generate coseismic crustal deformation maps of the 2016 Mw 7.5 Chiloé earthquake in southern Chile. I find a concentrated crustal deformation with ground displacement of approximately 50 cm in the southern part of the Chiloé island. The best fitting fault model shows a pure thrust-fault motion on a shallow dipping plane orienting 4° NNE. The InSAR-determined moment is 2.4 × 1020 Nm with a shear modulus of 30 GPa, equivalent to Mw 7.56, which is slightly lower than the seismic moment. The model shows that the slip did not reach the trench, and it reruptured part of the fault that ruptured in the 1960 Mw 9.5 earthquake. The 2016 event has only released a small portion of the accumulated strain energy on the 1960 rupture zone, suggesting that the seismic hazard of future great earthquakes in southern Chile is high.

  1. Sex pheromone of the baldcypress leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian T. Sullivan; Jeremy D. Allison; Richard A. Goyer; William P. Shepherd

    2015-01-01

    The baldcypress leafroller, Archips goyerana Kruse (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a specialist on Taxodium distichum (L.) Richard and has caused serious defoliation in swamps of southeastern Louisiana, accelerating decline of baldcypress forests concurrently suffering from nutrient depletion, prolonged flooding, and saltwater...

  2. Hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanidae: Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surlykke, Annemarie; Yack, Jayne E; Spence, Andrew J

    2003-01-01

    to the dorsal chamber. The ear is tuned to ultrasonic frequencies between 30 and 65 kHz, with a best threshold of around 52 dB SPL at 40 kHz, and no apparent difference between genders. Thus, drepanid hearing resembles that of other moths, indicating that the main function is bat detection. Two sensory cells......This study presents anatomical and physiological evidence for a sense of hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanoidea). Two example species, Drepana arcuata and Watsonalla uncinula, were examined. The abdominal ears of drepanids are structurally unique compared to those of other Lepidoptera and other...

  3. Cyanogenesis - a general phenomenon in the lepidoptera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witthohn, K.; Naumann, C.M.

    1987-08-01

    There are two different pathways known to be used for the detoxification of hydrocyanic acid in insects, viz., rhodanese and ..beta..-cyano-L-alanine synthase. The authors consider the latter to be indicative for cyanogenesis, while rhodanese might, in general, play a more important role in sulfur transfer for protein synthesis. This paper reports on the distribution of ..beta..-cyano-L-alanine (BCA) in the Lepidoptera. First reports of cyanogenesis are presented for the following families: Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, Hesperiidae, Lymantriidae, Arctiidae, Notodontidae, Megalopygidae, Limacodidae, Cymatophoridae, Noctuidae, Geometridae, and Yponomeutidae. New and old records for three other families, the Nymphalidae, Zygaenidae, and Heterogynidae, are included to complete the present state of knowledge. Special emphasis has been laid on the Nymphalidae, where BCA has been detected in eight subfamilies. Taxonomic, geographic, and seasonal variation has been found in a number of cases. In all cases observed so far, the source of cyanogenesis in the Lepidoptera is most probably the cyanoglucosides linamarin and lotaustralin, although cyanogenesis based on mustard oil glucosides and cyclopentenoid glucosides might occur as well. BCA has been found in both cryptic and aposematic species, including taxa such as the Pieridae, Danainae, Ithomiinae, and Arctiidae, where the defensive biology is believed to be linked with other compounds, like mustard oil glucosides, cardenolides, or pyrrolizidinie alkaloids. The ecological interaction and significance of such secondary compounds is not yet understood.

  4. Gut microbiota of Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyman, Maxi; Gupta, Arvind Kumar; Bezuidenhout, Cornelius Carlos; Claassens, Sarina; van den Berg, Johnnie

    2016-07-01

    Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a stemborer pest that attacks maize (Zea mays) throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Genetically modified maize has been shown to be effective against B. fusca. However, resistance of B. fusca against Bt-maize has developed and spread throughout South Africa. Previous studies suggested that gut microbiota contribute to mortality across a range of Lepidoptera. To fully assess the role of microbiota within the gut, it is essential to understand the microbiota harboured by natural B. fusca populations. This study aimed to identify the gut-associated bacteria by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A total of 78 bacterial strains were characterised from the midgut of B. fusca larvae that were collected from 30 sites across the maize producing region of South Africa. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed bacteria affiliated to Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Taxonomic distribution placed these isolates into 15 different genera representing 20 species. The majority of bacteria identified belong to the genera Bacillus, Enterococcus, and Klebsiella. The B. fusca gut represents an intriguing and unexplored niche for analysing microbial ecology. The study could provide opportunities for developing new targets for pest management and contribute to understanding the phenomenon of resistance evolution of this species.

  5. La tejuela de madera en Chiloé, Chile: Estudio del borde de terminación en los poblados de Achao, Curaco de Vélez y Villa Quinchao./ The wooden tiles in Chiloe, Chile: Study of edge termination in the towns of Achao Curaco Velez and Villa Quinchao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De la Sotta Lazzerini, Paola

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El valor de la arquitectura chilota se distingue tanto por la utilización de la madera, material único para su fabricación, como por el lenguaje estético que manifiesta en sus fachadas. Existe un trabajo de la textura, o “piel” de revestimiento de la arquitectura, como también el uso de colores llamativos, los cuales sirven para diferenciar las viviendas, y para efectos de ubicación y orientación. Considerando la situación de aislamiento en la cual se encuentra el chilote por vivir en un archipiélago, es a través de su ingenio que puede dar respuesta a sus necesidades. De esta manera, las soluciones formales y sus sistemas constructivos deben adecuarse al material y a las posibilidades de trabajo mecánico del mismo. Este estudio se inserta en la fabricación de un producto icono de la isla Grande de Chiloé, como es la tejuela de madera. / The value of chilota architecture is distinguished by the use of wood, unique material for their manufacture, for aesthetic language that manifests in their facades. There is a work of texture or "skin" covering architecture, as well as the use of bright colors, which serve to distinguish the houses, and for purposes of location and orientation. Considering the situation of isolation which is to live in the Chiloe archipelago, is through their ingenuity that can respond to their needs. This study is inserted in the manufacture of a product icon Chiloé island, the “tejuela” in wood. The formal solutions and building systems must conform to the material and the possibilities of mechanical work the same.

  6. Low functional richness and redundancy of a predator assemblage in native forest fragments of Chiloe island, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Ariel A; Jaksic, Fabian M

    2011-07-01

    1. Changes in land use and habitat fragmentation are major drivers of global change, and studying their effects on biodiversity constitutes a major research programme. However, biodiversity is a multifaceted concept, with a functional component linking species richness to ecosystem function. Currently, the interaction between functional and taxonomic components of biodiversity under realistic scenarios of habitat degradation is poorly understood. 2. The expected functional richness (FR)-species richness relationship (FRSR) is positive, and attenuated for functional redundancy in species-rich assemblages. Further, environmental filters are expected to flatten that association by sorting species with similar traits. Thus, analysing FRSR can inform about the response of biodiversity to environmental gradients and habitat fragmentation, and its expected functional consequences. 3. Top predators affect ecosystem functioning through prey consumption and are particularly vulnerable to changes in land use and habitat fragmentation, being good indicators of ecosystem health and suitable models for assessing the effects of habitat fragmentation on their FR. 4. Thus, this study analyses the functional redundancy of a vertebrate predator assemblage at temperate forest fragments in a rural landscape of Chiloe island (Chile), testing the existence of environmental filters by contrasting an empirically derived FRSR against those predicted from null models, and testing the association between biodiversity components and the structure of forest fragments. 5. Overall, contrasts against null models indicate that regional factors determine low levels of FR and redundancy for the vertebrate predator assemblage studied, while recorded linear FRSR indicates proportional responses of the two biodiversity components to the structure of forest fragments. Further, most species were positively associated with either fragment size or shape complexity, which are highly correlated. This, and the

  7. Caracterización florística e hidrológica de turberas de la Isla Grande de Chiloé, Chile Floristic and hydrological characterization of Chiloé Island peatlands, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA F DÍAZ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Las turberas son ecosistemas reconocidos mundialmente por actuar como grandes reservorios de agua dulce, afectando el clima y la hidrología local; por ser sumideros de carbono; por albergar especies únicas, contribuyendo así a la biodiversidad; y porque significan un recurso económico para la sociedad. La vegetación de las turberas es dominada por plantas que crecen a ras de suelo formando densas poblaciones, en especial musgos del género Sphagnum o plantas vasculares de la familia de las Ciperáceas o Juncáceas. Presentan altos niveles freáticos y una profunda capa de materia orgánica (turba bajo la capa viva de plantas. La tala y quema de bosques en sitios con drenaje pobre han generado un tipo de ecosistema similar a las turberas donde crece principalmente el musgo Sphagnum (turberas antropogénicas o "pomponales", pero donde la acumulación de turba aún es muy baja. Mientras las turberas naturales son utilizadas para la extracción de turba, en las turberas antropogénicas se cosecha el musgo vivo que se encuentra en la superficie. Las consecuencias ecológicas después de ambas actividades extractivas son distintas. El objetivo de este trabajo es hacer una comparación de la composición florística y de los niveles freáticos entre turberas naturales y antropogénicas. Fueron estudiadas turberas naturales y antropogénicas con y sin extracción de Sphagnum. Se registraron 74 taxa (ocho liqúenes, 19 briófitas y 47 de plantas vasculares. Las diferencias en composición florística nos permiten distinguir entre turberas naturales y antropogénicas. Los niveles freáticos también difieren entre sitios, siendo menos superficiales en turberas naturales y antropogénicas sin extracción, que en turberas antropogénicas con extracción de Sphagnum. Debido a la inexistencia de nieves eternas en la Isla de Chiloé, la alteración hidrológica de estos reservorios de agua dulce proveniente de las lluvias puede traer graves consecuencias

  8. Efectos ambientales de la colonización española desde el río Maullín al archipiélago de Chiloé, sur de Chile Environmental effects of the spanish colonization from de Maullín river to the Chiloé archipelago, southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDO TORREJÓN

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Las características biogeográficas de Chiloé limitaron la introducción y propagación de las especies animales y vegetales exóticas que sustentaban la tradicional actividad agropecuaria hispana colonial. Dicho fenómeno condicionó la ocupación y explotación económica del territorio, contribuyendo a mitigar el tipo y extensión de las alteraciones ambientales generadas por el proceso colonizador. A través de un análisis histórico documental, que abarca los siglos XVI, XVII y XVIII, en el presente trabajo se reconocen la situación ambiental prehispánica del territorio e implicancias ambientales del poblamiento colonial; el proceso de adaptación al entorno ecológico y evolución de las actividades productivas desarrolladas por los colonos. Los principales resultados obtenidos indican que no hubo transformaciones ambientales masivas y generalizadas, concluyéndose que los efectos ambientales derivados de la intervención española se evidenciaron principalmente a nivel local, pudiéndose constatar que hacia fines del siglo XVIII el paisaje ecológico de Chiloé aún conservaba muchas de sus características originalesThe biogeographical characteristics of Chiloé limited the introduction and propagation of exotic plants and animals that supported the subsistence and economy of Spanish colonies. This in turn limited the rate of occupation and the scarce economic return of land reduced the extent and severity of environmental disturbances produced during the colonisation period. The present investigation analysed historic documentation from XVI, XVII and XVIII centuries in order to characterise pre-Hispanic environmental conditions and the environmental problems created by the colonist settlement. The adaptation of land-use practices to the region and the evolution of agricultural and forestry bring it by the colonists are described. The principal finding of this research indicates that the environmental impacts generated by the early

  9. Espacios y fisonomías de lo cotidiano en el Archipiélago de Chiloé (Chile, s. XIX.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio León

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A través del estudio de tres aspectos de la vida cotidiana en el archipiélago de Chiloé durante el siglo XIX, relativos a la forma y características de sus ciudades, viviendas y población, se exponen los condicionamientos que la misma geografía de la zona ha impreso en las formas de vida. Los relatos de exploradores y viajeros, no sólo corroborarían dicha impresión, sino además constituirían la principal fuente para adentrarse en el estudio de una identidad, si bien construida externamente a los isleños, igualmente reiterada y refrendada discursivamente con el paso de los años, haciéndose más evidentes los factores de permanencia antes que los de cambio en este particular escenario geográfico y humano.

  10. Methionine-rich storage protein gene in the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, is expressed during diapause in response to cold acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, S; Fukumoto, K; Izumi, Y; Ashfaq, M; Yoshida, H; Tsumuki, H

    2006-12-01

    Gene expressions of acclimatized and non-acclimatized diapausing larvae were examined in Chilo suppressalis using a subtraction technique. A gene encoding a methionine-rich storage protein, CsSP1, was cloned and its complete cDNA sequence was determined. Potentially, CsSP1 encoded a 758-amino acid protein, with a calculated molecular weight of 88.8 kDa. The expression level of CsSP1 was higher in nondiapausing larvae than in diapausing ones. The CsSP1 expression was up-regulated in diapausing larvae when the temperature of cold acclimation was shifted to 5 degrees C. The up-regulated level was maintained at 40 days after incubation at 5 degrees C. In nondiapausing larvae, CsSP1 expression was down-regulated when the temperature was below developmental zero. Involvement of CsSP1 in diapause, cold tolerance acquisition and postdiapause development in C. suppressalis is discussed.

  11. Multisensory integration in Lepidoptera: Insights into flower-visitor interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Michiyo; Stewart, Finlay J; Ômura, Hisashi

    2017-04-01

    As most work on flower foraging focuses on bees, studying Lepidoptera can offer fresh perspectives on how sensory capabilities shape the interaction between flowers and insects. Through a combination of innate preferences and learning, many Lepidoptera persistently visit particular flower species. Butterflies tend to rely on their highly developed sense of colour to locate rewarding flowers, while moths have evolved sophisticated olfactory systems towards the same end. However, these modalities can interact in complex ways; for instance, butterflies' colour preference can shift depending on olfactory context. The mechanisms by which such cross-modal interaction occurs are poorly understood, but the mushroom bodies appear to play a central role. Because of the diversity seen within Lepidoptera in terms of their sensory capabilities and the nature of their relationships with flowers, they represent a fruitful avenue for comparative studies to shed light on the co-evolution of flowers and flower-visiting insects. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  12. RNA interference in Lepidoptera: An overview of successful and unsuccessful

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terenius, O.; Papanicolaou, A.; Garbutt, J.S.; Eleftherianos, I.; Huvenne, H.; Kanginakudru, S.; Albrechtsen, M.; An, Chunju; Aymeric, J.L.; Barthel, A.; Bebas, P.; Bitra, K.; Bravo, A.; Chevalier, F.; Collinge, D.P.; Crava, C.M.; Maagd, de R.A.; Duvic, B.; Erlandson, M.; Faye, I.; Felfoldi, G.; Fujiwara, H.; Futahashi, R.; Gandhe, A.S.; Gatehouse, H.S.; Gatehouse, L.N.; Giebultowicz, J.M.; Gomez, I.; Grimmelikhuijzen, C.J.P.; Groot, A.T.; Hauser, F.; Heckel, D.G.; Hegedus, D.D.; Hrycaj, S.; Huang, L.; Hull, J.J.; Iatrou, K.; Iga, M.; Kanost, M.R.; Kotwica, J.; Li, Changyou; Li, Jianghong; Liu, Jisheng; Lundmark, M.; Matsumoto, S.; Meyering-Vos, M.; Millichap, P.J.; Monteiro, A.; Mrinal, N.; Niimi, T.; Nowara, D.; Ohnishi, A.; Oostra, V.; Ozaki, K.; Papakonstantinou, M.; Popadic, A.; Rajam, M.V.; Saenko, S.; Simpson, R.M.; Soberon, M.; Strand, M.R.; Tomita, S.; Toprak, U.; Wang, Ping; Wee, Choon Wei; Whyard, S.; Zhang, Wenqing; Nagaraju, J.; Ffrench-Constant, R.H.; Herrero, S.; Gordon, K.; Swevers, L.; Smagghe, G.

    2011-01-01

    Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. However, in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) RNAi has many times proven to be difficult to achieve. Most of the negative results have been anecdotal and the positive

  13. Identification to Lepidoptera Superfamily-under the microscope (Insecta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are 160,000 species of described Lepidoptera, or moths and butterflies, on Earth, although it is estimated that the number is closer to 500,000 species. Many moths from all over the world are intercepted at U.S. ports on a wide variety of economically important commodities. The purpose of t...

  14. Biogeography and ecology of southern Portuguese butterflies and burnets (Lepidoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, T.

    2003-01-01

    Biogeography and ecology of southern Portuguese butterflies and burnets (Lepidoptera) During several visits to the western part of the Algarve (southern Portugal), the author mapped the butterflies and burnets of this region. In total, I observed 58 butterfly species (51 Papilionoidea, 7

  15. The genus Scrobipalpa in the Netherlands (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, M.G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Het genus Scrobipalpa in Nederland (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) Scrobipalpa is een geslacht van kleine, lastig uit elkaar te houden motjes. In heel Europa zijn ongeveer 70 soorten bekend. Doorgaans zijn de vleugels bruin- of grijsachtig met een tekening van stippels en strepen die bovendien erg kan

  16. The genus Bryotropha in the Netherlands (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, A.L.M.

    1999-01-01

    Het genus Bryotropha in Nederland (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) Het genus Bryotropha staat bekend als een notoir lastig geslacht van kleine bruine motjes. Die moeilijkheid komt door de variatie, maar vooral ook door gebrek aan bruikbare beschrijvingen. Met dit artikel zijn de negen Nederlandse soorten

  17. Two new Gelechiidae for the Iberian Peninsula (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Vives Moreno, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of Gelechiidae, Chrysoesthia hispanica Karsholt & Vives, sp. n. from Spain and Neofriseria hitadoella Karsholt & Vives, sp. n. from Spain and Portugal are described. The adults and male and female genitalia are illustrated. The generic assignment of C. hispanica is discussed. KEY...... WORD: Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae, new species, Iberian peninsula....

  18. Two new Gelechiidae for the Iberian Peninsula (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Karsholt, Ole; Vives Moreno, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of Gelechiidae, Chrysoesthia hispanica Karsholt & Vives, sp. n. from Spain and Neofriseria hitadoella Karsholt & Vives, sp. n. from Spain and Portugal are described. The adults and male and female genitalia are illustrated. The generic assignment of C. hispanica is discussed. KEY WORD: Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae, new species, Iberian peninsula.

  19. Six new species of Metarbelidae (Lepidoptera: Cossoidea) from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six new species of Metarbelidae (Lepidoptera: Cossoidea) from the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania, including one new species from Marenji Forest in southeast ... Journal of East African Natural History ... from Morogoro (Uluguru Mountains) and Ortharbela cliftoni spec. nov. from Amani (East Usambara Mountains).

  20. Lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) oviposition on Prunus germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was used as an oviposition surrogate for the congeneric S. exitiosa (Say) to examine possible preference for Prunus germplasm. We assayed limbs of a peach cultivar (Prunus persica), peach rootstocks, plum-peach hybrid rootstocks, the...

  1. Clepsis dumicolana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), new to the Belgian fauna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Prins, W.; Baugnée, J.-Y.

    2008-01-01

    On 17 August 2008 a specimen of Clepsis dumicolana (Zeller, 1847) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) was caught at Liège, leg. J.-Y. Baugnée. It was resting on Hedera helix, in the vicinity of the Kennedy bridge. During the following days, about 40 specimens were seen in two localities of the slope to the

  2. Fauna Simalurensis. Lepidoptera Rhopalocera: fam. Satyridae, Morphidae & Nymphalidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eecke, van R.

    1913-01-01

    Continuing the enumeration of the Lepidoptera from Simalur and neighbouring islets, collected by Mr. Edw. Jacobson, I have to notice only one new form of Cethosia and of Acca among a number of 16 species of Nymphalidae. The Satyridae were represented by one species and the Morphidae by two.

  3. Hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanidae: Lepidoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surlykke, Annemarie; Yack, Jayne E; Spence, Andrew J; Hasenfuss, Ivar

    2003-08-01

    This study presents anatomical and physiological evidence for a sense of hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanoidea). Two example species, Drepana arcuata and Watsonalla uncinula, were examined. The abdominal ears of drepanids are structurally unique compared to those of other Lepidoptera and other insects, by having an internal tympanal membrane, and auditory sensilla embedded within the membrane. The tympanum is formed by two thin tracheal walls that stretch across a teardrop-shaped opening between dorsal and ventral air chambers in the first abdominal segment. There are four sensory organs (scolopidia) embedded separately between the tympanal membrane layers: two larger lateral scolopidia within the tympanal area, and two smaller scolopidia at the medial margin of the tympanal frame. Sound is thought to reach the tympanal membrane through two external membranes that connect indirectly to the dorsal chamber. The ear is tuned to ultrasonic frequencies between 30 and 65 kHz, with a best threshold of around 52 dB SPL at 40 kHz, and no apparent difference between genders. Thus, drepanid hearing resembles that of other moths, indicating that the main function is bat detection. Two sensory cells are excited by sound stimuli. Those two cells differ in threshold by approximately 19 dB. The morphology of the ear suggests that the two larger scolopidia function as auditory sensilla; the two smaller scolopidia, located near the tympanal frame, were not excited by sound. We present a biophysical model to explain the possible functional organization of this unique tympanal ear.

  4. Flight performance of Macdunnoughia crassisigna (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X-W; Chang, H; He, L-M; Zhao, S-Y; Wu, K-M

    2017-12-01

    Macdunnoughia crassisigna Warren (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a highly destructive herbivore that poses a serious risk to cotton, maize, soybean, and cruciferous vegetables in East Asia. Examining the effects of various biotic and abiotic factors on the flight performance of M. crassisigna is crucial for a better understanding of its trans-regional migration. In this study, the flight activity of M. crassisignai moths of different ages, under different temperatures and relative humidity (RH) levels, was evaluated by tethering individuals to computerized flight mills for a 24-h trial period. The results showed that M. crassisignai had the capacity for sustained flight and the flight ability was strongest in 3-day-old individuals, and then their flight performance decreased significantly in older moths. For both sexes, temperature had a significant effect on their flight performance, and the flight activity was relatively higher at 24-28°C than other temperatures. There was a significant effect of RH on all flight parameters of the tested moths, and the flight activity was relatively higher at RH of 60-75% than other RH levels. For 3-day-old moths under the optimum conditions (24°C and 75% RH) throughout the 24 h scotophase, their mean flight distance reached 66 km, and the mean flight duration reached 13.5 h, suggesting M. crassisigna possess strong potential to undertake long-distance migration. These findings will be helpful for developing sound forecasting systems of this pest species.

  5. Limitantes físicos y bióticos de la regeneración arbórea en matorrales sucesionales de la Isla Grande de Chiloé, Chile Physical and biotic constraints on tree regeneration in secondary shrublands of Chiloé Island, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA F DÍAZ

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Los matorrales sucesionales establecidos después de la corta y quema de bosques son frecuentes en Chiloé y territorios continentales vecinos. Estos sitios son dominados por arbustos de Baccharis patagonica, musgos en cojín del género Sphagnum, plantas palustres y helechos. En estos sitios hemos registrado escasa o nula colonización arbórea (Successional shrublands created by clearcutting and burning of forests are frequent in Chiloé Island and surrounding mainland in southern Chile. These areas are characterized by seasonally waterlogged soils, and vegetation dominated by sedges, ferns and shrubs, such as Baccharis patagonica, with thick carpets of Sphagnum moss occupying the spaces between shrubs. Tree regeneration in these sites was shown to be sparse or completely lacking (< 0.3 seedlings m-2 compared with 7.2 seedlings m-2 in adjacent forests. Colonization of shade-intolerant, pioneer trees may be reduced underneath Baccharis due to crown shading and on top of Sphagnum cushions, because of unfavorable conditions for tree establishment, including low pH and soil water saturation. We evaluated differences in germination rates among pioneer tree species grown in an experimental soil moisture gradient. Seed germination percentage was low for Drimys winteri and Nothofagus nitida unrelated to humidity conditions but differed between substrates (moss vs. soil. Embothrium had higher germination and survivorship when growing on Sphagnum cushions. We also monitored seedling survival of two pioneer tree species (Embothrium coccineum and Drimys winteri transplanted directly under Baccharis shrubs, in open areas, or on moss patches. Even though survivorship of Embothrium and Drimys under Baccharis was < 40 %, in one of the study sites, there were no differences between treatments. Waterlogged soils would constraint tree regeneration on successional shrublands due to a lack of elevated substrates. However, the presence of Sphagnum cushions favors

  6. Flight Performance of Ctenoplusia agnata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaowei; Zhao, Shengyuan; Li, Chao; Wu, Xiao; Guo, Jianglong; Wu, Kongming

    2017-06-01

    Ctenoplusia agnata (Staudinger) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a highly destructive polyphagous pest of cotton, maize, soybean, and cruciferous vegetables in East Asia. The effect of various biotic and abiotic factors on the flight performance of C. agnata is crucial for a better understanding of its transregional migration. In this study, the flight performance of C. agnata moths at different ages, temperatures, and relative humidity (RH) levels, was examined by tethering individual moths to computerized flight mills for a 24-h scotophase. The results showed that 1) C. agnata had the capacity for sustained flight and the flight ability was most pronounced in 3-d-old individuals, and then their flight performance decreased significantly as the moth got older. 2) For both sexes, temperature had a significant effect on their flight performance, and the flight activity was most pronounced at 24-28 °C. 3) There was a significant effect of RH on all flight parameters of the tested moths, and the flight activity was most pronounced at RH of 60-75%. 4) For 3-d-old moths under the optimum conditions (24 °C and 75% RH) throughout the 24-h scotophase, the total flight distance reached 69.01 ± 2.13 km (females) and 62.15 ± 2.31 km (males), and the total flight duration reached 14.11 ± 0.79 h (females) and 13.08 ± 0.70 h (males), which suggests that C. agnata has a strong potential to undertake long-distance migration. These findings will be helpful for developing sound forecasting systems of this pest species. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The overexpression of insect endogenous small RNAs in transgenic rice inhibits growth and delays pupation of striped stem borer (Chilo suppressalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Wu, Hao; Liu, Haoju; Zheng, Jie; Lin, Yongjun; Chen, Hao

    2017-07-01

    The striped stem borer (SSB), Chilo suppressalis Walker, is a major rice insect pest worldwide. RNA interference (RNAi) has become a promising strategy for developing insect-resistant crops. In a previous study, five double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) targeting important SSB housekeeping genes were overexpressed in rice, but none of the acquired dsRNA-transgenic rice plants showed significant effects on SSB. Thirteen selected SSB endogenous small RNAs, predicted as SSB novel microRNAs (miRNAs), were overexpressed in rice using artificial miRNA (amiRNA) expression technology. Feeding tests showed that two out of 13 selected SSB novel miRNAs caused significant growth inhibition for feeding SSB larvae based on transgenic rice expression. Pupation was delayed 4 days when SSB larvae consecutively fed on transgenic rice expressing the SSB novel miRNA candidate csu-novel-miR15 (csu-15 rice). Gene expression analysis confirmed that the expression levels of at least six SSB unigenes significantly changed (i.e., were up- or down-regulated) after feeding on csu-15 rice. Our research demonstrated a novel RNAi strategy using SSB endogenous small RNAs to develop RNAi crops for pest management; this strategy is different from the common RNAi resulting from transgenic dsRNAs or amiRNAs targeting certain insect endogenous genes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Sublethal effects of chlorantraniliprole on development, reproduction and vitellogenin gene (CsVg) expression in the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Lu, Mingxing; Han, Guangjie; Du, Yuzhou; Wang, Jianjun

    2016-12-01

    The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is one of the most damaging rice pests in the world. The sublethal effects of chlorantraniliprole on development,reproduction and mRNA expression levels of vitellogenin gene (CsVg) in C. suppressalis were investigated. Exposure of third-instar larvae to sublethal concentrations of chlorantraniliprole (LC10 and LC30 ) significantly extended larval duration, lowered the mean weight of male pupae and shortened male adult longevity. Pupal duration was significantly prolonged and the mean weight of female pupae was significantly lowered in the LC30 treatment group. While there were no significant sublethal effects on either the adult emergence rate or the egg hatch, the pupation rates in the LC10 treatment group (41.30%) and in the LC30 treatment group (23.98%) were significantly lower than the pupation rate of the control (71.86%), and LC10 and LC30 chlorantraniliprole significantly reduced fecundity, by 32.18 and 52.94% respectively. Furthermore, the expression levels of CsVg mRNA after exposure to LC10 and LC30 chlorantraniliprole significantly decreased, by 42.52 and 47.84% respectively, in 12-h-old female adults. Sublethal concentrations of chlorantraniliprole adversely affect the development and reproduction of C. suppressalis. The downregulation of CsVg by chlorantraniliprole might have negative impacts on the fecundity of C. suppressalis. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Genome-wide analysis reveals the expansion of Cytochrome P450 genes associated with xenobiotic metabolism in rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baoju; Shahzad, Muhammad Faisal; Zhang, Zan; Sun, Haina; Han, Ping; Li, Fei; Han, Zhaojun

    2014-01-10

    The Cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily is a large group of ancient proteins with enzymatic activities involved in various physiological processes. The rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, is an important insect pest in rice production. Here, we report the identification and characterization of 77 CYP genes from rice striped stem borer (SSB) through genome and transcriptome sequence analyses. All these CYP genes were confirmed by RT-PCR and direct sequencing. Twenty-eight CYP transcripts have full open reading frame (ORF) and four additional transcripts have a nearly full length coding region. The SSB CYP genes were classified into four clans, the mitochondrial, CYP2, CYP3, and CYP4. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that there was an apparent expansion of the CYP3 clan in insects. The CYP6AB subfamily of the CYP3 clan had nine members in SSB. Evolutionary analysis showed that this subfamily was expanded only in lepidopteran insects. In this study, we identified a new P450 subfamily, CYP321F, which is unique to SSB and located in the genome as tandem repeats. Our work provided a foundation for future studies on the functions and mechanism of P450s in the destructive rice pest. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of diapause and cold-acclimation on the avoidance of freezing injury in fat body tissue of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Yohei; Sonoda, Shoji; Tsumuki, Hisaaki

    2007-07-01

    Overwintering freeze-tolerant larvae of Chilo suppressalis can survive at -25 degrees C, but non-diapausing larvae cannot. We reported earlier that to prevent intracellular freezing, which causes death in overwintering larvae of the Saigoku ecotype distributed in southwestern Japan, water leaves and glycerol enters fat body cells through water channels during freezing. However, it is still unclear how diapause and low-temperature exposure are related to the acquisition of freeze tolerance. We compared the extent of tissue damage, accumulation of glycerol, and transport of glycerol and water in fat body tissues between cold-acclimated and non-acclimated non-diapausing and diapausing larvae. The tissue from cold-acclimated diapausing larvae could survive only when frozen in Grace's insect medium with 0.25 M glycerol at -20 degrees C. The protection provided by glycerol was offset by mercuric chloride, which is a water-channel inhibitor. Fat body tissue isolated from non-acclimated diapausing larvae was injured by freezing even though glycerol was added to the medium, but the level of freezing injury was significantly lower than in non-diapausing larvae. Radiotracer assays in cold-acclimated diapausing larvae showed that during freezing, water left the cells into the medium and glycerol entered the cells from the medium at the same time. Therefore, in Saigoku ecotype larvae of the rice stem borer, both diapause and cold-acclimation are essential to accumulate glycerol and activate aquaporin for the avoidance of freezing injury.

  11. Genome-wide transcriptional changes and defence-related chemical profiling of rice in response to infestation by the rice striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoxin; Wang, Xia; Yan, Feng; Wang, Xia; Li, Ran; Cheng, Jiaan; Lou, Yonggen

    2011-09-01

    How rice defends itself against pathogen infection is well documented, but little is known about how it defends itself against herbivore attack. We measured changes in the transcriptome and chemical profile of rice when the plant is infested by the striped stem borer (SSB) Chilo suppressalis. Infestation by SSBs resulted in changes in the expression levels of 4545 rice genes; this number accounts for about 8% of the genome and is made up of 18 functional groups with broad functions. The largest group comprised genes involved in metabolism, followed by cellular transport, transcription and cellular signaling. Infestation by SSBs modulated many genes responsible for the biosynthesis of plant hormones and plant signaling. Jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA) and ethylene were the major hormones that shaped the SSB-induced defence responses of rice. Many secondary signal transduction components, such as those involved in Ca²⁺ signaling and G-protein signaling, receptor and non-receptor protein kinases, and transcription factors were involved in the SSB-induced responses of rice. Photosynthesis and ATP synthesis from photophosphorylation were restricted by SSB feeding. In addition, SSB infestation induced the accumulation of defence compounds, including trypsin proteinase inhibitors (TrypPIs) and volatile organic compounds. These results demonstrate that SSB-induced defences required rice to reconfigure a wide variety of its metabolic, physiological and biochemical processes. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2011.

  12. Brachymeria pandora (Crawford (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae: a new parasitoid of Historis odius (Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélcio R. Gil-Santana

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The first record of parasitism of Brachymeria pandora (Crawford, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae on Historis odius (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is presented.Apresenta-se o primeiro registro de parasitismo de Brachymeria pandora (Crawford, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae em Historis odius (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

  13. Trophic ecology of Lepidoptera larvae associated with woody vegetation in a savanna ecosystem

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholtz, CH

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available This study represents a quantitative survey of a Lepidoptera community and deals with the trophic ecology of the 27 species of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera on the eight dominant woody plants in the Burkea africana-Eragrostis pallens savanna...

  14. Paisajes de la complejidad marítimo-costera: Actores, dinámicas y escenarios territoriales en la Comuna de Quinchao, Isla Grande de Chiloé. Archipelágica

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Hidalgo Garrido; Francisco Ther Ríos

    2014-01-01

    La presente ponencia pretende explorar la emergencia de paisajes socioterritoriales en un escenario contextual específico: el mar interior de Chiloé y, más específicamente aún, el sistema archipelágico de la Comuna de Quinchao. Utilizando un modelo teórico que recoge reflexiones e ideas de diversas disciplinas de conocimiento (filosofía, ecología social, antropología y geografía), articuladas bajo cuatro entradas teóricas (Complejidad, Estrategias de subsistencia, Modos de Habitar y Paisaje...

  15. Las respuestas sociales a la instalación de parques eólicos : el caso del conflicto Mar Brava en la Isla Grande de Chiloé (Chile)

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    El estudio investiga las respuestas de la comunidad local al proyecto Parque Eólico Chiloé (PECh) que pretende instalarse en la zona de Mar Brava, comuna de Ancud, Chile. Al igual que en muchos otros casos de conflictos sociales por la instalación de parques eólicos alrededor del mundo, en este estudio de caso nos encontramos en presencia de una opinión pública mayoritaria que se muestra a favor de este tipo de energía, pero que se opone a la instalación de un parque eólico concreto en un ter...

  16. Register of the last 1000 years of environmental, climatic and anthropogenic change in Isla Grande de Chiloé, inferred through a multi-proxy approach: Lake Pastahué, Chile-South Center (42°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troncoso, Jose; Alvarez, Denisse; Díaz, Gustavo; Fierro, Pablo; Araneda, Alberto; Torrejón, Fernando; Rondanelli, Mauricio; Fagel, Nathalie; Urrutia, Roberto

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge of the past environmental and climatic conditions of the lake ecosystems of the Isla Grande de Chiloé and its relationship with the anthropic effect, on a high temporal resolution scale, is scarcely known. Specifically, multi-proxy studies provide a better understanding of the context in which changes occurred in the past. This insular region is particularly interesting because environmental conditions (pre and post-Hispanic) and knowledge about the impacts generated in the ecosystems during the Spanish colonization process have so far been little studied, compared to the rest of Chile continental. This research is a new contribution to the scarce information existing for the last millennium of the Isla Grande de Chiloé. The objective of this work was to reconstruct the environmental and climatic history of the last 1000 years, from the Lake Pastahué, in the Isla Grande de Chiloé through a multi-proxy analysis and compare them with other records for the region. The core sediment was sub-sampled to perform sedimentological analysis (organic matter, carbonates, magnetic susceptibility and granulometry) and biological indicators (pollen, chironomids). The age model was constructed from the activity of 210Pb,137Cs and 14C. The pollen results reveal a composition of nordpatagónico forest represented by Nothofagus, Weinmannia, Drimys, Tepualia, Myrtaceae, Poaceae and Pteridophyta, while the anthropic effect for the last cm of the profile is represented by Rumex and Pinus. The results show a significant increase in magnetic susceptibility since the middle of the 20th century, suggesting an increase in allochthonous material to the lake. The sedimentological parameters and the chironomid assembly show similar variations along the profile, which also shows changes in the trophic state of the lake. The changes recorded in lake Pastahue are directly related to past climatic phenomena occurring in the last millennium, such as the medieval climatic anomaly (MCA

  17. A unique guild of Lepidoptera associated with the glacial relict populations of Labrador tea (Ledum palustre Linnaeus, 1753) in Central European peatlands (Insecta: Lepidoptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spitzer, Karel; Jaroš, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 166 (2014), s. 319-327 ISSN 0300-5267 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Insecta * Lepidoptera * relict peat bogs Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.435, year: 2014

  18. Launching and steering flagship Lepidoptera for conservation benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R. New

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lepidoptera, particularly butterflies and large moths, are popular targets for conservation efforts and as flagship species can help to publicize the need for habitat and resource protection and the ecological value of invertebrates. Here I present an overview of the relevant issues in selecting and promoting flagship species, and discuss how local community support for conservation may be encouraged, using examples from Australia.

  19. Notes on the life history of Acraea encedon l. (Lepidoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The life cycle of Acraea encedon (Lepidoptera: Acraeidae) was completed in 40.3 + 2.64 days at a mean daily temperature of 27.91 + 0.440C and relative humidity of 84.8 + 2.62%. The duration of the developmental period of the different life stages of the insect are: embryonic development, 7.5 + 0.54 days; 1st instar, 10.4 + ...

  20. Host plants of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Plusiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Specht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work has the objective to catalogue the information of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker, [1858] (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Plusiinae host plants. The list of plants comprehends new reports of host plants in Brazil and information from literature review around the world. It is listed 174 plants which are from 39 botanic families. The higher number of host plants of C. includens are in Asteraceae (29, Solanaceae (21, Fabaceae (18 and Lamiaceae (12.

  1. New data on the Pterophoridae fauna of Liberia (Lepidoptera: Pterophoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustjuzhanin, Petr; Kovtunovich, Vasily; Sáfián, Szabolcs

    2017-03-27

    There have been no special studies on plume moths of Liberia until recently. In the World Catalogue of Insects (Gielis 2003) only two species are reported from Liberia: Agdistis tamaricis (Zeller, 1847) and Megalorhipida leucodactyla (Fabricius, 1794) despite its well-known richness for other Lepidoptera groups (Fox et al. 1965, Larsen 2005) and its biogeographic position in the centre of the Upper Guinean biodiversity hotspot (Myers et al. 2000).

  2. Host plants of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Plusiinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Specht, Alexandre; Paula-Moraes, Silvana Vieira de; Sosa-Gómez,Daniel Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This work has the objective to catalogue the information of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker, [1858]) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Plusiinae) host plants. The list of plants comprehends new reports of host plants in Brazil and information from literature review around the world. It is listed 174 plants which are from 39 botanic families. The higher number of host plants of C. includens are in Asteraceae (29), Solanaceae (21), Fabaceae (18) and Lamiaceae (12).

  3. The mitochondrial genome of Cethosia biblis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Tianrong; Li, Lei; Yao, Chengyi; Wang, Yayu; Zou, Zhiwen; Wang, Jing; Xia, Bin

    2016-07-01

    We present the complete mitogenome of Cethosia biblis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in this article. The mitogenome was a circle molecular consisting of 15,286 nucleotides, 37 genes, and an A + T-rich region. The order of 37 genes was typical of insect mitochondrial DNA sequences described to date. The overall base composition of the genome is A (37.41%), T (42.80%), C (11.87%), and G (7.91%) with an A + T-rich hallmark as that of other invertebrate mitochondrial genomes. The start codon was mainly ATA in most of the mitochondrial protein-coding genes such as ND2, COI, ATP8, ND3, ND5, ND4, ND6, and ND1, but COII, ATP6, COIII, ND4L, and Cob genes employing ATG. The stop codon was TAA in all the protein-coding genes. The A + T region is located between 12S rRNA and tRNA(M)(et). The phylogenetic relationships of Lepidoptera species were constructed based on the nucleotides sequences of 13 PCGs of mitogenomes using the neighbor-joining method. The molecular-based phylogeny supported the traditional morphological classification on relationships within Lepidoptera species.

  4. Genome-wide analysis of chitinase genes and their varied functions in larval moult, pupation and eclosion in the rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, C; Tu, G; Huang, S; Yang, Q; Shahzad, M F; Li, F

    2016-08-01

    Some insect chitinases are required to degrade chitin and ensure successful metamorphosis. Although chitinase genes have been well characterized in several model insects, no reports exist for the rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, a highly destructive pest that causes huge yield losses in rice production. Here, we conducted a genome-level analysis of chitinase genes in C. suppressalis. After amplification of full-length transcripts with rapid amplification of cDNA ends, we identified 12 chitinase genes in C. suppressalis. All these genes had the conserved domains and motifs of glycoside hydrolase family 18 and grouped phylogenetically into five subgroups. C. suppressalis chitinase 1 (CsCht1) was highly expressed in late pupae, whereas CsCht3 was abundant in early pupae. Both CsCht2 and CsCht4 were highly expressed in larvae. CsCht2 was abundant specifically in the third-instar larvae and CsCht4 showed periodic high expression in 2- to 5-day-old larvae in each instar. Tissue specific expression analysis indicated that CsCht1 and CsCht3 were highly expressed in epidermis whereas CsCht2 and CsCht4 were specifically abundant in the midgut. Knockdown of CsCht1 resulted in adults with curled wings, indicating that CsCht1 might have an important role in wing expansion. Silencing of CsCht2 or CsCht4 arrested moulting, suggesting essential roles in larval development. When the expression of CsCht3 was interfered, defects in pupation occurred. Overall, we provide here the first catalogue of chitinase genes in the rice striped stem borer and have elucidated the functions of four chitinases in metamorphosis. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  5. Analysis of rice genes induced by striped stemborer (Chilo suppressalis) attack identified a promoter fragment highly specifically responsive to insect feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Hongxia; Lu, Qing; Cai, Meng; Xu, Caiguo; Zhou, Dao-Xiu; Li, Xianghua; Zhang, Qifa

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify rice gene promoters that are specifically induced by feeding of the striped stemborer (Chilo suppressalis). Two PCR-selected cDNA subtractive libraries were constructed from the rice variety Minghui 63. Up- and down-regulated cDNAs induced by C. suppressalis feeding were arrayed on nylon membranes. After array hybridization and Northern blot analysis, a cDNA (B1-A04) encoding a putative subtilisin/chymotrypsin inhibitor was found to be rapidly and highly induced by C. suppressalis feeding, compared with mechanical wounding. The putative promoter region, spanning from -1,569 to +446 relative to the transcriptional initiation site was isolated, fused to the GUS gene (beta-glucuronidase reporter gene) and introduced by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation to rice. In non-infested plants, the GUS activity driven by this promoter fragment was detected in culms and panicles, but not in leaves and sheaths. At 6 h after insect feeding, GUS activity was significantly induced in sheaths and culms, but not in leaves. GUS activity and native B1-A04 gene were not induced by JA and ABA treatment. A serial deletion analysis revealed two regions (-1,569 to -1,166 and -1,166 to -582) that negatively regulate the gene expression in sheaths of non-infested plants but not in insect-infested plants. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) identified 7 DNA fragments with various binding activities with nuclear proteins from mechanically wounded, insect-infested and untreated plants, and their possible roles in gene regulation were speculated. This promoter fragment should have utility in development of insect resistant transgenic crops.

  6. Sublethal effects of chlorantraniliprole on juvenile hormone levels and mRNA expression of JHAMT and FPPS genes in the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Beibei; Qian, Kun; Zhang, Nan; Miao, Lijun; Cai, Jingxuan; Lu, Mingxing; Du, Yuzhou; Wang, Jianjun

    2017-10-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) regulates the development and reproduction of insects. The sublethal effects of chlorantraniliprole on JH levels and mRNA expression of JH acid methyltransferase gene (CsJHAMT) and farnesyl diphosphate synthase genes (CsFPPS1 and CsFPPS2) in Chilo suppressalis (Walker) were investigated. Exposure of sublethal concentrations of chlorantraniliprole (LC10 and LC30 ) to the third instar larvae of C. suppressalis significantly increased the JH levels in all developmental stages investigated including larvae 72 h after treatment, the first, third and fifth day of female pupae, as well as newly emerged, 12-h-old and 24-h-old female adults. A general trend of increased mRNA expression levels of CsJHAMT, CsFPPS1and CsFPPS2 was also observed in LC10 and LC30 treatment groups. Notably, the mRNA expression level of CsJHAMT significantly increased by 7.46-fold in the larvae 72 h after LC30 treatment. A significant increase of the mRNA expression levels of CsFPPS2 was also observed in the fifth day female pupae of LC10 and LC30 treatment groups (2.60-fold and 2.62-fold, respectively) as well as in 12-h-old female adults of the LC30 treatment group (3.45-fold). Sublethal concentrations of chlorantraniliprole might upregulate the expression of JH biosynthesis genes and in turn result in an increase of JH level in C. suppressalis. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. De novo assembly and characterization of central nervous system transcriptome reveals neurotransmitter signaling systems in the rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Wu, Shun-Fan; Wu, Ya-Su; Gu, Gui-Xiang; Fang, Qi; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2015-07-15

    Neurotransmitter signaling systems play crucial roles in multiple physiological and behavioral processes in insects. Genome wide analyses of de novo transcriptome sequencing and gene specific expression profiling provide rich resources for studying neurotransmitter signaling pathways. The rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis is a destructive rice pest in China and other Asian countries. The characterization of genes involved in neurotransmitter biosynthesis and transport could identify potential targets for disruption of the neurochemical communication and for crop protection. Here we report de novo sequencing of the C. suppressalis central nervous system transcriptome, identification and expression profiles of genes putatively involved in neurotransmitter biosynthesis, packaging, and recycling/degradation. A total of 54,411 unigenes were obtained from the transcriptome analysis. Among these unigenes, we have identified 32 unigenes (31 are full length genes), which encode 21 enzymes and 11 transporters putatively associated with biogenic aminergic signaling, acetylcholinergic signaling, glutamatergic signaling and GABAergic signaling. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR results indicated that 12 enzymes were highly expressed in the central nervous system and all the transporters were expressed at significantly high levels in the central nervous system. In addition, the transcript abundances of enzymes and transporters in the central nervous system were validated by qRT-PCR. The high expression levels of these genes suggest their important roles in the central nervous system. Our study identified genes potentially involved in neurotransmitter biosynthesis and transport in C. suppressalis and these genes could serve as targets to interfere with neurotransmitter production. This study presents an opportunity for the development of specific and environmentally safe insecticides for pest control.

  8. Brachymeria pandora (Crawford) (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) as a new parasitoid of Thyrinteina leucocerae (Rindge) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zache, B; Zaché, R R C; Tavares, M T; Wilcken, C F

    2012-08-01

    This is the first report of Brachymeria pandora (Crawford) (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae)-parasitizing pupae of the eucalyptus defoliator Thyrinteina leucocerae (Rindge) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in Brazil.

  9. Papilionoidea de la Sierra de Huautla, Morelos y Puebla, México (Insecta: Lepidoptera)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mercedes Luna-Reyes; Jorge Llorente-Bousquets; Armando Luis-Martínez

    2008-01-01

    Papilionoidea from Sierra de Huautla, Morelos and Puebla, México (Insecta: Lepidoptera). The Cuenca del Balsas region has significant biodiversity and endemicity of its herpetofauna, avifauna and vascular plants...

  10. First microsatellites from Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and their potential use for population genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first report of sequence-specific microsatellite markers (SSRs) of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an economically important pest of the American continent. We developed 178 microsatellite markers using pyrosequencing, and screened 15 individuals from 8 isofamili...

  11. Two species of Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera) from Southeast Asia associated with downy rose myrtle, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Myrtaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two species of Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera), Metharmostis multilineata Adamski, n. sp. (Cosmopterigidae), and Idiophantis soreuta Meyrick, 1906 (Gelechiidae), were collected in southeastern Asia for evaluation as potential biocontrol agents against downy rose myrtle, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hass...

  12. A new species of the genus Arcoptilia Arenberger (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae) from Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustjuzhanin, P; Kovtunovich, V

    2015-08-21

    The new species Arcoptilia naumanni sp. nov. (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae) is described and illustrated from males found in Angola. Platyptilia rufamaculata Gielis, 2011, syn. nov. is established as a junior synonym of Arcoptilia pongola Ustjuzhanin & Kovtunovich, 2010.

  13. Effects of Temperature on the Development of Stenoma impressella (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) on Oil Palm in Colombia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luis C. Martínez; Angelica Plata-Rueda; José C. Zanuncio; Genésio T. Ribeiro; José Eduardo Serrao

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Stenoma impressella Busck (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) is an important oil palm pest and its life history and life table parameters were studied at various temperatures, from 16 °C to 40 °C...

  14. Macrocentrus sylvestrellae spec. nov. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Macrocentrinae), a parasitoid of Dioryctria sylvestrella (Ratzeburg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.

    2001-01-01

    A new species of the genus Macrocentrus Curtis, 1833 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Macrocentrinae) described and illustrated: M. sylvestrellae spec. nov. from France and Italy. It is a gregarious koinobiont endoparasitoid of the pine stem borer Dioryctria sylvestrella (Ratzeburg, 1840) (Lepidoptera;

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoqiang; Bi, Guiqi; Du, Qingwei; Zhao, Ezi; Yang, Junqing; Zhang, Zhen; Shang, Erlei

    2016-11-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Plodia Interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was determined. The circular genome has a size of 15 733 base pairs, containing 36 gene protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, and 21 tRNA genes. The overall base composition was 41.37% of A, 37.99% of T, 12.54% of G, and 8.10% of C. Furthermore, a phylogenetic tree was constructed based on complete mitogenomes of Plodia interpunctella and 11 closely related Pyralidae species to validate the taxonomy relationship. The complete mitochondrial genome of the P. interpunctella would provide more information for the evolution of Pyralidae family.

  16. Materiały do znajomości Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera) Wielkopolskiego Parku Narodowego

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baraniak, Edward; Walczak, Urszula; Karsholt, Ole

    2014-01-01

    A faunistic list of 48 species of gelechiid moths (Lepidoptera: Gele-chiidae) collected in the Wielkopolski National Park is given. Syncopacma larseniella GOZMANY, 1957 is new to the fauna of Poland.......A faunistic list of 48 species of gelechiid moths (Lepidoptera: Gele-chiidae) collected in the Wielkopolski National Park is given. Syncopacma larseniella GOZMANY, 1957 is new to the fauna of Poland....

  17. Timing Spring Insecticide Applications to Target both Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Anarsia lineatella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Almond Orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamby, Kelly A; Nicola, Nicole L; Niederholzer, Franz J A; Zalom, Frank G

    2015-04-01

    Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Anarsia lineatella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) are key Lepidoptera pests of almonds in California. Spring insecticide applications (early to mid-May) targeting either insect were not usually recommended because of the potential to disrupt natural enemies when broad-spectrum organophosphates and pyrethroids were applied. The registration of reduced risk compounds such as chlorantraniliprole, methoxyfenozide, and spinetoram, which have a higher margin of safety for natural enemies, makes spring (early to mid-May) application an acceptable control approach. We examined the efficacy of methoxyfenozide, spinetoram, and chlorantraniliprole at three spring application timings including the optimum spring timing for both A. lineatella and A. transitella in California almonds. Our study also examined the possibility of reducing larval populations of A. lineatella and A. transitella simultaneously with a single spring insecticide application. There were no significant differences in the field efficacy of insecticides targeting either A. lineatella or A. transitella, depending on application timing for the three spring timings examined in this study. In most years (2009-2011), all three timings for each compound resulted in significantly less A. transitella and A. lineatella damage when compared with an untreated control, though there was some variation in efficacy between the two species. Early to mid-May applications of the reduced-risk insecticides chlorantraniliprole and spinetoram can be used to simultaneously target A. transitella and A. lineatella with similar results across the potential timings. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The Lepidoptera associated with forestry crop species in Brazil: a historical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczuck, Manoela; Carneiro, E; Casagrande, M M; Mielke, O H H

    2012-10-01

    Despite the long history of forestry activity in Brazil and its importance to the national economy, there is still much disorder in the information regarding pests of forestry species. Considering the importance of the entomological knowledge for the viability of silvicultural management, this work aimed to gather information on the species of Lepidoptera associated with forestry crops within Brazil using a historical approach. Through a literature review, all registered species of Lepidoptera related to forestry crops in Brazil from 1896 to 2010 were identified. The historical evaluation was based on the comparison of the number of published articles, species richness, and community similarities of the Lepidoptera and their associated forest crops, grouped in 10-year samples. A total of 417 occurrences of Lepidoptera associated with forestry species were recorded, from which 84 species are related with 40 different forestry crops. The nocturnal Lepidoptera were dominant on the records, with Eacles imperialis magnifica Walker as the most frequent pest species cited. Myrtaceae was the most frequent plant family, with Cedrela fissilis as the most cited forestry crop species. A successional change in both Lepidoptera species and their host plants was observed over the decades. The richness of lepidopteran pest species increased over the years, unlike the richness of forestry crop species. This increase could be related to the inefficient enforcement of sanitary barriers, to the increase of monoculture areas, and to the adaptability of native pests to exotic forestry species used in monoculture stands.

  19. Molecular evidence of Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) is an Asian origin endo-larval parasitoid of cereal stemborers in the genera of Chilo, Sesamia and others. It was introduced into Kenya mainly for the control of Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) from India, and North and South Pakistan. After introduction, the parasitoid was ...

  20. Distribución temporal de larvas de Mytilus chilensis (Hupé, 1954 (Mollusca: Mytilidae, en el mar interior de Chiloé, sur de Chile Temporal distribution of larvae of Mytilus chilensis (Hupé, 1854 (Mollusca: Mytilidae, in the interior sea of Chiloé, southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Avendaño

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Entre septiembre 2007 y marzo 2008, en Quillaipe, Metri, Sotomo, Canutillar y Pichicolo (mar interior de Chiloé, se determinó mensualmente la presencia larval de M. chilensis, mediante arrastres verticales de plancton, en una columna de 0-7,5 m y paralelamente se determinó histológicamente el estado reproductivo de ejemplares adultos. Se detectó permanentemente la presencia de larvas en los cinco sitios estudiados, con un significativo incremento entre octubre y diciembre, superando en Canutillar 49 mil larvas por m-3, sitio que junto a Sotomo registraron las mayores densidades. El análisis de cohortes mostró una similitud de los grupos larvales presentes en los diferentes sitios a partir de septiembre, acentuándose durante noviembre y diciembre, así como una permanente aparición de cohortes en estadios iniciales. En contraste con estos resultados, el proceso reproductivo de M. chilensis en estos sitios, se manifestó de enero a marzo. Se discute que los desoves registrados en estos sitios, no serían responsables de la presencia de las larvas, actuando en consecuencia como áreas receptoras, y de retención de larvas provenientes de otros sitios. Estos resultados sugieren la necesidad de profundizar conocimientos biológicos y ecológicos en áreas de distribución de la especie, así como de dinámica larval y post-larval para identificar áreas exportadoras y de retención, para contribuir a un manejo eficiente y optimizar la captación de semilla.The larval presence of M. chilensis was determined monthly from September 2007 to March 2008, in Quillaipe, Metri, Sotomo, Canutillar, and Pichicolo (interior sea of Chiloé using vertical plankton trawls through a water column from 0 to 7.5 m. At the same time, the reproductive stage of adult individuals was determined histologically. Larvae were detected continuously at the five study sites, with a significant increase from October to December, exceeding 49 thousand per m-3 at Canutillar

  1. RNA interference knockdown of aminopeptidase N genes decrease the susceptibility of Chilo suppressalis larvae to Cry1Ab/Cry1Ac and Cry1Ca-expressing transgenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lin; Fan, Jinxing; Zhang, Boyao; Liu, Lang; Wang, Xiaoping; Lei, Chaoliang; Lin, Yongjun; Ma, Weihua

    2017-05-01

    Transgenic rice expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry toxins are resistant to lepidopteran pests, such as Chilo suppressalis, a major insect pest of rice in Asia. Understanding how these toxins interact with their hosts is crucial to understanding their insecticidal action. In this study, knockdown of two aminopeptidase N genes (APN1 and APN2) by RNA interference resulted in decreased susceptibility of C. suppressalis larvae to the Bt rice varieties TT51 (Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac fusion genes) and T1C-19 (Cry1Ca), but not T2A-1 (Cry2Aa). This suggests that APN1 and APN2 are receptors for Cry1A and Cry1C toxins in C. suppressalis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Changes in tree species richness, stand structure and soil properties in a successional chronosequence in northern Chiloé Island, Chile Cambios en la riqueza de especies arbóreas, estructura de rodales y propiedades del suelo en una cronosecuencia sucesional en el norte de la Isla de Chiloé, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN C. ARAVENA

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied a chronosequence of forest fragments in northern Chiloé Island, southern Chile, with the aim of assessing ecosystem recovery patterns following anthropogenic disturbance. Hypotheses regarding successional trends in tree species richness, the replacement of shade-intolerant by shade-tolerant species, and the impact of disturbance on soil properties were evaluated in nine forest stands. The chronosequence encompassed two early (minimum stand age Estudiamos una cronosecuencia de bosques sucesionales en el norte de la Isla de Chiloé, con el objeto de determinar sus patrones de recuperación luego de perturbación antrópica. Se evaluaron hipótesis referentes a las tendencias de cambio en la riqueza de especies arbóreas a lo largo de la sucesión, el reemplazo de especies sombra intolerantes por especies sombra tolerantes, y el impacto de la perturbación en las propiedades edáficas de estos fragmentos. Muestreamos nueve rodales, representados por dos bosques sucesionales tempranos (<15 años de edad mínima del rodal, tres rodales intermedios (30-60 años, tres avanzados (129-134 años, y un bosque antiguo (ca. 200 años. Las edades mínimas fueron estimadas a través de muestras de incremento radial de al menos 30 árboles del dosel por rodal. Los rodales tempranos e intermedios mostraron evidencias de perturbación por incendios moderados, con unos pocos grandes árboles vivos remanentes. En cada rodal se establecieron parcelas permanentes de 50 x 20 m para determinar densidades y áreas basales de árboles, con subparcelas interiores para estimar densidades de brinzales y plántulas. Para caracterizar los procesos edáficos en los rodales se determinó el pH del suelo, los contenidos totales de carbono (C y nitrógeno (N, N disponible y densidad aparente. En contraste con la hipótesis que predice una disminución de la riqueza de especies arbóreas en rodales más antiguos, debido a la exclusión de especies pioneras, la riqueza

  3. LEPIDOPTERA (INSECTA OF PROPOSED SPECIALLY PROTECTED NATURAL AREA ‘BELOKURIKHA NATURE PARK’ (NORTHERN ALTAI. FIRST RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Vasilenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available 149 Lepidoptera species from 16 families were reported for the territory of the proposed protected area "Belokurikha Natural Park". This list is the primary data on the fauna of Lepidoptera in the region. Most of the species belongs to Euro-Siberian and Transpalaearctic groups.

  4. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 3. A new species of Aleptina Dyar, 1902 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Amphipyrinae, Psaphidini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Metzler

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 the US National Park Service initiated a long-term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Aleptina arenaria sp. n., described here, was discovered in 2008, the second year of the study. The adult moths and male and female genitalia are illustrated.

  5. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 4. A new species of Schinia Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Heliothinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Metzler

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 the U.S. National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Schinia poguei sp. n., described here, was discovered in 2007, the second year of the study. The male and female adult moths and genitalia are illustrated.

  6. Ionizing Irradiation of Adults of Angoumois Grain Moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and Indianmeal Moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to Prevent Reproduction and Implications for a Generic Irradiation Treatment for Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionizing radiation is used as a phytosanitary treatment against quarantine pests. A generic treatment of 400 Gy has been approved for commodities entering the United States for use against all insects except pupae and adults of Lepidoptera because some literature citations indicate that a few insec...

  7. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 4. A new species of Schinia Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Heliothinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Eric H; Forbes, Gregory S

    2011-01-01

    In 2006 the U.S. National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Schinia pogueisp. n., described here, was discovered in 2007, the second year of the study. The male and female adult moths and genitalia are illustrated.

  8. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 3. A new species of Aleptina Dyar, 1902 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Amphipyrinae, Psaphidini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Eric H; Forbes, Gregory S

    2011-01-01

    In 2006 the US National Park Service initiated a long-term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Aleptina arenariasp. n., described here, was discovered in 2008, the second year of the study. The adult moths and male and female genitalia are illustrated.

  9. Hyperspectral optical imaging of two different species of lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukusic Pete

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we report a hyperspectral optical imaging application for measurement of the reflectance spectra of photonic structures that produce structural colors with high spatial resolution. The measurement of the spectral reflectance function is exemplified in the butterfly wings of two different species of Lepidoptera: the blue iridescence reflected by the nymphalid Morpho didius and the green iridescence of the papilionid Papilio palinurus. Color coordinates from reflectance spectra were calculated taking into account human spectral sensitivity. For each butterfly wing, the observed color is described by a characteristic color map in the chromaticity diagram and spreads over a limited volume in the color space. The results suggest that variability in the reflectance spectra is correlated with different random arrangements in the spatial distribution of the scales that cover the wing membranes. Hyperspectral optical imaging opens new ways for the non-invasive study and classification of different forms of irregularity in structural colors.

  10. Mapping global biodiversity connections with DNA barcodes: Lepidoptera of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Akhtar, Saleem; Rafi, Muhammad Athar; Mansoor, Shahid; Hebert, Paul D N

    2017-01-01

    Sequences from the DNA barcode region of the mitochondrial COI gene are an effective tool for specimen identification and for the discovery of new species. The Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) (www.boldsystems.org) currently hosts 4.5 million records from animals which have been assigned to more than 490,000 different Barcode Index Numbers (BINs), which serve as a proxy for species. Because a fourth of these BINs derive from Lepidoptera, BOLD has a strong capability to both identify specimens in this order and to support studies of faunal overlap. DNA barcode sequences were obtained from 4503 moths from 329 sites across Pakistan, specimens that represented 981 BINs from 52 families. Among 379 species with a Linnaean name assignment, all were represented by a single BIN excepting five species that showed a BIN split. Less than half (44%) of the 981 BINs had counterparts in other countries; the remaining BINs were unique to Pakistan. Another 218 BINs of Lepidoptera from Pakistan were coupled with the 981 from this study before being compared with all 116,768 BINs for this order. As expected, faunal overlap was highest with India (21%), Sri Lanka (21%), United Arab Emirates (20%) and with other Asian nations (2.1%), but it was very low with other continents including Africa (0.6%), Europe (1.3%), Australia (0.6%), Oceania (1.0%), North America (0.1%), and South America (0.1%). This study indicates the way in which DNA barcoding facilitates measures of faunal overlap even when taxa have not been assigned to a Linnean species.

  11. The butterfly fauna of the Nizhny Novgorod Region inventarisation experience (Insecta: Lepidoptera and its use for the regional Red Data Book building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav K. Korb

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Discussed is an inventory of the Lepidoptera fauna of the Nizhny Novgorod region, its current status and prospects of its study. At the moment 1412 species of Lepidoptera are known from this area, but according to preliminary estimates the total number of species of Lepidoptera in this area amounts probably between 1800 and 2000. The necessity of the inclusion of 66 species of Lepidoptera in the Red Data Book of the Nizhny Novgorod region (approximately 4.5% of its current fauna and about 3.2% of its expected fauna is discussed. The necessity of the exception of 49 species of Lepidoptera by the Red Data Book of Nizhny Novgorod region is shown. The prospects for the protection of the Lepidoptera fauna within this area are discussed. Proposed is the usage of the IUCN status criteria for regional Red List with their modification in the area of the species.

  12. Una nueva especie de Eupithecia Curtis (Lepidoptera: Geometridae del extremo norte de Chile A new species of Eupithecia Curtis (Lepidoptera: Geometridae from northernmost Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HÉCTOR A. VARGAS

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la descripción de una nueva especie de Eupithecia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae. Su distribución comprende dos valles del extremo norte de Chile: Azapa, Chaca y Camarones. Se describen e ilustran los adultos, incluyendo la genitalia de ambos sexos, y el segmento terminal de la pupa de la hembra. Las larvas se alimentan de inflorescencias de Acacia macracantha y Prosopis tamarugo (FabaceaeThe description of a new Eupithecia species (Lepidoptera: Geometridae is presented. Its distribution comprises two valleys in northernmost Chile: Azapa, Chaca and Camarones. The habitus of adult, the genitalia of both sexes, and the last segment of the female pupa are described and illustrated. Larvae feed on inflorescence of Acacia macracantha and Prosopis tamarugo (Fabaceae

  13. Records of mining Lepidoptera in Belgium with nine species new to the country (Nepticulidae, Opostegidae, Tischeriidae, Lyonetiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieukerken, van E.J.

    2006-01-01

    Records of 56 species of mining Lepidoptera are given, mostly for Wallonia. Stigmella thuringiaca (Namur: Nismes, on Potentilla tabernaemontani), Ectoedemia arcuatella (Luxembourg, Namur, on Fragaria vesca) and Leucoptera lustratella (Luxembourg, Namur, on Hypericum perforatum) are reported new for

  14. Effect of Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) host plants on life-history parameters of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dannon, A.E.; Tamo, M.; Agboton, C.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of four host plant species of the herbivore Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on development time, longevity, fecundity and sex ratio of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was investigated under laboratory conditions. The larvae were

  15. A computer model for simulating population development of the Indianmeal Moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in stored corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a common pest of stored corn, Zea mays L. We developed a computer model to simulate population development of the Indianmeal moth in stored corn using previously published data describing immature development times and ...

  16. Lacinipolia Patalis grote (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) infesting Douglas-fir cones: A new host record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy G. Rappaport

    1988-01-01

    Larvai of Lacinipolia patalis (Grote) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were discovered in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziessi [Mirb.} Franco) cones collected from the Louisiana-Pacific Corporation's Little River Seed Orchard near Trinidad Head in Humboldt County, CA (elevation 91 m) during the fall of 1985. Previous surveys have not...

  17. A new species of Stenoloba Staudinger, 1892 from China (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Bryophilinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekarsky, Oleg; Saldaitis, Aidas

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Stenoloba from the olivacea species group, Stenoloba solaris, sp. n. (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), is described from Yunnan, China. Illustrations of the male holotype and its genitalia are provided. A diagnostic comparison is made with Stenoloba albistriata Kononenko & Ronkay, 2000, Stenoloba olivacea (Wileman, 1914), and Stenoloba benedeki Ronkay, 2001 (Fig. 4). PMID:23805047

  18. A new species of Stenoloba Staudinger, 1892 from China (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Bryophilinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Pekarsky

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Stenoloba from the olivacea species group, S. solaris, sp. n. (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, is described from Yunnan, China. Illustrations of the male holotype and its genitalia are provided. A diagnostic comparison is made with Stenoloba albistriata Kononenko & Ronkay, 2000, Stenoloba olivacea (Wileman, 1914, and Stenoloba benedeki Ronkay, 2001 (Fig. 4.

  19. Uji Patogenisitas Bacillus Thuringiensis Dan Metarhizium Anisopliae Terhadap Mortalitas Spodoptera Litura Fabr (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Di Laboratorium

    OpenAIRE

    Tampubolon, Desy Yanti; Pangestiningsih, Yuswani; Zahara, Fatimah; Manik, Fatiani

    2013-01-01

    Uji patogenisitas Bacillus thuringiensis dan Metarhizium anisopliae terhadap mortalitasSpodoptera litura Fabr (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) di laboratorium. Penelitian ini bertujuan untukmendapatkan konsentrasi yang tepat yaitu B. thuringiensis dan M. anisopliae terhadap mortalitaslarva S. litura di laboratorium. Dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Balai Penelitian Tanaman BuahTropika Kebun Percobaan Tongkoh-Berastagi pada bulan Juli sampai Agustus 2012. Metode yangdigunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap...

  20. Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diet on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anita R. Foss; William J. Mattson; Terry M. Trier

    2013-01-01

    Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (...

  1. Reproduction, longevity and survival of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screened potted cactus plants (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) containing pairs of adult male and female cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were placed in a cactus field in St. Marks, Florida to measure oviposition patterns under field-realistic conditions. Results...

  2. First record of Citheronia regalis (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) feeding on Cotinus obovatus (Anacardiaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graves, Gary R.

    2017-01-01

    Summary The regal moth (Citheronia regalis F.; Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) is reported for the first time feeding on foliage of the American smoketree (Cotinus obovatus Raf.; Anacardiaceae), an endemic tree with a relictual distribution on calcareous soils in the southern United States. This record...

  3. Review of Lepidoptera with trophic relationships to Picea abies (L. in the conditions of Czechia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modlinger Roman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trophic relationships of Lepidoptera (Insecta occurring in the territory of Czechia to the Norway spruce (Picea abies L. was evaluated on the basis of the excerption and critical evaluation of literature. Each species was classified into the following categories – spruce as the host plant, regular development on spruce, narrow trophic relationship, indirect relationship and episodical occurrence. The particular taxa were also characterized according to their distribution and the form of larval life was specified. The development on spruce was documented in 96 species of Lepidoptera, which represented less than 3% of taxa belonging to this group and being reported from Czechia. Of that, spruce was a common host plant for 67 species, 23 species were polyphagous and might develop on spruce, and 6 species belonged to soil species damaging spruce roots, mainly in forest nurseries. Among the species of Lepidoptera, which regularly develop on spruce in the Czech conditions, 55 species were classified. As narrow specialists with special trophic relationship to spruce, 33 taxa could be considered. There were 15 spruce species with forestry importance, which were able to outbreak their populations regularly or irregularly. Among spruce species it was possible to classify 16 taxa as rare. The provided information on Lepidoptera with trophic relationship to spruce is applicable also for other Central European areas. Besides the species with importance for forest pest management, also rare taxa, which can become endangered by climate change or by forest management, were indicated.

  4. Additional three new species of Anarsia Meyrick (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae) from Cambodia and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyu-Tek; Bae, Yang-Seop

    2017-04-12

    Three new species of the genus Anarsia Zeller (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae) are described: A. huensis Park, sp. nov. from Vietnam, and A. pursatica Park, sp. nov. and A. degeneralis Park, sp. nov. from Cambodia. Images of adults and genitalia for the new species are illustrated. A check list of the known species from both countries is provided.

  5. Impact of temperature and relative humidity on life history parameters of adult Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a pest of stored corn, Zea mays L., and other grains throughout the world. S. cerealella are routinely exposed to temperatures below 20°C in regions of the U.S. where corn is grown, yet there are no data describi...

  6. Aggregation and foraging behavior of imported cabbageworm (Lepidoptera: pieridae) adults on blue vervain flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The imported cabbageworm [Pieris rapae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)], also known as the cabbage white butterfly, is an important specialized pest on cruciferous plants (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) worldwide. an unusual aggregation of the cabbage white butterflies was observed on a patch of flowering...

  7. Host range of Secusio extensa (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), and potential for biological control of Senecio madagascariensis (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. M. Ramadan; K. T. Murai; T. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Secusio extensa (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) was evaluated as a potential biological control agent for Madagascar fireweed, Senecio madagascariensis (Asteraceae), which has invaded over 400 000 acres of rangeland in the Hawaiian Islands and is toxic to cattle and horses. The moth was introduced from southeastern Madagascar...

  8. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) thrived in gymnosperm forests following the end-Triassic extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Schootbrugge, Bas; van Eldijk, Timo; Wappler, Torsten; Strother, Paul; van der Weijst, Carolien; Rajaei, Hossein; Visscher, Henk

    2017-04-01

    The oldest evidence for Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) and the Coelolepida (hollow-scaled moths and butterflies) is presented based on an assemblage of fossilized scales encountered in uppermost Triassic and lowermost Jurassic sediments from a core drilled in northern Germany. The diverse assemblage of scales points to a Triassic origin of the Lepidoptera and a radiation of some lineages just before or right after the end-Triassic mass extinction (201 Ma). These findings confirm molecular clock estimates for splits within the Amphiesmenoptera that led to the evolution of true butterflies. Not only did Lepidoptera survive the end-Triassic extinction, they also appear to have radiated directly following this environmental crisis, which could be related to the dramatic changes in paleoclimate triggered by the eruption of the CAMP, especially an increase in humidity. Seen in combination with high-resolution palynological records that show an Early Jurassic dominance of conifer pollen, the presence of scales derived from angiospermivorous Coelolepida likely signifies a host-shift (for multiple lineages of crown group Lepidoptera) from gymnosperms to angiosperms during the Mesozoic.

  9. Sighting of Elymnias panthera (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae in West Bengal, eastern India

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    A.B. Roy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tawny Palmfly butterfly, Elymnias panthera (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae, is a Malayan species that is also known from the Nicobar Islands. Here we report sighting of E. panthera from the Bethuadahari Wildlife Sanctuary in West Bengal, eastern India. This is the first sighting of the species from mainland India, and is a possible range extension of the species into northeastern India.

  10. The first record of the butterfly Memphis d. dia(Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Charaxinae in Costa Rica

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    Jim Córdoba-Alfaro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Memphis diain Costa Rica (Godman & Salvin, 1884 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Charaxinae is reported herein, based on a specimen collected El Rodeo (09 ° 54’ 76.6”N; 84 ° 16’ 89.5”W on April 4, 2012.

  11. Inbreeding Effects in Families of Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): Larval Development in Laboratory Bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbreeding depression of laboratory-reared insects has the potential to affect their larval performance and reproductive output. Two studies of laboratory-reared colonies of Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) were conducted to assess whether inbreeding affected a laboratory bioass...

  12. Digestive peptidase evolution in holometabolous insects led to a divergent group of enzymes in Lepidoptera

    KAUST Repository

    Dias, Renata O.

    2015-03-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Trypsins and chymotrypsins are well-studied serine peptidases that cleave peptide bonds at the carboxyl side of basic and hydrophobic l-amino acids, respectively. These enzymes are largely responsible for the digestion of proteins. Three primary processes regulate the activity of these peptidases: secretion, precursor (zymogen) activation and substrate-binding site recognition. Here, we present a detailed phylogenetic analysis of trypsins and chymotrypsins in three orders of holometabolous insects and reveal divergent characteristics of Lepidoptera enzymes in comparison with those of Coleoptera and Diptera. In particular, trypsin subsite S1 was more hydrophilic in Lepidoptera than in Coleoptera and Diptera, whereas subsites S2-S4 were more hydrophobic, suggesting different substrate preferences. Furthermore, Lepidoptera displayed a lineage-specific trypsin group belonging only to the Noctuidae family. Evidence for facilitated trypsin auto-activation events were also observed in all the insect orders studied, with the characteristic zymogen activation motif complementary to the trypsin active site. In contrast, insect chymotrypsins did not seem to have a peculiar evolutionary history with respect to their mammal counterparts. Overall, our findings suggest that the need for fast digestion allowed holometabolous insects to evolve divergent groups of peptidases with high auto-activation rates, and highlight that the evolution of trypsins led to a most diverse group of enzymes in Lepidoptera.

  13. A molecular analysis of the Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera, Gelechioidea) with an interpretative grouping of its taxa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Mutanen, Marko; Lee, Sangmi

    2013-01-01

    We re-examine the higher level phylogeny and evolutionary affinities of the family Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea) based on DNA sequence data for one mitochondrial gene (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I ) and seven nuclear genes (Elongation Factor-1α, wingless, Ribosomal protein S5...

  14. Molecular phylogeny of the small ermine moth genus Yponomeuta (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) in the Palaearctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, H.; Lieshout, N.; van Ginkel, W.E.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The small ermine moth genus Yponomeuta (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) contains 76 species that are specialist feeders on hosts from Celastraceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and several other plant families. The genus is a model for studies in the evolution of phytophagous insects and their

  15. Extrafloral nectar feeding by Strymon jacqueline Nicolay & Robbins, 2005 (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Eumaeini

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    Roger Vila

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Adults of the dry area specialist Strymon jacqueline Nicolay & Robbins, 2005 (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Eumaeini are here recorded feeding on extrafloral nectar of the large cactus Neoraimondia arequipensis var. gigantea (Werdermann & Backeberg Ritter. The significance of these observations is discussed in relation to lycaenid survival in a xeric environment, pollination and mate location.

  16. Description of a new species of Euptychiina (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacca, Thamara; Casagrande, Mirna M; Mielke, Olaf H H; Huertas, Blanca; Neild, Andrew F E; Benmesbah, Mohamed

    2017-02-12

    A new species of Magneuptychia Forster, 1964 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Satyrinae), Magneuptychia andrei Zacca, Casagrande & Mielke sp. n., is described and illustrated from Venezuela, French Guiana, Trinidad and Tobago and northern Brazil. A comparative diagnosis between the new species and Magneuptychia ocypete (Fabricius, 1776), M. fugitiva Lamas, [1997] and Cissia terrestris (Butler, 1867) is also provided due the similarities in wing pattern.

  17. First record of Ectomyelois muriscis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on physic nut (Jatropha curcas), a biofuel plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    The natural infestation of fruits and stems of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) by larvae of the pyralid moth Ectomyelois muriscis (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is reported for the first time. Populations of E. muriscis on J. curcas were observed in various parts of the state of Chiapas, souther...

  18. Ionizing radiation for quarantine control of Opogona sacchari (Lepidoptera: Tineidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Robert G; Follett, Peter A

    2007-10-01

    A discriminating irradiation dose of 150 gray (Gy) was used to determine the most tolerant immature stages of Opogona sacchari (Bojer) (Lepidoptera: Tineidae). Based on adult emergence, early and late pupae were determined to be the most tolerant stages, and they were significantly more tolerant than eggs, neonate larvae, and larvae that were 1, 2, or 3 wk old. Irradiation treatment of eggs, neonates, 1-wk-old larvae, 2-wk-old larvae, 3-wk-old larvae, early pupae, and late pupae at 150 Gy resulted in a 96, 96, 95, 73, 61, 8, and 9% reduction in adult emergence, respectively. Pupae were treated with irradiation doses between 60 and 400 Gy. Emergence to the adult stage was significantly reduced by irradiation, averaging 90% in experimental controls and 29% in the 400-Gy treatment. Egg production was also reduced by irradiation, although the average age of pupae at the time of irradiation had a larger effect on fecundity. In total, 2,527 pupae treated with 120 Gy eclosed and produced 47,221 eggs and three F1 larvae. In the 150-Gy treatment, 2,927 adults in total emerged from the 4,626 insects treated as pupae. These adults laid 62,878 eggs, none of which hatched. We conclude that a minimum dose of 150 Gy should be sufficient for sterilization of immature O. sacchari infesting export commodities.

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of Parnassius imperator (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: Parnassiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunliang; Chen, Yanhong; Xia, Chenchen; Xia, Xueqin; Chen, Xiao; Hao, Jiasheng

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Parnassius imperator (Lepidoptera: Parnassiinae) is a circular molecule of 15,424 bp in length, containing 37 typical insect mitochondrial genes and one non-coding A + T-rich region. Its gene order and arrangement are identical to the common type found in most lepidopteran mitogenomes. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) start with a typical ATN initiation codon, except for the cox1, which is initiated by the CGA codon as observed in other lepidopteran species. Some PCGs use standard TAA, while others use TAG (nad1) or incomplete codon T (cox1 and cox2), as their termination codons. 15 intergenic spacers (175 bp in total) and 10 overlapping sequences (29 bp in total) are dispersed throughout the whole genome. The 491 bp long A+ T-rich region contains some conserved structures similar to those found in other lepidopteran mitogenomes, such as the motif ATAGA followed by an 18-bp poly-T stretch, a microsatellite-like (AT)6 element preceded by the ATTTA motif. In addition, a 36 bp sequence stretch potential to form stem-loop structures is also found in the A+ T-rich region.

  20. An annotated list of the Lepidoptera of Alberta, Canada

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    Greg Pohl

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This checklist documents the 2367 Lepidoptera species reported to occur in the province of Alberta, Canada, based on examination of the major public insect collections in Alberta and the Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes. Records from relevant literature sources published since 1950 and from selected older works are also included. The entry for each species includes the scientific name, the author and year of publication of the original description, occurrence status, provincial distribution (according to ecoclimatic region, and adult phenology. The most recent taxonomic references are given, and common names are listed for butterflies and conspicuous moth species. The sources of specimen- and literature-based records are provided for each species. An additional 138 species whose occurrence in Alberta is probable are appended to the list. For 1524 of the listed species and subspecies, annotations are given, with selected information on taxonomy, nomenclature, distribution, habitat, and biology. An additional section provides details on 171 species erroneously reported from Alberta in previous works. Introductory sections to the volume provide a general overview of the order Lepidoptera and review the natural regions of Alberta, the state of knowledge of their Lepidoptera faunas, and the history and current state of knowledge of Alberta Lepidoptera. Each of the 63 families (and selected subfamilies occurring in Alberta is briefly reviewed, with information on distinguishing features, general appearance, and general biology. A bibliography and an index of genus-level, species-level, and subspecies-level names are provided. The list is accompanied by an appendix of proposed nomenclature changes, consisting of revised status for 25 taxa raised from synonymy to species level, and new synonymy for 20 species-level and one genus-level taxa here considered to be subjective synonyms, with resultant revised synonymy for one

  1. Phthalides as promising insecticides against Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Elizeu S; Silva, Eliete M P; Teixeira, Milena G; Ferreira, Jhulyana S; Alvarenga, Elson S; Picanço, Marcelo C

    2018-01-02

    In this study, the insecticide potential of eight phthalides derived from furan-2(5H)-one was evaluated against Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) larvae. The potency of the most active phthalides and the susceptibility of six different T. absoluta populations to these compounds were determined. The toxicity of these molecules to two non-target species (Solenopsis saevissima Smith and Tetragonisca angustula Latreille) was also evaluated. Two phthalides (3 and 4) presented insecticide potential against T. absoluta. Phthalide 4 was as toxic as piperine (positive control) and both phthalides exhibited rapid action (LT 50 < 2 hours). The variation in the susceptibility of T. absoluta populations to the phthalides 3 and 4 was low. Neither phthalide presented physiological selectivity for non-target species. Therefore, the phthalides 3 and 4 are promising molecules, or at least, a starting point for a chemical optimization program leading to formulations for the management of the tomato leafminer. The application of such products should be conducted according to the principles of ecological selectivity.

  2. Morphological outcomes of gynandromorphism in Lycaeides butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahner, Joshua P; Lucas, Lauren K; Wilson, Joseph S; Forister, Matthew L

    2015-01-01

    The genitalia of male insects have been widely used in taxonomic identification and systematics and are potentially involved in maintaining reproductive isolation between species. Although sexual selection has been invoked to explain patterns of morphological variation in genitalia among populations and species, developmental plasticity in genitalia likely contributes to observed variation but has been rarely examined, particularly in wild populations. Bilateral gynandromorphs are individuals that are genetically male on one side of the midline and genetically female on the other, while mosaic gynandromorphs have only a portion of their body developing as the opposite sex. Gynandromorphs might offer unique insights into developmental plasticity because individuals experience abnormal cellular interactions at the genitalic midline. In this study, we compare the genitalia and wing patterns of gynandromorphic Anna and Melissa blue butterflies, Lycaeides anna (Edwards) (formerly L. idas anna) and L. melissa (Edwards) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), to the morphology of normal individuals from the same populations. Gynandromorph wing markings all fell within the range of variation of normal butterflies; however, a number of genitalic measurements were outliers when compared with normal individuals. From these results, we conclude that the gynandromorphs' genitalia, but not wing patterns, can be abnormal when compared with normal individuals and that the gynandromorphic genitalia do not deviate developmentally in a consistent pattern across individuals. Finally, genetic mechanisms are considered for the development of gynandromorphism in Lycaeides butterflies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  3. Micropyle number is associated with elevated female promiscuity in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iossa, Graziella; Gage, Matthew J G; Eady, Paul E

    2016-12-01

    In the majority of insects, sperm fertilize the egg via a narrow canal through the outer chorion called the micropyle. Despite having this one primary function, there is considerable unexplained variation in the location, arrangement and number of micropyles within and between species. Here, we examined the relationship between micropyle number and female mating pattern through a comparative analysis across Lepidoptera. Three functional hypotheses could explain profound micropylar variation: (i) increasing micropyle number reduces the risk of infertility through sperm limitation in species that mate infrequently; (ii) decreasing micropyle number reduces the risk of pathological polyspermy in species that mate more frequently; and (iii) increasing micropyle number allows females to exert greater control over fertilization within the context of post-copulatory sexual selection, which will be more intense in promiscuous species. Micropyle number was positively related to the degree of female promiscuity as measured by spermatophore count, regardless of phylogenetic signal, supporting the hypothesis that micropyle number is shaped by post-copulatory sexual selection. We discuss this finding in the context of cryptic female choice, sperm limitation and physiological polyspermy. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. [Origin of Lepidoptera fauna of the Southern Transural region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utkin, N A

    2000-01-01

    The butterfly fauna of the Southern Transural region began mainly through the migration of insects from the Urals and Kazakhstan, since the end of the Cretaceous Period to the end of Paleogen, the Transural region was covered by an epiplatform sea. As this sea was retreating, the first regions of dry land appeared, which had boundaries with Kazakhstan and the Urals. They were the first to be populated by Lepidoptera. During the Pleocene and then after the Pleistocene cooling events, insects settled generally along the valley of the Tobol River and the Turgai depression, because these territories belong to intrazonal elements. At the present time, the greatest species diversity among insects in the southern Transural area is observed specifically in the Turgai depression and in areas directly adjacent to it. This territory is mainly occupied by populations unique to the Transural regions and belonging to the following species: Mantis religiosa (praying mantis), Saga pedo, Parnassius apollo (apollo), Neolycaena rhymnus, Hyponephele lupina (oriental meadow brown), Chazara persephone (dark rockbrown), Epicallia villica (cream-spot tiger), etc.

  5. First host plant records for Iridopsis hausmanni Vargas (Lepidoptera, Geometridae in the coastal valleys of northern Chile

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    Héctor A. Vargas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available First host plant records for Iridopsis hausmanni Vargas (Lepidoptera, Geometridae in the coastal valleys of northern Chile. The trees Haplorhus peruviana Engl. and Schinus molle L. (Anacardiaceae are mentioned as the first host plant records for the little known native moth Iridopsis hausmanni Vargas, 2007 (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Ennominae in the coastal valleys of the northern Chilean Atacama Desert. This is also the first record of Anacardiaceae as host plant for a Neotropical species of Iridopsis Warren, 1894.

  6. Ionizing irradiation of adults of Angoumois grain moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to prevent reproduction, and implications for a generic irradiation treatment for insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J; Phillips, Thomas W

    2008-08-01

    Ionizing irradiation is used as a phytosanitary treatment against quarantine pests. A generic treatment of 400 Gy has been approved for commodities entering the United States against all insects except pupae and adults of Lepidoptera because some literature citations indicate that a few insects, namely, the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), are not completely controlled at that dose. Radiotolerance in insects increases as the insects develop, so the minimum absorbed dose to prevent F1 egg hatch for these two species when irradiated as adults was examined. Also, because hypoxia is known to increase radiotolerance in insects, Angoumois grain moth radiotolerance was tested in a hypoxic atmosphere. A dose range of 336-388 Gy prevented F1 egg hatch from a total of 22,083 adult Indianmeal moths. Dose ranges of 443-505 and 590-674 Gy, respectively, prevented F1 egg hatch from a total of 15,264 and 13,677 adult Angoumois grain moths irradiated in ambient and hypoxic atmospheres. A generic dose of 600 Gy for all insects in ambient atmospheres might be efficacious, although many fresh commodities may not tolerate it when applied on a commercial scale.

  7. A comprehensive characterization of the caspase gene family in insects from the order Lepidoptera

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    Vogel Heiko

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cell suicide pathway of apoptosis is a necessary event in the life of multicellular organisms. It is involved in many biological processes ranging from development to the immune response. Evolutionarily conserved proteases, called caspases, play a central role in regulating apoptosis. Reception of death stimuli triggers the activation of initiator caspases, which in turn activate the effector caspases. In Lepidoptera, apoptosis is crucial in processes such as metamorphosis or defending against baculovirus infection. The discovery of p35, a baculovirus protein inhibiting caspase activity, has led to the characterization of the first lepidopteran caspase, Sf-Caspase-1. Studies on Sf-Caspase-1 mode of activation suggested that apoptosis in Lepidoptera requires a cascade of caspase activation, as demonstrated in many other species. Results In order to get insights into this gene family in Lepidoptera, we performed an extensive survey of lepidopteran-derived EST datasets. We identified 66 sequences distributed among 27 species encoding putative caspases. Phylogenetic analyses showed that Lepidoptera possess at least 5 caspases, for which we propose a unified nomenclature. According to homology to their Drosophila counterparts and their primary structure, we determined that Lep-Caspase-1, -2 and -3 are putative effector caspases, whereas Lep-Caspase-5 and -6 are putative initiators. The likely function of Lep-Caspase-4 remains unclear. Lep-Caspase-2 is absent from the silkworm genome and appears to be noctuid-specific, and to have arisen from a tandem duplication of the Caspase-1 gene. In the tobacco hawkmoth, 3 distinct transcripts encoding putative Caspase-4 were identified, suggesting at least 2 duplication events in this species. Conclusions The basic repertoire of five major types of caspases shared among Lepidoptera seems to be smaller than for most other groups studied to date, but gene duplication still plays a role in

  8. Mitochondrial genome of the sweet potato hornworm, Agrius convolvuli (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), and comparison with other Lepidoptera species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Li-Shang; Li, Sheng; Yu, Hui-Min; Wei, Guo-Qing; Wang, Lei; Qian, Cen; Zhang, Cong-Fen; Li, Jun; Sun, Yu; Zhao, Yue; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Liu, Chao-Liang

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Agrius convolvuli (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) and compared it with previously sequenced mitogenomes of lepidopteran species. The mitogenome was a circular molecule, 15 349 base pairs (bp) long, containing 37 genes. The order and orientation of genes in the A. convolvuli mitogenome were similar to those in sequenced mitogenomes of other lepidopterans. All 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) were initiated by ATN codons, except for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene, which seemed to be initiated by the codon CGA, as observed in other lepidopterans. Three of the 13 PCGs had the incomplete termination codon T, while the remainder terminated with TAA. Additionally, the codon distributions of the 13 PCGs revealed that Asn, Ile, Leu2, Lys, Phe, and Tyr were the most frequently used codon families. All transfer RNAs were folded into the expected cloverleaf structure except for tRNASer(AGN), which lacked a stable dihydrouridine arm. The length of the adenine (A) + thymine (T)-rich region was 331 bp. This region included the motif ATAGA followed by a 19-bp poly-T stretch and a microsatellite-like (TA)8 element next to the motif ATTTA. Phylogenetic analyses (maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods) showed that A. convolvuli belongs to the family Sphingidae.

  9. Efectos del fósforo y carbono lábiles en la fijación no simbiótica de N2 en hojarasca de bosques siempreverdes manejados y no manejados de la Isla de Chiloé, Chile Effects of labile phosphorous and carbón on non-symbiotic N2 fixation in logged and unlogged evergreen forests in Chiloé Island, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDRA E PÉREZ

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El flujo de entrada de nitrógeno (N en ecosistemas de bosques templados de la Isla de Chiloé puede ocurrir en una proporción importante vía fijación no simbiótica (FNS. Debido a que este proceso es llevado a cabo por bacterias (diazótrofas está regulado, además del efecto de factores climáticos (temperatura y humedad, por la disponibilidad de nutrientes, en particular fósforo y carbono como fuentes de energía. Nuestra hipótesis es que si el fósforo y el carbono son limitantes para la FNS, esta limitación se acentuaría en bosques manejados, en donde adición experimental de P y C deberían estimular la actividad microbiana. En este trabajo se determinó los efectos de la adición de cuatro niveles de fósforo inorgánico (0 mmol P/L, 0,645 mmol P/L, 3,23 mmol P/L y 6,45 mmol P/L y cuatro niveles de carbono lábil como glucosa (0 mmol P/L, 23,3 mmol C/L, 46,6 mmol C/L y 70 mmol C/L, en la FNS de N2 de hojarasca homogenizada de cada bosque, en condiciones controladas de temperatura y humedad, en experimentos de laboratorio. Se estudiaron bosques de zonas bajas (100-200 m de altitud ubicados en la comuna de Chonchi, Isla de Chiloé. De estos bosques, dos habían sido manejados, uno por corta selectiva y otro por floreo, y el tercero (control era un bosque antiguo no intervenido. La FNS del nitrógeno se estimó mediante la "técnica de reducción de acetileno". Análisis de varianzas de dos vías mostraron que las adiciones de fósforo no afectaron en forma significativa las tasas de reducción de acetileno (TRA de la hojarasca en ninguno de los tres bosques, pero la adición de carbono lábil en forma de glucosa afectó negativamente la TRA en el máximo nivel aplicado, en la hojarasca del bosque no manejado. Solo el factor bosque, relacionado a la práctica silvicultural, dio cuenta de las diferencias observadas en las TRA, siendo mayores en el bosque no manejado. Estas diferencias no fueron explicadas por las variables manipuladas

  10. Lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) oviposition on Prunus germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, T E; Beckman, T G; Horton, D L

    2011-12-01

    The lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is a serious pest of peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, across the southeastern United States. We examined oviposition by S. pictipes on field-grown Prunus scion and rootstock cultivars and two endemic Prunus spp. when sawn limbs, not roots, were assayed in the laboratory. A choice test compared oviposition on the peach scion 'Harvester', peach rootstock 'Guardian', plum×peach hybrid rootstock 'MP-29', and the plum hybrid rootstock 'Sharpe'. A significantly lower percentage of eggs occurred on limbs of Sharpe rootstock than other choices. A choice test using two endemic hosts, black cherry (P. serotina Ehrh.) and Chickasaw plum (P. angustifolia Marsh.), along with Sharpe rootstock, found a lower percentage of eggs on limbs of Sharpe than either endemic host. However, when only limbs of Sharpe and a decoy were used, almost all eggs were laid on Sharpe. Interestingly, when Harvester and Sharpe limbs were paired side by side, a higher percentage of eggs were recovered from the Harvester limb than from the Sharpe limb. An analysis of volatiles from Sharpe may identify why fewer eggs were laid on it. Because S. pictipes attacks host trees above ground and Sharpe rootstock on grafted trees grows below ground, this rootstock might be a management option against the congeneric, root-attacking peachtree borer, S. exitiosa (Say). Our results suggest that high budding a peach scion onto Sharpe rootstock, thus allowing the rootstock to serve as the trunk, warrants further investigation against S. exitiosa under orchard conditions.

  11. Efficiency of Trapping Systems for Detecting Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, Amy L; Brambila, Julieta; Barria, Jorge; Euceda, Xavier; Korytkowski, Cheslavo

    2015-12-01

    Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), a pest of tomato, was recently detected in Panama in Central America and now threatens to expand into the important tomato production areas of Mexico and the United States. Moths caught in T. absoluta pheromone-baited traps must be removed and dissected to confirm the species present before containment and mitigation strategies are put in place. Timely processing of traps can be hindered by the presence of numerous similar nontarget moths that cannot be easily prescreened. Trapping systems using dry bucket traps or Delta traps with either hot melt pressure sensitive adhesives (HMPSA) or cool melt adhesives were evaluated for their effectiveness in trapping T. absoluta and for their ease in allowing identification of nontarget moths. Delta traps in Panama with HMPSA and cool melt adhesives both trapped T. absoluta with equal efficacy. In Florida, nontarget moths were easier to prescreen from bucket traps and HMPSA inserts. Importantly, moths found in bucket traps as well as on cool melt adhesive inserts were of a lower quality than those on HMPSA inserts, making identification more difficult. Studies conducted in Florida and Panama tomato and potato fields showed that commercially produced pheromones containing only the main pheromone component ((3E, 8Z, 11Z)-tetradecatrien-1-yl acetate) or containing both the main and minor pheromone component ((3E, 8Z)-tetradecadien-1-yl) attracted nontarget moths. Survey programs, particularly large-scale ones, should consider the application of alternative trapping systems or new adhesives available in order to facilitate the visual prescreening of nontarget moths. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. Fossil butterflies, calibration points and the molecular clock (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Rienk DE

    2017-05-25

    Fossil butterflies are extremely rare. Yet, they are the only direct evidence of the first appearance of particular characters and as such, they are crucial for calibrating a molecular clock, from which divergence ages are estimated. In turn, these estimates, in combination with paleogeographic information, are most important in paleobiogeographic considerations. The key issue here is the correct allocation of fossils on the phylogenetic tree from which the molecular clock is calibrated.The allocation of a fossil on a tree should be based on an apomorphic character found in a tree based on extant species, similar to the allocation of a new extant species. In practice, the latter is not done, at least not explicitly, on the basis of apomorphy, but rather on overall similarity or on a phylogenetic analysis, which is not possible for most butterfly fossils since they usually are very fragmentary. Characters most often preserved are in the venation of the wings. Therefore, special attention is given to possible apomorphies in venational characters in extant butterflies. For estimation of divergence times, not only the correct allocation of the fossil on the tree is important, but also the tree itself influences the outcome as well as the correct determination of the age of the fossil. These three aspects are discussed.        All known butterfly fossils, consisting of 49 taxa, are critically reviewed and their relationship to extant taxa is discussed as an aid for correctly calibrating a molecular clock for papilionoid Lepidoptera. In this context some aspects of age estimation and biogeographic conclusions are briefly mentioned in review. Specific information has been summarized in four appendices.

  13. Biologia de Dichomeris famulata Meyrick, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae em milho Biology of Dichomeris famulata Meyrick, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae in maize

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    Luiz Henrique da Silva Fagundes Marques

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dichomeris famulata Meyrick, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae é uma nova praga da espiga de milho no Brasil, sendo seu estudo importante em áreas de produção de sementes porque os grãos atacados pelas lagartas não germinam. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a sua biologia em condições de laboratório (25±2°C, UR de 65±10% e fotofase de 14 horas. O ciclo biológico (ovo-adulto foi de 35,2 dias. O período de incubação foi de 4,1 dias. A duração média da fase larval foi de 21,1 dias, sendo observados cinco ínstares larvais. A fase pupal durou 8,4 dias e o peso de pupa de machos e fêmeas foi de 12,4 e 11,3mg, respectivamente. As fêmeas colocaram, em média, 118 ovos, apresentando um período de pré-oviposição de 10,7 dias e de oviposição de 14,0 dias. A longevidade média de machos e fêmeas foi de 37,02 e 44,16 dias, respectivamente, e a razão sexual de 0,48. As lagartas danificam os estilo-estigmas e os grãos em estado leitoso por meio de pequenos orifícios de entrada, prejudicando o endosperma e principalmente a região do embrião, inutilizando-os para sementes. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho fornecem subsídios para o estabelecimento de estratégias de manejo do inseto, especialmente em áreas de produção de sementes.The caterpillar Dichomeris famulata Meyrick, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae is a new pest of corn ear in Brazil, and its study is important in seed fields. The aim of this was to study the biology of this pest under laboratory conditions (25±2°C, 65±10% of RH and 14-hours of photophase. The biological cycle (egg-adult was of 35.2 days. The incubation period was of 4.1 days. The average larval development time was of 21.1 days, and 5 instars were observed. The pupal period was of 8.4 days and the pupae weight was of 12.4 and 11.3 mg for males and females, respectively. The females laid an average of 118 eggs with a pre-oviposition period of 10.7 days and an oviposition time of 14.0 days. The

  14. Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Responses to Sorghum bicolor (Poales: Poaceae) Tissues From Lowered Lignin Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Patrick F.; Sattler, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of lignin within biomass impedes the production of liquid fuels. Plants with altered lignin content and composition are more amenable to lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol and other biofuels but may be more susceptible to insect damage where lignin is an important resistance factor. However, reduced lignin lines of switchgrasses still retained insect resistance in prior studies. Therefore, we hypothesized that sorghum lines with lowered lignin content will also retain insect resistance. Sorghum excised leaves and stalk pith Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae) from near isogenic brown midrib (bmr) 6 and 12 mutants lines, which have lowered lignin content and increased lignocellulosic ethanol conversion efficiency, were examined for insect resistance relative to wild-type (normal BTx623). Greenhouse and growth chamber grown plant tissues were fed to first-instar larvae of corn earworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and fall armyworms Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), two sorghum major pests. Younger bmr leaves had significantly greater feeding damage in some assays than wild-type leaves, but older bmr6 leaves generally had significantly less damage than wild-type leaves. Caterpillars feeding on the bmr6 leaves often weighed significantly less than those feeding on wild-type leaves, especially in the S. frugiperda assays. Larvae fed the pith from bmr stalks had significantly higher mortality compared with those larvae fed on wild-type pith, which suggested that bmr pith was more toxic. Thus, reducing lignin content or changing subunit composition of bioenergy grasses does not necessarily increase their susceptibility to insects and may result in increased resistance, which would contribute to sustainable production. PMID:25601946

  15. Dinámicas territoriales en asentamientos de pescadores artesanales: economías, experiencias y conflictos. El caso de Guabún y Puñihuil en la Comuna de Ancud, Chiloé

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    Jaime Valderrama Bravo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Las transformaciones socioeconómicas y ambientales de las caletas de pescadores, derivadas de la temprana inserción del sector en la economía internacional, se suman a diversos procesos de transición a la modernidad que afectan a las sociedades que habitan los espacios costeros, cambiando sus prácticas cotidianas. Un segundo factor lo constituye la creciente oferta turística en la franja costera que implica nuevas adaptaciones para los asentamientos de pescadores. Estos factores actúan sobre el borde costero, generando procesos de desadaptación y desorientación en las comunidades de pescadores lo que constituye un negativo factor tanto para el ordenamiento territorial como para la administración de recursos pesquero-artesanales. En este contexto el artículo profundiza en las dinámicas territoriales presentes en dos localidades litorales de la Isla Grande de Chiloé, para lo cual se analizan los procesos económicos culturales y las temporalidades de los lugares de extracción de recursos pesquero-artesanales. Se trabaja con una metodología cualitativa utilizándose cartografía participativa y entrevistas en profundidad, además de una encuesta bioeconómica. El objetivo central es comprender desde un enfoque geosocial los procesos económicos y productivos en ambas caletas, junto a las posibles causas que generen conflictos. Finalmente, se presentan los fundamentos y aspiraciones que hacen de ambas localidades un foco de atención en el ámbito del desarrollo local en este tipo de actividades productivas.  

  16. Efecto de herbívoros y patógenos en la sobrevivencia y crecimiento de plántulas en un fragmento del bosque templado húmedo de Chiloé, Chile Effect of herbivores and pathogens on the survival and growth of seedlings in a fragment of the Chiloé rainforest, Chile

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    JAVIER A. FIGUEROA

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Las plántulas son susceptibles a las condiciones físicas del ambiente, al ataque de patógenos, defoliadores o herbívoros. Los objetivos del estudio fueron determinar el crecimiento y sobrevivencia de las plántulas arbóreas, la proporción de individuos dañados por herbívoros y patógenos, y el efecto de este daño sobre el crecimiento y la sobrevivencia de plántulas del bosque húmedo templado de Chiloé, Chile. La sobrevivencia fue menor en el período de verano y mayor en pleno invierno. Cuando finalizó la fase de monitoreo (11 meses, dos tercios de todas las plántulas sobrevivientes presentaban algún tipo de agresión. Las plántulas con cotiledones presentaban una proporción mayor de plántulas sanas, mientras que aquellas sin cotiledones presentaban una proporción mayor de plántulas agredidas. En Amomyrtus luma los individuos aislados se encontraron preferentemente agredidos. Por el contrario, en las plántulas aisladas de Podocarpus nubigena el número de individuos sanos no difería del número de individuos agredidos. Las plántulas de Amomyrtus luma agrupadas con individuos conespecíficos estaban preferentemente sanas, mientras que la frecuencia de individuos sanos de Amomyrtus luma agrupados con Podocarpus nubigena no difirió significativamente de la frecuencia de individuos agredidos. Las plántulas agrupadas de Podocarpus nubigena estaban todas agredidas. Por otra parte, el vástago de las plántulas creció en promedio aprox. 12 mm en 11 meses. El estado sanitario no afectó significativamente el crecimiento de las plántulas. El 62% de todas las plántulas sobrevivieron 11 meses. El 72% de las plántulas de Podocarpus nubigena sobrevivieron al final del monitoreo, mientras que sobrevivió el 55% de las plántulas de Amomyrtus luma. Sin embargo, no se encontraron diferencias significativas en la sobrevivencia de plántulas entre especies, entre plántulas con y sin cotiledones, y entre plántulas sanas y agredidas

  17. Biological characteristics of Trichogramma maxacalii (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

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    Oliveira H. N.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals of two populations of Trichogramma maxacalii (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae were collected from eggs of Euselasia apisaon (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae, a lepidopteran defoliator of Eucalyptus, in plantations in the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil. This study investigated the sex ratio, number of parasitoids per egg, and longevity of individuals of these two populations of T. maxacalii, when this parasitoid was reared receiving eggs of the factitious host Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae in different periods after emergence, and with or without honey. Sex ratio of T. maxacalii varied from 0.44 to 0.60, and was affected by the interaction between populations, availability of food (honey, and length of time in which the parasitoid stayed without host eggs after their emergence. The population of T. maxacalii collected in São Paulo produced a larger number of individuals per egg of the host A. kuehniella and lived longer when fed.

  18. Large-Scale Evolutionary Patterns of Host Plant Associations in the Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menken, S.B.J.; Boomsma, J.J.; van Nieukerken, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    significant radiations. Exposed feeding became associated with radiations in the lower Ditrysia and Apoditrysia and remained correlated with more polyphagy, fewer woody host plants, and increasing use of other Angiosperm superorders. The macrolepidopteran radiation has frequent reversals to monophagy on woody......We characterized evolutionary patterns of host plant use across about 2500 species of British Lepidoptera, using character optimization and independent phylogenetic contrasts among 95 operational taxa, and evaluated the extent to which caterpillars are monophagous, use woody host plants, and feed...... categorizations for Britain are accurate predictors for the global fauna. The first (lower glossatan) radiation of the Lepidoptera started with monophagous, internal feeding on woody Eurosids I. Polyphagy on nonwoody Eurosids I evolved together with the ability to feed externally, but did initially not produce...

  19. DIVERSIDADE DE LEPIDOPTERA EM UM FRAGMENTO FLORESTAL EM MUZAMBINHO, MINAS GERAIS

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    Dirlene Aparecida de Andrade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring Lepidoptera populations provides important information to assess the dynamics and ecological changes in ecosystems. In this work, it was evaluated and characterized the Lepidoptera fauna of forest fragment of the IFSULDEMINAS - Campus Muzambinho, MG state. Throughout 12 months, 590 Individuals of 69 species belonging to 10 families were captured. The most abundant family was Nymphalidae (73.56% of subjects. The most abundant species were Godartiana muscosa , Mechanitis lysimnia , Hermeuptychia sp and Mechanitis polymnia casabranca , which are bio-indicators of disturbed and/or urban environments. On the other hand, it was found rare species, such as Notascea brevispula . Different species were constant and others occurred in only a short period of the year. The diversity and abundance were higher in hot and rainy months. The diversity index Shannon-Wiener and Simpsom indicate a median diversity and equitability index point absence of dominance.

  20. Parasitismo sobre eurysacca melanocampta meyrick (lepidoptera: gelechiidae) en dos localidades de cusco, perú.

    OpenAIRE

    JUAN F. COSTA; Yábar, Erick; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    El cultivo de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa) es una importante actividad económica en Cusco. La polilla Eurysacca melanocampta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) es la principal plaga registrada en este cultivo y presenta varios controladores biológicos. Se registran parasitoides y porcentajes de larvas parasitadas de la polilla de la quinua provenientes de dos localidades de Cusco: Izcuchaca (3400 msnm) y Quiquijana (3100 msnm). Las larvas colectadas se criaron en laboratorio hasta la emergencia de ...

  1. Response of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to Different Pheromone Emission Levels in Greenhouse Tomato Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Vacas González, Sandra; López -Faubel, Jesus; Primo Millo, Jaime; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    The response of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to different emission rates of its pheromone, (3E, 8Z, 11Z)-tetradecatrienyl acetate, was measured in two greenhouse trials with traps baited with mesoporous dispensers. For this purpose, weekly moth trap catches were correlated with increasing pheromone emission levels by multiple regression analysis. Pheromone release profiles of the dispensers were obtained by residual pheromone extraction and gas chromatography quantificat...

  2. Low host specificity and abundance of frugivorous lepidoptera in the lowland rain forests of Papua New Guinea.

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    Katerina Sam

    Full Text Available We studied a community of frugivorous Lepidoptera in the lowland rainforest of Papua New Guinea. Rearing revealed 122 species represented by 1,720 individuals from 326 woody plant species. Only fruits from 52% (171 of the plant species sampled were attacked. On average, Lepidoptera were reared from 1 in 89 fruits and a kilogram of fruit was attacked by 1.01 individuals. Host specificity of Lepidoptera was notably low: 69% (33 of species attacked plants from >1 family, 8% (4 fed on single family, 6% (3 on single genus and 17% (8 were monophagous. The average kilogram of fruits was infested by 0.81 individual from generalist species (defined here as feeding on >1 plant genus and 0.07 individual from specialist species (feeding on a single host or congeneric hosts. Lepidoptera preferred smaller fruits with both smaller mesocarp and seeds. Large-seeded fruits with thin mesocarp tended to host specialist species whereas those with thick, fleshy mesocarp were often infested with both specialist and generalist species. The very low incidence of seed damage suggests that pre-dispersal seed predation by Lepidoptera does not play a major role in regulating plant populations via density-dependent mortality processes outlined by the Janzen-Connell hypothesis.

  3. Understanding heliothine (Lepidoptera: Heliothinae) pests: what is a host plant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, John Paul; Zalucki, Myron P

    2014-06-01

    Heliothine moths (Lepidoptera: Heliothinae) include some of the world's most devastating pest species. Whereas the majority of nonpest heliothinae specialize on a single plant family, genus, or species, pest species are highly polyphagous, with populations often escalating in size as they move from one crop species to another. Here, we examine the current literature on heliothine host-selection behavior with the aim of providing a knowledge base for research scientists and pest managers. We review the host relations of pest heliothines, with a particular focus on Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), the most economically damaging of all heliothine species. We then consider the important question of what constitutes a host plant in these moths, and some of the problems that arise when trying to determine host plant status from empirical studies on host use. The top six host plant families in the two main Australian pest species (H. armigera and Helicoverpa punctigera Wallengren) are the same and the top three (Asteraceae, Fabaceae, and Malvaceae) are ranked the same (in terms of the number of host species on which eggs or larvae have been identified), suggesting that these species may use similar cues to identify their hosts. In contrast, for the two key pest heliothines in the Americas, the Fabaceae contains approximately 1/3 of hosts for both. For Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), the remaining hosts are more evenly distributed, with Solanaceae next, followed by Poaceae, Asteraceae, Malvaceae, and Rosaceae. For Heliothis virescens (F.), the next highest five families are Malvaceae, Asteraceae, Solanaceae, Convolvulaceae, and Scrophulariaceae. Again there is considerable overlap in host use at generic and even species level. H. armigera is the most widely distributed and recorded from 68 plant families worldwide, but only 14 families are recorded as a containing a host in all geographic areas. A few crop hosts are used throughout the range as expected, but in some cases there

  4. Assessing the value of DNA barcodes and other priority gene regions for molecular phylogenetics of Lepidoptera.

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    John James Wilson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite apparently abundant amounts of observable variation and species diversity, the order Lepidoptera exhibits a morphological homogeneity that has provided only a limited number of taxonomic characters and led to widespread use of nucleotides for inferring relationships. This study aims to characterize and develop methods to quantify the value of priority gene regions designated for Lepidoptera molecular systematics. In particular, I assess how the DNA barcode segment of the mitochondrial COI gene performs across a broad temporal range given its number one position of priority, most sequenced status, and the conflicting opinions on its phylogenetic performance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gene regions commonly sequenced for lepidoptera phylogenetics were scored using multiple measures across three categories: practicality, which includes universality of primers and sequence quality; phylogenetic utility; and phylogenetic signal. I found that alternative measures within a category often appeared correlated, but high scores in one category did not necessarily translate into high scores in another. The DNA barcode was easier to sequence than other genes, and had high scores for utility but low signal above the genus level. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Given limited financial resources and time constraints, careful selection of gene regions for molecular phylogenetics is crucial to avoid wasted effort producing partially informative data. This study introduces an approach to assessing the value of gene regions prior to the initiation of new studies and presents empirical results to help guide future selections.

  5. Aucula magnifica (Schaus, 1904 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Agaristinae: morphology of egg and last instar larvae Aucula magnifica (Schaus, 1904 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Agaristinae: morfologia do ovo e da larva de último ínstar

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    G. Poletto

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to contribute to knowledge of the immature instars of Neotropical Lepidoptera, this study details the morphology of the egg and last instar larvae of Aucula magnifica (Schaus, 1904 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Agaristinae, emphasising the structures of the corium and the chaetotaxy. There is also a report of the occurrence of entomopathogenic action of Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow Samson fungi on the larva.Este estudo objetiva contribuir para o conhecimento dos estágios imaturos dos lepidópteros neotropicais. Nele é feito o detalhamento da morfologia das fases de ovo e de larva de Aucula magnifica (Schaus, 1904 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Agaristinae, dando ênfase ao estudo das estruturas do córion e da quetotaxia da larva de último ínstar. Além disso é relatada a ocorrência da ação entomopatogênica do fungo Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow Samson sobre suas larvas.

  6. Aspectos biológicos da Traça-da-Batatinha Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae Biologic aspects of Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae

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    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Algumas características biológicas de Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae criadas em tubérculos de batata, foram estudadas em laboratório a 25 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% de umidade relativa e fotofase de 14 horas. A longevidade dos machos foi de 33,4 dias e das fêmeas foi de 31,7 dias, a sobrevivência foi de 100% até o sexto dia para ambos os sexos, e o número médio total de ovos por fêmea de P. operculella foi 195, com viabilidade de 46,3%, quando esses foram alimentados com solução de mel a 10%.Some biologic characteristics of Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae reared in potato tubers was studied in laboratory at 25 ± 1ºC, relative humidity of 70 ± 10% and photophase of 14 hours. The male longevity it was 33.4 days and the female longevity it was 31.4 days, the survivor it was 100% until the 6º day for both sex, the total number of eggs per female of P. operculella it was 195, with viability of 46.3%, when these adults received a solution of honey at 10%.

  7. A new genus and species of leaf miner (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae for Chile associated to the native tree Lithraea caustica

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    Enrique A. Mundaca

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of leaf miner (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae for Chile associated to the native tree Lithraea caustica. We propose the new genus and species of Gracillariidae (Lepidoptera Hualpenia lithraeophaga Mundaca, Parra &Vargas gen. nov., sp. nov., leaf miner of Lithraea caustica (Mol. H. et Arn (Anacardiaceae occurring in southern central Chile. Aspects of the life cycle, adult and larval morphology, development and feeding habits of the new genus and species are also presented. We emphasise the uniqueness and importance of this new species for broadening the current knowledge on the Chilean fauna of Gracillariidae.

  8. Protected species of butterflies (Lepidoptera in the National Nature Park “Velyky Lug”

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    K. K. Goloborodko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Velyky Lug is a unique natural complex which has a large biogeographical, ecological, environmental, historical and recreational value. The National Nature Park “Velyky Lug” was only created as recently as 2006.The park is located in Zaporizhzhya region, 15–18 km south of the city Zaporizhzhya, within the limits of floodplain area of the Dnepr river, which broadens to a width of over 20 kmbetween Bilen’ke and Vasilivka (north-eastern part of the Kakhovskoe reservoir. This enormous expansion of the floodplain (about 80,000 ha which is situated between the Dnepr river and its tributary the Kins’ka was in historical times was called the Kin’ski Floodplain or Great Meadow. In modern times this territory is almost completely flooded by the waters of the Kakhovskoe reservoir. Remnants of natural habitats have been preserved along the river banks – in the form of little valleys and ravines which extend all the shore and also islands which appeared in 1956 when the reservoir was flooded. The overall area of the park “Velyky Lug” is 16,756 ha. Within the territory of the park “Velyky Lug” we have recorded 27 species of Lepidoptera which have various levels of conservation status. The taxonomical structure of the complex varies and included representatives of all basic families of moth and day butterflies which have species that are protected by law. In a taxonomical relation this complex is formed by the representatives of 11 families (Zygaenidae, Saturniidae, Sphingidae, Noctuidae, Arctiidae, Hesperiidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae, Satyridae, Lycaenidae. Zoogeographical analysis of the species that are protected in the territory of the park can be classified into 5 basic groups (Palearctic – 26%, Pontokazach – 26%, Mediterranean– 22%, Eurosiberian – 15%, European – 11%. Analysis of the biotopic advantages of the protected Lepidoptera species present in the territory of the park showed representatives from all

  9. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases as a detoxification mechanism in insects: new insights from the arctiids (lepidoptera.

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    Sven Sehlmeyer

    Full Text Available Insects experience a wide array of chemical pressures from plant allelochemicals and pesticides and have developed several effective counterstrategies to cope with such toxins. Among these, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are crucial in plant-insect interactions. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs seem not to play a central role in xenobiotic detoxification in insects, in contrast to mammals. However, the previously identified senecionine N-oxygenase of the arctiid moth Tyria jacobaeae (Lepidoptera indicates that FMOs have been recruited during the adaptation of this insect to plants that accumulate toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Identification of related FMO-like sequences of various arctiids and other Lepidoptera and their combination with expressed sequence tag (EST data and sequences emerging from the Bombyx mori genome project show that FMOs in Lepidoptera form a gene family with three members (FMO1 to FMO3. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that FMO3 is only distantly related to lepidopteran FMO1 and FMO2 that originated from a more recent gene duplication event. Within the FMO1 gene cluster, an additional gene duplication early in the arctiid lineage provided the basis for the evolution of the highly specific biochemical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations of these butterflies to pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-producing plants. The genes encoding pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-N-oxygenizing enzymes (PNOs are transcribed in the fat body and the head of the larvae. An N-terminal signal peptide mediates the transport of the soluble proteins into the hemolymph where PNOs efficiently convert pro-toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids into their non-toxic N-oxide derivatives. Heterologous expression of a PNO of the generalist arctiid Grammia geneura produced an N-oxygenizing enzyme that shows noticeably expanded substrate specificity compared with the related enzyme of the specialist Tyria jacobaeae. The data about the evolution of FMOs within lepidopteran insects

  10. The influence of vegetation and landscape structural connectivity on butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), Carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae), Syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae), and sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) in Northern Italy farmland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgio, G.; Sommaggio, D.; Marini, M.; Chiarucci, A.; Landi, S.; Fabbri, R.; Pesarini, F.; Genghini, M.; Ferrari, R.; Muzzi, E.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Masetti, A.

    2015-01-01

    Landscape structure as well as local vegetation influence biodiversity in agroecosystems. A study was performed to evaluate the effect of floristic diversity, vegetation patterns, and landscape structural connectivity on butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), carabids (Coleoptera:

  11. Castniidae (Lepidoptera) in the collection of the Museum and Institute of Zoology Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw

    OpenAIRE

    Paweł J. Domagała; González, Jorge M.; Dariusz J. Ziaja; Roland Dobosz

    2017-01-01

    The material representing 14 species and subspecies belonging to the Castniidae (Lepidoptera) deposited in the Museum and Institute of Zoology Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw was studied. A brief comment on the history of the Museum is provided. General comments on natural history, distribution, and other details are presented for each mentioned species and subspecies.

  12. Stress Responses of Small Heat Shock Protein Genes in Lepidoptera Point to Limited Conservation of Function across Phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Zheng, Jincheng; Peng, Yu; Liu, Xiaoxia; Hoffmann, Ary A; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2015-01-01

    The small heat shock protein (sHsp) family is thought to play an important role in protein refolding and signal transduction, and thereby protect organisms from stress. However little is known about sHsp function and conservation across phylogenies. In the current study, we provide a comprehensive assessment of small Hsp genes and their stress responses in the oriental fruit moth (OFM), Grapholita molesta. Fourteen small heat shock proteins of OFM clustered with related Hsps in other Lepidoptera despite a high level of variability among them, and in contrast to the highly conserved Hsp11.1. The only known lepidopteran sHsp ortholog (Hsp21.3) was consistently unaffected under thermal stress in Lepidoptera where it has been characterized. However the phylogenetic position of the sHsps within the Lepidoptera was not associated with conservation of induction patterns under thermal extremes or diapause. These findings suggest that the sHsps have evolved rapidly to develop new functions within the Lepidoptera.

  13. Stress Responses of Small Heat Shock Protein Genes in Lepidoptera Point to Limited Conservation of Function across Phylogeny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    Full Text Available The small heat shock protein (sHsp family is thought to play an important role in protein refolding and signal transduction, and thereby protect organisms from stress. However little is known about sHsp function and conservation across phylogenies. In the current study, we provide a comprehensive assessment of small Hsp genes and their stress responses in the oriental fruit moth (OFM, Grapholita molesta. Fourteen small heat shock proteins of OFM clustered with related Hsps in other Lepidoptera despite a high level of variability among them, and in contrast to the highly conserved Hsp11.1. The only known lepidopteran sHsp ortholog (Hsp21.3 was consistently unaffected under thermal stress in Lepidoptera where it has been characterized. However the phylogenetic position of the sHsps within the Lepidoptera was not associated with conservation of induction patterns under thermal extremes or diapause. These findings suggest that the sHsps have evolved rapidly to develop new functions within the Lepidoptera.

  14. Double strand RNA-mediated RNA interference through feeding in larval gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Erebidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    RNA interference (RNAi) has gained popularity in several fields of research, silencing targeted genes by degradation of RNA. The objective of this study was to develop RNAi for use as a molecular tool in the control of the invasive pest Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), gypsy moth, which ha...

  15. Mitochondrial DNA Variation and Range Expansion in Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): No Evidence for a Recent Population Bottleneck

    Science.gov (United States)

    The western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a pest of both corn and dry bean crops. At the beginning of the 21st century, the species began to extend its range out of the Great Plains, eastward through the Corn Belt. This rapid range expansion is remarkable bec...

  16. A large-scale, higher-level, molecular phylogenetic study of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher-level relationships within the Lepidoptera, and particularly within the species-rich subclade Ditrysia, are generally not well understood, although recent studies have yielded progress. 483 taxa spanning 115 of 124 families were sampled for 19 protein-coding nuclear genes. Their aligned nucle...

  17. Dogwood Borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) Abundance and Seasonal Flight Activity in Apple Orchards, Urban Landscapes and Woodlands in Five Eastern States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relative abundance and seasonal flight activity of dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was measured using weekly records from traps baited with its sex pheromone and deployed in apple orchards, urban landscapes and native woodland sites in New York, West Virginia, V...

  18. Spatial genetic variation among Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) sampled from the United States, Puerto Rico, Panama, and Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a migratory and polyphagous pest of both cultivated and uncultivated plant species in the Western Hemisphere. Understanding the genetic diversity and gene flow of this economically important pest can help to de...

  19. Host specificity and risk assessment of Trichogramma fuentesi (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae), a potential biological agent of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a non-native moth attacking prickly pear cactus, Opuntia spp., in southeastern U.S. The insect is also an important threat to ecological systems and to native and endangered Opuntia spp. in southwestern USA. The egg parasitoid Trichogramma f...

  20. Relative susceptibility of sunflower maintainer lines and resistance sources to natural infestations of the banded sunflower moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a significant seed-feeding pest of sunflowers in North America. Though some wild Helianthus spp., interspecific crosses, and H. annuus cultivars (that precede hybrid sunflower breeding) have low susceptibility to ba...

  1. Life table studies of rachiplusia nu (guenée) and chrysodeixis (= pseudoplusia) includens (Walker) (lepidoptera: noctuidae) on artificial diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachiplusia nu (Guenée) and Chrysodeixis (= Pseudoplusia) includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are two economically important species in soybean in northern Argentina. Life cycle, reproductive and population parameters of R. nu and C. includens reared on artificial diet were determined under ...

  2. Managing the forest for more than the trees: effects of experimental timber harvest on forest Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerville, Keith S

    2011-04-01

    Studies of the effects of timber harvest on forest insect communities have rarely considered how disturbance from a range of harvest levels interacts with temporal variation in species diversity to affect community resistance to change. Here I report the results of a landscape-scale, before-and-after, treatment-control experiment designed to test how communities of forest Lepidoptera experience (1) changes in species richness and composition and (2) shifts in species dominance one year after logging. I sampled Lepidoptera from 20 forest stands allocated to three harvest treatments (control, even-aged shelterwood or clearcuts, and uneven-aged group selection cuts) within three watersheds at Morgan-Monroe State Forest, Indiana, USA. Moths were sampled from all forest stands one year prior to harvest in 2007 and immediately post-harvest in 2009. Species composition was most significantly affected by temporal variation between years, although uneven-aged management also caused significant changes in lepidopteran community structure. Furthermore, species richness of Lepidoptera was higher in 2007 compared to 2009 across all watersheds and forest stands. The decrease in species richness between years, however, was much larger in even-aged and uneven-aged management units compared to the control. Furthermore, matrix stands within the even-aged management unit demonstrated the highest resistance to species loss within any management unit. Species dominance was highly resistant to effects of timber harvest, with pre- and post-harvest values for Simpson diversity nearly invariant. Counter to prediction, however, the suite of dominant taxa differed dramatically among the three management units post-harvest. My results suggest that temporal variation may have strong interactions with timber harvest, precipitating loss of nearly 50% species richness from managed stands regardless of harvest level. Even-aged management, however, appeared to leave the smallest "footprint" on moth

  3. Papilionoidea de la Sierra de Huautla, Morelos y Puebla, México (Insecta: Lepidoptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Mercedes Luna-Reyes; Jorge Llorente-Bousquets; Armando Luis-Martínez

    2007-01-01

    La Cuenca del Balsas es una región singular donde se encuentra una representación significativa de la riqueza y el endemismo de la flora, la herpetofauna y la avifauna mexicanas. Sin embargo, es escaso el conocimiento respecto a los papilionoideos (Lepidoptera), en especial aquellos asociados con la selva baja caducifolia. Aquí se presenta un estudio sobre la distribución local y temporal de los Papilionoidea de la cuenca alta en su vertiente oriental al río Balsas, en particular de la sierra...

  4. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people

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    Oliva-Rivera Héctor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae. Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species. Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented.

  5. Discovery of a third species of Lamproptera Gray, 1832 (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shao-Ji; Zhang, Xin; Cotton, Adam M; Ye, Hui

    2014-04-11

    A newly discovered, third species of the genus Lamproptera (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) is described, 183 years after the second currently recognised species was first named. Lamproptera paracurius Hu, Zhang & Cotton sp. n., from N.E. Yunnan, China, is based on marked differences in external morphology and male genital structure. The species is confirmed as a member of the genus, and detailed comparisons are made with other taxa included in the genus. Keys to Lamproptera species based on external characters and male genitalia are included.

  6. Feeding stimulants for larvae of Graphium sarpedon nipponum (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) from Cinnamomum camphora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Zhan, Zhi-Hui; Tebayashi, Shin-Ichi; Kim, Chul-Sa; Li, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The feeding response of larvae of the swallowtail butterfly, Graphium sarpedon nipponum (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae), is elicited by a methanolic extract from camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) leaves. Based on bioassay-guided fractionation, three compounds, isolated from the methanolic extract of fresh leaves of the camphor tree, were revealed to be involved in a multi-component system of feeding stimulants. Structures of these feeding stimulants were identified as sucrose, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and quercetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside by NMR and LC-MS.

  7. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae. Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species. Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented. PMID:21211040

  8. The aquatic habit and host plants of Paracles klagesi (Rothschild (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae in Brazil

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    Aurélio R. Meneses

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic habit and host plants of Paracles klagesi (Rothschild (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae in Brazil. The aquatic caterpillar Paracles klagesi (Rothschild, 1910 was collected from the headwaters of a stream in an ecotone between Cerrado and Babaçu forest in northeastern Brazil. The single caterpillar found was observed feeding on the macrophyte Tonina fluviatilis Aubl. (Eriocaulaceae and other aquatic plants of the family Nymphaeaceae present in the area, but also accepted as food Elodea canadensis Michx. (Hydrocharitaceae and Cabomba sp. (Cabombaceae under laboratory conditions.

  9. Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917 (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae: a New Pest of Tomato in Serbia

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    Ivo Toševski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, a devastating pest of tomato originating from South America has been recorded in Serbia on three localities: in tomato main greenhouse and open field production area located in the vicinity of town Leskovac (South Serbia, in surroundings of the village Donji Vrtogoš (near town Vranje, South Serbia and in a greenhouses complex in Kraljevci (60 km west of Belgrade. The presence of T. absoluta was confirmed by morphological and molecular study of the collected specimens.

  10. Pheromone-based management strategies to control the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae. A review

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    Caparros Megido, R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We here review pheromone control strategies for species-specific and environmentally safe management of the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae. This insect pest originates from South America and is now considered to be one of the most damaging invasive pests of tomatoes in the Mediterranean Basin countries of Europe and North Africa. After presenting the general principles of sex pheromone-based control strategies, we describe strategies used to control T. absoluta including pest detection, population monitoring, mass annihilation and mating disruption techniques.

  11. Two new species of the genus Deltophora Janse, 1950 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Houhun; Wang, Zhibo; Sattler, Klaus

    2016-01-04

    Two Chinese species of the genus Deltophora Janse (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), both in obligate mutualism with the plant genus Phyllanthus L. (Phyllanthaceae), are newly described: Deltophora phyllanthicella Li et Sattler sp. n., from Hainan, a pollinator of its larval host Phyllanthus rheophyticus Gilbert et Li; Deltophora polliniferens Li et Sattler sp. n., from Guangdong, a pollinator of its larval host Phyllanthus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng. The adults and the male and female genital structures of both species are described and illustrated. The presence of a fully developed 1st instar larva in the female abdomen of Deltophora phyllanthicella is recorded as the first such case in Gelechiidae.

  12. Actividad insecticida de Ricinus Communis L. sobre Plodia Interpunctella Hbn. (Lepidoptera: Phycitinae).

    OpenAIRE

    Collavino, Marcelo; Pelicano, Alicia; Giménez, Rosana A.

    2006-01-01

    La aplicación de insecticidas sintéticos como principal sistema de control de plagas de granos y productos almacenados ha originado el desarrollo de poblaciones de insectos resistentes a dichos químicos, la contaminación del medio ambiente y la acumulación de sustancias tóxicas en los alimentos. En este trabajo se evaluaron los efectos de la aplicación de molido de hojas de ricino sobre larvas de la «polilla de las harinas» (Lepidoptera: Phycitinae). Los molidos ...

  13. Theoretical study of electromagnetic transport in Lepidoptera Danaus plexippus wing scales

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    J. Sackey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the electromagnetic energies developed in the scales of the Lepidoptera Danaus plexippus. The Green tensor method was used to calculate and simulate the energies at specific wavelengths. Scattering of electromagnetic waves within the scales was simulated at different wavelengths (λ with the corresponding maximum energy occurred at λ = 0.45 μm. The study shows that the design of wing’s cross-ribs maximizes the eigenmode of electromagnetic energy. This shows promising applications in bio-sensors of Solar light and likewise in waveguide for photonic transmission.

  14. Two new species of Utetheisa Hübner (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Arctiinae from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador

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    Lazaro Roque-Albelo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new species, Utetheisa connerorum and Utetheisa henrii (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Arctiinae are described from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. The latter inhabits the highlands of San Cristobal Island while the former is widely distributed on most of the islands of the archipelago. Their habitus and genitalia are illustrated. Based on a study of the holotype, Utetheisa galapagensis (Wallengren was found to be restricted to San Cristobal Island, contrary to previous reports, and is redescribed here. A key is provided to separate all six Galapagos species of Utetheisa based on external characters.

  15. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 1. Two new species of Noctuidae (Lepidoptera, Noctuinae, Agrotini

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    Eric Metzler

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The white gypsum dune ecosystem in the Tularosa Basin in south central New Mexico is the largest gypsum dune field on earth, covering 712.25 km2. White Sands National Monument in Otero County, New Mexico, protects approximately 40%, 297.85 km2, of this dune field. In 2006 the US National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, resulting in the discovery of two new species, Euxoa lafontainei Metzler & Forbes, n. sp. and Protogygia whitesandsensis Metzler & Forbes, n. sp. described herein. Adult moths and male and female genitalia are illustrated for Euxoa lafontainei, and adults and male genitalia are illustrated for Protogygia whitesandsensis and its relatives.

  16. Lepidoptera Larvae as an Indicator of Multi-trophic Level Responses to Changing Seasonality in an Arctic Tundra Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, K. M.; Steltzer, H.; Boelman, N.; Weintraub, M. N.; Darrouzet-Nardi, A.; Wallenstein, M. D.; Sullivan, P.; Gough, L.; Rich, M.; Hendrix, C.; Kielland, K.; Philip, K.; Doak, P.; Ferris, C.; Sikes, D.

    2011-12-01

    Earlier snowmelt and warming temperatures in the Arctic will impact multiple trophic levels through the timing and availability of food resources. Lepidoptera are a vital link within the ecosystem; their roles include pollinator, parasitized host for other pollinating insects, and essential food source for migrating birds and their fledglings. Multiple environmental cues including temperature initiate plant growth, and in turn, trigger the emergence of Lepidoptera and the migrations of birds. If snowmelt is accelerated and temperature is increased, it is expected that the Lepidoptera larvae will respond to early plant growth by increasing their abundance within areas that have accelerated snowmelt and warmer conditions. In May of 2011 in a moist acidic tussock tundra system, we accelerated snowmelt by 15 days through the use of radiation-absorbing fabric and warmed air and soil temperatures using open-top chambers, individually and in combination. Every 1-2 days from May 27th to July 8th, 2 minute searches were performed for Lepidoptera larvae in all treatments; when an animal was found, their micro-habitat, surface temperature, behavior, food source, and time of day were noted. The length, body and head width were measured, and the animals were examined for braconid wasp and tachinid fly parasites. Lepidoptera larvae collected in pitfall traps from May 26th to July 7th were also examined and measured. Total density of parasitized larvae accounted for 54% of observed specimens and 50% of pitfall specimens, indicating that Lepidoptera larvae serve an integral role as a host for other pollinators. Total larvae density was highest within the accelerated snowmelt plots compared to the control plots; 66% of observed live specimens and 63% of pitfall specimens were found within the accelerated snowmelt plots. Ninety percent of the total observed animals were found within the open-top warming chambers. Peak density of animals occurred at Solar Noon between 14:00 -15

  17. Complete mitochondrial genomes of two gelechioids, Mesophleps albilinella and Dichomeris ustalella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), with a description of gene rearrangement in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Sun; Kim, Min Jee; Jeong, Su Yeon; Kim, Sung Soo; Kim, Iksoo

    2016-11-01

    We sequenced the entire mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of two gelechioids, Mesophleps albilinella and Dichomeris ustalella, and compared their genome organization and sequence composition to those of available gelechioid mitogenomes for an enhanced understanding of Gelechioidea genomic characteristics. We compared all available lepidopteran mitogenome arrangements, including that of M. albilinella, which is unique in Gelechioidea, to comprehend the extensiveness and mechanisms of gene rearrangement in Lepidoptera. The genomes of M. albilinella and D. ustalella are 15,274 and 15,410 bp in size, respectively, with the typical sets of mitochondrial (mt) genes. The COI gene begins with CGA (arginine) in all sequenced gelechioids, including M. albilinella and D. ustalella, reinforcing the feature as a synapomorphic trait, at least in the Gelechioidea. Each 353- and 321-bp long A + T-rich region of M. albilinella and D. ustalella contains one (D. ustalella) or two (M. albilinella) tRNA-like structures. The M. albilinella mitogenome has a unique gene arrangement among the Gelechioidea: ARNESF (the underline signifies an inverted gene) at the ND3 and ND5 junction, as opposed to the ARNSEF that is found in ancestral insects. An extensive search of available lepidopteran mitogenomes, including that of M. albilinella, turned up six rearrangements that differ from those of ancestral insects. Most of the rearrangements can be explained by the tandem duplication-random loss model, but inversion, which requires recombination, is also found in two cases, including M. albilinella. Excluding the MIQ rearrangement at the A + T-rich region and ND2 junction, which is found in nearly all Ditrysia, most of the remaining rearrangements found in Lepidoptera appear to be independently derived in that they are automorphic at several taxonomic scales, although current mitogenomic data are limited, particularly for congeneric data.

  18. PARASITISMO SOBRE Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE EN DOS LOCALIDADES DE CUSCO, PERÚ PARASITISM ON Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE IN TWO LOCALITIES AT CUSCO, PERÚ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Costa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa es una importante actividad económica en Cusco. La polilla Eurysacca melanocampta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae es la principal plaga registrada en este cultivo y presenta varios controladores biológicos. Se registran parasitoides y porcentajes de larvas parasitadas de la polilla de la quinua provenientes de dos localidades de Cusco: Izcuchaca (3400 msnm y Quiquijana (3100 msnm. Las larvas colectadas se criaron en laboratorio hasta la emergencia de los parasitoides adultos. Phytomyptera sp (Diptera: Tachinidae fue la principal especie parasitoide con 19,8% de parasitismo de larvas provenientes de ambas localidades. Braconidae (Hymenoptera, incluyendo Apanteles sp y Earinus sp, representó el 27,8% y Diadegma spp (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae el 5,6%. Braconidae presentó mayor porcentaje de parasitismo en Quiquijana que en Izcuchaca. Se discute el efecto de la diversidad de plantas asociadas, cultivadas y silvestres, sobre las poblaciones de insectos parasitoides.Quinoa crop (Chenopodium quinoa is an important economic activity at Cusco. The quinoa moth: Eurysacca melanocampta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae is the main insect pest recorded from Cusco in quinoa fields and it has a complex of natural enemies. This research reports parasitoid insects and percentage of parasitized larvae of quinoa moth from two localities of Cusco: Izcuchaca (3400 masl and Quiquijana (3100 masl. Collected larvae were reared at room conditions up to emergence of adult parasitoids. Phytomyptera sp (Diptera: Tachinidae was the main parasitoid with 19,8% of parasitized larvae from both localities. Braconidae (Hymenoptera, including Apanteles sp y Earinus sp, accounted for 27,8% and Diadegma spp (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae the 5,6%. Braconidae showed a greater percentage of parasitism at Quiquijana than Izcuchaca. We discuss if diversity of associated plants, both cultivated and wild plants, influence parasitoid populations.

  19. Estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis efetivas contra insetos das ordens Lepidoptera, Coleoptera e Diptera Bacillus thuringiensis strains effective against insects of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Diptera orders

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    Lílian Botelho Praça

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar entre 300 estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis as efetivas simultaneamente contra larvas de Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith e Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus e Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Foram selecionadas duas estirpes de B. thuringiensis, denominadas S234 e S997, que apresentaram atividade contra as três ordens de insetos. As estirpes foram caracterizadas por métodos morfológicos, bioquímicos e moleculares. As mesmas apresentaram duas proteínas principais de 130 e 65 kDa, produtos de reação em cadeia da polimerase de tamanho esperado para a detecção dos genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B e cry2 e cristais bipiramidais, cubóides e esféricos.The aim of this work was to select among 300 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis those which are simultaneously effective against larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith and Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Two strains of B. thuringiensis were selected, S234 and S997, which presented activity against those three insect orders. Both strains were characterized by morphological, biochemical and molecular methods. They have presented two main proteins with 130 and 65 kDa, polimerase chain reaction products with expected sizes for detection of the genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B and cry2 and bipiramidal, cubical and spherical crystals.

  20. A molecular analysis of the Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera, Gelechioidea) with an interpretative grouping of its taxa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Mutanen, Marko; Lee, Sangmi

    2013-01-01

    We re-examine the higher level phylogeny and evolutionary affinities of the family Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea) based on DNA sequence data for one mitochondrial gene (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I ) and seven nuclear genes (Elongation Factor-1α, wingless, Ribosomal protein S5, Isocitr......We re-examine the higher level phylogeny and evolutionary affinities of the family Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea) based on DNA sequence data for one mitochondrial gene (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I ) and seven nuclear genes (Elongation Factor-1α, wingless, Ribosomal protein S5......, Isocitrate dehydrogenase, Cytosolic malate dehydrogenase, Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and Carbamoylphosphate synthase domain protein). Fifty-two taxa representing nearly all established subfamilies and tribes of Gelechiidae, and about 10% of described gelechiid genera, in addition to five...... outgroup taxa were sequenced. Data matrices (6157 bp total) were analysed under model-based evolutionary methods (Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference), resulting in novel high-level phylogenetic interrelationships. The best supported cladogram divided the Gelechiidae into six distinct clades...

  1. Adaptation of indigenous larval parasitoids to Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferracini, Chiara; Ingegno, Barbara Letizia; Navone, Paolo; Ferrari, Ester; Mosti, Marco; Tavella, Luciana; Alma, Alberto

    2012-08-01

    Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a serious threat to tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) crops in South America. In Europe, after its first detection in Spain in 2006, it rapidly spread through the Mediterranean basin, reaching Italy 2 yr later. The aim of our work was to find indigenous effective biological control agents and to evaluate their potential role in the control of larval populations of T. absoluta in controlled conditions. Nine species of larval parasitoids emerged from field-collected tomato leaves infested by T. absoluta. The most abundant, Necremnus near artynes (Walker) and Necremnus near tidius (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), were tested in laboratory parasitism trials. Furthermore, because the species N. artynes and N. tidius are each reported in literature as an ectoparasitoid of Cosmopterix pulchrimella Chambers (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae) on upright pellitory plants, olfactometer bioassays were performed to assess the response of our parasitoids to the odors of tomato and pellitory leaves infested by T absoluta and C. pulchrimella, respectively, compared with healthy ones. Both Necremnus species showed good adaptation to the invasive pest, and we observed a high larval mortality of T. absoluta because of host feeding and parasitism. Even olfactory responses highlighted a preference of both wasps for tomato plants infested by the exotic pest. These preliminary results demonstrated a high suitability of these indigenous natural enemies for controlling T. absoluta. Further investigations are needed to confirm their role as potential biological agents in commercial tomato plantations.

  2. The genus Erechthias Meyrick of Ascension Island, including discovery of a new brachypterous species (Lepidoptera, Tineidae

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    Donald Davis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One previously named and two new species of the tineid genus Erechthias Meyrick are described and illustrated from the small, remote, mid-Atlantic Ascension Island. With these additions the Lepidoptera fauna of Ascension now totals 38 known species. Little is known regarding the biology of the two new species of Erechthias, and none of the species has been reared from larvae from Ascension. Erechthias minuscula (Walsingham is a widespread, largely pantropical species first described from the West Indies. Larvae of E. minuscula are known to be scavengers on a wide variety of dead plant material. Erechthias ascensionae, new species, is one of two species of Erechthias now known to be endemic to the island. The other endemic species, Erechthias grayi, new species, is further remarkable inwing reduction occurring in both sexes. It is one of the few species of Lepidoptera known where this extreme of brachyptery involving both sexes has evolved. The larvae of E. grayi are believed to be lichenivorous, and larval cases suspected to represent this species are illustrated.

  3. Eucalyptus cloeziana AS A NEW HOST TO Hylesia paulex (LEPIDOPTERA: SATURNIIDAE IN SOUTHEAST BRAZIL

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    Alexandre Igor Azevedo Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An unidentified Lepidoptera species was found defoliating Eucalyptus cloeziana (Myrtaceae in a cerrado area of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Pupae of this insect, collected in the area, were brought to the laboratory and maintained in Petri dishes (9.0 cm x 1.5 cm under 25 ± 2oC, relative humidity of 60 ± 10% and 12 hours photophase to obtain adults and eggs. This insect was identified as Hylesia paulex Dognin (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae, and, in that way, the objective of the present study was to register for the first time its herbivory in E. cloeziana plants. Newly-emerged caterpillars were reared in 10 plastic pots (500ml, with 30 caterpillars per pot and fed, daily, with fresh leaves of Eucalyptus cloeziana (Myrtaceae. The egg incubation period of H. paulex was 32.00 ± 1.19 days. The total duration of the seven instars of this insect was 67.83 ± 0.84 days. Hylesia paulex completed its life cycle with E. cloeziana plants, what proves its adaptability to this kind of exotic Myrtaceae in Brazil.

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome of the larch hawk moth, Sphinx morio (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jee; Choi, Sei-Woong; Kim, Iksoo

    2013-12-01

    The larch hawk moth, Sphinx morio, belongs to the lepidopteran family Sphingidae that has long been studied as a family of model insects in a diverse field. In this study, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences of the species in terms of general genomic features and characteristic short repetitive sequences found in the A + T-rich region. The 15,299-bp-long genome consisted of a typical set of genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes) and one major non-coding A + T-rich region, with the typical arrangement found in Lepidoptera. The 316-bp-long A + T-rich region located between srRNA and tRNA(Met) harbored the conserved sequence blocks that are typically found in lepidopteran insects. Additionally, the A + T-rich region of S. morio contained three characteristic repeat sequences that are rarely found in Lepidoptera: two identical 12-bp repeat, three identical 5-bp-long tandem repeat, and six nearly identical 5-6 bp long repeat sequences.

  5. Population dynamic of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons

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    SUWARNO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Suwarno (2010 Population dynamic of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons. Biodiversitas 11: 19-23. The population dynamic of Papilio polytes L. (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons was investigated in the citrus orchard in Tasek Gelugor, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Population of immature stages of P. polytes was observed alternate day from January to March 2006 (dry season, DS, from April to July 2006 (secondary wet season, SWS, and from October to December 2006 (primary wet season, PWS. The population dynamics of the immature stages of P. polytes varied between seasons. The immature stages of P. polytes are more abundance and significantly different in the PWS than those of the DS and the SWS. The larval densities in all seasons decreased with progressive development of the instar stages. Predators and parasitoids are the main factor in regulating the population abundance of immature stages of P. polytes. There were positive correlations between the abundance of immature stages of P. polytes and their natural enemies abundance in each season. Ooencyrtus papilioni Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae is the most egg parasitoid. Oxyopes quadrifasciatus L. Koch. and O. elegans L. Koch. (Araneae: Oxyopidae are the main predators in the young larvae, meanwhile Sycanus dichotomus Stal. (Heteroptera: Reduviidae, Calotes versicolor Fitzinger (Squamata: Agamidae, birds and praying mantis attacked the older larvae.

  6. Mortality of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae by parasitoids in the Province of Santa Fe, Argentina

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    Isabel Bertolaccini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mortality of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae by parasitoids in the Province of Santa Fe, Argentina. Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae larvae cause severe economic damage on cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. variety capitata (Brassicaceae, in the horticultural fields in the Province of Santa Fe, Argentina. Overuse of broad spectrum insecticides affects the action of natural enemies of this insect on cabbage. The objectives of this work were to identify the parasitoids of P. xylostella and to determine their influence on larva and pupa mortality. Weekly collections of larvae and pupae were randomly conducted in cabbage crops during spring 2006 and 2007. The immature forms collected were classified according to their developmental stage: L1 and L2 (Ls = small larvae, L3 (Lm = medium larvae, L4 (Ll = large larvae, pre-pupae and pupae (P. Each individual was observed daily in the laboratory until the adult pest or parasitoid emergence. We identified parasitoids, the number of instar and the percentage of mortality of P. xylostella for each species of parasitoid. Parasitoids recorded were: Diadegma insulare (Cresson, 1875 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov, 1912 (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, Cotesia plutellae (Kurdjumov, 1912 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae and an unidentified species of Chalcididae (Hymenoptera. Besides parasitoids, an unidentified entomopathogenic fungus was also recorded in 2006 and 2007. In 2006, the most successful parasitoids were D. insulare and O. sokolowskii, while in 2007 only D. insulare exerted a satisfactory control and it attacked the early instars of the pest.

  7. Flight dynamics of some Lepidoptera species of sugar beet and possibilities their control (Transylvania-Romania

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    Muresanu Felicia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present the obtained results regarding the flight dynamics of some Lepidoptera species in sugar beet crops in Transylvania (the central part of Romania. In order to limit the appearance of mentioned pests to the economic threshold, Trichogramma spp. were obtained in laboratory conditions at ARDS Turda and SBRDS Brasov. The experiments were conducted in production areas on 0,5 ha minimum for each variant. The variants included four Trichogramma species: T. dendrolimi, T. evanescens, T. maidis, T. buesi that were manually released three times: the first release, 10.000 individuals/ha, the second, 120.000 individuals/ha and the third, 150.000 individuals/ha. The first release was performed at the beginning of the Lepidoptera flight, the second at the maximum flight and the third 5 days after the second. The efficiency of T. maidis was between 75-90%, of T. evanescens, it was between 73-88%, of T. dendrolimi, it was between 85-92% and of T. buesi 79-82%. Among the Trichogramma species utilized, T. dendrolimi and T. evanescens were very efficient in the reduction of mentioned pests. Root production was significantly higher compared to the untreated variant, 4,0-4,7 t/ha more were recorded after the application of biological treatments with T. evanescens and T. dendrolimi.

  8. Evolutionary Diversifaction of Aminopeptidase N in Lepidoptera by Conserved Clade-specific Amino Acid Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Austin L.

    2015-01-01

    Members of the aminopepidase N (APN) gene family of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) bind the naturally insecticidal Cry toxins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of seven lepidopteran APN classes provided strong support for the hypothesis that lepidopteran APN2 class arose by gene duplication prior to the most recent common ancestor of Lepidoptera and Diptera. The Cry toxin-binding region (BR) of lepidopteran and dipteran APNs was subject to stronger purifying selection within APN classes than was the remainder of the molecule, reflecting conservation of catalytic site and adjoining residues within the BR. Of lepidopteran APN classes, APN2, APN6, and APN8 showed the strongest evidence of functional specialization, both in expression patterns and in the occurrence of conserved derived amino acid residues. The latter three APN classes also shared a convergently evolved conserved residue close to the catalytic site. APN8 showed a particularly strong tendency towards class-specific conserved residues, including one of the catalytic site residues in the BR and ten others in close vicinity to the catalytic site residues. The occurrence of class-specific sequences along with the conservation of enzymatic function is consistent with the hypothesis that the presence of Cry toxins in the environment has been a factor shaping the evolution of this multi-gene family. PMID:24675701

  9. Evolutionary diversification of aminopeptidase N in Lepidoptera by conserved clade-specific amino acid residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Austin L

    2014-07-01

    Members of the aminopepidase N (APN) gene family of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) bind the naturally insecticidal Cry toxins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of seven lepidopteran APN classes provided strong support for the hypothesis that lepidopteran APN2 class arose by gene duplication prior to the most recent common ancestor of Lepidoptera and Diptera. The Cry toxin-binding region (BR) of lepidopteran and dipteran APNs was subject to stronger purifying selection within APN classes than was the remainder of the molecule, reflecting conservation of catalytic site and adjoining residues within the BR. Of lepidopteran APN classes, APN2, APN6, and APN8 showed the strongest evidence of functional specialization, both in expression patterns and in the occurrence of conserved derived amino acid residues. The latter three APN classes also shared a convergently evolved conserved residue close to the catalytic site. APN8 showed a particularly strong tendency towards class-specific conserved residues, including one of the catalytic site residues in the BR and ten others in close vicinity to the catalytic site residues. The occurrence of class-specific sequences along with the conservation of enzymatic function is consistent with the hypothesis that the presence of Cry toxins in the environment has been a factor shaping the evolution of this multi-gene family. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Controle químico da Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae na cultura do pessegueiro Chemical control of Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in peach orchards

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    Cristiano João Arioli

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A mariposa oriental Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae é a principal praga da cultura do pessegueiro no Brasil. O controle do inseto depende basicamente do emprego de inseticidas de alta toxicidade e baixa seletividade aos inimigos naturais. Este trabalho avaliou os inseticidas etofemprox (Trebon 100 SC, 100 e 150mL 100L-1, benzoato de emamectina (Proclaim 5 SG, 10 e 15g 100L-1 + óleo mineral (Assist, 250mL 100L-1, metoxyfenozide (Intrepid 240 SC, 40 e 60mL 100L-1 e spinosad (Tracer 480 SC, 15 e 25mL 100L-1 para o controle da G. molesta na cultura do pessegueiro. No experimento de laboratório, somente o etofemprox apresentou baixa mortalidade (±50% de lagartas. Em pomar comercial, todos os inseticidas e doses testadas reduziram o nível de injúria nos ponteiros em nível superior a 80%. Os inseticidas avaliados apresentam características desejáveis para uso no manejo integrado da G. molesta, destacando-se a baixa toxicidade e reduzida dose de aplicação, o que minimiza os riscos ao homem e ambiente.Oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae is the most important peach pest in Brazil. Pest management is based on chemical control using insecticides with high toxicity and low selectivity to natural enemies. Etofemprox (Trebon 100 SC, 100 and 150mL 100L-1, emamectin benzoato (Proclaim 5 SG, 10 and 15g 100L-1 associated to mineral oil (Assist, 250mL 100L-1, metoxyfenozide (Intrepid 240 SC 40 and 60mL 100L-1, spinosad (Tracer 480 SC, 15 and 25mL 100L-1 and fosmet (Imidan 500 PM, 200g 100L-1 were evaluated in laboratory and field conditions to G. molesta control. In laboratory, only etofemprox resulted in low mortality (± 50% in residual bioassay. In commercial peach orchards, all insecticides reduced pest damage (> 80%. All insecticides shows characteristics for use in the integrated management of G. molesta including low toxicity and reduced application dose.

  11. Controle químico da Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae e da Hypocala andremona (Stoll (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em laboratório

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    Bavaresco Alvimar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A Hypocala andremona (Stoll (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae e a Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae são as principais pragas do caquizeiro na Serra Gaúcha contudo, há poucas informações sobre o controle químico dessas lagartas. Neste trabalho, avalia-se a eficácia dos inseticidas: acefato, benzoato de emamectina (+ ��leo mineral, clorpirifós-etil, espinosade, etofemproxi, fenitrotiona, fosmete, metoxifenozida, tiacloprido e triclorfom no controle da A. sphaleropa e da H. andremona em laboratório. Os inseticidas (em gramas de ingrediente ativo por 100 litros de água - g i.a. 100L-1 acefato (37,5 e 75,0, benzoato de emamectina (0,375 e 0,5, clorpirifós-etil (45,0 e 67,5, espinosade (4,8 e 9,6, etofemproxi (10,0 e 15,0, fenitrotiona (75,0, metoxifenozida (14,4 e triclorfom (120,0 e 150,0 resultaram em mortalidade superior a 80,0% entre as lagartas de A. sphaleropa. Em relação à H. andremona, observou-se que o acefato (37,5 e 75,0, o benzoato de emamectina (0,375 e 0,5, o clorpirifós-etil (45,0 e 67,5, o espinosade (4,8 e 9,6, o etofemproxi (10 e 15,0, a fenitrotiona (50 e 75,0, o fosmete (50,0 e 100,0, a metoxifenozida (9,6 e 14,4 e o triclorfom (120,0 e 150,0 causaram mortalidade superior a 80%. Esses inseticidas apresentaram elevada eficiência em laboratório e características desejáveis para uso no manejo de lagartas do caquizeiro. No entanto, para validar o seu emprego em pomares comerciais é necessária avaliação de campo.

  12. Seletividade de inseticidas a três Vespidae predadores de Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae Selectivity of insecticides to three Vespidae predators of Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae

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    MARCELO FIALHO DE MOURA

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os insetos que atacam o maracujazeiro, Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae é considerada a praga-chave. Estudou-se a seletividade dos inseticidas fentiom, cartape, malatiom e deltametrina a Dione juno juno, em relação às vespas predadoras Polybia fastidiosuscula, Polybia scutellaris e Protonectarina sylveirae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae. Estimaram-se as curvas concentração-mortalidade e mediante o uso da concentração letal do inseticida em 90% dos indivíduos (CL90 calcularam-se os índices de seletividade diferencial e índices de tolerância. A deltametrina foi seletiva à P. scutellaris e P. fastidiosuscula e medianamente seletiva à P. sylveirae e o cartape foi medianamente seletivo às três espécies de vespas predadoras. O malatiom foi seletivo a P. sylveirae e medianamente seletivo a P. fastidiosuscula. As vespas predadoras P. fastidiosuscula eP. scutellaris foram mais tolerantes a deltametrina e ao fentiom do que P. sylveirae, enquanto o P. fastidiosuscula e P. sylveirae toleraram mais o cartape do que P. scutellaris. O malatiom foi mais tolerado pela espécie P. sylveirae do que por P. fastidiosuscula e P. scutellaris.Among insects that attack passion fruit, Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae is considered the most dangerous plague. The selectivity of the insecticides fenthion, cartap, malathion and deltamethrin to the predatory wasps Polybia fastidiosuscula, Polybia scutellaris and Protonectarina sylveirae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae was studied based on these insecticide toxicities to their prey Dione juno juno. Concentration-mortality regression lines were obtained and the estimated lethal concentration of insecticide to 90% (LC90 of the individuals were used for the calculation of the differential selectivity index and tolerance index. Deltamethrin was selective in favor of P. scutellaris and P. fastidiosuscula and showed intermediate selectivity to P. sylveirae, while cartap showed intermediate selectivity to all

  13. Contributions of gut bacteria to Bacillus thuringiensis-induced mortality vary across a range of Lepidoptera

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    Holt Jonathan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gut microbiota contribute to the health of their hosts, and alterations in the composition of this microbiota can lead to disease. Previously, we demonstrated that indigenous gut bacteria were required for the insecticidal toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis to kill the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. B. thuringiensis and its associated insecticidal toxins are commonly used for the control of lepidopteran pests. A variety of factors associated with the insect host, B. thuringiensis strain, and environment affect the wide range of susceptibilities among Lepidoptera, but the interaction of gut bacteria with these factors is not understood. To assess the contribution of gut bacteria to B. thuringiensis susceptibility across a range of Lepidoptera we examined larval mortality of six species in the presence and absence of their indigenous gut bacteria. We then assessed the effect of feeding an enteric bacterium isolated from L. dispar on larval mortality following ingestion of B. thuringiensis toxin. Results Oral administration of antibiotics reduced larval mortality due to B. thuringiensis in five of six species tested. These included Vanessa cardui (L., Manduca sexta (L., Pieris rapae (L. and Heliothis virescens (F. treated with a formulation composed of B. thuringiensis cells and toxins (DiPel, and Lymantria dispar (L. treated with a cell-free formulation of B. thuringiensis toxin (MVPII. Antibiotics eliminated populations of gut bacteria below detectable levels in each of the insects, with the exception of H. virescens, which did not have detectable gut bacteria prior to treatment. Oral administration of the Gram-negative Enterobacter sp. NAB3, an indigenous gut resident of L. dispar, restored larval mortality in all four of the species in which antibiotics both reduced susceptibility to B. thuringiensis and eliminated gut bacteria, but not in H. virescens. In contrast, ingestion of B. thuringiensis toxin (MVPII following antibiotic

  14. Contributions of gut bacteria to Bacillus thuringiensis-induced mortality vary across a range of Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Nichole A; Robinson, Courtney J; McMahon, Matthew D; Holt, Jonathan; Handelsman, Jo; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2009-03-04

    Gut microbiota contribute to the health of their hosts, and alterations in the composition of this microbiota can lead to disease. Previously, we demonstrated that indigenous gut bacteria were required for the insecticidal toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis to kill the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. B. thuringiensis and its associated insecticidal toxins are commonly used for the control of lepidopteran pests. A variety of factors associated with the insect host, B. thuringiensis strain, and environment affect the wide range of susceptibilities among Lepidoptera, but the interaction of gut bacteria with these factors is not understood. To assess the contribution of gut bacteria to B. thuringiensis susceptibility across a range of Lepidoptera we examined larval mortality of six species in the presence and absence of their indigenous gut bacteria. We then assessed the effect of feeding an enteric bacterium isolated from L. dispar on larval mortality following ingestion of B. thuringiensis toxin. Oral administration of antibiotics reduced larval mortality due to B. thuringiensis in five of six species tested. These included Vanessa cardui (L.), Manduca sexta (L.), Pieris rapae (L.) and Heliothis virescens (F.) treated with a formulation composed of B. thuringiensis cells and toxins (DiPel), and Lymantria dispar (L.) treated with a cell-free formulation of B. thuringiensis toxin (MVPII). Antibiotics eliminated populations of gut bacteria below detectable levels in each of the insects, with the exception of H. virescens, which did not have detectable gut bacteria prior to treatment. Oral administration of the Gram-negative Enterobacter sp. NAB3, an indigenous gut resident of L. dispar, restored larval mortality in all four of the species in which antibiotics both reduced susceptibility to B. thuringiensis and eliminated gut bacteria, but not in H. virescens. In contrast, ingestion of B. thuringiensis toxin (MVPII) following antibiotic treatment significantly increased

  15. FIELD MONITORING OF TOMATO LEAF MINER TUTA ABSOLUTA (MEYRICK (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE BY PHEROMONE TRAPS IN ZONA 1 OF ECUADOR

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    Hristina Kutinkova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is a economically important pest of processed and fresh tomatoes, both in greenhouses and open field crops. Currently, the pest threatens other cultivated solanaceous plants such as eggplant and potato. In this article we review pheromone control strategies for species-specific and environmentally safe management of the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae. This insect pest originates from South America and is now considered to be one of the most damaging invasive pests of tomatoes in the Mediterranean Basin countries of Europe and North Africa. In this article we describestrategies used to control T. absoluta including pest detection and population monitoring. Monitoring of Tuta absoluta was carried out in Imbabura Province in Ecuador. The parameters of using the pheromone traps Delta VI are described.

  16. Enzymatic activity of α-amylase in alimentary tract Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Characterization and Compartmentalization

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Darvishzadeh; Vahid Hosseininaveh; Siavash Salimian Rizi

    2014-01-01

    The Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) damages a wide variety of crops in Middle East. Their hosts include cotton, alfalfa, eggplant, tomato, lettuce, bean and some ornamental crops. The intensive use of broad-spectrum insecticides against S. littoralis has led to the development of resistance to many registered pesticides use for its control. The purpose of the present study is biochemical characterization of digestive enzymes of this pest to...

  17. The “Taygetis ypthima species group” (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae: taxonomy, variation and description of a new species

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    Ricardo Siewert

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Taygetis Hübner, [1819] (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae from southeastern Brazil is described: Taygetis drogoni sp. n. In addition, T. servius Weymer, 1910 and T. fulginia d’Almeida, 1922 are resurrected from synonymy and a taxonomic discussion on the species T. ypthima Hübner, [1821] and T. rectifascia Weymer, 1907 is provided. A dichotomous key for the species is also provided.

  18. Cluster biodiversity as a multidimensional structure evolution strategy: checkerspot butterflies of the group Euphydryas aurinia (Rottemburg, 1775) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korb, S. K.; Bolshakov, L. V.; Faltýnek Fric, Zdeněk; Bartoňová, Alena

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 2 (2016), s. 441-457 ISSN 0307-6970 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 168/2013/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Euphydryas aurinia * biodiversity * Lepidoptera Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.474, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/syen.12167/abstract

  19. Primeira ocorrência de fitofagia de frutos e sementes de Orchidaceae por Hyphilaria thasus Stoll. (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    ANDRÉ RODRIGO RECH; YARA BRITO CHAIM JARDIM ROSA; EDGARD JARDIM ROSA JUNIOR

    2008-01-01

    Em um levantamento para identificação de espécies nativas da mata ciliar do Rio Dourados, Dourados (MS), observou-se a fitofagia em frutos de Brassavola cebolleta e Oncidium jonesianum por larvas de Hyphilaria thasus (Stoll, 1780) (Lepidoptera). Este é o primeiro relato da fitofagia de frutos e sementes nessas duas espécies de Orchidaceae no Brasil.

  20. Primeira ocorrência de fitofagia de frutos e sementes de Orchidaceae por Hyphilaria thasus Stoll. (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae no Brasil

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    ANDRÉ RODRIGO RECH

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Em um levantamento para identificação de espécies nativas da mata ciliar do Rio Dourados, Dourados (MS, observou-se a fitofagia em frutos de Brassavola cebolleta e Oncidium jonesianum por larvas de Hyphilaria thasus (Stoll, 1780 (Lepidoptera. Este é o primeiro relato da fitofagia de frutos e sementes nessas duas espécies de Orchidaceae no Brasil.

  1. Structural similarity between the lepidoptera- and diptera-specific insecticidal endotoxin genes of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. "kurstaki" and "israelensis".

    OpenAIRE

    Thorne, L; Garduno, F; Thompson, T; Decker, D.; Zounes, M; Wild, M.; Walfield, A M; Pollock, T J

    1986-01-01

    A gene from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. "israelensis" was cloned from the large plasmids of this subspecies and was shown to code for a mosquitocidal polypeptide. The gene could be expressed in either Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, or B. thuringiensis subsp. "israelensis" to produce the larvicidal activity. Similarly, a Lepidoptera-specific toxin gene from B. thuringiensis subsp. "kurstaki" was also cloned and expressed in E. coli and B. subtilis. Both cloned genes were sequenced and ...

  2. Espécies de Adelpha Hübner, [1819] (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Limenitidinae ocorrentes no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Rocco Alfredo Di Mare

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Species of Adelpha Hübner, [1819] (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Limenitidinae occurring in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Based on literature, collections and sampled butterflies, a list of twelve species of Adelpha Hübner occurring in Rio Grande do Sul State is presented, including host plants. Adelpha epizygis Fruhstorfer, [1916], Adelpha falcipennis Fruhstorfer, [1916], Adelpha goyama Schaus, 1902 and Adelpha isis (Drury, 1782 are new reports to Rio Grande do Sul. The species are illustrated and keyed.

  3. Constancy, Distribution, and Frequency of Lepidoptera Defoliators of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla (Myrtaceae) in Four Brazilian Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, G T; Zanuncio, J C; de S Tavares, W; de S Ramalho, F; Serrão, J E

    2016-12-01

    The growth of the Brazilian forest sector with monocultures favors the adaptation of Arthropoda pests. The Lepidoptera order includes major pests of Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae). The aim of this work is to study the population constancy, distribution, and frequency of Lepidoptera primary pests of Eucalyptus spp. Lepidoptera pests in Eucalyptus spp. plantations were collected in Três Marias and Guanhães (state of Minas Gerais), Niquelândia (state of Goiás), and Monte Dourado (state of Pará), Brazil, for a period of 5 years, with light traps and captures, every 15 days, for every region. The number of primary pest species (12) has been similar in the four regions, and even with 1.5 to 2.4% of the total species collected, this group has shown a high frequency, especially in Três Marias, Niquelândia, and Monte Dourado, with 66.3, 54.2, and 40.0% of the individuals collected, respectively, for 5 years. The primary pest species have been constant and frequent in all the regions, with population peaks from February to September in Três Marias, February and May in Niquelândia, and from July to September in Monte Dourado. The highest population peaks of these species have been recorded when the Eucalyptus spp. plants are 3 to 6 years old. The Guanhães region is more stable and, therefore, has a lower possibility of outbreaks of the Lepidoptera primary pest species.

  4. Some Brain Peptides Regulating the Secretion of Digestive Enzymes in the Indian Meal Moth, Plodia Interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sajjadian Seyede Minoo; Hosseininaveh Vahid; Jahromi Khalil Talebi

    2014-01-01

    The Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a destructive polyphagous pest of many stored products. To interfere with the physiological processes, especially digestion, of the larval pest, more information on the regulatory mechanisms is needed. The brain extract from 1-day-old last instar larvae of P. interpunctella was examined. In the bioassays, the midguts were treated with the brain extract, and the carbohydrase and protease activities were measured. ...

  5. Ecology of the African maize stalk borer, Bussolea fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with special reference to insect-plant interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Calatayud, Paul-André; Le Ru, Bruno; van den Berg, J; Schulthess, F

    2014-01-01

    Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an important pest of maize and sorghum in sub-Saharan Africa. One century after its first description by Fuller in 1901, inaccurate information based on earlier reports are still propagated on its distribution (e.g., absent from the lower altitudes in East Africa) and host plant range (e.g., feeding on a large range of wild grass species). This review provides updated information on the biology, distribution and genetics of B. fusca with emphasis on ...

  6. Ecology of the African Maize Stalk Borer, Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with Special Reference to Insect-Plant Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Paul-André Calatayud; Le Ru, Bruno P.; Johnnie van den Berg; Fritz Schulthess

    2014-01-01

    Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an important pest of maize and sorghum in sub-Saharan Africa. One century after its first description by Fuller in 1901, inaccurate information based on earlier reports are still propagated on its distribution (e.g., absent from the lower altitudes in East Africa) and host plant range (e.g., feeding on a large range of wild grass species). This review provides updated information on the biology, distribution and genetics of B. fusca with emphasis on...

  7. Combining natural enemies and selective pesticides in IPM programmes of exotic pests: the Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) case

    OpenAIRE

    Biondi, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The recent invasion of the Mediterranean basin by the South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), has lead to a swift increase in insecticide applications in tomato crops. Such increase may compromise the tomato Integrated Pest Management (IPM) packages that were sustainable and commonly used by farmers. My work aimed at providing key bases for including indigenous biocontrol agents of T. absoluta in IPM programs on tomato in Europe. A survey carried out in 3 Ital...

  8. Fate of Ingested Aristolactams from Aristolochia chilensis in Battus polydamas archidamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae

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    Angel Olguín

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We performed a sequestration study of aristolactams (ALs from Aristolochia chilensis in Battus polydamas archidamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae by examining the AL content of the plant, fifth instar larvae, osmeterial secretion, pupae, exuviae and feces. Aristolactam-I (AL-I and aristolactam-II (AL-II present in A. chilensis are sequestered by fifth instar larvae of B. polydamas archidamas. There is a preferential sequestration of AL-II, or a more efficient metabolization and excretion of AL-I, by the larva. No ALs were found in the osmeterial secretion, pupae and exuviae; in addition, little AL-I and no AL-II were found in larval frass. The two lactams, particularly AL-I, are extensively metabolized to other products in the larva. A reasonable hypothesis is that the ingested ALs are oxidized to their respective aristolochic acids.

  9. Fate of Ingested Aristolactams from Aristolochia chilensis in Battus polydamas archidamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzúa, Alejandro; Olguín, Angel; Santander, Rocío

    2013-10-11

    We performed a sequestration study of aristolactams (ALs) from Aristolochia chilensis in Battus polydamas archidamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) by examining the AL content of the plant, fifth instar larvae, osmeterial secretion, pupae, exuviae and feces. Aristolactam-I (AL-I) and aristolactam-II (AL-II) present in A. chilensis are sequestered by fifth instar larvae of B. polydamas archidamas. There is a preferential sequestration of AL-II, or a more efficient metabolization and excretion of AL-I, by the larva. No ALs were found in the osmeterial secretion, pupae and exuviae; in addition, little AL-I and no AL-II were found in larval frass. The two lactams, particularly AL-I, are extensively metabolized to other products in the larva. A reasonable hypothesis is that the ingested ALs are oxidized to their respective aristolochic acids.

  10. Stichelia pelotensis (Lepidoptera, Riodinidae: conservation, notes, and rediscovery of an endangered butterfly from southern Brazil

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    Ricardo Russo Siewert

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Stichelia pelotensis (Lepidoptera, Riodinidae is an endemic and threatened butterfly from the Pampa biome in southern Brazil, and has not been recorded in its type locality in the last 56 years. Recently, a population was found in two sites from extreme south Brazil, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul state. These records are an important find given the conservation status of S. pelotensis, since all the information gathered is new and involve the natural history of this species. The information obtained is useful for the management, monitoring and conservation priorities of this species and its associated habitats, since its known distribution is restricted to a narrow area in the Rio Grande do Sul Coastal Plain inside this threatened biome in southern Brazil.

  11. A new, prairie-restricted species of Anacampsis Curtis (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) from Illinois .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Terry L; Berenbaum, May R

    2013-11-26

    Anacampsis wikeri (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), new species, is described. The larva of A. wikeri feeds on leaves of a prairie legume, leadplant, Amorpha canescens (Fabaceae). The moth is univoltine, with mature larvae occurring in late May; adults are active from early June into summer and autumn, while overwintering throughout the winter months. The adult of A. wikeri is externally very similar to that of another legume-feeding species, Anacampsis psoraliella. Sight identification of adults of these two species, especially of unreared individuals originating in the multi-state area of the Midwest in which their respective larval hostplants are sympatric, therefore is rendered problematic. Larval host plant specificity and adult genital morphology, however, allow unequivocal diagnosis. These characters are discussed, and male and female genitalia are illustrated for both species.

  12. Infestation Level Influences Oviposition Site Selection in the Tomato Leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawin, Thomas; De Backer, Lara; Dujeu, David; Legrand, Pauline; Megido, Rudy Caparros; Francis, Frédéric; Verheggen, François J

    2014-11-11

    The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a devastating pest that develops principally on solanaceous plants throughout South and Central America and Europe. In this study, we tested the influence of three levels of T. absoluta infestations on the attraction and oviposition preference of adult T. absoluta. Three infestation levels (i.e., non-infested plants, plants infested with 10 T. absoluta larvae, and plants infested with 20 T. absoluta larvae) were presented by pairs in a flying tunnel to groups of T. absoluta adults. We found no differences in terms of adult attraction for either level of infestations. However, female oviposition choice is influenced by larvae density on tomato plants. We discuss the underlying mechanisms and propose recommendations for further research.

  13. Mortality of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae by parasitoids in the Province of Santa Fe, Argentina

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    Isabel Bertolaccini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mortality of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae by parasitoids in the Province of Santa Fe, Argentina. Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae larvae cause severe economic damage on cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. variety capitata (Brassicaceae, in the horticultural fields in the Province of Santa Fe, Argentina. Overuse of broad spectrum insecticides affects the action of natural enemies of this insect on cabbage. The objectives of this work were to identify the parasitoids of P. xylostella and to determine their influence on larva and pupa mortality. Weekly collections of larvae and pupae were randomly conducted in cabbage crops during spring 2006 and 2007. The immature forms collected were classified according to their developmental stage: L1 and L2 (Ls = small larvae, L3 (Lm = medium larvae, L4 (Ll = large larvae, pre-pupae and pupae (P. Each individual was observed daily in the laboratory until the adult pest or parasitoid emergence. We identified parasitoids, the number of instar and the percentage of mortality of P. xylostella for each species of parasitoid. Parasitoids recorded were: Diadegma insulare (Cresson, 1875 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov, 1912 (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, Cotesia plutellae (Kurdjumov, 1912 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae and an unidentified species of Chalcididae (Hymenoptera. Besides parasitoids, an unidentified entomopathogenic fungus was also recorded in 2006 and 2007. In 2006, the most successful parasitoids were D. insulare and O. sokolowskii, while in 2007 only D. insulare exerted a satisfactory control and it attacked the early instars of the pest.Mortalidade de Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae por parasitóides na Província de Santa Fé, Argentina. Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae causa danos econômicos severos em repolho, Brassica oleracea variedade capitata L. (Brassicaceae, na área de horticultura localizada

  14. Selection of active plant extracts against the coffee leaf miner Leucoptera coffeella (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae

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    D.S. Alves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to contribute to the development of alternative control methods of the coffee leaf miner, Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville & Perrottet, 1842 (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae, a search for plants able to produce active substances against this insect was carried out, with species collected during different periods of time in the Alto Rio Grande region, (Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Coffee leaves containing L. coffeella mines were joined with 106 extracts from 77 plant species and, after 48 hours, the dead and alive caterpillars were counted. The extracts from Achillea millefolium, Citrus limon, Glechoma hederacea, Malva sylvestris, Mangifera indica, Mentha spicata, Mirabilis jalapa, Musa sapientum, Ocimum basiculum, Petiveria alliaceae, Porophyllum ruderale, Psidium guajava, Rosmarinus officinalis, Roupala montana, Sambucus nigra and Tropaeolum majus showed the highest mortality rates.

  15. Pheromone races of Cydia splendana (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae overlap in host plant association and geographic distribution

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    Marie eBengtsson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the sex pheromone of Cydia splendana (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae by pheromone gland analysis followed by field trapping with synthetic compounds shows the occurrence of two pheromone races. Acorn moth females from Sweden, where oak Quercus robur is the only host plant, use a blend of the E,Z and E,E isomers of 8,10-dodecadien-1-yl acetate. In Central and Southern Europe, where C. splendana feeds on chestnut Castanea sativa and several species of oak, males respond to another isomer blend, E,E and Z,E. The distribution of the two pheromone races of C. splendana overlaps in Northern France, where they share oak as plant host. Differences in sex communication signals lead to behavioural pre-mating isolation between these populations, and emphasize the role of specific mate recognition in speciation events.

  16. An unusual food plant for Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae in Mexico

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    Alejandro Salinas-Castro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An unusual food plant for Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae in Mexico. Larvae of Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus, 1758 were discovered on floral cones of Magnolia schiedeana (Schltdl, 1864 near the natural reserve of La Martinica, Veracruz, México. Magnolia represents an unusual host for this moth species, which is known throughout the world as the "codling moth", a serious pest of fruits of Rosaceae, especially apples. The larvae were identified using taxonomic keys, and identification was corroborated using molecular markers. Further sampling resulted in no additional larvae, hence, the observation was probably that of an ovipositional error by the female, and M. schiedeana is not at risk of attack by this important moth pest.

  17. First report of Elaphria agrotina and Elaphria deltoides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Elaphriini) feeding on maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Alexandre; Soria, Miguel Ferreira; Maba, Talita Saiara Mafini; Belufi, Luana Maria de Rossi; Godoi, Bárbara Weschenfelder; Pereira, Mônica Josene Barbosa; Paula-Moraes, Silvana V

    2014-08-01

    This is the first report of Elaphria agrotina (Guenée, 1852) and Elaphria deltoides (Möschler, 1880) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) feeding on maize (Zea mays L.). The specimens were collected in maize fields during the crop season of 2012 and 2013 in three municipalities in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Larvae were collected while feeding at the ear base, which often resulted in ears dropping to the ground. Larvae also were observed feeding on kernels in fallen ears. Ear injury often leads to reduced grain quality, and when the ears fall to the ground, reduced yield. A previous report of Striacosta albicosta (Smith, 1888) feeding on maize in Brazil was probably a misidentification of an E. agrotina male, which has wing pattern and coloration similarities with S. albicosta.

  18. Infestation Level Influences Oviposition Site Selection in the Tomato Leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae

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    Thomas Bawin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is a devastating pest that develops principally on solanaceous plants throughout South and Central America and Europe. In this study, we tested the influence of three levels of T. absoluta infestations on the attraction and oviposition preference of adult T. absoluta. Three infestation levels (i.e., non-infested plants, plants infested with 10 T. absoluta larvae, and plants infested with 20 T. absoluta larvae were presented by pairs in a flying tunnel to groups of T. absoluta adults. We found no differences in terms of adult attraction for either level of infestations. However, female oviposition choice is influenced by larvae density on tomato plants. We discuss the underlying mechanisms and propose recommendations for further research.

  19. Eremonidiopsis aggregata, gen. n., sp. n. from Cuba, the third West Indian Dioptinae (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguila, Rayner Núñez

    2013-01-01

    A new genus and species of Dioptinae (Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea, Notodontidae) is described from Cuba, this being the third taxon of the subfamily known from the West Indies. Eremonidiopsis aggregata, gen. n., sp. n., appears to be closely related to Eremonidia mirifica Rawlins & Miller from Hispaniola among members of the tribe Dioptini. Eremonidiopsis aggregata is known from two localities in the middle and western portions of the northeastern Cuban mountain range, Nipe-Sagua-Baracoa. The species inhabits low elevations (300-400 m) covered by lowland rainforest and sclerophyll rainforest. The six known specimens, all males, were part of small swarms flying near the top of an unidentified tree during the day at both collecting sites. These localities are included within protected areas, the "Pico Cristal" National Park in the West and the "Alexander von Humbolt" National Park in the East.

  20. First report of Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae on African mahogany Khaya ivorensis

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    Ronald Zanetti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The mahogany shoot borer Hypsipyla grandella Zeller is an important economic pest in all American tropical forests, because it prevents monoculture of valuable timber trees species like mahogany and cedar. The shoot borer damages several tree structures, especially the apical shoots, impairing the formation of the commercial stem. This pest can attack the plants during the year and one larva per plant is enough to cause significant damage. In infested areas, the attack can reach up to 100 % of the trees. The Australian cedar and African mahogany have been cultivated in Brazil for timber production, because they are considered resistant to H. grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae attack. However, in this work we report for the first time the H. grandella attack to African mahogany Khaya ivorensis.

  1. A revised checklist of Nepticulidae fossils (Lepidoptera) indicates an Early Cretaceous origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorenweerd, Camiel; Nieukerken, Erik J Van; Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Labandeira, Conrad C

    2015-05-27

    With phylogenetic knowledge of Lepidoptera rapidly increasing, catalysed by increasingly powerful molecular techniques, the demand for fossil calibration points to estimate an evolutionary timeframe for the order is becoming an increasingly pressing issue. The family Nepticulidae is a species rich, basal branch within the phylogeny of the Lepidoptera, characterized by larval leaf-mining habits, and thereby represents a potentially important lineage whose evolutionary history can be established more thoroughly with the potential use of fossil calibration points. Using our experience with extant global Nepticulidae, we discuss a list of characters that may be used to assign fossil leaf mines to Nepticulidae, and suggest useful methods for classifying relevant fossil material. We present a checklist of 79 records of Nepticulidae representing adult and leaf-mine fossils mentioned in literature, often with multiple exemplars constituting a single record. We provide our interpretation of these fossils. Two species now are included in the collective generic name Stigmellites: Stigmellites resupinata (Krassilov, 2008) comb. nov. (from Ophiheliconoma) and Stigmellites almeidae (Martins-Neto, 1989) comb. nov. (from Nepticula). Eleven records are for the first time attributed to Nepticulidae. After discarding several dubious records, including one possibly placing the family at a latest Jurassic position, we conclude that the oldest fossils likely attributable to Nepticulidae are several exemplars representing a variety of species from the Dakota Formation (USA). The relevant strata containing these earliest fossils are now dated at 102 Ma (million years ago) in age, corresponding to the latest Albian Stage of the Early Cretaceous. Integration of all records in the checklist shows that a continuous presence of nepticulid-like leaf mines preserved as compression-impression fossils and by amber entombment of adults have a fossil record extending to the latest Early Cretaceous.

  2. Food searching behaviour of a Lepidoptera pest species is modulated by the foraging gene polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardonnet, Floriane; Capdevielle-Dulac, Claire; Chouquet, Bastien; Joly, Nicolas; Harry, Myriam; Le Ru, Bruno; Silvain, Jean-François; Kaiser, Laure

    2014-10-01

    The extent of damage to crop plants from pest insects depends on the foraging behaviour of the insect's feeding stage. Little is known, however, about the genetic and molecular bases of foraging behaviour in phytophagous pest insects. The foraging gene (for), a candidate gene encoding a PKG-I, has an evolutionarily conserved function in feeding strategies. Until now, for had never been studied in Lepidoptera, which includes major pest species. The cereal stem borer Sesamia nonagrioides is therefore a relevant species within this order with which to study conservation of and polymorphism in the for gene, and its role in foraging - a behavioural trait that is directly associated with plant injuries. Full sequencing of for cDNA in S. nonagrioides revealed a high degree of conservation with other insect taxa. Activation of PKG by a cGMP analogue increased larval foraging activity, measured by how frequently larvae moved between food patches in an actimeter. We found one non-synonymous allelic variation in a natural population that defined two allelic variants. These variants presented significantly different levels of foraging activity, and the behaviour was positively correlated to gene expression levels. Our results show that for gene function is conserved in this species of Lepidoptera, and describe an original case of a single nucleotide polymorphism associated with foraging behaviour variation in a pest insect. By illustrating how variation in this single gene can predict phenotype, this work opens new perspectives into the evolutionary context of insect adaptation to plants, as well as pest management. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ya-jun; Shi, Bao-cai; Kang, Zong-jiang; Zhang, Fan; Wei, Shu-jun

    2012-03-01

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) currently is one of the economically most destructive pest species of stone and pome fruits worldwide. Here we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of this pest. This genome is 15,776 bp long, with an A + T content of 81.24%, containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and an A + T-rich region. All gene are arranged as hypothesized ancestral gene order of insects except for trnM, which was shuffled from 3' downstream of trnQ to 5' upstream of trnI. cox1 gene uses unusual CGA start codon, as that in all other sequenced lepidopteran mitochondrial genome. The secondary structures for the two rRNA genes were predicted. All helices typically present in insect mitochondrial rRNA genes are generated. A microsatellite sequence was inserted into the region of H2347 in rrnL in G. molesta and two other sequenced tortricid mitochondrial genomes, indicating that the insertion event in this helix might occurred anciently in family Tortricidae. All of the 22 typical animal tRNA genes have a typical cloverleaf structure except for trnS2, in which the D-stem pairings in the DHU arm are absent. An intergenic sequence is present between trnQ and nad2 as well as in other sequenced lepidopteran mitochondrial genomes, which was presumed to be a remnant of trnM gene and its boundary sequences after the duplication of trnM to the upstream of trnI in Lepidoptera. The A + T-rich region is 836 bp, containing six repeat sequences of "TTATTATTATTATTAAATA(G)TTT."

  4. Keanekaragaman dan Kelimpahan Jenis Kupu-kupu (Lepidoptera; Rhopalocera di Sekitar Kampus Pinang Masak Universitas Jambi

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    Bestia Dewi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui keanekaragaman dan kelimpahan jenis kupu-kupu (Lepidoptera; Rhopalocera di sekitar Kampus Pinang Masak Universitas Jambi. Sampel  diambil dari 5 stasiun yang ditentukan secara purposif. Pada Masing-masing stasiun dibuat transek sepanjang 140 m, lalu dibuat 10 plot dengan ukuran 5x5 m dengan jarak antar plot yang sama (10 m. Parameter pengamatan meliputi keanekaragaman dan kelimpahan jenis. Selain itu diamati pula kondisi lingkungan yang meliputi intensitas cahaya, suhu udara dan kelembaban udara. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, ditemukan 143 individu dari 5 famili yaitu famili Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae, Lycaenidae dan Hesperiidae dengan indeks keanekaragaman jenis yaitu 2,153. Hasil perhitungan kelimpahan jenis menunjukkan banyak jenis yang ditemukan dengan kelimpahan yang rendah yaitu dengan nilai kelimpahan jenis 0,006 (1 individu. Adapun jenis kupu-kupu yang ditemukan melimpah adalah jenis Junonia orithya dengan nilai kelimpahan jenis 0,160  (23 individu, diikuti oleh Acraea terpsicore dengan nilai kelimpahan jenis 0,132(19 individu dan Eurema hecabe dengan nilai kelimpahan jenis 0,118 (17 individu. Kondisi lingkungan yaitu intensitas cahaya (16780-92170 Lux, suhu udara (31,6-34,2 oC dan kelembaban udara (63,8-80,8%. Dari hasil penelitian, keanekaragaman jenis kupu-kupu (Lepidoptera; Rhopalocera di sekitar Kampus Pinang Masak Universitas Jambi menunjukkan tingkat yang sedang dengan nilai berkisar antara 1,5-3,5. Disarankan untuk dapat dilakukan penelitian sejenis dengan lokasi yang lebih luas, dan dengan berbagai kondisi musim sehingga mendapatkan hasil yang lebih luas.   Kata kunci: kupu-kupu, keanekaragaman, kelimpahan, Universitas Jambi.

  5. Genetic and biological analysis of Colombian Phthorimaea operculella granulovirus isolated from Tecia solanivora (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinel-Correal, Carlos; Léry, Xavier; Villamizar, Laura; Gómez, Juliana; Zeddam, Jean Louis; Cotes, Alba Marina; López-Ferber, Miguel

    2010-11-01

    Tecia solanivora (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is an invasive potato pest of the north of South America that recently colonized zones where Phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), a taxonomically related insect, was established. Nowadays, both species can be found in most areas in different proportions. The Phthorimaea operculella granulovirus (PhopGV) was found to efficiently control P. operculella and was used as a biopesticide in storage conditions. However, no appropriate biological control methods exist for T. solanivora, and the use of granulovirus isolates would provide a solution. The Colombian Corporation for Agricultural Research (CORPOICA) carried out several T. solanivora larva samplings in Colombia with the aim of finding potential isolates. Five geographical granulovirus isolates from T. solanivora (VG001, VG002, VG003, VG004, and VG005) were found, and molecular analysis by REN profiles shows three different genotypic variants in Colombia. Analysis of their genomes revealed their relatedness to PhopGV. Two isolates exhibited submolar bands in their REN patterns, suggesting a mixture of viral genotypes. These data were confirmed by PCR amplification and sequencing of particular regions of the viral genomes. Their biological activity was assayed on both hosts, T. solanivora and P. operculella. A significantly higher pathogenicity in both hosts was observed with isolates VG001 and VG005 than with isolate VG003 or a Peruvian isolate (from P. operculella) used as a reference in the bioassay. Based on their molecular and biological activity characteristics, VG001 and VG005 isolates should be selected for further analysis in order to establish their potential as biological control agents.

  6. Mitochondrial genome characterization of Tecia solanivora (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and its phylogenetic relationship with other lepidopteran insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Ríos, Viviana; Franco-Sierra, Nicolás D; Alvarez, Javier Correa; Saldamando-Benjumea, Clara I; Villanueva-Mejía, Diego F

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitogenome of the potato tuber moth Tecia solanivora (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) was sequenced, annotated, characterized and compared with 140 species of the order Lepidoptera. The circular genome is 15,251 bp, containing 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and an A+T-rich region). The gene arrangement was identical to other lepidopteran mitogenomes but different from the ancestral arrangement found in most insects for the tRNA-Met gene (A+T-region, tRNA-I, tRNA-Q, tRNA-M). The mitogenome of T. solanivora is highly A+T-biased (78.2%) and exhibits negative AT- and GC-skews. All PCGs are initiated by canonical ATN start codons, except for Cytochrome Oxidase subunit 1 (COI), which is initiated by CGA. Most PCGs have a complete typical stop codon (TAA). Only NAD1 has a TAG stop codon and the COII and NAD5 genes have an incomplete stop codon consisting of just a T. The A+T-rich region is 332 bp long and contains common features found in lepidopteran mitogenomes, including the 'ATAGA' motif, a 17 bp poly (T) stretch and a (AT)8 element preceded by the 'ATTTA' motif. Other tandem repeats like (TAA)4 and (TAT)7 were found, as well as (T)6 and (A)10 mononucleotide repeat elements. Finally, this mitogenome has 20 intergenic spacer regions. The phylogenetic relationship of T. solanivora with 28 other lepidopteran families (12 superfamilies) showed that taxonomic classification by morphological features coincides with the inferred phylogeny. Thus, the Gelechiidae family represents a monophyletic group, suggesting that T. solanivora and Pectinophora gossypiella have a recent common ancestor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Attack behavior of Podisus rostralis (Heteroptera: Pentatomidade adults on caterpillars of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae

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    Walkymário Paulo Lemos

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Attack behavior of the predator Podisus rostralis (Stäl (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae adults on fourth instar Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae caterpillars was studied in laboratory conditions. Ten 24 hours old adults of this predator were observed during two hours with the following attack behavior: (1 Predator: prey finding; prey observation; touching prey with antenna; attack behavior; prey paralysis; predator retreat after attack; attack cessation; successive attacks; and (2 Prey: defense. The predator P. rostralis found its prey before attacking and it approached it with slow circular movements. The attack was usually made in the posterior part of the prey to reduce defense reaction. Larger size of prey in relation to the predator resulted difficult prey paralysis but it occurred in less than two hours.Estudou-se, em laboratório, o comportamento de ataque de adultos do predador Podisus rostralis (Stäl (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae tendo como presa lagartas de quarto estádio de Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae. Dez adultos do predador, com 24 horas de idade, foram observados durante duas horas acompanhando-se os seguintes comportamentos de ataque: (1 Predador: localização da presa; observação da presa; toque das presas com as antenas; comportamento de ataque; paralisação da presa; fuga do predador após ataque; finalização do ataque; ataques sucessivos; e (2 Presa: defesa. O predador P. rostralis localizou sua presa antes do ataque, aproximando-se dela através de lentos movimentos circulares. O ataque é, usualmente, realizado na parte posterior da presa para reduzir reação de defesa. O maior tamanho da presa em relação ao predador pode dificultar a paralisação, porém o predador consegue paralisá-la em menos de duas horas.

  8. Global Dosage Compensation Is Ubiquitous in Lepidoptera, but Counteracted by the Masculinization of the Z Chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huylmans, Ann Kathrin; Macon, Ariana; Vicoso, Beatriz

    2017-10-01

    While chromosome-wide dosage compensation of the X chromosome has been found in many species, studies in ZW clades have indicated that compensation of the Z is more localized and/or incomplete. In the ZW Lepidoptera, some species show complete compensation of the Z chromosome, while others lack full equalization, but what drives these inconsistencies is unclear. Here, we compare patterns of male and female gene expression on the Z chromosome of two closely related butterfly species, Papilio xuthus and Papilio machaon, and in multiple tissues of two moths species, Plodia interpunctella and Bombyx mori, which were previously found to differ in the extent to which they equalize Z-linked gene expression between the sexes. We find that, while some species and tissues seem to have incomplete dosage compensation, this is in fact due to the accumulation of male-biased genes and the depletion of female-biased genes on the Z chromosome. Once this is accounted for, the Z chromosome is fully compensated in all four species, through the up-regulation of Z expression in females and in some cases additional down-regulation in males. We further find that both sex-biased genes and Z-linked genes have increased rates of expression divergence in this clade, and that this can lead to fast shifts in patterns of gene expression even between closely related species. Taken together, these results show that the uneven distribution of sex-biased genes on sex chromosomes can confound conclusions about dosage compensation and that Z chromosome-wide dosage compensation is not only possible but ubiquitous among Lepidoptera. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  9. Within-tree distribution of Ecdytolopha torticornis (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae oviposition on macadamia nuts

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    Helga Blanco-Metzler

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertical distribution of eggs of the macadamia nutborer Ecdytolopha torticornis Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae and its preference of oviposition sites within and between macadamia cultivars were studied in Turrialba, Cartago, Costa Rica, in 1992 (N = 6 939. E. torticornis eggs were found throughout the foliar parts of the tree, but fewer eggs were laid in the crown top than in the mid or lower crown. Differences in the horizontal distribution of the eggs were not significant, albeit more eggs were found in the outer positions. The numbers of eggs found within the crowns of different clones were similar, implying that the nutborer has no preference for a particular cultivar.Se determinó la distribución vertical de los huevos del barrenador de la nuez de macadamia Ecdytolopha torticornis Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae y los sitios de preferencia de oviposición en los árboles y entre clones de macadamia. Se detectó la presencia de huevos de E. torticornis en todo el árbol, sin embargo, se encontró un menor número de huevos en la parte alta de la corona que en la parte media e inferior. La diferencia en la distribución horizontal de los huevos fue no significativa, a pesar de encontrarse un mayor número de huevos en las posiciones externas. El número de huevos entre clones fue similar, sugiriendo que la polilla del barrenador no tiene preferencias de oviposición entre clones.

  10. Allopatric distribution and diversification without niche shift in a bryophyte-feeding basal moth lineage (Lepidoptera: Micropterigidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Yume; Kawakita, Atsushi; Kato, Makoto

    2011-10-22

    The Lepidoptera represent one of the most successful radiations of plant-feeding insects, which predominantly took place within angiosperms beginning in the Cretaceous period. Angiosperm colonization is thought to underlie the evolutionary success of the Lepidoptera because angiosperms provide an enormous range of niches for ecological speciation to take place. By contrast, the basal lepidopteran lineage, Micropterigidae, remained unassociated with angiosperms since Jurassic times but nevertheless achieved a modest diversity in the Japanese Archipelago. We explored the causes and processes of diversification of the Japanese micropterigid moths by performing molecular phylogenetic analysis and extensive ecological surveying. Phylogenetic analysis recovered a monophyletic group of approximately 25 East Asian endemic species that feed exclusively on the liverwort Conocephalum conicum, suggesting that niche shifts hardly played a role in their diversification. Consistent with the low flying ability of micropterigid moths, the distributions of the Conocephalum specialists are each localized and allopatric, indicating that speciation by geographical isolation has been the major process shaping the diversity of Japanese Micropterigidae. To our knowledge, this is the largest radiation of herbivorous insects that does not accompany any apparent niche differentiation. We suggest that the significance of non-ecological speciation during the diversification of the Lepidoptera is commonly underestimated.

  11. The type-material of Arctiinae (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) described by Burmeister and Berg in the collection of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (Buenos Aires, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccacece, Hernán M; Vincent, Benoit; Navarro, Fernando R

    2014-01-01

    Carlos G. Burmeister and Carlos Berg were among the most important and influential naturalists and zoologists in Argentina and South America and described 241 species and 34 genera of Lepidoptera. The Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (MACN) housed some of the Lepidoptera type specimens of these authors. In this study we present a catalogue with complete information and photographs of 11 Burmeister type specimens and 10 Berg type specimens of Phaegopterina, Arctiina and Pericopina (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini) housed in the MACN. Lectotypes or holotypes were designated where primary type specimens could be recognized; in some cases we were not able to recognize types. The catalogue also proposes nomenclatural changes and new synonymies: Opharus picturata (Burmeister, 1878), comb. n.; Opharus brunnea Gaede, 1923: 7, syn. n.; Hypocrisias jonesi (Schaus, 1894), syn. n.; Leucanopsis infucata (Berg, 1882), stat. rev.; Paracles argentina (Berg, 1877), sp. rev.; Paracles uruguayensis (Berg, 1886), sp. rev.

  12. Cloning and bioinformatics analysis of an ubiquitin gene of the rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ubiquitin which has the function of selective protein degradation may play an important role in the regulation of insect growth and development. The coding sequence of an ubiquitin gene from the larvae of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) named CsUB (GenBank Accession No.

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pringle, K L. Vol 30, No 1 (2007) - Articles Biological control of the spotted stem borer Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) with the entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0379-2897. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tefera, T. Vol 30, No 1 (2007) - Articles Biological control of the spotted stem borer Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) with the entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0379-2897. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers ...

  15. Utilización de feromonas en la predicción fenológica de Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Izquierdo Casas, Josep I.

    1994-01-01

    Utilització de feromones en la predicció fenològica de Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Helicoverpa (=Heliothis) armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) és un insecte plaga clau en conreus de tomàquet i clavell a l'aire lliure al Delta del Llobregat i Maresme. La millora dels sistemes de control d'aquest lepidòpter plaga passa per l'obtenció de mètodes senzills per a definir les densitats presents a fi de racionalitzar la presa de decisions d'intervenció. Els mostreig...

  16. Biologia de Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae na cultura da soja Biology of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in the soybean crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Aparecida Magrini

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a biologia de Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em campos de soja. Os experimentos foram conduzidos durante os períodos agrícolas de 1992 a 1997. Em cada ano foram realizadas duas avaliações, com 20 repetições para cada fase do ciclo de A. gemmatalis. Os insetos levados ao campo foram criados por duas gerações, em laboratório, sobre folhas de soja da variedade hospedeira à temperatura de 27 ± 1 oC, fotofase de 14 horas e 60 ± 10 % UR até a fase de pupa. Foram determinados o número, viabilidade e período de incubação de ovos e viabilidade das fases larval e pupal, longevidade dos adultos, ritmo de postura e razão sexual. A viabilidade média para a fase de ovo variou de 43,0 % (1996 a 76,3 % (1997, sendo a duração média de 3,60 dias. O período larval dos indivíduos que originaram fêmeas variou de 8,95 (1993 a 16,75 dias (1997 e a viabilidade média foi de 17,2 %. O períCodo de pupas fêmeas e de machos foi praticamente o mesmo nos anos estudados (9,80 e 10,61 dias, respectivamente. A longevidade dos adultos fêmeas variou entre 9,10 (1997 a 12,90 dias (1996. A média de ovos colocados foi de 73,5, dos quais 42,3 % viáveis. A razão sexual média foi de 0,50. O período de postura, ocorreu até o 7o (1997 ou 13o dias (1996 com o acme no 2o dia. O ciclo médio de vida da fêmea (ovo - adulto foi de 26,51 dias.The biology of Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae was studied in soybean fields. The experiments were conducted during the seasons of 1992 through 1997. Two evaluations were performed each year with 20 replications for each phase of A. gemmatalis. The insects taken to the field were reared in laboratory for two generations on leaves of the host soybean variety, at 27 ± 1 oC, 14 - hour photophase, and 60 ± 10 % RH, up to the pupal phase. The number, viability and period of incubation of the eggs as well as the viability of the larval and pupal stages, longevity of adults, egg

  17. Efecto del flufenoxuron sobre la actividad copuladora del macho de spodoptera littoralis (Boisd. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Flufenoxuron effects on copulating capacity of spodoptera littoralis (Boisd. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Roberto Mendonça Lyra

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Ha sido evaluado el efecto de benzoilfenylureia sobre la capacidad copuladora de machos de Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd. (Lepdoptera: Noctuidae. Dos grupos de larvas de 3º estadio fueron tratados con el flufenoxuron, uno por ingestión y el otro por contacto, con una concentración del producto igual a la DL60. Cuando hubo la emergencia de los adultos, 10 machos por tratamiento fueron individualizados en cilindros de papel de filtro y puestos a copular con hembras vírgenes, que eron sustituídas diariamente, hasta la muerte de las mismas. Las hembras que fueron ofrecidas a los machos, al morir, eron dissecadas para verificar se estaban o no copuladas, a través de la observación de la presencia de espermatóforos en la bursa copulatrix. Fue observado que los machos de S. littoralis provenientes de larvas tratadas con el flufenoxuron, no tuvieron su capacidad copuladora alterada. La metodología fue considerada adecuada para evaluar la atividad copuladora y el número de copulaciones realizadas por el macho de esta especie.The effect of benzoilphenylureas was studied on the copulating capacity of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae males. Two groups of third instar larvae were treated with flufenoxuron, one by ingestion and another by contact with an DL60 rate. After emergence of the adults, ten males of the each treatment were put individualy in a filter paper cylinder, from the first night until death, in the presence of a virgin female that shift daily. After the female death they were desiccated in order to see the presence or not of the spermatophore in the bursa copulatrix. It was observed that the S. littoralis males that proceeded from the flufenoxuron treated larvae did not change their copulating capacity. The metodology was considerate efficient to evaluate the copulate capacity of this specie males.

  18. Diversidad del orden Lepidoptera (Hesperioidea y Papilionoidea de la ciudad Corrientes, Argentina

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    María Gabriela Lazzeri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de urbanización representa una de las amenazas más importantes a la biodiversidad. Los lepidópteros son uno de los grupos taxonómicos utilizados como indicadores de la diversidad y calidad del ambiente. El objetivo del presente trabajo es conocer los Lepidoptera (Papilionoidea y Hesperioidea de la ciudad de Corrientes. Se llevaron a cabo muestreos al azar en un parche de bosque nativo situado en el barrio Santa Catalina y en un área antropizada, el Parque Mitre. Las recolectas se realizaron en las cuatro estaciones climáticas entre enero y octubre de 2007 con redes entomológicas. El total de ejemplares capturados asciende a 1 114, los que se distribuyen en seis familias: Hesperiidae, Lycaenidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae y Riodinidae y 18 subfamilias. Se identificaron 59 géneros y 75 especies. Anartia jatrophae jatrophae fue la especie más abundante en ambas unidades. Esta especie junto a Urbanus procne, Phoebis sennae marcellina, Pyrgus orcus y Dryas iulia alcionea se capturaron en todas las estaciones. El mayor número de ejemplares se colectó en las estaciones más cálidas. La abundancia (n=701, riqueza (S=74 y diversidad (H’=3.87 fueron superiores en Santa Catalina. Las unidades exploradas exhiben una elevada riqueza de especies y alta similitud.Diversity of the order Lepidoptera (Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea from Corrientes city, Argentina. Urbanization is one of the most important threats for biodiversity. Among many different organisms, butterflies are useful indicators of environment diversity and quality. The aim of this study was to investigate the Lepidoptera from Corrientes city. Random samplings were performed at two sites: a native forest situated in Santa Catalina district and an urban area, Parque Mitre. The captures were carried out using entomological nets, at four seasons between January to October 2007. A total of 1 114 butterflies, represented by six families: Hesperiidae, Lycaenidae

  19. Key biosynthetic gene subfamily recruited for pheromone production prior to the extensive radiation of Lepidoptera

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    Johansson Tomas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Moths have evolved highly successful mating systems, relying on species-specific mixtures of sex pheromone components for long-distance mate communication. Acyl-CoA desaturases are key enzymes in the biosynthesis of these compounds and to a large extent they account for the great diversity of pheromone structures in Lepidoptera. A novel desaturase gene subfamily that displays Δ11 catalytic activities has been highlighted to account for most of the unique pheromone signatures of the taxonomically advanced ditrysian species. To assess the mechanisms driving pheromone evolution, information is needed about the signalling machinery of primitive moths. The currant shoot borer, Lampronia capitella, is the sole reported primitive non-ditrysian moth known to use unsaturated fatty-acid derivatives as sex-pheromone. By combining biochemical and molecular approaches we elucidated the biosynthesis paths of its main pheromone component, the (Z,Z-9,11-tetradecadien-1-ol and bring new insights into the time point of the recruitment of the key Δ11-desaturase gene subfamily in moth pheromone biosynthesis. Results The reconstructed evolutionary tree of desaturases evidenced two ditrysian-specific lineages (the Δ11 and Δ9 (18C>16C to have orthologs in the primitive moth L. capitella despite being absent in Diptera and other insect genomes. Four acyl-CoA desaturase cDNAs were isolated from the pheromone gland, three of which are related to Δ9-desaturases whereas the fourth cDNA clusters with Δ11-desaturases. We demonstrated that this transcript (Lca-KPVQ exclusively accounts for both steps of desaturation involved in pheromone biosynthesis. This enzyme possesses a Z11-desaturase activity that allows transforming the palmitate precursor (C16:0 into (Z-11-hexadecenoic acid and the (Z-9-tetradecenoic acid into the conjugated intermediate (Z,Z-9,11-tetradecadienoic acid. Conclusion The involvement of a single Z11-desaturase in pheromone

  20. Hemocyte quantitative changes in Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae infected by AgMNPV

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    Fábio Goulart de Andrade

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The initial effects of the infection by AgMNPV in the total and differential counts of the hemocytes in Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae were studied. The total number of the hemocytes did not decrease in infected larvae, as it occurred in non infected larvae. In infected larvae, the hemocyte types showed the following frequencies: plasmatocytes - 47.8%, esferulocytes - 25.9%, granulocytes - 15.8%, oenocytoids - 7.2%, prohemocytes - 2.8%, vermicytes - 0,5%. Only the percentage of the granulocytes was different among infected and non infected larvae, indicating that these cells responded quickly to the initial viral infection. These results showed the effective role of the hemocytes in the response of the A. gemmatalis to the infection by AgMNPV. The comprehension of the immunological mechanisms of this insect is an important tool to understand its biological control.Os efeitos iniciais da infecção por AgMNPV nas contagens total e diferencial dos hemócitos em Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae foram estudados. O número total de hemócitos não diminuiu nas larvas infectadas, como ocorreu nas larvas não infectadas. Nas larvas infectadas, os tipos de hemócitos apresentaram as seguintes freqüências: plasmatócitos - 47,8%, esferulócitos - 25,9%, granulócitos - 15,8%, oenocitóides - 7,2%, prohemócitos - 2,8%, vermiformes - 0,5%. Apenas a porcentagem de granulócitos foi diferente entre larvas infectadas e não infectadas, indicando que estas células responderam rapidamente à infecção viral inicial. Estes resultados mostraram o papel efetivo que dos hemócitos na resposta de A. gemmatalis à infecção por AgMNPV. A compreensão dos mecanismos imunológicos deste inseto é uma ferramenta importante para compreender seu controle biológico.

  1. Ryanodine receptor point mutations confer diamide insecticide resistance in tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roditakis, Emmanouil; Steinbach, Denise; Moritz, Gerald; Vasakis, Emmanouil; Stavrakaki, Marianna; Ilias, Aris; García-Vidal, Lidia; Martínez-Aguirre, María Del Rosario; Bielza, Pablo; Morou, Evangelia; Silva, Jefferson E; Silva, Wellington M; Siqueira, Ηerbert A A; Iqbal, Sofia; Troczka, Bartlomiej J; Williamson, Martin S; Bass, Chris; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia; Vontas, John; Nauen, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Insect ryanodine receptors (RyR) are the molecular target-site for the recently introduced diamide insecticides. Diamides are particularly active on Lepidoptera pests, including tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). High levels of diamide resistance were recently described in some European populations of T. absoluta, however, the mechanisms of resistance remained unknown. In this study the molecular basis of diamide resistance was investigated in a diamide resistant strain from Italy (IT-GELA-SD4), and additional resistant field populations collected in Greece, Spain and Brazil. The genetics of resistance was investigated by reciprocally crossing strain IT-GELA-SD4 with a susceptible strain and revealed an autosomal incompletely recessive mode of inheritance. To investigate the possible role of target-site mutations as known from diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), we sequenced respective domains of the RyR gene of T. absoluta. Genotyping of individuals of IT-GELA-SD4 and field-collected strains showing different levels of diamide resistance revealed the presence of G4903E and I4746M RyR target-site mutations. These amino acid substitutions correspond to those recently described for diamide resistant diamondback moth, i.e. G4946E and I4790M. We also detected two novel mutations, G4903V and I4746T, in some of the resistant T. absoluta strains. Radioligand binding studies with thoracic membrane preparations of the IT-GELA-SD4 strain provided functional evidence that these mutations alter the affinity of the RyR to diamides. In combination with previous work on P. xylostella our study highlights the importance of position G4903 (G4946 in P. xylostella) of the insect RyR in defining sensitivity to diamides. The discovery of diamide resistance mutations in T. absoluta populations of diverse geographic origin has serious implications for the efficacy of diamides under applied conditions. The implementation of appropriate resistance

  2. Defensive behavior associated with secretions from the prosternal paired glands of the larvae of Heliconius erato phyllis Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

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    Eliane de Oliveira Borges

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Defensive behavior associated with secretions from the prosternal paired glands of the larvae of Heliconius erato phyllis Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae. Our work presents for the first time, the defensive behavior associated with the release of the product of the prosternal paired glands of the larva of Heliconius erato phyllis Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae. The prosternal glands were first described for larvae of H. erato phyllis. They are formed by two types of glandular structures: the impair gland and the paired glands. The prosternal glands are located within the conical integumentary sac, which in turn is situated on the individual's prosternum. The main goal of this study is to analyze the existence of any secretion from the prosternal paired glands, and check the action mode of this secretion. The methodology used for chemical analysis of the glands included the aeration and, analysis in gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that the prosternal glands do not produce volatiles. Bioassays were conducted with simulated and natural attacks and revealed that the prosternal paired glands produce secretions of defense together with silk produced by labials glands as a defense strategy, described for the first time, against ants. The strategy consists in wrapping the ant with silk threads, the entire wrapped object moved to the end of the body, with the aid of the legs and prolegs, and possibly fixed in a nearby place. Evidence for the existence of a conical integumentary sac in larvae of other species and families of Lepidoptera allows us to propose the possibility of occurrence of prosternal paired glands with defensive function in these other groups as well.

  3. A new LED lamp for the collection of nocturnal Lepidoptera and a spectral comparison of light-trapping lamps

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    Gunnar Brehm

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Most nocturnal Lepidoptera can be attracted to artificial light sources, particularly to those that emit a high proportion of ultraviolet radiation. Here, I describe a newly developed LED lamp set for the use in the field that is lightweight, handy, robust, and energy efficient. The emitted electromagnetic spectrum corresponds to the peak sensitivity in most Lepidoptera eye receptors (ultraviolet, blue and green. Power LEDs with peaks at 368 nm (ultraviolet, 450 nm (blue, 530 nm (green, and 550 nm (cool white are used. I compared the irradiance (Ee of many commonly used light-trapping lamps at a distance of 50 cm. Between wavelengths of 300 and 1000 nm, irradiance from the new lamp was 1.43 W m-2. The new lamp proved to be the most energy efficient, and it emitted more radiation in the range between 300 and 400 nm than any other lamp tested. Cold cathodes are the second most energy-efficient lamps. Irradiation from fluorescent actinic tubes is higher than from fluorescent blacklight-blue tubes. High-wattage incandescent lamps and self-ballasted mercury vapour lamps have highest irradiance, but they mainly emit in the long wave spectrum. The use of gauze and sheets decreases the proportion of UV radiation and increases the share of blue light, probably due to optical brighteners. Compared with sunlight, UV irradiance is low at a distance of 50 cm from the lamp, but (safety glasses as well as keeping sufficient distance from the lamp are recommended. In field tests, the new LED lamp attracted large numbers of Lepidoptera in both the Italian Alps and in the Peruvian Andes.

  4. A new species of Lixophaga Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Colombia, a parasitoid of Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrejo, Nancy; Diaz, Ana E; Woodley, Norman E

    2013-11-18

    A new species of Lixophaga Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Colombia, Lixophaga puscolulo Carrejo & Woodley, sp. nov., is described and illustrated. It is a parasitoid of the tomato fruit borer, Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), an insect pest of Solanum quitoense Lam., in Colombia. Aspects of its biology are briefly discussed.

  5. Biology, behavior, and larval morphology of Salbia lotanalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a potential biological control agent of Miconia calvescens (Myrtales: Melastomataceae) from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander Castillo; M. Tracy Johnson; Francisco R. Badenes-Pérez

    2014-01-01

    The leaf roller Salbia lotanalis Druce (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a potential biological control agent of Miconia calvescens de Candolle (Melastomataceae), was studied in Costa Rica. Larvae were collected from a field site near San Jose and the insect was reared in the laboratory to study its biology and behavior. Chaetotaxy and...

  6. Three new species of Rectiostoma Becker, 1982 (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Depressariidae) from Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe three new species of Rectiostoma Becker, 1982 from Costa Rica: R. annemayae Heikkilä and Metz spec. nov., R. eowilsoni Heikkilä and Metz spec. nov. and R. philipmayi Heikkilä and Metz spec. nov. We used a data set of DNA COI-barcodes accumulated for Lepidoptera collected at Area de Conse...

  7. F2 screen for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2-maize in field populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target of transgenic maize and cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in both North and South America. In 2013 and 2014, a total of 215 F2 two-parent families of S. frugiperda were established usin...

  8. (3Z,6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)-Pentacosapentaene and (Z) -11-Hexadecenyl Acetate: sex attractant blend for Dioryctria amatella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Miller; Jocelyn Millar; Alex Mangini; Christopher Crowe; Gary Grant

    2010-01-01

    In 2006-2008, we tested (3Z,6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)-pentacosapentaene (pentaene) with the pheromone components (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-16:Ac) and (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:Ac), as sex attractants for four sympatric species of coneworms, Dioryctria Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in slash (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) and...

  9. CRISPR/Cas9 editing of the codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) CpomOR1 gene affects egg production and viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of pome fruit worldwide. The inclusion of semiochemicals, including the main sex pheromone (codlemone), in codling moth IPM programs has drastically reduced the amount of chemical insecticides needed to control this ...

  10. Field evaluation of effect of temperature on release of Disparlure from a pheromone-baited trapping system used to monitor gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick C. Tobin; Aijun Zhang; Ksenia Onufrieva; Donna Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Traps baited with disparlure, the synthetic form of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), sex pheromone are used to detect newly founded populations and estimate population density across the United States. The lures used in trapping devices are exposed to field conditions with varying climates, which can affect the rate...

  11. Disruption of the leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in citrus: effect of blend and placement height, longevity of disruption and emission profile of a new dispenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent efforts to disrupt mating of the leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), a global pest of citrus, have focused on the use of SPLAT™ (ISCA Technologies), a flowable wax emulsion intended to serve as a slow-release matrix for pheromones. Early success with this...

  12. NEW DATA ON COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF NOCTUID MOTHS (LEPIDOPTERA, NOCTUIDAE OF THE ISLANDS TULENEI, CHECHEN AND NORDOVIY OF THE NORTH-WESTERN CASPIAN SEA

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    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The work gives the species composition and geographical distribution of the noctuid moths (Lepidoptera,Noctuidae of the islands Tulenei, Chechen and Nordoviy of the north-western Caspian sea. Provides a list of common species of moths for all three of the Islands, as well as the list of rare with small populations of species.

  13. Application of a frequency distribution method for determining instars of the beet armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from widths of cast head capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y. Chen; S. J. Seybold

    2013-01-01

    Instar determination of field-collected insect larvae has generally been based on the analysis of head capsule width frequency distributions or bivariate plotting, but few studies have tested the validity of such methods. We used head capsules from exuviae of known instars of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae),...

  14. Borboletas e Mariposas (Insecta: Lepidoptera do Município de Joaçaba, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil

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    Mario Favretto

    2012-07-01

    Abstract. For the first time is presented a list of Lepidoptera recorded in the municipality of Joaçaba, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The individuals were collected between the years 2006 and 2010 in different environments resulting in 58 species belonging to ten families. The most abundant families were Nymphalidae and Saturniidae, representing 34,48% and 24,13% of the species richness respectively. In addition, the most representative genera of Nymphalidae were Morpho (three species, and Hamadryas (two species, while in Saturniidae were Rothschildia (three species and Automeris (two species.

  15. The Ando-Patagonian Stigmella magnispinella group (Lepidoptera, Nepticulidae) with description of new species from Ecuador, Peru and Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonis, Jonas R; Remeikis, Andrius; Diškus, Arūnas; Gerulaitis, Virginijus

    2016-12-01

    On the basis of morphological studies of collection samples from the Andes (Ecuador, Peru and Argentina), we describe five new species of Stigmella Schrank (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae): S. varispinella Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. (Ecuador), S. olekarsholti Remeikis Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. magnispinella Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov. (Peru), S. dolia Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov., and S. patagonica Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov. (Argentina). All treated taxa belong to the newly designated S. magnispinella group. Images of adults and genitalia, pictorial keys, a distribution map, and photographs of the leaf-mines of S. olekarsholti are included.

  16. Ecology of the African Maize Stalk Borer, Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae with Special Reference to Insect-Plant Interactions

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    Paul-André Calatayud

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is an important pest of maize and sorghum in sub-Saharan Africa. One century after its first description by Fuller in 1901, inaccurate information based on earlier reports are still propagated on its distribution (e.g., absent from the lower altitudes in East Africa and host plant range (e.g., feeding on a large range of wild grass species. This review provides updated information on the biology, distribution and genetics of B. fusca with emphasis on insect-plant interactions. Related to this, new avenues of stem borer management are proposed.

  17. The preimaginal stages of Pnigalio gyamiensis Myartseva & Kurashev, 1990 (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, a parasitoid associated with Chrysoesthia sexguttella (Thunberg (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae

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    Еkaterina Yegorenkova

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The larval instars of Pnigalio gyamiensis Myartseva and Kurashev are described in detail for the first time. This species is a larval-pupal ectoparasitoid of Chrysoesthia sexguttella (Thunberg (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae, which forms leaf mines in the plant Chenopodium album L. (Caryophyllales: Amaranthaceae. The female of P. gyamiensis lays a single egg on the skin of the host larva or nearby it, without any significant preference for a particular variant. The presence of long hairs on its body provides the newly-hatched first larval instar with high mobility. Some peculiarities in this parasitoid-host relationship are described.

  18. The preimaginal stages of Pnigalio gyamiensis Myartseva & Kurashev, 1990 (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), a parasitoid associated with Chrysoesthia sexguttella (Thunberg) (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegorenkova, Ekaterina; Yefremova, Zoya

    2012-01-01

    The larval instars of Pnigalio gyamiensis Myartseva and Kurashev are described in detail for the first time. This species is a larval-pupal ectoparasitoid of Chrysoesthia sexguttella (Thunberg) (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae), which forms leaf mines in the plant Chenopodium album L. (Caryophyllales: Amaranthaceae). The female of Pnigalio gyamiensis lays a single egg on the skin of the host larva or nearby it, without any significant preference for a particular variant. The presence of long hairs on its body provides the newly-hatched first larval instar with high mobility. Some peculiarities in this parasitoid-host relationship are described.

  19. Parasitoids of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae collected on tomato plants in Lavras, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    C. H. Marchiori

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to report on the occurrence of parasitoids of Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae on tomato plants, under greenhouse conditions, in Lavras County (21º14'43"S; 44º59'59"W, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from August 2001 to February 2002. Three groups of parasitoids were collected: 21 specimens of Bracon sp. (Braconidae, one specimen of Earinus sp. (Braconidae, and 13 specimens of Conura sp. (Chalcididae. The rate of parasitism for the three species was 4.2%, 0.2%, and 2.6%, respectively. This is the first reported occurrence of Earinus sp. parasitizing Tuta absoluta in Brazil.

  20. Contribution to the knowledge of the Lepidoptera Fauna of the lower Sangro valley in the Abruzzo region of Central Italy

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    Norbert Zahm

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of recording Lepidoptera in the lower Sangro valley during a period of 22 years. The investigations were devoted to Macroheterocera and were carried out in the two regional nature reserves Oasi di Serranella and Lecceta di Torino di Sangro. The listing also includes some Microlepidoptera as non-target species, as well as occasionally observed butterflies. The 401 recorded species are presented in a table indicating both the locality of the records and the observed flight times and periods of activity. Fifteen species are published for the Abruzzo region for the first time; 2 species are new for the Italian peninsula.

  1. Ecology of the African Maize Stalk Borer, Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with Special Reference to Insect-Plant Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calatayud, Paul-André; Le Ru, Bruno P; van den Berg, Johnnie; Schulthess, Fritz

    2014-07-08

    Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an important pest of maize and sorghum in sub-Saharan Africa. One century after its first description by Fuller in 1901, inaccurate information based on earlier reports are still propagated on its distribution (e.g., absent from the lower altitudes in East Africa) and host plant range (e.g., feeding on a large range of wild grass species). This review provides updated information on the biology, distribution and genetics of B. fusca with emphasis on insect-plant interactions. Related to this, new avenues of stem borer management are proposed.

  2. External morphology of the immature stages of Neotropical heliconians: IX. Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae

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    Héctor A. Vargas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available External morphology of the immature stages of Neotropical heliconians: IX. Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae. The biology of the Andean silverspot butterfly Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1861 is still poorly known. This species is restricted to high elevations in the Andes, where the immature stages are found in close association with species of Passiflora belonging to the section Tacsonia (Juss. Harms, especially P. tripartida var. mollissima (Kunth, which is grown for subsistence by villagers. Herein we describe and illustrate the external features of the egg, larva and pupa of D. glycera, based on light and scanning electron microscopy.

  3. Ecology of the African Maize Stalk Borer, Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with Special Reference to Insect-Plant Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calatayud, Paul-André; Le Ru, Bruno P.; van den Berg, Johnnie; Schulthess, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an important pest of maize and sorghum in sub-Saharan Africa. One century after its first description by Fuller in 1901, inaccurate information based on earlier reports are still propagated on its distribution (e.g., absent from the lower altitudes in East Africa) and host plant range (e.g., feeding on a large range of wild grass species). This review provides updated information on the biology, distribution and genetics of B. fusca with emphasis on insect-plant interactions. Related to this, new avenues of stem borer management are proposed. PMID:26462824

  4. Susceptibility of the filbertworm (Cydia latiferreana, Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and filbert weevil (Curculio occidentalis, Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to entomopathogenic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, Denny J; Walton, Vaughn M

    2007-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of the two primary direct insect pests of hazelnuts in Oregon to three species of entomopathogenic nematodes. The entomopathogenic nematodes (Heterorhabditis marelatus Pt. Reyes, Steinernema carpocapsae All and Steinernema kraussei L137) were used in laboratory soil bioassays to determine their virulence against filbertworm, Cydia latiferreana (Walsingham) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and filbert weevil, Curculio occidentalis (Casey) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). All three nematode species were infective in laboratory bioassays. Infectivity ranged from 73-100% and 23-85% for filbertworm and filbert weevil, respectively. Field results were similar to those found in the laboratory with filbertworm larvae being more susceptible to nematode infection.

  5. Abdominal macrochaetae of female Hylesia oratex Dyar, 1913 (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: external morphology and medical significance

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    ROSÂNGELA BRITO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The representatives of the genus Hylesia Hübner, [1820] are significant among the medically important Lepidoptera. Adult females use abdominal setae to wrap and protect the eggs that remain for months in nature. These setae, in contact with human skin, may cause allergic reactions including swelling, itching and local erythema, known as lepidopterism. The morphology of the abdominal scales and setae from the female H. oratex Dyar, 1913 is herein described and aspects related to their medical significance are discussed. Portions of each abdominal segment were examined through a scanning electron microscope. Two types of scales without medical importance, and two types of setae with medical importance, classified as "true setae" and "modified setae" were found. The true setae, which are slightly fusiform and have radially arranged lateral projections, are responsible for the allergic reactions caused by skin penetration. The modified setae, which are larger, curved, with the median enlarged and serrated margins, can be responsible for the release of chemical substances. This information provides a better understanding of the structure of the urticating setae, which are responsible for lepidopterism outbreaks in humans, and contributes towards the identification of the moth species involved.

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and comparison with other Pyraloidea insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiu-Ning; Chai, Xin-Yue; Bian, Dan-Dan; Zhou, Chun-Lin; Tang, Bo-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial (mt) genome can provide important information for the understanding of phylogenetic relationships. The complete mt genome of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) has been sequenced. The circular genome is 15 287 bp in size, encoding 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and a control region. The AT skew of this mt genome is slightly negative, and the nucleotide composition is biased toward A+T nucleotides (80.15%). All PCGs start with the typical ATN (ATA, ATC, ATG, and ATT) codons, except for the cox1 gene which may start with the CGA codon. Four of the 13 PCGs harbor the incomplete termination codon T or TA. All the tRNA genes are folded into the typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA, except for trnS1 (AGN) in which the DHU arm fails to form a stable stem-loop structure. The overlapping sequences are 35 bp in total and are found in seven different locations. A total of 240 bp of intergenic spacers are scattered in 16 regions. The control region of the mt genome is 327 bp in length and consisted of several features common to the sequenced lepidopteran insects. Phylogenetic analysis based on 13 PCGs using the Maximum Likelihood method shows that the placement of P. interpunctella was within the Pyralidae.

  7. [Diversity of the order Lepidoptera (Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea) from Corrientes city, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriela Lazzeri, María; Esther Bar, María; Pieri Damborsky, Miryam

    2011-03-01

    Urbanization is one of the most important threats for biodiversity. Among many different organisms, butterflies are useful indicators of environment diversity and quality. The aim of this study was to investigate the Lepidoptera from Corrientes city. Random samplings were performed at two sites: a native forest situated in Santa Catalina district and an urban area, Parque Mitre. The captures were carried out using entomological nets, at four seasons between January to October 2007. A total of 1 114 butterflies, represented by six families: Hesperiidae, Lycaenidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae and Riodinidae and 18 subfamilies were recorded. Fifty-nine genera and 75 species were identified; Anartia jatrophae jatrophae was the most abundant species at both localities. This species and Urbanus procne, Phoebis sennae marcellina, Pyrgus orcus and Dryas iulia alcionea were, among other seven, captured at all months. Highest values of abundance were registered during the warmest seasons. Santa Catalina presented the largest abundance (n = 701), richness (S = 74) and diversity (H' = 3.87). A total of 413 individuals and 52 species were identified at Parque Mitre, and Shannon diversity index was 3.58. The obtained data reveals a high species richness and similarity at both sites.

  8. Bacillus thuringiensis isolates entomopathogenic for Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae and Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gobatto

    Full Text Available Samples of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt were collected from soil and insects. Eight isolates were selected from rural soil, 15 from urban soil and 11 from insects. These were evaluated for entomopathogenicity against larvae of Anticarsia gemmatalis and Culex quinquefasciatus. The pathogenicity tests showed that a higher percentage of isolates were active against A. gemmatalis (60% compared to C. quinquefasciatus (31%. Probit analysis (LC50 indicated that against A. gemmatalis four of the isolates presented values similar to the reference strain against A. gemmatalis, while against C. quinquefasciatus one isolate showed an LC50 similar to the reference strain (IPS-82. SDS-PAGE characterisation of two isolates showed a 27 kDa protein fraction related to the Bt subspecies israelensis cytolytic toxin (cyt gene. One 130 kDa protein, possibly related to the Bt crystal inclusions (cry1 gene, was identified in the other two isolates, which were more toxic for lepidoptera; another isolate presented a protein of 100 kDa. Some new local Bt isolates had similar LC50 probit values to the reference strains.

  9. AKTIVITAS INSEKTISIDA BAGIAN TUMBUHAN CALOPHYLLUM SOULTTRI BURM.F. (CLU IACEAE TERHADAP LARVA LEPIDOPTERA

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    Edy Syahputra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this test was evaluate the insecticidal activity of ectract of some parts of Calophyllum soulattri (Clusiaceae against larvae of three species of Lepidoptera, i. e Crocidolomia pavonana, Plutella xylostela, and Pieris sp.. Extraction of plant materials was done by infusion method using ethanol. The bioassays were conducted by leaf-feeding method. Second-instar larvae were fed extract-treated broccoli leaves of 48 hours, then they were presented with untreated leaves until the surviving larvae larvae reached the fourth-instar stage. The number of dead larvae was recorded daily an larval mortality date were analyzed by probit method. The result showed the gummy bark exudates and bark extract of old and young C. soulattri plants were highly active against C. pavonana. The abrk extact of old C. soulattri plant was also effective against P. xilostella and Pieris sp. The gummy exudates possessed strong insecticidal activity against C. pavonana larvae with LC50 of 0.04% and prolonged the developmental time from second to fourth instar of C. soulattri 2.03-7.25 days compared with control. The bark excudate gave positive respon to alkaloid flavonoid, and tannin test. Futher studies are needed to identify insecticidal compound in those active extracts.

  10. Effect of the flavonoid rutin on the biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Talita Roberta Ferreira Borges Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is a major pest of maize crops in Brazil. The effects of plant metabolites on the biology and behavior of insects is little studied. The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of rutin on the biology of the S. frugiperda by using artificial diets containing rutin. The study evaluated four treatments: regular diet (control group and diets containing 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg g-1 of rutin. The following biological variables parameters of the larvae were evaluated daily: development time (days, larval and pupal weight (g and viability (%, adult longevity and total life cycle (days. A completely randomized experimental design was used with 25 replication. The rutin flavonoid negatively affected the biology of S. frugiperda by prolonging the larval development time, reducing the weight of larvae and pupae and decreasing the viability of the pupae. The addition of different concentrations of rutin prolonged the S. frugiperda life cycle. The use of plant with insecticidal activity has the potential with strategy in IPM.

  11. Latitudinal gradient effect on the wing geometry of Auca coctei (Guérin(Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

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    María-José Sanzana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Latitudinal gradient effect on the wing geometry of Auca coctei (Guérin (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae. When the environmental conditions change locally, the organisms and populations may also change in response to the selection pressure, so that the development of individuals may become affected in different degrees. There have been only a few studies in which the patterns of wing morphology variation have been looked into along a latitudinal gradient by means of geometric morphometrics. The aim of this work was to assess the morphologic differentiation of wing among butterfly populations of the species Auca coctei. For this purpose, 9 sampling locations were used which are representative of the distribution range of the butterfly and cover a wide latitudinal range in Chile. The wing morphology was studied in a total of 202 specimens of A. coctei (150 males and 52 females, based on digitization of 17 morphologic landmarks. The results show variation of wing shape in both sexes; however, for the centroid size there was significant variation only in females. Females show smaller centroid size at higher latitudes, therefore in this study the Bergmann reverse rule is confirmed for females of A. coctei. Our study extends morphologic projections with latitude, suggesting that wing variation is an environmental response from diverse origins and may influence different characteristics of the life history of a butterfly.

  12. DNA diagnostics to identify internal feeders (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) of pome fruits of quarantine importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcenas, N M; Unruh, T R; Neven, L G

    2005-04-01

    A diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method is presented for differentiating among the North American internal apple-feeding pests codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.); oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck); lesser appleworm, Grapholita prunivora (Walsh); and cherry fruitworm, Grapholita packardi Zeller. An approximately 470-bp fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) was sequenced in three to six specimens of each species. Consistent and diagnostic differences were observed among the species in two regions of COI from which forward and reverse primers were designed to amplify a 112-116-bp segment of the gene. The primer sets were used to selectively amplify DNA from specimens of diverse geographic origin for each corresponding target species. Protocols were adapted for conventional and quantitative PCR, the latter being substantially faster. The method was validated as a decision-making tool for quarantine identifications for Mexico by representatives of their phytosanitary agency (Sanidad Vegetal). The method can facilitate identification of intercepted internal feeding Lepidoptera in apple and pear for many other importing nations.

  13. Effects of orchard host plants on the oviposition preference of the oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Clayton T; Hull, Larry A; Krawczyk, Grzegorz

    2006-08-01

    Recently, the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), has emerged as a major problem on apples (Malus spp.) grown in the mid-Atlantic and midwestern United States, despite its historically important and frequent occurrence as a peach (Prunus spp.) pest. It is possible that host-driven biological phenomena may be contributing to changes in G. molesta population dynamics resulting in outbreaks in apple. Studies were designed to examine the effects of host plants on oviposition behavior, in an effort to clarify the host association status of eastern U.S. populations and also to gain insight into how pest modeling and management efforts may be altered to take into account various host-associated effects. G. molesta adults exhibited ovipositional preference for nonbearing peach trees over nonbearing apple trees in close-range choice tests conducted in the field, regardless of the larval host origin. A significant preference for peach shoots over apple shoots was observed on six of 12 sampling dates with a wild G. molesta population at the interface of adjacent peach and apple blocks. Numbers of eggs found on apple fruit were higher after peach fruit were harvested and apple fruit began to approach maturity (during the flight period for third and fourth brood adults). Possible implications for population modeling and integrated management of G. molesta are discussed.

  14. Effects of orchard host plants (apple and peach) on development of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Clayton T; Hull, Larry A; Krawczyk, Grzegorz

    2007-04-01

    Studies were designed to examine the effects of host plants (apple, Malus domestica Borkh., and peach, Prunus persica L.) on the development of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Oriental fruit moth larvae developed faster on peach than on apple, both on fruit as well as on growing terminal shoots. On fruit, these differences were shown to cause significant changes in both the rate (approximately 20-60 degree-days earlier emergence on peach than on apple) and patterns of adult emergence among several cultivars of peaches and apples. Slopes of female emergence plots varied by host in 2003, with emergence occurring over a longer period on peach cultivars than on apple cultivars (with one exception). Slopes of male emergence curves did not differ by cultivar in 2003. These host-driven effects could impact the efficacy of traditional pest management approaches and probably complicate efforts to predictively model G. molesta populations in mixed cultivar orchards. Such developmental effects may help to explain previously observed differences in patterns of pheromone trap captures in peach versus apple orchards. Host-associated effects should be incorporated into future models to develop more realistic predictive tools and thus improve integrated pest management efforts.

  15. Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, W.D., E-mail: weliton.silva@usp.b [Department of Entomology and Acarology, Laboratory of Chemical Ecology and Insect Behavior, University of Sao Paulo, ' Luiz de Queiroz' College of Agriculture, Padua Dias Avenue, 11, 13418-900 Piracicaba (Brazil); Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T. [Food Irradiation and Radioentomology Laboratory, Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA/USP), Centenario Avenue 303, 13400-970 Piracicaba (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD{sub 90} and LD{sub 99} were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

  16. Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, W. D.; Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T.

    2010-10-01

    As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD 90 and LD 99 were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

  17. Whole-farm mating disruption to manage Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in diversified New Jersey orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollerup, Kris E; Rucker, Ann; Shearer, Peter W

    2012-10-01

    Fruit orchards in New Jersey are usually isolated from neighboring farms and diversified, often containing separate plantings of peach (Prunus spp.) and apple (Malus spp.). These crops can suffer significant damage from oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). This study evaluated the effect of managing G. molesta by using sex pheromone-based mating disruption applied to both peaches and apples (whole-farm mating disruption) rather than treating either crop alone. In year 1 of the experiment, G. molesta mating disruption applied to the adjacent peach and apple blocks provided better control than treating peaches or apples alone. During year 2, treating these adjacent blocks or only treating apples controlled G. molesta equally well. G. molesta populations were so low at the end of year 2 that mating disruption was not applied against this pest during year 3. This allowed us to determine whether applying mating disruption for two consecutive years controlled G. molesta well enough that it eliminated the need mating disruption for three consecutive years. The mean cumulative number of G. molesta captured in plots where both peaches and apples had been treated did not exceed two moths per trap in the third year of this experiment. In contrast, G. molesta capture rebounded during August in peaches and apples that had not been treated with mating disruption the previous 2 yr. Implications for managing G. molesta by using mating disruption as a "whole-farm" tactic as well applying it for two consecutive years and not a third year are discussed.

  18. Current and Future Potential Risk of Establishment of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neven, Lisa G; Kumar, Sunil; Yee, Wee L; Wakie, Tewodros

    2018-02-17

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a primary pest of stone fruits that cause significant economic damage. Larvae, which enter the host plant through shoot tips, damage shoots, and ripe fruits. Native to Asia, this pest now occurs in many fruit-growing countries, including the United States and Canada. Though the pest was previously reported from many states within the United States, its current distribution and the environmental variables that influence its distribution are not properly identified. The objectives of this study were to 1) identify the environmental factors associated with G. molesta current distribution, 2) predict the current distribution of G. molesta in Washington State (WA) using Maxent and Climex models, 3) identify those areas within WA best suited for establishment of pest free zones, areas of low pest prevalence, and pest free production areas, and 4) identify regions most at risk for further expansion of G. molesta populations as a function of climate change. The current models predicted a small portion of central WA is suitable to support G. molesta, which is consistent with observed distributions. However, climate change models predict that more areas will become suitable for the pest. These results indicate that action should be taken to monitor and reduce current populations of G. molesta to stem its potential expansion into the major commercial tree fruit production areas in the state.

  19. Differentiating Oriental Fruit Moth and Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Larvae Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegwart, Myriam; Bouvier, Floriane; Maugin, Sandrine; Lecomte, Alain; Lavigne, Claire

    2015-02-01

    Cydia pomonella (L.) and Cydia molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are two important lepidopteran pests that may co-occur in apple orchards and are difficult to differentiate in the larval stage. We investigate the possibility of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) coupled with partial least squares analysis to distinguish the larvae of the two species. We further assess whether wild individuals can be differentiated using laboratory strains of the two species for model calibration. The NIRS spectra of C. molesta and C. pomonella differed most in the wavelengths between 1,142 and 1,338 nm. Using these wavelengths, partial least squares analysis allowed the differentiation of C. molesta and C. pomonella at the larval stage with very low error, but only as long as both the calibration and prediction sets for individuals had the same origin (either both from the laboratory or both from the field). Errors that appeared when using laboratory individuals for calibration were owing to the divergence of the C. pomonella laboratory strain, most likely following evolution during rearing. Thus, NIRS appears to be a promising tool for the easy and rapid identification of individuals in the field, provided that it is calibrated based on a subset of field individuals. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Where does Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) overwinter in adjacent peach, pear and apple orchards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X-F; Fan, F; Wang, C; Wei, G-S

    2016-02-01

    The Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of tree fruits worldwide, and the diapausing larvae overwinter in cryptic habitats. Investigations of overwintering G. molesta were conducted in adjacent peach, pear and apple orchards in Northern China over three consecutive winters to determine the overwintering site and habitat preferences of the moth. Counts of overwintering larvae in the different orchards demonstrated that the late-maturing peach orchard ('Shenzhou honey peach') was the most preferred overwintering habitat with more than 90% of the collected larvae. Larvae were more abundant in host trees, and they very rarely overwintered in the soil. The overwintering site preferences on the host trees were significantly different; over 50% larvae were located in the tree trunks, and followed by main branches. Most of the G. molesta overwintered on the sunny side of the host trees at or below 60 cm from the ground; a few were cocooned on the shaded sides of the trees or greater than 60 cm from the ground. G. molesta began overwintering between August and October, mid- to late September was the peak period for entering winter diapause during 2011-2013 (77.78, 67.59 and 71.15%, respectively). Our findings improve understanding of the orchard habitat and overwintering site preferences of G. molesta and would be useful in the development of efficient forecasting and pest-management strategies for orchards during the winter and early spring.

  1. Effects of gamma radiation on pupae of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A S.; Modolo, Deborah M.; Leandro, Rodrigo Sebastiao Rossi, E-mail: lsasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: dmmodolo@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Paula B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    As insects increase in radio tolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of pest may present in fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radio tolerance of pupae of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidade), to gamma radiation. This specie is considered as on of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Pupae of 3 days old were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 250, 300 and 350 Gy of gamma radiation of source Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220 at dose rate of 0,508 kGy/hour. Each treatment had 4 repetitions with 10 pupae in the total 40 pupae per treatment. Surviving pupae allowed to feed on an artificial diet. After irradiation the insects were keep in room with climatic conditions of 25 {+-}5 deg C and 70 {+-}5% RH. The results showed that the sterilizing dose to adults was 200Gy and that the dose of 350Gy was not sufficient to kill all pupae of insects. (author)

  2. DNA Barcoding of the Korean Lymantria Hübner, 1819 (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Lymantriinae) for Quarantine Inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae Hwa; Lee, Kwang-Su; Lee, Heung-Sik

    2015-08-01

    DNA barcoding and morphological analyses of Korean Lymantria (Erebidae, Lepidoptera) were conducted for quarantine inspection. In DNA barcoding, Lymantria dispar identified through quarantine inspection was distinguished as three species, L. dispar asiatica, L. albescens, and L. xylina. Lymantria monacha, which is known as a single species in Korea, is revealed as containing three species, L. monacha, L. minomonis, and L. sugii. At the subspecies level, L. dispar dispar formed a single cluster, whereas L. d. asiatica and L. d. japonica formed a cluster containing both subspecies. In morphological re-examination on DNA barcoding results, L. dispar was distinguished from L. albescens by wing pattern, and from L. xylina by papillae anale. L. monacha and the related species were hard to be distinct from each other by using wing pattern, but it was easily distinct through comparison of genitalia. Therefore, DNA barcoding led to accurate identification in species level, but in subspecies level, only a taxon showing geographically far distance was discriminated from the others. These results may provide a taxonomic outline of the Korean Lymantria fauna and may be used as an identification reference for Lymantria species during quarantine inspection. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Wedding biodiversity inventory of a large and complex Lepidoptera fauna with DNA barcoding

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    Janzen, Daniel H; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad; Burns, John M; Hallwachs, Winnie; Remigio, Ed; Hebert, Paul D.N

    2005-01-01

    By facilitating bioliteracy, DNA barcoding has the potential to improve the way the world relates to wild biodiversity. Here we describe the early stages of the use of cox1 barcoding to supplement and strengthen the taxonomic platform underpinning the inventory of thousands of sympatric species of caterpillars in tropical dry forest, cloud forest and rain forest in northwestern Costa Rica. The results show that barcoding a biologically complex biota unambiguously distinguishes among 97% of more than 1000 species of reared Lepidoptera. Those few species whose barcodes overlap are closely related and not confused with other species. Barcoding also has revealed a substantial number of cryptic species among morphologically defined species, associated sexes, and reinforced identification of species that are difficult to distinguish morphologically. For barcoding to achieve its full potential, (i) ability to rapidly and cheaply barcode older museum specimens is urgent, (ii) museums need to address the opportunity and responsibility for housing large numbers of barcode voucher specimens, (iii) substantial resources need be mustered to support the taxonomic side of the partnership with barcoding, and (iv) hand-held field-friendly barcorder must emerge as a mutualism with the taxasphere and the barcoding initiative, in a manner such that its use generates a resource base for the taxonomic process as well as a tool for the user. PMID:16214742

  4. Identification and Evaluation of 21 Novel Microsatellite Markers from the Autumnal Moth (Epirrita autumnata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae

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    Siv Grethe Aarnes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata is a cyclically outbreaking forest Lepidoptera with circumpolar distribution and substantial impact on Northern ecosystems. We have isolated 21 microsatellites from the species to facilitate population genetic studies of population cycles, outbreaks, and crashes. First, PCR primers and PCR conditions were developed to amplify 19 trinucleotide loci and two tetranucleotide loci in six multiplex PCR approaches and then analyzed for species specificity, sensitivity and precision. Twelve of the loci showed simple tandem repeat array structures while nine loci showed imperfect repeat structures, and repeat numbers varied in our material between six and 15. The application in population genetics for all the 21 microsatellites were further validated in 48 autumnal moths sampled from Northern Norway, and allelic variation was detected in 19 loci. The detected numbers of alleles per locus ranged from two to 13, and the observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.04 to 0.69 and 0.04 to 0.79, respectively. Evidence for linkage disequilibrium was found for six loci as well as indication of one null allele. We find that these novel microsatellites and their multiplex-PCR assays are suitable for further research on fine- and large-scale population-genetic studies of Epirrita autumnata.

  5. Identification and Evaluation of 21 Novel Microsatellite Markers from the Autumnal Moth (Epirrita autumnata) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarnes, Siv Grethe; Fløystad, Ida; Schregel, Julia; Vindstad, Ole Petter Laksforsmo; Jepsen, Jane Uhd; Eiken, Hans Geir; Ims, Rolf A.; Hagen, Snorre B.

    2015-01-01

    The autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata) is a cyclically outbreaking forest Lepidoptera with circumpolar distribution and substantial impact on Northern ecosystems. We have isolated 21 microsatellites from the species to facilitate population genetic studies of population cycles, outbreaks, and crashes. First, PCR primers and PCR conditions were developed to amplify 19 trinucleotide loci and two tetranucleotide loci in six multiplex PCR approaches and then analyzed for species specificity, sensitivity and precision. Twelve of the loci showed simple tandem repeat array structures while nine loci showed imperfect repeat structures, and repeat numbers varied in our material between six and 15. The application in population genetics for all the 21 microsatellites were further validated in 48 autumnal moths sampled from Northern Norway, and allelic variation was detected in 19 loci. The detected numbers of alleles per locus ranged from two to 13, and the observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.04 to 0.69 and 0.04 to 0.79, respectively. Evidence for linkage disequilibrium was found for six loci as well as indication of one null allele. We find that these novel microsatellites and their multiplex-PCR assays are suitable for further research on fine- and large-scale population-genetic studies of Epirrita autumnata. PMID:26393576

  6. Various chemical strategies to deceive ants in three Arhopala species (lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) exploiting Macaranga myrmecophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Yoko; Shimizu-Kaya, Usun; Okubo, Tadahiro; Yamsaki, Eri; Itioka, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Macaranga myrmecophytes (ant-plants) are generally well protected from herbivore attacks by their symbiotic ants (plant-ants). However, larvae of Arhopala (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) species survive and develop on specific Macaranga ant-plant species without being attacked by the plant-ants of their host species. We hypothesized that Arhopala larvae chemically mimic or camouflage themselves with the ants on their host plant so that the larvae are accepted by the plant-ant species of their host. Chemical analyses of cuticular hydrocarbons showed that chemical congruency varied among Arhopala species; A. dajagaka matched well the host plant-ants, A. amphimuta did not match, and unexpectedly, A. zylda lacked hydrocarbons. Behaviorally, the larvae and dummies coated with cuticular chemicals of A. dajagaka were well attended by the plant-ants, especially by those of the host. A. amphimuta was often attacked by all plant-ants except for the host plant-ants toward the larvae, and those of A. zylda were ignored by all plant-ants. Our results suggested that conspicuous variations exist in the chemical strategies used by the myrmecophilous butterflies that allow them to avoid ant attack and be accepted by the plant-ant colonies.

  7. Vegetative insecticidal protein of Bacillus thuringiensis BLB459 and its efficiency against Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukedi, Hanen; Ben Khedher, Saoussen; Hadhri, Rania; Jaoua, Samir; Tounsi, Slim; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna

    2017-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis strain BLB459 supernatant showed a promising activity against Lepidopteran pests with extremely damages in the larvae midgut. Investigations of the genes that encode secreted toxin demonstrated that this strain harbored a vip3-type gene named vip3(459). Based on its original nucleotide and amino acid sequences, this gene was cloned into pET-14b vector and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed protein was purified and tested against different insects and interestingly the novel toxin demonstrated a remarkable activity against the stored products pest Ephestia kuehniella and the polyphagous insects Spodoptera littoralis and Agrotis segetum. As demonstrated, the acute activity of Vip3(459) protein against A. segetum can be due to its original amino acids sequence and the putative receptors of this toxin in the larvae midgut. These results demonstrated that this Vip3 toxin showed a wide spectrum of activity against Lepidoptera and support its use as a biological control agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. AKTIVITAS EKSTRAK BIJI TANAMAN MINDI MELIA AZEDARACH (L. TERHADAP SPODOPTERA LITURA (F. (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdani .

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Activity of Melia azedarach (L. seed extract against armyworm Spodoptera litura (F. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectivenes and biological activity of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae seed extract against armyworm, Spodoptera litura F. The first instar larvae were fed extract-treated cotton leaves for 2 days, then were maintained on untreated leaves until the third instar stage. Records were kept in regard to the larvae mortality and developmental time of surviving larvae from first instar to third instar. The result showed that Melia azedarach L. seed extract at consentration of 50 g of seeds/l of water (5% exhibited moderate insecticidal activity against S. litura larvae (43.33 - 68.33% mortality. Addition of detergen at 0.2% to extract did not increase insecticidal activity of the extract. However, boiling seed extract at consentration of 50 g of seeds/l of water (5% during 10 until 20 minutes increased insecticidal activity of extract (66.67 - 68.33% mortality. Generally, M. azedarach seed extract treatment did not affect  developmental time of  S. litura larvae.

  9. New Fossil Lepidoptera (Insecta: Amphiesmenoptera) from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiting; Shih, Chungkun; Labandeira, Conrad C.; Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Davis, Donald R.; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A.; Flint, Oliver; Ren, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Background The early history of the Lepidoptera is poorly known, a feature attributable to an inadequate preservational potential and an exceptionally low occurrence of moth fossils in relevant mid-Mesozoic deposits. In this study, we examine a particularly rich assemblage of morphologically basal moths that contribute significantly toward the understanding of early lepidopteran biodiversity. Methodology/Principal Findings Our documentation of early fossil moths involved light- and scanning electron microscopic examination of specimens, supported by various illumination and specimen contrast techniques. A total of 20 moths were collected from the late Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation in Northeastern China. Our principal results were the recognition and description of seven new genera and seven new species assigned to the Eolepidopterigidae; one new genus with four new species assigned to the Mesokristenseniidae; three new genera with three new species assigned to the Ascololepidopterigidae fam. nov.; and one specimen unassigned to family. Lepidopteran assignment of these taxa is supported by apomorphies of extant lineages, including the M1 vein, after separation from the M2 vein, subtending an angle greater than 60 degrees that is sharply angulate at the junction with the r–m crossvein (variable in Trichoptera); presence of a foretibial epiphysis; the forewing M vein often bearing three branches; and the presence of piliform scales along wing veins. Conclusions/Significance The diversity of these late Middle Jurassic lepidopterans supports a conclusion that the Lepidoptera–Trichoptera divergence occurred by the Early Jurassic. PMID:24278142

  10. Pollination by nocturnal Lepidoptera, and the effects of light pollution: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Callum J; Pocock, Michael J O; Fox, Richard; Evans, Darren M

    2015-06-01

    1. Moths (Lepidoptera) are the major nocturnal pollinators of flowers. However, their importance and contribution to the provision of pollination ecosystem services may have been under-appreciated. Evidence was identified that moths are important pollinators of a diverse range of plant species in diverse ecosystems across the world. 2. Moth populations are known to be undergoing significant declines in several European countries. Among the potential drivers of this decline is increasing light pollution. The known and possible effects of artificial night lighting upon moths were reviewed, and suggest how artificial night lighting might in turn affect the provision of pollination by moths. The need for studies of the effects of artificial night lighting upon whole communities of moths was highlighted. 3. An ecological network approach is one valuable method to consider the effects of artificial night lighting upon the provision of pollination by moths, as it provides useful insights into ecosystem functioning and stability, and may help elucidate the indirect effects of artificial light upon communities of moths and the plants they pollinate. 4. It was concluded that nocturnal pollination is an ecosystem process that may potentially be disrupted by increasing light pollution, although the nature of this disruption remains to be tested.

  11. Papilionoidea de la Sierra de Huautla, Morelos y Puebla, México (Insecta: Lepidoptera

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    Mercedes Luna-Reyes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Papilionoidea from Sierra de Huautla, Morelos and Puebla, México (Insecta: Lepidoptera. The Cuenca del Balsas region has significant biodiversity and endemicity of its herpetofauna, avifauna and vascular plants. Despite this, our knowledge of the Papilionoidea of the region is poor. We analyzed the local and temporal distribution of Papilionoidea at 24 localities in the states of Morelos and Puebla. The study sites are situated between 900 and 1300 m. a. s. l., and are composed of dry tropical forest (dtf. We recorded 8790 individuals of 83 genera and 142 species of Papilionoidea (sensu Kristensen, 1975, over 79 days of field work, with 2-4 days at each of the 24 localities. Twenty five species were newly recorded for the state of Puebla. Our data render Morelos and Puebla among the seven richest Mexican states, in terms of Papilionoidea diversity. Our results show that the Sierra de Huautla has the lowest diversity, but the highest standard abundance, compared to other Mexican regions with similar vegetation. Patterns of diversity and seasonal abundance are atypical, in that individuals of many species are unusually abundant during the wet months. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4: 16771716. Epub 2008 December 12.

  12. Transmembrane ion distribution during recovery from freezing in the woolly bear caterpillar Pyrrharctia isabella (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Leigh; Terblanche, John S; Sinclair, Brent J

    2011-08-01

    During extracellular freezing, solutes in the haemolymph are concentrated, resulting in osmotic dehydration of the cells, which must be reversed upon thawing. Here, we used freeze tolerant Pyrrharctia isabella (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) larvae to examine the processes of ion redistribution after thawing. To investigate the effect of the intensity of cold exposure on ion redistribution after thawing, we exposed caterpillars to -14°C, -20°C or -30°C for 35h. To investigate the effect of duration of cold exposure on ion redistribution after thawing, we exposed the caterpillars to -14°C for up to 6 weeks while sampling several time points. The concentrations of Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) were measured after thawing in the haemolymph, fat body, muscle, midgut tissue and hindgut tissue. Being frozen for long durations (>3 weeks) or at low temperatures (-30°C) both result in 100% mortality, although different ions and tissues appear to be affected by each treatment. Both water distribution and ion content changes were detected after thawing, with the largest effects seen in the fat body and midgut tissue. Magnesium homeostasis appears to be vital for post-freeze survival in these larvae. The movement of ions during thawing lagged behind the movement of water, and ion homeostasis was not restored within the same time frame as water homeostasis. Failure to regain ion homeostasis after thawing is therefore implicated in mortality of freeze tolerant insects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Teinopalpus aureus guangxiensis (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) and related phylogenetic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Feng; Jiang, Guo-Fang; Zhou, Shan-Yi

    2012-04-01

    In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Teinopalpus aureus guangxiensis (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae), which is considered as an endemic species in China. It is listed as a vulnerable species by International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources Red List and also a first class endangered species in China. The complete mtDNA from T. aureus guangxiensis was 15,235 base pairs in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and a control region. The T. aureus guangxiensis genes were in the same order and orientation as the completely sequenced mitogenomes of other lepidopteran species. All PCGs of T. aureus guangxiensis mitogenome start with a typical ATN codon and terminate in the common stop codon TAA, except that ND1 gene uses TTA, ND3 gene uses ATT, and ND4 and ND4L gene use TAA. The phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed with the concatenated sequences of the 13 PCGs of the mitochondrial genome, and phylogenetic results confirmed that Nymphalidae, Lycaenidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae are monophyletic clades.

  14. The mitochondrial genome of the butterfly Papilio xuthus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) and related phylogenetic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xia; Liu, Dian-Feng; Wang, Nai-Xin; Zhu, Chao-Dong; Jiang, Guo-Fang

    2010-12-01

    The nearly complete mitochondrial genome of the butterfly Papilio xuthus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) was sequenced for its nucleotide sequence of 13,964 bp. The genome has a typical gene order identical to other lepidopteran species. All tRNAs showed same stable canonical clover-leaf structure as those of other insects, except for tRNA(Ser) (AGN), in which the dihydrouracil arm (DHU arm) could not form stable stem-loop structure. Anomalous initiation codons have been observed for the cox1 gene, where the ATTACG hexa-nucleotide was believed to be involved in the initiation signaling. Twelve mitochondrial protein-coding gene sequence data were used to infer the phylogenetic relationships among the insect orders. Even though the number of insect orders represented by complete mitochondrial genomes is still limited, several well-established relationships are evident in the phylogenetic analysis of the complete sequences. Monophyly of the Homometabola was not supported in this paper. Phylogenetic analyses of the available species of Bombycoidea, Pyraloidea, Papilionoidea and Tortricidea bolstered the current morphology-based hypothesis that Bombycoidea, Pyraloidea and Papilionoidea are monophyletic (Obtectomera). Bombycoidea (Bombyx mandarina and Antheraea pernyi) and Papilionoidea (P. xuthus and Coreana raphaelis) formed a sister group.

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Pazala timur (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: Papilioninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanhong; Gan, Shanshan; Shao, Lili; Cheng, Chunhui; Hao, Jiasheng

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Pazala timur (Lepidoptera: Papilionodae) is a circular molecule of 15,226 bp in length, containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes: 13 protein coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a non-coding AT-rich region. Its gene order and arrangement are identical to all other available butterfly mitogenomes. All PCGs initiate with typical ATN codons, except for COI, which is initiated by the CGA codon. Ten PCGs use complete termination codon (TAA), whereas the COI, COII and ND5 genes end with single T. Twelve intergenic spacers (82 bp in total), and 11 overlapping regions (30 bp in total) are dispersed throughout the whole genome. The non-coding AT-rich region is 403 bp long and contains some conserved structures characteristic of the butterfly mitogenomes, such as the motif ATAGA followed by a 13-bp poly-T stretch and a microsatellite-like (AT)12 element preceded by the ATTTA motif.

  16. A contribution key for identification of butterflies (Lepidoptera of Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

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    Farzana Khan Perveen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The butterflies are the useful bio-indicators of an ecosystem, sensitive to any change in environment, such as temperature, microclimate and solar radiation etc, however, they utilize host plants for their oviposition and larval development. Therefore, the present study was conducted to prepare the contribution key for identification of butterflies of Tehsil Tangi during August, 2014-May, 2015. The specimens (ni = 506 were collected belong to 3 families with 18 genera and 23 species. However, the collected butterflies were comprised of families Nymphalidae 50%> Pieridae 43%> Papilionidae 7%. The family Nymphalidae were primarily, blue, pale brown or orange and antennae-tips with large conspicuous knobs, while, family Pieridae were mostly creamy, white, yellow or light orange, although, the family Papilionidae were multi-colours, i.e., yellow, blackish-brown, white or orange and antennae-tips with or without knobs. The largest butterfly was great black mormon, Papilio polytes Linnaeus (Family: Papilionidae with body length 26.0±0.0 (nP. polytes = 1; M±SD mm, while the smallest butterflies Indian little orange tip, Colotis etrida Boisduval (Family: Pieridae with body length 11.5±0.6 (nC. etrida = 4; M±SD mm. The key of butterflies (Lepidoptera of Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan has been established in this paper. It is recommended to evaluate the butterfly fauna of District Charsadda to educate and create awareness in the local community for conservation and protestation of their habitats.

  17. The chemistry of antipredator defense by secondary compounds in neotropical lepidoptera: facts, perspectives and caveats

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    Trigo José R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical defense against predation in butterflies and moths has been studied since nineteenth century. A classical example is that of the larvae of the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus, which feed on leaves of Asclepias curassavica (Asclepiadaceae, sequestering cardenolides. The adults are protected against predation by birds. Several other substances may be involved in chemical defense, such as iridoid glycosides, cyanogenic glycosides, glucosinolates, pyrrolizidine and tropane alkaloids, aristolochic acids, glycosidase inhibitors and pyrazines. The acquisition of these substances by lepidopterans can be due to sequestration from larval or adult host plants or de novo biosynthesis. Many Lepidoptera are known to be unpalatable, including the butterflies Troidini (Papilionidae, Pierinae (Pieridae, Eurytelinae, Melitaeinae, Danainae, Ithomiinae, Heliconiinae and Acraeinae (Nymphalidae, and Arctiidae moths, but knowledge of the chemical substances responsible for property is often scarce. This review discusses mainly three topics: field and laboratory observations on rejection of butterflies and moths by predators, correlation between unpalatability and chemicals found in these insects, and bioassays that test the activity of these chemicals against predators. Perspectives and future directions are suggested for this subject.

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Byasa alcinous (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: Papilioninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanhong; Gan, Shanshan; Wang, Ying; Wang, Yunliang; Zuo, Ni; Hao, Jiasheng

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Byasa alcinous (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: Papilioninae) is a circular molecule of 15,266 bp in length, containing 37 typical insect mitochondrial genes: 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a non-coding AT-rich region. Its gene order and arrangement are identical to all other available butterfly mitogenomes. All PCGs start with a typical ATN initiation codon, except for COI, which is initiated by the CGA codon as observed in other butterfly species. Ten PCGs terminate in the complete stop codon TAA or TAG, whereas the COI, COII and ND4 genes end with single T. Ten intergenic spacers (73 bp in total), and 12 overlapping regions (28 bp in total) are dispersed throughout the whole genome. The non-coding AT-rich region is 405 bp long and contains some conserved structures similar to those found in other butterfly mitogenomes, such as the motif ATAGA followed by a 12-bp poly-T stretch and a microsatellite-like (AT)14 element preceded by the ATTTA motif. Additionally, a 11-bp poly-T sequences and a microsatellite-like (AT)7 repeated elements are detected in this region.

  19. Diversidad del orden Lepidoptera (Hesperioidea y Papilionoidea de la ciudad Corrientes, Argentina

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    María Gabriela Lazzeri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de urbanización representa una de las amenazas más importantes a la biodiversidad. Los lepidópteros son uno de los grupos taxonómicos utilizados como indicadores de la diversidad y calidad del ambiente. El objetivo del presente trabajo es conocer los Lepidoptera (Papilionoidea y Hesperioidea de la ciudad de Corrientes. Se llevaron a cabo muestreos al azar en un parche de bosque nativo situado en el barrio Santa Catalina y en un área antropizada, el Parque Mitre. Las recolectas se realizaron en las cuatro estaciones climáticas entre enero y octubre de 2007 con redes entomológicas. El total de ejemplares capturados asciende a 1 114, los que se distribuyen en seis familias: Hesperiidae, Lycaenidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae y Riodinidae y 18 subfamilias. Se identificaron 59 géneros y 75 especies. Anartia jatrophae jatrophae fue la especie más abundante en ambas unidades. Esta especie junto a Urbanus procne, Phoebis sennae marcellina, Pyrgus orcus y Dryas iulia alcionea se capturaron en todas las estaciones. El mayor número de ejemplares se colectó en las estaciones más cálidas. La abundancia (n=701, riqueza (S=74 y diversidad (H’=3.87 fueron superiores en Santa Catalina. Las unidades exploradas exhiben una elevada riqueza de especies y alta similitud.

  20. Phylogeography of Koramius charltonius (Gray, 1853 (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: a case of too many poorly circumscribed subspecies

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    Stanislav K. Korb

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Koramius charltonius (Gray, 1853 (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae is distributed in the mountains of Central Asia. We analysed genetic and phylogeographic patterns throughout the western part of its range using a mitochondrial marker (COI. We also analysed the wing pattern using multivariate statistics. We found that the species contains several unique haplotypes in the west and shared haplotypes in the east. The haplotype groups do not correspond to the wing pattern and also the described subspecies do not correspond to either the haplotypes or the groups circumscribed by the wing pattern. Currently, there are more than ten subspecies of K. charltonius in Central Asia; based on our analyses we suggest a reduction to only five of them. The following nomenclatural changes are applied: (1 K. charltonius aenigma Dubatolov & Milko, 2003, syn. n., K. charltonius sochivkoi Churkin, 2009, syn.n., and K. charltonius alrashid Churkin & Pletnev, 2012, syn. n. are new synonyms of K. charltonius romanovi (Grum-Grshimailo, 1885; (2 K. charltonius marusya Churkin & Pletnev, 2012, syn. n., K. charltonius eugenia Churkin, 2009, syn. n., K. charltonius anjuta Stshetkin & Kaabak, 1985, syn. n., and K. charltonius mistericus Kaabak, Sotchivko & Titov, 1996, syn. n. are new synonyms of K. charltonius vaporosus (Avinov, 1913; and (3 K. charltonius safronovi Korb, Shaposhnikov, Zatakovoy & Nikolaev, 2013, syn. n. is a new synonym of K. charltonius voigti (Bang-Haas, 1927.

  1. Plant Resistance to the Moth Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae) in Tomato Cultivars.

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    Sohrabi, F; Nooryazdan, H R; Gharati, B; Saeidi, Z

    2017-04-01

    The resistance of 11 tomato cultivars (Ps-6515, Berlina, Poolad, Petoprid-5, Zaman, Matin, Golsar, Sandokan-F1, Golshan-616, Sadeen-95 and Sadeen-21) to the tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae) was investigated under field conditions. A randomized complete block design was used with three replications. Data analysis indicated that there were significant differences (P < 0.05) among cultivars regarding leaflet damage, leaf damage, overall plant damage, number of mines per leaf, number of holes on the stem, and fruit. Our findings revealed that the cultivars Berlina, Golsar, Poolad, and Zaman were less suitable cultivars, suggesting that they are more resistant to the tomato moth than the other cultivars. The high density of leaf trichomes present in the cultivars Berlina, Zaman, and Golsar can be one of the possible causes of resistance to T. absoluta. Knowledge of the extent of susceptibility or resistance of cultivars to a pest on a crop is one of the fundamental components of integrated pest management (IPM) programs for any crop.

  2. Potential Toxicity of α-Cypermethrin-Treated Nets on Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

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    Biondi, A; Zappalà, L; Desneux, N; Aparo, A; Siscaro, G; Rapisarda, C; Martin, T; Tropea Garzia, G

    2015-06-01

    Insect-proof nets are thought to be effective physical barriers to protect tomato crops against several insect pests, including the invasive tomato pest, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). However, protected tomato crops are frequently infested by this destructive pest, and there is a higher infestation of plants closer to openings in Mediterranean greenhouses, suggesting that immigrating adults can easily walk on these protective materials and find a way to reach the crop. Laboratory bioassays were carried out to characterize the potential toxicity of α-cypermethrin-treated insect-proof nets (Agronet) against T. absoluta adults. The data showed that the net acts mainly through a variety of chronic sublethal effects rather than acute ones. Reduced longevity and, more markedly, a reduced number of laid eggs were observed after the moths were exposed to the treated net over the duration of their lifetimes. A Y-tube experiment showed that the treated net does not affect the T. absoluta olfaction cues for host location. In contrast, when the moths were given the option to choose either the treated or the untreated net in laboratory cages, they significantly preferred the untreated one. The toxicological significance and the functional implications of these subtle effects for the implementation of integrated T. absoluta management strategies are discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Insecticide effect of cyantraniliprole on tomato moth Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae larvae in field trials

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    Patricia Larraín

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The tomato moth (Tuta absoluta Meyrick, Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae has traditionally been managed in Chile with organophosphate, pyrethroid, and nereistoxin insecticides; all of these have wide action spectra and high toxicity and many of them have developed rapid resistance. It is therefore important to have new molecules which are effective in controlling this pest; how ever, these molecules must have lower toxicity and greater selectivity for beneficial fauna to produce a more sustainable tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. production. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of T. absoluta control with cyantraniliprole insecticide, which has desirable characteristics for programs of integrated pest management of tomato; we thus performed three trials in the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 seasons in the Coquimbo Region, Chile. These trials evaluated the control of T. absoluta using different doses of two formulations: cyantraniliprole 10 OD (oil dispersion with or without surfactants (Dyne-Amic, Codacide applied to leaves and cyantraniliprole 20 SC (suspension concentrate applied to soil. Trials used a randomized complete block design with four replicates. The effect of treatments was compared with standard insecticides and a control without insecticide. The degree of control was estimated by foliar and fruit damage at harvest. Results indicate a reduction in fruit damage between 75% and 85% for foliar applications and 82% for soil applications of cyantraniliprole. It is concluded that both formulations of cyantraniliprole were effective to reduce damage caused by the tomato moth larva in both the foliage and fruit of tomato.

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome of the pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

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    Zhao, Jing; Sun, Yang; Xiao, Liubin; Tan, Yongan; Dai, Hanyang; Bai, Lixin

    2016-05-01

    Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a key pest in many cotton-growing countries of the world. In this study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the pink bollworm P. gossypiella was determined, which is 15,202 bp in length (GenBank accession number: KM225795) containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial gene and an A + T-rich region. The gene order of P. gossypiella mtDNA was different from the insect ancestral gene order in the translocation of trnM, as shared by previously sequenced lepidopteran mtDNAs. The protein-coding genes (PCGs) have typical mitochondrial start codons ATN, with the exception of COI, Nad5, which uses the start codons CGA, GTT. Eight PCGs stop with complete termination codons (TAA), whereas five PCGs use incomplete stop codon T. All of the tRNA genes had typical cloverleaf secondary structures except for trnS1(AGN), in which the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm did not form a stable stem-loop structure. Like other insects, the control region is located between rrnS and trnM with a length of 309 bp and an A + T content of 94.8%, which is the most AT-rich region and comparatively simple, with little evidence of long tandem repeats, but harbors a conserved structure combining the motif ATAGA and a 18-bp poly-T stretch.

  5. Response of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to different pheromone emission levels in greenhouse tomato crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacas, Sandra; López, Jesús; Primo, Jaime; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente

    2013-10-01

    The response of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to different emission rates of its pheromone, (3E, 8Z, 11Z)-tetradecatrienyl acetate, was measured in two greenhouse trials with traps baited with mesoporous dispensers. For this purpose, weekly moth trap catches were correlated with increasing pheromone emission levels by multiple regression analysis. Pheromone release profiles of the dispensers were obtained by residual pheromone extraction and gas chromatography quantification. In the first trial carried out in summer 2010, effect of pheromone emission was significant as catches increased linearly with pheromone release rates up to the highest studied level of 46.8 μg/d. A new trial was carried out in spring 2011 to measure the effect of the emission factor when pheromone release rates were higher. Results demonstrated that trap catches and pheromone emission fitted to a quadratic model, with maximum catches obtained with a release level of 150.3 μg/d of (3E, 8Z, 11Z)-tetradecatrienyl acetate. This emission value should provide enhanced attraction of T. absoluta and improve mass trapping, attract-and-kill, or monitoring techniques under greenhouse conditions in the Mediterranean area.

  6. New Pyrethroids for Use Against Tuta Absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae): Their Toxicity and Control Speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Shaiene C; Silvério, Flaviano O; Picanço, Marcelo C; Alvarenga, Elson S; Pereira, Renata R; Santana Júnior, Paulo A; Silva, Gerson A

    2017-09-01

    Insect pests are responsible for major losses in crop productivity, and insecticides are the main tools used to control these organisms. There is increasing demand for new products for pest management. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of pyrethroids with acid moiety modifications to measure the insecticidal activity of these compounds on Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). First, we synthesized E/Z mixtures of five pyrethroids: [9], [10], [11], [12], and [13]. Then, we separated the cis and trans pyrethroid isomers of [9], [10], [11], and [12]. We assessed the toxicity of these compounds against T. absoluta. The E/Z mixtures of the five pyrethroids (30 µg of substance per mg-1 of insect) caused high (100%) and rapid (<12 h) tomato borer mortality. The cis isomer of pyrethroid [10] was the most toxic to T. absoluta, causing mortality similar to permethrin. The other isomers were less powerful than permethrin. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  7. Bioactivity of Piper extracts on Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae in tomato

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    Elaine Ferrari de Brito

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the bioactivity of ethanolic leaf extracts from four species of the genus Piper against the tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae under laboratory conditions. The evaluated species were: P. amalago var. medium, P. glabratum, P. mikanianum, and P. mollicomum. In the initial screening assay (extract concentration of 2,000 mg L-1, all tested extracts caused significant larval mortality, particularly the extract of P. amalago var. medium; however, no extracts reduced the weight of the surviving larvae. The extract from P. amalago var. medium at the concentration of 1,011 mg L-1 caused a significant lengthening of the larval and pupal stages. The ethanolic leaf extract of P. amalago var. medium is promising for the control of T. absoluta larvae in tomato, since it exhibits acute toxicity toward these caterpillars at the concentration of 2,000 mg L-1 and affects the insect's development by reducing its survival and lengthening the larval and pupal stages.

  8. Demography and randomized life table statistics for peach twig borer Anarsia lineatella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damos, Petros

    2013-04-01

    This work studies for first time the effect of constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30 and 3 degrees C) on the demography of Anarsia lineatella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) based on jackknife and bootstrap randomization methods. Male and female longevity was substantially reduced at the higher temperatures in contrast to intermediate and lower temperatures. According to a second order polynomial regression function, high correlations were observed between temperatures and the age of first reproduction as well as temperature and oviposition times. Net reproductive rate was highest at 25 degrees C and 74.172, while the intrinsic rate of increase displayed its highest values at 30 degrees C and was estimated to be 0.238. Birth rate and finite capacity of increase were higher at 30 degrees C and estimated to be 0.235 and 1.268, respectively. Mean generation time and doubling time varied significantly with temperature and the shortest mean generation and doubling time was obtained at 30 degrees C (25.566 and 2.909 d respectively). Life expectancy had its lowest value 10.3 d at 25 degrees C, whereas cohorts that were maintained at 20 and 15 degrees C increased their life expectation approximately three to sixfold.

  9. Temperature effects on development and fecundity of Brachmia macroscopa (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Wang, Xing; Liu, Yan; Su, Ming-Zhu; Huang, Guo-Hua

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated the impacts of temperature on the development and reproductivity of the sweet potato leaf folder, Brachmia macroscopa (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in sweet potato leaves under laboratory conditions. We determined developmental time of B. macroscopa larval, pupal, and pre-adult stage at different temperatures. Male and female longevity, male and female lifespan, mortality of immature stages, oviposition period of B. macroscopa were also investigated under six constant temperatures (21°C, 24°C, 27°C, 30°C, 33°C, 36°C), based on age-stage, two-sex life tables. The results revealed that eggs in 36°C were unable to hatch. At temperatures between 21°C -33°C, the duration of the pre-adult period, as well as the adult lifespan both for males and females, were shortened by increasing temperatures. The lowest larval mortality rate (15.33%) occurred at 27°C. The age-stage-specific fecundity rates with the greatest number were, in order, 30°C, 27°C, 21°C, 24°C and 33°C. The results show that B. macroscopa population levels could reach highest at the temperature of 27℃.

  10. Structure and distribution of the sensilla on the antennae of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawin, Thomas; Collard, France; De Backer, Lara; Yarou, Boni Barthélémy; Compère, Philippe; Francis, Frédéric; Verheggen, François J

    2017-05-01

    The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a widespread devastating pest that develops on tomato and other economically important solanaceous crops. Current semiochemically-based management strategies still fail to significantly reduce damages and need to be improved. Here we describe under scanning and transmission electron microscopy the structure and distribution of the sensilla that are displayed on adult antennae. These were similar in size between males (3424.4±135.3μm) and females (3292.1±111.5μm), being segmented into a scape, a pedicel, and a distal filiform flagellum. Eight morphological sensilla types were observed on both sexes: Böhm's bristles, sensilla squamiformia, sensilla trichodea, sensilla basiconica (two subtypes), sensilla chaetica, sensilla coeloconica, sensilla auricillica, and sensilla styloconica. The main sexual dimorphism was related to the higher abundance of sensilla trichodea in males, twice as abundant as in females. The putative functional significance of the different sensilla types regarding the insect ecology is discussed based on the available literature. This work provides descriptions of the antennae and related sensory structures. We expect these results to help develop further electrophysiological investigations aiming to a better understanding of T. absoluta olfaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of Cultivation and Subsequent Burial on Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, William B.; Nelson, Peter N.; Grieshop, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the efficacy of cultivation as a potential management strategy for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in apple orchards. Cocooned codling moth pupae and thinning apples infested with plum curculio larvae were cultivated over in the field. Emergence, percent burial, damage to buried fruit, and depth of burial was recorded. In the laboratory, both insects were buried at variable depths in sand and potting soil and emergence was measured. A greater proportion of plum curculio larvae buried in infested fruit under laboratory conditions survived to adulthood compared with unburied infested fruit, down to 15 cm. No codling moth adults emerged from under 1 cm or more of sand. Buried codling moth larvae experienced drastically reduced survival to adulthood compared with unburied larvae. These results indicate that strip cultivation may negatively impact codling moth diapausing larvae and pupae on the ground, but not likely to negatively impact plum curculio in infested dropped apples. PMID:26470248

  12. Isolation and characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis strains active against Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller, 1848 (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae

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    Janaina Zorzetti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller, 1848 (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae is an insect pest of 60 economically important crops, including sugarcane, wheat, soybean, rice, beans, sorghum, peanuts, and cotton. The aim of this work was to select and characterize Bacillus thuringiensis isolates with insecticidal activity against E. Lignosellus that could be used as an alternative method of control. Selective bioassays were done to evaluate the toxicity of 47 isolates against first instar larvae of E. lignosellus. For the most toxic bacterial strains, the lethal concentration (LC50 was estimated and morphological, biochemical and molecular methods were used to characterize the isolates. Among the 47 isolates tested, 12 caused mortality above 85% and showed LC50 values from 0.038E+8 to 0.855E+8 spores mL-1. Isolates BR83, BR145, BR09, BR78, S1534, and S1302 had the lowest LC50 values and did not differ from the standard HD-1 strain; the exception was BR83.The protein profiles produced bands with molecular masses of 60-130 kDa. The genes cry1, cry2, cry3, and cry11 were identified in the molecular characterization. The morphological analysis identified three different crystal inclusions: bipyramidal, spherical and cuboidal. Among the tested isolates, 12 isolates have potential for biotechnological control of E. Lignosellus by development of new biopesticides or genetically modified plants.

  13. Effects of gamma radiation on larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fall armyworm

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    Arthur, Valter; Arthur, Paula B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Franco, Jose G.; Harder, Marcia N.C., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br, E-mail: mnharder@terra.com.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Franco, Suely S.H.; Machi, Andre R., E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    One of the most harmful insects the corn culture is the Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), known commonly as fall armyworm, it is would originate of the tropical and subtropical areas of the American continent; its economical importance is due polyphagism, attacking countless grassy, such as corn, sorghum, wheat, barley, rice and pastures. One of the methods more used in the moment is the chemical control that during several applications the insect can turn resistant, then news researches has been made to the control of the insects. Due what was exposed the objective of the research was evaluated the effects of gamma radiation on larvae of S. frugiperda. Insects were rear in artificial diet. Each treatment had 5 repetitions with 20 larvae with 15-20 days of age in the total of 100 larvae per treatment. The larvae were irradiated with doses of gamma radiation of: 0 (control), 50, 100, 200 and 300 Gy, in source of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220, at dose rate of 0,508 kGy/hour. After irradiation the insects were keep in room with climatic conditions of 25 ± 5 dec C and 70 ± 5% R.H. Were evaluated the emergence of adults. The results showed that the dose of 300 Gy was the lethal dose to larvae irradiated, and 200 Gy the sterilizing dose to adults. (author)

  14. Biological and immune response of Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to sodium tetraborate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmuş, Yonca; Büyükgüzel, Kemal

    2008-06-01

    Inorganic insecticides are commonly used in urban pest management because of their low mammalian toxicity. We tested the effects of sodium tetraborate (ST) on life parameters of greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), to determine its sublethal toxicity on the insect. Survival, development, adult longevity, and fecundity of the wax moth were investigated by rearing larvae on artificial diets containing ST at concentrations of 0.005, 0.1, 0.2, or 0.3%. Larvae reared on medium at the highest concentration of ST (0.3%) had significantly decreased survival to the seventh instar and prolonged time required to reach the seventh instar. This concentration reduced pupa and adult yields to 12.5%, and it also prolonged development by 5 d. ST did not significantly influence adult longevity. Dietary ST led to significant decreases in fecundity and egg viability. Oviposition of survivors at the highest ST concentration (0.3%) was completely inhibited. Lysozyme content was decreased in larval hemolymph and fat body at high dietary ST concentrations. Fat body lysozyme content was significantly increased two-fold for larvae reared on diet at the lowest concentration of ST (0.005%). However, the highest concentration (0.3%) dramatically decreased fat body lysozyme content from 0.12 +/- 0.013 to 0.006 +/- 0.003 mg/ml in seventh instars. We infer that sublethal levels of dietary ST substantially influence life history parameters and immunocompetence in G. mellonella.

  15. Host plant use among closely related Anaea butterfly species (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Charaxinae

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    QUEIROZ J. M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a great number of Charaxinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae species in the tropics whose larvae feed on several plant families. However the genus Anaea is almost always associated with Croton species (Euphorbiaceae. This work describes patterns of host plant use by immature and adult abundance on different vertical strata of sympatric Anaea species in a forest of Southeastern Brazil. Quantitative samples of leaves were taken in April/1999 and May/2000 to collect eggs and larvae of four Anaea species on C.alchorneicarpus, C. floribundus and C. salutaris in a semideciduous forest. Sampled leaves were divided into three classes of plant phenological stage: saplings, shrubs and trees. The results showed that the butterfly species are segregating in host plant use on two scales: host plant species and plant phenological stages. C. alchorneicarpus was used by only one Anaea species, whereas C. floribundus was used by three species and C. salutaris by four Anaea species. There was one Anaea species concentrated on sapling, another on sapling/shrub and two others on shrub/tree leaves. Adults of Anaea were more frequent at canopy traps but there were no differences among species caught in traps at different vertical positions. This work supplements early studies on host plant use among Charaxinae species and it describes how a guild of closely related butterfly species may be organized in a complex tropical habitat.

  16. Effect of varying dispenser point source density on mating disruption of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lame, Frédérique M; Epstein, David; Gut, Larry J; Goldfarb, Heidi; Miller, James R

    2010-08-01

    Hand-applied dispensers are successfully used in mating disruption programs, but cost of labor to apply these dispensers limits their adoption. Creating hand-applied dispensers that release larger amounts of pheromone and that can be applied at lower densities per hectare could reduce the cost of mating disruption and increase its use. The effect of reducing the number of point sources per hectare while keeping the amount of pheromone applied per hectare constant on the success of Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) mating disruption was investigated with Confuse-OFM, paraffin disk, and Isomate-M Rosso dispensers. For all dispensers, as point source density decreased, numbers of moths captured increased, percentage of orientation disruption to traps decreased, and variability in these measures increased. Decreasing point source density, even while keeping the amount of pheromone applied per hectare constant is not a viable option for reducing the cost of G. molesta mating disruption with hand-applied dispensers. Puffers (aerosol dispensers) are applied at 2.5-5 dispensers per ha for G. molesta control. However, hand-applied dispensers fail when clumped at such low numbers of release sites. Potential explanations for the success of Puffers and the failure of hand-applied dispensers at very low point source densities are presented. The utility of paraffin disk dispensers as experimental devices also is discussed.

  17. Estimate of Alabama argillacea (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae development with nonlinear models

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    R. S. Medeiros

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate which nonlinear model [Davidson (1942, 1944, Stinner et al. (1974, Sharpe & DeMichele (1977, and Lactin et al. (1995] best describes the relationship between developmental rates of the different instars and stages of Alabama argillacea (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, and temperature. A. argillacea larvae were fed with cotton leaves (Gossypium hirsutum L., race latifolium Hutch., cultivar CNPA 7H at constant temperatures of 20, 23, 25, 28, 30, 33, and 35ºC; relative humidity of 60 ± 10%; and photoperiod of 14:10 L:D. Low R² values obtained with Davidson (0.0001 to 0.1179 and Stinner et al. (0.0099 to 0.8296 models indicated a poor fit of their data for A. argillacea. However, high R² values of Sharpe & DeMichele (0.9677 to 0.9997 and Lactin et al. (0.9684 to 0.9997 models indicated a better fit for estimating A. argillacea development.

  18. Brevibacterium pityocampae sp. nov., isolated from caterpillars of Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera, Thaumetopoeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kati, Hatice; Ince, Ikbal Agah; Demir, Ismail; Demirbag, Zihni

    2010-02-01

    This work deals with the taxonomic study of a bacterium, strain Tp12(T), isolated from caterpillars of the pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775; Lepidoptera, Thaumetopoeidae). The isolate was assigned to the genus Brevibacterium on the basis of a polyphasic taxonomic study, including morphological and biochemical characteristics, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, fatty acid analysis and DNA G+C content. The highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to this isolate was approximately 96 %, with the type strains of Brevibacterium album and Brevibacterium samyangense. Cellular fatty acids of the isolate are of the branched type, with the major components being anteiso-C(15 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0). The DNA G+C content was 69.8 mol%. Although the strain was related to B. album and B. samyangense according to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, it differed from any known species of Brevibacterium. Based on this evidence, the novel species Brevibacterium pityocampae sp. nov. is proposed, with strain Tp12(T) (=DSM 21720(T) =NCCB 100255(T)) as the type strain.

  19. Aktivitas biologi enam jenis ekstrak tumbuhan famili Asteraceae terhadap larva Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Ratna Sari Dewi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological Activity of Six Plan Extract from Asteraceae on Spodoptera litura Fabricius (lipedoptera : Noctuidae Larvae. Asteraceae is one of plant family that is known to have insecticidal activity to several insect pests, such as Parthenium argentatum, Crysanthemum cineariaefolium, and Agerantum houstoneanum. The aim of this study is to explore other asteraceae species in other to search for insecticidal activity to Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. Six species, Blumea balsamifera (leaf, Elephantopus scaber (leaf, Gynura procumbens (leaf Artemisia vulgaris (leaf Soncbus arvensis (leaf and Helianthus annus (seed were use in this study. Plant extract were obtained by meseration method using menthanol. The extract were bioassayed to the second instar larvae of S. litura to evaluate the mortality, antifeedant and growth regulation activity. Extract of B. balsamifera and E. scaber have high antifeedant activity at 5 % by reducing larval feeding 87.7% and 81.8% in no choice test, and 94.1% and 86.1% in choice test method, respectively Extract of H. annus, A. vulgaris, and E. scaber prolonged the development of larvae by 4.9, 4.1, 3.9 days, respectively. While extract of H. annus caused mortality of larvae by 86% at 5%.

  20. Lethal and sublethal effects of an insect growth regulator, pyriproxyfen, on obliquebanded leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sial, Ashfaq A; Brunner, Jay F

    2010-04-01

    The obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is one of the most destructive pests of tree fruit in Washington. The development of insecticide resistance in C. rosaceana has led us to explore new management tactics. The use of very low doses of insecticides that have strong sublethal effects represents an environmentally friendly option to improve existing integrated pest management (IPM) strategies. We tested the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen to determine its lethal and sublethal effects on growth and development of C. rosaceana. A leaf-disk bioassay was used to test seven concentrations of pyriproxyfen ranging from 0 to 30 ppm on fifth-instar C. rosaceana. Male and female larvae were assessed separately for mortality as well as other parameters of growth and development. The LC, values for males and females were 2.4 and 4.8 ppm, respectively. The response to pyriproxyfen was concentration-dependent: only 5-6% of the larvae treated with the highest concentration emerged as morphologically normal adults compared with 86% emergence in the controls. The pupation and adult emergence was significantly delayed at concentrations higher than 1 ppm. The weights of C. rosaceana pupae and adults were significantly increased, whereas fecundity and fertility were significantly reduced at a sublethal concentration of 0.3 ppm. We conclude that both lethal and sublethal effects might exhibit significant impacts on the population dynamics of C. rosaceana in tree fruit orchards treated with low concentrations of pyriproxyfen.

  1. Resistensi populasai hama bawang merah Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae terhadap klorfluazuron

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    Abdi Negara

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Resistance of Onion Pest Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Populations to Chlorfluazuron. The research was conducted from August 2001 until April 2002 in the Kalitiro Agriculture Training and Development Research Station, Gadjah Mada University. The objective of research was to determine the resistance level of Spodoptera exigua populations collected from the district of Sanden, Kretek, Wates, Temon, Panjatan, Wonosari, Panggang and Playen (all are in Yogyakarta Province to chlorfluazuron insecticide. Research was conducted by dipping artificial diet about 30 seconds in insecticide solution and there are used test two hours after they were air dried. Based on the preliminary test, different concentrations were tested to determine the toxicity of the insecticide to each population. Third instar larvae (five days old of the first generation were used in bioassays. Each larvae with its artificial diet was placed in a plastic cup (diameter 3,5 cm. Larval mortality was recorded at 72 hours after exposure. Data was analyzed using probit analysis to determine LC50 values. The result showed that the LC50 values of chlorfluazuron againsts eight population of S. exigua at 72 hours after exposure varied from 16,10 ppm (Panggang to 84,76 ppm (Panjatan. The results suggested that all populations from Panggang, Playen, Kretek, Sanden, Wates, Wonosari and Temon were still susceptible to chlorfluazuron. Population from Panjatan indicated to be resistant to chlorfluazuron.

  2. Bioecology of Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and associated larval parasitoids reared from Hass avocados in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoddle, Mark S; Hoddle, Christina D

    2008-06-01

    A 10-wk study of the avocado seed-feeding moth Stenoma catenifer Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae), was conducted in a commercial 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana Miller [Lauraceae]) orchard in Guatemala. Up to 45% of fruit in the orchard were damaged by larval S. catenifer. Larval-to-adult survivorship for 1,881 S. catenifer larvae in Hass fruit was 37%, and adult sex ratio was 51% female. Four species of larval parasitoid were reared from field-collected S. catenifer larvae. The most common parasitoid reared was a gregarious Apanteles sp., which parasitized 53% of larvae and produced on average eight to nine cocoons per host. Apanteles sp. sex ratio was 47% female and 87% of parasitoids emerged successfully from cocoons. Apanteles sp. longevity was approximately equal to 1.5 d in the absence of food, and when provisioned with honey, parasitoids survived for 5-7 d. The mean number of cocoons produced by Apanteles sp. per host, and larval parasitism rates were not significantly affected by the number of S. catenifer larvae inhabiting seeds. Oviposition studies conducted with S. catenifer in the laboratory indicated that this moth lays significantly more eggs on the branch to which the fruit pedicel is attached than on avocado fruit. When given a choice between Hass and non-Hass avocados, S. catenifer lays up to 2.69 times more eggs on Hass.

  3. Larval Biology of Anthophagous Eumaeini (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae, Theclinae) in the Cerrado of Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Neuza A. P.; Duarte, Marcelo; Araújo, Eliezer B.; Morais, Helena C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The biology and morphology of the early stages of 22 species of Eumaeini (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae, Theclinae) are presented. Observations were collected through the inspection of inflorescences in the field and the rearing of 214 larvae in laboratory. Allosmaitia strophius (Godart) associated with Malpighiaceae species and the polyphagous Strymon mulucha (Hewitson) were the most frequently collected species. Detritivory was observed in two species, Electrostrymon endymion (F.) and Kisutam syllis (Godman & Salvin), and myrmecophily in four other species, A. strophius , Ministrymon azia (Hewitson), Parrhasius polibetes (Stoll), and S. mulucha . Cannibalism was observed in A. strophius ; in addition, the pupa of this and of three other species produced audible sounds. Paiwarria aphaca (Hewitson) was highlighted because of the great difference observed between its first and last instars, as well as the marked difference between that species and the larvae of Paiwarria umbratus (Geyer) documented in Costa Rica. Larvae of Calycopis mimas (Godman & Salvin) displayed “bungee jumping” behavior when stimulated. Parasitoids (Diptera, Hymenoptera) attacked 21 larvae of eight species, A. strophius , K. syllis , M. azia , Pai. aphaca , P. polibetes , Rekoa marius (Lucas), S. mulucha , and Tmolus venustus (H.H. Druce). Illustrations of immatures and parasitoids are provided. PMID:25368090

  4. Three new species of Fancy Case caterpillars from threatened forests of Hawaii (Lepidoptera, Cosmopterigidae, Hyposmocoma

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    Akito Kawahara

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The endemic Hawaiian moth genus Hyposmocoma includes 348 described species and perhaps twice as many that remain undescribed. The genus is unusual within Lepidoptera in that its larvae create distinctive silk cases in which they perambulate while protected and camouflaged. An extraordinary diversity of case types exists, and to date more than ten different types have been identified, each corresponding roughly to a separate evolutionary lineage. In this study, we describe three new species of Hyposmocoma: H. ipohapuu sp. n. from Big Island, H. makawao sp. n. from Makawao Forest Reserve in Maui and H. tantala sp. n. from Mt. Tantalus, Oahu, all of which produce tubular purse cases during their larval stage. We also describe the female of H. inversella Walsingham, which was previously undescribed, and re-describe two closely related species, H. auropurpurea Walsingham and H. nebulifera Walsingham, neither which have been formally described in recent years. We present for the first time, the CAD primer sequences for Hyposmocoma and relatives. The molecular phylogeny based on mitochondrial and nuclear loci demonstrates that all are distinct species. The discovery of a new, endemic species from Mt. Tantalus, an area with many invasive species, suggests that even relatively degraded areas in Hawaii would be worthy of active conservation efforts.

  5. Evaluation of seven viral isolates as potential biocontrol agents against Pseudoplusia includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) caterpillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Talita M; Ribeiro, Zilda Maria A; Craveiro, Saluana R; Cunha, Fabiane; Fonseca, Ines Cristina B; Moscardi, Flávio; Castro, Maria Elita B

    2010-09-01

    The caterpillar Pseudoplusia includens (Walker, 1857) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), known as soybean looper, is a pest that has recently assumed greater importance in soybean in Brazil. Isolates of nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs) of this pest have been identified from cotton in Guatemala and soybean farms in Brazil, providing an interesting perspective of potential use of viral insecticide against the insect in lieu to chemical insecticides. With the objective to contribute to the characterization studies of this virus, morphological and molecular analyses and biological activity were carried out with seven P. includens viral isolates (I-A to I-G). Electron microscopy of viral samples, purified from macerated infected larvae, showed particles with typical morphology of the Baculoviridae family, genus Alphabaculovirus (Nucleopolyhedrovirus - NPV) presenting virions with only a single nucleocapsid per envelope (SNPV) occluded in a protein matrix, forming occlusion bodies (OB). This virus was then classified as P. includens single nucleopolyhedrovirus (PsinSNPV). OB particles analyzed in SDS-polyacrylamide gel showed an intense band corresponding in size to NPV polyhedrin protein. DNA restriction profiles of the PsinSNPV isolates showed differences in the fragment size and number suggesting the existence of genotypic variants, except between I-E and I-F profiles that were similar. Among the isolates tested for infectivity against P. includens, I-A, I-E and I-F were the most virulent. Survival times (ST(50)) varied according to viral concentration, with significant differences among isolates for the three higher concentrations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of Cultivation and Subsequent Burial on Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, William B; Nelson, Peter N; Grieshop, Matthew J

    2015-06-01

    We assessed the efficacy of cultivation as a potential management strategy for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in apple orchards. Cocooned codling moth pupae and thinning apples infested with plum curculio larvae were cultivated over in the field. Emergence, percent burial, damage to buried fruit, and depth of burial was recorded. In the laboratory, both insects were buried at variable depths in sand and potting soil and emergence was measured. A greater proportion of plum curculio larvae buried in infested fruit under laboratory conditions survived to adulthood compared with unburied infested fruit, down to 15 cm. No codling moth adults emerged from under 1 cm or more of sand. Buried codling moth larvae experienced drastically reduced survival to adulthood compared with unburied larvae. These results indicate that strip cultivation may negatively impact codling moth diapausing larvae and pupae on the ground, but not likely to negatively impact plum curculio in infested dropped apples. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  7. lepidoptera: pyralidae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-02-18

    Feb 18, 2004 ... extractor and tested as insecticides against the eggs and. Effect of Ethanolic Extract on larva ... distilling the content of the soxhlet extractor at 40-60°C. All the oil extract were .... root bark was more effective than the powder in the control The authors are grateful to the Third World Academy of of C. maculatus.

  8. Hymenopteran parasitoids associated with the banana-skipper Erionota thrax L. (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae in Java, Indonesia

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    ERNIWATI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Erniwati, Ubaidillah R (2011 Hymenopteran parasitoids associated with the banana-skipper Erionota thrax L. (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae in Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 12: 76-85. Hymenopteran parasitoids of banana-skipper Erionota thrax L. (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae from Java, Indonesia are reviewed and an illustrated key to 12 species is presented to include Theronia zebra zebra, Xanthopimpla gamsura, Casinaria sp., Charops sp., Cotesia (Apanteles erionotae, Brachymeria lasus, B. thracis, Ooencyrtus pallidipes, Anastatus sp., Pediobius erionotae, Agiommatus sumatraensis and Sympiesis sp. The surveys of the natural enemies of the banana-skipper were conducted in 1990-2006 in several localities in Java. The aim of this study was to assess the native natural enemies of E. thrax, especially the parasitic Hymenoptera. Infested eggs, larvae and pupae of E. thrax were collected and reared in the laboratory. Emerging parasitoids were preserved in both dry mounting and in 80% alcohol for the species identification. Members of families Braconidae, Ichneumonidae, Encyrtidae, Pteromalidae, Chalcididae, Eupelmidae and Eulophidae were recorded as parasitoids of the banana skipper E. thrax from Java, Indonesia. Species distribution and alternative hosts of the parasitoids are presented.

  9. Transcriptome Analysis and Identification of Major Detoxification Gene Families and Insecticide Targets in Grapholita Molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanqiong; Chai, Yanping; Zhang, Lijun; Zhao, Zhiguo; Gao, Ling-Ling; Ma, Ruiyan

    2017-01-01

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is an important pest of most stone and pome fruits and causes serious damage to the fruit industry worldwide. This insect pest has been primarily controlled through the application of insecticides; as a result, G. molesta has developed resistance to many different types of insecticides. To identify detoxification genes, we have, de novo, sequenced the transcriptome of G. molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and yielded 58,970 unigenes of which 26,985 unigenes matched to known proteins. In total, 2,040 simple sequence repeats have been identified. The comprehensive transcriptome data set has permitted us to identify members of important gene families related to detoxification in G. molesta, including 77 unigenes of putative cytochrome P450s, 28 of glutathione S-transferases, 46 of Carboxylesterases, and 31 of insecticide targets. Orthologs of some of these unigenes have shown to play a pivotal role in insecticide resistance in other insect species and those unigenes likely have similar functions in G. molesta. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  10. Response of ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) field populations to four years of Lepidoptera-specific Bt corn production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floate, K D; Cárcamo, H A; Blackshaw, R E; Postman, B; Bourassa, S

    2007-10-01

    Pitfall traps were used to monitor populations of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in plots of corn grown in continuous cultivation during a 4-yr period (2000-2003). Treatments included transgenic corn expressing a Bt Cry protein with efficacy specific against Lepidoptera (Bt), conventional corn grown with insecticide application (I), and the same conventional cultivar grown without insecticide application (NI). Mixed-model analyses of variance were performed on pitfall captures of beetles combined across weeks to give seasonal sums. Effects of corn treatment were not detected (P > 0.05) on total beetle abundance or species richness in any year. Effects of corn treatment on individual taxa were detected (P < 0.05) for 3 of the 39 species-by-year combinations examined. Effects of near significance (P < 0.08) were detected for an additional two species. In 2001, captures of Amara farcta Leconte and Harpalus amputatus Say were lower in Bt plots than in I or NI plots. In 2003, captures of Amara apricaria (Paykull) and Amara carinata (Leconte) were higher in Bt plots than in I or NI plots. Also in 2003, captures of Poecilus scitulus Leconte were higher in I plots than in Bt or NI plots. These patterns were not repeated among years. Results of this study indicate that cultivation of Lepidoptera-specific Bt corn in southern Alberta does not appreciably affect ground beetle populations.

  11. VIRULENSI BERBAGAI ISOLAT JAMUR ENTOMOPATOGEN METARHIZIUM SPP. TERHADAP HAMA PENGGEREK BUAH KAKAO CONOPOMORPHA CRAMERELLA SNELL. (LEPIDOPTERA: GRACILLARIIDAE

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    . Trizelia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Virulence of various Metarhizium spp. (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes  isolates on cocoa pod borrer pest, Conopomorpha cramerella Snell. (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae. In Indonesia, Conopomorpha  cramerella  Snell.  (Lepidoptera  :  Gracillariidae is a serious pest of cocoa.  Entomopathogens such as Metarhizium  spp.  (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes  can be used to control this pest as an alternative to chemical insecticides.  The purpose of this research was to study the virulence of isolates of Metarhizium  spp. to pupae of C. cramerella. Nine isolates of Metarhizium spp each with 107 conidia/ml rate were used in the experiment.  Pupal mortality  was recorded  daily.  The results showed that isolate MetApCi from chili rhizosphere had the highest virulence causing  96.67% mortality of C.  cramerella  pupae and with an LT50 of 3.04 days.

  12. Effects of croton urucurana extracts and crude resin on Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

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    Luciana Barboza Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of plant species have been studied in order to find out the active ingredient responsible for their insecticidal activity against the pests of economic importance. To verify the insecticidal activity in the husk of stem of Croton urucurana Baillon 1864 (Euphorbiaceae against Anagasta kuehniella Zeller 1879 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, the methanolic (EMeOH extract, dichloromethane fraction (FDM, ethyl acetate fraction (FAE and crude resin, incorporated into an artificial diet were evaluated. EMeOH (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% and crude resin (2.0% interfered with neither the weight nor the survival of fourth instar larvae and other analyzed parameters. FDM (2.0% fraction caused mortality of 65%, and the artificial diet containing 2.0, 1.0 and 0.5% FAE caused 100, 55 and 68% mortality respectively when compared with the control, confirming the least efficiency rates of food conversion for FDM(2.0% and FAE(1.0%. The tryptic analysis performed with the midgut fluid of fourth-instar larvae demonstrated that tryptic and chymiotryptic activities for the larvae fed artificial diet containing EMeOH and crude resin were not different.Atualmente centenas de plantas são investigadas para se conhecer os princípios ativos responsáveis pela atividade inseticida contra as diversas pragas de importância econômica. Com o objetivo de verificar a atividade inseticida das cascas do caule de Croton urucurana Baillon 1864 (Euphorbiaceae em relação a Anagasta kuehniella Zeller 1879 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, avaliou-se o extrato metanólico (EMeOH, fração diclorometano (FDM, a fração acetato de etila (FAE e a resina in natura, os quais foram adicionados à dieta artificial. O EMeOH (0,5, 1,0 e 20,% e a resina in natura (2,0%, não interferiram no peso, sobrevivência das larvas de 4ª ínstar, bem como nos demais parâmetros analisados. A fração FDM (2,0% causou mortalidade de 65%, e a dieta artificial contendo 2,0, 1,0, e 0,5% de FAE causou 100, 55 e 68% de

  13. Biological characteristics of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) induced to diapause in laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto e Silva, Oscar Arnaldo Batista; Bernardi, Daniel; Botton, Marcos; Garcia, Mauro Silveira

    2014-01-01

    In southern Brazil, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) uses diapause as survival strategy during the winter (May-August). In our study, we evaluated the effect of diapause on biological characteristics of the species for 4 months in laboratory. Newly hatched larvae of G. molesta were induced to diapause changing the photoperiod and temperature (T) (12 ± 1°C), relative humidity (RH) (70 ± 10%), and a photophase of 12 h and, when they started diapause in the prepupal stage, the conditions were kept for 4 months. Afterwards, the insects were induced to finalize the diapause process at T 25 ± 1°C, RH 70 ± 10%, and a photophase of 16 h. We evaluated the duration and viability of the larval stages and pupae, pupae weight at 24 h and sex ratio (sr), periods of preoviposition, oviposition, and postoviposition; adult life span (males and females); fecundity (daily and total); embryonic period duration and eggs viability, comparing the data with insects nondiapause. The results show that diapause greatly affected the viability of pupal-adult stages of the population (21.8%) when compared with insects' nondiapause (80.0%). Total fecundity (83.0 eggs) and mean life span (12.0 d) of insects diapause was significantly lower compared with insects nondiapause (173.0 and 17.0), respectively. However, these differences were not observed in the sr, which was similar to insects diapause (sr = 0.41) and insects nondiapause (sr = 0.49). The diapause induced for 4 months negatively affects reproduction and life span of adults of G. molesta. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  14. Assessment of SPLAT formulations to control Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in a Brazilian apple orchard

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    Cristiano João Arioli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mating disruption is a technique that uses synthetic copies of sex pheromones to control insect pests. We aimed to control Oriental fruit moth (OFM Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae with formulations of SPLAT Grafo (SG and SPLAT Grafo Attract and Kill (SGAK in small (1 ha apple (Malus domestica Borkh. orchards. Our experiment was conducted in a commercial orchard with 'Gala' trees (spacing 1.5 x 4.5 m in Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. We evaluated the effect of four treatments on G. molesta population densities: a SG at 1 kg ha-1 (300 point sources of 3.3 g each, b SGAK at 1 kg ha-1 (1000 point sources of 1 g each, c insecticides as recommended by Integrated Apple Production (IAP, and d untreated control (no treatment. Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology (SPLAT treatments were applied on 1 August 2004 and reapplied after 120 d (1 December 2004. The treatment effect was evaluated by weekly counts of males captured in Delta traps baited with commercial synthetic sex pheromone lures (eight traps per treatment. We assessed fruit damage caused by G. molesta in eight replicates of 200 fruits each on 26 October, 30 November 2004, and 5 and 31 January 2005. Applying 1 kg ha-1 of SG and SGAK in August and December 2004 significantly reduced the number of male moths caught in Delta traps. Damage to fruits at harvest, however, did not differ significantly from the control. This indicates a decline in the efficacy of mating disruption when SG and SGAK are used to protect small areas (1 ha under high Oriental fruit moth pressure.

  15. Susceptibility of Oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae to selected reduced-risk insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Moneen M; Robertson, Jacqueline L; Weinzierl, Richard A

    2010-10-01

    To determine their baseline susceptibility to chlorantraniliprole, spinetoram, spinosad, and acetamiprid, oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), neonates were placed on diet cubes containing a range of concentrations of each insecticide. Mortality was assessed after 96 h. Two populations-a long-term laboratory colony from Rutgers University and a colony established in 2007 from a southwestern Illinois (Calhoun County) field population-were tested. We used probit and logit analyses to compare the responses of Calhoun colony neonates from parents reared on 'Gala' apples (Malus spp.) with those of Calhoun colony neonates from parents reared on lima bean, Phaseolus lunatus L., diet. We also compared the responses of Calhoun colony neonates with those of Rutgers colony neonates (all from parents reared on apples). LC50s (ppm in diet) for Calhoun colony progeny of adults reared on apples were 0.08, 0.06, 0.41, and 0.30, respectively, for chlorantraniliprole, spinetoram, acetamiprid, and spinosad. Parental food source (apples versus lima bean diet) did not consistently influence the concentration-mortality relationships for neonates. Based on LC50s and toxicity ratio tests, Calhoun colony neonates were slightly but significantly less susceptible to spinetoram and acetamiprid than were Rutgers colony neonates. Similarly, LC90s and toxicity ratio tests indicated that Calhoun colony neonates were slightly but significantly less susceptible to chlorantraniliprole as well. However, toxicity ratios (Calhoun/Rutgers) were low in all instances, and the highest ratio was 1.73 at LC90 for chlorantraniliprole. Overall, the two colonies responded similarly to these insecticides. Results reported here provide baseline data for future monitoring of resistance development.

  16. Tools for resistance monitoring in oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and first assessment in Brazilian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegwart, M; Monteiro, L B; Maugin, S; Olivares, J; Malfitano Carvalho, S; Sauphanor, B

    2011-04-01

    In southern Brazilian apple (Malus spp.) orchards, predominantly organophosphates are used to control the oriental fruit moth, Cydia molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), but control failures often occur. Therefore the susceptibility of three C. molesta Brazilian populations was investigated to five insecticides of different groups and modes of action, in comparison with a susceptible laboratory strain mass reared in southern France for >10 yr. At the same time, comparative biochemical and genetic analysis were performed, assessing the activities of the detoxification enzymatic systems and sequencing a gene of insecticide molecular target to find out markers associated with resistance. The three Brazilian populations were significantly resistant to chlorpyrifos ethyl compared with the reference strain. One of the field populations that had been frequently exposed to deltamethrin treatments showed significant decreasing susceptibility to this compound, whereas none of the three populations had loss of susceptibility to tebufenozide and thiacloprid compared with the reference strain. All three populations had slight but significant increases of glutathione transferase and carboxylesterases activities and significant decrease of specific acetylcholinesterase activities compared with the reference. Only the most resistant population to chlorpyriphos exhibited a significantly higher mixed function oxidase activity than the reference. The acetylcholinesterase of females was significantly less inhibited by carbaryl in the Brazilian populations than in the reference strain (1.7-2.5-fold), and this difference was not expressed in the male moth. However, no mutation in the MACE locus was detected. These biological and molecular characterizations of adaptive response to insecticides in C. molesta provide tools for early detection of insecticide resistance in field populations of this pest.

  17. Towards a better understanding of the higher systematics of Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlberg, Niklas; Weingartner, Elisabet; Nylin, Sören

    2003-09-01

    Research on the molecular systematics of higher taxa in the butterfly family Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera) is only just beginning. Outgroup selection is difficult at the moment due to the lack of consensus on the basal relationships of the major groups in Nymphalidae. We identify four major clades in the Nymphalidae based on a cladistic analysis of one mitochondrial gene sequence (COI, 1450 bp) and two nuclear gene sequences (EF-1alpha, 1064 bp, and wingless, 412-415 bp) from 54 exemplar species sampled from all currently recognized subfamilies. The COI data set was found to be highly incongruent with the nuclear data sets and a Partitioned Bremer Support analysis shows that the COI data set largely undermines support for most clades. Transitions at the third codon positions of the COI data set were highly saturated, but analyzing the combined data set with the COI third positions removed did not change the results. The major clades we found are termed the danaine clade (including Danainae), the satyrine clade (including Charaxinae, Satyrinae, Calinaginae, and Morphinae), the heliconiine clade (including Heliconiinae and Limenitidinae excluding Biblidini, Cyrestini, Pseudergolini, and Coeini) and the nymphaline clade (including Nymphalinae, Apaturinae, and Coeini, Cyrestini, Pseudergolini, and Biblidini from Limenitidinae). The heliconiine and nymphaline clades are sister groups, while the most parsimonious explanation for the combined data set places the danaine clade as the most basal large group of Nymphalidae. Our results give one of the strongest hypotheses for the subfamilial relationships within Nymphalidae. We were able to resolve the polyphyletic nature of Limenitidinae, which we recommend to be split into three subfamilies: Limenitidinae, Biblidinae, and Cyrestinae. The tribe Coeini belongs in Nymphalinae.

  18. Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diets on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Anita R; Mattson, William J; Trier, Terry M

    2013-06-01

    Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall) in 2004-2005, and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michaux) in 2006-2007, and measured consequent effects on larval respiration. Leaves were collected for diet and leaf chemistry (nutritional and secondary compound proxies) from trees grown under ambient (average 380 ppm) and elevated CO2 (average 560 ppm) conditions. Elevated CO2 did not significantly alter birch or aspen leaf chemistry compared with ambient levels with the exception that birch percent carbon in 2004 and aspen moisture content in 2006 were significantly lowered. Respiration rates were significantly higher (15-59%) for larvae reared on birch grown under elevated CO2 compared with ambient conditions, but were not different on two aspen clones, until larvae reached the fifth instar, when those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 271 had lower (26%) respiration rates, and those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 216 had higher (36%) respiration rates. However, elevated CO2 had no apparent effect on the respiration rates of pupae derived from larvae fed either birch or aspen leaves. Higher respiration rates for larvae fed diets grown under ambient or elevated CO2 demonstrates their lower efficiency of converting chemical energy of digested food stuffs extracted from such leaves into their biosynthetic processes.

  19. A partitioned likelihood analysis of swallowtail butterfly phylogeny (Lepidoptera:Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterino, M S; Reed, R D; Kuo, M M; Sperling, F A

    2001-02-01

    Although it is widely agreed that data from multiple sources are necessary to confidently resolve phylogenetic relationships, procedures for accommodating and incorporating heterogeneity in such data remain underdeveloped. We explored the use of partitioned, model-based analyses of heterogeneous molecular data in the context of a phylogenetic study of swallowtail butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Despite substantial basic and applied study, phylogenetic relationships among the major lineages of this prominent group remain contentious. We sequenced 3.3 kb of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA (2.3 kb of cytochrome oxidase I and II and 1.0 kb of elongation factor-1 alpha, respectively) from 22 swallowtails, including representatives of Baroniinae, Parnassiinae, and Papilioninae, and from several moth and butterfly outgroups. Using parsimony, we encountered considerable difficulty in resolving the deepest splits among these taxa. We therefore chose two outgroups with undisputed relationships to each other and to Papilionidae and undertook detailed likelihood analyses of alternative topologies. Following from previous studies that have demonstrated substantial heterogeneity in the evolutionary dynamics among process partitions of these genes, we estimated evolutionary parameters separately for gene-based and codon-based partitions. These values were then used as the basis for examining the likelihoods of possible resolutions and rootings under several partitioned and unpartitioned likelihood models. Partitioned models gave markedly better fits to the data than did unpartitioned models and supported different topologies. However, the most likely topology varied from model to model. The most likely ingroup topology under the best-fitting, six-partition GTR + gamma model favors a paraphyletic Parnassiinae. However, when examining the likelihoods of alternative rootings of this tree relative to rootings of the classical hypothesis, two rootings of the latter emerge as

  20. [A new subspecies of Heraclides androgeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) and its biogeographical aspects].

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    Vargas-Fernández, Isabel; Luis-Martínez, Armando; Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge

    2013-06-01

    A new subspecies of Heraclides androgeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) and its biogeographical aspects. Heraclides androgeus epidaurus was described and illustrated by Godman & Salvin in 1890 based on specimens obtained in Veracruz, indicating that their distribution encompassed both the Pacific and Atlantic sides of Mexico. Later authors commented that there were morphological differences between the male wings from both populations. We analyzed, described and nominated Heraclides androgeus reyesorum ssp. nov. Vargas, Llorente & Luis distributed in the Mexican Pacific coast, based on 62 specimens, and compared it with H a. epidaurus from the Gulf of Mexico, based on more than 200 specimens housed at UNAM: Museo de Zoología, Facultad de Ciencias and the Colección Nacional de Insectos of the Instituto de Biologia, as well as some collections from the USA. The main characters were the width of the yellow and black bands on forewings in males, which had a significant difference between the populations of both sides of Mexico, although some characters were variable and showed partial overlap. In the hindwings, the differences were the extent of the subterminal lunules in dorsal and ventral view. We also analyzed the male genitalia, finding notorious differences in both sclerotic processes of the harpe. Subspecific differences between females refer to the brightness and extent of green spots on the hindwings and the extent of lunules in the ventral view. The greatest abundance of H. a. reyesorum ssp. nov. was in the tropical deciduous forest, with gallery forest and in the lower range of the cloud forest, present at altitudes of 500-800 m and 1000-1 750 m, respectively. We discussed the pattern of endemism due to historical vicariant processes and explain the presence of the new subspecies of H. androgeus and other taxa of specific level.

  1. Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Papilio protenor (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae) and Implications for Papilionidae Taxonomy

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    Liu, Nai-Yi; Wu, Yun-He; Yang, Xiao-Jun; Wu, Jing; Zheng, Si-Zhu; Wang, Shu-Yan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Papilio protenor (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) was sequenced and annotated in this study. The mitogenome comprised a typical circular, double-stranded DNA molecule of 15,268 bp in length including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and an A+T-rich region. The gene order and mitogenome orientation were similar to those of all known Papilionidae species. The nucleotide composition of the P. protenor mitogenome exhibits considerable A+T bias (80.5%) and the AT (−0.019) and GC (−0.231) skewness is slightly negative. All of the PCGs except for cytochrome c oxidase (COI) start with a canonical ATN start codon, whereas the COI gene is tentatively designated by the CGA codon. Of the 13 PCGs, 11 contain the complete stop codon TAA or TAG, whereas COI and COII were terminated with a single T nucleotide. All tRNAs exhibit the typical cloverleaf structure, except for tRNASer(AGN), which does not contain the dihydrouridine arm. The 458 bp A+T-rich region is comprised of nonrepetitive sequences including the motif ATAGA followed by a poly-T stretch and a microsatellite-like (AT)6 element preceded by the ATTTA motif. Phylogenetic analysis of the 13 PCGs data using Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood methods, and maximum parsimony support the view that the subfamily Parnassiinae is regarded as an independent subfamily within Papilionidae and that Zerynthiini should be treated as one of the two clades of the subfamily Parnassiinae along with Parnasiini. In addition, the analysis strongly supports the monophyly of the subfamily Parnassiinae.

  2. [Altitudinal richness patterns of Papilionidae, Pieridae and Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera) in Mexican mountain areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteagudo Sabaté, David; Luis Martínez, Moisés Armando

    2013-09-01

    Altitudinal richness patterns of Papilionidae, Pieridae and Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera) in Mexican mountain areas. Butterflies constitute an useful group to investigate biodiversity patterns in specific geographic areas. The aim of this study was to describe the altitudinal patterns distribution and to recognize the main grouping factors of these families. We conducted a comparative study between the butterfly fauna (Papilionidae, Pieridae and Nymphalidae) of five Mexican mountain ranges (Sierra de Manantlán, Sierra de Atoyac de Alvarez, Loxicha Region, Teocelo-Xalapa and Sierra de Juárez), that included 34 sites of altitudinal ranges from 100 to 2 820m. Data was obtained from the Zoology Museum of the National University of Mexico, and comprised more than 60 000 butterfly records of 398 taxa (subspecies level) proceeding during the last 35 years. Fauna similarity between localities were analyzed using a cluster analysis by Sorensen similarity coefficient. Species richness showed a general tendency to decrease with altitude; the main difference was found between the locality with higher altitude and the rest of the sites. The principal factors affecting the identified clusters followed this order: the location in Pacific or Atlantic slope, and location on a particular mountain range. Three altitudinal levels (low elevations, up to 1 200m; intermediate elevations, from 1200 to 1800 m; and high elevations, from 1800 to 2500 m) were described in accordance to their main characteristic taxa. While Neartic elements were common in the highest altitudinal floor, Neotropical taxa were common in the lowest one. It was more difficult to characterize the intermediate level in which a high number of localities were clustered; this intermediate level was characterized by the presence of some endemic species. The results suggest that historical factors are preeminent in butterfly fauna composition in these areas. Future studies may include other Mexican mountain areas to obtain

  3. Taste receptor plasticity in relation to feeding history in two congeneric species of Papilionidae (Lepidoptera).

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    Sollai, Giorgia; Biolchini, Maurizio; Crnjar, Roberto

    2018-02-15

    In the peripheral taste system of insects, the responsiveness of gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) depends on several factors, such as larval instar, feeding history, physiological state and time of day. To study the role of the feeding history, the spike activity of the maxillary taste chemosensilla in the larvae of two related species of Lepidoptera (Papilio machaon L. and Papilio hospiton Géné) raised on different host plants, was recorded with electrophysiological techniques after stimulation with simple stimuli (sugars, bitters and inorganic salt) and host plant saps, with the aim of cross-comparing their response patterns and evaluating any effects of different feeding histories. For this purpose the larvae were raised each on their preferential host plant and, in addition, P. machaon larvae was also raised on Ferula communis, the host plant preferred by P. hospiton. The GRN spike activity of the lateral and medial sensilla of each test group was measured in response to simple and complex stimuli. The taste discrimination capabilities and modalities of the two species were measured and cross-compared with the aim of studying convergence and/or divergence linked to the insect feeding history. The results show that: a) the GRN responsiveness of both sensilla in P. machaon raised on Fe. communis differs significantly from that of P. machaon on Foeniculum vulgare, but is not different from P. hospiton on Fe. communis; b) P. machaon larvae raised on Fe. communis exhibit response spectra somewhat intermediate between those of P. machaon on fennel and of P. hospiton on Fe. communis, the latter two exhibiting a wider difference from each other; c) the pattern of GRNs activity generated by each plant sap in both sensilla of P. machaon raised on Fe. communis is different from that generated when raised on Fo. vulgare, while no difference is observed with P. hospiton. The data support the hypothesis that diet-related factors may influence peripheral chemosensitivity

  4. Deterrent effect evaluation of vegetal extracts on Papilio thoas brasiliensis (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae Rothschild & Jordan, 1906

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    Cupertino de Souza Débora María

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A crescente preocupação mundial tem motivado pesquisadores a buscarem alternativas consideradas saudáveis e que controlem insetos-praga e doenças. Dentre estas alternativas, destaca-se a utilização de aleloquímicos extraídos de plantas (Jacobson 1989, pois são produtos naturais que reduzem os efeitos negativos ocasionados pela aplicação descontrolada de inseticidas organossintéticos (Medeiros et al 2005, reduzindo o desenvolvimento de populações resistentes do inseto, e o aparecimento de novas pragas ou a ressurgência de outras (Souza 2004. O uso de extratos de plantas medicinais faz com que determinados componentes ativos presentes nos vegetais, quando utilizados de forma concentrada, atuem no controle de insetos, inibindo sua alimentação ou prejudicando-os após a ingestão (Costa et al 2004. Muitas apresentam sobre os insetos efeito tóxico, inibição de crescimento, redução de fecundidade, fertilidade e repelência dado os compostos metabólicos secundários que apresentam como alcalóides, terpenos, flavonóides e esteróides com propriedades medicinais comprovadas (Di Stasi 1996, se justificado, portanto, o uso delas no controle de pragas. Assim, a presente pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito deterrente de extratos de espécies medicinais de Atropa belladonna L. (belladona; Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (nim; Mikania glomerata Spreng. (guaco; Symphytum officinale L. (confrei; Ruta graveolens L. (arruda; sobre Papilio thoas brasiliensis (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae. Na presente pesquisa o destaque deve ser dado ao confrei e nim pelo efeito deterrente apresentado. No presente estudo foi possível determinar que houve deterrência, mas não há como informar se outros efeitos ocorreram somados a esse.

  5. Insecticide Effect of Zeolites on the Tomato Leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae

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    Caroline De Smedt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: The tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae is a key tomato insect pest. At present, it is considered to be a serious threat in various countries in Europe, North Africa, and Middle East. The extensive use and the developed resistance of T. absoluta to spinosad causes some concern, which leads to the need for alternative products. (2 Materials and Methods: Several laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the ovicidal properties of a zeolite particle film on T. absoluta. The toxicity of three different zeolites and six zeolite formulations to T. absoluta eggs and larvae was determined using different exposure methods. (3 Results: In general, the formulated zeolites yielded higher egg and larvae mortality values, especially when the zeolite particle film was residually applied. Notable differences in mortality rates from exposure to zeolites compared to other products, such as kaolin, its formulated product Surround, and the insecticide spinosad, were observed. Kaolin and Surround exhibited little or no effect for both application methods, while the hatch rate was reduced by 95% when spinosad was applied topically. Spinosad yielded egg and larvae mortality rates of 100% for both application methods. Additionally, increased oviposition activity was observed in adults exposed to the wettable powder (WP formulations. These WP formulations increased egg deposition, while Surround and spinosad elicited a negative oviposition response. (4 Conclusions: It can be derived that the tested products, zeolites BEA (Beta polymorph A, FAU (Faujasite, LTA (Linde type A, and their formulations, had no real insecticidal activity against the eggs of T. absoluta. Nevertheless, egg exposure to zeolites seemed to affect the development process by weakening the first instar larvae and increasing their mortality. Subsequently, based on the choice test, no significant difference was observed between the number of eggs laid on

  6. Performance of Pseudapanteles dignus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a Natural Enemy of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Eggplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas Gervassio, Nadia G; Luna, María G; D'Auro, Franco; Sánchez, Norma E

    2017-12-27

    Pseudapanteles dignus (Muesebeck; Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an American endoparasitoid that attacks the South American tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). The interaction between P. dignus and T. absoluta in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.; Solanales: Solanaceae) crops has demonstrated that this enemy exhibits some desirable ecological traits as an effective biological control agent of this pest. With the aim of extending the use of P. dignus to other solanaceous crops, laboratory experiments were carried out to assess some life history traits and the parasitism efficiency when parasitizing T. absoluta larvae fed on eggplant (Solanum melongena L.; Solanales: Solanaceae). Rearings and experiments were conducted at 25 ± 2°C, ≈70% RH, and 14:10 (L:D) h photoperiod, and T. absoluta was fed with eggplant. P. dignus developmental times of immature stages were lower (~ 5 d) on S. melongena than on S. lycopersicum. The female did not exhibit a pre-reproductive period, and its oviposition period lasted longer (~ 4 d) than that determined in tomato plants. Adult longevity was ca. 24 d for both sexes. Females produced ca. 61 cocoons during their lives and the maximum daily percentage of parasitism was 50% at the first day of adult emergence. Functional response of P. dignus on eggplant was density-independent of the host density offered, as in tomato plant, and the instantaneous attack rate (a') was 0.24 attacked larvae/ available larvae, in 24 h. Our results indicate that although there are differences, P. dignus would have a similar performance in eggplant and tomato in terms of its efficacy in the control of T. absoluta. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Reducing tuber damage by potato tuberworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) with cultural practices and insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, G H; Rondon, S i; DeBano, S J; David, N; Hamm, P B

    2010-08-01

    Cultural practices and insecticide treatments and combinations were evaluated for effect on tuber damage by potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in the Columbia basin of eastern Oregon and Washington. A range of intervals between initial application of several insecticides and vine-kill were tested to determine how early to implement a program to control potato tuberworm tuber damage. Esfenvalerate, methamidophos, and methomyl were applied at recommended intervals, with programs beginning from 28 to 5 d before vine-kill. All insecticide treatments significantly reduced tuber damage compared with the untreated control, but there was no apparent advantage to beginning control efforts earlier than later in the season. Esfenvalerate and indoxacarb at two rates and a combination of the two insecticides were applied weekly beginning 4 wk before and at vine-kill, and indoxacarb was applied at and 1 wk postvine-kill as chemigation treatments. Application of insecticides at and after vine-kill also reduced tuberworm infestation. 'Russet Norkotah' and 'Russet Burbank' plants were allowed to naturally senesce or were chemically defoliated. They received either no irrigation or were irrigated by center-pivot with 0.25 cm water daily from vine-kill until harvest 2 wk later. Daily irrigation after vine-kill reduced tuber damage, and chemical vine-kill tended to reduce tuber damage compared with natural senescence. Covering hills with soil provides good protection but must be done by vine-kill. Data from these trials indicate that the most critical time for initiation of control methods is immediately before and at vine-kill.

  8. Susceptibility of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) Brazilian populations to ryanodine receptor modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Mateus R; Silva, Tadeu B M; Silva, Wellington M; Silva, Jefferson E; Siqueira, Herbert A A

    2015-04-01

    Phthalic and anthranilic diamides comprise a new insecticide class recently registered in Brazil to control Lepidoptera such as Tuta absoluta (Meyrick). Therefore, the baseline of susceptibility was determined for eight representative field populations of this species to establish a resistance monitoring programme. The potential for cross-resistance as well as detoxification metabolism was assessed in order to fine-tune the resistance management programme. Brazilian populations were very susceptible to chlorantraniliprole (LC50 values varied from 3.17 to 29.64 µg AI L(-1) ), cyantraniliprole (LC50 values varied from 8.61 to 28.95 µg AI L(-1) ) and flubendiamide (LC50 values varied from 94 to 230 µg AI L(-1) ), with respective resistance ratios of 9.33-, 3.36- and 2.45-fold between most susceptible and tolerant populations. Anthranilic diamides showed significant correlations between log LC50 values among themselves, suggesting a high risk of cross-resistance. However, the log LC50 values of T. absoluta to phthalic diamide did not show any correlation with anthranilic diamides. Cytochrome- P450-dependent monooxygenase activity showed a weak correlation with log LC50 values of T. absoluta populations to anthranilic diamides, which suggests a potential route for evolving resistance to anthranilic diamides. The diamides were highly effective against T. absoluta, with populations showing a homogeneous response to them. Cross-resistance is very likely between anthranilic diamides in T. absoluta. Populations of this pest may evolve resistance by increasing cytochrome- P450-dependent monooxygenases. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Functional Response of Three Species of Predatory Pirate Bugs Attacking Eggs of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Obiratanea S; Ramos, Rodrigo S; Gontijo, Lessando M; Picanço, Marcelo C

    2015-04-01

    The functional response and predation parameters of three species of predatory pirate bugs Amphiareus constrictus (Stal), Blaptostethus pallescens Poppius, and Orius tristicolor (White) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) were evaluated at four different densities of eggs of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Experiments were conducted in Petri dishes containing a tomato leaf disk infested with the pest eggs, and maintained inside growth chamber with environmental conditions of 25 ± 2 °C, 70 ± 10% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h. A. constrictus and B. pallescens showed a type III functional response where predation increased at a decreasing rate after egg density was higher than 12 per leaf disk, reaching an upper plateau of 18.86 and 25.42 eggs per 24 hours, respectively. By contrast, O. tristicolor showed a type II functional response where the number of eggs preyed upon increased at a decreasing rate as egg density increased, reaching an upper limit of 15.20 eggs per 24 hours. The predator equations used in this study estimated handling time of 1.25, 0.87, 0.96 h for A. constrictus, B. pallescens, and O. tristicolor, respectively. The lower handling time and possible higher attack rate of B. pallescens suggests a higher efficiency and probably greater impact on the pest population. If conservation or classical biological control of T. absoluta is to be implemented, then prioritizing which natural enemy species is the most efficient is an important first step. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Oviposition deterrent activity of basil plants and their essentials oils against Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarou, Boni Barthélémy; Bawin, Thomas; Boullis, Antoine; Heukin, Stéphanie; Lognay, Georges; Verheggen, François Jean; Francis, Frédéric

    2017-08-07

    The leafminer Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is one of the most important pests of tomato, reducing crop yields by up to 100% in greenhouses and fields, in several countries globally. Because synthetic insecticides lead to resistance and have adverse effects on natural enemies and the health of producers, alternative control methods are needed. In this study, we assessed the oviposition-deterring effect of basil plants, Ocimum gratissimum L. and O. basilicum L. (Lamiaceae), using dual-choice behavioural assays performed in flight tunnels. We found that both plants significantly reduced T. absoluta oviposition behaviour on a tomato plant located nearby. To evaluate the potential effect of basil volatile organic compounds, we formulated essential oils of both plant species in paraffin oil, and observed a similar oviposition-deterring effect. Gas chromatography analyses detected 18 constituents in these essential oils which the major constituents included thymol (33.3%), p-cymene (20.4%), γ-terpinene (16.9%), myrcene (3.9%) in O. gratissimum and estragol (73.8%), linalool (8.6%), β-elemene (2.9%) and E-β-ocimene (2.6%) in O. basilicum. Twenty and 33 compounds were identified of the volatiles collected on O. gratissimum and O. basilicum plants, respectively. The main components include the following: p-cymene (33.5%), γ-terpinene (23.6%), α-terpinene (7.2%), α-thujene (6.7%) and E-α-bergamotene (38.9%) in O. gratissimum, and methyl eugenol (26.1%), E-β-ocimene (17.7%), and linalool (9.4%) in O. basilicum. Four compounds (α-pinene, β-pinene, Myrcene, Limonene) were common in essential oils and plants. Our results suggest the valuable potential of basil and associated essential oils as a component of integrated management strategies against the tomato leafminer.

  11. Insecticide Effect of Zeolites on the Tomato Leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smedt, Caroline; Van Damme, Veerle; De Clercq, Patrick; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2016-12-02

    (1) Background: The tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a key tomato insect pest. At present, it is considered to be a serious threat in various countries in Europe, North Africa, and Middle East. The extensive use and the developed resistance of T. absoluta to spinosad causes some concern, which leads to the need for alternative products. (2) Materials and Methods: Several laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the ovicidal properties of a zeolite particle film on T. absoluta . The toxicity of three different zeolites and six zeolite formulations to T. absoluta eggs and larvae was determined using different exposure methods. (3) Results: In general, the formulated zeolites yielded higher egg and larvae mortality values, especially when the zeolite particle film was residually applied. Notable differences in mortality rates from exposure to zeolites compared to other products, such as kaolin, its formulated product Surround, and the insecticide spinosad, were observed. Kaolin and Surround exhibited little or no effect for both application methods, while the hatch rate was reduced by 95% when spinosad was applied topically. Spinosad yielded egg and larvae mortality rates of 100% for both application methods. Additionally, increased oviposition activity was observed in adults exposed to the wettable powder (WP) formulations. These WP formulations increased egg deposition, while Surround and spinosad elicited a negative oviposition response. (4) Conclusions: It can be derived that the tested products, zeolites BEA (Beta polymorph A), FAU (Faujasite), LTA (Linde type A), and their formulations, had no real insecticidal activity against the eggs of T. absoluta . Nevertheless, egg exposure to zeolites seemed to affect the development process by weakening the first instar larvae and increasing their mortality. Subsequently, based on the choice test, no significant difference was observed between the number of eggs laid on the treated

  12. Life table parameters of Phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), feeding on tubers of six potato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golizadeh, A; Razmjou, J

    2010-06-01

    The potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is an important and ubiquitous pest of potato, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae), in both field and stores in the subtropical and tropical zones. The evaluation of potato tubers for susceptibility to potato tuberworm, by measuring its life table parameters, is a valuable component of integrated pest management (IPM). Potato tuberworm life table parameters were investigated in laboratory at 24 +/- 1 degrees C, 65 +/- 5% RH, and a photoperiod of 8:16 (L:D) h on six commonly grown potato cultivar tubers: 'Agria', 'Burren', 'Savalan', 'Marfona', 'Sante', and 'Picaso'. No food was provided to feeding adult moths during experiments. The survival rate on Savalan and Burren potatoes was higher than on other cultivars. The highest reproductive rate was observed on Burren potatoes (50.739 +/- 2.45), although there was one statistical group for net reproduction rate (R(o)). The mean generation time (T(o)) was the longest on the Agria potatoes. The significant difference was observed between intrinsic rates of increase (r(m)) on the potato cultivars. The mean generation time has reciprocal relation with r(m); subsequently, the lowest intrinsic rate of increase was observed on Agria potatoes. The highest and lowest r(m) value was observed on Burren and Agria potatoes, respectively. The descending order of intrinsic rates of increase was on Burren, Savalan, Sante, Marfona, Picaso, and Agria potaotes. The lowest r(m) value indicates that Agria is a relatively insusceptible compared with the other cultivars tested and that this cultivar can be used effectively in sustainable IPM.

  13. Mitochondrial genome sequence and expression profiling for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae.

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    Venu M Margam

    Full Text Available We report the assembly of the 14,054 bp near complete sequencing of the mitochondrial genome of the legume pod borer (LPB, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, which we subsequently used to estimate divergence and relationships within the lepidopteran lineage. The arrangement and orientation of the 13 protein-coding, 2 rRNA, and 19 tRNA genes sequenced was typical of insect mitochondrial DNA sequences described to date. The sequence contained a high A+T content of 80.1% and a bias for the use of codons with A or T nucleotides in the 3rd position. Transcript mapping with midgut and salivary gland ESTs for mitochondrial genome annotation showed that translation from protein-coding genes initiates and terminates at standard mitochondrial codons, except for the coxI gene, which may start from an arginine CGA codon. The genomic copy of coxII terminates at a T nucleotide, and a proposed polyadenylation mechanism for completion of the TAA stop codon was confirmed by comparisons to EST data. EST contig data further showed that mature M. vitrata mitochondrial transcripts are monocistronic, except for bicistronic transcripts for overlapping genes nd4/nd4L and nd6/cytb, and a tricistronic transcript for atp8/atp6/coxIII. This processing of polycistronic mitochondrial transcripts adheres to the tRNA punctuated cleavage mechanism, whereby mature transcripts are cleaved only at intervening tRNA gene sequences. In contrast, the tricistronic atp8/atp6/coxIII in Drosophila is present as separate atp8/atp6 and coxIII transcripts despite the lack of an intervening tRNA. Our results indicate that mitochondrial processing mechanisms vary between arthropod species, and that it is crucial to use transcriptional information to obtain full annotation of mitochondrial genomes.

  14. Two new genera of metalmark butterflies of North and Central America (Lepidoptera, Riodinidae

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    Marysol Trujano-Ortega

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new genera of Riodinidae (Insecta: Lepidoptera are described, Neoapodemia Trujano-Ortega, gen. n. (Neoapodemia nais (W. H. Edwards, 1876, comb. n., N. chisosensis Freeman, 1964, comb. n. and Plesioarida Trujano-Ortega & García-Vázquez, gen. n. (Plesioarida palmerii palmerii (W. H. Edwards, 1870, comb. n., P. palmerii arizona (Austin, [1989], comb. n., P. palmerii australis (Austin, [1989], comb. n., P. hepburni hepburni (Godman & Salvin, 1886, comb. n., P. hepburni remota (Austin, 1991, comb. n., P. murphyi (Austin, [1989], comb. n., P. hypoglauca hypoglauca (Godman & Salvin, 1878, comb. n., P. hypoglauca wellingi (Ferris, 1985, comb. n., P. walkeri (Godman & Salvin, 1886, comb. n., P. selvatica (De la Maza & De la Maza, 2017, comb. n.. Neoapodemia Trujano-Ortega, gen. n. is distributed in the southwestern USA and northeastern Mexico, while Plesioarida Trujano-Ortega & García-Vázquez, gen. n. is present from the southern USA to Central America. Species of these genera were previously classified as Apodemia C. Felder & R. Felder but molecular and morphological evidence separate them as new taxa. Morphological diagnoses and descriptions are provided for both new genera, including the main distinctive characters from labial palpi, prothoracic legs, wing venation and genitalia, as well as life history traits. A molecular phylogeny of one mitochondrial gene (COI and two nuclear genes (EF-1a and wg are also presented of most species of Apodemia, Neoapodemia Trujano-Ortega, gen. n., Plesioarida Trujano-Ortega & García-Vázquez, gen. n., and sequences of specimens from all tribes of Riodinidae. We compare the characters of Apodemia, Neoapodemia Trujano-Ortega, gen. n. and Plesioarida Trujano-Ortega & García-Vázquez, gen. n. and discuss the differences that support the description of these new taxa. This is a contribution to the taxonomy of the Riodinidae of North America of which the generic diversity is greater than previously recognized.

  15. Phylogeny and biogeography of hawkmoths (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae: evidence from five nuclear genes.

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    Akito Y Kawahara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 1400 species of hawkmoths (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae comprise one of most conspicuous and well-studied groups of insects, and provide model systems for diverse biological disciplines. However, a robust phylogenetic framework for the family is currently lacking. Morphology is unable to confidently determine relationships among most groups. As a major step toward understanding relationships of this model group, we have undertaken the first large-scale molecular phylogenetic analysis of hawkmoths representing all subfamilies, tribes and subtribes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The data set consisted of 131 sphingid species and 6793 bp of sequence from five protein-coding nuclear genes. Maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses provided strong support for more than two-thirds of all nodes, including strong signal for or against nearly all of the fifteen current subfamily, tribal and sub-tribal groupings. Monophyly was strongly supported for some of these, including Macroglossinae, Sphinginae, Acherontiini, Ambulycini, Philampelini, Choerocampina, and Hemarina. Other groupings proved para- or polyphyletic, and will need significant redefinition; these include Smerinthinae, Smerinthini, Sphingini, Sphingulini, Dilophonotini, Dilophonotina, Macroglossini, and Macroglossina. The basal divergence, strongly supported, is between Macroglossinae and Smerinthinae+Sphinginae. All genes contribute significantly to the signal from the combined data set, and there is little conflict between genes. Ancestral state reconstruction reveals multiple separate origins of New World and Old World radiations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides the first comprehensive phylogeny of one of the most conspicuous and well-studied insects. The molecular phylogeny challenges current concepts of Sphingidae based on morphology, and provides a foundation for a new classification. While there are multiple independent origins of New World and Old World

  16. A novel pheromone dispenser for mating disruption of the leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Stephen L; Stelinski, Lukasz L; Robinson, Richard D

    2011-04-01

    The sex pheromone of the leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) was deployed in a Florida citrus (Citrus spp.) grove by using a novel deployment device (IFM-413) containing SPLAT, a flowable formulation of an emulsified wax compound designed to provide slow release of semiochemicals. The device consisted of two disks connected by string. Each disk was loaded with 1 g of SPLAT containing either 0.15% (Z,Z,E)-7,11,13-hexadecatrienal (triene) or 2% (Z,Z)-7,11-hexadecadienal (diene). The devices were deployed using a two-dimensional multivariate design to determine the optimal rate of pheromone per unit area and degree of aggregation of the deployment devices (number of trees treated per unit area). The IFM-413 device proved effective at becoming securely entangled in tree branches. Furthermore, the devices effectively delivered pheromone-loaded SPLAT that resulted in disruption of trap catch of male P. citrella. Response surfaces showed a quadratic response of trap catch disruption to both total amount of pheromone per unit area and the degree of aggregation of the deployed devices (number of treated trees per unit area). The response surfaces for 0.15% triene or 2.0% diene were similar. The diene produced an effect similar to that of the triene at approximately 13 times the rate of the triene. The greatest disruption of trap catch occurred when the number of treated trees per unit area was greatest (no aggregation of deployment devices). Manufacturing, packaging, and mechanical deployment of the devices remain to be investigated.

  17. Assessing diversity of diurnal lepidoptera in habitat fragments: testing the efficiency of strip transects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Matthew R

    2008-10-01

    Species richness is the most widely used measure of biodiversity, but the relationship between the observed and true numbers of species present in a study site is not always investigated. A field study at 27 habitat remnants was used to measure the effectiveness of a survey regimen for assessing species richness of butterflies and day-active moths in southwest Western Australia. Observed species richness was compared with known species richness and to statistical estimates of true species richness, and the bootstrap was found to be the best predictor of true richness. A regimen of 10-m-wide walk transects sampled on six occasions at 2-wk intervals during the austral spring (mid-September to mid-December) gave an almost complete inventory of resident species for each site (approximately 87% of the fauna detected), consistent with two previous studies that have assessed sample completeness in temperate areas. The abundance of diurnal lepidoptera showed large temporal variation over the flight season and varied to a lesser extent with time of day and temperature, but not with cloud cover or wind speed. Transect route and sampling frequency were the most important considerations in devising a survey regimen: transects placed off tracks detected both more species and more individuals per unit length. The fraction of the site area sampled was relatively unimportant, and even low sampling fractions of 1-2% may be adequate if the number and frequency of surveys is sufficient. The design of future surveys would be facilitated if sampling fraction was routinely reported and examined in relation to sample completeness.

  18. Postharvest Irradiation Treatment for Quarantine Control of the Invasive Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadel, Hannah; Follett, Peter A; Perry, Christopher L; Mack, Ronald G

    2017-12-19

    Irradiation is a postharvest treatment option for exported berries and berry-like fruits to prevent movement of the quarantine pest European grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). The effects of irradiation on egg, larval, and pupal development in L. botrana were examined. Eggs, neonates, third and fifth instars, and early- and late-stage pupae were irradiated at target doses of 50, 100, 150, or 200 Gy or left untreated as controls in replicated factorial experiments, and survival to the adult stage was recorded. Tolerance to radiation generally increased with increasing age and developmental stage. A dose of 150 Gy prevented adult emergence in eggs and larvae. Pupae were more radiotolerant than larvae, and late-stage pupae were more tolerant than early-stage pupae. In large-scale validation tests, 150 Gy applied to fifth instars in diet prevented adult emergence, but some survival occurred in fifth instars irradiated in table grapes; however, 250 Gy prevented fifth instar survival in grapes. For most commodities, the fifth instar is the most radiotolerant life stage likely to occur with the commodity; a minimum radiation dose of 250 Gy will prevent adult emergence from this stage. For traded commodities such as table grapes that may contain L. botrana pupae, 325 Gy applied to mature female pupae sterilized emerging adults and may provide quarantine security. Radiotolerance in L. botrana is comparable to other tortricids, and the data reported here support a generic dose of 250 Gy for eggs and larvae of this group. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  19. Molecular Phylogeny of the Small Ermine Moth Genus Yponomeuta (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) in the Palaearctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Hubert; Lieshout, Niek; Van Ginkel, Wil E.; Menken, Steph B. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The small ermine moth genus Yponomeuta (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) contains 76 species that are specialist feeders on hosts from Celastraceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and several other plant families. The genus is a model for studies in the evolution of phytophagous insects and their host-plant associations. Here, we reconstruct the phylogeny to provide a solid framework for these studies, and to obtain insight into the history of host-plant use and the biogeography of the genus. Methodology/Principal Findings DNA sequences from an internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-1) and from the 16S rDNA (16S) and cytochrome oxidase (COII) mitochondrial genes were collected from 20–23 (depending on gene) species and two outgroup taxa to reconstruct the phylogeny of the Palaearctic members of this genus. Sequences were analysed using three different phylogenetic methods (parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian inference). Conclusions/Significance Roughly the same patterns are retrieved irrespective of the method used, and they are similar among the three genes. Monophyly is well supported for a clade consisting of the Japanese (but not the Dutch) population of Yponomeuta sedellus and Y. yanagawanus, a Y. kanaiellus–polystictus clade, and a Rosaceae-feeding, western Palaearctic clade (Y. cagnagellus–irrorellus clade). Within these clades, relationships are less well supported, and the patterns between the different gene trees are not so similar. The position of the remaining taxa is also variable among the gene trees and rather weakly supported. The phylogenetic information was used to elucidate patterns of biogeography and resource use. In the Palaearctic, the genus most likely originated in the Far East, feeding on Celastraceae, dispersing to the West concomitant with a shift to Rosaceae and further to Salicaceae. The association of Y. cagnagellus with Euonymus europaeus (Celastraceae), however, is a reversal. The only oligophagous species, Y. padellus, belongs

  20. Phylogeny of the pollinating yucca moths, with revision of Mexican species (Tegeticula and Parategeticula; Lepidoptera, Prodoxidae)

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    Pellmyr, Olof; Balcazar-Lara, Manuel; Segraves, Kari A.; Althoff, David M.; Littlefield, Rik J.

    2008-02-01

    ABSTRACT The yucca moths (Tegeticula and Parategeticula; Lepidoptera, Prodoxidae) are well-known for their obligate relationship as exclusive pollinators of yuccas. Revisionary work in recent years has revealed far higher species diversity than historically recognized, increasing the number of described species from four to 21. Based on field surveys in Mexico and examination of collections, we describe five additional species: T. californica Pellmyr sp. nov., T. tehuacana Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov., T. tambasi Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov., T. baja Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov., and P. californica Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov. Tegeticula treculeanella Pellmyr is identified as a junior synonym of T. mexicana Bastida. A diagnostic key to the adults of all species of the T. yuccasella complex is provided. A phylogeny based on a 2104-bp segment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the cytochrome oxidase I and II region supported monophyly of the two pollinator genera, and strongly supported monophyly of the 17 recognized species of the T. yuccasella complex. Most relationships are well-supported, but some relationships within a recent and rapidly diversified group of 11 taxa are less robust, and in one case conflicts with a whole-genome data set (AFLP). The current mtDNA-based analyses, together with previously published AFLP data, provide a robust phylogenetic foundation for future studies of life history evolution and host interactions in one of the classical models of coevolution and obligate mutualism. ADDITIONAL KEY WORDS: mutualism, pollination, molecular phylogenetics, mitochondrial DNA

  1. Spatial ecology of the palm-leaf skeletonizer, Homaledra sabelella (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae.

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    James T Cronin

    Full Text Available Understanding the processes that determine the distribution of populations is a fundamental goal in ecology. In this study, I determined the relative contribution of space and the biotic and abiotic environment to the distribution of the palm-leaf skeletonizer Homaledra sabalella (PLS; Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae among patchily distributed dwarf palmettos (Sabal minor; Arecaceae. Based on surveys conducted at two sites in the Sherburne Wildlife Management Area, Louisiana, I found that the distribution of the PLS was primarily related to local environmental conditions--number of PLS increased with palmetto height, was greater in dry versus wet habitats, and varied in an inconsistent way with the type of understory cover. Spatial structure of the forest and isolation of the host plant were of minor importance to the distribution of the PLS. Based on a series of experiments, the mechanisms underlying the effects of these environmental variables on PLS abundance were elucidated. Tall palmettos have a greater abundance of PLS because they are 2.5 times more likely to be colonized than small palmettos. Tall palmettos do not represent better hosts (in terms of PLS survival to pupation, pupal length, or risk of parasitism. Similarly, an open understory increased colonization by two-fold, relative to a shrub understory, but understory type had no effect on host quality. Wet soils greatly reduced palmetto quality as a host (survival and pupal length, but only for the smallest palmettos (<0.75 m height. Finally, corroborating the survey data, my dispersal experiment revealed that the PLS is a strong flier and that local PLS populations (i.e., infested palmettos are likely well connected by dispersal. I conclude by discussing how landscape-level changes at Sherburne Wildlife Management Area, owing to recent hurricane activity, could affect the risk of palmetto infestation by the PLS.

  2. A new gene superfamily of pathogen-response (repat) genes in Lepidoptera: classification and expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Cerrillo, G; Hernández-Martínez, P; Vogel, H; Ferré, J; Herrero, S

    2013-01-01

    Repat (REsponse to PAThogens) genes were first identified in the midgut of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in response to Bacillus thuringiensis and baculovirus exposure. Since then, additional repat gene homologs have been identified in different studies. In this study the comprehensive larval transcriptome from S. exigua was analyzed for the presence of novel repat-homolog sequences. These analyses revealed the presence of at least 46 repat genes in S. exigua, establishing a new gene superfamily in this species. Phylogenetic analysis and studies of conserved motifs in these hypothetical proteins have allowed their classification in two main classes, αREPAT and βREPAT. Studies on the transcriptional response of repat genes have shown that αREPAT and βREPAT differ in their sequence but also in the pattern of regulation. The αREPAT were mainly regulated in response to the Cry1Ca toxin from B. thuringiensis but not to the increase in the midgut microbiota load. In contrast, βREPAT were neither responding to Cry1Ca toxin nor to midgut microbiota. Differential expression between midgut stem cells and the whole midgut tissue was studied for the different repat genes revealing changes in the gene expression distribution between midgut stem cells and midgut tissue in response to midgut microbiota. This high diversity found in their sequence and in their expression profile suggests that REPAT proteins may be involved in multiple processes that could be of relevance for the understanding of the insect gut physiology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Development and reproduction of Podisus distinctus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae fed on larva of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae

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    M. C. Lacerda

    Full Text Available Biological control has been reducing the use of chemical products against insect pests, specially predatory Pentatomidae. Species of this group can present high variations in their life cycle as a result of their diet. Thus, the objective of this research was to study nymph development and reproduction of Podisus distinctus (Stäl, 1860 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae fed on Bombyx mori L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae larvae (T1, compared to those fed on Tenebrio molitor L., 1758 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae (T2 and Musca domestica L., 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae larvae (T3 at a temperature of 25 ± 0.5ºC, relative humidity of 70 ± 2%, and photophase of 12 h. Predators fed on B. mori showed duration of the nymph phase (18.68 ± 1.02 similar to those fed on T. molitor (18.32 ± 1.49. Pre-oviposition and oviposition periods and number of egg masses, besides eggs and nymphs per female, were higher with B. mori (5.83 ± 2.02; 15.00 ± 7.40; 8.42 ± 1.84; 296.69 ± 154.75; and 228.55 ± 141.04, respectively while longevity of males and females of P. distinctus was 25.76 ± 16.15 and 35.00 ± 16.15 days with T. molitor, and 20.57 ± 13.60 and 23.46 ± 12.35 days with B. mori, respectively.

  4. Phagodeterrence by Quassia amara (Simaroubaceae wood extract fractions on Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae larvae

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    Francisco Soto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In Latin America and the Caribbean, precious wood species like mahoganies (Swietenia spp. and cedars (Cedrela spp. are seriously injured by the mahogany shootborer, Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae larva, which bores into the main shoot of trees. In previous experiments focused on searching for a preventive method for managing this pest, a wood extract of bitterwood, Quassia amara L. ex Blom (Simaroubaceae had been shown to cause phagodeterrence to larvae. Therefore, three fractions (water, methanol and diethyl ether of a wood extract were tested for their phagodeterrence to larvae, by means of laboratory and greenhouse trials. Phagodeterrence was assessed by determining their effect on foliage consumption, mortality and signs of damage (number of orifices, sawdust piles, fallen shoots, number of tunnels and tunnel length caused by larvae on Spanish cedar (C. odorata. Both the methanol and diethyl ether fractions caused phagodeterrence, by strongly reducing foliage consumption and signs of damage, while not causing larval mortality. The lowest concentration at which phagodeterrence was detected for the methanol fraction corresponded to 0.0625%, which is equivalent to a 1.0% of the bitterwood crude extract. However, results with the diethyl ether fraction were unsatisfactory, as none of the treatments differed from the solvent, possibly because of an adverse effect of the solvent on foliar tissues. Phagodeterrent principles from Q. amara derivatives may play an important role in dealing with H. grandella if they are complemented with other integrated pest management preventative tactics. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1: 487-499. Epub 2011 March 01.

  5. Population genetics of Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and the implications for management using biocontrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Y; Mitchell, A; Le Rü, B P; Conlongs, D E

    2010-01-01

    The African sugarcane stalk borer, Eldona saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is widely distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa and is an important insect pest of maize and sugarcane. The insect shows significant variation in behaviour, host plant and natural enemy guild in different regions. Several attempts to redistribute the natural enemies of E. saccharina from West Africa to South Africa were unsuccessful. The significant behavioural, host plant and natural enemy variations as well as failures of biocontrol attempts evoked a hypothesis of genetic diversification. To evaluate this hypothesis a molecular analysis was conducted on geographically isolated populations of E. saccharina from East, North, South and West Africa, using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) region of the mitochondrial genome. The results revealed that E. saccharina populations are separated into four major units corresponding to the West Africa, Rift Valley, South/East Africa and southern African populations. Mitochondrial DNA divergence among the four populations ranged from 1% to 4.98%. To examine the impact of the observed genetic variation on the fertility of inter-population crosses, a mating experiment was conducted between the Rift valley and South African population to produce an F1 generation, and these were backcrossed with the South African parent population. Fertility of eggs produced by the F1/parent population cross was significantly reduced when compared to fertility of the "true" South African line, and the F1/F1 cross. The contributions of the observed genetic differences and inter population incompatibility for the failure of previous biocontrol attempts are discussed and recommendations on future biocontrol practices are given.

  6. Morphology and biology of the fruit piercing moth, Ophiusa corona (Fabricious (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Permkam, S.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Morphology and biology of the fruit-piercing moth Ophiusa coronata (Fabricious (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae were studied in laboratory. Eggs were spherical and colored grayish green with an average diameter of 1.03±0.01 mm (mean±SEM. The larvae were looper caterpillars, possessing 2 white bands on the black head. The body was brown to blackish, marked with black spots and red longitudinal streaks. The pupa was black-brown. The adult moth had rufous and fuscous forewings tinged with a black spot in the middle. The hind wings were bright yellow in ground color with a dark band at the anterior and the posterior borders. Time required for egg to adult development averaged 40.35±0.59 days (mean±SEM. The average duration for egg, larval and pupal developments were 4.0±0.0, 23.20±0.49 and 13.15±0.22 days, respectively. Sexual maturity for female took 10.67±1.05 days. The average duration of egg laying, number of eggs and longevity of adult moths were 7.33±1.28 days, 333.0±171.82 egg/female and 22.83±2.45 days, respectively. Feeding preference and phototaxis of adult studies showed that adults likely preferred to feed ranking from slices of pineapple, banana, papaya and citrus, whereas sapodilla and rose apple were rarely fed on. Blue light and mercury vapor light were highly attractive, whereas violet light and fluorescent light were less attractive to this adult moth species.

  7. Partial Life History of Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Summer Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonga, M N; Davis, J A

    2016-08-01

    The soybean looper, Chrysodeixis includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a major defoliating pest of soybeans, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, in Louisiana. However, other alternate host crops in the agroecosystem have the potential to impact C. includens populations. Life table statistics of C. includens on four host plants were evaluated. C. includens larvae were fed leaves of three cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. cultivars 'DP 143 B2RF,' 'DP 174 RF,' and 'PHY 485 WRF'; cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers 'California Blackeye'; three soybean cultivars 'Lyon,' 'PI 227687,' and 'RC 4955'; and sweetpotato Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamarck 'Evangeline.' All C. includens larvae reared on cotton cultivars DP 143 B2RF and PHY 485 WRF experienced 100% mortality during the first instar. Total developmental period of preadult C. includens was significantly shorter on cotton DP 174 RF and cowpea California Blackeye but longer on sweetpotato Evangeline. Sweetpotato Evangeline had the highest amount of leaf tissue consumed and soybean Lyon had the least. Pupal weight was highest when insects fed on cotton DP 174 RF and lowest on soybean PI 227687. Life table statistics showed that the highest intrinsic rate of increase and net reproductive rate were attained when insects were reared on cotton DP 174 RF and cowpea California Blackeye whilst the lowest were recorded on soybean PI 227687. This study provides valuable information on the role of alternative host crops on the partial life history of C. includens in Louisiana agroecosystems. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Characterization of a single-nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus of Thysanoplusia orichalcea L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, X W; Carner, G R

    2000-05-01

    A single-nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) isolated from Thysanoplusia orichalcea L. (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) (ThorNPV) in Indonesia has tetrahedral occlusion bodies (OBs) with a width of 1. 22 microm (range = 0.803-1.931 microm). The length of the virion with an envelope averaged 0.29 and 0.23 microm without an envelope. ThorNPV was propagated in Pseudoplusia includens (Walker) and its authenticity was confirmed by sequence analysis of the polyhedrin gene of the ThorNPV produced in T. orichalcea and P. includens. Polyhedrin amino acid sequence analysis revealed that ThorNPV belongs to Group II of baculoviruses and is closely related to Trichoplusia ni single nucleocapsid NPV, sharing 97.6% sequence identity. Infectivity of ThorNPV against third instar P. includens was low, with a LD(50) value of 65,636 OBs/larva. Electron microscopy of infected tissues showed many polyhedra without virions embedded, which might explain the low virulence against P. includens. Differences in virion occlusion rates between individual cells in the same tissue suggested that the inoculum consisted of at least two variants that differed in the gene(s) controlling virion occlusion. In a host range test using the LD(50) value to P. includens against Spodoptera exigua, S. frugiperda, S. eridania, Anticarsia gemmatalis, Helicoverpa zea, Trichoplusia ni, and P. includens, P. includens was the only species infected. The virus infected primarily the fat body, tracheal epithelium, and hypodermis. The genomic size of the ThorNPV is 135 kb. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  9. Assessing Common Bean Cultivars for Resistance to the Soybean Looper Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morando, R; Baldin, E L L; Cruz, P L; Lourenção, A L

    2017-10-01

    The soybean looper Chrysodeixis includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is known as an important pest of leguminous plants worldwide. In Brazil, this pest species is gaining importance to producers of the common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae) because it limits field production of the crop. Chemical control is still the primary method of insect control. However, due to the possible harmful effects of pesticides to humans and the environment, alternative and less aggressive practices are being investigated. For this reason, the use of resistant plant genotypes represents a valuable tool in insect control. This study evaluated the biological aspects of larvae of C. includens confined to 14 bean genotypes under laboratory conditions (26 ± 2°C; 65 ± 10% RH; photoperiod of 14 h L:10 h D). The duration of the instars, total duration of the larval phase, consumption while in the larval phase, weight of the fifth instar larvae, larval viability, duration of the pre-pupal and pupal phases, pupal weight, pupal viability, pupal deformity, caterpillar-to-adult cycle, duration of the pre-oviposition and oviposition periods, and total number of viable eggs per female were evaluated. The genotypes "IAC Boreal," "IAC Harmonia," and "IAC Formoso" expressed antibiosis, prolonging the caterpillar-to-adult cycle and reducing the larval viability; however, each of these genotypes also experienced high leaf consumption. "IAC Jabola" expressed moderate levels of antibiosis and/or antixenosis (feeding), while the genotype "BRS Horizonte" expressed antixenosis (feeding). The data obtained with IAC Boreal, IAC Harmonia, IAC Formoso, IAC Jabola, and BRS Horizonte are promising and may help with the improvement of programs aimed at managing C. includens damage to this leguminous agricultural crop.

  10. Modeling evolution of resistance of sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to transgenic Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J; Huang, F; Onstad, D W

    2014-08-01

    Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a target pest of transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein, and the first evidence of resistance by D. saccharalis to Cry1Ab corn was detected in a field population in northeast Louisiana in 2004. We used a model of population dynamics and genetics of D. saccharalis to 1) study the effect of interfield dispersal, the first date that larvae enter diapause for overwintering, toxin mortality, the proportion of non-Bt corn in the corn patch, and the area of a crop patch on Bt resistance evolution; and 2) to identify gaps in empirical knowledge for managing D. saccharalis resistance to Bt corn. Increasing, the proportion of corn refuge did not always improve the durability of Bt corn if the landscape also contained sugarcane, sorghum, or rice. In the landscape, which consisted of 90% corn area, 5% sorghum area, and 5% rice area, the durability of single-protein Bt corn was 40 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.2 but 16 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.5. The Bt resistance evolution was sensitive to a change (from Julian date 260 to 272) in the first date larvae enter diapause for overwintering and moth movement. In the landscapes with Bt corn, non-Bt corn, sugarcane, sorghum, and rice, the evolution of Bt resistance accelerated when larvae entered diapause for overwintering early. Intermediate rates of moth movement delayed evolution of resistance more than either extremely low or high rates. This study suggested that heterogeneity in the agrolandscapes may complicate the strategy for managing Bt resistance in D. saccharalis, and designing a Bt resistance management strategy for D. saccharalis is challenging because of a lack of empirical data about overwintering and moth movement.

  11. Bioecological aspects of Hypocala andremona (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae on persimmon cultivars = Aspectos bioecológicos de Hypocala andremona (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em cultivares de caquizeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Luiz Hohmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The biology of Hypocala andremona (Cramer on persimmon (Diospyrus kaki L. leaves of the cultivars Atago and Giombo was studied in laboratory (27 ± 1ºC, 65 ± 10% RH, 14 hours photo period and egg distribution on plants of the cultivar Giombo in a commercial orchard, during the 2001/2002 crop season, in Londrina, Paraná state. The developmental period of larvae fed on ‘Giombo’ was longer (17.8 . 0.17 days in comparison to that of larvae fed on ‘Atago’ (15.8 . 0.27 days. In contrast, the duration of the pupal stage of insects raised on ‘Giombo’ was lower (12.0 . 0.29 days than that of insects reared on ‘Atago’ (13.3 . 0.17 days. The viabilities of larvae were 60.8 and 38.8% for insects reared on ‘Giombo’ and on ‘Atago’, respectively. Pupal viability was similar (ca. 93% between treatments. The duration of the preoviposition and incubation periods of larvae fed on ‘Atago’ were 4.0 days and 2.1 days, respectively, the fecundity 524.7 eggs, egg viability 77% and adult longevity 12.9 days. No eggs were obtained when H. andremona larvae were reared on ‘Giombo’ in laboratory. Adults preferred to lay their eggs on leaveslocated at the top of the persimmon tree canopy.A biologia de Hypocala andremona (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae foi estudada em folhas das cultivares de caquizeiro (Diospyrus kakiL. Atago e Giombo em laboratório (27 ± 1ºC, 65 ± 10% UR, 14h fotofase e a distribuição de ovos em plantas da cultivar Giombo em pomar comercial, durante o período de 2001/2002, em Londrina, Estado do Paraná. O período de desenvolvimento das lagartas alimentadas com ‘Giombo’ foi maior (17,8 . 0,17 dias em relação às alimentadas com‘Atago’ (15,8 . 0,27 dias. Entretanto, a duração do estágio de pupa de insetos criados em ‘Giombo’ foi menor (12,0 . 0,29 dias do que as criadas em ‘Atago’ (13,3 . 0,17 dias. As viabilidades das lagartas foram 60,8 e 38,8% para insetos alimentados em ‘Giombo’ e

  12. Isolation of BAC Clones Containing Conserved Genes from Libraries of Three Distantly Related Moths: A Useful Resource for Comparative Genomics of Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Yasukochi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lepidoptera, butterflies and moths, is the second largest animal order and includes numerous agricultural pests. To facilitate comparative genomics in Lepidoptera, we isolated BAC clones containing conserved and putative single-copy genes from libraries of three pests, Heliothis virescens, Ostrinia nubilalis, and Plutella xylostella, harboring the haploid chromosome number, =31, which are not closely related with each other or with the silkworm, Bombyx mori, (=28, the sequenced model lepidopteran. A total of 108–184 clones representing 101–182 conserved genes were isolated for each species. For 79 genes, clones were isolated from more than two species, which will be useful as common markers for analysis using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, as well as for comparison of genome sequence among multiple species. The PCR-based clone isolation method presented here is applicable to species which lack a sequenced genome but have a significant collection of cDNA or EST sequences.

  13. Danos de Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae em seis cultivares de pessegueiro em Araucária, Paraná Damages of Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in six peach orchards cultivars in Aracuária, Paraná

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    Alex Sandro Poltronieri

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se a ocorrência e os danos de Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae em pomar comercial de pessegueiros com seis cultivares de ciclos de maturação de frutos precoce ('São Pedro', médio ('Chimarrita', 'Ouro', 'Coral' e 'Marli' e tardio ('BR II', no município de Araucária-PR. Foram sorteadas cinco plantas por cultivar para serem avaliados os danos em brotações e frutos. Os danos foram acumulados e avaliados em três fases: pré-raleio, endurecimento do caroço e colheita. Os resultados mostraram que houve um nível diferenciado no ataque de G. molesta em brotações e frutos, entre as cultivares. As avaliações de danos em brotações mostraram que, até a fase de colheita, a cultivar Ouro foi a mais atacada, sendo superada pela 'Chimarrita' quando se inclui os danos ocorridos na fase pós-colheita. Em frutos, a 'Marli' apresentou o maior número de pêssegos danificados entre as seis cultivares avaliadas.This paper deals with the occurrence and damage of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in a commercial peach orchard with six cultivars of different fruit ripening cycles: precocious ('São Pedro ', medium ('Chimarrita ', 'Ouro ', 'Coral ' and 'Marli ' and late ('BR II ', in Araucaria, State of Paraná, Brazil. Five plants of each cultivar were selected for evaluating the damages in shoots and fruits. The damages were accumulated and evaluated in three phases: previous thinning, stone hardening and harvesting. The results were as follows: the cultivar "Ouro" was the most damaged one up to the harvesting phase, although 'Chimarrita' surpassed 'Ouro' when the damages observed in the post-harvesting phase were included. Among the six cultivars, 'Marli' was the one presenting the highest number of damaged fruits.

  14. Primeiro registro de Fulgurodes sartinaria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae em plantas de Eucalyptus cloeziana (Myrtaceae (Nota Científica. First record of Fulgurodes sartinaria (Lepidoptera: geometridae in Eucalyptus cloeziana (Myrtaceae (Scientific Note.

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    Claubert Wagner Guimarães de MENEZES

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar a oviposição e o desenvolvimento de uma nova espécie de lepidóptera associada à Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell, 1878 (Myrtaceae. Ovos, imaturos e adultos de Fulgurodes sartinaria Guenée, 1858 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae foram encontrados em plantas de E. cloeziana no município de Itamarandiba, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Este trabalho é o primeiro registro desse desfolhador em plantas de eucalipto. Ninfas de Brontocoris tabidus Signoret, 1852 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae foram também observadas predando as lagartas de F. sartinaria, isto indica que este predador poderá ser um potencial agente de controle biológico da espécie. A ocorrência de F. sartinaria ovipositando e se desenvolvendo em plantas de E. cloeziana mostra que este lepidóptero pode se tornar um desfolhador importante da espécie, sendo recomendável sua inclusão em monitoramentos de pragas do eucalipto visando seu manejo integrado.The aim of this study was to record the oviposition and development of a new species of lepidopteran pests of Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell, 1878 (Myrtaceae. Eggs, immatures and adults of Fulgurodes sartinaria Guenée, 1858 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae were found in plants of E. cloeziana in Itamarandiba, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. This work is the first record of this defoliator in eucalyptus plants. Nymphs of the Brontocoris tabidus Signoret, 1852 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae have also been observed preying on the larvae of F. sartinaria, this indicates that this predator is a probable potential biological control agent of the species. The occurrence of F. sartinaria developing and laying eggs on plants of E. cloeziana shows that this insect can become an important defoliator and it is recommended its inclusion in monitoring pest of eucalyptus for integrated pest management.

  15. External morphology of the adult of Dynamine postverta (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Biblidinae and patterns of morphological similarity among species from eight tribes of Nymphalidae

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    Luis Anderson Ribeiro Leite

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available External morphology of the adult of Dynamine postverta (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Biblidinae and patterns of morphological similarity among species from eight tribes of Nymphalidae. The external structure of the integument of Dynamine postverta postverta (Cramer, 1779 is based on detailed morphological drawings and scanning electron microscopy. The data are compared with other species belonging to eight tribes of Nymphalidae, to assist future studies on the taxonomy and systematics of Neotropical Biblidinae.

  16. Evaluation of Reference Genes for Reverse Transcription Quantitative PCR Studies of Physiological Responses in the Ghost Moth, Thitarodes armoricanus (Lepidoptera, Hepialidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Guiqing; Qiu, Xuehong; Cao, Li; Zhang, Yi; Zhan, Zubing; Han, Richou

    2016-01-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is the sensitive method to quantify the expression levels of target genes on the basis of endogenous control. An appropriate reference gene set for normalization is essential for reliable results. The ghost moth, Thitarodes armoricanus, a host species of a medicinal fungus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis, is an economically important member of the Lepidoptera. Recent studies have focused on the mechanism of adaptation o...

  17. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 10. A remarkable new white species of Chionodes Hübner (Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Eric H; Landry, Jean-François

    2016-05-09

    The U.S. National Park Service initiated a 10-year study, in late 2006, of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Chionodes bustosorum sp. n., described here, was discovered in 2010, during the third year of the study. The male imago and male genitalia are illustrated, and its DNA barcode is compared to that of seven other species of Chionodes from western North America.

  18. Compositional analysis and toxicity of four plant essential oils to different stages of Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pandir, Dilek; Baş, Hatice

    2016-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the biological effects of essential oils from basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), paprika (Capsicum annuum L.), peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on the different stages of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Essential oils were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation and analyzed by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The doses of the essential oils applied were 0.1, 1, 5, 10, 20, 5...

  19. Pemanfaatan Kulit Ubi Kayu Dan Daun Tomat Sebagai Insektisida Nabati Dalam Mengendalikan Ulat Grayak Spodoptera litura L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Pada Tanaman Sawi

    OpenAIRE

    Supriadi, Dani

    2012-01-01

    Dani Supriadi, "Utilization of Cassava Waste Leather Leaf Tomato And Vegetable For Insecticides In controlling the caterpillar Spodopteralitura L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) At planting mustard "It was under supervised by Mena Uly Tarigan and YuswaniPangestiningsih.The research aims to determine the effectiveness of skin waste cassava and tomato leaves as a vegetable insecticide to control caterpillars grayakS.lituraL. Research conducted at the Faculty of Agriculture land of North Sumatra Unive...

  20. A note on the migration of Dark Cerulean Jamides bochus (Stoll (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae in Eravikulam National Park, Idukki District, Kerala, India

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    M.J. Palot

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The migratory movements of butterflies are poorly documented in Kerala. It’s for the first time the migratory behaviour of the Dark Cerulean Jamides bochus (Stoll (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae was documented from the Kerala part of Western Ghats. The migratory movement was from high ranges of Eravikulam National Park, Idukki district, Kerala at an elevation of 2085m to the lower elevations in a north-east to south-east direction.

  1. Effect of pyramiding Bt and CpTI genes on resistance of cotton to Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) under laboratory and field conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, J.J.; Luo, J.Y.; Werf, van der, W.; Ma, Y.; Xia, J.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) varieties, adapted to China, have been bred that express two genes for resistance to insects. the Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt), and a trypsin inhibitor gene from cowpea (CpTI). Effectiveness of the double gene modification in conferring resistance to cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was studied in laboratory and field experiments. In each experiment, performance of Bt+CpTI cotton was c...

  2. Mesoionic pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidinones: Discovery of dicloromezotiaz as a lepidoptera insecticide acting on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors1,2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenming; Holyoke, Caleb W; Barry, James; Cordova, Daniel; Leighty, Robert M; Tong, My-Hanh T; Hughes, Kenneth A; Lahm, George P; Pahutski, Thomas F; Xu, Ming; Briddell, Twyla A; McCann, Stephen F; Henry, Yewande T; Chen, Yuzhong

    2017-02-15

    A novel class of mesoionic pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidinones has been discovered with exceptional insecticidal activity controlling a number of insect species. In this communication, we report the part of the optimization program that led to the identification of dicloromezotiaz as a potent insecticide to control a broad range of lepidoptera. Our efforts in discovery, synthesis, structure-activity relationship elucidation, and biological activity evaluation are also presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of the current state of biodiversity data for butterflies and skippers in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil ( Lepidoptera , Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea )

    OpenAIRE

    Queiroz-Santos,Luziany; Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Dell'Erba, Rafael; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendik

    2016-01-01

    Lepidoptera is one of the four megadiverse insect orders, comprising butterflies and moths. In Brazil, the bulk of knowledge about the butterfly fauna is restricted to some areas in the southeast of the country, with large gaps of knowledge in other areas. The state of Mato Grosso is one of the largest states in Brazil, and holds three of the main Brazilian biomes: Amazon rain forest, Cerrado and Pantanal. However, knowledge about Mato Grosso butterflies is fragmented and restri...

  4. Clarifying the source of Conicofrontia sesamoides Hampson (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae) population in South African sugarcane using morphological identification and mitochondrial DNA analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Assefa, Y; Goftishu, M.; Capdevielle Dulac, Claire; Le Rü, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Valid identification of a novel pest species and clarifying its origin are the primary steps in understanding population structure and development of biocontrol programs. In this study geographical populations of Conicofrontia sesamoides Hampson (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) collected during surveys conducted in the years 2009, 2014 and 2015 were morphologically identified and their genetic diversity was analysed by using sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome-c oxidase I (COI) gene in an attem...

  5. Astrotischeria neotropicana sp. nov.-a leaf-miner on Sida, Malvaceae, currently with the broadest distribution range in the Neotropics (Lepidoptera, Tischeriidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diškus, Arūnas; Stonis, Jonas R

    2015-11-05

    This paper describes Astrotischeria neotropicana Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. (Lepidoptera: Tischeriidae), a new leaf-miner on Sida (Malvaceae) with a broad distribution range in tropical Central & South America. The new species is currently recorded from the Amazon Basin in Peru and Ecuador to tropical lowlands in Guatemala and Belize (including the Caribbean Archipelago). The new species is illustrated with photographs of the adults, male and female genitalia, and the leaf-mines; distribution map is also provided.

  6. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 2. Rediscovery and description of Sparkia immacula (Grote, 1883) (Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Hadenini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Eric H; Forbes, Gregory S

    2011-01-01

    In 2006 the U.S. National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Sparkia immacula (Grote, 1883), previously known only from historical specimens collected in Arizona and New Mexico, was discovered in the Monument in 2007 during the second year of the study. The adult moths and male and female genitalia are illustrated for the first time.

  7. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 2. Rediscovery and description of Sparkia immacula (Grote, 1883 (Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Hadenini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Metzler

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 the U.S. National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Sparkia immacula (Grote, 1883, previously known only from historical specimens collected in Arizona and New Mexico, was discovered in the Monument in 2007 during the second year of the study. The adult moths and male and female genitalia are illustrated for the first time.

  8. Effect of antibiotic on survival and development of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its gut microbial diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, A; Dhammi, P; Saini, H S; Kaur, S

    2016-06-01

    Addition of antibiotics to artificial diets of insects is a key component in the rearing of insects in the laboratory. In the present study an antimicrobial agent, streptomycin sulphate was tested for its influence on survival and fitness of Spodoptera litura (Fabricus) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) as well as its gut microbial diversity. The antibiotic did not adversely affect the survival of S. litura. Faster growth of larvae was recorded on diet amended with different concentrations of streptomycin sulphate (0.03, 0.07 and 0.15%) as compared to diet without streptomycin sulphate. The overall activity of various digestives enzymes increased on S+ diet while the activity of detoxifying enzymes significantly decreased. In addition, alteration in microbial diversity was found in the gut of S. litura larvae fed on diet supplemented with antibiotic (S+) and without antibiotic (S-).

  9. High Bacterial Agglutination Activity in a Single-CRD C-Type Lectin from Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasmi, Leila; Ferré, Juan; Herrero, Salvador

    2017-03-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-interacting proteins that play a pivotal role in multiple physiological and developmental aspects of all organisms. They can specifically interact with different bacterial and viral pathogens through carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRD). In addition, lectins are also of biotechnological interest because of their potential use as biosensors for capturing and identifying bacterial species. In this work, three C-type lectins from the Lepidoptera Spodoptera exigua were produced as recombinant proteins and their bacterial agglutination properties were characterized. The lowest protein concentration producing bacterial agglutination against a panel of different Gram+ and Gram- as well as their carbohydrate binding specificities was determined for the three lectins. One of these lectins, BLL2, was able to agglutinate cells from a broad range of bacterial species at an extremely low concentration, becoming a very interesting protein to be used as a biosensor or for other biotechnological applications involving bacterial capture.

  10. First report and spore ultrastructure of Vairimorpha plodiae (Opisthokonta: Microspora) from Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Mustafa; Pınar Güngör, F; Gonca Güner, Beyza; Radek, Renate; Linde, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    The present study describes the first isolation and characterization of Vairimorpha plodiae, a microsporidian pathogen of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), from Turkey. We present characteristic light and electron microscopical features of the spores. Fresh binucleate spores are oval and measure 4.48 ± 0.23 (4.01-4.84) µm in length and 2.21 ± 0.15 (1.91-2.48) µm in width. Ultrastructural studies showed that the spore wall measures 150 to 200 nm and consists of a clear endospore (125-150 nm) and an electron-dense, uniform, thin exospore (30-50 nm). The polar filament is isofilar and with 10-12 coils. The well-developed polaroplast consists of two parts with thin lamellae anteriorly and thick, irregularly arranged lamellae posteriorly. The identity of our isolate is discussed.

  11. Constituents of osmeterial secretion of pre-final instar larvae of citrus swallowtail,Papilio demodocus (Esper) (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, B V; Munro, Z; Röth, M; Spies, H S; Truter, V; Geertsema, H; Habich, A

    1985-08-01

    The defensive osmeterial secretion of pre-final instar larvae of the citrus swallowtail,Papilio demodocus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) was found to contain methyl 3-hydroxybutanoate, 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, α-pinene, myrcene, limonene, β-phellandrene, (Z)-ocimene, (E)-ocimene, β-caryophyllene, (E)-β-farnesene, and germacrene-A, as well as a further number of unidentified sesquiterpenoid constituents. The presence of germacrene-A in the secretion was inferred from the formation of β-elemene under certain GC conditions. Larvae of the second, third, and fourth instars produce qualitatively similar secretions. Remarkable quantitative differences were found between the secretions of individual larvae. These variations could not be correlated with the diet on which the larvae were fed, their sex, instar, or color form. However, in a number of larvae the two prongs of the osmeterium were found to produce quantitatively different secretions.

  12. Sensilla on the Antennae and Ovipositor of the Sea Buckthorn Carpenter Moth, Holcocerus hippophaecolus Hua et al (Lepidoptera: Cossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R; Zhang, L; Xu, L L; Zong, S X; Luo, Y Q

    2015-02-01

    Holcocerus hippophaecolus Hua et al (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) is an important boring pest that damages the sea buckthorn Hippophae rhamnoides. Larvae of H. hippophaecolus cause major losses of this shrub in Northern China, with severe economic and ecological consequences. In this study, we used scanning electron microscopy to investigate the typology, morphology, and distribution of sensilla on the antennae and ovipositor of H. hippophaecolus. In total, seven subtypes of sensilla were found on the antennae, i.e., chaetica, trichodea (two subtypes), basiconica (two subtypes), coeloconica, and Böhm bristles. In addition, three types of sensilla were detected on the ovipositor, i.e., chaetica, trichodea, and basiconica. The identification of these sensilla types could provide morphological evidence to facilitate a better understanding of the host location, mate finding, and oviposition processes of this important species.

  13. Outbreaks of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in common bean and castor bean in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz Lopes Baldin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, increasing populations of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae have been observed in cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and castor bean (Ricinus communis L. at the Lageado Experimental Farm, belonging to the FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Defoliations around 80% and 50% were observed in the common bean cv. Pérola and castor bean cv. IAC-2028, respectively. Samples of individuals (caterpillars and pupae were collected in the field, and kept in laboratory until adult emergence aiming to confirm the species. These are new observations for common bean in São Paulo State and, in the case of castor bean, unpublished in Brazil. It suggests that C. includens has adapted to attack other agricultural crops, demanding attention of common bean and castor bean producers.

  14. Some Brain Peptides Regulating the Secretion of Digestive Enzymes in the Indian Meal Moth, Plodia Interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjadian Seyede Minoo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae is a destructive polyphagous pest of many stored products. To interfere with the physiological processes, especially digestion, of the larval pest, more information on the regulatory mechanisms is needed. The brain extract from 1-day-old last instar larvae of P. interpunctella was examined. In the bioassays, the midguts were treated with the brain extract, and the carbohydrase and protease activities were measured. The brain extract showed increasing dose-dependent effects on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, α-galactosidase, β-galactosidase, and trypsin secretion in the larval midgut. The extract was further characterised and partially purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Several peptides were determined in the brain extract regulating hydrolase activities in the larval midgut of the pest.

  15. Biological aspects of Periga circumstans Walker, 1855 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: Hemileucinae with larvae reared on khaki and mate-plant leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Specht

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to investigate biological aspects of Periga circumstans Walker, 1855 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: Hemileucinae whose larvae were fed on leaves of khaki-plant (Diospyros khaki Linnaeus - Ebenaceae and Mate-plant (Ilex paraguariensis Saint Hilaire - Aquifoliaceae leaves. The biological parameters were obtained from specimens kept under controlled conditions: temperature of 25 ± 1 °C, relative humidity of 70 ± 10%, and photoperiod of 12 hours. For each developmental stage, morphological and ethological parameters are described. The larvae passed through six instars with a growth average rate of 1.4 for each instar. The host plants influenced significantly only the total duration of the larval phase, which was prolonged for larvae fed on khaki-plant leaves. Several aspects related to the morphology and the ethology of P. circumstans are similar to those described for Lonomia obliqua Walker, 1855.

  16. The effects of strawberry cropping practices on the strawberry tortricid (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), its natural enemies, and the presence of nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Naulin, Cyril; Haukeland, Solveig

    2014-01-01

    Cropping practice can affect pests and natural enemies. A three-year study of the strawberry tortricid, Acleris comariana (Lienig and Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), its parasitoid Copidosoma aretas Walker (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and its entomopathogenic fungi was conducted in seven pairs...... and their natural enemies were considered. Farms were characterized by their cropping practices, cropping history, and other parameters. Field-collected larvae were laboratory reared to assess mortality from parasitoids and entomopathogenic fungi. In 2010, a survey of nematodes was made to assess the response...... unknown causes. Only two of the field-collected A. comariana larvae were infected by entomopathogenic fungi; one was infected by Isaria sp. and the other by Beauvaria sp. The density of A. comariana was on average four times lower in organic farms, which was significantly lower than in conventional farms...

  17. Overview on current status of biotechnological interventions on yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) resistance in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Sikha; Barthakur, Sharmistha

    2010-01-01

    Yellow stem borer (YSB), Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a monophagous pest of paddy is considered as most important pest of rain fed low land and flood prone rice eco-systems. Breeding of yellow stem borer resistance in rice is difficult owing to the complex genetics of the trait, inherent difficulties in screening and poor understanding of the genetics of resistance. On the other hand, a good level of resistance against the widespread yellow stem borer has been rare in the rice germplasm. Resistance to insects has been demonstrated in transgenic plants expressing genes for delta-endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), protease inhibitors, enzymes and plant lectins. The performance of insect resistant GM rice in trials in China has been quite impressive. The present review is an attempt to assess the current state of development in biotechnological intervention for yellow stem borer resistance in rice.

  18. Wheat cultivars affecting life history and digestive amylolytic activity of Sitotroga cerealella Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzoui, E; Naseri, B

    2016-08-01

    The life history and digestive α-amylase activity of the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) were studied on six wheat cultivars (Arg, Bam, Nai 60, Pishtaz, Sepahan and Shanghai) at 25 ± 1°C, relative humidity of 65 ± 5% and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. A delay in the developmental time of S. cerealella immature stages was detected when larvae were fed on cultivar Sepahan. The maximum survival rate of immature stages was seen on cultivar Bam (93.33 ± 2.10%), and the minimum rates were on cultivars Nai 60 (54.66 ± 2.49%) and Sepahan (49.33 ± 4.52%). The highest realized fecundity and fertility were recorded for females which came from larvae fed on cultivar Bam (93.30 ± 2.10 eggs/female and 91.90 ± 3.10%, respectively); and the lowest ones were observed for females which came from larvae fed on cultivar Sepahan (49.30 ± 4.50 eggs/female and 67.4 ± 11.1%, respectively). The heaviest male and female weights of S. cerealella were observed on cultivar Bam (2.97 ± 0.02 and 4.80 ± 0.01 mg, respectively). The highest amylolytic activity of the fourth instar was detected on cultivar Bam (0.89 ± 0.04 mg maltose min-1), which had the maximum mean hundred-wheat weight (5.92 ± 0.19 g). One α-amylase isozyme was detected in the midgut extracts from the fourth instar larvae fed on different wheat cultivars, and the highest intensity was found in larvae fed on cultivar Bam. Correlation analyses showed that very high correlations existed between the immature period, fecundity and fertility on one side and inhibition of α-amylase, soluble starch content and hundred-wheat weight on the other. According to the obtained results, cultivar Sepahan is an unfavorable host for the feeding and development of S. cerealella.

  19. Susceptibility of Seven Selected Tomato Cultivars to Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae): Implications for Its Management.

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    Ghaderi, Saeedeh; Fathipour, Yaghoub; Asgari, Shahriar

    2017-04-01

    Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a serious pest originating from South America that affects tomato production in many countries, particularly in Iran (since 2010). In this study, by using age-stage, two-sex life-table parameters, the resistance of seven tomato cultivars, namely, 'Primo Early', 'Rio Grande', 'Cal JN3', 'Petomech', 'Early Urbana Y', 'Super 2270', and 'Super Strain B' to T. absoluta, was evaluated under laboratory conditions (25 ± 1 °C, 60 ± 5% RH, and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h). Larval and pupal periods were longest on Early Urbana Y, 13.86 and 6.52 d, respectively, and shortest on Cal JN3, 10.92 and 5.5 d, respectively. The longest and shortest development times of immature stages lasted 26.42 and 20.83 d on Early Urbana Y and Cal JN3, respectively. Male and female adult longevity was longest on Early Urbana Y, 30.42 and 38.52 d, respectively, and shortest on Cal JN3, 11.67 and 18.8 d, respectively. The net reproductive rate (R0) ranged between 80.94 (Cal JN3) and 45.87 (Primo Early) offspring. The lowest and the highest values of the intrinsic rate of increase (r) and finite rate of increase (λ) were on Early Urbana Y and Cal JN3, 0.1052 and 0.1522 and 1.1109 and 1.1644 d-1, respectively. The mean generation time (T) on different cultivars varied from 30.47 to 37.28 d. Our results indicated that Cal JN3 was the most susceptible to infestation and Primo Early and Early Urbana Y were the most resistant to T. absoluta among the tomato cultivars tested. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Impacts of Nosema sp. (Microsporidia: Nosematidae) on the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

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    Simões, Renata A; Feliciano, Julia R; Solter, Leellen F; Delalibera, Italo

    2015-07-01

    In Brazil, the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is controlled with massive releases of the hymenopteran parasitoid Cotesia flavipes Cam. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); over 3 million hectares of sugarcane are treated annually with 18 billion parasitoids. In order to meet this demand, parasitoids are produced in D. saccharalis under laboratory conditions where a Nosema sp. is reported to be an important problem in mass rearing of the host. The goals for this work were to study the pathogenicity of the Nosema sp. and the progression of the disease in the host under laboratory conditions. The average median lethal time (LT₅₀) of Nosema sp. in first instar D. saccharalis varied from 9 ± 0.3 to 42 ± 2.3 days at concentration of 5 × 10(5)-0.5 spores/mm(3) artificial diet (10(7)-10 spores/μl). For third instar, the average of LT50 ranged from 32 ± 0.7 to 37 ± 0.7 days at concentration of 5 × 10(5)-5 × 10(2) spores/mm(3) artificial diet (10(7)-10(4) spores/μl in saline). The concentration necessary to cause 50% mortality (LC₅₀) of first instar larvae was 5.6 (0.9-17.6) spores/μl and the estimated LC50 for third instar larvae was 1,200 (200-4700) spores/μl. The impacts of Nosema sp. on D. saccharalis were analyzed for first instar larvae fed 0.5 spores/mm(3) artificial diet. Duration and viability of the larval and pupal stages, adult longevity, pupal weight and fertility life table were measured for offspring of mating pairs composed of infected females and uninfected males or infected males and uninfected females and compared to offspring of uninfected pairs. Nosema sp. infection resulted in adverse effects on all biological parameters measured except for the duration of the larval and pupal stages and the weight of the male pupae, which did not differ statistically between infected and uninfected groups. The intrinsic rates of growth (rm) were greater for uninfected pairs compared to pairs with either male

  1. PERKEMBANGAN DAN REPRODUKSI CROCIDOLOMIA PAVONANA (F. (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE PADA PAKAN ALAMI DAN SEMIBUATAN

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    Novalia Jelita Sari dan Djoko Prijono .

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Development and reproduction of Crocidolomia pavonana (F. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae on natural and artificial diets.  Development and reproduction of Crocidolomia pavonana on natural and artificial diets were studied in the laboratory (25.2 ± 0.9 C; 84.6% ± 6.7% RH; ca. 12 h photophase.  The natural diets tested were broccoli, cabbage, chinese cabbage, and cauliflower leaves.  The artificial diets used were agar–based general lepidopteran diets mixed with red bean or broccoli leaves, and supplemented with vitamins and microbial inhibitors.  Observation of insect development was done since the egg stage.  After the eggs hatched, larvae were kept singly in plastic cups and fed with appropriate diets.  Fifty larvae were used for each diet.  Records were kept with regard to the duration of each larval instar, pupal period, and the pupal weight.  The emerging adults were paired, and then the number of dead adults and that of eggs laid were recorded daily.  On all the natural diets tested, the larval stage of C. pavonana passed through four instars.  The egg incubation, total larval developmental, and pupal period of C. pavonana on chinese cabbage were the shortest compared to those on the other natural diets.  The pupal weight, however, was the highest on broccoli, followed by that on chinese cabbage, cabbage, and cauliflower.  The female fecundity was also the highest on broccoli (average 258 eggs/female followed by that on chinese cabbage (212, cauliflower (162, and cabbage (102.  Broccoli diet also yielded adults with the longest lifespan although the adult lifespan on broccoli was not significantly different from that on the other natural diets, except that of males on cabbage.  C. pavonana failed to develop successfully on six kinds of artificial diets tested.  The best artificial diet (broccoli–based diet with microbial inhibitors 20% of the normal amount only yielded two males and five females with deformed wings, but

  2. Taxonomía y distribución de Nathalis (Lepidoptera: Pieridae en Colombia

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    Hannier W Pulido-B

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, Nathalis comprende dos especies descritas: N. iole y N. plauta. Autores previos no describieron detalladamente su distribución meridional y fallaron en la diferenciación de ambas especies basado en sus caracteres genitales. Algunos caracteres de su diseño alar habían sido suficientes para separarlas, pero su co-especificidad pudo ser una posibilidad. Estas habitan en Colombia, por arriba de los 2000 m en el páramo, y tienen una distribución vicariante desde poblaciones remanentes de N. iole en las Antillas y en Centro y Norteamérica. Un análisis de la variación de los genitales masculinos y femeninos, así como del diseño alar de más de 100 especímenes de los Andes Colombianos (Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta y Sierra de Perijá y México, indica que las dos especies difieren en sus genitales, y considerando su distribución alopátrida, nosotros confirmamos la distinción específica entre N. iole y N. plauta. Describimos una nueva subespecie endémica encontrada exclusivamente en el páramo por encima de los 3000 m, un área en donde se dan otros endemismos. Las especies de Nathalis presentan plasticidad fenotípica debida a factores ambientales.The taxonomy and distribution of Nathalis (Lepidoptera: Pieridae in Colombia. In Colombia, Nathalis has two described species: N. iole and N. plauta. Previous authors did not make detailed descriptions of its distribution in meridional regions and failed to differentiate both species based on genitalic characters. Some wing marks have been enough to separate them, but co-specificity was a possibility. They inhabit Colombia above 2000 m in the paramo, and have a vicariant distribution from the remaining population of N. iole in the Antillean and Central and North America. An analysis focused on male and female genitalia, as well as the wing pattern of more than 100 specimens from the Colombian Andes (Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and Sierra de Perijá and Mexico, indicates that the

  3. Genetic and Biological Analysis of Colombian Phthorimaea operculella Granulovirus Isolated from Tecia solanivora (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)▿

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    Espinel-Correal, Carlos; Léry, Xavier; Villamizar, Laura; Gómez, Juliana; Zeddam, Jean Louis; Cotes, Alba Marina; López-Ferber, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Tecia solanivora (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is an invasive potato pest of the north of South America that recently colonized zones where Phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), a taxonomically related insect, was established. Nowadays, both species can be found in most areas in different proportions. The Phthorimaea operculella granulovirus (PhopGV) was found to efficiently control P. operculella and was used as a biopesticide in storage conditions. However, no appropriate biological control methods exist for T. solanivora, and the use of granulovirus isolates would provide a solution. The Colombian Corporation for Agricultural Research (CORPOICA) carried out several T. solanivora larva samplings in Colombia with the aim of finding potential isolates. Five geographical granulovirus isolates from T. solanivora (VG001, VG002, VG003, VG004, and VG005) were found, and molecular analysis by REN profiles shows three different genotypic variants in Colombia. Analysis of their genomes revealed their relatedness to PhopGV. Two isolates exhibited submolar bands in their REN patterns, suggesting a mixture of viral genotypes. These data were confirmed by PCR amplification and sequencing of particular regions of the viral genomes. Their biological activity was assayed on both hosts, T. solanivora and P. operculella. A significantly higher pathogenicity in both hosts was observed with isolates VG001 and VG005 than with isolate VG003 or a Peruvian isolate (from P. operculella) used as a reference in the bioassay. Based on their molecular and biological activity characteristics, VG001 and VG005 isolates should be selected for further analysis in order to establish their potential as biological control agents. PMID:20870793

  4. A new species of Eccopsis Zeller (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae from the coastal valleys of northern Chile, with the first continental record of E. galapagana Razowski & Landry

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    Héctor A. Vargas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Eccopsis Zeller (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae from the coastal valleys of northern Chile, with the first continental record of E. galapagana Razowski & Landry. Eccopsis Zeller, 1852 is reported for the first time from Chile. Eccopsis razowskii Vargas, n. sp. is described and illustrated based on specimens reared from larvae collected on native Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae in the coastal valleys of the northern Chilean desert. Eccopsis galapagana Razowski & Landry, 2008, previously known only from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador, is recorded for the first time from continental South America. Larvae of the latter were collected in northern Chile feeding on Prosopis alba Griseb (Fabaceae.Uma nova espécie de Eccopsis Zeller (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae dos valles litorais do norte do Chile, e o primeiro registro continental de E. galapagana Razowski & Landry. Eccopsis Zeller (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae é registrado pela primeira vez para o Chile. Eccopsis razowskii Vargas, n. sp. é descrita e ilustrada com base em espécimes criados de larvas colectadas em Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae nos vales litorais do deserto do norte do Chile. Eccopsis galapagana Razowski & Landry, 2008, conhecida previamente das Ilhas Galápados, Equador, é registrada pela primeira vez para SulAmérica continental. Suas larvas foram coletadas em Prosopis alba Griseb (Fabaceae.

  5. Biological aspects of Dirphia moderata (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae on Eucalyptus cloeziana and Psidium guajava

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    Fabricio Fagundes Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available An egg mass of Dirphia moderata Bouvier was collected around a branch of Eucalyptus cloeziana to register the occurrence and to study the biological aspects of this species fed with leaves of E. cloeziana or P. guajava at 25 ± 2º C, relative humidity of 60 ± 10% and photo phase of 12 h. The duration and viability of the larva stage of D. moderata was 56.01 days and 80.00% and 55.79 days and 72.5% for its caterpillars fed with the first and second host plants, respectively. The duration (days and viability (% of the pupae stage of this insect were 37.64 and 87.00 fed with E. cloeziana and 49.93 and 87.75 with P. guajava, respectively. The average longevity (days was 6.79 and 8.85 for males and 10.48 and 10.09 for females with E. cloeziana and P. guajava, respectively. Each female of D. moderata laid 121.71 and 112.00 eggs with an incubation period (days of 18.14 and 17.79 and viability (% of 75.0 and 70.0 with the first and the second hosts, respectively.Postura de Dirphia moderata Bouvier, 1919 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae foi coletada ao redor de um ramo de Eucalyptus cloeziana na área experimental do Laboratório de Entomologia Florestal da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, em Viçosa, Minas Gerais. O objetivo foi registrar a ocorrência e estudar aspectos biológicos de D. moderata alimentada com folhas de E. cloeziana ou Psidium guajava na temperatura de 25 ± 2º C, umidade relativa de 60 ± 10% e fotofase de 12 horas. A duração e a viabilidade larval foram de 56,01 dias e 80,00% e de 55,79 dias e 72,50% para lagartas de D. moderata alimentadas com E. cloeziana ou Psidium guajava, respectivamente. A duração (dias e a viabilidade (% do estágio de pupa foram de 37,64 e 87,00 para este inseto com E. cloeziana e de 49,93 e 87,75 com P. guajava, respectivamente. A longevidade média (dias foi de 6,79 e 8,85 para machos e de 10,48 e 10,09 para fêmeas desse inseto com E. cloeziana e P. guajava, respectivamente. Cada fêmea de D. moderata

  6. Phagodeterrence by Quassia amara (Simaroubaceae wood extract fractions on Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae larvae

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    Francisco Soto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In Latin America and the Caribbean, precious wood species like mahoganies (Swietenia spp. and cedars (Cedrela spp. are seriously injured by the mahogany shootborer, Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae larva, which bores into the main shoot of trees. In previous experiments focused on searching for a preventive method for managing this pest, a wood extract of bitterwood, Quassia amara L. ex Blom (Simaroubaceae had been shown to cause phagodeterrence to larvae. Therefore, three fractions (water, methanol and diethyl ether of a wood extract were tested for their phagodeterrence to larvae, by means of laboratory and greenhouse trials. Phagodeterrence was assessed by determining their effect on foliage consumption, mortality and signs of damage (number of orifices, sawdust piles, fallen shoots, number of tunnels and tunnel length caused by larvae on Spanish cedar (C. odorata. Both the methanol and diethyl ether fractions caused phagodeterrence, by strongly reducing foliage consumption and signs of damage, while not causing larval mortality. The lowest concentration at which phagodeterrence was detected for the methanol fraction corresponded to 0.0625%, which is equivalent to a 1.0% of the bitterwood crude extract. However, results with the diethyl ether fraction were unsatisfactory, as none of the treatments differed from the solvent, possibly because of an adverse effect of the solvent on foliar tissues. Phagodeterrent principles from Q. amara derivatives may play an important role in dealing with H. grandella if they are complemented with other integrated pest management preventative tactics. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1: 487-499. Epub 2011 March 01.En América Latina y el Caribe, algunas especies que son fuente de maderas preciosas, como las caobas (Swietenia spp. y cedros (Cedrela spp., son seriamente dañadas por la larva de Hypsipyla grandella, la cual barrena el brote principal de los árboles. En experimentos previos orientados

  7. A Brazilian Bacillus thuringiensis strain highly active to sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae Uma Estirpe Brasileira de Bacillus thuringiensis com elevada atividade para a broca da cana-de-açúcar Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

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    Patrícia de Medeiros Gitahy

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The control of the major sugarcane pest, Diatraea saccharalis, is limited by the stem location of the caterpillar. As part of a long-term project towards the development of an alternative and efficient delivery system of Cry proteins to control the sugarcane borer, the current work describes the selection and characterization of a Brazilian B. thuringiensis strain with prominent activity towards D. saccharalis. Strain S76 was eleven-fold more active than the HD-1 Lepidoptera-standard strain, as estimated by the LC50 of 13.06 µg/L and 143.88 µg/L, respectively. We observed bipiramidal and cuboidal crystals similar to those found in other B. thuringiensis strains with entomopathogenic activity against Lepidoptera and Diptera. In addition, smaller and spherical crystalline inclusions were also observed. The plasmid profile of strain S76 is similar to that of HD-1. PCR amplifications of S76 DNA using cry specific primers confirmed the presence of cry1Aa,cry1Ab,cry1Ac,cry2Aa1, and cry2Ab2, but not cry1Ad, cry2Ac and cry9 type genes. No differences that could explain the superior activity of S76 when compared to HD-1, the Lepidoptera standard strain, were observed. Nevertheless, its higher entomopathogenic activity has pointed this strain S76 as a potential source of cry genes to control sugarcane borer, an important pest that affects sugarcane, a crop that occupies a planted area of about 6 million ha in Brazil.Diatraea saccharalis é o inseto-praga que provoca os maiores danos a cultura da cana-de-açúcar, e seu controle é limitado pela localização do ataque no interior do colmo das plantas. Como parte de um projeto a longo prazo com o objetivo de desenvolver uma alternativa eficiente para o controle da broca da cana utilizando as proteínas Cry de Bacillus thuringiensis, o presente trabalho descreve a seleção e caracterização de uma estirpe desta bactéria com atividade larvicida para D. saccharalis. A estirpe brasileira S76, foi

  8. ACEPTACIÓN DE UNA DIETA ARTIFICIAL POR LARVAS DE LA MARIPOSA BATTUS POLYDAMAS POLYDAMAS(LEPIDOPTERA: PAPILIONIDAE ACCEPTANCE OF AN ARTIFICIAL DIET FOR CATERPILLARS OF THE BUTTERFLY BATTUS POLYDAMAS POLYDAMAS (LEPIDOPTERA: PAPILIONIDAE

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    Ricardo A Claro

    Full Text Available Se evalúo la aceptabilidad de dietas artificiales para la alimentación de larvas de la mariposa Battus polydamas polydamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae, bajo condiciones de laboratorio. A las larvas se les ofrecieron dietas en diferentes presentaciones y composiciones: en discos, vertida como suplemento sobre hojas del hospedero y plantas hospedero como control. La composición de la dieta se realizó de acuerdo con ensayos previos y con los análisis nutricionales desarrollados a larvas maduras y a hojas de la planta hospedera, Aristolochia maxima (Aristolochiaceae. La longevidad de las larvas, criadas en laboratorio, se vio afectada significativamente por los diferentes tratamientos de alimentación. Solo se finalizó el ciclo de desarrollo entre las larvas alimentadas con hojas jóvenes de la planta (control y con dieta esparcida como suplemento sobre hojas del hospedero; las curvas de sobrevivencia no presentaron diferencias significativas entre las larvas sostenidas con estos dos tratamientos. En contraste, las tasas de crecimiento larval, fueron significativamente afectadas según el tratamiento, obteniéndose mayor biomasa en las alimentadas con hojas con suplemento. Se sustenta la cría de mariposas de la especie B. polydamas bajo una dieta artificial como suplemento esparcido sobre hojas del hospedero bajo condiciones de temperatura, humedad y luminosidad controlada, con propósitos de investigación o futuros planes de manejo y conservación.We evaluated the acceptability of an artificial diet for the feeding larval stage of the butterfly Battus polydamas polydamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae under control conditions. We offered to the larvae a diet in different forms and composition: disks, spilled like a supplement over the host sheet plant and host plant like a control. The diet composition was made according with preliminary essays and nutritional analyses to the larvae and the host plant, Aristolochia maxima. The longevity of the

  9. Actividad biológica de extractos de Melia azedarach sobre larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Biological activity of extracts of Melia azedarach on larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    María R. Rossetti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En la búsqueda de compuestos botánicos con potencial uso insecticida, se evaluó la actividad de extractos de fruto maduro y hojas senescentes de Melia azedarach L. (2, 5 y 10%, sobre larvas de Spodoptera eridania Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae especie polífaga considerada plaga esporádica de importantes cultivos. Mediante pruebas de elección, se registró el consumo y se calculó un índice de inhibición alimentaria. En pruebas sin posibilidad de elección se estimó el consumo, la mortalidad, el peso de larvas y excretas, y se calcularon índices nutricionales. Cuando las larvas pudieron optar, se observó un fuerte efecto antialimentario de los extractos. En los ensayos de alimentación obligada, los extractos de fruto y hoja redujeron fuertemente el consumo y peso larval respecto al control, excepto la menor dosis de fruto. Ninguna oruga llegó a pupar al entregarle alimento rociado con extracto de hoja o con extracto de fruto en las dosis más altas. Los índices nutricionales corroboraron la actividad antialimentaria, revelando efectos negativos de los extractos sobre las tasas relativas de consumo y crecimiento, y sobre la eficiencia de utilización del alimento ingerido y digerido, aunque la digestibilidad no fue afectada. Los resultados sugieren que los extractos de M. azedarach podrían ser incorporados en programas de manejo de este insecto plaga.In the course of searching for plant chemicals with potential insecticide properties, the activity of Melia azedarach L. senescent leaf and ripe fruit extracts (2, 5 and 10% was evaluated on larvae of Spodoptera eridania Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. This polyphagous species is considered a sporadic pest on many important crops. Food consumption was assessed and an antifeedant index was calculated through choice tests. Also, food consumption, larval mortality, weight and depositions were recorded and nutritional indices were calculated in no-choice tests. Results from choice tests

  10. Efeito de dietas artificiais para a alimentação de adultos de Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, em laboratório Effect of artificial diets for the adults of Bonagota cranaodes feeding (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, in laboratory

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    Fabiana Lazzerini da Fonseca

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Adultos de Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae submetidos a tratamentos com água, solução de mel a 10%, solução de mel a 10% + 25% de cerveja e sem alimento foram mantidos em gaiolas de PVC transparente para avaliar a fecundidade, longevidade e viabilidade de ovos em laboratório a 25±1°C e 70±10% de UR. Maior longevidade de fêmeas e machos e número de ovos/fêmea foram obtidos nos substratos compostos de mel a 10% (17,75 dias, 17,35 dias e 14,07 ovos/postura e mel a 10% + 25% de cerveja (18,25 dias, 18,20 dias e 12,71 ovos/postura. A viabilidade dos ovos e a duração do período embrionário foram semelhantes em todos os tratamentos. O substrato alimentar mel a 10% + 25% de cerveja, apresentou efeitos semelhantes ao substrato composto de apenas mel a 10% sobre a longevidade, fertilidade e viabilidade dos ovos. Entretanto, devido ao menor custo, a dieta a base de mel apresenta melhor potencial de utilização para manutenção da criação do inseto em laboratório.Adults of Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae were maintained in cages of transparent PVC without food, with water, and fed with honey solution at 10% and with honey solution at 10% + 25% of beer only with water and without feeding to evaluate their fecundity, longevity and viability of eggs in growth to (25±1°C and 70±10% of RU. The longevity of females and males was longer and number of eggs/female were obtained in the mean substratum composed of honey at 10% (17,75 days, 17,35 days and 14,07 eggs/posture and honey at 10% + 25% of beer (18,25 days, 18,20 days and 12,71 eggs/posture. The viability of the eggs and the duration of the embryonic period was similar in all the treatments. The mean with honey at 10% + 25% of beer, presented effects similar to the mean composed with honey at 10% regarding to the longevity, fertility and viability of eggs of B. cranaodes. However, due to the lower cost, the diet based only in honey represents

  11. Mouthparts and associated sensilla of a South American moth, Synempora andesae (Lepidoptera: Neopseustidae Piezas bucales y sensilios asociados de Synempora andesae, una polilla de Sudamérica (Lepidoptera: Neopseustidae

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    Michel J. Faucheux

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The mouthparts of Synempora andesae Davis & Nielsen were studied by means of scanning electron microscope. The existence of gustative uniporous sensilla styloconica is demonstrated for the second time on the proboscis of Neopseustidae. It is with this family, and not at a later stage within the Incurvaroidea, that these sensilla appear during the evolution of Lepidoptera. Contrary to common belief, the labial-palp-pit organ, or organ of vom Rath, is present at the distal extremity of the labial palpi of S. andesae. It is made up of a dozen of grooved multiporous sensilla coeloconica whose function is carbon dioxide sensitive. Thus, its presumed absence can no longer be considered as an autapomorphy of Neopseustidae. S. andesae possesses other original characteristics: both short and long bifurcate aporous sensilla chaetica on the labrum, numerous sensilla campaniformia on the first segment of labial palpi, as well as those previously described: the double-tube configuration of the proboscis and the composite and polymorphic multiporous sensilla basiconica on the antennae. Other cephalic sensilla are also described: aporous bifurcate sensilla chaetica on the clypeus, aporous sensilla campaniformia above the mandibles, and on the chaetosemata.Las piezas bucales de Synempora andesae Davis & Nielsen fueron estudiadas con un microscopio electrónico de barrido. Se demuestra, por segunda vez, la existencia de sensilios estilocónicos gustativos uniporosos en la proboscis de Neopseustidae. Es en esta familia, y no en un estadio posterior dentro de Incurvaroidea, que aparecen estos sensilios durante la evolución de Lepidoptera. Contrario a lo que se cree, el órgano sensitivo labial u órgano de Von Rath, se encuentra en la extremidad distal del palpo labial de S. andesae. Está conformado por una docena de sensilios celocónicos multiporosos estriados, cuya función es percibir el dióxido de carbono. Por lo tanto, su supuesta ausencia ya no puede

  12. Evaluation for potential Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) strains for control of the striped stem borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in the Greater Mekong Subregion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yudi; Hou, Maolin; Babendreier, Dirk; Zhang, Feng; Song, Kai

    2014-06-01

    Trichogramma species and strains differ significantly in host specificity and performance. Nine Trichogramma strains, six of them collected from paddy fields in the Greater Mekong Subregion, were evaluated for performance on eggs of the striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), in both laboratory and field tests to determine potential Trichogramma strains that can be used in an inundative release in an integrated pest management program. In the laboratory glass vial tests, all strains showed higher parasitism rates on 0-24-h eggs than on the two older age groups (24-48 and 48-72 h). Wasp emergence rate was also higher from parasitized 0-24-h striped stem borer eggs, while Trichogramma immature duration was significantly prolonged on 0-24-h striped stem borer eggs. Parasitism rates differed among Trichogramma strains, with Trichogramma chilonis Ishii CJ strain showing significantly higher parasitism rate than any other strains. In the field tests, parasitism of sentinel striped stem borer eggs by Trichogramma strains released at 50,000, 100,000, and 200,000 wasps per hectare was low, with marginal yet significant differences between strains. The highest parasitism was achieved by T. chilonis CJ strain at the high and medium release rates. Hence, it can be concluded that T. chilonis CJ strain released at 100,000 wasps per hectare may be a cost-effective control tactic for field releases targeting striped stem borer.

  13. Gamma radiation effects on phases of evolutional cycle of Plodia interpunctella (Huebner, 1813) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) on artificial diet; Efeitos da radiacao gama nas fases do ciclo evolutivo da Plodia interpunctella (Huebner, 1813) (Lepidoptera - Pyralidae) em dieta artificial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamborlin, Maria Julia

    1988-10-01

    The effects of increased gamma radiation ({sup 60} Co) doses on different phases of the evolutional cycle of Plodia interpunctella (Hubner,1813) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) have bean studied under laboratory conditions in the Laboratory of Radioentomology of the Nuclear Energy for Agriculture Center (CENA) in Piracicaba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. For all treatments with gamma radiation a Cobalt-60 source type Gamma bean-650 has been used and the activity was of approximately 2.93 x 10{sup 14} Bq (7,925 Ci), with a dose rate of 2.80 KGy per hour and the insects were kept in a climatic chamber with the temperature adjusted to 27 {+-} 2{sup 0} C and a relative humidity of 70 {+-} 10%. The LD{sub 50} and LD{sub 100} of gamma radiation for eggs of in artificial diet were respectively 51 Gy and 125 Gy. The sterilizing doses in adults which were irradiated at immature phases (larvae and pupae) were 160 Gy and 250 Gy respectively. The sterilizing doses for adults females and males were respectively 250 Gy and 300 Gy. The LD{sub 100} for adult males was 4,750 Gy, 4,500 Gy for females and 4,750 Gy for insects at random. (author). 70 refs., 10 figs., 19 tabs.

  14. Three new cecidogenous Palaeomystella Fletcher (Lepidoptera, Coleophoridae, Momphinae associated with Melastomataceae in Brazil Três espécies novas de Palaeomystella Fletcher (Lepidoptera, Coleophoridae, Momphinae, cecidógenas, associadas com Melastomataceae no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor O. Becker

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new cecidogenous Palaeomystella Fletcher (Lepidoptera, Coleophoridae, Momphinae, described herein, induce galls on stems and leaves of Melastomataceae species. They include: Palaeomystella tibouchinae sp. n., on Tibouchina barbigera (Naudin Baillon, P. oligophaga sp. n., on Macairea radula (Bonpland de Candolle and M. thyrsiflora de Candolle, and P. henriettiphila sp. n., on Henriettea succosa (Aublet de Candolle. Adults, including male and female genitalia, larva, pupa, and galls are illustrated and described in detail.As espécies de Palaeomystella aqui descritas induzem cecídeas nos ramos e folhas de espécies de Melastomataceae: Palaeomystella tibouchinae sp. n. em Tibouchina barbigera (Naudin Baillon, P. oligophaga sp. n. em Macairea radula (Bonpland de Candolle, e M. thyrsiflora de Candolle, P. henriettiphila sp. n. em Henriettea succosa (Aublet de Candolle. Os adultos, incluindo venação das asas, e genitálias dos machos e fêmeas, larvas, pupas e cecídeas, são descritos e ilustrados em detalhes.

  15. Are Adult Crambid Snout Moths (Crambinae) and Larval Stages of Lepidoptera Suitable Tools for an Environmental Monitoring of Transgenic Crops? - Implications of a Field Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Andreas; Dolek, Matthias; Theißen, Bernhard; Zapp, Andreas

    2011-08-10

    Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) have been suggested for the environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops due to their suitability as ecological indicators, and because of the possible adverse impact of the cultivation of current transgenic crops. The German Association of Engineers (VDI) has developed guidelines for the standardized monitoring of Lepidoptera describing the use of light traps for adult moths, transect counts for adult butterflies, and visual search for larvae. The guidelines suggest recording adults of Crambid Snout Moths during transect counts in addition to butterflies, and present detailed protocols for the visual search of larvae. In a field survey in three regions of Germany, we tested the practicability and effort-benefit ratio of the latter two VDI approaches. Crambid Snout Moths turned out to be suitable and practical indicators, which can easily be recorded during transect counts. They were present in 57% of the studied field margins, contributing a substantial part to the overall Lepidoptera count, thus providing valuable additional information to the monitoring results. Visual search of larvae generated results in an adequate effort-benefit ratio when searching for lepidopteran larvae of common species feeding on nettles. Visual search for larvae living on host plants other than nettles was time-consuming and yielded much lower numbers of recorded larvae. Beating samples of bushes and trees yielded a higher number of species and individuals. This method is especially appropriate when hedgerows are sampled, and was judged to perform intermediate concerning the relationship between invested sampling effort and obtained results for lepidopteran larvae. In conclusion, transect counts of adult Crambid Moths and recording of lepidopteran larvae feeding on nettles are feasible additional modules for an environmental monitoring of GM crops. Monitoring larvae living on host plants other than nettles and beating samples of bushes

  16. Are Adult Crambid Snout Moths (Crambinae) and Larval Stages of Lepidoptera Suitable Tools for an Environmental Monitoring of Transgenic Crops? — Implications of a Field Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Andreas; Dolek, Matthias; Theißen, Bernhard; Zapp, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) have been suggested for the environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops due to their suitability as ecological indicators, and because of the possible adverse impact of the cultivation of current transgenic crops. The German Association of Engineers (VDI) has developed guidelines for the standardized monitoring of Lepidoptera describing the use of light traps for adult moths, transect counts for adult butterflies, and visual search for larvae. The guidelines suggest recording adults of Crambid Snout Moths during transect counts in addition to butterflies, and present detailed protocols for the visual search of larvae. In a field survey in three regions of Germany, we tested the practicability and effort-benefit ratio of the latter two VDI approaches. Crambid Snout Moths turned out to be suitable and practical indicators, which can easily be recorded during transect counts. They were present in 57% of the studied field margins, contributing a substantial part to the overall Lepidoptera count, thus providing valuable additional information to the monitoring results. Visual search of larvae generated results in an adequate effort-benefit ratio when searching for lepidopteran larvae of common species feeding on nettles. Visual search for larvae living on host plants other than nettles was time-consuming and yielded much lower numbers of recorded larvae. Beating samples of bushes and trees yielded a higher number of species and individuals. This method is especially appropriate when hedgerows are sampled, and was judged to perform intermediate concerning the relationship between invested sampling effort and obtained results for lepidopteran larvae. In conclusion, transect counts of adult Crambid Moths and recording of lepidopteran larvae feeding on nettles are feasible additional modules for an environmental monitoring of GM crops. Monitoring larvae living on host plants other than nettles and beating samples of bushes

  17. Are Adult Crambid Snout Moths (Crambinae and Larval Stages of Lepidoptera Suitable Tools for an Environmental Monitoring of Transgenic Crops? — Implications of a Field Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera have been suggested for the environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM crops due to their suitability as ecological indicators, and because of the possible adverse impact of the cultivation of current transgenic crops. The German Association of Engineers (VDI has developed guidelines for the standardized monitoring of Lepidoptera describing the use of light traps for adult moths, transect counts for adult butterflies, and visual search for larvae. The guidelines suggest recording adults of Crambid Snout Moths during transect counts in addition to butterflies, and present detailed protocols for the visual search of larvae. In a field survey in three regions of Germany, we tested the practicability and effort-benefit ratio of the latter two VDI approaches. Crambid Snout Moths turned out to be suitable and practical indicators, which can easily be recorded during transect counts. They were present in 57% of the studied field margins, contributing a substantial part to the overall Lepidoptera count, thus providing valuable additional information to the monitoring results. Visual search of larvae generated results in an adequate effort-benefit ratio when searching for lepidopteran larvae of common species feeding on nettles. Visual search for larvae living on host plants other than nettles was time-consuming and yielded much lower numbers of recorded larvae. Beating samples of bushes and trees yielded a higher number of species and individuals. This method is especially appropriate when hedgerows are sampled, and was judged to perform intermediate concerning the relationship between invested sampling effort and obtained results for lepidopteran larvae. In conclusion, transect counts of adult Crambid Moths and recording of lepidopteran larvae feeding on nettles are feasible additional modules for an environmental monitoring of GM crops. Monitoring larvae living on host plants other than nettles and beating

  18. Biology and host range of Tecmessa elegans (Lepidoptera:Notodontidae) a leaf-feeding moth evaluated as a potential biological control agent for Schinus terebinthifolius (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    During surveys for natural enemies that could potentially be used as classical biological control agents of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Brazilian pepper) which is invasive in the USA, the caterpillar, Tecmessa elegans Schaus (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae), was recorded feeding on the leaves of the ...

  19. Catálogo do acervo de borboletas (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea depositadas no Museu de História Natural da Universidade Católica de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Siewert

    2010-11-01

    Abstract. The collection of Papilionoidea (Lepidoptera from Irmãs Figueiredo is deposited on the Universidade Católica de Pelotas and have 166 species distributed in Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae, Lycaenidae and Riodinidae. There were registered first occurrence from Lycaenidae and Riodinidae to physiographic region Encosta do Sudeste from Rio Grande do Sul State.

  20. Estimation of resistance allele frequency to maize incorporated Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2 protein in field populations of the fall army Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from south region of the United State

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target of transgenic maize and cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in both North and South Americas. In the falls of 2013 and 2014, a total of 215 F2 two-parent families of S. frugiperda were es...