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Sample records for chilled meat sausage

  1. Effect of modified atmosphere and temperature abuse on the growth from spores and cereulide production of Bacillus weihenstephanensis in a cooked chilled meat sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Line; Budde, Birgitte Bjørn; Koch, Anette Granly; Klingberg, Trine Danø

    2009-04-15

    cereulide production (0.004 microg/g meat sausage) at abuse condition. Extension of MAP storage at 8 degrees C for 3 weeks followed by abuse resulted in a substantially reduced cereulide production. Data demonstrates that MAP can be used to inhibit growth of a psychrotolerant toxin producing Bacillus spp. during chill storage at 8 degrees C, and substantially reduce the risk of emetic food poisoning at abuse condition. Results are of relevance for improving safety of ready to eat processed chilled foods of extended durability.

  2. Effect of modified atmosphere and temperature abuse on the growth from spores and cereulide production of Bacillus weihenstephanensis in a cooked chilled meat sausage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Budde, Birgitte Bjørn; Koch, Anette Granly;

    2009-01-01

    The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the germination and growth of toxin producingpsychrotolerant Bacillus spp is not well described. A model agar system mimicking a cooked meat product wasused in initial experiments. Incubation at refrigeration temperature of 8 °C for 5 weeks of 26...... was observed at the earliest within 2 weeks when 20% CO2 was combined with 2% O2 and in 3 weeks when combined with "0"% O2 (the remaining atmosphere wasmade up from N2). Results were validated in a cookedmeat sausage model for two non-emetic and one emetic B. weihenstephanensis strain. The packaging film...... oxygen transfer rates (OTR) were 1.3 and 40 ml/m2/24 h and the atmospheres were 2% O2/20% CO2 and "0"% O2/20% CO2. Oxygen availability had a large impact on the growth from spores in the MAP meat sausage, only the most oxygen restricted condition (OTR of 1.3 ml/m2/24 h and "0"% O2/20 % CO2) inhibited...

  3. Meat quality of goat and sheep sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, A.; Pereira, Etelvina; Rodrigues, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to contribute to the characterization of a new product, based on goat and sheep meat with a strategy, which gives value-added to meat from culled goats and sheep, which have a very low commercial price. Carcasses from animals weighing more than the body weight allowed by PDO label specifications were used to produce fresh sausages. Sheep and goats sausages were produced in a traditional industry, in Northeast Portugal. The following character...

  4. Effects of Chicken Breast Meat on Quality Properties of Mackerel (Scomber japonicus) Sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri; Pak, Won-Min; Kang, Ja-Eun; Park, Hong-Min; Kim, Bo-Ram; Ahn, Dong-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effects of chicken breast meat on the quality of mackerel sausages. The mackerel sausages were manufactured by additions of 5%, 7%, and 10% of chicken breast meat. The lightness of mackerel sausages showed no significant differences between the control and addition groups. The redness increased in a dose-dependent manner, but the yellowness decreased significantly with the addition of 7% chicken breast meat (psausage added with 7% chicken breast meat was significantly higher than those of the other groups (psausage added with 5% of chicken breast meat showed no significant differences as compared to the control. However, the mackerel sausages added with 7% and 10% of chicken breast meat showed a dose-dependent decrease. The gel strength of the mackerel sausage added with 5% chicken breast meat was not significantly different from the control, but the addition of 7% and 10% chicken breast meat reduced the gel strength of the mackerel sausage. In sensory evaluation, the mackerel sausages prepared with chicken breast meat have higher scores in smell, taste, texture, hardness, chewiness, and overall preference as compared to the no addition group. Therefore, these results suggest that the optimal condition for improving the properties within mackerel sausages was 5% addition of chicken breast meat.

  5. Effects of Chicken Breast Meat on Quality Properties of Mackerel (Scomber japonicus) Sausage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri; Pak, Won-Min; Kang, Ja-Eun; Park, Hong-Min; Kim, Bo-Ram; Ahn, Dong-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effects of chicken breast meat on the quality of mackerel sausages. The mackerel sausages were manufactured by additions of 5%, 7%, and 10% of chicken breast meat. The lightness of mackerel sausages showed no significant differences between the control and addition groups. The redness increased in a dose-dependent manner, but the yellowness decreased significantly with the addition of 7% chicken breast meat (pmeat was significantly higher than those of the other groups (pmeat showed no significant differences as compared to the control. However, the mackerel sausages added with 7% and 10% of chicken breast meat showed a dose-dependent decrease. The gel strength of the mackerel sausage added with 5% chicken breast meat was not significantly different from the control, but the addition of 7% and 10% chicken breast meat reduced the gel strength of the mackerel sausage. In sensory evaluation, the mackerel sausages prepared with chicken breast meat have higher scores in smell, taste, texture, hardness, chewiness, and overall preference as compared to the no addition group. Therefore, these results suggest that the optimal condition for improving the properties within mackerel sausages was 5% addition of chicken breast meat. PMID:26760754

  6. Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentini, Ângela Maria; Sawitzki, Maristela Cortez; Bertol, Teresinha Marisa; Sant’Anna, Ernani S.

    2009-01-01

    Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5 isolated from natural fermented sausages was investigated as starter cultures in fermented sausages produced in the South Region of Brazil. The study demonstrated that the Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5 showed significant growth during fermentation, stability over freeze-dried process, negative reaction for staphylococcal enterotoxins and viability for using as a single-strain culture or associated with lactic acid bacteria for production of fermented sausages. PMID:24031331

  7. Composition and Fatty Acid Profile of Goat Meat Sausages with Added Rice Bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Malekian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A scientific consensus on the relationship between obesity, obesity related diseases, and diet has emerged. One of the factors is overconsumption of the red meats such as pork and beef. Goat meat has the potential to replace these traditionally consumed meats. Rice bran is a rich source of antioxidants such as vitamin E. In this study, goat meat sausages were formulated to contain 0, 1.5 or 3 percent stabilized rice bran. Proximate and fatty acid composition, α-tocopherol, cholesterol concentration, and antioxidant activities of cooked goat meat sausages containing varying percentages of rice bran were measured. Data were analyzed using a fixed effects model. The fat percentage in the goat meat sausages increased in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P<0.001. Saturated fatty acids concentration decreased linearly (P<0.01, while unsaturated fatty acids and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P<0.05. The concentration of α-tocopherol in sausages increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P<0.01. Also, antioxidant activity increased linearly in sausages in response to added rice bran (P<0.01. The cholesterol concentration of sausages did not vary significantly in response to added rice bran.

  8. Portuguese traditional sausage, Alheira, made with diffrent meat: sensory evaluation and texture.

    OpenAIRE

    Elias, Miguel; Agulheiro-Santos, Ana Cristina

    2013-01-01

    At a Portuguese traditional meat plant 6 different formulas were used to produce “alheira”, a Portuguese traditional fermented sausage, from the north region, usually made with chopped meat from pork and poultry and with bread. Results from TPA suggest that texture of “alheiras” made with meat from poultry (more common) or Alentejano pig breed (never done before) are similar while “alheiras” made with extreme beef meat showed different textural characteristics comparing with the others. C...

  9. Differences between spent hens of different genotype in performance, meat yield and suitability of the meat for sausage production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loetscher, Y; Albiker, D; Stephan, R; Kreuzer, M; Messikommer, R E

    2015-02-01

    The valorization of spent hens via the food chain has some major limitations, which include low meat yield and tough meat. The latter issue can be overcome by producing convenience foods; the first may be alleviated by employing a genotype with higher meatiness. To quantitatively compare two common layer genotypes in production performance, meat yield and sausage quality, 2200 57 weeks old Institut de Sélection Animale (ISA) Warren and Dekalb White hens each were investigated during the last 60 days of egg laying. The hens were housed in an aviary system in 2×10 compartments (10 compartments/each genotype). Measurements included feed intake, laying performance, egg weight and feed conversion ratio as measured per compartment. BW was determined twice on 10 animals per compartment. Finally, two sub-groups of five hens per compartment were slaughtered, meat yield was recorded and bratwurst-type sausages were produced (n=20 per genotype). Fat proportion, cooking loss, connective tissue properties and Kramer shear energy were measured. After 1, 4, 7 and 10 months of frozen storage, oxidative stability (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) and microbiological status were determined as shelf-life related criteria. ANOVA was performed considering genotype as the main effect. The ISA Warren hens were inferior in laying performance (-11%) and feed conversion ratio (+10%) compared with Dekalb White, but had the same feed intake. The ISA Warren had higher BW and carcass weight than the Dekalb White. Carcass yield was higher by 5.9%. There were 80 g (23%) more meat available for sausage production from ISA Warren compared with Dekalb White. Sausages prepared from meat of ISA Warren hens contained less fat than those from Dekalb White, but showed the same cooking loss. Although the collagen proportion of the sausages produced from ISA Warren was lower than from Dekalb White, collagen solubility was lower and shear energy was higher. During the 10 months of frozen

  10. Colorimetric and sensory characteristics of fermented cured sausage with Brazilian ostrich meat addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pasqualin Cavalheiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the colorimetric and sensory characteristics of a fermented cured sausage containing ostrich meat (Struthio camelus and pork meat. Four treatments were performed: one with no ostrich meat (TC and the others containing 19.08 (T1, 38.34 (T2, and 57.60% (T3 of ostrich meat and pork meat. Colorimetric analyses were measuring L*, a*, b*, C*, and hº. Sensory analysis was conducted assessing color, aroma, flavor, and texture at the end of the sausages' processing. The sausages containing ostrich meat were statistically different from the control in the instrumental colorimetric analysis. In the sensory analysis, no significant differences were observed between the treatments for aroma, flavor, and texture. However, significant differences were found in the color of the sausages due to the high myoglobin content present in the ostrich meat, which resulted in a very dark color in the treatment with the highest percentage of this type of meat.

  11. Production of cured meat color in nitrite-free Harbin red sausage by Lactobacillus fermentum fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Kong, Baohua; Xiong, Youling L

    2007-12-01

    Lactobacillus fermentum was substituted for nitrite to produce cured pink color in a Chinese-style sausage. Treatments included inoculations (10(4), 10(6), and 10(8)CFU/g meat) followed by fermentation at 30°C for 8h and then at 4°C for 16h. Control sausage (with sodium nitrite, 60mg/kg meat) was cured at 4°C for 24h without L. fermentum. The UV-Vis spectra of pigment extract from L. fermentum-treated sausage were identical to that of nitrosylmyoglobin (NO-Mb) formed in nitrite-treated control. The NO-Mb concentration and the colorimetric a(∗) value of sausage treated with 10(8)CFU/g meat of L. fermentum essentially replicated those in nitrite-cured meat. Free amino acid content in sausage treated with L. fermentum was greater and the pH slightly lower compared with the nitrite-cured control sample. This study showed that L. fermentum has the potential to substitute for nitrite in the sausage production.

  12. The development of sausage including meat from spent laying hen surimi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S K; Kim, I S; Jung, H J; Kim, D H; Choi, Y J; Hur, S J

    2007-12-01

    The sausage samples were made from pork with spent laying hen breast surimi. The samples were divided into 4 groups [sausage made from pork (control) and sausage made from pork with 20% (T1), 40% (T2), and 60% (T3) of spent laying hen breast surimi]. In proximate compositions, the moisture and ash contents of the control were higher than sausage containing spent laying hen surimi samples in all storage periods. The pH and cooking loss were higher in T3 compared with other sausage samples. However, there was no significant difference in water-holding capacity among the sausage samples, whereas shear force was significantly higher in T2. In meat color, sausage containing spent laying hen surimi samples (T1, T2, and T3) have shown to have higher lightness (L) compared with control, and redness (a) was significantly higher in control and T1. Total amino acid content and essential amino acids were increased in sausage containing spent laying hen surimi samples at 0 d of storage. In fatty acid composition, saturated fatty acid was higher in control than sausage containing spent laying hen surimi samples. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value was lower in sausage containing spent laying hen surimi samples than control at 2 and 4 wk of storage. Cholesterol content was lower in control compared with sausage containing spent laying hen surimi samples. In sensory evaluation, most test items were not significantly different among the sausage samples although tenderness was higher in T2 and T3 at 0 d of storage.

  13. Aminogenesis control in fermented sausages manufactured with pressurized meat batter and starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Moratalla, M L; Bover-Cid, S; Aymerich, T; Marcos, B; Vidal-Carou, M C; Garriga, M

    2007-03-01

    The application of high hydrostatic pressure (200MPa) to meat batter just before sausage fermentation and the inoculation of starter culture were studied to improve the safety and quality of traditional Spanish fermented sausages (fuet and chorizo). Higher amounts of biogenic amines were formed in chorizo than in fuet. Without interfering with the ripening performance in terms of acidification, drying and proteolysis, hydrostatic pressure prevented enterobacteria growth but did not affect Gram-positive bacteria significantly. Subsequently, a strong inhibition of diamine (putrescine and cadaverine) accumulation was observed, but that of tyramine was not affected. The inoculated decarboxylase-negative strains, selected from indigenous bacteria of traditional sausages, were resistant to the HHP treatment, being able to lead the fermentation process, prevent enterococci development and significantly reduce enterobacteria counts. In sausages manufactured with either non-pressurized or pressurized meat batter, starter culture was the most protective measure against the accumulation of tyramine and both diamines.

  14. Effect of high pressure processing on textural and microbiological quality of pink perch (Nemipterus japonicus) sausage during chilled storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnath, Sarika; Panda, Satyen Kumar; Jaganath, Bindu; Gudipati, Venkateshwarlu

    2015-10-01

    The non-thermal high pressure (HP) processing was studied on fish sausage to enhance the quality during chilled storage. Pink perch (Nemipterus japonicus) sausages, packed in poly amide casing under vacuum were subjected to 400, 500 and 600 MPa pressures (dwell time: 10 min and ramp rate: 300 MPa/min) and compared with heat-set samples for physico-chemical and microbial quality parameters. Pressurized samples formed softer and glossier gels with a slight reduction in water-holding capacity. HP made the texture of sausage softer, cohesive and less chewy and gummier than heat-treated ones. Folding test seen higher acceptance values in samples treated at 500 and 600 MPa, during storage. Maximum log reduction in microbial count was observed in 600 MPa immediately, and significant difference in cooked and pressurized sausages was seen only up to 7th day. This revealed the potential application of HP in replacing conventional heat treatment for sausages preparation with enhanced shelf-life.

  15. Effect of Addition of Allium hookeri on the Quality of Fermented Sausage with Meat from Sulfur Fed Pigs during Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Eun-Yeong; Pyun, Chang-Won; Hong, Go-Eun; Lim, Ki-Won; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the addition of Allium hookeri on the quality of fermented sausage made with meat from sulfur fed pigs was examined, throughout a 60 d ripening period. There were two treatments in animal management: normal feed fed pigs, and sulfur fed pigs given 0.3% sulfur mixed normal feed. Fermented sausage manufactured with meat from normal feed fed pigs, and with meat from sulfur fed pigs, and 1% A. hookeri-containing fermented sausage processed with meat from sulfur fed pigs, were determined at 1 d, 15 d, 30 d, and 60 d. The meat qualities in fermented sausage were measured by DPPH radical scavenging activity (DPPH), ABTS(+) radical scavenging activity (ABTS(+)), total phenolic acids, and total flavonoid contents. Fermented sausage made from pigs that had been fed with 0.3% sulfur was protected from oxidation by reduced free radical, as shown by the significant increase in DPPH and ABTS(+) values, compared with fermented sausage made from normal feed fed pigs (psausage with sulfur fed pork was shown to increase the values in DPPH, ABTS(+), total phenolic acid, and total flavonoid contents, by comparison with both the control sausage, and sausage with sulfur fed pork, at 60 d. These results suggest that A. hookeri in meat from sulfur fed pigs could be a source of natural addition, to increase quality in the food industry.

  16. Replacement of mechanically deboned chicken meat with its protein hydrolysate in mortadella-type sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pasqualin Cavalheiro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mortadella-type sausage manufactured using mechanically deboned chicken meat were reformulated replacing MDCM with increasing amounts of MDCM protein hydrolysates (10%, 20%, and 30%, and their physicochemical, microbiological, and sensorial characteristics were evaluated for 60 days of storage at 4 °C. The higher substitutions resulted in sausages more susceptible to lipid oxidation with higher TBARS values during storage; however, these values were lower than the organoleptic perception threshold. The sausages were darker and less red, with lower lightness (L* and redness (a* values than those of the control treatment. They had soft texture, which was evidenced by both the instrumental and sensory analysis. Therefore, the formulation containing 10% of MDCM protein hydrolysates proved to be the most suitable for mortadella-type sausage elaboration.

  17. The influence of extracts on the durability of different ground meats and sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzelov, Aco; Andronikov, Darko; Sofijanova, Elenica; Taskov, Nako; Naseva, Dijana; Saneva, Dusica; Kletnikoski, Petar

    2014-01-01

    According to the Book of Rules of Agency for Food and Veterinary published in Official Gazette No. 63, 2013, sales of minced meat in retail facilities may be made only if it is previously packed in appropriate containers. In this project, for the first time an application of different extracts of vegetable origin - basil, garlic and muscat flower will be performed in order to extend the shelf life of sausages, minced meat and shaped products thereof (obtained from different animals). At the s...

  18. Analytical Method for Differentiation of Chilled and Frozen-Thawed Chicken Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova Ivelina; Ivanov Galin; Shikov Vasil; Ivanova Snezhana

    2014-01-01

    : Chilled and frozen chicken breast and thigh meat were stored at +4±1 oC and - 20±1 oC, respectively. Maillard reaction between ribose and meat proteins of the chicken samples was initiated. The changes in the ribose-induced Maillard reaction rate during chilled and frozen storage of chicken meat were evaluated on the bases of corrected absorbance values (A420*) and bovine melanoidin equivalent values (mg BME/g). Application of BME as a measure of ribose-induced Maillard reaction rate enable...

  19. Development of shelf-stable meat sausages using gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation techniques have been applied in development of ready to eat or shelf stable sausages. These sausages can be eaten directly without the need for prior heating or cooking procedure and displayed in the room temperature on the shelves of the retailers without frozen facilities. This study was designed to investigate the acceptability and microbial status of packed ready to eat sausages that had been sterilized using gamma irradiation at MINTec-Sinagama. Packed pre-cooked sausage samples (sealed in plastic-polyethylene individually) were irradiated with different doses of 2.5 kGy, 3.5 kGy and 5.5 kGy. Acceptability of the sausages was determined through sensory evaluation by 30 members of untrained panelists comprising of staffs of MINT. A 5 points hedonic rating scale was used. The attributes evaluated were rancidity, texture, chewiness, juiciness, aroma, colour, shape and overall acceptance. Samples irradiated with doses 3.5 kGy were the most acceptable followed by samples irradiated with doses 2.5 kGy and 5.5 kGy respectively. Irradiation with doses up to 2.5 kGy will virtually eliminate disease-causing microorganisms and pathogens. The total microbial count, detection of Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and fungi in these samples were determined and discussed. (Author)

  20. The Relationships between Rheological Properties and Structural Changes of Chilled Abalone Meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Xin; ZHANG Zhaohui; TANG Zhixu; TASHIRO Yuri; OGAWA Hiroo

    2003-01-01

    The quantitative correlation between theological properties and structural characteristic values of chilled abalone meat was studied. Structural changes were observed, and these values were enumerated using image processing and analysis technique. Structural changes in the myofibrils and collagen fibrils were the greatest in chilling for 24 h. After chilling for 48 h, similar structures of vertical and cross sections were observed. For chilling from 0h to 72h, the instantaneous modulus E0 of the both section meat decreases gradually with time, but no significant differences were observed after chilling for 48 h.The relaxation time and viscosity of both sections attained the same values for the same chilling time, but increased gradually with increasing chilling time. Meanwhile, a negative correlation between the structural characteristic values (Dm, Am,Rvm), and rheological properties (E1,τi,η1) clearly exists. Some logarithmic expressions have been obtained for these negative correlations. These results suggest that the difference in rheological properties between the cross and vertical sections was mainly due to the structural changes of myofibrils and collagen fibrils, and rheological properties are influenced quantitatively by the structural characteristic values for chilling from 0 h to 72 h.

  1. Comparison of textural atributes of selected meat sausages using instrumental analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Vietoris

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE The aim of the study was to compare textural atributes of selected meat sausages using instrumental analysis. For this purpose, seven different meat sausage samples were treated by instrumental analysis, by the use of Warner-Bratzler probe,  to find differences for two selected textural parameter firmness and work of shear. As expected, various values of mentioned atributes were obtained for different samples tested in fresh stage and after storage under controlled conditions (48 hrs., 30 °C temp., and 60 % R.H. before and after cooking. For statistical evaluation of results, paired T test was used, statistically significant differences were taken at pdoi:10.5219/273

  2. Chills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chills refers to feeling cold after being in a cold environment. The word can also refer to ... Chills (shivering) may occur at the beginning of an infection. They are most often associated with a ...

  3. Adding value to the meat of spent laying hens manufacturing sausages with a healthy appeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KMR de Souza

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the viability of the use of spent laying hens' meat in the manufacturing of mortadella-type sausages with healthy appeal by using vegetable oil instead of animal fat. 120 Hy-line® layer hens were distributed in a completely randomized design into two treatments of six replicates with ten birds each. The treatments were birds from light Hy-line® W36 and semi-heavy Hy-line® Brown lines. Cold carcass, wing, breast and leg fillets yields were determined. Dry matter, protein, and lipid contents were determined in breast and leg fillets. The breast and legg fillets of three replicates per treatment were used to manufacture mortadella. After processing, sausages were evaluated for proximal composition, objective color, microbiological parameters, fatty acid profile and sensory acceptance. The meat of light and semi-heavy spent hens presented good yield and composition, allowing it to be used as raw material for the manufacture of processed products. Mortadellas were safe from microbiological point of view, and those made with semi-heavy hens fillets were redder and better accepted by consumers. Values for all sensory attributes were evaluated over score 5 (neither liked nor disliked. Both products presented high polyunsaturated fatty acid contents and good polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio. The excellent potential for the use of meat from spent layer hens of both varieties in the manufacturing of healthier mortadella-type sausage was demonstrated.

  4. Effect of nisin and butylated hydroxy anisole on storage stability of buffalo meat sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureshkumar, S; Kalaikannan, A; Dushyanthan, K; Venkataramanujam, V

    2010-06-01

    The water activity of buffalo meat sausage was adjusted to 0.88 using humectants and by heat treatment. Nisin and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) were added to study the shelf life of sausage. The treatments were nisin 100 ppm + BHA 100 ppm (T3); nisin 100 ppm (T2); BHA 100 ppm (T1) and control (T0) without nisin and BHA. The sausages were vacuum packaged in polyethylene terephthalate (PET-poly) pouch and stored for 7 days at ambient conditions (35 ± 2°C, 70-80% RH). The pH of sausage increased during storage whereas the moisture content was higher in treatment T1. Tyrosine value was lowest (18.1 mg%) in T3. There was no significant difference among T0 and T1. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) number of T1 and T3 were lower than that of T0 and T2. Nisin and BHA together exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on total viable count, staphylococcal, streptococcal and anaerobic counts. There was no significant difference in the yeast and mould counts among T1-T3. T3 had a better appearance, flavour, texture and overall acceptability scores up to 5 days. The product (T3) was acceptable up to 5(th) day of storage at 35 ± 2°C and 70-80% RH.

  5. Analytical Method for Differentiation of Chilled and Frozen-Thawed Chicken Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Ivelina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available : Chilled and frozen chicken breast and thigh meat were stored at +4±1 oC and - 20±1 oC, respectively. Maillard reaction between ribose and meat proteins of the chicken samples was initiated. The changes in the ribose-induced Maillard reaction rate during chilled and frozen storage of chicken meat were evaluated on the bases of corrected absorbance values (A420* and bovine melanoidin equivalent values (mg BME/g. Application of BME as a measure of ribose-induced Maillard reaction rate enables comparability of the data obtained by different spectrophotometers. It was found that the BME values of chicken meat frozen stored for more than 15 days were significantly (P<0.05 lower than BME values of chilled-stored samples. According to the suggested threshold limit values the chicken thigh and breast meat with BME values lower than 30 mg BME/g and 51 mg BME/g, respectively could be classified as frozen-thawed.

  6. 冷却肉微生物腐败与冷链系统%Chilled meat microbial spoilage and chill chain system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金鑫; 周光宏; 徐幸莲

    2012-01-01

    冷却肉极易发生微生物腐败,温度是最关键的影响因素。冷链系统持续的低温能抑制微生物的生长繁殖,预防冷却肉腐败。本文简述了微生物代谢活动对冷却肉腐败的影响,重点将冷链系统分为加工冷链、运输冷链、销售冷链和家庭保藏四部分,分别从概念及存在的问题等方面加以阐述,并展望了其未来有待提高完善的地方。%Chilled meat highly prone to microbial spoilage,temperature seems to be the most important factor that influences the spoilage.Sustained low-temperature of chill chain can inhibit microbial growth and prevent chilled meat spoilage.The effect of microbial metabolism on chilled meat spoilage was briefly introduced.Attention was drawn to the chill chain system which divided into four parts of processing, transportation, retail and domestic storage,and separately discussed the concept and issues of each part. The advance of chilled meat were prosoected as well.

  7. Microbiological shelf life of fresh, chilled reindeer meat (M. longissimus dorsi

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    Eva Wiklund

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this pilot study loin muscles (M. longissimus dorsi from six reindeer calves (aged 4 months were used to determine shelf life of fresh, chilled reindeer meat stored at +4 °C, measured as microbiological quality (aerobic microorganisms and Escherichia coli. The loins were collected at boning 3 days post slaughter and divided in five pieces that were randomly assigned to five different storage times; sampling directly after packaging and after chilled storage for 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks at +4 °C. Samples were vacuum packaged and transported chilled to Hjortens Laboratory in Östersund, Sweden (accredited by SWEDAC according to SS-EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005 for food analysis where the storage, microbiological sampling and analysis took place according to the protocols of Nordic Committee on Food Analysis (NMKL. The total amount of aerobic microorganisms at the first sampling directly after packaging (three days post slaughter was 3.4 ± 0.3 log10 CFU/g. After two and three weeks of vacuum packaged chilled storage at +4°C the microbiological quality of the samples was on the border-line to poor (6.8 ± 0.3 log10 CFU/g. At four and five weeks of chilled storage the levels of aerobic microorganisms were significantly highest (P≤0.05 and the limit for acceptable quality of 7 log10 CFU/g aerobic bacteria had been passed (7.3 ± 0.3 log10 CFU/g and 7.8 ± 0.3 log10 CFU/g, respectively. Very few of the reindeer meat samples were contaminated with Escherichia coli bacteria. The results from the present pilot study suggest that storage time for vacuum packaged fresh, chilled reindeer meat should not exceed 3 weeks at a temperature of +4 °C.

  8. Evaluation of quality parameters of sausages made with rabbit meat, lamb and pork, added with wheat fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Cobos-Velazsco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The difference among animal species with which chorizo is made, resulting in changes in the techno-functional properties that affect the process and acceptance of product. Sausages made with meat from rabbit, pork and lamb sources were added with wheat fiber and dried at water activity of 0.94. The moisture content was not affected by the source, but it was reduced when fiber was added. The sausages without fiber showed a lower fat content than those samples with fiber. They can be considered stable at room temperature due to their acidity and drying degree. Regarding to the weight loss and diameter of the sausage parameters, there were no differences between source types, however, a reduction of diameter was observed with the addition of fiber. Sausages with lamb meat and fiber showed an increase in oxidation. Higher values of luminosity were obtained in pork sausages. The most preferred samples were the pork meat sausages with the presence of fiber.

  9. Waste utilization of apple pomace as a source of functional ingredient in buffalo meat sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiser Younis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Apple pomace was analyzed for its proximate analysis which showed protein content of 4.50% and total dietary fiber of 62.67%. Its functional properties were also carried out which showed high water- and oil-holding capacity of 3.89 gH2O g−1 Solid and 1.92 ml g−1, respectively. Its antimicrobial activity was also found against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and L. monocytogenes. Further, it has shown lower in vitro glucose retardation index. Buffalo meat sausages incorporated with apple pomace powder showed high cooking yield and emulsion stability of 94.46% and 74.70, respectively, as compared to control sausage. Additionally, the dietary fiber content got enhanced with the incorporation of apple pomace powder as expected.

  10. Survival of experimentally induced Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts in vacuum packed goat meat and dry fermented goat meat sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumayerová, Helena; Juránková, Jana; Saláková, Alena; Gallas, Leo; Kovařčík, Kamil; Koudela, Břetislav

    2014-05-01

    Ingestion of raw or undercooked meat is a potential source of human toxoplasmosis. The aim of this study was to determine the viability of Toxoplasma gondii cysts in vacuum packed (VP) goat meat and in dry fermented sausages (DFS), and evaluate certain physical and chemical parameters, like water activity (aw), pH value, content of salt, dry matter and fat. A portion of muscle tissue from experimentally infected animals was used for production of VP meat with or without addition of 2.5% curing salt, and stored at 4 °C or at -20 °C. Results of bioassay showed that, samples of vacuum packed Toxoplasma positive meat without salt addition were alive after six weeks at 4 °C. Incubation at -20 °C supported the viability after 3 h, but not after 4 h. After 7 days in 2.5% of curing salt, samples of T. gondii VP goat meat were still viable, but not after 14 days at 4 °C. All the DFS samples were not positive for infective cysts which mean that, they do not pose a risk of T. gondii transmission. These data suggest that vacuum packaging increases the survival of T. gondii cysts. PMID:24387851

  11. Analysis and Optimization of the Production Process of Cooked Sausage Meat Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, L.; Rauh, C.; Delgado, A.

    2010-09-01

    In the production of cooked sausages a critical step for product quality is the cutting process, where the comminuting and mixing of meat, fat, ice and spices are carried out. These processes take usually place in bowl cutters, which main control parameters are the working time, knife geometry (shape and sharpness) and rotational velocities of the knives and the bowl. The choice of the geometry and sharpness of the knives influences not only the meat matrix properties (mechanical, rheological, etc.) and, as a consequence, the sensory value of the sausages (size of connective tissue particles, water binding, etc.), but also the energetic demand for the production. However, the cutting process proves to be understood only fragmentarily due to the complex colloid chemical and mechanical behavior of the product. This is documented on the one hand by numerous knife types on the market, extremely empirical approach during determination of geometry and process parameters in practice as well as, on the other hand, by contradictory statements and explanation approaches of observed phenomena present in literature. The present contribution applies numerical simulations to analyze thermo fluid mechanical phenomena, e.g. shear stresses, during the cutting process of the non-Newtonian meat matrix. Combining these results with selected experimental investigations from literature, e.g. sensory properties, knife geometry, velocity of the knife and bowl, improvements of the cutting and mixing process are proposed using cognitive algorithms (Artificial neural networks) aiming at an optimization regarding energy and time demand and product quality.

  12. Color, sensory and textural attributes of beef frankfurter, beef ham and meat-free sausage containing tomato pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savadkoohi, Sobhan; Hoogenkamp, Henk; Shamsi, Kambiz; Farahnaky, Asgar

    2014-08-01

    The present investigation focuses on the textural properties, sensory attributes and color changes of beef frankfurter, beef ham and meat-free sausage produced by different levels of bleached tomato pomace. The texture and color profile were performed using an instrumental texture analyzer and colorimeter. The findings indicated that tomato pomace-added sausages had higher water holding capacity (WHC) compared to that of commercial samples. The frankfurters containing 5 and 7% (w/w) tomato pomace had the highest redness (a*), chroma (C*) and color differences (ΔE) values, while the meat-free sausages containing 7% (w/w) tomato pomace had significant (p0.05) color differences between beef ham samples (with and without tomato pomace). A significant progression in the textural hardness and chewiness of systems containing tomato pomace was observed as well as higher sensory scores by panelists. According to sensorial evaluations, bleached tomato pomace improved the consumer acceptability and preference.

  13. Consumers' perception and acceptance of boiled and fermented sausages from strongly boar tainted meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier-Dinkel, Lisa; Gertheiss, Jan; Schnäckel, Wolfram; Mörlein, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Characteristic off-flavours may occur in uncastrated male pigs depending on the accumulation of androstenone and skatole. Feasible processing of strongly tainted carcasses is challenging but gains in importance due to the European ban on piglet castration in 2018. This paper investigates consumers' acceptability of two sausage types: (a) emulsion-type (BOILED) and (b) smoked raw-fermented (FERM). Liking (9 point scales) and flavour perception (check-all-that-apply with both, typical and negatively connoted sensory terms) were evaluated by 120 consumers (within-subject design). Proportion of tainted boar meat (0, 50, 100%) affected overall liking of BOILED, F (2, 238)=23.22, P<.001, but not of FERM sausages, F (2, 238)=0.89, P=.414. Consumers described the flavour of BOILED-100 as strong and sweaty. In conclusion, FERM products seem promising for processing of tainted carcasses whereas formulations must be optimized for BOILED in order to eliminate perceptible off-flavours. Boar taint rejection thresholds may be higher for processed than those suggested for unprocessed meat cuts. PMID:27038338

  14. Fatty acid profile, color and lipid oxidation of organic fermented sausage during chilling storage as influenced by acid whey and probiotic strains addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Maria Wójciak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Organic fermented sausages typically spoil during long-term storage due to oxidative rancidity. The application of natural antioxidants to meat stuffing is a major practice intended to inhibit the oxidation process and color changes. This study aimed to assess the effect of two unusual starter cultures: three probiotic strains (Lactobacillus casei LOCK 0900, Lactobacillus casei LOCK 0908 and Lactobacillus paracasei LOCK 0919 and lactic acid bacteria from acid whey on model fermented sausage type products focusing on oxidative stability by measuring instrumental color (L*, a*, b* values, conjugated dienes (CD, TBARS immediately after 21 days of ripening (0 and after 90 and 180 days of refrigerated storage (4 ºC. Determination of fatty acid composition, in meat product was performed after ripening and after 180 days of storage. At the end of the storage period, the salted sausages were characterized by the same content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA compared to cured samples. The addition of acid whey and a mixture of probiotic strains to nitrite-free sausage formulation was barely able to protect lipids against oxidation in comparison to nitrite during vacuum storage. Surprisingly, the use of acid whey has an influence on the desired red-pinkish color of organic fermented sausage after ripening and after 180 days of storage period.

  15. Dietary oxidized poultry offal fat: broiler performance and oxidative stability of thigh meat during chilled storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMC Racanicci

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary oxidized poultry offal fat on the performance of broilers and on the oxidative stability of dark chicken meat. One hundred and sixty male chicks were fed a corn-soybean meal diet containing 4% fresh or oxidized poultry fat from 10 to 47 days of age. Fresh fat was stored frozen until diets were produced, and oxidized fat was obtained by electrical heating (110 to 120 ºC. Birds were slaughtered at 47 days of age, and carcass characteristics were measured. Skinless and deboned thigh meat was stored chilled during 12 days, and samples were periodically collected to assess their quality and oxidative stability. Dietary oxidized fat did not affect bird performance or carcass characteristics. During chilled storage, meat color (L*, a* and b* was not affected by dietary treatments; however, TBARS (Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances values were higher (P<0.05 in thigh meat from chickens fed the oxidized fat, indicating that oxidative stability was adversely affected.

  16. Physicochemical properties, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of sheep and goat meat sausages manufactured with different pork fat levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Ana; Rodrigues, Sandra; Pereira, Etelvina; Paulos, Kátia; Oliveira, António Filipe; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Teixeira, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    The effect of three pork backfat levels (0% vs. 10% vs. 30%) on chemical composition, fatty acid profile and sensory properties on sheep and goat meat sausages was studied. All physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. Sausages manufactured with 30% of pork backfat showed the lowest moisture and protein contents and the highest total fat content. The lower a(w) values in sausages manufactured with higher fat content while in pH happened the reverse situation. The addition of pork backfat modified the total fatty acid profile, prompting a significant drop in the relative percentages of C14:0, C16:0, C17:0, C17:1, C18:0 and TVA (trans-vaccenic acid), together with a marked increase in oleic and linoleic acids. Finally, in goat sausages, the fat content significantly affected sensory parameters: taste, texture and overall acceptability (P<0.05). As expected, all physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. PMID:25839884

  17. Evaluation of quality parameters of sausages made with rabbit meat, lamb and pork, added with wheat fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge E. Cobos-Velazsco; Sergio Soto-Simental; Rosa H. Alfaro-Rodriguez; et alias

    2014-01-01

    The difference among animal species with which chorizo is made, resulting in changes in the techno-functional properties that affect the process and acceptance of product. Sausages made with meat from rabbit, pork and lamb sources were added with wheat fiber and dried at water activity of 0.94. The moisture content was not affected by the source, but it was reduced when fiber was added. The sausages without fiber showed a lower fat content than those samples with fiber. They can be considered...

  18. Irradiation of meat products, chicken and use of irradiated spices for sausages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, I.F.; Beczner, J.; Zachariev, Gy. (Central Food Research Inst., Budapest (Hungary)); Kovacs, S. (Veterinary and Food Control Centre, Budapest (Hungary))

    1990-01-01

    The shelf-life of packed minced meat has been increased at least threefold at 4{sup 0}C by applying a 2 kGy dose. Results have been confirmed by detailed quantitative microbiological examinations. Sensory evaluations show no significant difference between the unirradiated and irradiated samples. The optimal average dose was 4 kGy for packed-frozen chicken. The number of mesophilic aerobic microbes was reduced by 2, that of psychrotolerant by 2-3 and that of Enterobacteriaceae by 3-4 orders of magnitude by 4 kGy. S. aureus and Salmonella could not be detected in the irradiated samples. in 1984-1985 5100 kg irradiated chickens were marketed labelled as radiation treated. Irradiated spices (5 kGy) were used in the production of sausages (heat-treated and non-heat-treated) under industrial conditions. The microbiological contamination of irradiated spices was lower than that of ethylene oxide treated ones. The cell count in products made with irradiated spices was lower than in those made with unirradiated spices. The sausages proved to be of very good quality. In accordance with the permission, products were marketed and because of the low ratio of spices there was no need to declare them as using irradiated spices. (author).

  19. Quantitative Risk Assessment of Human Trichinellosis Caused by Consumption of Pork Meat Sausages in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, G J; Zbrun, M V; Soto, L P; Astesana, D M; Blajman, J E; Rosmini, M R; Frizzo, L S; Signorini, M L

    2016-03-01

    In Argentina, there are three known species of genus Trichinella; however, Trichinella spiralis is most commonly associated with domestic pigs and it is recognized as the main cause of human trichinellosis by the consumption of products made with raw or insufficiently cooked pork meat. In some areas of Argentina, this disease is endemic and it is thus necessary to develop a more effective programme of prevention and control. Here, we developed a quantitative risk assessment of human trichinellosis following pork meat sausage consumption, which may be used to identify the stages with greater impact on the probability of acquiring the disease. The quantitative model was designed to describe the conditions in which the meat is produced, processed, transported, stored, sold and consumed in Argentina. The model predicted a risk of human trichinellosis of 4.88 × 10(-6) and an estimated annual number of trichinellosis cases of 109. The risk of human trichinellosis was sensitive to the number of Trichinella larvae that effectively survived the storage period (r = 0.89), the average probability of infection (PPinf ) (r = 0.44) and the storage time (Storage) (r = 0.08). This model allowed assessing the impact of different factors influencing the risk of acquiring trichinellosis. The model may thus help to select possible strategies to reduce the risk in the chain of by-products of pork production. PMID:26227185

  20. Generation of aroma compounds in a fermented sausage meat model system by Debaryomyces hansenii strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-García, Liliana; Rivera-Jiménez, Silvia; Belloch, Carmela; Flores, Mónica

    2014-05-15

    The ability of seven Debaryomyces hansenii strains to generate aroma compounds in a fermented sausage model system was evaluated. The presence of the yeast, in the inoculated models, was confirmed by PCR amplification of M13 minisatellite. Volatile compounds production was analysed using Solid Phase Micro-Extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Forty volatile compounds were detected, quantified and their odour activity values (OAVs) calculated. All volatile compounds increased during time in the inoculated models although significant differences were found amongst them. Ester and sulphur production was strongly dependent on the strain inoculated. D. hansenii P2 and M6 strains were the highest producers of sulphur compounds where dimethyl disulphide and dimethyl trisulfide were the most prominent aroma components identified by their OAVs whereas, M4 showed the highest OAVs for ester compounds followed by the P2 strain. The meat model system has been useful to show the real ability of yeast strains to produce aroma compounds.

  1. Generation of aroma compounds in a fermented sausage meat model system by Debaryomyces hansenii strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-García, Liliana; Rivera-Jiménez, Silvia; Belloch, Carmela; Flores, Mónica

    2014-05-15

    The ability of seven Debaryomyces hansenii strains to generate aroma compounds in a fermented sausage model system was evaluated. The presence of the yeast, in the inoculated models, was confirmed by PCR amplification of M13 minisatellite. Volatile compounds production was analysed using Solid Phase Micro-Extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Forty volatile compounds were detected, quantified and their odour activity values (OAVs) calculated. All volatile compounds increased during time in the inoculated models although significant differences were found amongst them. Ester and sulphur production was strongly dependent on the strain inoculated. D. hansenii P2 and M6 strains were the highest producers of sulphur compounds where dimethyl disulphide and dimethyl trisulfide were the most prominent aroma components identified by their OAVs whereas, M4 showed the highest OAVs for ester compounds followed by the P2 strain. The meat model system has been useful to show the real ability of yeast strains to produce aroma compounds. PMID:24423545

  2. 冷鲜肉的保鲜技术研究进展%Research progress on keeping chilled meat fresh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永红; 张淑蓉

    2012-01-01

    综述了冷却肉保鲜技术的机理和特点,介绍了几种主要的冷却肉保鲜方法,为冷却肉保鲜技术的研究开发提供了理论基础。%The theory and characteristics of preservation of chilled meat were summarized.Some different kinds of preservation method were introduced.It was helpful for research and development on the preservation technology of chilled meat.

  3. Application and Development of Preservation Technology on Chilled Meat%保鲜技术在冷却肉中的应用与发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立德; 陈峰

    2009-01-01

    冷却肉是未来肉品消费的趋势.本文综述了冷却肉保鲜技术的机理和特点,以期能对冷却肉保鲜技术的进一步研究提供参考.%The trend of meat consumption is chilled meat in the future.This paper reviews the preservation technology of chilled meat and characteristics,with a view to the preservation of chilled meat provide reference for further study.

  4. Elimination of Listeria monocytogenes in sausage meat by combination treatment: Radiation and radiation-resistant bacteriocins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgis, Mélanie; Stotz, Viviane; Dupont, Claude; Salmieri, Stéphane; Khan, Ruhul A.; Lacroix, Monique

    2012-08-01

    Two new bacteria were isolated from human feces and were designated MT 104 and MT 162. They were able to produce bacteriocins that are active against five strains of Listeria monocytogenes. Bacteriocins produced by these isolated strains had 100% and 82.35% residual activity when they were treated by gamma radiation at doses of 4 and 40 kGy, respectively. A reduction of 1.0, 1.5 and 3 log CFU/g of L. monocytogenes was observed in sausage meat when treated with bacteriocins from MT 104, MT 162, and nisin, respectively. For synergic effect, the D10 value in presence of the bacteriocins produced by MT 104 showed a 1.08 fold increased relative sensitivity of L. monocytogenes as compared to control after 5 days. The highest synergic effect was observed in presence of nisin which led to 1.61 fold increased relative sensitivity. Combined treatments with nisin and γ-irradiation showed a synergic antimicrobial effect in meat after 24 h and 5 days of storage. A synergic effect was observed only after 5 days at 4 °C for the bacteriocin from MT 104, as compared to the bacteriocin produced by MT 162 that had only an additive antimicrobial effect in all conditions.

  5. Elimination of Listeria monocytogenes in sausage meat by combination treatment: Radiation and radiation-resistant bacteriocins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new bacteria were isolated from human feces and were designated MT 104 and MT 162. They were able to produce bacteriocins that are active against five strains of Listeria monocytogenes. Bacteriocins produced by these isolated strains had 100% and 82.35% residual activity when they were treated by gamma radiation at doses of 4 and 40 kGy, respectively. A reduction of 1.0, 1.5 and 3 log CFU/g of L. monocytogenes was observed in sausage meat when treated with bacteriocins from MT 104, MT 162, and nisin, respectively. For synergic effect, the D10 value in presence of the bacteriocins produced by MT 104 showed a 1.08 fold increased relative sensitivity of L. monocytogenes as compared to control after 5 days. The highest synergic effect was observed in presence of nisin which led to 1.61 fold increased relative sensitivity. Combined treatments with nisin and γ-irradiation showed a synergic antimicrobial effect in meat after 24 h and 5 days of storage. A synergic effect was observed only after 5 days at 4 °C for the bacteriocin from MT 104, as compared to the bacteriocin produced by MT 162 that had only an additive antimicrobial effect in all conditions.

  6. OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF CHILLED CHICKEN MEAT AFTER FEEDING OF SELECTED PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Martonová

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available  The effect of feeding of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, L and combination of yarrow (Achillea millefolium L and hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha L on oxidative stability and sensory properties of produced poultry meat was investigated. Sixty one-day-old commercial broiler chicks (ROSS 308 were used in our experiment, divided into 3 groups, and fed 41 days, as follows: control (K was fed with standard diet without supplementation of plants; second group (M was fed with standard diet supplemented with grounded lemon balm in concentration 2 % per 1 kg; and third group was fed with standard diet supplemented with grounded yarrow (2 % and hawthorn (1 %. Results showed that supplementation with lemon balm, and mainly combination of yarrow and hawthorn in the diet significantly caused reduction of lipid oxidation processes in thigh meat during chilling storage of samples. In addition, supplementation of plants in the diet had positive effect on sensory quality of meat of broiler chickens.    doi:10.5219/38 

  7. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, chemical and sensory properties of chicken kabab and sausage; as prepared chilled meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicken kabab and sausage were treated with 0, 2, 4 or 6 kGy doses of gamma irradiation in a 60CO package irradiator. Treated and untreated samples were kept in a refrigerator (1-4 degree centigrade). Microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics of chicken kabab and sausage were evaluated at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 months of storage. Proximate composition and sensory evaluation of the chicken kabab and sausage were also investigated, but only immediately after treatment. Irradiation did not influence the major constituents of chicken kabab and sausage (moisture, protein and fats). Gamma irradiation decreased the microbial load and increased the shelf-life of chicken kabab and sausage. The dose needed to decrease by 1 log cfu/g (D10 value) of Salmonella spp and E coli. numbers were 213 and 400 Gy in chicken kabab, while 345 and 250 Gy in chicken sausage, respectively. The chemical parameters, total acidity, volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), which were chosen as the indices of freshness, were all well within the acceptable limit for up to 5 months for chicken kabab and sausage treated with 4 and 6 kGy. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between irradiated and non-irradiated samples. (author)

  8. Fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of low-fat cooked sausages made with beef and chicken meat, tomato juice and sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Í; Simşek, O; Işıklı, M

    2002-10-01

    Low-fat (5.9-10.3% fat) cooked sausages were produced with seven different formulations. Sausages produced with total replacement of fat with sunflower oil had significantly lower oleic acid (C18:1) and higher linoleic (C18:2) and behenic (C22:0) fatty acid contents. Their ratio of TUFA/TS was 3.65 compared to 0.95-1.14 for the other sausages. Also these sausages had the lowest moisture content, highest overall palatability and were less firm. Sausages with tomato juice had the lowest pH value, total aerobic count and nitrite content, but were firmer. Sausages produced with reduced beef contents had lower fat contents, lower stearic (C18:0) and higher oleic (C18:1) fatty acid contents than sausages of high beef content, their texture was very soft and had the lowest score for juiciness. Finally the sausages with chicken meat had the lowest fat and highest salt contents, and lower stearic (C18:0) and higher linoleic (C18:3) fatty acid contents than those made with beef . Also their colour was lighter, less red and more yellow and they had the lowest flavor intensity and overall acceptability.

  9. 9 CFR 319.143 - Breakfast sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Breakfast sausage. 319.143 Section 319... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Sausage Generally: Fresh Sausage § 319.143 Breakfast sausage. “Breakfast sausage” is sausage prepared with fresh and/or frozen meat; or fresh...

  10. Consumer attitude towards sodium reduction in meat products and acceptability of fermented sausages with reduced sodium content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guàrdia, M D; Guerrero, L; Gelabert, J; Gou, P; Arnau, J

    2006-07-01

    Lowering salt content in meat products is possible from a technological and sensorial point of view, although little information is available about the consumers' attitude and acceptance of these products. Attitude towards low salt meat products, following the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) proposed by Ajzen, was evaluated by 392 consumers. Acceptability of small calibre fermented sausages with 50% molar substitution of NaCl by six different mixtures of KCl (0-50%) and K-lactate (0-50%) and the control (22g NaCl/kg) was determined by 98 consumers. The preference of the previous best two treatments was compared to the batch control by 279 consumers. In general consumers had a positive attitude towards low salt meat products, being higher for women than for men. Women showed stronger ideas and higher Perceived Control on the Behaviour towards reduced sodium meat products than men. Smokers showed lower intense beliefs than non-smokers. Consumers with a basic level of education were more affected by what other people important for them thought they should do. The final model obtained using the Theory of Planned Behaviour showed a good predictive capacity (R(2)=0.60) and a good internal consistency. Regarding the acceptability study, batches with substitution levels of 50% and 40% by K-lactate, showed lower overall acceptance than the control batch. Significant differences in acceptability were found regarding the gender and place of residence of the consumers. The preference study showed no differences between the batch control and batches with 50% KCl and 40% KCl + 10% of K-lactate substitution levels. According to these results and from a sensorial point of view, it is possible to reduce NaCl content in small calibre fermented sausages by 50% and obtain a product acceptable for consumers. PMID:22062487

  11. Fat Reduction and Replacement in Dry-Cured Fermented Sausage by Using High Pressure Processing Meat as Fat Replacer and Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolumar Tomas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the modification of the lipid fraction of dry-cured fermented sausage through fat reduction (35% and fat replacement of animal fat with olive oil (up to 10%. High pressure processing (HPP treated meat was employed as a novel fat replacer to reduce the fat content and as a new strategy to enable a stable incorporation of olive oil in dry-cured fermented sausages. Chemical (proximate composition and fatty acid profile, physical (water retention, structure formation and colour and sensorial (appearance, texture and flavour properties were evaluated. It is concluded that 35% of fat reduction is possible without reduction of consumer acceptability. Moreover, the addition of HPP-treated meat as a fat replacer resulted in good mimic of the fat particles together with good physical and sensory properties. Therefore, it resulted in an effective and clean alternative (no added-additives for fat reduction. However, the incorporation of olive oil either by direct addition (4.3% oil or within a HPP-created protein network (10% oil resulted in unacceptable products since the oil was not properly retained inside the sausage matrix. Further studies are needed to find processing strategies that permit a stable incorporation of liquid plant oils to dry-cured fermented sausage for the development of healthier and more sustainable dry-cured fermented meat products.

  12. Microbial ecology involved in the ripening of naturally fermented llama meat sausages. A focus on lactobacilli diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Cecilia; Bassi, Daniela; López, Constanza; Pisacane, Vincenza; Otero, Maria Claudia; Puglisi, Edoardo; Rebecchi, Annalisa; Cocconcelli, Pier Sandro; Vignolo, Graciela

    2016-11-01

    Llama represents for the Andean regions a valid alternative to bovine and pork meat and thanks to the high proteins and low fat content; it can constitute a good product for the novel food market. In this study, culture-dependent and independent methods were applied to investigate the microbial ecology of naturally fermented llama sausages produced in Northwest Argentina. Two different production technologies of llama sausage were investigated: a pilot-plant scale (P) and an artisanal one (A). Results obtained by High-Throughput Sequencing (HTS) of 16S rRNA amplicons showed that the production technologies influenced the development of microbial communities with a different composition throughout the entire fermentation process. Both sequencing and microbiological counts demonstrated that Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) contributed largely to the dominant microbiota. When a total of 230 isolates were approached by RAPD-PCR, presumptive LAB strains from P production exhibited an initial variability in RAPD fingerprints switching to a single profile at the final of ripening, while A production revealed a more heterogeneous RAPD pattern during the whole fermentation process. The constant presence of Lactobacillus sakei along the fermentation in both productions was revealed by HTS and confirmed by species-specific PCR from isolated strains. The technological characterization of Lb. sakei isolates evidenced their ability to grow at 15°C, pH4.5 and 5% NaCl (95%). Most strains hydrolyzed myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins. Bacteriocins encoding genes and antimicrobial resistance were found in 35% and 42.5% of the strains, respectively. An appropriate choice of a combination of autochthonous strains in a starter formulation is fundamental to improve and standardize llama sausages safety and quality.

  13. Effects of Replacing Pork Back Fat with Canola and Flaxseed Oils on Physicochemical Properties of Emulsion Sausages from Spent Layer Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Ki Ho; Utama, Dicky Tri; Lee, Seung Gyu; An, Byoung Ki; Lee, Sung Ki

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of canola and flaxseed oils on the physicochemical properties and sensory quality of emulsion-type sausage made from spent layer meat. Three types of sausage were manufactured with different fat sources: 20% pork back fat (CON), 20% canola oil (CA) and 20% flaxseed oil (FL). The pH value of the CA was significantly higher than the others (poils showed higher values than for the CON (poils in sausages significantly increased the omega-3 fatty acid content (psausages containing vegetable oil exhibited significantly lower values for saturated fatty acid content and the omega-6 to omega-3 ratios compared to CON (poils as a pork fat replacer has a high potential to produce healthier products, and notably, the use of canola oil produced characteristics of great emulsion stability and sensory quality.

  14. 9 CFR 319.144 - Whole hog sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Whole hog sausage. 319.144 Section 319... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Sausage Generally: Fresh Sausage § 319.144 Whole hog sausage. “Whole Hog Sausage” is sausage prepared with fresh and/or frozen meat from swine...

  15. Effect of Glycosylated Nitrosohemoglobin on Quality of Cooked Meat Batters during Chill Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Hongtao Zhang; Peijun Li; Baohua Kong; Qian Liu; Hehong Yang; Juyang Zhao; Yanan Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Sodium nitrite is a key traditional meat-curing agent in meat industry. However, because of its carcinogenicity, the studies about nitrite substitutes have been focused on for many years. In this study, Glycosylated Nitrosohemoglobin (G-NO-Hb) solution synthesized by porcine blood, nitrite and sugar through maillard reaction was applied in cooked meat batters to replace for nitrite. Color difference, Thiobarbituric Acid-Reactive Substances (TBARS) and total Aerobic Plate Count (APC) were dete...

  16. Effect of forage and retail packaging types on meat quality of long-term chilled lamb loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y H B; Stuart, A; Rosenvold, K; Maclennan, G

    2013-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of different forage regimes and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) systems [high oxygen (HiOx-MAP): 80% O2 and 20% CO2; and CO2-MAP: 20% CO2 and 80% N2] on color and lipid oxidation stability and sensory attributes of long-term chilled lamb loins during retail display. Lambs (n = 124) were randomly assigned to several pasture-feeding regimes for 12 wk before slaughter. Some had ryegrass (n = 18), lucerne (n = 18), chicory (n = 19), plantain (n = 16), or red clover (Clover 12; n = 17) for all 12 wk. Some were assigned a regime of red clover for 11 wk and pasture for 1 wk (Clover 11; n = 18), with others on red clover for 9 wk and pasture for 3 wk (Clover 9; n = 18). After the lambs were slaughtered, the paired loins (M. longissimus dorsi) were excised at 24 h postmortem, vacuum-packed and stored at -1.5 °C for 9 wk. Cuts were then made from each loin and randomly allocated to either HiOx-MAP or CO2-MAP, and displayed for 7 d at 4 °C under light. Chemical attributes including lipid oxidation, surface color-reversing ability, oxygen consumption, and meat quality attributes (color stability and sensory characteristics) were determined. Among the different forage types, the loins from lambs finished on ryegrass appeared to have greater color stability and less lipid oxidation than the loins from lambs finished on other forage types (P effects on the eating quality of long-term chilled lamb loins by suppressing oxidation-related defects during display without compromising the ability of blooming for meat display. PMID:24085415

  17. Effect of Glycosylated Nitrosohemoglobin on Quality of Cooked Meat Batters during Chill Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium nitrite is a key traditional meat-curing agent in meat industry. However, because of its carcinogenicity, the studies about nitrite substitutes have been focused on for many years. In this study, Glycosylated Nitrosohemoglobin (G-NO-Hb solution synthesized by porcine blood, nitrite and sugar through maillard reaction was applied in cooked meat batters to replace for nitrite. Color difference, Thiobarbituric Acid-Reactive Substances (TBARS and total Aerobic Plate Count (APC were determined in order to evaluate the quality of meat batters. UV-Vis spectra analysis showed that the produced pigment through maillard reaction was G-NO-Hb. The a*-values of batters treated with G-NO-Hb showed a significant increase (p0.05, which indicated that the addition of G-NO-Hb contributed to the formation of red pigment in cooked meat batters. Also, both TBARS values and APC of meat batters treated with G-NO-Hb, especially those added with G-NO-Hb solution (6 g nitrite/kg reaction system were significantly lower than the control samples (p<0.05. It revealed that G-NO-Hb was a potential nitrite substitute for coloring, antioxidation and antisepticise during meat curing.

  18. 草鱼鱼肉肠质构性质的影响因素研究%Study on factors affecting texture properties of grass carp meat sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏

    2012-01-01

    The effects of egg white, corn starch, and vegetable oil on the whiteness, fracture strength, gel strength and elasticity of grass carp meat sausage were studied, and the results showed that all of these materials could improve the whiteness, gel strength and elasticity of sausage at proper addition levels, and the elasticity and gel strength of the sausage increased doubly with the addition of 15% corn starch (count at the weight of fish meat). When judged texture with gel strength, the proper addition levels of these materials in grass carp meat sausage were 15% corn starch, 3% egg white, and 1% vegetable oil.%研究了鸡蛋清、玉米淀粉、植物油对草鱼鱼肉肠白度、凝胶破裂强度、凝胶强度和弹性的影响,发现向鱼肉肠中添加适量的鸡蛋清、玉米淀粉和植物油都能增加产品的白度、凝胶强度和弹性,而添加15%的玉米淀粉可以使鱼肉肠的弹性和凝胶强度增加约1倍。以鱼肉肠凝胶强度为质构指标,确定制备鱼肉肠的辅料添加量为:15%的玉米淀粉,3%的鸡蛋清,1%的植物油。

  19. 冷却肉的加工技术及质量控制%Technique and Quality Control of Chilled Meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张子平

    2001-01-01

    冷却肉(猪肉)是指宰后胴体迅速进行冷却处理,使胴体温度在24小时内降为0-4℃,并在后续的分割、包装、流通和零售等过程中,始终处于0-4℃范围内的生鲜肉(猪肉)。微生物的污染是冷却肉产品质量的重要危害,因此,我们在生产加工与流通过程中实施HACCP系统监控,以确保产品的安全卫生。冷却肉的流通结合实际情况,目前采用加工厂内真空大包装,运输到超级市场后,制作成托盘保鲜小包装。%Chil led meat was the fresh meat cut and deboned after quickly chilling to 0-4 ℃within24hours.Thetemperature of chilled meat was kept at 0-4℃ during packaging, distributing and being retailed. The quality of chilled meat was controlled by HACCP system.

  20. Application of HACCP in Production of Chilled Meat%HACCP体系在冷却肉生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娟

    2012-01-01

    介绍了HACCP体系及其在肉制品中的应用现状,并阐述了HACCP质量管理体系在冷却肉生产加工过程中的应用.%This paper introduced the HACCP system and its application status in meat product, and then expounded the application of HACCP quality management system in the processing of chilled pork.

  1. Polyunsaturated fat and fish oil in diets for growing-finishing pigs: effects on fatty acid composition and meat, fat, and sausage quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryhni, E A; Kjos, N P; Ofstad, R; Hunt, M

    2002-09-01

    Forty-eight crossbred growing-finishing pigs were used to study the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA 31%= low and 50%= high) and fish oil (0, 0.2, and 0.4% capelin) diets on fatty acid composition, chemical traits, and sensory properties of the longissimus muscle, fat, and sausages. High levels of PUFA, independent of the level of fish oil, increased oxidation and rancidity for whole muscle (stored at 1 and 8 months at -23 °C) and sausages (TBARS 0.6-1.3). Fish oil at 0.4% in the diet increased TBA values of loin, but did not affect sensory evaluation scores. An interaction between PUFA and fish oil occurred for TBARS values and rancid odour in sausage, where the 0.4% fish oil and high PUFA level showed highest oxidation (TBARS 1.9). Although fish oil and high PUFA levels might contribute to a more healthy meat, their undesirable affects on palatability would limit their use.

  2. Improvement of turkey breast meat quality and cooked gel functionality using hot-boning, quarter sectioning, crust-freeze-air-chilling and cold-batter-mincing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H C; Erasmus, M A; Swanson, J C; Hong, H G; Kang, I

    2016-01-01

    The effect of rapid carcass chilling on breast meat quality was evaluated using commercial (COMM) and random-bred (RB) turkeys. Immediately after slaughter, 48 turkeys from COMM or RB line were randomly subjected to one of four chilling methods: 1) water-immersion chilling (WIC) of the carcasses at 0°C ice slurry, 2) WIC after temperature abuse (TA) of the carcasses at 40°C for 30 min (TA-WIC), 3) hot-boning, quarter sectioning, and crust-freeze-air-chilling (HB-(1)/4CFAC) of breast fillets at -12°C, and 4) HB-(1)/4CFAC of fillets after TA of carcasses (TA-HB-(1)/4CFAC). The TA increased carcass and fillet temperatures by ∼1.3 and ∼4.1°C, respectively, regardless of turkey line, whereas HB-(1)/4CFAC of fillets required 28 and 33% of carcass chilling time for COMM and RB, respectively. During chilling, COMM breast pH rapidly reduced from 6.04 to 5.82, resulting in a significantly lower pH than RB after chilling (P 0.05). Significantly higher L* value and cooking yield (P 0.05). Higher values of hardness, gumminess, and chewiness were found for RB, no TA, and HB-(1)/4CFAC gels than COMM, TA, and WIC, respectively. These results generally indicated that protein quality and textural properties of turkey fillets were improved, regardless of strains or temperature abuse, using HB-(1)/4CFAC technology. PMID:26527709

  3. Improvement of turkey breast meat quality and cooked gel functionality using hot-boning, quarter sectioning, crust-freeze-air-chilling and cold-batter-mincing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H C; Erasmus, M A; Swanson, J C; Hong, H G; Kang, I

    2016-01-01

    The effect of rapid carcass chilling on breast meat quality was evaluated using commercial (COMM) and random-bred (RB) turkeys. Immediately after slaughter, 48 turkeys from COMM or RB line were randomly subjected to one of four chilling methods: 1) water-immersion chilling (WIC) of the carcasses at 0°C ice slurry, 2) WIC after temperature abuse (TA) of the carcasses at 40°C for 30 min (TA-WIC), 3) hot-boning, quarter sectioning, and crust-freeze-air-chilling (HB-(1)/4CFAC) of breast fillets at -12°C, and 4) HB-(1)/4CFAC of fillets after TA of carcasses (TA-HB-(1)/4CFAC). The TA increased carcass and fillet temperatures by ∼1.3 and ∼4.1°C, respectively, regardless of turkey line, whereas HB-(1)/4CFAC of fillets required 28 and 33% of carcass chilling time for COMM and RB, respectively. During chilling, COMM breast pH rapidly reduced from 6.04 to 5.82, resulting in a significantly lower pH than RB after chilling (P 0.05). Significantly higher L* value and cooking yield (P 0.05). Higher values of hardness, gumminess, and chewiness were found for RB, no TA, and HB-(1)/4CFAC gels than COMM, TA, and WIC, respectively. These results generally indicated that protein quality and textural properties of turkey fillets were improved, regardless of strains or temperature abuse, using HB-(1)/4CFAC technology.

  4. Mortadella sausage manufactured with Caiman yacare (Caiman crocodilus yacare) meat, pork backfat, and soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, C S N; Morais Júnior, N N; Vicente-Neto, J; Ramos, E M; Almeida, J; Roseiro, C; Santos, C; Gama, L T; Bressan, M C

    2013-10-01

    Mortadellas manufactured using Caiman yacare meat (70%) and pork fat (30%) were reformulated by substituting pork fat with increasing amounts of soybean oil (25%, 50%, and 100%) and evaluated 7, 30, and 60 days post-manufacture. The substitutions resulted in an increase in fat content and in the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (total PUFA; 18:2 n-6 and 18:3 n-3), and a reduction in saturated fatty acids (total SFA; 14:0 and 16:0). These alterations reduced (Poil compared to the original formulation. The levels of TBARS obtained at day 7 were positively correlated (P<0.01) with 18:2 n-6 and 18:3 n-3 (r=0.83 and 0.84, respectively) and negatively correlated with 17:0 and 17:1 (r=-0.91 and -0.89, respectively). All formulations received favourable overall acceptability by the sensory panel.

  5. Colour formation in fermented sausages by meat-associated staphylococci with different nitrite- and nitrate-reductase activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtterup, Jacob; Olsen, Karsten; Knøchel, Susanne;

    2008-01-01

    Three Staphylococcus strains, S. carnosus, S. simulans and S. saprophyticus, selected due to their varying nitrite and/or nitrate-reductase activities, were used to initiate colour formation during sausage fermentation. During fermentation of sausages with either nitrite or nitrate added, colour...... nitrate depended on the specific Staphylococcus strain. Strains with high nitrate-reductase activity showed a significantly faster rate of pigment formation, but other factors were of influence as well. Product stability for the sliced, packaged sausage was evaluated as surface colour and oxidation...... by autofluorescence and hexanal content, respectively. No significant direct effect of the Staphylococcus addition was observed, however, there was a clear correspondence between high initial amount of MbFeIINO in the different sausages and the colour stability during storage. Autofluorescence data correlated well...

  6. Effect of postproduction heating on the texture properties of a standard sausage that contains a chicken paste meat extender

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Marcela González Rodríguez; Elizabeth Giraldo Lopera; Diego Alonso Restrepo Molina

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the textureproperties of a standard sausage that contained a chicken meatextender at a replacement percentage of 35% of the PMD whensubjected to postproduction heating. An experimental designthat looked at the combination of three extenders in ten mixturepoints was used; the extenders were composed of fiber, pig skin,and carrageenan, respectively, and there was one product withoutan extender. Five days after production, the sausages were cookedfor t...

  7. APPLICATION RESEARCH ON FSPC AND ISP IN GROUND MEAT SAUSAGE%功能性大豆浓缩蛋白与大豆分离蛋白在颗粒型灌肠中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢伟

    2009-01-01

    How to better using Functional Soy Protein Concentrates (FSPC)and Isolated Soy Protein (ISP)in ground meat sausage were studied. Through testing, the optimal parameters were obtained.If there are above 38 % pork trims in the recipe of ground meat sausage, using FSPC should be best choice; if there are lower 30 % pork trims in the recipe of ground meat sausage, using FSPC should be best choice; if there are 30 %-38 % pork trims in the recipe of ground meat sausage, using FSPC and ISP mixed should be best choice.%主要研究功能性大豆浓缩蛋白与大豆分离蛋白在颗粒型灌肠加工中的应用.通过试验,得出最佳工艺参数.当肉灌肠中瘦肉含量大于等于38%时,使用功能性大豆浓缩蛋白最佳;当肉灌肠中瘦肉含量低于30%时,使用大豆分离蛋白最佳:当肉灌肠中瘦肉含量在30%~38%之间时,使用功能性大豆浓缩蛋白与大豆分离蛋白混合物最佳.

  8. Cold-batter mincing of hot-boned and crust-freezing air-chilled turkey breast improved meat turnover time and product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medellin-Lopez, M; Sansawat, T; Strasburg, G; Marks, B P; Kang, I

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the combined effects of turkey hot-boning and cold-batter mincing technology on acceleration of meat turnover and meat quality improvement. For each of 3 replications, 15 turkeys were slaughtered and eviscerated. Three of the eviscerated carcasses were randomly assigned to water-immersion chilling for chill-boning (CB) and the remaining were immediately hot-boned (HB), half of which were used without chilling whereas the remaining were subjected to crust-freezing air chilling (CFAC) in an air-freezing room (1.0 m/s, -12°C) with/without 1/4; sectioning (HB-1/4;CFAC, HB-CFAC). As a result, CB and HB breasts were minced using 1 of 5 treatments: (1) CB and traditional mincing (CB-T), (2) HB and mincing with no chilling (HB-NC), (3) HB and mincing with CO2 (HB-CO2), (4) HB and mincing after CFAC (HB-CFAC), and (5) HB and mincing after quarter sectioning and CFAC (HB-1/4;CFAC). Traditional water-immersion chilling took an average of 5.5 h to reduce the breast temperature to 4°C, whereas HB-CFAC and HB-1/4;CFAC took 1.5 and 1 h, respectively. The breast of HB-CFAC and HB-1/4;CFAC showed significantly higher pH (6.0-6.1), higher fragmentation index (196-198), and lower R-value (1.0-1.1; P 0.05) in sarcomere length were seen between CB-T and HB-CFAC filets regardless of quarter sectioning. When muscle was minced, the batter pH (5.9) of CB-T was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those (6.1-6.3) of HB-NC, HB-CO2, and HB-1/4;CFAC, with the intermediate pH (6.0) seen for the HB-CFAC. When meat batters were cooked, higher cooking yield (90 - 91%; P < 0.05) was found in HB-CFAC, HB-1/4;CFAC, and HB-CO2, followed by HB-NC (90%) and finally CB-T (86%). Stress values (47-51 kPa) of HB-CFAC gels were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of CB-T (30 kPa) and HB-NC (36 kPa). A similar trend was found in strain values. PMID:24604866

  9. Use of irradiation to ensure the microbiological safety of processed meats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research studies are reviewed, concerning the use of ionizing radiation to extend the shelf life and improve the safety of processed meats. Topics include: the historical background of food irradiation research; the determination of fractional destruction (D) values for a microorganism at a given irradiation dose; the effect of chilling and of NaCl on D values; and a brief review of the irradiation research for different cured and uncured meats (bacon; ham; frankfurters; corned beef and pork sausage; and beef, chicken, and pork). Guidelines for producing safe processed meats through irradiation are included

  10. Irradiation of raw portuguese sausages and meat based ready-to-eat meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portuguese 'chorizo', traditionally processed, contains a high load of a mixed microbial population, including some food-borne pathogenic bacteria. However, commercially manufactured 'chorizo' undergoes a technological process based on hot smoking, which eliminates most microbial flora present. In such conditions it is not justifiable to use irradiation. On the contrary, home-made 'chorizo' is smoked at low temperatures and produced on a small scale in small premises spread over the country. In this case, irradiation is justifiable and economically feasible if the chorizo is collectively sent to irradiation centres for treatment. The use of irradiated meals is justified for preservation of their natural organoleptic properties when full botulinum cooking is not affordable. In irradiated 'chorizo', a total aerobic count was dominant, faecal streptococci were low in number while coliforms, E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus were absent from the control samples. Faecal streptococci showed more sensitivity to irradiation than aerobic microflora which can be explained by the presence of endospore-forming bacteria. Faecal streptococci survived an irradiation dose of 2 kGy dose but not 4 kGy. An 8 kGy dose was not sufficient to destroy all the spores of sulphite-reducing clostridia present. The D10 determined for faecal streptococci was 1.25 kGy. In ready-to-eat meals, the microbial contamination of control dishes of 'stewed veal with onions and carrots' cooked in the laboratory was lower than in samples of commercially refrigerated meat based meals. The reduction of microbial flora was found to be proportional to irradiation dose. A reduction of 2 logs in the total aerobic microflora was achieved with a 4 kGy dose. Approximately 107 vegetative and viable spores of Clostridium sporogenes per gram were suspended in 'stewed veal with onions and carrots' meal and irradiated at -30 deg. C. The irradiation D10 value for vegetative and spore formers was 4.67 kGy. The D10 value

  11. Aspect on Research Works of Late Years Contributed to the Industrial Development of a New Trend in Chilling and Freezing Technology of Meat in Oversea Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shunro

    Author presents his review paper on a noticeable trend of late years in meat refrigeration characterizing in three technological concerns such as increase of operation efficiency in chilling and freezing which result in substantial reduction of energy consumption, improvement in meat tenderness and re-examination of the currently available T. T. T. data for frozen meat storage. He considers from industrial point of view that the new trend has been much encouraged by many research papers so far published treating three topics as follows ;1) removal of meat from unchilled carcass (hot boning) which saves time and energy used for operation and helps a concomitant reasonable reduction of refrigeration facilities, 2) electrical stimulation of carcass in order to protect meat from adverse toughening due to cold shortening and 3) processing-induced changes in frozen storage life of meat. And he makes a brief comment on each topic to elucidate its technological or economical significance and gives a review of relevant studies abroad, citing abstracts of many papers from IIR Bulletin and International Journal of Refrigeration issued in last two or three years.

  12. 复合保鲜剂对冷鲜肉品质影响%Effect of compound preservative on quality of chilled meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙峥; 罗志良; 于福满; 符绍辉

    2015-01-01

    Delicious fresh chilled meat is loved by masses of consumers. It is easy to breed microor⁃ganisms because of its rich nutrition and high water activity. So it is very important to choose safe and ef⁃fective preservative for improving the quality of cold fresh meat. Three kinds of different proportion of compound preservative were used and the effects of the changes of colony count, TVB-N, pH value, water loss rate and sensory index on the quality of chilled meat were analyzed. The result showed that the three kinds of different proportion of compound preservative could prolong the shelf life of chilled meat in different degrees. The compound preservative of 0. 2% tea polyphenol +2% sodium lactate +0. 15%lactic acid+0. 03%Nisin had best effect to prolong the shelf life of chilled meat.%新鲜美味的冷鲜肉受到广大消费者的喜爱。但冷鲜肉由于具有营养丰富、水分活度高等特点,容易滋生微生物。因此,选用安全、有效的保鲜剂对提升冷鲜肉的品质具有十分重要的意义。通过研究使用三种不同配比的复合保鲜剂后,冷鲜肉的菌落总数、挥发性盐基氮( TVB-N)、pH值、出水损失率和感官指标等理化指标的变化,来分析其对冷鲜肉品质影响。实验结果表明:三种不同配比的复合保鲜剂均能不同程度地延长冷鲜肉的保鲜期,其中配比为0.2%茶多酚+2%乳酸钠+0.15%乳酸+0.03%Nisin的复合保鲜剂对延长冷鲜肉保质期效果最佳。

  13. Compositional Factors that Influence Lipid Peroxidation in Beef Juice and Standard Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Gu; Haug, Anna; Nordvi, Berit; Saarem, Kristin; Oostindjer, Marije; Langsrud, Øyvind; Egelandsdal, Bjørg

    2015-12-01

    In order to identify how different additives influenced lipid peroxidation formation, a sausage only using beef juice as pigment source and a standard beef-pork meat sausage were studied. The effects of different additives, including fish oil, myoglobin, nitrite, clove extract, and calcium sources on oxidation and sensory properties were examined. Both sausage systems were stored in 3 different manners prior to testing: (1) frozen immediately at -80 °C; (2) chilled stored for 2.5 weeks followed by fluorescent light illumination at 4 °C for another 2 wk; (3) frozen at -20 °C for 5 mo. The frozen group 3 showed the highest peroxide formation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) for both sausage systems. Unpolar peroxides dominated in both systems. The clove extract could offset the peroxide formation from myoglobin/beef juice and/or fish oil, but the addition of clove flavor was recognized by the sensory panelists. Calcium addition reduced lipid peroxide formation. Added nitrite and fish oil seemed to interact to stimulate nitroso-myoglobin formation. Nitrite was identified to interact with clove addition and thereby, relatively speaking, increased TBARS. The 2 sausage systems generally ranked the additives similarly as pro- and antioxidants.

  14. Compositional Factors that Influence Lipid Peroxidation in Beef Juice and Standard Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Gu; Haug, Anna; Nordvi, Berit; Saarem, Kristin; Oostindjer, Marije; Langsrud, Øyvind; Egelandsdal, Bjørg

    2015-12-01

    In order to identify how different additives influenced lipid peroxidation formation, a sausage only using beef juice as pigment source and a standard beef-pork meat sausage were studied. The effects of different additives, including fish oil, myoglobin, nitrite, clove extract, and calcium sources on oxidation and sensory properties were examined. Both sausage systems were stored in 3 different manners prior to testing: (1) frozen immediately at -80 °C; (2) chilled stored for 2.5 weeks followed by fluorescent light illumination at 4 °C for another 2 wk; (3) frozen at -20 °C for 5 mo. The frozen group 3 showed the highest peroxide formation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) for both sausage systems. Unpolar peroxides dominated in both systems. The clove extract could offset the peroxide formation from myoglobin/beef juice and/or fish oil, but the addition of clove flavor was recognized by the sensory panelists. Calcium addition reduced lipid peroxide formation. Added nitrite and fish oil seemed to interact to stimulate nitroso-myoglobin formation. Nitrite was identified to interact with clove addition and thereby, relatively speaking, increased TBARS. The 2 sausage systems generally ranked the additives similarly as pro- and antioxidants. PMID:26579877

  15. Cold-batter mincing of hot-boned and crust-freezing air-chilled turkey breast improved meat turnover time and product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medellin-Lopez, M; Sansawat, T; Strasburg, G; Marks, B P; Kang, I

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the combined effects of turkey hot-boning and cold-batter mincing technology on acceleration of meat turnover and meat quality improvement. For each of 3 replications, 15 turkeys were slaughtered and eviscerated. Three of the eviscerated carcasses were randomly assigned to water-immersion chilling for chill-boning (CB) and the remaining were immediately hot-boned (HB), half of which were used without chilling whereas the remaining were subjected to crust-freezing air chilling (CFAC) in an air-freezing room (1.0 m/s, -12°C) with/without 1/4; sectioning (HB-1/4;CFAC, HB-CFAC). As a result, CB and HB breasts were minced using 1 of 5 treatments: (1) CB and traditional mincing (CB-T), (2) HB and mincing with no chilling (HB-NC), (3) HB and mincing with CO2 (HB-CO2), (4) HB and mincing after CFAC (HB-CFAC), and (5) HB and mincing after quarter sectioning and CFAC (HB-1/4;CFAC). Traditional water-immersion chilling took an average of 5.5 h to reduce the breast temperature to 4°C, whereas HB-CFAC and HB-1/4;CFAC took 1.5 and 1 h, respectively. The breast of HB-CFAC and HB-1/4;CFAC showed significantly higher pH (6.0-6.1), higher fragmentation index (196-198), and lower R-value (1.0-1.1; P 0.05) in sarcomere length were seen between CB-T and HB-CFAC filets regardless of quarter sectioning. When muscle was minced, the batter pH (5.9) of CB-T was significantly lower (P batters were cooked, higher cooking yield (90 - 91%; P < 0.05) was found in HB-CFAC, HB-1/4;CFAC, and HB-CO2, followed by HB-NC (90%) and finally CB-T (86%). Stress values (47-51 kPa) of HB-CFAC gels were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of CB-T (30 kPa) and HB-NC (36 kPa). A similar trend was found in strain values.

  16. Preservative Effect of Red Yeast Rice on Chilled Pork Meat%红曲米粉应用于猪冷鲜肉的保鲜效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于慧慧; 李迎秋; 朱明宇; 常翠

    2012-01-01

    The pH and MetMb content changes of chilled pork meat with different amounts (0, 0.0625%, 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.5% and 1%) of red yeast rice addition were measured during 9 d storage at 4 ℃C. In addition, physiochemical and sensory properties were determined to evaluate the preservative effect of red yeast rice on chilled pork meat. Chilled pork meat samples with red yeast rice addition at 0.125% and 0.25% showed better sensory and physiochemical properties and were preserved better. Their shelf lives were prolonged by 3 -- 5 days compared to blank control samples.%添加不同质量分数(0.0625%、0.125%、0.25%、0.5%、1%)的红曲米粉应用于冷鲜肉,随冷藏时间(0~9d)的延长,测其pH值及高铁肌红蛋白的变化。对其感官指标和理化指标进行测定,以此评价红曲米粉应用于猪肉的保鲜作用。结果显示,添加0.125%和0.25%红曲的肉样,不仅感官评价、理化指标等较好,保鲜效果也比较优异,相对于空白对照组,可以有效地将保存期延长3~5d。

  17. Meat Processing Plant Microbiome and Contamination Patterns of Cold-Tolerant Bacteria Causing Food Safety and Spoilage Risks in the Manufacture of Vacuum-Packaged Cooked Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultman, Jenni; Rahkila, Riitta; Ali, Javeria; Rousu, Juho; Björkroth, K Johanna

    2015-10-01

    Refrigerated food processing facilities are specific man-made niches likely to harbor cold-tolerant bacteria. To characterize this type of microbiota and study the link between processing plant and product microbiomes, we followed and compared microbiota associated with the raw materials and processing stages of a vacuum-packaged, cooked sausage product affected by a prolonged quality fluctuation with occasional spoilage manifestations during shelf life. A total of 195 samples were subjected to culturing and amplicon sequence analyses. Abundant mesophilic psychrotrophs were detected within the microbiomes throughout the different compartments of the production plant environment. However, each of the main genera of food safety and quality interest, e.g., Leuconostoc, Brochothrix, and Yersinia, had their own characteristic patterns of contamination. Bacteria from the genus Leuconostoc, commonly causing spoilage of cold-stored, modified-atmosphere-packaged foods, were detected in high abundance (up to >98%) in the sausages studied. The same operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were, however, detected in lower abundances in raw meat and emulsion (average relative abundance of 2%±5%), as well as on the processing plant surfaces (processing plant surfaces but to a lesser extent (food safety concerns related to their resilient existence on surfaces.

  18. PROGNOSIS OF RHEOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF SAUSAGES

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    Nesterenko A. A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In spite of decrease of meat import in connection with introduction of sanctions, demand and production of specialty produce are increased. High demands are lodged to meat produce for production of summer sausages. The technological defective goods of sausages not infrequently occur under use of meat raw with non-traditional autolysis and quality. For prevention of defective goods is necessary to have an opportunity to forecast the chemical content and rheological characteristics of sausages. These indexes are important for prognosis of quality of newly worked out or modernized receipts of sausages. The quality of sausages depends on qualitative indexes of minced meat. One of the indexes of minced beef is a consistence which is assessed not only organoleptically but on rheological characteristics. For production of sausages with advanced chemical content and consistence assessed under the help of rheological characteristics is necessary to work out the method of forecasting of ready goods quality. At projecting of the receipt we were offered to use the calculation of rheological and chemical-technological characteristics. There was described the classification of minced meat as heterogeneous system consisting of dispersive medium and phase. There were considered the possibilities of calculation of rheological, chemical indexes and complex chemical characteristics of minced meat and ready sausages in the work. The application of rheological methods of forecasting allows tracing the quality of sausages on any stage of production

  19. 广式腊肠、腊肉风味物质研究进展%Study progress on flavors of cantonese curing meat and sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白卫东; 陈耀; 刘丽微

    2012-01-01

    Cantonese lapmei is a kind of Chinese traditional flavor food. It was loved by consumers for its unique taste, beautiful shape, tender texture, rich in nutrition and easy cooking. Cantonese curing meat and sausage are two typical Cantonese lapmei. It has unique local taste characteristics. This paper reviews the source, types and the flavor substances of the sausage. It summarized the difference of Cantonese curing meat to Sichuan and Hunan curing meats on flavor characteristics. Then, the methods of keeping meat flavor substances were summarized at the end. The summaries shows that lipid oxidation is an important sources in forming the flavor; alcohols and esters are the main components of the aroma; GC - MS is the best method in testing aromas in Cantonese lapmei and anti - oxidation technology is very important in keeping flavors.%广式腊味是我国传统的风味食品,其口味独特,外形美观,肉嫩香醇,营养丰富,食用简便,深受消费者的喜爱.腊肠和腊肉是两种传统的广式腊味,其独特的风味更形成地方特色,文章综述了广式腊肠特征风味物质的来源、种类及检测方法,概括了广式腊肉与四川、湖南腊肉特征风味物质的区别,并对广式肉制品风味物质保持的研究进行了总结,得出:脂肪氧化是广式腊味的一个重要风味来源;醇类、酯类是腊肠香气成分的重要组成;采用GC - MS法分析香气成分简便快捷;抗氧化技术的发展对于腊味风味保持有重要贡献.

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on the lipid peroxidation in chicken, lamb and buffalo meat during chilled storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicken, lamb and buffalo meat were subjected to low-dose gamma irradiation (2.5 kGy) and stored at 0-3C. Lipid peroxidation in terms of thiobarbituric acid (TBA) number and carbonyl content were monitored during storage. While irradiated meat showed slight increase in TBA number and carbonyl content on storage as compared to nonirradiated meat, this did not affect the sensory qualities of meat. Free fatty acid content decreased markedly on irradiation. Irradiated meats were microbiologically safe and sensorily acceptable up to 4 weeks in the nonfrozen state (0-3C) while nonirradiated meat had a shelf-life of less than 2 weeks

  1. Elaboração de embutido fermentado tipo salame utilizando carne de ovelhas de descarte Elaboration of fermented sausage type salami using meat from culling ewe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Vilani De Pelegrini

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir embutido fermentado com carne de ovelhas de descarte de dois grupos genéticos em dois sistemas de alimentação. Foram utilizadas 10 ovelhas da raça Ideal e 10 da raça Texel, as quais foram aleatoriamente distribuídas de acordo com o grupo racial, em dois sistemas alimentares: confinamento e pastagem cultivada. Os animais foram abatidos quando atingiram um escore corporal médio de 3,5 pontos. Na produção dos embutidos utilizou-se 80% de carne ovina e 20% de carne suína. Foram realizadas as determinações de pH, atividade de água, quebra de peso e análise sensorial, utilizando uma escala hedônica de 7 pontos, avaliando os atributos de cor, odor, textura e sabor. Não foram encontradas diferenças entre grupos genéticos (p > 0,05 e sistema alimentar (p > 0,05. Os valores médios no painel sensorial, considerando os grupos genéticos, variaram de 4,90 a 5,41 para a coloração; 4,53 a 4,81 para o odor; 5,25 a 5,75 para o sabor e 5,40 a 5,69 para a textura, já para os métodos de alimentação variaram de 5,03 a 5,25; 4,56 a 4,78; 5,50 e 5,34 a 5,75 para a coloração, odor, sabor e textura, respectivamente. Pode-se concluir que os embutidos fermentados foram aprovados sensorialmente pelos provadores.The aim of this work was producing fermented sausage with meat of culling ewe of two genetic groups in two feeding systems. 10 ewes of the Ideal breed and 10 of the Texel breed were used in the experiment, which were randomly distributed in agreement with the breed group in two alimentary systems: confinement and cultivated pasture. The animals were slaughtered when they reached a medium corporal score of 3.5 points. For the production of the sausages, a proportion of 80% of ewe meat and 20% of pork meat were used. The pH, water activity, weight loss, and sensorial analysis, were determinated using a scale of 7 points evaluating the color, odor, texture, and flavor attributes of the fermented sausages

  2. Review and Prioritization of Various Advertisement Methods by Meat Products Matrix Analytic Hierarchy Method (AHP: A Case Study of Sausages Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Esfandi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Advertising is not only as a tool to increase company sales. Fast development of mass communication tools and added new mediums to advertising media have been introduced the advertising as a key element in the success or failure of a company. Due to the intense competition between companies and the fast growth of markets and changes in consumer behavior, advertising is taken into consideration as a major tool to create consumer awareness of products and services. Thus, in order to choose the best advertising method for meat products (sausages and salami, comments of 500 Shiraz citizens are collected by Cochran sampling and used in data analysis byAnalytical Hierarchy Process (AHP.After gathering the data, by synthesis the comments of respondents through arithmetic mean, the pairwise comparison matrix of criteria and priorities was formed to estimate the relative weights of them to achieve the goals of "the best method of advertising". The results indicated with respect to citizen viewpoints, the media advertisement, the street billboards, the advertising brochures, the advertising kiosks, and the purchase awards have the highest degree of importance with weight 0.430, 0.238, 0.139, 0.098 and 0.096, respectively. Due to the competition of different meat products factories, to make interest and encourage for purchasing a goods toward the competitor goods, it is necessary to use the persuasive advertisement.

  3. Effect of partial replacement of pork meat with olive oil on the sensory quality of dry-ripened venison sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Utrilla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Six assays of low-fat venison salchichon were produced using varying proportions of olive oil to replace the traditional pork meat added. The control contained 75% lean venison and 25% pork meat; in the other assays, 15, 25, 35, 45 and 55% of the pork meat was replaced by olive oil. Samples were evaluated by quantitative descriptive sensory analysis and consumer testing. Descriptive sensory analysis revealed significant differences for most of the attributes studied. The replacement of 35% or more of pork meat by olive oil, prompted a decrease in odour intensity, spicy odour, hardness and an increase of fat mouthfeel, together with the olive oil perception. By contrast, the replacement of 25% of pork meat by olive oil yielded a salchichon not greatly different to the control. Consumers accepted all assays, but preferred those in which no more than 25% of the pork meat was replaced by olive oil. From a sensory standpoint, therefore, it is recommended that the replacement of pork meat by olive oil in this product should not exceed 25%.

  4. Preliminary research on effect of fermentation broth of Bacillus amyloliquifaciens on fresh-keeping of chilled meat%解淀粉芽孢杆菌发酵液保鲜冷却猪肉的效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时威; 谢为天; 张岩; 徐春厚; 刘颖

    2011-01-01

    实验研究了解淀粉芽孢杆菌发酵液对冷却肉的防腐保鲜效果,对冷却肉的微生物、感官品质和理化指标3个方面进行了检测.结果显示,解淀粉芽孢杆菌发酵液处理组可将冷却肉的保质期延长6d~9d,而且效果优于Nisin.解淀粉芽孢杆菌发酵液对冷却肉中主要污染菌-假单胞菌和潜在致病菌-单增李斯特菌有较好的抑制效果.解淀粉芽孢杆菌发酵液作为冷却肉的生物防腐剂,具有广阔的应用前景.%The preservation effect of the fermentation broth of Bacillus amyloliquifaciens on chilled meat was studied. Microbilogical, sensory and physical-chemical properties of chilled meat were determined. The results shown that the fermentation broth of Bacillus amyloliquifaciens applied to chilled meat could extend the shelf-life of chilled meat 6d~9d, and had much better effect than nisin. The fermented broth of Bacillus amyloliquifaciens could effectively inhibit the growth of Pseudomonas and Listeria monocytogenes. It had broad prospects as biological preservative for chilled meat

  5. Mortadella sausage formulations with mechanically separated layer hen meat preblended with antioxidants Mortadela elaborada com cms de galinhas poedeiras pré-misturada com antioxidantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Trindade

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the laying cycle, layer hens can be used for production of mechanically separated meat (MSML for sausage manufacture. However, mechanically separated meats are susceptible to lipid and pigment oxidation during storage, problems that could be prevented by the use of antioxidants present in curing additives traditionally used in meat processing. The objective of this work was to evaluate the quality and stability of Mortadella produced with MSML added of sodium erythorbate (1000 ppm and sodium nitrite (150 ppm through preblending or during chopper processing (control treatment, after long term frozen storage of raw meat ingredient. The products were stored for 40 days at 7ºC and evaluated in regard to the oxidative stability of lipids (TBARS values, objective color, and microbiological and sensory attributes. Preblending MSML lessened rancidity of the final product in comparison to the control (0.2 and 2.2 mg malonaldehyde per kg, respectively, and elicited better color (a* = 7.5 and 10.5, respectively. Total counts of psychrotrophic microorganisms were similar for both treatments (2 log CFU g-1. Previous blending of nitrite (150 ppm and erythorbate (1000 ppm in mechanically separated meat soon after the extraction is recommended when the raw material will eventually go through prolonged frozen storage before its use in Mortadella sausage processing.Uma das formas de utilização das galinhas poedeiras ao final do ciclo de postura é a obtenção de carne mecanicamente separada (MSML para a elaboração de embutidos. Entretanto, carnes mecanicamente separadas apresentam alta susceptibilidade à oxidação lipídica e dos pigmentos. O uso de antioxidantes tradicionalmente utilizados na cura de carne para incorporação prévia à matéria prima poderia evitar estes problemas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade e a estabilidade de mortadelas elaboradas com MSML com adição de eritorbato (1000 ppm e nitrito (150

  6. Effect of postproduction heating on the texture properties of a standard sausage that contains a chicken paste meat extender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marcela González Rodríguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the textureproperties of a standard sausage that contained a chicken meatextender at a replacement percentage of 35% of the PMD whensubjected to postproduction heating. An experimental designthat looked at the combination of three extenders in ten mixturepoints was used; the extenders were composed of fiber, pig skin,and carrageenan, respectively, and there was one product withoutan extender. Five days after production, the sausages were cookedfor two hours at 80°C. An instrumental texture analysis and afirmness and elasticity evaluation were carried out on the recentlyproduced samples and on samples after the subsequent thermaltreatments. Hardness, masticability and firmness decreased withthe application of the thermal treatments. In addition, a synergisticinteraction was seen between the fiber and the carrageenan at thetwo temperature levels. It was concluded that the fiber, the pig skinand the carrageenan did not exhibit properties that were similarto those of chicken paste because their applications demonstrateda marked decrease in the texture properties, a decrease thatwas more pronounced when the product was subjected topostproduction heating.

  7. Salmonella spp. em carcaças, carne mecanicamente separada, lingüiças e cortes comerciais de frango Salmonella spp. in carcasses, mechanically deboned meat, sausages and chicken meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cleusa de Fátima Banzatto de Carvalho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Alimentos de origem animal representam papel fundamental na epidemiologia das salmoneloses humanas. Apesar dos avanços tecnológicos, a carne de frango ainda é passível de contaminação bacteriana, especialmente por microrganismos do gênero Salmonella, que podem encontrar-se albergados no trato intestinal ou em outra parte do corpo das aves. O presente trabalho objetivou pesquisar a ocorrência de Salmonella em carne de frango e derivados procedentes da região Nordeste do Estado de São Paulo. Foram analisadas, através do método convencional de cultivo, 45 amostras de carcaças, 60 de carne mecanicamente separada (CMS, 25 de lingüiça de frango, 20 de peito, e 15 de coxa e sobre-coxa. Salmonella spp. foi encontrada em 13,3% (6/45 das carcaças, 25% (15/60 das amostras de CMS, 16% (4/25 das lingüiças, 30% (6/20 dos peitos e 13,3% (2/15 das coxas e sobre-coxas analisadas. Do total de 165 amostras analisadas, 33 (20% apresentaram contaminação por Salmonella estando, portanto, impróprias para o consumo conforme legislação brasileira.Food of animal origin represents an important role in the epidemiology of human salmonellosis. In spite of the technological improvement, the chicken meat is subjected to bacterial contamination, mainly by microorganisms of the genus Salmonella that can be found in the intestinal tract or elsewhere on the chicken body. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Salmonella in chicken meat and cuts from the Northeast region of São Paulo State, Brazil. By conventional cultivation microbiological methods, 45 samples of carcasses, 60 samples of mechanically deboned meat (MDM, 25 samples of chicken sausages, 20 samples of chest, and 15 samples of chicken leg and thigh. Salmonella was found in 13.3% (6/45 of the carcass, 25% (15/60 of the MDM, 16% (4/25 of the sausages, 30% (6/20 of the chests and 13.3% (2/15 of the tight analysed. The results showed that 33 (20% out of 165 samples were

  8. Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viabilidade de Staphylococcus xylosus isoladas de embutidos artesanais para aplicação como cultivos iniciadores em produtos cárneos

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    Ângela Maria Fiorentini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5isolated from natural fermented sausages was investigated as starter cultures in fermented sausages produced in the South Region of Brazil. The study demonstrated that the Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5showed significant growth during fermentation, stability over freeze-dried process, negative reaction for staphylococcal enterotoxins and viability for using as a single-strain culture or associated with lactic acid bacteria for production of fermented sausages.Investigamos a viabilidade de cepas de Staphylococcus xylosus (AD1 e U5 isoladas de embutidos com fermentação natural, para aplicação como cultivos iniciadores em embutidos fermentados produzidos na Região Sul do Brasil. O estudo demonstrou que cepas de Staphylococcus xylosus (AD1 e U5 apresentaram crescimento significativo durante a fermentação, estabilidade no processo de liofilização e conservação, ausência de produção de enterotoxinas e viabilidade para aplicação como cultivo iniciador simples ou associado com bactérias lácticas na elaboração de embutidos fermentados.

  9. Lipid peroxidation in chicken meat during chilled storage as affected by antioxidants combined with low-dose gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TBA values and carbonyl content for irradiated samples of ground chicken meat were higher than for nonirradiated samples. Addition of antioxidants tocopherol (natural) or BHT (synthetic) resulted in retardation of oxidative rancidity (p0.05). Meat treated with antioxidants prior to irradiation had lower TBA values as compared to untreated irradiated counterparts. Free fatty acid (FFA) values decreased after irradiation. Addition of antioxidants prior to irradiation showed a synergistic effect in decreasing FFA content. TLC of muscle lipids indicated a reduction in the triacylglcerols content with concomitant increases in FFA of all samples during storage. All irradiated meats were acceptable for consumption up to 4 wk of storage

  10. The chilling of carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savell, J W; Mueller, S L; Baird, B E

    2005-07-01

    Biochemical processes and structural changes that occur in muscle during the first 24h postmortem play a great role in the ultimate quality and palatability of meat and are influenced by the chilling processes that carcasses are subjected to after slaughter. For beef and lamb, employing chilling parameters that minimize cold shortening is of greatest importance and can be best addressed by ensuring that muscle temperatures are not below 10°C before pH reaches 6.2. For pork, because of the impact of high muscle temperatures and low pH on the development of pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) pork, a more rapid chilling process is needed to reduce PSE with the recommended internal muscle temperature of 10°C at 12h and 2-4°C at 24h. Spray chilling, a system whereby chilled water is applied to carcasses during the early part of postmortem cooling, is used to control carcass shrinkage and to improve chilling rates through evaporative cooling. Delayed chilling can be used to reduce or prevent the negative effects of cold shortening; however, production constraints in high-volume facilities and food safety concerns make this method less useful in commercial settings. Electrical stimulation and alternative carcass suspension programs offer processors the opportunity to negate most or all of the effects of cold shortening while still using traditional chilling systems. Rapid or blast chilling can be an effective method to reduce the incidence of PSE in pork but extreme chilling systems may cause quality problems because of the differential between the cold temperatures on the outside of the carcass compared to the warm muscle temperatures within the carcass (i.e., muscles that are darker in color externally and lighter in color internally).

  11. Optimization on refreshment process in chilled meat hurdle preservative technology%冷却肉栅栏保鲜工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张根生; 姜艳; 张毅超; 姚烨

    2015-01-01

    目的:以新鲜猪肉为原料,开发一种能延长冷却肉货架期的保鲜工艺。方法根据栅栏因子理论选取3种栅栏因子,研究低温冷藏、紫外灭菌和天然保鲜液对冷却肉综合保鲜的影响。在单因素基础上,通过正交试验,以菌落总数和挥发性盐基氮(TVB-N)值为评价指标。结果紫外灭菌(20 W、90 s和30 cm)+天然保鲜液配方(ε-聚赖氨酸0.5%、茶多酚1.75%和植酸0.3%)能在4℃保存18 d。结论根据栅栏技术因子保鲜理论,采用多种栅栏因子的科学组合能有效将货架期从4 d延长至18 d。%ABSTRACT:Objective To develop a new technology for prolonging the shelf life of chilled meat using fresh pork as raw material.Methods According to the theory of barrier factors, 3 kinds of barrier factors were selected to study the effect of low temperature, UV-C, and natural fresh keeping agents on the preservation of chilled meat. Based on the single factor, the total numbers of colony and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) were evaluated by orthogonal test.Results After process of UV-contamination control (20 W, 90 s, 30 cm)+natural preservation fluid formulations (ε-polylysine 0.5%, tea polyphenol 1.75% and phytic acid 0.3%) + vacuum packaging, products could maintain refresh under refrigerated (4℃ ) for 18 d without corruption or deterioration.Conclusion Based on the theory of the technology factor of the fence, the combination of a va-riety of fence factor can effectively extend the shelf life from 4 d to 18 d.

  12. Biogenic amine formation and nitrite reactions in meat batter as affected by high-pressure processing and chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Capillas, C; Aller-Guiote, P; Carballo, J; Colmenero, F Jiménez

    2006-12-27

    Changes in biogenic amine formation and nitrite depletion in meat batters as affected by pressure-temperature combinations (300 MPa/30 min/7, 20, and 40 degrees C), cooking process (70 degrees C/30 min), and storage (54 days/2 degrees C) were studied. Changes in residual nitrite concentration in raw meat batters were conditioned by the temperature and not by the pressure applied. Cooking process decreased (P batters. High-pressure processing conditions had no effect on the rate of residual nitrite loss throughout the storage. The application of high pressure decreased (P < 0.05) the concentration of some biogenic amines (tyramine, agmatine, and spermine). Irrespective of the high processing conditions, generally, throughout storage biogenic amine levels did not change or increased, although quantitatively this effect was not very important.

  13. Interaction of ionising radiation and acidulants on the growth of the microflora of a vacuum-packaged chilled meat product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbiological effects of gamma irradiation dose of 2 kGy, with and without reduction of pH to 5.3-5.2, have been investigated with a vacuum-packaged, minced meat product prepared from pork and beef with spices and cereal fillings. Either glucono-delta-lactone or ascorbic acid were used as acidulants. Experimental batches were stored at 0-2 degrees C for 4 weeks. Effect of temperature abuse condition was also studied by transferring packages for one week to 10 degrees C after 2-week holding at 0-2 degrees C. The irradiation caused two decimal reduction of the aerobic viable cell count determined after incubation at room temperature and four decimal reduction in the Enterobacteriaceae count. Lactic acid bacteria appeared to be more radiation resistant and became the dominant component of the microflora during storage. Combination of pH-reduction and irradiation prevented growth of Enterobacteriaceae even at 10 degrees C incubation. (author)

  14. Study on forming processing of meat floss in new type instant Chinese sausage%新型即食腊肠中“肉松”结构的形成工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖永强; 陈文辉; 朱玉安; 郭锡铎

    2014-01-01

    The density of meat was taken as the main index, the effects of main factors on forming processing of meat floss in new type instant sausage were studied, and the optimal processing technology were determined. The result showed that stirred 3min at 6-8℃, cured 15h at 0-4℃, cooked 60min at 85℃ and roasted 6 h at 65℃. The mechanism of the formation of meat floss structure was analyzed and dis-cussed.%以肉丝密度为评价指标,研究了新型即食腊肠中“肉松”结构形成工艺的主要影响因素,确定新型“肉松型”腊肠的最佳制作工艺为:6~8℃拌料3min、0~4℃腌制15h、85℃蒸煮60min、65℃烘烤6h,并对肉松结构的形成机理进行了初步分析与探讨。

  15. Dry fermented buffalo sausage with sage oil extract: Safety and quality

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Hayam M.; Abu Salem, Ferial M.

    2010-01-01

    Sage oil extract was added during the preparation of dry fermented buffalo meat sausage. Some chemical, microbial and sensory characteristics of sausages were evaluated during the ripening period. In particular, pH, lipid oxidation, biogenic amines and micro flora were analyzed. Results of this study pointed out that sage oil extract as natural antioxidant could be utilized in dry fermented sausage, prepared from buffalo meat, in order to obtain a final product within acceptable lipid oxidati...

  16. Evaluación de la Sustitución de Grasa Animal por Grasa Vegetal Insaturada en la Elaboración de un Embutido de Carne de Búfalo (Bubalus bubalis Evaluation of the Substitution of Animal Fat by Vegetable fat in the Manufacture of a Heat Processed Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis Meat Sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier F Rey Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la sustitución de grasa animal por grasa vegetal en un producto escaldado utilizando la carne de búfalo en un salchichón seleccionado por su aceptabilidad en Colombia. Las formulaciones experimentales fueron preparadas por triplicado utilizando aceite de soya, cañóla y girasol en 5%, 10% y 15%, estas fueron comparadas frente a un patrón, en el cual se utilizo carnes de vacuno y grasa animal. La humedad, proteína, grasa y textura (Warner-Bratzler fueron determinadas por duplicado. La aceptabilidad fue evaluada con panel sensorial no entrenado. Los datos experimentales fueron evaluados mediante estadística descriptiva con análisis vahanza multivahado y univahado, y establecieron que no hubo diferencias significativas entre las diferentes formulaciones con soya y girasol. El análisis sensorial definió como mejor producto el salchichón resultante del aceite de soya al 10%.The substitution of animal fat by vegetable fat in a heat processed meat sausage, made of buffalo meat, was evaluated. The meat sausage developed was salchichón, a product widely accepted by consumers in Colombia. Experimental formulations of meat sausage were prepared in triplícate with soybean, sunflower and cañóla oils at 5, 10 and 15% concentrations. These formulations were compared with a standard formulation of meat sausage with animal fat. Moisture, protein, fat and texture (Warner-Bratzler were determined in duplícate. Acceptability was evaluated by an untrained sensory panel. The experimental results were subjected to univahate and multivariate analyses of variance. No significant differences were found between the formulations with soybean and sunflower oils. The formulation with 10% soybean oil was defined as the best product.

  17. 采用METHOCEL MXTM技术开发低脂肪香肠和肉制品%Creating low-fat sausage and meat products with METHOCEL MXTM fat replacement technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜正勇; Linda Bellekom-Allen; Mathias Frahm; Marina Kuntsevich

    2009-01-01

    As consumers aim to reduce the fat content of their diets,the foods targeted for reduction often include meat products,such as sausages and frankfurters because their inherently high fat contents and the lack of eating quality of the low fat alternatives make this the only acceptable option.Methocel MXTMFat Replacement Technology enables the formulation of low-fat meat products that combine the desired texture and succulent,juicy mouthfeel associated with full-fat products with a significant reduction in fat content.This technology,through the creation of a structured emulsion,allows the use of lower quantities of healthy liquid oils in place of saturated fat or hydrogenated oils.The emulsion system can be created by combining Methocel MXTMwith cold water and liquid oil.The oil content used can vary from 2 to 60 percent.One example provides an overview of how a sausage formulation with 10 percent fat content can be created,which is a significant reduction from the control sausages with 27 percent fat content.%由于消费者希望降低对脂肪特别是动物脂肪的摄取,诸如香肠类的肉制品已经逐步从消费者的日常饮食中降低使用量.METHOCELTMMX的脂肪替代技术可以使低脂肪的肉制品保持如全脂肉制品一样的优异的风味,提供良好的质构和柔嫩多汁的口感.这项技术使用健康的植物油来替代饱和脂肪酸或氢化植物油,形成形如"矩阵"的乳状液.将METHOCEL MXTM,冷水和植物油结合制成这个乳状液系统,植物油的含量可以是2%60%.本文中描述了一个用METHOCELTMMX的脂肪替代技术制作的10%脂肪含量的香肠,在保持良好质量的前提下,降低脂肪含量27%.

  18. USO DE CULTURAS INICIADORAS PARA A ELABORAÇÃO DE UM EMBUTIDO À BASE DE CARNE DE PATO (Cairina moschata USE OF STARTER CULTURES TO PRODUCE FERMENTED SAUSAGE FROM DUCK MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Oliveira CARIONI

    2001-12-01

    industry, being directly related to the final product flavor, texture, colour and shelf life. The use of starter cultures to produce fermented sausages with a base of duck meat from the boning of thighs and real thighs was evaluated in this research. A mixture of Lactobacillus plantarum BN and Kokuria varians CCT 4492 starter cultures was used to inoculate the meat mixture. The sausages were smoked in a smoking chamber at 23±1°C for approximately 19 hours and were cured for 25 days. The initial counting of viable cells in the sausage mixture was 6.08Log10 CFU/g and 6.04Log10 CFU/g for lactic acid bacteria and Micrococcacea, respectively. Acid lactic bacteria displayed a growth of 0.79 logarithm cycles after the second day of processing, and an increase of 2.58 logarithm cycles at the 11th day. The final product acidity average value in lactic acid was 0,39%, and the pH value, 5.11. The physico-chemical analyses rested within Brazilian Legal Standards. The final product presented a sensorial profile within acceptable quality standards.

  19. Color changes in irradiated cooked pork sausage with different fat sources and packaging during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, C; Jin, S K; Ahn, D U

    2000-05-01

    Pork sausages were prepared with lean pork meat, fat from different sources [backfat (BF), corn oil (CO) or flaxseed oil (FO); 10% of lean meat], NaCl (2%), and ice water (10%). The emulsified meat batters were stuffed into casings (3 cm in diameter) and cooked to an internal temperature of 72°C. Cooked sausages were sliced and vacuum- or aerobic-packaged individually. Sausages were irradiated at a 0, 2.5, or 4.5 kGy dose and stored in a 4°C refrigerator for 8 days. Aerobic-packaged, irradiated cooked sausages prepared with BF and FO showed higher Hunter L-values than nonirradiated controls at day 0, but the difference disappeared at day 8. Irradiation increased the Hunter a-value in vacuum-packaged cooked pork sausages regardless of the fat source used, and the increase of the Hunter a-value was dose-dependent. In contrast, the Hunter a-value decreased by irradiation in aerobic-packaged cooked pork sausages prepared with BF or FO. The Hunter a-value of cooked pork sausage with aerobic packaging was significantly reduced at day 8. Hunter b-values increased at Day 8 in irradiated cooked pork sausages except for the sausage prepared with CO at 2.5 kGy. Cooked pork sausages prepared with CO were lighter, and sausage prepared with FO was redder and more yellow (p<0.05) in vacuum packaging.

  20. 三种天然抗氧化剂对冷鲜兔肉保鲜效果研究%Study on anti-oxidative effects of 3 natural anti-oxidants on chilled rabbit meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂乾忠; 夏延斌; 曾晓楠

    2012-01-01

    By adopting the chilled Musculus longissimus dorsi of rab-bit meat as material, the experiment was conducted to study the anti-oxidative effects of Tea Poly-phenols(TP), water-soluble Rosemary Extracts and Sodium Phytate at the concentration of 0. 3 g/kg, 0.3 g/kg. 0. 2 g/kg respectively so to determine their preservation effects. Results revealed that all 3 natural anti-oxidants at the set concentrations could retard the lipid auto-oxidation of chilled rabbit meat during storage at the temperature of (4±0. 5) ℃ efficiently, and extended the shelf-life of fresh rabbit meat to some 9 days while 1 lhat of control group lasted only for 6 days.%分别利用茶多酚,迷迭香提取物和植酸钠等天然抗氧化剂对冷却獭兔肉进行抗氧化及保鲜.结果表明:0.3 g/kg茶多酚(TP),0.3 g/kg水溶性迷迭香提取物及0.2 g/kg植酸钠均可有效抑制冷鲜兔肉脂肪氧化,延缓氧化酸败异味的产生,从而有效延长冷鲜兔肉货架期,在(4±0.5)℃条件下达到9 d左右;而空白对照组兔肉货架期仅为6d.

  1. CHANGES IN COUNTS OF MICROORGANISMS AND BIOGENIC AMINES PRODUCTION DURING THE MANUFACTURE OF FERMENTED SAUSAGES POLIČAN

    OpenAIRE

    Libor Kalhotka; Olga Cwiková; Veronika Čírtková(Kovářová); Zuzana Matoušová; Jitka Přichystalová

    2012-01-01

    Poličan is classic raw fermented sausage with low acidity. Dry fermented sausages Poličan were used for the analysis and drawn once a week during production from ripening chambers of meat-packing plants. Those sausages ripened for 35 days under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. The aim of this article is to evaluate microorganisms accompanying ripening of fermented sausages Poličan and characterize relationships between activity of microorganisms and content of biogenic amines. ...

  2. Nutritional value and fatty acid composition of some traditional Argentinean meat sausages Composição nutricional e perfil de ácidos graxos de embutidos tradicionais da Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Cristina Romero

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional composition (moisture, protein, carbohydrates, and total fat of some meat products produced in the northeastern Argentina, analyzing fatty acids composition, polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio PUFA/SFA ratio (polyunsaturated/ saturated fatty acids, n-6/n-3 ratio, and CLA (conjugated linoleic acid content. Thirty traditional meat products produced by different processes were used. The samples were classified into 4 different categories as follows: salamín (dry cured and fermented sausage, chorizos (raw sausage, chorizo ahumado (cooked and smoked sausage, and morcilla (cooked sausage. From the results obtained it can be said that the total carbohydrate contents of the salamín studied were slightly lower; fat content of raw chorizo was significantly lower, and protein content of chorizo ahumado was significantly higher than those comparison from databases from other regions of Argentina, USA, and Spain. Except for chorizo, which has a value lower than 0.4, the PUFA/SFA-stearic ratio of the other products were a little higher than those reported by other researchers. CLA (Conjugated linoleic acid contents between 0.03% and 0.19% were detected. The results obtained indicate that salamín produced in northeastern Argentina, Chaco state, shows high protein and PUFA (Polyunsaturated fatty acids contents, and low atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes, which makes it a more healthful product than those of similar composition produced in other countries.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a composição nutricional de alguns produtos de carne elaborados no nordeste da Argentina, a análise da composição dos ácidos graxos, conteúdo de CLA, relações AGPI/AGS e n-6/n-3. Trinta produtos tradicionais de carne a partir de processos diferentes foram utilizados. As amostras foram classificadas em 4 categorias: Salamin (embutido seco e fermentado, chorizo (linguiça, chorizo ahumado (lingui

  3. Polyphenolic extracts of cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) and blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) leaves as natural preservatives in meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Agnieszka; Czyzowska, Agata; Efenberger, Magdalena; Krala, Lucjan

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using polyphenolic extracts from cherry and blackcurrant leaves as natural antimicrobial agents in meat products. The polyphenolic composition of the extracts was analyzed and their impact on the microbial quality, lipid oxidation, color, and sensory evaluation of pork sausages was studied. Polyphenolic extracts were obtained from leaves collected in September. The total polyphenolic content in sour cherry leaf extract was 1.5 times higher than that found in blackcurrant leaf extract. Analysis of the polyphenol profile of each extract revealed two major groups: phenolic acids and flavonoids, including epigallocatechin and glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol. After chilling the sausages for 14 and 28 days, the extracts caused significantly lower MDA generation, indicating an antioxidant effect. Color changes after 28 days of storage were perceptible in the case of all treatments, with and without polyphenols. The application of sour cherry and black currant leaf extracts increased the shelf life of vacuum-packed sausages. Both extracts enhanced the microbial quality of the pork sausages over 14 days of refrigerated storage. Sour cherry leaf polyphenols were more effective against almost all studied groups of microorganisms. PMID:27375255

  4. 29 CFR 570.61 - Occupations in the operation of power-driven meat-processing machines and occupations involving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) All occupations involved in the recovery of lard and oils, except packaging and shipping of such... processed. The term also includes establishments which manufacture or process meat products or sausage... manufacture or process meat or poultry products, including sausage or sausage casings from such animals....

  5. 9 CFR 94.2 - Fresh (chilled or frozen) products (other than meat), and milk and milk products of ruminants and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (other than meat), and milk and milk products of ruminants and swine. 94.2 Section 94.2 Animals and... NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE... (other than meat), and milk and milk products of ruminants and swine. (a) The importation of...

  6. Effect of partial replacement of pork meat with an olive oil organogel on the physicochemical and sensory quality of dry-ripened venison sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utrilla, M C; García Ruiz, A; Soriano, A

    2014-08-01

    A venison salchichon was made using varying proportions of olive oil to replace the traditional pork meat and to obtain a healthier product. Six types of salchichon were produced. The control type contained 75% lean venison and 25% pork meat; in the other types, 15%, 25%, 35%, 45% and 55% of the pork meat were replaced by olive oil introduced in the form of an organogel (olive oil emulsified with soy protein and water). All types were satisfactory in terms of physicochemical characteristics (pH, a(w), moisture loss) and instrumental colour throughout ripening, and displayed acceptable levels of lipolysis (acidity index) and lipid oxidation (TBARS). Higher proportions of olive oil prompted an increase in monounsaturated fatty acid content (mainly C18:1). All six types of salchichon were judged acceptable by consumers, the highest scores being given to those in which no more than 25% of the pork meat was replaced by olive oil.

  7. A new cause of spoilage in goose sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacumin, Lucilla; Manzano, Marisa; Panseri, Sara; Chiesa, Luca; Comi, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the microorganisms present and to investigate their metabolites that cause spoilage of many goose sausages produced in Friuli, a northeast region of Italy. The defect was observed by sensorial analysis using the "needle probing" technique; the spoiled sausages were unsafe and not marketable. Despite the addition of starter, the microorganisms, particularly enterococci and Enterobacteriaceae, grew during ripening and produced a large amount of biogenic amines; therefore, these sausages represented a risk to consumers. The production of those compounds was confirmed in vitro. Furthermore, a second cause of spoilage was attributed to moulds that grew during ripening; the fungi grew between the meat and casing, producing a large amount of total volatile nitrogen, and consequently an ammonia smell was present either in the ripening area or in the sausages. This is the first description of this type of defect in goose sausages. PMID:27217359

  8. Growth potential of exponential- and stationary-phase Salmonella Typhimurium during sausage fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Tina; Henriksen, Sidsel; Müller, K.;

    2016-01-01

    Raw meat for sausage production can be contaminated with Salmonella. For technical reasons, meat is often frozen prior to mincing but it is unknown how growth of Salmonella in meat prior to freezing affects its growth potential during sausage fermentation. We investigated survival of exponential......- and stationary-phase Salmonella Typhimurium (DT12 and DTU292) during freezing at − 18 °C and their subsequent growth potential during 72 h sausage fermentation at 25 °C. After 0, 7 and > 35 d of frozen storage, sausage batters were prepared with NaCl (3%) and NaNO2 (0, 100 ppm) and fermented with and without...... starter culture. With no starter culture, both strains grew in both growth phases. In general, a functional starter culture abolished S. Typhimurium growth independent of growth phase and we concluded that ensuring correct fermentation is important for sausage safety. However, despite efficient...

  9. Effects of high voltage electrical stimulation on the rate of pH decline, meat quality and color stability in chilled beef carcasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ehsan Gharib Mombeni; Manoochehr Gharib Mombeini; Lucas Chaves Figueiredo; Debora Testoni Dias

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To determine the effects of high voltage electrical stimulation (HVES, 800 Voltage) on rapid decreases in pH values and improvements in meat quality. Methods:A total of 50 beef carcasses were applied, divided into two groups, one as a control and another for HVES. Meat quality was evaluated based on M. longissimus dorsi by examining pH and temperature levels at 1, 2, 5, 10 and 24 h, while color stability was examined seven days after slaughter. Results:HVES decreased the pH values of the meat and accelerated rigor mortis (P Conclusion:the HVES had positive effects on meat quality and color stability, in contrast to undesirable consumer preferences.

  10. Evaluation of Physicochemical and Microbiological Parameters of Smoked Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Melinda Nagy; Sonia A. Socaci; Maria Tofană; Crina Mureșan; Ana Viorica Pop (Cuceu); Carmen Pop

    2015-01-01

    Meat and meat products continue to supply nutrients and play a vital role in human life because of their high biological value protein, iron, zinc, selenium and vitamin B12 contents, being a crucial component of a well balanced diet. The objective of this paper was to analyse the microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of smoked sausage obtain by a modern recipe. The meat  material was obtained from local butchery (Cluj-Napoca, Romania). The physicochemical analyses highlighted th...

  11. Detection and Genotyping of Leuconostoc spp. in a Sausage Processing Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Frausto, J J; Cepeda-Marquez, L G; Salgado, L M; Iturriaga, M H; Arvizu-Medrano, S M

    2015-12-01

    Some Leuconostoc spp. have the ability to produce slime and undesirable compounds in cooked sausage. The objectives of this research were to identify Leuconostoc sources in a Vienna-type sausage processing plant and to evaluate the genetic diversity of the isolated strains. Three hundred and two samples of sausage batter, sausages during processing, spoiled sausage, equipment surfaces, chilling brine, workers' gloves and aprons, and used casings were collected (March to November 2008 and February to April 2010) from a sausage processing plant. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were quantified, and Leuconostoc were detected using PCR. Strains were isolated and identified in Leuconostoc-positive samples. Leuconostoc strains were genotyped using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. LAB content of nonspoiled and spoiled sausage ranged from sausages showed the same genotype. One L. lactis genotype included strains isolated from spoiled sausages analyzed in April 2008 and March to April 2010. Equipment and conveyor belts constitute Leuconostoc contamination sources. Leuconostoc persistence in the sausage processing environment and in the final product suggests the existence of microbial reservoirs, possibly on equipment surfaces.

  12. Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Pork Sausage during Refrigerated Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wilfred Ruban

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A study to compare the effectiveness of Tapioca Starch (TS and Potato Flour (PF for preparation of pork sausage with 50 per cent lean and 30 per cent low value meat (Head, Heart and Tongue in the ratio of 70:15:15 was carried out. Sausages were prepared with 5 per cent level of PF and 7 per cent of TS and were subjected to physico-chemical characteristics viz., pH, shear force, TBARS and TV to study the keeping quality at refrigerated storage (4±10C for 30 days. Inclusion of 30 per cent low value meat had not much effect compared to full meat sausages. The results revealed that during storage there was a highly significant (P<0.01 decrease in pH, hear force, and increase in TBARS and TV with the increase in storage days in both the treatments. Sausages prepared with 5 per cent PF and 7 per cent TS were acceptable upto 25 days of refrigerated storage (4±10C. Sausages with potato flour had lower values of TBARS and hence considered more acceptable compared to TS incorporated sausages. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 95-97

  13. Effect of heat treatment and packaging systems on the stability of fish sausage

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna Rafaela Dallabona; Laura Beatriz Karam; Roberta Wagner; Dayse Aline Ferreira Silva Bartolomeu; Jorge Daniel Mikos; João Gabriel Phabiano Francisco; Renata Ernlund Freitas de Macedo; Peter Gaberz Kirschnik

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological stability of sausages produced from mechanically separated fish meat (MSM) obtained from Nile tilapia filleting residues. Different heat treatments (pasteurization or smoking) and packaging systems (conventional or vacuum) were used. The sausages were characterized for chemical composition, weight loss, water activity, instrumental texture and sensorial analysis. Additionally, microbiological analysis, instrumen...

  14. Study on preservative effect of antibacterial materials on chilled meat based on response surface methodology%响应面法优化冷鲜肉复合保鲜剂研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵毓芝; 刘成国; 周玄; 龙昊

    2012-01-01

    以猪背最长肌为原料,在单因素实验的基础上,利用响应面分析法,研究了桂皮油、丁香油和茶多酚对冷鲜肉的保鲜效果,确定了冷鲜肉复合保鲜剂中各种组分的最适添加比例,实验结果表明,冷鲜肉中桂皮油、丁香油和茶多酚3种抗菌材料添加量分别为0.11%、0.16%、0.21%。利用此复合保鲜剂应用于肉的保鲜,在贮藏温度为O-4℃时贮藏时间可达17d。%Used the longissimus dorsi of pork as the raw material, based on single factor experiment results, preservation effects of the oil of cinnamon,clove oil ,and tea polyphenols on chilled meat were studied by response surface analysis method ,so that the most appropriate ration of mixed antibacterial material was identified.The result indicated that the optimal portfolio of antibacterial materials of cold fresh meat were:cinnamon oil was 0.11% ,clove oil was 0.16% and tea polyphenols was 0.21%.Using this mixed antibacterial material applied to meat preservation, when the storage temperatures was from 0 to 4℃,the storage time could up to 17d.

  15. Efecto de algunos agentes físicos y químicos sobre el metacéstodo de Taenia solium presente en carne adobada y chorizo Effects of some chemical and physical agents on the metacestode Taenia solium in spicy meat and sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Isabel Rivera-Guerrero

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto de diferentes temperaturas y tiempos, así como de algunos condimentos sobre la viabilidad de metacéstodos de Taenia solium en chorizo y carne adobada. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Este trabajo se llevó a cabo en la Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero, en 1999. En la comunidad de Atzacoaloya, en el municipio de Chilapa de Alvarez, Guerrero, se compró carne de cerdo infectada, con la que se preparó carne adobada y chorizo; sólo se empleó aquélla en la cual se comprobó la viabilidad de los metacéstodos. Los productos obtenidos fueron sometidos a: a temperatura ambiente durante 12 a 100 horas; b temperaturas de -10 a 37 ºC por 24 horas, y c ebullición (97 ºC de 1 a 15 minutos. Para determinar el efecto de los condimentos se prepararon lotes con el doble de ingredientes de cada uno. Todas las evaluaciones se realizaron y evaluaron con tres repeticiones. Se establecieron diferencias de proporciones mediante c². RESULTADOS: A temperatura ambiente la menor evaginación fue a las 100 horas para ambos productos (pOBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of different cooking times and temperatures, as well as of some seasonings, on the viability of Taenia solium metacestodes in spicy meat and hot sausage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was conducted by the Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero (Guerrero State Autonomous University, Mexico in 1999. Infected pork meat was bought in the community of Azacoaloya, in the municipality of Chilapa de Alvarez, Guerrero State. It was used to prepare spicy meat (adobada and hot sausage (chorizo. Only the meat in which metacestode viability was proven was used. The products obtained underwent a room temperature for 12 to 100 hours; b temperatures of -10 to 37ºC for 24 hours; c boiling (97ºC from 1 to 15 minutes. To determine the effect of the seasonings, batches were prepared using twice the amount of a specific seasoning. Trials were done and assessed three times. Proportion differences were

  16. 酸性电解水结合冰温对冷却肉保鲜的影响%Effect of Acid Electrolyzed Oxidizing Water Combined with Controlled Freezing-point Storage on Chilled Meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建雄; 谢晶; 潘迎捷; 刘丽媛; 杨胜平

    2011-01-01

    The effect of acid electrolyzed oxidizing waters (EOA) under different electrolyzed time combined with controlled freezing-point storage on chilled meat was studied. By determining physicochemical parameters such as, pH, total plate count, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), drip loss, a* value and sensory evaluation, the qualities of chilled meat under different treatments were compared. The results showed that pH was influenced by EOA, EOA 5 min, EOA 10 min and EOA 15 min all sterilized ef-fectively and there was no significant difference among them, EOA kept TVB-N values at low level, samples processed by EOA 5 min and EOA 10 min had more drip loss than those processed by EOA 15 min after 15 days, the color of samples treated with EOA was impervious, and no effect on sensory significantly.%在冰温保鲜基础上,比较不同电解时间的酸性电解水对冷却肉保鲜的影响.通过测定pH值、菌落总数、挥发性盐基氮、汁液流失率和色差a*值,同时进行感官评定得出:电解水会影响冷却肉pH变化,电解时间为5,10,15 min的电解水均能有效杀灭微生物,且三者杀菌效果并无显著差异,能有效维持挥发性盐基氮含量在较低水平,电解5,10 min的电解水处理样品在15d后比用电解15 min的水处理样品有更大的汁液流失率,电解水对冷却肉的色泽不会产生不良影响,且不会影响整体感官品质.

  17. Optimization on processing of low-temperature drying of chilled meat by uniform design method%均匀设计法优化冷鲜肉低温干燥工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵惠麟; 周林

    2014-01-01

    The low-temperature food drying equipment was running at 0-10℃ to simulate the win-ter climate. The chilled meat with little salt and without food additives was dried. Through single factor ex-periment and uniform design method, the optimal processing technology was optimized. The quality differ-ences of product processed by low-temperature drying, natural drying and hot air drying was compared and analyzed. The result showed that the optimal low-temperature drying technology of chilled meat was 60% humidity, dried 72h at 5℃. The quality of product reached the best state with neat appearance, fresh color, cured flavor, smooth taste and modest hardness and the moisture content was 60. 2%. The product processed by low-temperature drying technology had significant advantages compared with natural drying and hot air drying.%利用低温食品干燥机在0~10℃运行,全年模拟冬季气候,用于低盐化无添加风干冷鲜肉,采用单因素实验法和均匀设计法优化了冷鲜肉低温干燥的最佳工艺,并对比分析了低温干燥与自然晾晒及热风干燥两种干燥方式的产品品质差异。结果表明:冷鲜肉的最佳低温干燥工艺为:5℃、60%湿度、干燥72h;产品外观整齐、色泽鲜嫩、腊味浓郁,含水率为60.2%,口感爽滑软硬适中,产品品质达到最佳状态;低温干燥与自然晾晒及热风干燥两种干燥方式相比,低温干燥产品品质优势明显。

  18. Dry fermented buffalo sausage with sage oil extract: Safety and quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu Salem, F. M.; Ibrahim, H. M.

    2010-07-01

    Sage oil extract was added during the preparation of dry fermented buffalo meat sausage. Some chemical, microbial and sensory characteristics of sausages were evaluated during the ripening period. In particular, ph, lipid oxidation, biogenic amines and micro flora were analyzed. Results of this study pointed out that sage oil extract as natural antioxidant could be utilized in dry fermented sausage, prepared from buffalo meat, in order to obtain a final product within acceptable lipid oxidation and biogenic amine levels, as well as improved sensory quality. (Author) 56 refs.

  19. The effect of kefir starter on Thai fermented sausage product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Jatupornpipat

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of kefir starter from Wilderness Family Naturals Company on the initial formulation of Thai fermented sausage were evaluated. The differences found among batches in the main microbial populations and pH were not significant. Only, the total acid of batch D (added the kefir starter 15 ml was significantly higher (P0.05. It is concluded that the addition of kefir starter (7 ml could be useful to improve the final quality of Thai fermented sausages. The addition of kefir starter that initiates rapid acidification of the raw meat and that leads to a desirable sensory quality of the end-product are used for the production of fermented sausages, and represents a way of improving and optimizing the sausage fermentation process and achieving tastier, safer, and healthier products.

  20. Standard working procedures in production of traditionally fermented Sremska sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesković-Moračanin Slavica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations conducted within project "Techonological and protective characteristics of autochthonous strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional fermented sausages and possibilities for their implementation in the meat industry" (Project Number: 20127, financed on behalf of the Ministry for Science and Technology of the Republic of Serbia, have provided an answer on the characteristics of the quality of the used raw materials for the production of Sremska sausage - one of the most well-known Serbian traditionally fermented sausages (choice of meat, fatty tissue, additives and spices, and data have been registered in connection with the procedures of their processing, microclimatic conditions have been established (temperature, relative humidity, and air circulation during the entire process of production and fermentation, as well as the presence and types of microorganisms, primarily lactic acid bacteria (BMK, the carrier of lactic fermentation. The most important characteristics of the filling have been established, the smoking regimen, the regimens of fermentation, maturing, drying, as well as the parameters for quality and safety of the finished product. At the same time, the standard working procedure has been determined for the preparation of the meat, fatty tissue, the forming and inserting of the filling into the wrappers, as well as the characteristics of the finished products. The given standard working procedure should serve as a guideline for the meat industry in the production process of this traditional fermented sausage.

  1. Effect of concentration of O2 concentration in packaging on the growth of microorganism from chilled meat%包装内O2对冷却肉微生物生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雯钰; 卢立新; 唐亚丽; 刘志刚

    2013-01-01

    研究了气调包装内不同初始氧浓度对冷却肉微生物生长的影响.来自冷却猪肉的混合微生物群接种于液体培养基中,经不同O2浓度的无CO2气调包装后于3℃下贮藏,测定其中假单胞菌属、肠杆菌科及乳酸菌的生长变化,同时测定样品中菌落总数的变化规律.采用Baranyi模型拟合微生物生长变化数据得到相关动力学参数.结果表明:包装内初始O2浓度在11.0% ~79.0%范围内变化时,3种特征微生物生长及菌落总数的变化均不受影响;0.3%~11.0%范围内,初始氧浓度的降低可不同程度上抑制假单胞菌属、肠杆菌科及乳酸菌的生长,且浓度越低,抑制作用越强;同时,低氧浓度也能有效抑制混合菌群菌落总数增长.%The effect of different initial concentrations of O2 in modified atmosphere packaging on the growth of microorganism from chilled meat was investigated.The mixed strains from chilled pork were inoculated into the liquid medium which were packaged with different concentrations of O2.The samples were stored at 3 ℃ and the number of Pseudomonas,Enterobacteriaceae,Lactic acid bacteria and total number colonies were collected at different time during the storage.The results demonstrated that the initial concentration of O2 showed little influence on these microorganism when it was changed from 11.0% to 79.0%.And the low concentration of O2(0.3% ~ 11.0%) could effectively curbed the growth of the microorganism,the lower the concentration the heavier the inhibition.The order of the inhibition effect from the strongest to the weakest was total number colonies,E.coli,Lactic acid bacteria and Pseudomonas.

  2. EVALUATION OF THE SHELF LIFE AND MICROBIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN A CHILLED READY TO EAT MEAT PRODUCT: THE “VITEL TONNÈ”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cereser

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the recent “Hygiene Package” it is the responsibility of Food Business Operator to validate foods’ shelf-life, also considering normal storage and use conditions. The aim of this research was to define the shelf-life of a refrigerated ready-to-eat meat product: the vitel tonnè. 175 samples taken from a producer were stored at 2 different temperatures: +3°C (as declared in label and +8±1°C (in order to simulate the thermal abuses during transport and domestic storage and analyzed at different intervals for microbiological parameters as TVC at 30°C, Lactic Acid Bacteria, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Sulphate-Reducing Clostridia, B. cereus, Coagulase-positive Staphylococci, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp Preliminary results show that temperature abuse shorten shelf-life significantly, mainly for the parameters TVC and LAB.

  3. CFX Analysis of the Heat and Mass Transfer During the Chilling of a Lamb Carcass using a 3D Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hannon, Joseph; Keane, Garrett; O'Flaherty, Micheal

    2013-01-01

    Lamb meat is a popular red meat which must go through a complex refrigeration process before being served at the dinner table to reduce bacterial growth and retain meat quality. A major disadvantage of chilling is the drip losses which are losses in weight by evaporation of water contained within the meat. The aim of this work is to simulate the conventional chilling process of a lamb carcass using a three dimensional model.

  4. Human risk from thermotolerant Campylobacter on broiler meat in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Nauta, Maarten; Ribeiro Duarte, Ana Sofia;

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. on Danish produced and imported chilled and frozen broiler meat were the basis for the investigation. The aim was to explore if the risk from the different meat categories had changed over time as a consequence of implemented intervention strategies. The results showed a slight decrease from...... 2005 to 2008 in the human risk from Danish produced broiler meat, and a decrease from 2005 to 2010 in the risk from imported chilled meat. This risk reduction coincides with control measures implemented to reduce Campylobacter in Danish and imported chilled broiler meat. The human risk...... providing the most relevant outcome for food safety risk managers....

  5. Specificities of the polish meat secto

    OpenAIRE

    Krystyna Rejman; Ewa Halicka; Barbara Kowrygo

    2001-01-01

    The meat sector in Poland is very fragmented, with low level of horizontal integration, high cost of breeding and relative low quality (high fat content). It indicates a severe decline in beef consumption, accompanied by a dynamic growth in poultry and stabilization in pork consumption. The main exported processed meat product is sausage, poultry (Russia), geese (EU) and turkeys.

  6. Growth potential of exponential- and stationary-phase Salmonella Typhimurium during sausage fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, T; Henriksen, S; Müller, K; Hansen, T B; Aabo, S

    2016-11-01

    Raw meat for sausage production can be contaminated with Salmonella. For technical reasons, meat is often frozen prior to mincing but it is unknown how growth of Salmonella in meat prior to freezing affects its growth potential during sausage fermentation. We investigated survival of exponential- and stationary-phase Salmonella Typhimurium (DT12 and DTU292) during freezing at -18°C and their subsequent growth potential during 72h sausage fermentation at 25°C. After 0, 7 and >35d of frozen storage, sausage batters were prepared with NaCl (3%) and NaNO2 (0, 100ppm) and fermented with and without starter culture. With no starter culture, both strains grew in both growth phases. In general, a functional starter culture abolished S. Typhimurium growth independent of growth phase and we concluded that ensuring correct fermentation is important for sausage safety. However, despite efficient fermentation, sporadic growth of exponential-phase cells of S. Typhimurium was observed drawing attention to the handling and storage of sausage meat.

  7. A fermented meat model system for studies of microbial aroma formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjener, Karsten; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Andersen, L.;

    2003-01-01

    A fermented meat model system was developed, by which microbial formation of volatiles could be examined The model was evaluated against dry, fermented sausages with respect to microbial growth, pH and volatile profiles. Fast and slowly acidified sausages and models were produced using the starter...... for multivariate data analysis. Growth of lactic acid bacteria was comparable for model and sausages, whereas survival of S. xylosus was better in the model. Multivariate analysis of volatiles showed that differences between fast and slowly acidified samples were identical for model and sausage. For both sausage......H, microbial growth and volatile profiles was similar to sausage production. Based on these findings, the model system was considered valid for studies of aroma formation of meat cultures for fermented sausage....

  8. Evaluation of Physicochemical and Microbiological Parameters of Smoked Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Nagy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Meat and meat products continue to supply nutrients and play a vital role in human life because of their high biological value protein, iron, zinc, selenium and vitamin B12 contents, being a crucial component of a well balanced diet. The objective of this paper was to analyse the microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of smoked sausage obtain by a modern recipe. The meat  material was obtained from local butchery (Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The physicochemical analyses highlighted the moisture (Drying-oven at 105 ºC, protein (Kjeldahl method and fat (Soxhlet method content, as well as nitrite (Griess method and sodium chloride concentrations (Mohr method of the final products. Microbiological and physicochemical analysis of the examined samples found no deviations from legal norms imposed for smoked sausage.  All of the quality parameters comply with the limits stipulated by STAS. 

  9. Listeria monocytogenes efficiently invades caco-2 cells after low-temperature storage in broth and on deli meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Koch, Anette Granly; Ingmer, Hanne

    2010-01-01

    infusion broth (BHI) with and without salt. Five strains of L. monocytogenes were selected to investigate their invasiveness and all strains invaded Caco-2 cells at higher levels than INT-407 cells. Further, the clinical strains (3443 and 3734) were more invasive (p ... to invade Caco-2 cells was compared after growth on a fermented sausage and on cured cooked ham to that of bacteria grown in BHI broth supplemented with salt. Samples were stored under chilling conditions for up to 4 weeks. The results showed no difference (p > 0.05) in invasiveness after 7 days at 10......The objective of this study was to investigate how various growth conditions influence the virulence of Listeria monocytogenes monitored by its ability to invade the epithelial cell lines Caco-2 and INT-407. The growth conditions examined were modified atmosphere-packaged deli meat and brain heart...

  10. Antioxidant potential of a unique LAB culture isolated from Harbin dry sausage: In vitro and in a sausage model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Kong, Baohua; Sun, Qinxiu; Dong, Fujia; Liu, Qian

    2015-12-01

    The lactic acid bacteria Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus brevis, and Lactobacillus fermentum isolated from Harbin dry sausage were evaluated for their potential antioxidant activity. The in vitro results showed that P. pentosaceus had the strongest H2O2 resistance, radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (Psausage significantly decreased the quantities of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance and carbonyl formation, while it also reduced the sulfhydryl loss in sausages (Psausage (P<0.05). These results demonstrate that P. pentosaceus has the potential to be employed as an antioxidant starter culture in fermented meat products.

  11. Detection and Genotyping of Leuconostoc spp. in a Sausage Processing Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Frausto, J J; Cepeda-Marquez, L G; Salgado, L M; Iturriaga, M H; Arvizu-Medrano, S M

    2015-12-01

    Some Leuconostoc spp. have the ability to produce slime and undesirable compounds in cooked sausage. The objectives of this research were to identify Leuconostoc sources in a Vienna-type sausage processing plant and to evaluate the genetic diversity of the isolated strains. Three hundred and two samples of sausage batter, sausages during processing, spoiled sausage, equipment surfaces, chilling brine, workers' gloves and aprons, and used casings were collected (March to November 2008 and February to April 2010) from a sausage processing plant. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were quantified, and Leuconostoc were detected using PCR. Strains were isolated and identified in Leuconostoc-positive samples. Leuconostoc strains were genotyped using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. LAB content of nonspoiled and spoiled sausage ranged from <0.8 to 4.4 log CFU/g and from 4.9 to 8.3 log CFU/g, respectively. LAB levels on equipment surfaces ranged from <1.3 to 4.8 log CFU/100 cm(2). Leuconostoc was detected in 35% of the samples, and 88 Leuconostoc spp. strains were isolated and genotyped. The main Leuconostoc spp. isolated were L. mesenteroides (37 genotypes), L. fallax (29 genotypes), and L. lactis (6 genotypes). Some strains of Leuconostoc isolated from equipment surfaces and sausages showed the same genotype. One L. lactis genotype included strains isolated from spoiled sausages analyzed in April 2008 and March to April 2010. Equipment and conveyor belts constitute Leuconostoc contamination sources. Leuconostoc persistence in the sausage processing environment and in the final product suggests the existence of microbial reservoirs, possibly on equipment surfaces. PMID:26613911

  12. Production control system specified quality sausage products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tokarev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of management of production target in technological system of production of sausages of the set quality is considered in article. Decomposition of technological system is considered. Functions of management are allocated: formation of an optimum compounding of forcemeat, expert analysis of a compounding, laboratory analysis of a compounding and its statement. Information technology of interaction of these functions is offered. The mathematical problem definition of finding of an optimum compounding meat product with use of possible substitutes of ingredients is presented. This mathematical problem is a classical linear programming problem whose solution has the standard program. Since the manufacture of the finished product are various nonlinear effects are taken into account at the present time it is practically impossible, the methodology provided in this operation "Expert analysis of the formulation" and "Laboratory analysis of the finished product." An example of calculating the optimum alternative base recipe "Sausages “Viennese with cheese”" TS 9213-010-40155161-2002. For an alternative formulation demands were made at a cost of meat, the ingredient composition, as well as the final product organoleptic and physic-chemical indicators should comply with regulatory requirements "Sausages “Viennese with cheese”" TS 9213-010-40155161-2002. Indicator acid activity (pH calculated stuffing formulation should be in the range 6.0-6.3. As a partial replacement for the main raw material have been proposed acceptable substitutes. It was necessary to calculate on the basis of the formulation "Sausages “Viennese with cheese”" TS 9213-010-40155161-2002 optimal price and quality alternative formulation. As a result of depreciation of the value of alternative stuffing recipe was 14,5 % when all of the restrictions on the consumer properties. The proposed information technology implemented in the software package "MultiMeat

  13. Effects of Different Spices Used in Production of Fermented Sausages on Growth of and Curvacin A Production by Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174

    OpenAIRE

    Verluyten, Jurgen; Leroy, Frédéric; De Vuyst, Luc

    2004-01-01

    Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174, a fermented sausage isolate, produces the listericidal bacteriocin curvacin A. The effect of different spices relevant for the production of fermented sausages was investigated in vitro through laboratory fermentations with a meat simulation medium and an imposed pH profile relevant for Belgian-type fermented sausages. The influence on the growth characteristics and especially on the kinetics of curvacin A production with L. curvatus LTH 1174 was evaluated. Pe...

  14. Sensory evaluation of dry-fermented sausage containing ground deodorized yellow mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuliu; Aliani, Michel; Holley, Richard A

    2013-10-01

    Ground deodorized yellow mustard is used as a binder and meat protein substitute in cooked processed meat products. Recent studies have shown that it has the potential to be used in uncooked processed meat products because of its natural antimicrobial properties. In the present study, ground deodorized yellow mustard was added to uncooked dry-fermented sausage during manufacture at 1% to 4% (w/w) and analyzed for its effects on starter cultures, physico-chemical properties, and consumer acceptability. Mustard had a nondose-dependent inhibitory effect on the Staphylococcus starter culture, had no effect on water activity or instrumental texture, and tended to accelerate sausage pH reduction. At 3% and 4% mustard, consumer scores on all sensory attributes as well as overall acceptability were significantly lower. The appearance and color of 3% and 4% mustard-treated sausages were liked slightly, whereas flavor, texture, and overall acceptability scores were reduced. The control without mustard and 1% mustard-treated sausages had similar sensory properties and were the most acceptable, while 2% mustard-treated sausages were given "like moderately" and "like slightly" descriptors. Sensory results mean that at concentrations necessary for mandated regulatory control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in dry sausages, mustard may have a negative effect on consumer acceptance. PMID:24025044

  15. Sensory evaluation of dry-fermented sausage containing ground deodorized yellow mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuliu; Aliani, Michel; Holley, Richard A

    2013-10-01

    Ground deodorized yellow mustard is used as a binder and meat protein substitute in cooked processed meat products. Recent studies have shown that it has the potential to be used in uncooked processed meat products because of its natural antimicrobial properties. In the present study, ground deodorized yellow mustard was added to uncooked dry-fermented sausage during manufacture at 1% to 4% (w/w) and analyzed for its effects on starter cultures, physico-chemical properties, and consumer acceptability. Mustard had a nondose-dependent inhibitory effect on the Staphylococcus starter culture, had no effect on water activity or instrumental texture, and tended to accelerate sausage pH reduction. At 3% and 4% mustard, consumer scores on all sensory attributes as well as overall acceptability were significantly lower. The appearance and color of 3% and 4% mustard-treated sausages were liked slightly, whereas flavor, texture, and overall acceptability scores were reduced. The control without mustard and 1% mustard-treated sausages had similar sensory properties and were the most acceptable, while 2% mustard-treated sausages were given "like moderately" and "like slightly" descriptors. Sensory results mean that at concentrations necessary for mandated regulatory control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in dry sausages, mustard may have a negative effect on consumer acceptance.

  16. Effect of d-allulose on rheological properties of chicken breast sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadipernata, M; Ogawa, M; Hayakawa, S

    2016-09-01

    d-Allulose (Alu), a rare sugar, was applied to chicken breast sausage as a sucrose (Suc) substitute. The ratio (w/w) of Alu to Suc in sugar that was added to the sausage batter was 0/1 (A0S1), 3/7 (A3S7), 7/3 (A7S3), and 1/0 (A1S0). The total amount of Suc used was 2.5% of the weight of minced chicken breast meat. Substituting Suc with Alu did not affect water content, cooking loss, breaking stress, breaking strain, and modulus of elasticity of chicken breast sausage, but a 100% substitution with Alu caused a 10% decrease in viscosity and a 31% decrease in expressible water. A significant difference appeared in the rheological properties of elasticity, viscosity, and water-holding capacity of chicken breast sausage frozen-stored (-20°C) for 90 d. Particularly, the modulus of elasticity for A1S0 chicken breast sausage was 19% higher than that of the control A0S1 chicken breast sausage, suggesting that Alu appreciably reduced the deterioration in elasticity that is caused by long-term frozen storage of sausage. The quality improvement of frozen-stored chicken breast sausage demonstrates the feasibility and benefits of the application of Alu to frozen foods.

  17. Chilled beam application guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, David; Gräslund, Jonas; Hogeling, Jaap; Lund Kristiansen, Erik; Reinikanen, Mika; Svensson, Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    Chilled beam systems are primarily used for cooling and ventilation in spaces, which appreciate good indoor environmental quality and individual space control. Active chilled beams are connected to the ventilation ductwork, high temperature cold water, and when desired, low temperature hot water system. Primary air supply induces room air to be recirculated through the heat exchanger of the chilled beam. In order to cool or heat the room either cold or warm water is cycled through the heat exchanger.

  18. The Curing Agent Sodium Nitrite, Used in the Production of Fermented Sausages, Is Less Inhibiting to the Bacteriocin-Producing Meat Starter Culture Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174 under Anaerobic Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Verluyten, Jurgen; Messens, Winy; De Vuyst, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Curvacin A is a listericidal bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174, a strain isolated from fermented sausage. The response of this strain to an added curing agent (sodium nitrite) in terms of cell growth and bacteriocin production was investigated in vitro by laboratory fermentations with modified MRS broth. The strain was highly sensitive to nitrite; even a concentration of 10 ppm of curing agent inhibited its growth and both volumetric and specific bacteriocin production. ...

  19. The influence of Lactobacillus paracasei LPC-37 on selected properties of fermented sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Mati

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fermented sausages rank among non-heat-treated meat products. Their nutritional properties are similar to the raw material, simultaneously their microbial safety and stability is ensured using additives and specific microbial cultures. The use of probiotic cultures can positively affect the processing of fermented sausages, resulting in the new technological properties and beneficial effect on human health. However, commercial application of probiotic microorganisms in fermented sausages is not common yet. Lactobacillus paracasei LPC-37 is a gram-positive, non-spore forming, homofermentative rod, which according to studies may modulate immune responses in human organism and survives the passage through the gastrointestinal tract. The main object of this work was to evaluate technological properties of L. paracasei LPC-37, which have not been fully examined. Two groups of fermented sausages were analysed in this work. The first group of fermented sausages was prepared using lyophilized starter culture (Lyocarni RHM-33. The second group of fermented sausages was prepared by the combination of lyophilized starter culture and potential probiotic culture Lactobacillus paracasei LPC-37. The processing and ripening of sausages were carried out in meat processing plant to simulate real conditions of production. The changes of the products (water activity, pH, concentration of organic acids and microbial growth were evaluated during ripening (3 weeks, while sensory analysis was carried out in the final stage of the process and during storage (3 weeks. It was found that the environment of raw-fermented sausages is suitable for the growth and survival of Lactobacillus paracasei LPC-37 and the microbiological quality of the final product was very good (absence of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes. The counts of lactobacilli reached 107 CFU/g of the product, which meet the requirements for functional foods. The results of the sensory evaluation showed

  20. Biotechnology of Flavor Generation in Fermented Meats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toldrá, Fidel

    Traditionally, meat fermentation was based on the use of natural flora, including the “back-slopping”, or addition of a previous successful fermented sausage. However, these practices gave a great variability in the developed flora and affected the safety and quality of the sausages (Toldrá, 2002; Toldrá & Flores, 2007). The natural flora of fermented meat has been studied for many years (Leistner, 1992; Toldrá, 2006a), and more recently, these micro-organisms have been isolated and biochemically identified through molecular methods applied to extracted DNA and RNA (Cocolin, Manzano, Aggio, Cantoni, & Comi, 2001; Cocolin, Manzano, Cantoni, & Comi, 2001; Comi, Urso, Lacumin, Rantsiou, Cattaneo & Cantoni, 2005).

  1. Chilling Tendency and Chill of Cast Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. Fra(s); M. Górny; W. Kapturkiewicz; H. López

    2008-01-01

    An analytical expression is presented for the susceptibility of liquid cast iron to solidify according tothe Fe-C-X metastable system (also known as the chilling tendency of cast iron, CT). The analysis incorpo-rates the nucleation and growth processes associated with the eutectic transformation. The CT is related tothe physicochemical state of the liquid, the eutectic cells in the flake graphite, and the number of nodules innodular cast iron. In particular, the CT can be related to the critical wall thickness, Scr, or the chill width, Wcr,in wedge shaped castings. Finally, this work serves as a guide for understanding the effect of technical fac-tors such as the melt chemistry, the spheroidizing and inoculation practice, and the holding time and tam-perature on the resultant CT and chill of the cast iron. Theoretical calculations of Scr and Wcr compare wellwith experimental data for flake graphite and nodular cast iron.

  2. Sensory characteristics of European, dried, fermented sausages and the correlation to volatile profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller; Sunesen, Lars Oddershede; De Smedt, Anny

    1999-01-01

    In the European FAIR-project: Control of Bioflavour and Safety in Northern and Mediterranean Fermented Meat Products (FAIR-CT97-3227) four different sausage types were manufactured in five replicates and characterised by sensory and analytical means. The objective of the present study was to char......In the European FAIR-project: Control of Bioflavour and Safety in Northern and Mediterranean Fermented Meat Products (FAIR-CT97-3227) four different sausage types were manufactured in five replicates and characterised by sensory and analytical means. The objective of the present study...... was to characterise the flavour pattern of the FAIR sausages with regards to sensory perceived compounds and volatile/sensory profiles. According to gas chromatography-olfactometry the greatest differences between the Northern and Mediterranean sausages were attributed to coffee/roasted, phenolic and vinegar odours...... in the smoked sausages and a popcorn note in the Mediterranean products covered with mould. The compounds were 2-furfurylthiol, guaiacol, acetic acid and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, respectively. Sausages added garlic contained two specific odours with salami/onion-like notes. The odours were attributed...

  3. The effect of kimchi on the microbiological stability of fermented sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Seo; Lee, Joo-Yeon

    2012-12-01

    The effects of kimchi and freeze-dried kimchi-powder added to raw meat mixtures on the microbiological quality of fermented sausage were studied. The results clearly demonstrated that the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) integrated via the addition of kimchi as well as kimchi-powder were well adapted to the new habitat of fermenting sausage, reaching maximum numbers of 8.65-8.80 log₁₀ cfu/g after 1-2 days of fermentation. In all kimchi and kimchi-powder sausages, the growth of Enterobacteriaceae was completely inhibited throughout the processing period (sausage batches containing more than 10% kimchi and 2% kimchi-powder showed no growth of S. aureus, whereas the control and another kimchi sausage batch reflected the growth of S. aureus (3.68-4.72 log₁₀ cfu/g). As a result, the addition of kimchi (≥10%) and kimchi-powder to the sausage mixture prior to fermentation produced the microbiological stability required for fermented sausages.

  4. The chemical and sensory qualities of smoked blood sausage made with the edible by-products of goat slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F A P; Amaral, D S; Guerra, I C D; Dalmás, P S; Arcanjo, N M O; Bezerra, T K A; Beltrão Filho, E M; Moreira, R T; Madruga, M S

    2013-05-01

    The aim was to evaluate smoked blood sausage prepared using goat blood (50%), viscera (10%) and meat fragments (20%). Microbiological, chemical and sensory evaluations were conducted. The quality analyses showed that smoked goat blood sausage is rich in high biological value proteins, amino acids, essential fatty acids, and iron (26.65mg/100g). The smoked goat blood sausage was rated to have a sensory acceptance of greater than 80%. The use of edible by-products from the slaughter of goats in the formulation of smoked blood sausage is viable because it uses low-cost raw materials; furthermore, the utilisation of these by-products can generate income for producers, allowing them to offer a meat product of high nutritional and sensory quality.

  5. Features of Lactobacillus sakei isolated from Italian sausages: focus on strains from Ventricina del Vastese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Amadoro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study bacterial isolates from Ventricina del Vastese sausage, previously identified as Lactobacillus (L. sakei, were characterised genotypically, physiologically and on the basis of some technologically relevant traits. A total of 70 L. sakei isolates from sausages manufactured with spontaneous fermentation in the same producing plant were taken into account. Six genotypic groups were distinguished on the basis of Rep-polymerase chain reaction with the GTG5 primer, some of which were found only in the sausages ripened at temperatures lower than 10°C for the first two months and lower than 16°C for the remaining three months, according to the traditional ripening process. Six strains were selected as representative of the genotypic profiles and further characterised. A high diversity in their fermentation profiles was observed, and different groups were separated on the basis of growth and acidifying capacity in meat extract. None of the strains produced histamine or tyramine in vitro. One strain was able to slightly inhibit Listeria (L. monocytogenes and L. innocua and all six strains were able to slightly inhibit Enterobacteriaceae isolated from Ventricina del Vastese sausages in vitro. Results showed that most L. sakei strains can have a role in improving the safety of low acidity fermented sausages, even though a limited acidifying capacity was observed in a meat-like substrate, and that L. sakei strains able to produce biogenic amines are unlikely to occur in spontaneously fermented meat products.

  6. Effect of Flavourzyme on proteolysis, antioxidant capacity and sensory attributes of Chinese sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Li; Qiao, Yan; Zou, Yufeng; Huang, Ming; Kang, Zhuangli; Zhou, Guanghong

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Flavourzyme, at levels of 0 (control) 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 LAPU/kg raw meat, on the proteolysis, antioxidant capacity and sensory attributes of Chinese sausage made at 50 °C for 48 h. Results showed that Flavourzyme addition in Chinese sausage accelerated protein degradation, which was reflected by the increase of non-protein nitrogen and appearance of new protein bands in both water-soluble and salt-soluble proteins. By adding Flavourzyme, texture profile analysis (TPA) parameters decreased significantly, and aroma, taste and texture scores were enhanced, respectively. The best sensory attributes were obtained at 8 and 12 LAPU/kg Flavourzyme dose. Besides, Flavourzyme addition enhanced antioxidant capacity, lowered water activity and TBARS values of Chinese sausage. Therefore, moderate Flavourzyme addition is a novel method with great potential to improve eating properties and storage stability of Chinese sausage.

  7. Use of acid whey and mustard seed to replace nitrites during cooked sausage production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójciak, Karolina M; Karwowska, Małgorzata; Dolatowski, Zbigniew J

    2014-02-01

    The aim was to determine the effects of sea salt, acid whey, native and autoclaved mustard seed on the physico-chemical properties, especially colour formation, microbial stability and sensory evaluation of non-nitrite cooked sausage during chilling storage. The cooked pork sausages were divided into 4 groups (group I--control sausages with curing salt (2.8%) and water (5%) added; group II--sausages with sea salt (2.8%) and acid whey (5%) added; group III--sausages with sea salt (2.8%), acid whey (5%) and mustard seed (1%) added; group IV--sausages with sea salt (2.8%), acid whey (5%) and autoclaved mustard seed (1%) added). Instrumental colour (L*, a*, b*), oxygenation index (ΔR), 650/570 nm ratio, heme iron, pH value and water activity (aw) were determined 1 day after production and after 10, 20 and 30 days of refrigerated storage (4 °C). Sensory analysis was conducted immediately after production (day 1). Microbial analysis (lactic acid bacteria, total viable count, Clostridium spp.) was determinated at the end of storage (30 days). The autoclaved mustard with acid whey can be used at 1.0% (w/w) of model cooked sausages with beneficial effect on physico-chemical and sensory qualities of no-nitrite sausage. This product can be stored at refrigeration temperature for up to 30 days, in vacuum, with good acceptability. The colour, visual appearance and overall quality of samples with autoclaved mustard seed and acid whey were similar to the control with curing agent.

  8. Image analysis with the computer vision system and the consumer test in evaluating the appearance of Lucanian dry sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolami, Antonio; Napolitano, Fabio; Faraone, Daniela; Di Bello, Gerardo; Braghieri, Ada

    2014-01-01

    The object of the investigation was the Lucanian dry sausage appearance, meant as color and visible fat ratio. The study was carried out on dry sausages produced in 10 different salami factories and seasoned for 18 days on average. We studied the effect of the raw material origin (5 producers used meat bought from the market and other 5 producers used meat from pigs bred in their farms) and of the salami factories or brands on meat color, fat color and visible fat ratio in dry sausages. The sausages slices were photographed and the images were analysed with the computer vision system to measure the changes in the colorimetric characteristics L*, a*, b*, hue and chroma and in the visible fat area ratio. The last parameter was assessed on the slice surface using image binarization. A consumer test was conducted to determine the relationship between the perception of visible fat on the sausage slice surface and acceptability and preference of this product. The consumers were asked to look carefully at the 6 sausages slices in a photo, minding the presence of fat, and to identify (a) the slices they considered unacceptable for consumption and (b) the slice they preferred. The results show that the color of the sausage lean part varies in relation to the raw material employed and to the producer or brand (Pcolor is not uniform in some salami factories (Pcolor. The visible fat ratio of the sausages slices is higher (P<0.001) in the product from salami factories without pig-breeding farm. The fat percentage is highly variable (P<0.001) among the sausages of each salami factory. On the whole, the product the consumers consider acceptable and is inclined to eat has a low fat percentage (P<0.001). Our consumers (about 70%) prefer slices which are leaner (P<0.001). Women, in particular, show a higher preference for the leanest (P<0.001). PMID:24041911

  9. Image analysis with the computer vision system and the consumer test in evaluating the appearance of Lucanian dry sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolami, Antonio; Napolitano, Fabio; Faraone, Daniela; Di Bello, Gerardo; Braghieri, Ada

    2014-01-01

    The object of the investigation was the Lucanian dry sausage appearance, meant as color and visible fat ratio. The study was carried out on dry sausages produced in 10 different salami factories and seasoned for 18 days on average. We studied the effect of the raw material origin (5 producers used meat bought from the market and other 5 producers used meat from pigs bred in their farms) and of the salami factories or brands on meat color, fat color and visible fat ratio in dry sausages. The sausages slices were photographed and the images were analysed with the computer vision system to measure the changes in the colorimetric characteristics L*, a*, b*, hue and chroma and in the visible fat area ratio. The last parameter was assessed on the slice surface using image binarization. A consumer test was conducted to determine the relationship between the perception of visible fat on the sausage slice surface and acceptability and preference of this product. The consumers were asked to look carefully at the 6 sausages slices in a photo, minding the presence of fat, and to identify (a) the slices they considered unacceptable for consumption and (b) the slice they preferred. The results show that the color of the sausage lean part varies in relation to the raw material employed and to the producer or brand (Psausage meat color is not uniform in some salami factories (Psausages show a high uniformity in fat color. The visible fat ratio of the sausages slices is higher (Psausages of each salami factory. On the whole, the product the consumers consider acceptable and is inclined to eat has a low fat percentage (P<0.001). Our consumers (about 70%) prefer slices which are leaner (P<0.001). Women, in particular, show a higher preference for the leanest (P<0.001).

  10. Processing technique of Tai-wan roast sausage%台湾烤肠加工工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝慧敏

    2011-01-01

    The processing technology and technological requirements of Tai-wan roast sausage are stressed,including selecting material,formula,chopping meat,mixing up ingredient,making sausage,boiling,and package sausage,until to the finish product,and through which%主要介绍了台湾烤香肠的加工工艺及技术要点,包括选料、配料、制馅、拌馅、灌制、煮制、包装到成品等过程。

  11. EXAMINATION OF THE CERTAIN CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF BOILED SAUSAGES PRODUCED IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Kurćubić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of our study were to examine certain chemical quality parameters in samples of various subgroups of boiled sausages and compare obtained values with reference values (Rule book on the quality of minced meat, semi-finished meat and meat products, Official Gazette of RS, no. 31/2012. We used two reference chemical methods: determination of nitrogen and phosphorus content (SRPS ISO 937:1992, SRPS ISO 13730:1999. For determination of hydroxyproline we used M 050 “in house” modified method. We concluded that the total number of tested samples of Fine grounded boiled sausages (n=170, 47 (27.65% does not match the requirements for the quality provided the above mentioned Rule book, of which 21 samples because lower total protein content (TP and 33 samples because higher relative protein content of connective tissue (RPC. The most common chemical quality failure of examined Coarsely grounded boiled sausages (n=94 is a higher percent of RPC than allowed (18 - 25 %. We consider in samples of same subgroup lower content of TP in 8 samples (11.11 %. From a total of 8 samples tested Boiled sausages with meat peaces (Šunkarica, all tested samples revealed lower content of TP than allowed (100 % and 2 samples (25 % higher relative protein content of connective tissue (RPC. The most common deficiency that reduces the chemical quality of the boiled sausages is higher level of RPC, demonstrated in 53 (19.48 % of the total (n=272 samples tested. Something minor drawback is the lower percent of TP determined in 37 samples (13.60 %. Total P2O5 content was compatibile with the values permitted by the Rule book in all of 272 examined samples, indicating a strict adherence to regulations when using phosphate as one of the technologically most important additives in the production of boiled sausages.

  12. Survival of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus during thermal processing of frankfurters, summer sausage, and ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jonathan A; Dickson, James S; Cordray, Joseph C; Olson, Dennis G; Mendonca, Aubrey F; Prusa, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    Infections from antibiotic-resistant bacteria are a major concern for human health professionals around the world. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is just one of the resistant organisms of concern. MRSA prevalence has also been recently reported in retail meat products at rates higher than originally thought. Although the risk of contracting an infection from handling contaminated meat products is thought to be low, very little is known about this organism from a food safety perspective. The objective of this study was to determine the survival of MRSA during thermal processing of frankfurters, summer sausage, and boneless ham. Frankfurters, summer sausage, and boneless ham were manufactured using formulations and processing procedures developed at the Iowa State University meat laboratory. Thermal processing resulted in a significant log reduction (psausage, and frankfurters when compared to uncooked, positive controls for each of the three processed meat products. All products were thermally processed to an internal temperature of 70°C and promptly cooled to 7.2°C. Boneless ham showed the highest log reduction (7.28 logs) from cooking, followed by summer sausage (6.75 logs) and frankfurters (5.53 logs). The results of this study indicate that thermal processing of ham, summer sausage, and frankfurters to 70°C is sufficient to reduce the risk of MRSA as a potential food safety hazard.

  13. Cod and rainbow trout as freeze-chilled meal elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Nielsen, Jette; Jørgensen, Bo;

    2010-01-01

    Meal elements' are elements of a meal, e.g. portions of pre-fried meat, sauces, frozen fish or pre-processed vegetables typically prepared industrially. The meal elements are distributed to professional satellite kitchens, where the staff can combine them into complete meals. Freeze-chilling is a......Meal elements' are elements of a meal, e.g. portions of pre-fried meat, sauces, frozen fish or pre-processed vegetables typically prepared industrially. The meal elements are distributed to professional satellite kitchens, where the staff can combine them into complete meals. Freeze......-chilling is a process consisting of freezing and frozen storage followed by thawing and chilled storage. Combining the two would enable the manufacturer to produce large quantities of frozen meal elements to be released into the chill chain according to demand. We have studied the influence of freeze...... and cod and rainbow trout seem potential candidates for freeze-chilled meal elements. (C) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry...

  14. The sausage sigma model revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suneeta, Vardarajan

    2015-06-01

    Fateev’s sausage sigma models in two and three dimensions are known to be integrable. We study their stability under renormalization group (RG) flow in the target space by using results from the mathematics of Ricci flow. We show that the three-dimensional sausage is unstable, whereas the two-dimensional sausage appears to be stable at least at leading order as it approaches the sphere. We speculate that the stability results obtained are linked to the classification of ancient solutions to Ricci flow (i.e., sigma models that are nonperturbative in the infrared regime) in two and three dimensions. We also describe a class of perturbations of the three-dimensional sausage (with the same continuous symmetries) which remarkably decouple. This indicates that there could be a new solution to RG flow, which is described at least perturbatively as a deformation of the sausage.

  15. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua, and Lactic acid bacteria species in chill brine

    OpenAIRE

    Meadows, Bridget Archibald

    2004-01-01

    SURVIVAL OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES, LISTERIA INNOCUA, AND LACTIC ACID BACTERIA SPECIES IN CHILL BRINES Bridget Archibald Meadows (ABSTRACT) Listeria monocytogenes is the major pathogen in ready-to-eat meat products such as deli meats and frankfurters. Contamination can occur via the salt brines that are used to cool thermally processed meats. Both L. monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria can grow and thrive under these brine conditions, and may become competitive with each ot...

  16. Bacteriological Characteristics of Fresh Ostrich Sausage (Linguiça

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RS Nascimento

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate bacteriological characteristics and shelf life of three formulations of ostrich sausages (linguiças, only differing in lean meat percentage: Formula 1, 100% ostrich meat; Formula 2, 75% ostrich meat + 25% pork; and Formula 3, 50% ostrich meat + 25% pork + 25% chicken. All linguiças were vacuum-packed and stored at 5 ± 2ºC. Mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, sulfite-reducing Clostridia, coagulase-positive Staphylococci, and Escherichia coli were enumerated and Salmonella spp were isolated and identified. Initial mesophilic and psychotropic bacteria counts were high. During storage time, sulfite-reducing Clostridia, coagulase-positive Staphylococci, and Escherichia colicounts never reached the tolerance limit established by the Brazilian legislation. However, Salmonellawas isolated from a Formula 2 sample on day 1, therefore, it was considered inappropriate for consumption. The shelf lives of Formulas 1 and 3 were below 12 and 8 days, respectively. If initial bacterial counts had been lower, the shelf life of the evaluated formulas would probably be longer. This study showed that ostrich meat trimmings can be successfully used in the production of ostrich linguiças, and that the formula containing ostrich meat as the only source of lean meat presented the longest shelf life.

  17. Migration of mineral hydrocarbons into foods. 3. Cheese coatings and temporary casings for skinless sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, L; Kelly, M; Gilbert, J

    1993-01-01

    Levels of mineral hydrocarbons which have migrated from wax coatings into cheese have been determined for 20 retail samples using a gas chromatographic procedure. Contamination was limited to the outermost 2 mm of cheese in direct contact with the wax where levels of hydrocarbons were found to range from 10 to 150 mg/kg. On a whole cheese weight basis these amounted to sausages. Of 33 retail products examined, including skinless sausages, hot-dog sausages and frankfurters, 25 (75%) contained levels of mineral hydrocarbons from 10 to 105 mg/kg. These hydrocarbons were shown to be present principally at the surface of the food and so could be attributed to migration. Nine other minced meat products were examined for comparison, including minced beef, pâté, sausage meat and sausages with skins. Levels of mineral oil in these products were insignificant by comparison, typically below the limit of detection of ca 4 mg/kg, indicating insignificant adventitious contamination from routes other than migration.

  18. THE EFFECTS OF SPRAY-CHILLING ASSOCIATED TO CONVENTIONAL CHILLING ON MASS LOSS, BACTERIOLOGYCAL AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL QUALITY OF BEEF CARCASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Evandro Lage

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify the effect of conventional air chilling associated to intermittent spray-chilling treatment, on weight loss, physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of beef carcasses. Two plants of commercial beef slaughterhouse located in Goiânia and fiscalized by the Federal Inspection Service were used to develop the research. The spray-chilling treatment was accomplished in an intermittent way, commanded by acontrolled logical program, with cycles of 90 seconds, in intervals of 30 minutes, during the first 4 hours of the chilling process. Physico-chemical and bacteriological analysis were made in spray-chilled water and carcasses samples, according to recommendation of the effective legislation.The average values of carcasses weight loss of treatment group were lower to the ones verified for the control group,in both plants, A and B, (P < 0,001, showing a high economic potential. As a conclusion of physico-chemical and bacteriological analysis results of water and meat samples, it is clear that the technology of chilling beef carcasses inthe conventional system associated to spraying did not interfere in the quality of meat, and it can become an analysis object on part of official organs for sanitary regulation and fiscalization, for its definitive adoption. KEY WORDS: Spray-chilling, shrinkage, beef carcass.

  19. Application of radiation processing in meat preservation and hygienization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresh meat has limited shelf-life at refrigerated temperatures on account of microbial spoilage, discoloration due to oxidation of the pigment myoglobin, formation of drip and lipid oxidation leading to off-flavours. Presently meat is preserved by chilling/freezing, canning, salting, drying and modified atmosphere storage in conjunction with chilling. Irradiation has considerable potential as a cost-effective alternative or supplement to these presently used preservation methods. 2 tabs

  20. Shelf-life Extension and Improvement of the Microbiological Quality of Fresh Sausage by Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty samples of fresh sausage were randomly collected from different meat products markets in Great Cairo. They were analysed for microbiological quality. The results showed that 26 (52%) samples had total aerobic bacterial counts more than 107cfu/g. Staphylococcus aureus was present in all samples and 19 (38%) samples had counts more than maximum permissible level (103 cfu/g). Enterococcus faecalis numbers more than 105 cfu/g were found in 14 (28%) samples. Coliform bacteria were present in all sausage samples and 19(38%) samples had counts more than 103 cfu/g, while salmonella was detected in only 5 (10%) samples. Therefore, fresh sausages in local market were highly contaminated with different microorganisms including spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. Irradiation dose of 4 kGy greatly reduced the numbers of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, lactobacilli and yeasts without affecting the organoleptic properties of the samples. It extended the shelf-life of fresh sausage up to about 15 days at refrigeration temperature (5+-1) while the shelf-life was only 5 days for unirradiated samples. Irradiation dose of 6 kGy had greater effect on the microbiological counts and extended the shelf-life of fresh sausage more than 25 days, however, it slightly affected its organoleptic properties. Sausage samples exposed to this irradiation dose was microbiologically safe, being free from Enterobacteriaceae, Staph, aureus, Ent, faecalis, coliform bacteria, Salmonella and moulds

  1. Mutagenicity and Immune Toxicity of Emulsion-type Sausage Cured with Plasma-treated Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Sung, Nak-Yun; Yong, Hae In; Kim, Hanwool; Lim, Younggap; Ko, Kwang Hyun; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Jo, Cheorun

    2016-01-01

    Cold plasma has been developed to reduce microbial contamination and to improve safety of food and medical products. In addition, the technology can be used in the manufacture of sausages without addition of nitrite. To be applied in food industry commercially, the new technology should be safe and efficient. However, toxicological test of plasma-treated food is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the mutagenicity and immune toxicity of the meat products cured with plasma-treated water (PTW) as a nitrite source. Emulsion sausages were prepared with no nitrite (control), sodium nitrite (SCS), and PTW (SCP). For a mutagenicity test, the Ames test was performed with the sausage samples. For immune toxicity test, 8-wk-old female Balb/c mice were given free access to the sausages in order to evaluate the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α level. As a result, no mutagenicity was detected in the sausages by the Ames test. The serum TNF-α values were less than 10 pg/mL in mice after feeding control and treated samples for 32 d, indicating that no inflammatory response was occurred by feeding the sausages made by PTW. Therefore, the present study opens the possibility of using plasma-treated water as a nitrite source without any toxicity.

  2. Effect of the Addition of Schisandra chinensis Powder on the Physico-chemical Characteristics of Sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S K; Park, J H

    2013-12-01

    The individual and interactive effects of Schisandra chinensis powder (SCP) and sodium nitrite additions on color, pH, water holding capacity, residual nitrite, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), volatile basic nitrogen, texture properties, fatty acids, amino acids and sensory evaluation of cooked pork sausages were investigated after 20 d of storage at 4°C. The powders (0, 0.5 and 1.0%) were added to sausages either alone or in combination with nitrite (0 and 100 ppm). SCP added-sausages showed lower L* (lightness) and W (whiteness) values, and higher b* (yellowness) values than sausage containing no nitrite, and exhibited the highest a(*) values at a 0.5% addition (psausage showed gradually decreased brittleness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness, while adhesiveness increased. Polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio concentrations were significantly higher in sausages containing SCP (psausage significantly (psausage meat resulted in a significant deterioration in quality characteristics of flavor, springiness, juiciness and overall acceptability (psausages, depended on the rate of addition of nitrite (psausages, but may beneficially affect TBARS, nitrite scavenging activity, fatty acid and amino acid content in pork sausages.

  3. Mutagenicity and Immune Toxicity of Emulsion-type Sausage Cured with Plasma-treated Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Sung, Nak-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Cold plasma has been developed to reduce microbial contamination and to improve safety of food and medical products. In addition, the technology can be used in the manufacture of sausages without addition of nitrite. To be applied in food industry commercially, the new technology should be safe and efficient. However, toxicological test of plasma-treated food is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the mutagenicity and immune toxicity of the meat products cured with plasma-treated water (PTW) as a nitrite source. Emulsion sausages were prepared with no nitrite (control), sodium nitrite (SCS), and PTW (SCP). For a mutagenicity test, the Ames test was performed with the sausage samples. For immune toxicity test, 8-wk-old female Balb/c mice were given free access to the sausages in order to evaluate the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α level. As a result, no mutagenicity was detected in the sausages by the Ames test. The serum TNF-α values were less than 10 pg/mL in mice after feeding control and treated samples for 32 d, indicating that no inflammatory response was occurred by feeding the sausages made by PTW. Therefore, the present study opens the possibility of using plasma-treated water as a nitrite source without any toxicity.

  4. Mutagenicity and Immune Toxicity of Emulsion-type Sausage Cured with Plasma-treated Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Sung, Nak-Yun; Yong, Hae In; Kim, Hanwool; Lim, Younggap; Ko, Kwang Hyun; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Jo, Cheorun

    2016-01-01

    Cold plasma has been developed to reduce microbial contamination and to improve safety of food and medical products. In addition, the technology can be used in the manufacture of sausages without addition of nitrite. To be applied in food industry commercially, the new technology should be safe and efficient. However, toxicological test of plasma-treated food is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the mutagenicity and immune toxicity of the meat products cured with plasma-treated water (PTW) as a nitrite source. Emulsion sausages were prepared with no nitrite (control), sodium nitrite (SCS), and PTW (SCP). For a mutagenicity test, the Ames test was performed with the sausage samples. For immune toxicity test, 8-wk-old female Balb/c mice were given free access to the sausages in order to evaluate the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α level. As a result, no mutagenicity was detected in the sausages by the Ames test. The serum TNF-α values were less than 10 pg/mL in mice after feeding control and treated samples for 32 d, indicating that no inflammatory response was occurred by feeding the sausages made by PTW. Therefore, the present study opens the possibility of using plasma-treated water as a nitrite source without any toxicity. PMID:27621690

  5. Effect of mixed spices in lemon glass marinade cuisine on changes in chemical physical and microbiological quality of ready-to-cook Thai indigenous chicken meat during chilled storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongwiwat, P.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of spices on chemical, physical and microbiological quality of ready-to-cook Thai indigenous chicken meat were investigated during storage at 4oC for 15 days. The spices used with marinade ingredient (soya sauce, oyster sauce, sugar and salt were lemon glass, black pepper, garlic, coriander root and mixed spices. Non-marinated chicken meat (control 1 and marinated only ingredients (control 2 were used as control treatments. The qualities of ready-to-cook chicken meat that were evaluated were shear force, % drip loss, surface color (L*, a*, b*, lipid oxidation (TBARS, myoglobin oxidation (% metmyoglobin and microbial growth. Effects of spices on shear force and % drip loss were not significantly different (P>0.05 but they efficiently reduced lipid oxidation and microbial growth of chicken meat. Mixed spices significantly reduced oxidation of lipid (P0.05. However, marinade at 12.5% (w/w showed high efficiency in inhibiting deterioration of ready-to-cook chicken meat.

  6. STUDY OF CYLPEBS CHILLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Marukovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods of increasing the shock resistance of cast-iron grinding bodies are researched. The models of heat transfer in the process of casting and shock-abrasive wear are presented. Tooling to produce experimental samples of milling bodies chilling(gravity die casting is manufactured, samples of cylpebs are produced.

  7. ConFerm - A tool to predict the reduction of pathogens during the production of fermented and matured sausages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunvig, A.; Borggaard, C.; Hansen, F.;

    2016-01-01

    Existing growth models and non-thermal survival models for Salmonella, Shiga-toxin producing Eschericia coli (STEC) and Listeria monocytogenes primarily focus on the static effect of a(w), sodium nitrite (NaNO2), pH and temperature. However, during the production of fermented sausages, the intrin......Existing growth models and non-thermal survival models for Salmonella, Shiga-toxin producing Eschericia coli (STEC) and Listeria monocytogenes primarily focus on the static effect of a(w), sodium nitrite (NaNO2), pH and temperature. However, during the production of fermented sausages...... the dynamics of the sausage environment during fermentation and maturation of fermented sausages.A total of 73 experiments were carried out in sausages containing different levels of NaCl in the water phase (WPS) (3.9-6.8%), NaNO2 (0-200 ppm) and pH(48h) (4.3-5.6). The minced meat was inoculated with approx....... 10(6) cfu/g of a multi-strain cocktail of 3 strains of Salmonella (S. Dublin, S. Typhimurium, S. Derby), 3 strains of STEC (O26:H-, O111:H- and O157) and five L. monocytogenes strains isolated from different meat products and environment. The sausages were fermented at 24 degrees C for 48 h using...

  8. Changes in protein structures to improve the rheology and texture of reduced-fat sausages using high pressure processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huijuan; Khan, Muhammad Ammar; Yu, Xiaobo; Zheng, Haibo; Han, Minyi; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the role of high-pressure processing (HPP) for improving the functional properties of meat batters and the textural properties of reduced-fat sausages. Application of 200MPa pressure at 10°C for 2min to pork batters containing various fat contents (0-30%) affected their rheological properties, cooking losses, color, textual properties and their protein imaging. The results revealed that both application of 200MPa and increasing fat content decreased cooking loss, as well as improved the textural and rheological properties. Cooking losses, texture and sensory evaluation of 200MPa treated sausages having 20% fat were similar to those of the 0.1MPa treated sausages having 30% fat. Principal component analysis revealed that certain quality attributes were affected differently by the levels of fat addition and by HPP. These findings indicated the potential of HPP for improving yield and texture of emulsion-type sausages having reduced fat contents. PMID:27288900

  9. Changes in protein structures to improve the rheology and texture of reduced-fat sausages using high pressure processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huijuan; Khan, Muhammad Ammar; Yu, Xiaobo; Zheng, Haibo; Han, Minyi; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the role of high-pressure processing (HPP) for improving the functional properties of meat batters and the textural properties of reduced-fat sausages. Application of 200MPa pressure at 10°C for 2min to pork batters containing various fat contents (0-30%) affected their rheological properties, cooking losses, color, textual properties and their protein imaging. The results revealed that both application of 200MPa and increasing fat content decreased cooking loss, as well as improved the textural and rheological properties. Cooking losses, texture and sensory evaluation of 200MPa treated sausages having 20% fat were similar to those of the 0.1MPa treated sausages having 30% fat. Principal component analysis revealed that certain quality attributes were affected differently by the levels of fat addition and by HPP. These findings indicated the potential of HPP for improving yield and texture of emulsion-type sausages having reduced fat contents.

  10. Toward Probiotict Food Product from Meat Through Isolation and Identification Lactic Acid Bacteria As Probiotic Culture Stater

    OpenAIRE

    Yunilas Yunilas; Lili Warly; Edi Mirwandhono

    2014-01-01

    Probiotic food products of meat can provide extensive benefits, to increase the shelf life and nutritional value also improve the taste. The use of lactic acid bacteria culture (LAB) derived from the isolation of the meat and the addition of probiotic cultures (Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria) in fermented sausage processing is expected to produce a probiotic sausage products with nutritional value, and better shelf life and improve health. This study aimed to isolate and identify lactic acid...

  11. Taste of a new product: sheep and goat sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Sandra; Teixeira, A.

    2012-01-01

    This study is part of a Project that aims to study a strategy which gives value-added to sheep and goat meat of animals which have very low price and out of quality label products as “Cabrito Serrano” and “Borrego Transmontano”. Bragançana ewes and Serrana goats’ carcasses were used in the production of a fresh sausage. Transformation was made in a traditional industry, according to 2 main recipes, including or not bonnet pepper. Thus, 4 treatments were considered: ewes with pepper, ewes with...

  12. Physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics, sensory quality and acceptability of native chicken and rabbit sausage produced with corn oil, margarine and beef fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendronoto Arnoldus Walewangko Lengkey

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we evaluated the effect of certain oils or fats (corn oil, margarine and beef fat on the physico-chemical, microbiological characteristics and sensory quality of native chicken and rabbit sausages as low fat sausages. The sausages were evaluated by physicochemical analysis of pH, aw, moisture content, protein and fat, TPC and Salmonella as microbiological characteristics, as well as flavor, juiciness and overall acceptability as sensory quality, and with regards to diversification of meat products in Indonesia. Three formulations for native chicken (FA and rabbit (FB sausages were prepared: FA1 and FB1 (with 10% corn oil; FA2 and FB2 (with 10% margarine: FA3 and FB3 (with 10% beef fat. Results indicated no significant difference (p<0.05 between the pH and aw values of native chicken and rabbit sausages using different fat sources. The moisture content was significantly different (p<0.05 both between the native chicken and rabbit sausages and the types of fat source (corn oil, margarine and beef fat added. No effect on protein content was found both in native chicken and rabbit sausages. The lowest fat content was found in rabbit sausages (18.79 + 0.70% where corn oil was added as a fat source. Lowest TPC was also observed. Salmonella were not detected in any of the sausage groups. There was no significant difference (p<0.05 in various sensory attributes. In conclusion, native chicken and rabbit meat seems to be a suitable alternative for low fat sausages production, particularly with corn oil as fat source.

  13. Defatted corn germ meal and phytase in the diet of pigs: effects on meat quality and a fresh sausageUtilização do farelo de gérmen de milho desengordurado, como fonte de fitato, associado à fitase em rações de suínos: efeitos sobre a qualidade da carne e da linguiça tipo frescal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Bridi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of phytic acid, mainly carried by the defatted corn germ meal (DCGM, and the addition of phytase in pig diets in the finishing phase on the parameters related to the meat and fresh sausage qualities. Were used 32 pigs of commercial line “Pen Ar Lan”, with initial weight of 60.31 ± 5.32 kg, 16 barrows and 16 females, distributed in a 2x2x2 factorial design: diet without adding DCGM and inclusion of 40% of DCGM, diets without phytase inclusion and inclusion of 1000 FTU and the gender, barrows and gilts. The animals received food and water ad libitum during the experimental period of 29 days. Upon reaching 87.19 ± 7.08 of kg body weight, the animals were slaughtered. Samples were collected from the Longissimus dorsi muscle for analysis of meat and fresh sausage qualities. Samples of loin were assessed for pH, color, marbling, drip loss, texture, chemical composition and lipid oxidation. In fresh sausage were evaluated color, pH, chemical composition and oxidation. The results showed that diets with phytic acid, mainly carried by the defatted corn germ meal, influenced the lipid stability of meat and fresh sausage. The inclusion of phytase didn’t affect the oxidation. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência do ácido fítico, veiculado principalmente pelo farelo de gérmen de milho desengordurado (FGMD, e da adição de fitase em rações de suínos em fase de terminação sobre os parâmetros relacionados à qualidade da carne e da linguiça tipo frescal. Para o experimento foram utilizados 32 suínos da linhagem Pen Ar Lan, com peso médio inicial de 60,31 ± 5,32 kg, sendo 16 machos castrados e 16 fêmeas, distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos casualisados num modelo fatorial 2x2x2, com 4 repetições, sendo os fatores: rações sem inclusão de FGMD e com inclusão de 40% de FGMD, rações sem inclusão de fitase e com inclusão de 1000 FTU, e os gêneros machos

  14. Prospects and challenges of radiation processing of meats and meat products in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In India goat, lamb and chicken meat are widely preferred, while, bovine meat and pork are consumed only by a small segment of the population. Meats in the country are mainly marketed fresh or in frozen state. Recently chilled poultry has been introduced in Indian market. In addition to fresh meats, several other ready to eat or ready to cook meat products like chicken chilly, chicken tikka, mutton shammi kababs, mutton seekh kababs etc are available in urban Indian market. These products are marketed only in the frozen state and have limited market due to expensive and inadequate freezing facilities. Major share of domestic fresh meat and poultry market is by unorganized sector and only a few corporate houses like Godrej and Venkey's are marketing poultry products. The time has come to benefit from radiation processing for safe, chilled meat and poultry in India. Shelf-stable, nutritious meat and meat products can also be produced by the process. Radiation processing of these foods will be of great economic and health significance and give boost to exports. This radiation processing can meet the needs of services of convenient and ready-to-eat meat and meat products

  15. Partial replacement of nitrite by annatto as a colour additive in sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarringhalami, S; Sahari, M A; Hamidi-Esfehani, Z

    2009-01-01

    For decreasing the use of nitrite in sausage in industrial conditions, annatto (Bixa orellana L.) powder (1% norbixin) was used in two different formulations of sausage (with 55% and 70% of meat) as a replacement for 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% nitrite. Then the qualitative characteristics of the samples such as colour (L(∗), a(∗) and b(∗)), microbial contamination and sensory tests (flavour and odour) were compared with the control (without annatto and with 100% nitrite) after 2, 10, 20 and 30 days from production and under the refrigerated condition. The Statistical comparison showed that in both formulations of sausage, the sample containing 60% annatto was the best sample for its colour (for higher a(∗) and lower b(∗)); yet, this sample also did not show any significant differences from the control for microbial contamination and sensory properties. PMID:22063996

  16. Production of elastic onion sausage%洋葱弹力香肠的制作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岩; 袁书林

    2015-01-01

    Pork and onion were taken as main raw materials to produce elastic onion sausage. The new type products were improved based on the processing technology and formula of traditional sausage meat products. The elastic onion sausage was of good sensory and physical and chemical properties. And it had high nutritive value.%试验以洋葱和猪肉为主要原料制作香肠,在传统香肠肉制品的加工工艺和配方基础之上进行改进,制作出洋葱弹力香肠。洋葱弹力香肠具有较好的感官和理化指标,营养价值较高。

  17. 果蔬营养灌肠的研制%Development of Fruit and Vegetable Sausages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴艳秋

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the traditional western sausages, the sausages are added to fruits and vegetables, such as proper haw and black fungus, along with textured soy protein and Konjac flour. It is a new type nutritious meat product. With the improving of health consciousness, the market prospect of the sausage is quite bright.%果蔬营养灌肠是在传统西式灌肠的基础上,加入适量的山楂和黑木耳等果蔬,以及大豆组织蛋白、魔芋精粉等研制而成,是一种健康营养的新型肉制品。随着人们健康意识的不断提高,果蔬营养灌肠将具有非常广阔的市场前景。

  18. Shelf life of cooked goat blood sausage prepared with the addition of heart and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F A P; Amaral, D S; Guerra, I C D; Arcanjo, N M O; Bezerra, T K A; Ferreira, V C S; Araújo, I B S; Dalmás, P S; Madruga, M S

    2014-08-01

    This study focused on the effect of two packaging formats (vacuum packaging and over-wrap packaging) on the shelf life of cooked sausage prepared with blood, heart, kidney and goat meat fragments under storage at 4±1°C for a period of 90 days. The storage time and type of packaging significantly affected the chemical (pH, moisture, protein and TBARS number), physical (shear force) and microbial (mould and yeast) parameters of cooked sausage. Vacuum packaging maintained the microbiological and chemical qualities of cooked goat blood sausage for a longer period of time (63 days) compared to over-wrap packaging (41 days) and could be a viable alternative to refrigerated storage of the product for quality maintenance.

  19. Characterization and Technological Features of Autochthonous Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci as Potential Starters for Portuguese Dry Fermented Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semedo-Lemsaddek, Teresa; Carvalho, Laura; Tempera, Carolina; Fernandes, Maria H; Fernandes, Maria J; Elias, Miguel; Barreto, António S; Fraqueza, Maria J

    2016-05-01

    The manufacture of dry fermented sausages is an important part of the meat industry in Southern European countries. These products are usually produced in small shops from a mixture of pork, fat, salt, and condiments and are stuffed into natural casings. Meat sausages are slowly cured through spontaneous fermentation by autochthonous microbiota present in the raw materials or introduced during manufacturing. The aim of this work was to evaluate the technological and safety features of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolated from Portuguese dry fermented meat sausages in order to select autochthonous starters. Isolates (n = 104) obtained from 2 small manufacturers were identified as Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus equorum, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Staphylococcus carnosus. Genomically diverse isolates (n = 82) were selected for further analysis to determine the ability to produce enzymes (for example, nitrate-reductases, proteases, lipases) and antibiotic susceptibility. Autochthonous CNS producing a wide range of enzymes and showing low antibioresistance were selected as potential starters for future use in the production of dry fermented meat sausages. PMID:27095684

  20. Use of carbon monoxide combined with carbon dioxide for modified atmosphere packaging of pre- and postrigor fresh pork sausage to improve shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laury, Angela; Sebranek, Joseph G

    2007-04-01

    Fresh pre- and postrigor pork sausage patties were manufactured in the Iowa State University Meat Laboratory and packaged either in modified atmosphere (MAP) with 0.4% carbon monoxide (CO) and 99.6% carbon dioxide (CO2) or on foam trays overwrapped with oxygen-permeable film (OW). Packages were stored at 2 to 40C under fluorescent lights for up to 31 days. Aerobic, anaerobic, and psychrotrophic plate counts, raw and cooked color, purge, and lipid oxidation were measured during storage. Results indicated that both pork sausage products in MAP had lower aerobic and psychrotrophic counts and less lipid oxidation throughout storage (P sausage in MAP benefited more from the CO atmosphere in terms of raw color than the postrigor pork sausage in MAP. Cooked color of the prerigor pork sausage in MAP was significantly redder than cooked color of the postrigor pork sausage. Both pork sausage products in MAP were also lighter (L* value) than the OW patties for raw and cooked color. Therefore, the combination of CO and CO2 in MAP was beneficial in extending the shelf life of pre-and postrigor fresh pork sausage by reducing aerobic and psychrotrophic microbial growth and improving oxidative stability and color, compared to conventional OW packaging. However, increased purge, increased anaerobic growth, and changes in cooking behavior were also observed for the products in MAP during storage (P < 0.05).

  1. The sausage sigma model revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Suneeta, Vardarajan

    2014-01-01

    Fateev's sausage sigma models in two and three dimensions are known to be integrable. We study their stability under RG flow in the target space by using results from the mathematics of Ricci flow. We show that the three dimensional sausage is unstable, whereas the two dimensional sausage appears to be stable at least at leading order as it approaches the sphere. The $n$-sphere, corresponding to the integrable O(n) sigma model, is geometrically stable and an attractor for nearby solutions to RG flow. We speculate that the stability results obtained seem to be linked to the classification of ancient solutions to Ricci flow (i.e., sigma models which are asymptotically free in the UV and nontrivial in the IR) in two and three dimensions. We also describe a class of perturbations of the three dimensional sausage (with the same continuous symmetries) which remarkably decouple. This indicates that there could be a new solution to RG flow which is described at least perturbatively as a deformation of the sausage.

  2. MICROBIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION OF DACIA SAUSAGE, A DRY CURED ROMANIAN SAUSAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Simion Ciuciu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Selected starter cultures were used to produce the traditional Romanian dry cured sausage, Dacia. A control sausage was produced without starter culture (sausage A, one with L. sakei CECT 5964 and S. equorum SA25 (sausage B and one with L. sakei CECT 5964, S. equorum SA25 and L. acidophilus CECT 903 (sausage C. Samples from each batch of sausages were taken at 0 (mix before stuffing, and after 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of ripening. Counts of total aerobic mesophilic flora, lactic acid bacteria, salt tolerant flora, and Enterobacteriaceae and some physical-chemical parameters (moisture, NaCl, pH and aw values were determined. High microbial counts (log CFU were observed with values at the end of ripening period: for lactic acid bacteria 9.77 (A, 11.47 (B and 11.19 (C; for total aerobic mesophilic flora 9.89 (A, 11.38 (B and 11.30 (C; for salt tolerant flora 4.45 (A, 5.31 (B and 5.27 (C. The starter cultures had a significant inhibitory effect on Enterobacteriaceae counts (log CFU, values at the end of ripening period being 1.32 (A, 0.33 (B and not detected (C. A significant decrease in the pH values is observed until the seventh day of ripening, showing a slight, but progressive increase after the 14th day of ripening. Results show that the production and ripening process in a pilot scale chamber under controlled conditions contributes in obtaining safe and homogeneous products.

  3. Microbiological quality of poultry meat: a review

    OpenAIRE

    GC Mead

    2004-01-01

    Poultry meat can be contaminated with a variety of microorganisms, including those capable of spoiling the product during chill storage, and certain foodborne pathogens. Human illness may follow from handling of raw meat, undercooking or mishandling of the cooked product. While Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. remain the organisms of greatest global concern in this respect, others present include the more recently reported Arcobacter and Helicobacter spp. and, occasionally, verotoxigenic Esc...

  4. 9 CFR 319.141 - Fresh pork sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh pork sausage. 319.141 Section... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Sausage Generally: Fresh Sausage § 319.141 Fresh pork sausage. “Fresh Pork Sausage” is sausage prepared with fresh pork or...

  5. 9 CFR 319.142 - Fresh beef sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh beef sausage. 319.142 Section... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Sausage Generally: Fresh Sausage § 319.142 Fresh beef sausage. “Fresh Beef Sausage” is sausage prepared with fresh beef or...

  6. Sensory evaluation of sausages with orange peel flour and maguey leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Bernardo Escalona-Buendia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Agroindustrial by-products are mainly used for animal feeding and biomass for biodiesel production. In fruit processing, around the 70% of the raw material weight is considered as a residue, mainly peels and seeds, but they have high insoluble fiber content. Orange peel and maguey leaf, previously used for barbacoa preparation, were employed as functional ingredients in sausages. To determinate the acceptance of new food products (neophobia 300 surveys were conducted to consumers in supermarkets in the south part of Mexico City. Additionally, R-index was determined to know if there were any difference between the texture and flavor of the sausages with these ingredients using consumers, and a quantitative descriptive profile was carried out. Results shown that most of the surveys showed interest to consume healthy foods, but certain neophobia was observed to this kind of meat products (sausages with orange peel or maguey leaf due to strange flavors. R index values showed that flavor is affected by this formulation, most in maguey leaf samples, but not in texture (firmness. Descriptive sensory profiles showed the attributes distinguishing the fiber added sausages versus a control. The conclusion is that the use of agroindustrial by-products is a good source of functional ingredient in sausages; however, its flavor has to be more developed to assure consumer acceptance.

  7. Partial substitution of nitrite by chitosan and the effect on the quality properties of pork sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario García

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of partial nitrite replacement by chitosan on the quality of Ham Visking (a type of pork sausages. Five Ham Visking formulations were elaborated modifying the sodium nitrite (0.011; 0.016 or 0.0212% and chitosan concentrations (0.25 or 0.5% in the products. Sausages were stored at 4 ºC and physicochemical, microbiological, and sensorial evaluations were performed in order to estimate their shelf life. Chitosan can be used in pork sausages without affecting ensory attributes such as color although the panelists detected textural differences among the samples with chitosan, which suggests that there is some influence of deacetylation degree of chitosan on the textural behavior of sausages which still needed to be explained for a successful application of chitosan in meat products. The reduction of residual sodium nitrite did not affect the color and flavor of such products, but the use of chitosan increasedsignificantly the shelf life of sausages.

  8. Effect of heat treatment and packaging systems on the stability of fish sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Rafaela Dallabona

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological stability of sausages produced from mechanically separated fish meat (MSM obtained from Nile tilapia filleting residues. Different heat treatments (pasteurization or smoking and packaging systems (conventional or vacuum were used. The sausages were characterized for chemical composition, weight loss, water activity, instrumental texture and sensorial analysis. Additionally, microbiological analysis, instrumental color, pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N were assessed during storage. No presence of Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp. or coagulase-positive Staphylococcus was detected; however, the psychrotrophic count in pasteurized sausages exceeded the limits allowed for consumption. pH and lipid oxidation speed (TBARS values were reduced when vacuum packaging was used. Volatile nitrogenous bases remained virtually constant during the storage period, and higher values were observed in smoked products. Pasteurized sausages remain stable for 10 and 15 days in conventional and vacuum packages, respectively, and smoked sausages remain stable for 25 and 45 days in conventional and vacuum packages, respectively.

  9. Development of an n-3 fatty acid and α-tocopherol enriched dry fermented sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoz, L; D'Arrigo, M; Cambero, I; Ordóñez, J A

    2004-07-01

    Five batches of "salchichon", which is a dry fermented Spanish sausage, were manufactured using backfat and meat enriched in polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids and α-tocopherol. Raw materials were obtained from animals fed on diets of the same ingredients with the exception of the oil source [sunflower oil (batch control, C), linseed oil (L and LE), 1/1 (w/w) linseed and olive oil (LO and LOE)] and α-tocopherol quantity [20 mg/kg diet of α-tocopherol (C, L and LO) or 200 mg/kg diet of α-tocopherol (LOE and LE)]. A final product with a healthier polyunsaturated fatty acid n-6:n-3 ratio (oil-enriched batches as compared with the control (12). The batches of sausages manufactured with backfat and meat from animals fed on diets enriched in α-tocopherol and linseed, or linseed and olive oil with or without α-tocopherol supplementation show a higher lipid oxidative stability than those of diets enriched in linseed oil without α-tocopherol supplementation. Sausages of dietary treatment C, LE, LO and LOE did not show differences in water, protein, fat and ash contents, a(w), pH, texture profile analysis and sensory features (odour, colour, texture, juiciness and taste quality). Sausages manufactured with material from animals fed on linseed oil-enriched diets and no added α-tocopherol (L) showed an unfavourable rancidity degree detected by both 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) index and sensory panel.

  10. Preparation of Sauerkraut Sausage%酸菜香肠配方研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董静; 孙小换; 沙秋文

    2013-01-01

    以酸菜、猪肉为原料,开发一种蔬菜香肠新产品。采用单因素试验和正交试验,研究酸菜香肠的最佳配方。结果表明:当酸菜添加量为12%、肥瘦肉质量比为3∶7、淀粉添加量为8%时,香肠产品弹性较好,组织致密,口感酸爽,具有酸菜特有的香味。%With sauerkraut, pork as raw materials, a new kind of vegetable sausage product was developed. The optimum formula of the sauerkraut sausage was investigated through the single factor and the orthogonal experiments. The results showed that the sausage prod-uct was the best when the vegetables adding amount was 12%, the ratio of fat meat and lean meat was 3∶7,the starch adding amount was 8%. The sauerkraut sausage that was prepared with this formula has the quality of sour and rich flavor, good elasticity, compact structure, sour taste with special flavor of sauerkraut.

  11. Degradation of PCBs in dry fermented sausages during drying/ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lušnic Polak, M; Zlatić, E; Demšar, L; Žlender, B; Polak, T

    2016-12-15

    The effects of several commercial meat starter cultures on degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in dry fermented sausages over 28days of drying/ripening were investigated. The sausage batter was prepared according to a classic recipe and spiked with a standard solution of a PCB congener mixture. With addition of different commercial meat starter cultures, five experimental groups were prepared: no further addition; and separate addition of each of four starter cultures: Texel DCM-1, Texel LM-30, Biostar Sprint, and SM-181. Samples were taken at the beginning of fermentation (zero time), and after 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28days. PCB residues were extracted with hexane. The PCB contents were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The PCB levels were reduced in all of the experimental groups tested, where addition of starter culture Biostar Sprint (Lactobacillus sakei, Staphylococcus carnosus, Staphylococcus xylosus) showed the highest PCB degradation rates. PMID:27451178

  12. Scientific Opinion on the public health risks related to the maintenance of the cold chain during storage and transport of meat. Part 2 (minced meat from all species)

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ)

    2014-01-01

    Fresh meat intended for the production of minced meat may be contaminated by a range of pathogens including Salmonella spp. and verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC). These may grow if the temperatures are not maintained below 5 °C along the continuum from carcass chilling to mincing. Moreover Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica will grow at chill temperatures, albeit slowly, but significant growth may occur during prolonged storage. Current legislation (Regulation (EC) 853...

  13. Control of biogenic amines in fermented sausages: role of starter cultures

    OpenAIRE

    MariluzLatorre-Moratalla; SaraBover-Cid

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amines show biological activity and exert undesirable physiological effects when absorbed at high concentrations. Biogenic amines are mainly formed by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids and thus are usually present in a wide range of foods, fermented sausages being one of the major biogenic amine sources. The use of selected starter cultures is one of the best technological measures to control aminogenesis during meat fermentation. Although with variable effectiveness, several ...

  14. Control of Biogenic Amines in Fermented Sausages: Role of Starter Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Latorre-Moratalla, M.L.; Bover-Cid, Sara; Veciana-Nogués, M.T.; Vidal-Carou, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amines show biological activity and exert undesirable physiological effects when absorbed at high concentrations. Biogenic amines are mainly formed by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids and thus are usually present in a wide range of foods, fermented sausages being one of the major biogenic amine sources. The use of selected starter cultures is one of the best technological measures to control aminogenesis during meat fermentation. Although with variable effectiveness, several ...

  15. Frequency of contamination Listeria monocytogenes of raw dried cured vacuum packed sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Hristo Daskalov; Fejzulla Fejzullah; Alexandra Daskalova

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to collect actual data concerning the frequency of contamination with Listeria monocytogenes of some very popular in Bulgaria raw dried cured vacuum packed sausages, produced from October 2004 till May 2008. 148 vacuum-packed samples were taken from 9 different food business operators during all seasons of the year. The samples were analyzed according to USDA method for meat foods. Ten specimens were positive for presence of Listeria monocytogenes equal to 6,75% of a...

  16. Quality and safety assessment of meat products obtained by traditional romanian recipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Morar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Meat products obtained following traditional recipes are considered healthy foods, with superior sensory characteristics, being highly appreciated by consumers. This study aimed to evaluate the quality and safety of 18 meat products obtained by traditional receipts, including raw/smoked pork sausages (n=3, loin (n=1, bacon (n=2, kaizer (n=1, ham (n=1, spareribs (n=1, pork pastrami (n=1, and sausages prepared from edible meat offal of pork (n=8. All samples were bacteriologically examined (Salmonella, L. monocytogenes and E. coli. Also, moisture, fat, total protein, salt and nitrite contents were quantified. All products were Salmonella and L. monocytogenes free. E. coli was recovered in two samples (11.1%, a smoked pork sausage and a sausage prepared from edible meat offal of pork, at levels between 1.5 log and 3.25 log cfu/g. Moisture ranged from 17.21 to 67.46%, fat 17.37–62.18%, protein 8.13–23.18%, sodium chloride 1.50–6.39%, and nitrites <10–35 ppm, respectively. In two samples (11.1% of smoked meat products the salt content exceeded the maximum limits allowed by law. These results have shown that meat products obtained by traditional recipes are nutritive and safety. However, some varieties of meat products with high salt concentrations should be avoided by persons with dietary salt restriction.

  17. Processed meat: the real villain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Linseisen, Jakob

    2016-08-01

    Meat is a food rich in protein, minerals such as iron and zinc as well as a variety of vitamins, in particular B vitamins. However, the content of cholesterol and saturated fat is higher than in some other food groups. Processed meat is defined as products usually made of red meat that are cured, salted or smoked (e.g. ham or bacon) in order to improve the durability of the food and/or to improve colour and taste, and often contain a high amount of minced fatty tissue (e.g. sausages). Hence, high consumption of processed foods may lead to an increased intake of saturated fats, cholesterol, salt, nitrite, haem iron, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and, depending upon the chosen food preparation method, also heterocyclic amines. Several large cohort studies have shown that a high consumption of processed (red) meat is related to increased overall and cause-specific mortality. A meta-analysis of nine cohort studies observed a higher mortality among high consumers of processed red meat (relative risk (RR) = 1·23; 95 % CI 1·17, 1·28, top v. bottom consumption category), but not unprocessed red meat (RR = 1·10; 95 % CI 0·98, 1·22). Similar associations were reported in a second meta-analysis. All studies argue that plausible mechanisms are available linking processed meat consumption and risk of chronic diseases such as CVD, diabetes mellitus or some types of cancer. However, the results of meta-analyses do show some degree of heterogeneity between studies, and it has to be taken into account that individuals with low red or processed meat consumption tend to have a healthier lifestyle in general. Hence, substantial residual confounding cannot be excluded. Information from other types of studies in man is needed to support a causal role of processed meat in the aetiology of chronic diseases, e.g. studies using the Mendelian randomisation approach.

  18. Low-fat frankfurters from protein concentrates of tilapia viscera and mechanically separated tilapia meat

    OpenAIRE

    Cavenaghi-Altemio, Angela D; Alcade, Lígia B; Fonseca, Gustavo G

    2013-01-01

    In order to develop a healthy low-fat frankfurter-type sausage, different formulations were developed with tilapia viscera surimi (T1) and two with mechanically separated tilapia meat (MSTM) surimi (T2 and T3), all without pig lard addition. Due to technological problems observed for T1 sausage during cooking, it was not further investigated. The functionality of the other two formulations was evaluated based on proximate composition, pH, water activity, and texture. Finally, microbiological ...

  19. Antioxidant effect of apple phenolic on lipid peroxidation in Chinese-style sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hai; Qin, Chunjun; Zhang, Peipei; Ge, Qingfeng; Wu, Mangang; Wu, Jianping; Wang, Miao; Wang, Zhijun

    2015-02-01

    Chinese-style sausage is a very popular meat product obtained from a mixture of chopped pork meat, lard, salt, spices, additives (nitrate, nitrite, and antioxidants) and/or starter cultures. The antioxidative effect of apple phenolic on lipid oxidation in Chinese-style sausage compared with that of butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) and ursolic acid were studied. Lipid oxidation was assessed through determination of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) and volatile aldehydes. The content and composition of fatty acids in phospholipid were evaluated. At the optimum addition level, apple phenolic (0.5 g·kg(-1) in total fat) was more effective at inhibiting lipid oxidation than BHT (0.15 g·kg(-1) in total fat) and ursolic acid (0.5 g·kg(-1) in total fat) in Chinese-style sausages during 120 days storage. Moreover, apple phenolic exhibited stronger phospholipid protective capacity than ursolic acid and BHT at the end of storage. This study reveals a potential application of apple phenolic to enhance the oxidation stability of meat products during long storage. PMID:25694715

  20. Antioxidant effect of apple phenolic on lipid peroxidation in Chinese-style sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hai; Qin, Chunjun; Zhang, Peipei; Ge, Qingfeng; Wu, Mangang; Wu, Jianping; Wang, Miao; Wang, Zhijun

    2015-02-01

    Chinese-style sausage is a very popular meat product obtained from a mixture of chopped pork meat, lard, salt, spices, additives (nitrate, nitrite, and antioxidants) and/or starter cultures. The antioxidative effect of apple phenolic on lipid oxidation in Chinese-style sausage compared with that of butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) and ursolic acid were studied. Lipid oxidation was assessed through determination of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) and volatile aldehydes. The content and composition of fatty acids in phospholipid were evaluated. At the optimum addition level, apple phenolic (0.5 g·kg(-1) in total fat) was more effective at inhibiting lipid oxidation than BHT (0.15 g·kg(-1) in total fat) and ursolic acid (0.5 g·kg(-1) in total fat) in Chinese-style sausages during 120 days storage. Moreover, apple phenolic exhibited stronger phospholipid protective capacity than ursolic acid and BHT at the end of storage. This study reveals a potential application of apple phenolic to enhance the oxidation stability of meat products during long storage.

  1. Ionizing energy treatment of meat and meat products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation treatments that have received most attention with respect to red meats are radappertization, i.e. radiation sterilization (25-70 kGy), to enable the long term storage of meat without refrigeration, and radurization (0.5-10 kGy) in which a sufficient proportion of spoilage organisms are inactivated to enable the storage life of chilled meat to be extended. Shelf-stable radappertized meats cannot be produced in the fresh-like condition; they need to be heated to about 70 deg. C to inactivate endogenous enzymes that would otherwise cause flavour and texture defects. The products should be vacuum sealed in oxgyen-impermeable packages and irradiated in the frozen state, otherwise pronounced off-flavours and off-odours are formed. The radiation dose required to give a useful degree of microbial inactivation and permit an increase of storage life depends upon treatment and storage conditions. The dose required is likely to be in the range 0.25 to 1.0 kGy if aerobic conditions apply, and 1 to 4 kGy if anaerobic conditions apply. An acceleration in the rate of development of rancidity in meat as a result of irradiation may be of concern when meat is treated under aerobic conditions. At the highest dose indicated above for meat irradiated under anaerobic conditions (4 kGy), effects on the organoleptic attributes of mutton have been detected

  2. Rapid chilling cannot prevent inferior pork quality caused by high preslaughter stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hambrecht, E.; Eissen, J.J.; Klein, W.J.H.; Ducro, B.J.; Smits, C.H.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hartog, den L.A.

    2004-01-01

    The present experiment investigated whether increasing chilling rate could improve meat quality in pigs exposed to either minimal or high stress immediately preslaughter. Pigs (n = 192) were offspring of halothane-free lines. On various days, four groups of 48 pigs were processed at a commercial pla

  3. Welding Using Chilled-Inert-Gas Purging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgee, William F.; Rybicki, Daniel J.

    1995-01-01

    Report describes study of fusion welding using chilled inert gas. Marked improvement shown in welding of aluminum using chilled helium gas. Chilling inert gas produces two additional benefits: 1) creation of ultradense inert atmosphere around welds; 2) chilled gas cools metal more quickly down to temperature at which metals not reactive.

  4. Physicochemical and sensory properties of Galician chorizo sausage preserved by refrigeration, freezing, oil-immersion, or vacuum-packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Fernández, E; Romero-Rodríguez, M A; Vázquez-Odériz, M L

    2001-05-01

    Galician chorizo sausage is a traditional cured meat product from northwest Spain. We monitored changes in the physicochemical and sensory properties of Galician chorizo sausage conserved by four different methods, namely refrigeration, freezing, immersion in sunflower oil, and vacuum-packing. Refrigeration was the least effective method tested, with rapid deterioration of sensory properties, and oxidative spoilage evident from week 4 onward. Oil immersion and vacuum-packing gave reasonable conservation of sensory properties (despite some masking of aromas by the oil). Freezing gave acceptable conservation of sensory properties, and by week 6 there was still no evidence of oxidative spoilage.

  5. Preservative effect of food-based fermentate from Lactobacillus acidophilus NX2-6 on chilled pork patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianying; Lu, Yingjian; Liu, Xiaoxi; Bie, Xiaomei; Lv, Fengxia; Lu, Zhaoxin

    2014-03-01

    The food-based fermentate (FBF) from Lactobacillus acidophilus NX2-6 has a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity but has not previously been reported as a food preservative. Experiments were conducted to assess its application as a preservative in pork patties. The effect of freeze-dried FBF on the microbiological parameters, physicochemical changes, and sensory evaluations of chilled pork patties stored for 15 days at 4°C was investigated. The five treatments evaluated included a control (meat only), nisin (meat plus 0.5% nisin), L.1 (meat plus 2% freeze-dried FBF), L.2 (meat plus 4% freeze-dried FBF), and L.3 (meat plus 8% freeze-dried FBF). The results showed that freeze-dried FBF could significantly (P preservative in chilled pork patties.

  6. Natural antioxidants in meat and poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karre, Liz; Lopez, Keyla; Getty, Kelly J K

    2013-06-01

    In response to recent claims that synthetic antioxidants have the potential to cause toxicological effects and consumers' increased interest in purchasing natural products, the meat and poultry industry has been seeking sources of natural antioxidants. Due to their high phenolic compound content, fruits and other plant materials provide a good alternative to conventional antioxidants. Plum, grape seed extract, cranberry, pomegranate, bearberry, pine bark extract, rosemary, oregano, and other spices functions as antioxidants in meat and poultry products. Pomegranate, pine bark extract, cinnamon, and cloves have exhibited stronger antioxidant properties than some synthetic options. Plum products, grape seed extract, pine bark extract, rosemary, and some spices all have been shown to affect the color of finished meat or poultry products; however, in some products such as pork sausage or uncured meats, an increase in red color may be desired. When selecting a natural antioxidant, sensory and quality impact on the product should be considered to achieve desired traits. PMID:23501254

  7. Development of a low fat fresh pork sausage based on chitosan with health claims: impact on the quality, functionality and shelf-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Amaral, Deborah S; Cardelle-Cobas, Alejandra; do Nascimento, Bárbara M S; Monteiro, Maria J; Madruga, Marta S; Pintado, Maria Manuela E

    2015-08-01

    A low fat fresh pork sausage based on chitosan was developed with the objective of obtaining a new functional meat product with improved properties and health claims promoting cholesterol reduction. Sausages were formulated with chitosan (2%, w/w) and different fat levels (5%, 12.5% and 20%, w/w). The results indicated that incorporation of 2% chitosan into produced pork sausages with health claims of reduction of cholesterol is technologically feasible. In addition, the chitosan reduced the microbial growth, revealing interesting fat and water absorption capacities, reduced lipid oxidation, provided greater stability in terms of colorimetric parameters and promoted positive firmer texture and gumminess. The reduction of fat content to levels of 5% was positively achieved with the incorporation of chitosan. Sensorial analysis showed that panelists did not detect any significant difference in taste and any unfavorable effect on the sausage appearance as a consequence of chitosan addition and variation of fat.

  8. The Assessment of Red Beet as a Natural Colorant, and Evaluation of Quality Properties of Emulsified Pork Sausage Containing Red Beet Powder during Cold Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Choi, Jung-Seok; Moon, Sung-Sil; Jeong, Jin-Yeon; Kim, Gap-Don

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess red beet as a natural colorant in emulsified pork sausage and to investigate the effect of red beet on quality characteristics of emulsified pork sausage during 20 d of cold storage. Red beet was prepared as a powder and a substitute with sodium nitrite at 0.5% and 1.0% levels in emulsified pork sausage. Red beet significantly increased the moisture content and pH (psausage decreased by the addition of red beet powder (p0.05). Texture and 2-thiobabituric acid reactive substance were also not affected by red beet addition (p>0.05). Therefore, red beet could be a good natural colorant in emulsified pork sausage but it needs additional processing, such as betalain concentration and extraction as a juice, to be used as an antioxidant in meat products.

  9. 复合涂膜液对冷却肉微生物变化的影响%Effects of compound film coating solution on microbe change in chilled meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海丹; 黄现青

    2015-01-01

    The longissimus dorsi of pig was taken as a material in this experiment. The preserva⁃tives of 0 . 6% chitosan compounded with 0 . 25% Nisin and 0 . 6% chitosan compounded with 0 . 6% po⁃tassium sorbate were coated on the pork. Through the detection of the change of total numbers of colony under different temperature conditions, the effect of compound film coating solution on shelf life of meat was determined. The results showed that 0. 6% chitosan compounded with 0. 25% nisin and 0. 6% chi⁃tosan compounded with 0 . 6% potassium sorbate could extend the shelf life to 8 d and 7 d respectively at low temperature (0~4℃) . They both extended the shelf life longer than the control group. But at the room temperature (25℃) , the effect of prolonging the shelf life was not obvious.%试验以猪背最长肌为原料,用0.6%壳聚糖复配0.25% Nisin、0.6%壳聚糖复配0.6%山梨酸钾进行涂膜保鲜处理,通过测定不同温度条件下菌落总数的变化,确定复合涂膜液对冷却肉货架期的影响。结果表明:在低温(0~4℃)条件下贮藏,0.6%壳聚糖复配0.25%Nisin可延长货架期到第8天,而0.6%壳聚糖复配0.6%山梨酸钾处理货架期可延长到7d,均较对照组有所延长;而室温(25℃)条件下,货架期延长效果不明显。

  10. Effects of compound film coating solution on microbe change in chilled meat%复合涂膜液对冷却肉微生物变化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海丹; 黄现青

    2015-01-01

    The longissimus dorsi of pig was taken as a material in this experiment. The preserva⁃tives of 0 . 6% chitosan compounded with 0 . 25% Nisin and 0 . 6% chitosan compounded with 0 . 6% po⁃tassium sorbate were coated on the pork. Through the detection of the change of total numbers of colony under different temperature conditions, the effect of compound film coating solution on shelf life of meat was determined. The results showed that 0. 6% chitosan compounded with 0. 25% nisin and 0. 6% chi⁃tosan compounded with 0 . 6% potassium sorbate could extend the shelf life to 8 d and 7 d respectively at low temperature (0~4℃) . They both extended the shelf life longer than the control group. But at the room temperature (25℃) , the effect of prolonging the shelf life was not obvious.%试验以猪背最长肌为原料,用0.6%壳聚糖复配0.25% Nisin、0.6%壳聚糖复配0.6%山梨酸钾进行涂膜保鲜处理,通过测定不同温度条件下菌落总数的变化,确定复合涂膜液对冷却肉货架期的影响。结果表明:在低温(0~4℃)条件下贮藏,0.6%壳聚糖复配0.25%Nisin可延长货架期到第8天,而0.6%壳聚糖复配0.6%山梨酸钾处理货架期可延长到7d,均较对照组有所延长;而室温(25℃)条件下,货架期延长效果不明显。

  11. Processing technology of three delicacy ham sausage%三鲜火腿肠的加工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪梅; 王森; 幸胜平; 周永昌

    2011-01-01

    Ham sausage is a convenient food and eaten frequently by people. Developing safe, delicious and nutritious ham sausage is the need of production and the market. Adding mushrooms, carrots and shrimp meat in the ham sausage can reach the purpose of rich flavor and balanced nutrition.%火腿肠是人们经常食用的方便食品,开发安全、可口、营养均衡的火腿肠是生产的需要.更是市场的需要。三鲜火腿肠是在火腿肠中添加了香菇、胡萝卜和虾仁,达到了口味丰富,营养均衡的目的。

  12. Study on processing of barley healthcare sausage%大麦保健香肠工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爱萍; 张丽萍

    2014-01-01

    以香肠为研究对象,在香肠原配料中添加两种不同处理方式的大麦籽实,经过单因素试验与感官评价确定大麦保健香肠中大麦添加的最佳量,结果表明,大麦保健香肠的最佳配方为精肉80 g,肥膘20 g,大麦20 g,复合其他调配料。%Sausage was taken as the research object. Two different processing modes of barley seeds were added in sausage, through single factor experiment and sensory evaluation, the optimal addition of barley was determined. The result showed that the optimal formula of barley healthcare sausage was that lean meat 80g, fat 20g, barley 20g and composite of other ingredients.

  13. Development of Zunyi Fermented Sausage and the Application of HACCP in Production%遵义发酵香肠的研制及HACCP在生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李湘丽; 曹先东

    2015-01-01

    T he sausage is the traditional delicacy in Zunyi ,w hich has an unique taste and easy to be preserved . Generally ,the process of sausage is in winter .But in recent years'market ,some bacon products'factories are processing at any time ,in w hich there are semi-finished products and finished products .For semi-finished products ,they need to be cleaned and steamed before eating .This article has made a further improvement to the Zunyi fermented sausage by adding the Bulgarian lactobacillus and lactobacillus acidophilus with fermen‐tation processing ,which reduces the residual nitrite in bacon meat products .At the same time ,the HACCP system is introduced scientifically into the production and processing of Zunyi fermented sausage ,w hich aims to improve the safety and quality of sausage and produces consumers'favorite bacon meat products .That not only meets the requirements of food culture but also increases the safety of processing bacon meat products , w hich make the sausage become safe and health food .%介绍了遵义发酵香肠的研制改进方案,探讨了HACCP在发酵香肠生产中的应用,研究了发酵香肠生产过程中的HACCP控制标准,以期为提高腊产品加工的安全性及健康性提供参考。

  14. Essential oils from herbs against foodborne pathogens in chicken sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Lidiane Nunes; Probst, Isabella Silva; Murbach Teles Andrade, Bruna Fernanda; Bérgamo Alves, Fernanda Cristina; Albano, Mariana; Mores Rall, Vera Lucia; Júnior, Ary Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of chicken meat and its products, especially sausage, have increased in recent years. However, this product is susceptible to microbial contamination during manufacturing, which compromises its shelf life. The flavoring and preservative activities of essential oils (EO) have been recognized and the application of these antimicrobial agents as natural active compounds in food preservation has shown promise. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Ocimum basilicum and Origanum vulgare EO on Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis strains in artificially inoculated samples of fresh chicken sausage. First, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of EO in vitro was determined. The sausage was prepared and kept at ± 4°C; then, the inoculation of individual bacteria was carried out. EO were added at 0.3%, 1.0% and 1.5%v/w. After 0, 5, and 24 hours, the most probable number method (MPN) was performed. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to view the damage caused by these EO on bacterial morphology and/or structure. Only the 1.5% concentration was effective in reducing L. monocytogenes. 0.3% of O. vulgare EO was able to reduce the MPN/g of Salmonella Enteritidis (2 log) after 5 hours trials. O. basilicum EO showed no effect on Salmonella after 5 hours, but decreased by 2 log after 24 hours. O. vulgare EO at 1% gave a greater reduction of S. Enteritidis at 5 hours, increasing or maintaining this effect after 24 hours. The results confirmed the potential benefits of use EO in control of foodborne pathogens.

  15. 9 CFR 319.160 - Smoked pork sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Smoked pork sausage. 319.160 Section... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Uncooked, Smoked Sausage § 319.160 Smoked pork sausage. “Smoked Pork Sausage” is pork sausage that is smoked with hardwood...

  16. Preliminary evaluation of bacteriocinogenic potencial of Lactobaccilli isolates from South Portuguese traditional fermented sausages against Campylobacter, Salmonella, St. aureus and Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, S.; Fernandes, H.; M. J. Fernandes; A. Barreto; Elias, M.; Fraqueza, M.J

    2012-01-01

    The fermented and dry meat sausages presents relevant importance in the south of Europe gastronomy, namely in Portugal. According to the increased consumer concern regarding health and food safety, and simultaneously the abusive use of chemical products to control pathogenic flora, it is essential to get knowledge about bacteriocinogenic and technological properties provided by starter strains in meat products. Within this framework, it was developed a study in order to evaluate technological...

  17. Characteristics of magnetoacoustic sausage modes

    CERN Document Server

    Inglis, A R; Brady, C S; Nakariakov, V M; 10.1051/0004-6361/200912088

    2013-01-01

    Aims: We perform an advanced study of the fast magnetoacoustic sausage oscillations of coronal loops in the context of MHD coronal seismology to establish the dependence of the sausage mode period and cut-off wavenumber on the plasma-beta of the loop-filling plasma. A parametric study of the ratios for different harmonics of the mode is also carried out. Methods: Full magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations were performed using Lare2d, simulating hot, dense loops in a magnetic slab environment. The symmetric Epstein profile and a simple step-function profile were both used to model the density structure of the simulated loops. Analytical expressions for the cut-off wavenumber and the harmonic ratio between the second longitudinal harmonic and the fundamental were also examined. Results: It was established that the period of the global sausage mode is only very weakly dependent on the value of the plasma-beta inside a coronal loop, which justifies the application of this model to hot flaring loops. The cut-o...

  18. Presence of Listeria monocytogenes in Mediterranean-Style Dry Fermented Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Meloni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The morphological, physiological and epidemiological features of L. monocytogenes, together with the severity of human listeriosis infections, make L. monocytogenes of particular concern for manufacturers of cold-stored “ready to eat” (RTE foods. L. monocytogenes has been isolated from a wide variety of RTE foods and is responsible for several outbreaks associated with the consumption of RTE meat, poultry, dairy, fish and vegetable products. Although L. monocytogenes is among the most frequently-detected pathogens in dry fermented sausages, these products could be included in the category of RTE products in which the growth of L. monocytogenes is not favored and have rarely been implicated in listeriosis outbreaks. However, L. monocytogenes is highly difficult to control in fermented sausage processing environments due to its high tolerance to low pH and high salt concentration. In many Mediterranean-style dry fermented sausages, an empirical application of the hurdle technology often occurs and the frequent detection of L. monocytogenes in these products at the end of ripening highlights the need for food business operators to properly apply hurdle technology and to control the contamination routes of L. monocytogenes in the processing plants. In the following, through an up-to-date review of (personal and un- published data, the main aspects of the presence of L. monocytogenes in Mediterranean-style dry fermented sausages will be discussed.

  19. Impact of traditional practices on food safety: a case of acute toxoplasmosis related to the consumption of contaminated raw pork sausage in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Maria; Tumino, Giovanni; Partanna, Samanta; La Chiusa, Stella; Mancuso, Giorgio; Giglia, Maria La; Presti, Vincenzo Di Marco Lo

    2014-04-01

    A case of acute toxoplasmosis in an adolescent girl, almost certainly related to the consumption of raw sausage, is described. The girl suffered of fever and weakness and presented a swollen lymph node in the submandibular region. Serology analysis was positive for Toxoplasma gondii and excluded other infections. Further analysis, with avidity test and immunoblot, confirmed the acute toxoplasmosis. She reported that about a month before the appearance of the symptoms, she had eaten a piece of raw sausage while it was being prepared by her father. We analyzed sausage samples prepared from this same batch that had been frozen for later consumption, and they demonstrated evidence of T. gondii DNA when using a specific nested PCR assay. The sausage was prepared from the meat of a pig that had been backyard raised and slaughtered at home, a traditional practice in rural communities in many countries. The tasting of fresh prepared raw sausage is a common practice throughout Italy, and it could be a major cause for toxoplasmosis as suggested by the results of a questionnaire administered in the province of Palermo, Sicily. Contact with cats and, to a lesser extent, raw salad consumption were also referred to as presumptive causes for the symptomatic cases. Two additional cases of acute toxoplasmosis reported during questionnaire administration were alleged to have been caused by the consumption of fresh sausage made with the meat of a pig raised in the yard. Traditional practices in animal farming, and the processing of meat from animals raised in the backyard or meat from wild game animals, might have a big impact on food safety.

  20. Aroma components from dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1994-01-01

    Sausages with and without Staphylococcus xylosus were manufactured with four replicates. Antibiotics and a fungicide to inhibit growth of naturally occuring microorganisms were added to the control sausages. The volatile compounds from the sausages were collected and identified by gas...... chromatography/mass spectrometry, the effluent evaluated by sniffing and the sausages assessed by a trained panel. The study showed that sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus contained several fragrant esters that were not found in control sausages without microbial growth. Control sausages had...... an unpleasant, rancid odour compared to sausages with Staphylococcus xylosus, indicating that the esterase activity of Staphylococcus xylosus or other microorganisms is very important in order to obtain the proper fermented sausage aroma.Although sausages with Staphylococcus xylosus contained the highest...

  1. Concentrations of oxysterols in meat and meat products from pigs fed diets differing in the type of fat (palm oil or soybean oil) and vitamin E concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, K; Müller, G; Kluge, H; Hirche, F; Brandsch, C

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this study was to find out whether concentrations of oxysterols in pig meat are affected by dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E. 48 growth-finishing pigs were fed diets with either palm oil or soybean oil and vitamin E concentrations of 15, 40 or 200 mg/kg. Concentrations of oxysterols were analyzed in fresh and heat-processed (180 °C, 20 min) meat (M. longissimus dorsi) and in boiled sausage prepared from meat and back fat of the animals. Concentrations of oxysterols in fresh muscle were below 5 nmol/g dry matter; they were independent of the dietary fat type and vitamin E concentration. Heating caused a large increase of oxysterol concentration (up to 55 nmol/g dry matter). This effect was reduced by increasing dietary vitamin E concentration but was independent of the dietary fat. Sausage from pigs fed soybean oil had higher concentrations of oxysterols than sausage from pigs fed palm oil; vitamin E reduced concentrations of oxysterols in sausage from pigs fed soybean oil, but not in sausage from pigs fed palm oil.

  2. QUALITY CONTROL OF SOME TRADITIONAL MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. DOBRINAS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the characterization of six traditional meat products: smoked file, smoked bacon, pork sausages, sausage prepared from swine’s entrails, pork pastrami, sheep sausages. Organoleptic tests (the aspect and shape, the aspect of freshly cut in the section, smell, taste and consistency, physico-chemical and microbiological determinations (NTG, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli were performed. These analyzes are a part of quality control that must be done in order to obtain a certificate from the Ministry of Agriculture for a traditional product. After identification of H2S and starch and according to fat oxidation degree it was concluded that analyzed samples didn’t contain counterfeiters and all parameters analyzed are within the maximum limits allowed by law. Considering all the procedures for manufacturing, characteristics of raw and auxiliary materials, organoleptic properties of final products analyzed in this study, it can be concluded that analyzed meat specialties meet the requirements of Ministry Order no. 690/28.09.2004 for the traditional products certification.

  3. Dry fermented buffalo sausage with sage oil extract: Safety and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim, Hayam M.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sage oil extract was added during the preparation of dry fermented buffalo meat sausage. Some chemical, microbial and sensory characteristics of sausages were evaluated during the ripening period. In particular, pH, lipid oxidation, biogenic amines and micro flora were analyzed. Results of this study pointed out that sage oil extract as natural antioxidant could be utilized in dry fermented sausage, prepared from buffalo meat, in order to obtain a final product within acceptable lipid oxidation and biogenic amine levels, as well as improved sensory quality.Extractos de aceite de salvia fueron añadidos a embutidos de carne de búfalo. Las características químicas, microbiológicas y sensoriales de los embutidos fueron evaluadas durante el periodo de maduración. En particular, pH, oxidación lipídica, aminas biogénicas y microflora fueron analizadas. Los resultados de este estudio indican que los extractos de aceite de salvia, como antioxidantes naturales, podrían ser utilizados en embutidos preparados con carnes de búfalo, con objeto de obtener un producto final con unos niveles de aminas biogénicas y de oxidación lipídica aceptable, así como con una calidad sensorial mejorada.

  4. The potential of soya oil and egg-yolk as sources of fat in beef sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Teye

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to assess the effects of less-saturated fats [Egg yolk (EY and soya oil (SO] on characteristics and acceptability of beef sausages. Each of the fats was incorporated in beef sausages at three levels (5%, 10% and 15%, and compared with products formulated with only lean beef (Control. Fresh boneless beef was obtained and thoroughly trimmed of excess visible fats, and then minced. The minced beef was divided into portions of 4kg, and were randomly assigned to the fats. The fats were then mixed with the minced meats and allowed 15 minutes for the meat to absorb the fat. The products were formulated and evaluated for their sensory characteristics using BSI (1993 method, and storability by laboratory analyses. Addition of both fats up to 15% improved (P0.05 on flavour liking and reduced acceptability of the EY3 products. Increasing levels of SO improved (P0.05 effect on product storability. Comparatively, inclusion of SO up to 15% in beef sausages was preferred (P

  5. CHANGES OF MICROFLORA DURING STORAGE OF ‘NDUJA, A VERY TYPICAL SAUSAGE OF CALABRIA (ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Giofré

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ‘nduja is one of the most typical and appreciated Calabrian raw seasoned sausages. As well as other Calabrian meat products, the ‘nduja contains a high quantity of hot red chilli pepper. The ‘nduja is a seasoned, very savoury but yet spreadable sausage; it is traditionally spread on bread or used as natural flavour enhancer of pasta, pizza and other similar kind of food. 27 samples of ‘nduja were sampled, 15 coming from artisanal production and the remaining 12 from industrial production, in order to establish if they were differences between the two kind of production from the hygienic point of view. The samples were stored up to 6 month and analyzed at 1 day of storage and then at 3 and 6 month of storage. Our results show that the ‘nduja is a meat product of good hygienic quality; the sausages made in artisanal manner showed a more variable microbial quality as the ones made in industrial factories. The microbial flora of ‘nduja is mainly composed by lactobacilli, yeasts and moulds; only in rare cases we have found quite high numbers of micrococci and/od pseudomonads. Total and faecal coliforms are in general very low, in the product ready to eat. No Salmonella enterica nor Listeria monocytogenes nor enterotoxigenic strains of S. aureus or B. cereus were found in the samples analysed.

  6. Effect of sun mushroom extract in pork sausage and evaluation of the oxidative and microbiological stability of the product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Santi Stefanello

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The prevention of lipid oxidation is one of the meat industry’s target and, consequently, the search for natural antioxidants has been increased in last years. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of hydroethanolic extract from sun mushroom (Agaricus blazei Murrill on the oxidative and microbiological stability of pork meat sausage during storage at 4ºC. The extract was added to sausages in 0 %, 0.5 %, 1.0 % and 2.0 % (v/w concentrations. There was done the proximate composition, pH, instrumental color (L*, a*, b*, C* e h*, TBARS (Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances and microbiological analyzes. Data were subjected to analysis of variance, in randomized completely design. The results from proximate composition and microbiological analyzes at day 0 were according to the Brazilian legislation. At 1st day of storage, control treatment showed higher (p<0,05 a* value (red than the other treatments, while b* value (yellow has increased (p<0,05 during the storage period in all treatments. At 21st day of storage, TBARS values of sausages with 2.0 % extract addition was lower (0,705±0,01 mg MDA/kg sample (p<0,05 than the control (1,097±0,11mg MDA/kg sample. The extract has not shown effect on the microbiological stability of the sausages. Nevertheless, the hydroethanolic extract from sun mushroom was effective on the oxidative stability of pork meat sausage when added in a 2.0 % concentration, improving its shelf-life up to 21 days of storage at 4 °C, and it is possible the use as a natural antioxidant source.

  7. Quality effects of using organogels in breakfast sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbut, S; Wood, J; Marangoni, A

    2016-12-01

    Organogels made with canola oil, ethyl cellulose (EC; 8, 10, 12 and 14%), and sorbitan monostearate (SMS; 1.5, 3.0%) were used to replace pork fat in breakfast sausages. Some of the formulations with SMS matched the objective hardness (texture analyzer) of the pork fat control; however, sensory hardness was not so easily matched. Using canola oil by itself resulted in lower objective and subjective hardness values than the control. Sensory cohesiveness was not affected by the replacements, but springiness was lower in the treatments without SMS and some of the high EC treatments with SMS. Lightness of organogel treatments was lower than the control, but redness and yellowness values were not affected. Sensory juiciness and oiliness were in general lower in the organogel treatments. Overall, the study demonstrates the potential for the use of organogels in coarse ground meat products, as a means of improving the nutritional profile by replacing saturated fat with mono and poly unsaturated oils.

  8. Effect of the use of Lens culinaris flour as an extender in the physical characteristics and acceptability of a sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José David Torres González

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this research was to use Lens culinaris flour, verdina variety, as a meat extender, and to analyze its effect on the physical characteristics and acceptability of a sausage.Methodology: The flour was obtained and its qualitative characteristics, its oil absorption index (OAI and its water holding capacity (WHC were analyzed. The sausage was prepared, it was added 5% of flour to it; then, the bromatological, microbiological, textural, and sensory parameters per triplicate of the finished product were evaluated.Statistical Analysis: An experimental design was used completely at random, making three replicates of the formulation, and analysis of variances was performed to find statistical differences.Results: The protein content of the flour was 35.89 % while the fiber was 11.82%. The water holding capacity and the lipid index absorption were 3.87 mL water/ g sample, and 2.01 ml of oil/g sample. The final product showed that microbial counts were within the provisions of the Colombian Technical Standards. Flour positively influenced the acceptability of sausages and was favorable in all texture parameters, which were similar to those obtained in commercial sausages.Conclusions: L. culinaris flour represents a non-meat alternative raw material in the manufacture of products with interesting protein values. These results may encourage the use of Lentil flour with verdina variety of food products consumers.

  9. Antilisterial effects of antibacterial formulations containing essential oils, nisin, nitrite and organic acid salts in a sausage model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabraie, Mina; Vu, Khanh Dang; Huq, Tanzina; Khan, Avik; Lacroix, Monique

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of sixteen antibacterial formulations against Listeria monocytogenes in a sausage model using a standard experimental design with 4 independent factors at 2 levels (2(4)). Four independent factors consisted of nisin (12.5-25 ppm), nitrite (100-200 ppm) and organic acid salts (1.55-3.1 %) and the mixture of Chinese cinnamon and Cinnamon bark Essential Oils (EOs) (0.025-0.05 %). Based on the analysis, utilization of low (0.025 %) or high concentration (0.05 %) of EOs in combination with low concentration of nitrite (100 ppm), organic acid salts (1.55 %), and nisin (12.5 ppm) could reduce respectively 1.5 or 2.6 log CFU/g of L. monocytogenes in sausage at day 7 of storage as compared to the control. A predictive equation was created to predict the growth of L. monocytogenes in sausage. The sensory evaluation was then performed on selected optimized formulations in cooked meat (both pork and beef sausages) with a trained jury consisting of 35 individuals, demonstrated the selected antimicrobial formulations were organoleptically acceptable. The results revealed an important role of hurdle technology to control L. monocytogenes in meat product. PMID:27478218

  10. Antilisterial effects of antibacterial formulations containing essential oils, nisin, nitrite and organic acid salts in a sausage model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabraie, Mina; Vu, Khanh Dang; Huq, Tanzina; Khan, Avik; Lacroix, Monique

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of sixteen antibacterial formulations against Listeria monocytogenes in a sausage model using a standard experimental design with 4 independent factors at 2 levels (2(4)). Four independent factors consisted of nisin (12.5-25 ppm), nitrite (100-200 ppm) and organic acid salts (1.55-3.1 %) and the mixture of Chinese cinnamon and Cinnamon bark Essential Oils (EOs) (0.025-0.05 %). Based on the analysis, utilization of low (0.025 %) or high concentration (0.05 %) of EOs in combination with low concentration of nitrite (100 ppm), organic acid salts (1.55 %), and nisin (12.5 ppm) could reduce respectively 1.5 or 2.6 log CFU/g of L. monocytogenes in sausage at day 7 of storage as compared to the control. A predictive equation was created to predict the growth of L. monocytogenes in sausage. The sensory evaluation was then performed on selected optimized formulations in cooked meat (both pork and beef sausages) with a trained jury consisting of 35 individuals, demonstrated the selected antimicrobial formulations were organoleptically acceptable. The results revealed an important role of hurdle technology to control L. monocytogenes in meat product.

  11. Behavior of Staphylococcus aureus and autochthone microbiota in fresh sausages added of sodium nitrite and stored under refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyanne Maria Moraes Correia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fresh sausages are cured meat products that may be contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus during the manufacturing procedure, which is frequently related with inadequate handling practices. The use of nitrite in meat products has proven efficacy against Clostridium botulinum, and studies indicate that bactericidal action against S. aureus depends on factors that are intrinsic and extrinsic to the product. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of nitrite concentration, and pH on S. aureus and psychrotrophic autochthone microbiota in fresh sausages stored at different times and temperatures. Fresh sausage were produced at nitrite concentrations 50, 150 and 200ppm and contaminated with S. aureus. The sausages were storage at refrigeration (7 and 12°C and the quantification of S. aureus and psychrotrophic microorganisms was carried out on days 0, 2, 4, 7, and 10. Results showed that nitrite concentrations and the temperatures used had minimal effect on the multiplication of S. aureus and psychrotrophic autochthone microbiota. Final counts depended only on the length of storage: at the end of 10 days, counts were statistically similar in the different groups, showing that temperature and nitrite concentrations used did not control microbial growth effectively. It is suggested that the product should be stored below 7°C or at freezing temperatures for greater microbiological stability

  12. The effect of the addition of a commercial bioprotector in characteristics of "alheira" made from Alentejano pig meat

    OpenAIRE

    Elias, M.; Mota, F.; Laranjo, Marta; A. C. Agulheiro-Santos; Potes, M.E

    2014-01-01

    “Alheira” is a traditional fermented sausage usually produced from poultry meat. A new product was developed at a Portuguese traditional meat plant using Alentejano pig breed meat [1]. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a commercial bioprotector in the physicochemical, microbiological and instrumental texture parameters, as well as in the sensorial attributes of the “alheiras”. Two different treatments were compared, namely control and bioprotector and three end product “alhe...

  13. Changes in sensory properties of Galician chorizo sausage preserved by freezing, oil-immersion and vacuum-packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Fernández, E; Romero-Rodríguez, M A; Vázquez-Odériz, M L

    2005-06-01

    Galician chorizo sausage, a dry-cured meat product from northwest Spain, was conserved by different methods with the aim of increasing its useful life. We studied changes in the sensory properties of this dry-cured meat product conserved by freezing, vacuum-packing and a traditional method involving immersion in sunflower oil. The reasons for the elimination of the samples conserved in sunflower oil at sampling 13 (week 23) was an increase in rancid flavor, acid flavor and external odor intensity. In sampling 18 (week 41) the samples conserved by vacuum-packing were eliminated because of increases in acid flavor, external and internal odor intensity, flavor intensity and after-taste persistence. In the frozen sausages the changes in sensory properties happened very slowly during storage.

  14. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards, 2014. Scientific Opinion on the public health risks related to the maintenance of the cold chain during storage and transport of meat. Part 2 (minced meat from all species)

    OpenAIRE

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2014-01-01

    Fresh meat intended for the production of minced meat may be contaminated by a range of pathogens including Salmonella spp. and verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC). These may grow if the temperatures are not maintained below 5 °C along the continuum from carcass chilling to mincing. Moreover Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica will grow at chill temperatures, albeit slowly, but significant growth may occur during prolonged storage. Current legislation (Regulation (EC) 853...

  15. Antibacterial activity of bacteriocin-like substance P34 on Listeria monocytogenes in chicken sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voltaire Sant'Anna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of the bacteriocin-like substance (BLS P34 against Listeria monocytogenes was investigated in chicken sausage. The BLS was applied to chicken sausages (256 AU g-1 previously inoculated with a suspension of 10² cfu g-1 of L. monocytogenes. BLS P34 inhibited the indicator microorganism in situ in all incubation times for up to 10 days at 5 °C. The effectiveness of BLS P34 was increased when it was added in combination with nisin. The bacteriocin was also tested in natural eatable natural bovine wrapping (salty semi-dried tripe against the same indicator microorganism, also showing inhibitory capability in vitro. BLS P34 showed potential to control L. monocytogenes in refrigerated meat products.

  16. Antibacterial activity of bacteriocin-like substance P34 on Listeria monocytogenes in chicken sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Anna, Voltaire; Quadros, Deoni A F; Motta, Amanda S; Brandelli, Adriano

    2013-12-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the bacteriocin-like substance (BLS) P34 against Listeria monocytogenes was investigated in chicken sausage. The BLS was applied to chicken sausages (256 AU g(-1)) previously inoculated with a suspension of 10(2) cfu g(-1) of L. monocytogenes. BLS P34 inhibited the indicator microorganism in situ in all incubation times for up to 10 days at 5 °C. The effectiveness of BLS P34 was increased when it was added in combination with nisin. The bacteriocin was also tested in natural eatable natural bovine wrapping (salty semi-dried tripe) against the same indicator microorganism, also showing inhibitory capability in vitro. BLS P34 showed potential to control L. monocytogenes in refrigerated meat products.

  17. Antibacterial activity of bacteriocin-like substance P34 on Listeria monocytogenes in chicken sausage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant’Anna, Voltaire; Quadros, Deoni A.F.; Motta, Amanda S.; Brandelli, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the bacteriocin-like substance (BLS) P34 against Listeria monocytogenes was investigated in chicken sausage. The BLS was applied to chicken sausages (256 AU g−1) previously inoculated with a suspension of 102 cfu g−1 of L. monocytogenes. BLS P34 inhibited the indicator microorganism in situ in all incubation times for up to 10 days at 5 °C. The effectiveness of BLS P34 was increased when it was added in combination with nisin. The bacteriocin was also tested in natural eatable natural bovine wrapping (salty semi-dried tripe) against the same indicator microorganism, also showing inhibitory capability in vitro. BLS P34 showed potential to control L. monocytogenes in refrigerated meat products. PMID:24688506

  18. Sodium-reduced lean sausages with fish oil optimized by a mixture design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, L; Argel, N; Andrés, S C; Califano, A N

    2015-06-01

    A partial NaCl replacement by KCl and sodium tripolyphosphate on low-fat meat sausages formulated with fish oil was studied using a mixture design. Thermal behavior by modulated differential scanning calorimetry, physicochemical, and textural properties were determined; afterwards they were mathematically modeled as a function of salts content. The thermo-rheological behavior of the different formulations was also studied in a control-stress rheometer. The optimal sodium reduction was found employing a desirability function approach. This formulation was experimentally validated and employed for microstructure analysis by environmental scanning microscopy. The results obtained in this work revealed that partial sodium replacement affected the matrix microstructure, but this change had no impact on sensory acceptability. In comparison with US and Argentinean commercial sausages, our product has 58% and 70% less Na(+) respectively.

  19. Antibiotic resistance of lactic acid bacteria isolated from dry-fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraqueza, Maria João

    2015-11-01

    Dry-fermented sausages are meat products highly valued by many consumers. Manufacturing process involves fermentation driven by natural microbiota or intentionally added starter cultures and further drying. The most relevant fermentative microbiota is lactic acid bacteria (LAB) such as Lactobacillus, Pediococcus and Enterococcus, producing mainly lactate and contributing to product preservation. The great diversity of LAB in dry-fermented sausages is linked to manufacturing practices. Indigenous starters development is considered to be a very promising field, because it allows for high sanitary and sensorial quality of sausage production. LAB have a long history of safe use in fermented food, however, since they are present in human gastrointestinal tract, and are also intentionally added to the diet, concerns have been raised about the antimicrobial resistance in these beneficial bacteria. In fact, the food chain has been recognized as one of the key routes of antimicrobial resistance transmission from animal to human bacterial populations. The World Health Organization 2014 report on global surveillance of antimicrobial resistance reveals that this issue is no longer a future prediction, since evidences establish a link between the antimicrobial drugs use in food-producing animals and the emergence of resistance among common pathogens. This poses a risk to the treatment of nosocomial and community-acquired infections. This review describes the possible sources and transmission routes of antibiotic resistant LAB of dry-fermented sausages, presenting LAB antibiotic resistance profile and related genetic determinants. Whenever LAB are used as starters in dry-fermented sausages processing, safety concerns regarding antimicrobial resistance should be addressed since antibiotic resistant genes could be mobilized and transferred to other bacteria.

  20. 南瓜香肠的研制探讨%Discussion on Development of Pumpkin Sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简清梅

    2015-01-01

    Objective] This study aimed to develop pumpkin sausage. [Method] The single-factor design and orthogonal design were adopted. In the traditional sausage, fresh pumpkin was added. Based on the results of sensory test and physical and chemical indexes determination, the optimum recipe for pumpkin sausage was deter-mined. [Result] The optimum recipe for pumpkin sausage was as fol ows: 100% of pork (fat to lean ratio of 2∶8), 45% of pumpkin particles, 6% of soy protein, 7% of sugar, 3.5% of salt, 1% of spice and 0.5% of monascus red pigment. [Conclusion] The successful preparation of pumpkin sausage wil provide consumers with nutri-tion, health and snack meat product with comprehensive nutrition and unique flavor.%[目的]探讨南瓜香肠的研制。[方法]采用单因素和正交试验设计,在传统香肠中添加新鲜南瓜,通过感官检验及理化指标的测定,确定南瓜香肠的最佳配方。[方法]最佳配方为猪肉100%(肥瘦比为2∶8),南瓜粒45%,大豆蛋白6%,白糖7%,食盐3.5%,香辛料1%,红曲红色素0.5%。[结论]为消费者提供营养全面、风味独特的营养、保健、休闲为一体的南瓜香肠肉制品。

  1. Effect of pre-emulsified fish oil - as source of PUFA n-3 - on microstructure and sensory properties of mortadella, a Spanish bologna-type sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Ester; García, María Luisa; Selgas, María Dolores

    2008-10-01

    Conventional and low-fat cooked sausages (cursive) were prepared with fish oil as a source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Fish oil was incorporated pre-emulsified with caseinates and water. Pre-emulsion was added in sufficient amounts to give fish oil levels of 1-6% in the final product. Lipid oxidation was determined (TBARs index) and instrumental measures of colour and texture were carried out. A sensory analysis was performed in which sensory parameters were evaluated by a hedonic test. There were no significant changes in TBAR values of final products being similar in both control and fish oil added sausages. In general terms, a slight increase in hardness and work of shearing were observed at the higher fish oil levels independently of the fat content. Sausages were analysed after 90 days of storage under refrigeration and similar results were observed. Microstructure of sausages was also studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a more compact structure was observed when the high levels were assayed. However, all sausages were well accepted when sensory quality was evaluated. Fat composition showed an increase in n-3 PUFA yielding a n-6/n-3 ratio close to 2, which is considered as healthier. For this, the incorporation of fish oil pre-emulsified seems to be a good option to include n-3 PUFA in cooked meat products, obtaining sensorially adequate and healthier stable sausages.

  2. 胡萝卜火腿肠生产工艺%Processing technology of carrot ham sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋昌喜; 董玲娟

    2012-01-01

    The processing technology of carrot ham sausage was introduced in this paper, and this new product could satisfy people with carrot nutrition and enrich the meat market.%介绍了胡萝l、火腿肠的加工工艺,产品满足人们对胡萝卜的营养需要,丰富了肉制品市场的种类。

  3. Low molecular weight peptides derived from sarcoplasmic proteins produced by an autochthonous starter culture in a beaker sausage model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza M. López

    2015-06-01

    Significance: The selection of a specific autochthonous starter culture guarantees the hygiene and typicity of fermented sausages. The identification of new peptides as well as new target proteins by means of peptidomics represents a significant step toward the elucidation of the role of microorganisms in meat proteolysis. Moreover, these peptides may be further used as biomarkers capable to certify the use of the applied autochthonous starter culture described here.

  4. [The use of "sous vide" technology in the packaging of chilled and ready to serve food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, S

    1999-01-01

    As chilled precooked dishes show limited to 3-5 days shelf life several additional factors have to be applied to extend it up to 21 or even 42 days as is sometimes allowed for sous vide technology products. Those factors comprise high hygienic standards for raw materials and premises as well as technological steps and parameters that efficiently destroy microbial contamination, and do not allow for recontamination or bacterial growth. Such steps include precooking which also means pasteurisation in high vacuum or anaerobic atmosphere in sealed pouches, blast chilling, low temperature storage parameters as well as high temperature of reheating process and quick serving procedures. Paper specifies parameters for each technological steps and presents microbiological requirements for final products. Sous vide technology allows for good quality and high nutritional value in soups, meats in sauces and stewed vegetables. It is used for individual consumer in chilled "ready to eat" line dishes in supermarkets and supplies such dishes for catering units. PMID:10523935

  5. The nutritional value of some processed meat products in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babji, A S; Mohdyusof, S

    1995-03-01

    Per capita consumption of meat and meat products in Malaysia more than doubled from 15.70 kg in 1970 to 35.71 kg in 1990. This increase in meat consumption is mainly due to the rapid development and wide acceptance of value added meat and poultry products amongst Malaysian consumers. Meat products such as burgers, sausages, hotdogs and nuggets are widely accepted and consumed by all ethnic groups at home as well as in the fast food restaurants. The significant expansion of the fast food industry and the increase consumption of processed meat products makes it necessary for a re-evaluation of the nutritional quality of popular meat products currently available in the market. This review paper described the quality of some processed meat products, their proximate composition, meat quality, use of non meat proteins and binders, and the use of additives in the formulation of burgers, frankfurters, nuggets, bologna, chicken and beef balls. Preliminary results on the protein efficiency ratio of local meat products seemed favourable but this study is limited to only one laboratory. In vivo and in vitro protein digestibility studies indicated high values on the digestibility of locally manufactured meat products. Proximate analysis of the raw materials used in the formulation of such products showed many with high fat and low protein contents being utilized. The meat content was lower than the minimum amount stated by the food regulation. This paper concludes that due to lack of information and studies on the nutritional composition of processed meat products, concerned bodies should take positive steps to generate reliable data to elucidate the actual nutritional composition of such products. It is also observed that many by-products from the animal industry from non-conventional sources are increasingly being utilized in the manufacture of processed meat product. PMID:22692017

  6. The nutritional value of some processed meat products in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babji, A S; Mohdyusof, S

    1995-03-01

    Per capita consumption of meat and meat products in Malaysia more than doubled from 15.70 kg in 1970 to 35.71 kg in 1990. This increase in meat consumption is mainly due to the rapid development and wide acceptance of value added meat and poultry products amongst Malaysian consumers. Meat products such as burgers, sausages, hotdogs and nuggets are widely accepted and consumed by all ethnic groups at home as well as in the fast food restaurants. The significant expansion of the fast food industry and the increase consumption of processed meat products makes it necessary for a re-evaluation of the nutritional quality of popular meat products currently available in the market. This review paper described the quality of some processed meat products, their proximate composition, meat quality, use of non meat proteins and binders, and the use of additives in the formulation of burgers, frankfurters, nuggets, bologna, chicken and beef balls. Preliminary results on the protein efficiency ratio of local meat products seemed favourable but this study is limited to only one laboratory. In vivo and in vitro protein digestibility studies indicated high values on the digestibility of locally manufactured meat products. Proximate analysis of the raw materials used in the formulation of such products showed many with high fat and low protein contents being utilized. The meat content was lower than the minimum amount stated by the food regulation. This paper concludes that due to lack of information and studies on the nutritional composition of processed meat products, concerned bodies should take positive steps to generate reliable data to elucidate the actual nutritional composition of such products. It is also observed that many by-products from the animal industry from non-conventional sources are increasingly being utilized in the manufacture of processed meat product.

  7. The presence of undesirable mould species on the surface of dry sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesković-Moračanin Slavica M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Transition from manufacture to the industrial way of meat production and processing, as well as contemporary concept of food quality and safety, have led to the application of starter cultures. Their application leads towards the streamlining of the production process in the desired direction, quality improvement and its harmonization, and thereby to its standardization. Application of moulds in the meat industry is based on positive effects of their proteolytic and lipolytic egzoenzymes which, as a consequence, leads to the creation of characteristic sensory properties ('flavor' of fermented products. Penicillium nalgiovense is a typical representative of moulds used in the production of fermented sausages-salamis from our region. Samples of 'zimska salama' (dry sausage, produced with Penicillium nalgiovense, were evaluated as hygienically unacceptable. Their sensory properties changed due to contamination of this mould during the ripening process. Micological analysis discovered the presence of Penicillium aurantiogriseum, which is a frequent mould contaminant in the meat industry. At the same time, thin layer chromatography revealed no possibility of metabolic activity of this mould in the creation of mycotoxins. However, the presence of this mould on the surface of 'zimska salama' is considered as undesirable due to formation of 'off flavor' in products. Such product is considered as hygienically unacceptable and cannot be used for the human consumption.

  8. Sausage oscillations of coronal plasma slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsey, C.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Fludra, A.

    2014-07-01

    Context. Sausage oscillations are observed in plasma non-uniformities of the solar corona as axisymmetric perturbations of the non-uniformity. Often, these non-uniformities can be modelled as field-aligned slabs of the density enhancement. Aims: We perform parametric studies of sausage oscillations of plasma slabs, aiming to determine the dependence of the oscillation period on its parameters, and the onset of leaky and trapped regimes of the oscillations. Methods: Slabs with smooth transverse profiles of the density of a zero-beta plasma are perturbed by an impulsive localised perturbation of the sausage symmetry. In particular, the slab can contain an infinitely thin current sheet in its centre. The initial value problem is then solved numerically. The numerical results are subject to spectral analysis. The results are compared with analytical solutions for a slab with a step-function profile and also with sausage oscillations of a plasma cylinder. Results: We established that sausage oscillations in slabs generally have the same properties as in plasma cylinders. In the trapped regime, the sausage oscillation period increases with the increase in the longitudinal wavelength. In the leaky regime, the dependence of the period on the wavelength experiences saturation, and the period becomes independent of the wavelength in the long-wavelength limit. In the leaky regime the period is always longer than in the trapped regime. The sausage oscillation period in a slab is always longer than in a cylinder with the same transverse profile. In slabs with steeper transverse profiles, sausage oscillations have longer periods. The leaky regime occurs at shorter wavelengths in slabs with smoother profiles.

  9. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in Danish Smoked Fish and Meat Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; White, S.; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    2006-01-01

    Twenty seven PAH were detected in 45 selected smoked food samples produced in Denmark, including mackerel, herring, trout, small sausages, salami, and bacon. The sum of PAH in smoked meat products ranged from 24 mu g/kg for salami to 64 mu g/kg in bacon, while those in fish products ranged from 2...

  10. Trade and customs procedures: the compliance costs for UK meat imports: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Grainger, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The study was funded by the Nottingham University Business School with the support of the International Meat Trade Association (IMTA) and the Association of Port Health Authorities (APHA), amongst others. It involved: a detailed review of current import procedures applicable to importing meat into the United Kingdom (UK) from outside of the European Union (EU); an in-depth study of the trade and customs compliance costs as experienced by three meat importers of chilled and frozen beef and la...

  11. SAUSAGE OSCILLATIONS OF CORONAL PLASMA STRUCTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakariakov, V. M.; Hornsey, C. [Physics Department, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Melnikov, V. F., E-mail: V.Nakariakov@warwick.ac.uk [Central Astronomical Observatory at Pulkovo of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 196140 St Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2012-12-20

    The dependence of the period of sausage oscillations of coronal loops on length together with the depth and steepness of the radial profile are determined. We performed a parametric study of linear axisymmetric fast magnetoacoustic (sausage) oscillations of coronal loops modeled as a field-aligned low-{beta} plasma cylinder with a smooth inhomogeneity of the plasma density in the radial direction. The density decreases smoothly in the radial direction. Sausage oscillations are impulsively excited by a perturbation of the radial velocity, localized at the cylinder axis and with a harmonic dependence on the longitudinal coordinate. The initial perturbation results in either a leaky or a trapped sausage oscillation, depending upon whether the longitudinal wavenumber is smaller or greater than a cutoff value, respectively. The period of the sausage oscillations was found to always increase with increasing longitudinal wavelength, with the dependence saturating in the long-wavelength limit. Deeper and steeper radial profiles of the Alfven speed correspond to more efficient trapping of sausage modes: the cutoff value of the wavelength increases with the steepness and the density (or Alfven speed) contrast ratio. In the leaky regime, the period is always longer than the period of a trapped mode of a shorter wavelength in the same cylinder. For shallow density profiles and shorter wavelengths, the period increases with wavelength. In the long-wavelength limit, the period becomes independent of the wavelength and increases with the depth and steepness of the radial profile of the Alfven speed.

  12. Role of surface-inoculated Debaryomyces hansenii and Yarrowia lipolytica strains in dried fermented sausage manufacture. Part 1: Evaluation of their effects on microbial evolution, lipolytic and proteolytic patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrignani, Francesca; Iucci, Luciana; Vallicelli, Melania; Guerzoni, M Elisabetta; Gardini, Fausto; Lanciotti, Rosalba

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of Debaryomyces hansenii and Yarrowia lipolytica strains, used with lactic acid starter cultures (Lactobacillus plantarum), on the manufacture of dried fermented sausages to understand their role on sausage microbial evolution, lipolytic and proteolytic patterns. The inoculation of the yeast strains did not markedly affect the sausage's microbial flora. The sausages with the yeast strains showed more marked and earlier water activity (a(w)) reductions. Moreover, the surface inoculation of the yeast strains resulted, at the end of ripening, in more pronounced proteolysis and lipolysis. The lipolytic patterns of the products were affected not only by the yeast strain but also by the level of mincing of the meat mixture used. PMID:22064033

  13. Study on Influence of Different Types of Meat on the Quality of Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Nagy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Meat species in processed food products have been gaining an increasing interest mainly due to public health, economic and legal concerns, but also due to religious reasons. In the recent years there was an increasing demand for healthier meat products. Formulation of healthier meat products based on processing strategies is one of the most important current approaches to the development of potential meat-based functional foods. The main objective of the study was to characterize different type of meat and to use that to obtain a meat product-smoked sausage. The physico-chemical analyses highlighted the moisture content (drying-oven at 105 ºC, protein (Kjeldahl method and fat (Soxhlet method content and sodium chloride content (Mohr method of the meat and the final product. Sensory analyses of the samples as well as control sample were evaluated by 17 untrained panellists using a 9 point hedonic scale. Following this study, it was noted an improvement of organoleptic characteristics (texture and appearance as well as physico-chemical and sensorial properties of the new product compared with the limits stipulated.

  14. Survival and Risk Comparison of Campylobacter jejuni on Various Processed Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Hyeon Hong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate survival kinetics of Campylobacter jejuni on various processed meat products (dry-cured ham, round ham with/without sodium nitrite, garlic seasoned ham with/without sodium nitrite, and sausage without sodium nitrite. Additionally, a semi-quantitative risk assessment of C. jejuni on various processed meat products was conducted using FDA-iRISK 1.0. Inoculated processed meat products with 6.0 ± 0.5 log CFU/g of C. jejuni were vacuum packed and stored at 4, 10, 17, 24, 30, and 36 °C. Survival curves were fitted to the Weibull model to obtain the delta values of C. jejuni on various processed meat products. The most rapid death of C. jejuni was observed on dry-cured ham, followed by sausage without sodium nitrite. The results of semi-quantitative risk assessment indicate that dry-cured ham represented the lowest risk among all samples. C. jejuni on processed meats presented a greater risk at 4 °C than at 10 °C. The risk of ham was greater than the risk of sausage, regardless of type. Among all samples, the highest risk of C. jejuni was observed in round ham without sodium nitrite. Overall, our data indicates that risk of processed meat products due to C. jejuni is relatively low.

  15. Control of lightness and firmness of cold and reheated frankfurter-type sausages using different spectroscopic methods applied to raw batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egelandsdal, B; Dingstad, G I; Tøgersen, G; Hildrum, K I

    2007-03-01

    Muscle types and collagen, fat, and muscle protein minus collagen were varied in cooked frankfurter-type sausages made from beef and pork meat as well as pork backfat. The content of collagen was fixed at preset levels with pork rind. The amount of total muscle protein in the sausages varied between 5.9% and 11.9% and the fat between 16.1% and 22.1%. The collagen content varied between 1.3% and 4%. Spectroscopic measurements (near-infrared reflectance spectra 1100 to 2500 nm; front-face autofluorescence emission spectra 360 to 640 nm) on raw batters were used to predict the amounts of total muscle protein minus collagen, collagen, myoglobin, and fat (biochemical components), L* values from a Minolta chromameter, and firmness of cold (22 degrees C) and reheated sausages (60 degrees C). Lightness of sausages was most accurately determined from the batter data with a Minolta chromameter or the autofluorescence measurement system. Firmness of cold sausages could be described by the amounts of biochemical components plus the type of muscle used in the sausage. The 2nd-best approach was to use the shape of the near-infrared spectra to determine firmness. This was possible as the shape of near-infrared spectra depended on total protein content, and total protein content largely determined the firmness of cold sausages. If the sausages were reheated to 60 degrees C, near-infrared spectroscopy alone determined firmness of the sausages with a lower accuracy than a combined solution of fluorescence and near-infrared spectroscopy. The 2 spectroscopic techniques could thus be used to estimate the amount of biochemical components in sausages. Once these components were known, firmness could be calculated from a model between the amounts of biochemical components and firmness. For reheated sausages, as opposed to cold ones, there was a need to differentiate between collagen and the other muscle proteins in order to determine firmness. This was optimally achieved by using both

  16. N-nitrosamines in processed meat products – analysis, occurrence, formation, mitigation and exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Susan Strange

    N-nitrosamines (NA) occur in sodium nitrite (nitrite) preserved meat products as bacon, sausages, ham and several types of luncheon meats. Several of these NA are carcinogenic and high intake of processed meat products has been associated with increased risk of cancer and other adverse health...... effects in some epidemiologic studies. Exposure to NA via meat products may be the underlying reason for this association. The levels of NA in processed meat products ought therefore to be as low as possible. There is a large amount of literature on the occurrence, formation and mitigation of NA in meat...... is it to identify strategies for the prevention of NA formation in general and not only for a few NA. The aim of the present thesis was therefore to study the role of ingoing amount of nitrite, factors relevant for industrial processing of meat, fat content and the effect of heat treatment on the formation of VNA...

  17. Predictive Model for Growth of Staphylococcus aureus on Raw Pork, Ham, and Sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Ahmad Rois; Park, Joong-Hyun; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Recent Staphylococcus aureus outbreaks linked to meat and poultry products underscore the importance of understanding the growth kinetics of S. aureus in these products at different temperatures. Raw pork, ham, and sausage (each 10 ± 0.3 g) were inoculated with a three-strain cocktail of S. aureus, resulting in an initial level of ca. 3 log CFU/g. Samples were stored isothermally at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40°C, and S. aureus was enumerated at appropriate time intervals. The square root model was developed using experimental data collected from S. aureus grown on all samples (where data from raw pork, ham, and sausage were combined) so as to describe the growth rate of S. aureus as a function of temperature. The model was then compared with models for S. aureus growth on each individual sample in the experiments (raw pork, ham, or sausage) and the S. aureus ComBase models, as well as models for the growth of different types of pathogens (S. aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella serovars, and Salmonella Typhimurium) on various types of meat and poultry products. The results show that the S. aureus model developed here based on the pooled data from all three pork products seems suitable for the prediction of S. aureus growth on different pork products under isothermal conditions from 10 to 25°C, as well as for S. aureus growth on different meat and poultry products at higher temperatures between 20 and 35°C. Regardless of some high deviations observed at temperatures between 25 and 40°C, the developed model still seems suitable to predict the growth of other pathogens on different types of meat and poultry products over the temperature ranges used here, especially for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium. The developed model, therefore, may be useful for estimating the effects of storage temperature on the behavior of pathogens in different meat and poultry products and for microbial risk assessments evaluating meat

  18. Extending Shelf Life of Chilled Pork by Combination of Chitosan Coating With Spice Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Xiufang; KONG Baohua

    2008-01-01

    The effects of spices (cinnamon, rosemary, clove) extracts and chitosan on microbiological growth, drip loss, color, and lipid oxidation of fresh chilled meat stored for 28 days at 4"C were investigated. There were four treatments: control, coated with spices(cimmamon 1.5g·L-1+rosemary 1.5·L-1+colve 1.0 g·L-1),coated with 0.5% chitosan,coated with spices and chitosan.Chitosan coating resulted in significant inhibition of microbial growth (P<0.05), while the lowest microbial counts were obtained in the samples containing both chitosan and spices, indicating a possible synergistic effect. Chitosan and its combinations with spices also showed the most intense antioxidative effect when compared to the controls (P<0.05). Meanwhile, chitosan coating could decrease water loss and keep better color of chilled meat. The combined spice extracts and chitosan coating could effectively extend the shelf life of chilled meat.

  19. Use of lysozyme from chicken egg white as a nitrite replacer in an Italian-type chicken sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalaka Sandun Abeyrathne

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sodium or potassium nitrite is widely used as a curing agent in sausages and other cured meat products. Nitrite has strong antimicrobial and antioxidant effects and generates cured meat color. Nitrite, however, can react with secondary or tertiary amines in meat to form carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic N-nitroso compounds. Several findings have been suggested that high consumption of processed meat may increase the risk of cancer, and emphasized that dietary nitrosamines are positively associated with cancer. Lysozyme is one of the major egg proteins that have antimicrobial and antioxidant characteristics. Therefore, lysozyme can be used in meat processing to prevent microbial growth and oxidative degradation in meat products during storage. This study is focused on evaluating the antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of lysozyme extracted from egg white as a replacer of nitrite in a cooked Italian-type chicken sausage. Methods: Four curing treatments including 100% nitrite (control, 100% lysozyme (treatment 1, 25% nitrite + 75% lysozyme (treatment 2 and 50% nitrite + 50% lysozyme (treatment 3 were used to prepare Italian-type chicken sausage samples. Recipe was developed with 64% (w/w meat, 17% (w/w binder (bread crumble, 12% (w/w ice, 4% (w/w vegetable oil, 2% (w/w salt, 1% (w/w spices (chili, black pepper, cardamom. Prepared samples were cooked in an 80 °C smoke house to a core temperature of 65 °C and cooled in cold water to 20-25 °C subsequently packed in polyethylene and stored in a freezer (-18 °C. The antimicrobial effect lysozyme was tested using Escherichia coli and Salmonella. The growth of these pathogens at 0, 3 and 5 days of storage of spore inoculation was determined. The antioxidant activity of lysozyme was determined using the TBARS value during the 25 d storage period. The redness (a*, lightness (L*, and yellowness (b* of sausages were analyzed using a Minolta color meter (CR 410, Konica Minolta Inc

  20. Effect of irradiation and storage on biogenic amine contents in ripened Egyptian smoked cooked sausage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of γ-irradiation upon the biogenic amine inventory in Egyptian smoked cooked sausages were investigated for the first time during storage for up to 90 days at 4 ° C. Typical contents of biogenic amines in non-irradiated sausages ranged between 125.50 and 596.18 mg/kgDW; irradiation with 4 and 6 kGy decreased said total contents to 105.20-94.82 and 104.98-26.44 mg/kgDW respectively, by the end of storage. Putrescine and cadaverine were the major amines in non-irradiated samples - where it accounted for 33% and 29% respectively, of the total by 90 days; however, tyramine dominated in irradiated samples with 2, 4 and 6 kGy, where it accounted for 44, 52 and 42%. On the other hand, the histamine content in non-irradiated sausage by 90 days of storage (i.e. 109.12 mg/kgDW) clearly exceeded the maximum allowable of 50 mg/kg, unlike happened in their irradiated counterparts. Therefore, the dramatic reduction observed in the histamine levels suggests use of this preservation technique for that traditional meat food. (author)

  1. Proteolysis process in fermented sausage model systems as studied by NMR relaxometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García García, Ana Belén; Larsen, Lotte Bach; Cambero Rodríguez, María Isabel; Cruz Díaz, Karen Paola; Bertram, Hanne Christine

    2015-03-25

    Proton NMR relaxation analyses were performed in sausage model systems (SMS) at different manufacturing times (0, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 days) to evaluate changes in water distribution and mobility. Three different water populations were identified, T2b (5-10 ms), T21 (30-70 ms), and T22 (100-300 ms), and the progress of ripening could be followed as a shift toward shorter relaxation times. In addition, the combined effect of adding commercial proteases (Pronase E and aspartyl proteinase) on protein breakdown and structural integrity of sausage models (SMS+P) was investigated, resulting in the formation of a more fluid and less organized meat matrix that led to changes in water populations T2b2 and T22 compared with SMS. A very different protein degradation pattern between SMS and SMS+P was observed by means of SDS-PAGE and fluorescamine assay, supporting that some degree of protein aggregation is needed for the presence of the T22 population in fermented sausages.

  2. Rheological and microstructural properties of beef sausage batter formulated with fish fillet mince.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Ala; Jafarpour, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Rheological properties and microstructure of beef meat sausage batter, incorporated with different percentages of fish fillet mince (5 %, 20 %, 35 % and 50 %), were investigated and compared to the control (0 % fish). By increasing the proportion of fish fillet mince to the sausage formula up to 35 % and 50 %, hardness was increased by 40 % and 16 %, respectively, (P  0.05). In terms of temperature sweep test, storage modulus (G') of control sample faced a substantial slop from 10 °C to 58 °C, corresponding to the lowest magnitude of G' at its gelling point (~58°), but completed at around 70 °C, as same as the other treatments. Whereas the gelling point of batter sample with 50 % fish mince remained at nearly 42 °C, which was remarkably lowest among all treatments, indicating the better gel formation process. SEM micrographs revealed a previous orderly set gel before heating in all treatments whereas after heating up to 90 °C gel matrices became denser with more obvious granular pattern and aggregated structure, specifically in sample with 50 % fish mince. In conclusion, addition of fish mince up to 50 % into beef sausage formula, positively interacted in gel formation process, without diminishing its rheological properties.

  3. Performance of a novel casing made of chitosan under traditional sausage manufacturing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzaly, Noor Zainah; Jackson, Andrea; Kang, Iksoon; Almenar, Eva

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this study was to validate the commercial feasibility of a novel casing formed from chitosan containing cinnamaldehyde (2.2%, w/v), glycerol (50%, w/w) and Tween 80 (0.2% w/w) under traditional sausage manufacturing conditions. Meat batter was stuffed into both chitosan and collagen (control) casings and cooked in a water bath. Before and after cooking, both casings were compared for mechanical, barrier, and other properties. Compared to collagen, the chitosan casing was a better (P≤0.05) barrier to water, oxygen, liquid smoke, and UV light. In mechanical and other properties, the chitosan casing had higher (P≤0.05) tensile strength, lower (P≤0.05) elongation at break and tensile energy to break, and better (P≤0.05) transparency whereas a similar (P>0.05) water solubility to the collagen casing. Overall, the chitosan casing was less affected by sausage manufacturing conditions than the collagen casing, indicating that chitosan casing has potential as an alternative to the current collagen casing in the manufacture of sausages.

  4. Kinetic Behavior of Salmonella on Low NaNO2 Sausages during Aerobic and Vacuum Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jimyeong; Gwak, Eunji; Oh, Mi-Hwa; Park, Beomyoung; Lee, Jeeyeon; Kim, Sejeong; Lee, Heeyoung; Lee, Soomin; Yoon, Yohan; Choi, Kyoung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the growth kinetics of Salmonella spp. in processed meat products formulated with low sodium nitrite (NaNO2). A 5-strain mixture of Salmonella spp. was inoculated on 25-g samples of sausages formulated with sodium chloride (NaCl) (1.0%, 1.25%, and 1.5%) and NaNO2 (0 and 10 ppm) followed by aerobic or vacuum storage at 10℃ and 15℃ for up to 816 h or 408 h, respectively. The bacterial cell counts were enumerated on xylose lysine deoxycholate agar, and the modified Gompertz model was fitted to the Salmonella cell counts to calculate the kinetic parameters as a function of NaCl concentration on the growth rate (GR; Log CFU/g/h) and lag phase duration (LPD; h). A linear equation was then fitted to the parameters to evaluate the effect of NaCl concentration on the kinetic parameters. The GR values of Salmonella on sausages were higher (p<0.05) with 10 ppm NaNO2 concentration than with 0 ppm NaNO2. The GR values of Salmonella decreased (p<0.05) as NaCl concentration increased, especially at 10℃. This result indicates that 10 ppm NaNO2 may increase Salmonella growth at low NaCl concentrations, and that NaCl plays an important role in inhibiting Salmonella growth in sausages with low NaNO2. PMID:27194936

  5. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of garlic in chicken sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Kh I; Ishioroshi, M; Samejima, K

    2004-12-01

    The antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of equivalent concentrations of fresh garlic (FG), garlic powder (GP) and garlic oil (GO) were investigated against lipid oxidation and microbial growth in raw chicken sausage during storage at 3 degrees C. The antioxidant activities were compared to that of a standard synthetic antioxidant; butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). The initial mean levels of thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value and peroxide value (POV) were 0.140 and 6.32, respectively. However after 21 days of storage, TBA and POV ranged from 0.151 to 4.92, respectively, in FG (50 g/kg) formulated samples to 0.214 and 8.64, respectively, in GO (0.06 g/ kg) formulation. Addition of either garlic or BHA (0.1 g/kg) significantly delayed lipid oxidation when compared with control. The antioxidant activities of the various materials added followed the order FG>GP>BHA>GO. On the other hand, the initial aerobic plate count (APC) in the samples was 4.41 log(10) CFU/g. Addition of FG (30 g/kg) or GP (9 g/kg) significantly reduced the APC and, subsequently, the shelf-life of the product was extended to 21 days. However, addition of GO or BHA resulted in no significant difference in APC when compared with control. Sensory analysis indicated that FG had a significant stronger flavor than the other sausage formulations. The results suggest that fresh garlic and garlic powder, through their combined antioxidant and antimicrobial effects, are potentially useful in preserving meat products.

  6. Combined effect of γ-irradiation and bacterial-fermented dextrose on microbiological quality of refrigerated pork sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussault, D.; Benoit, C.; Lacroix, M.

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a concentrated fermented dextrose (FD), a natural antimicrobial product, combined with low dose γ-irradiation (1.5 kGy) on the microbiological quality of fresh pork sausages. Fresh pork sausages containing the FD (0.25%, 0.5% and 0.75%) were prepared in a meat pilot plant and were irradiated using a UC-15A irradiator equipped with a 60Cobalt source. The γ-irradiation treatment alone was able to reduce the initial psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria by more than 2 log CFU/g and kept the lactobacillus population under the detection limit (100 CFU/g). Results also showed that the FD alone was able to extend the shelf life of the sausages from 5 days up to 13 days. At day 13, the FD or irradiation alone showed 2 log CFU/g less mesophilic bacteria than the control. After combining FD and irradiation another reduction of the microbial count of 1 log CFU/g was observed. When combining the irradiation treatment with the FD results it showed a reduced growth rate of the psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria compared to both treatments alone. This study demonstrated that FD with low dose gamma irradiation act in synergy to reduce the multiplication of the total bacterial flora in fresh sausages.

  7. Effect of Replacing Pork Fat with Vegetable Oils on Quality Properties of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Jin; Jung, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Joon; Choi, Yang-Ii

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages when pork fat is replaced with vegetable oil mixtures during processing. Pork sausages were processed under six treatment conditions: T1 (20% pork fat), T2 (10% pork fat + 2% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 4% canola oil), T3 (4% grape seed oil + 16% canola oil), T4 (4% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 12% canola oil), T5 (4% grape seed oil + 8% olive oil + 8% canola oil), and T6 (4% grape seed oil + 12% olive oil + 4% canola oil). Proximate analysis showed significant (psausages. Furthermore, replacement with vegetable oil mixtures significantly decreased the ash content (psausages. Also, cholesterol content in T6 was significantly lower than T2 (psausages were significantly (poil mixtures replacement. On the contrary, cohesiveness and springiness in the T4 group were similar to those of group T1. The unsaturated fatty acid content in emulsion-type pork sausages was increased by vegetable oil mixtures replacement. Replacement of pork fat with mixed vegetable oils had no negative effects on the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages, and due to its reduced saturated fatty acid composition, the product had the quality characteristics of the healthy meat products desired by consumers.

  8. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in dry fermented sausages containing micro-encapsulated probiotic lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumarasamy, Parthiban; Holley, Richard A

    2007-02-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is capable of surviving the rigorous processing steps during the manufacture of dry fermented sausages. The effect of adding two probiotic organisms, Lactobacillus reuteri and Bifidobacterium longum as co-cultures with the meat starter cultures Pediococcus pentosaceus and Staphylococcus carnosus on the viability of E. coli O157:H7 in dry fermented sausages was studied. A 5 strain cocktail of E. coli O157:H7 was added at 7.4 log cfu/g to the sausage batter and challenged with either or both Lb. reuteri or B. longum before or after they were micro-encapsulated. Sausages were fermented at aw), protein, moisture, and numbers of all inoculated organisms were monitored during processing. The pH and aw decreased from 5.7 and 0.98 to 4.9 and 0.88 at the end of fermentation and drying, respectively. These processes reduced E. coli O157:H7 by 1.0 and 0.7 log cfu/g at the end of fermentation and drying, respectively. Unencapsulated Lb. reuteri with or without B. longum reduced E. coli O157:H7 by 3.0 log cfu/g and B. longum caused a 1.9 log cfu/g reduction. While micro-encapsulation increased survival of Lb. reuteri and B. longum, it reduced their inhibitory action against E. coli O157:H7. PMID:16943098

  9. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes at small-scale spanish factories producing traditional fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Belen; Garriga, Margarita; Aymerich, Teresa

    2011-05-01

    The manufacturing of fermented sausages is subject to natural contamination processes that can potentially carry foodborne pathogens along the process chain and result in contamination of the final product. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes at different sampling points during the manufacturing process of fuet, a type of traditional fermented sausage, at 10 small-scale Spanish factories. The presence of both pathogens was studied in the raw materials (19 casings and 19 meat batters), the final products (19 fermented sausages), and the factory equipment (12 mincing, 12 mixing, and 19 stuffing machines, 19 cutting tables, 11 knives, and 12 cold rooms) by using classical microbiological techniques and real-time PCR. Salmonella was not detected in the equipment analyzed or in the final products, but it was detected in the raw materials (23.7% of samples). L. monocytogenes showed higher incidence than Salmonella and was detected in the equipment (11.8% of samples), the raw materials (28.9%), and the final products (15.8%), confirming its ubiquity throughout the manufacturing process of fermented sausages. Five factories were further investigated to study the changes in the distribution of pathogens in the fuet production process over a period of either 2 or 3 years. There was considerable variation in the incidence of both pathogens at different sampling periods, and there was no relation between seasonal variations or geographic location of the factories. PMID:21549053

  10. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Kitaibelia vitifolia extract as alternative to the added nitrite in fermented dry sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurćubić, Vladimir S; Mašković, Pavle Z; Vujić, Jelena M; Vranić, Danijela V; Vesković-Moračanin, Slavica M; Okanović, Đorđe G; Lilić, Slobodan V

    2014-08-01

    Fermented dry sausages (FDS) without nitrite added, fortified with bioactive phenol and flavonoid compounds originating from the ethanol extract of Kitaibelia vitifolia were food matrix for investigation of its antioxidant and antimicrobial potency. These activities were researched in order to improve the sausages' shelf-life, safety, and provide health benefits to consumers as well. The oxidative stability of the FDS, containing two different levels of natural preservative, was evaluated using five different contemporary methods for antioxidative activity. The activity was tested on the 20th day of the refrigerated storage. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the sausage extract were determined against six microorganisms, using a micro dilution method. Determined optimal effective concentration of dissolved K. vitifolia extract (12.5 g/kg of meat dough) revealed strong antioxidant activity, and moderate antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli (minimum inhibitory concentrations=15.625 μg/mL). The modified sausages had typical chemical-physical characteristics of FDS, controlled on 0, 13, 26 d of ripening and 20, 40 and 60 d of storage.

  11. Ultrasonic characterization of the fat source and composition of formulated dry-cured meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Edith Corona; García-Pérez, Jose Vicente; Canillas, Sonia Ventanas; Fort, Jose Javier Benedito

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work was to test the feasibility of using ultrasonic measurements to estimate the fat content and identify the fat sources used in formulated dry-cured pork meat products. For that purpose, dry-cured sausages were prepared using different fat sources (two Iberian pork backfats, Iberian lard, and sunflower oil) and contents (fat content from 3% to 17% wet basis) and characterized by measuring the ultrasonic velocity (at 2 degrees C, 6 degrees C, 10 degrees C, 15 degrees C, 20 degrees C, and 25 degrees C), fatty acid profile, thermal behavior, and composition. The fatty acid composition affected the melting behavior of the sausages, which also involved different ultrasonic velocities, depending on the fat source used for the sausage formulation. Significant (p sausage batches were differentiated according to the fat source used. The ultrasonic velocity temperature dependence allowed the determination of the fat content (explained variance 96.1%) by measuring the ultrasonic velocity in the dry-cured sausages at 2 degrees C and 25 degrees C and using a semi-empirical equation. Therefore, the ultrasonic measurements could be considered as a reliable tool for the characterization and differentiation of formulated dry-cured meat products with different fat sources and contents.

  12. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards, 2014. Scientific Opinion on the public health risks related to the maintenance of the cold chain during storage and transport of meat. Part 2 (minced meat from all species)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    Fresh meat intended for the production of minced meat may be contaminated by a range of pathogens including Salmonella spp. and verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC). These may grow if the temperatures are not maintained below 5 °C along the continuum from carcass chilling to mincing. Moreove...

  13. Test marketing and consumer acceptance of irradiated meat products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study consists of two parts: irradiation processing of cooked meat and irradiation preservation of prepackaged chilled fresh cut meats. Irradiation of prepackaged pickled meat products dipped in grains stillage at a dose 6-8 kGy eliminated common food-borne microorganisms, such as E. Coli and other microbial pathogens and extended the shelf life of the product to 10 days at 5 deg. C. Test marketing of 40,000 bags (about 10,000 kg) of the product in more than 100 supermarkets in the city of Shanghai showed no untoward problem with consumer acceptance. Irradiation of prepackaged chilled fresh cut pork at a dose 3 kGy led to inactivation of microbial pathogens and parasites with a concomitant reduction in numbers of common spoilage microorganisms and extension of shelf life of the product for 30 days at 5 deg. C. The cost benefit and marketing applications were evaluated. (author)

  14. Relationship between ecophysiological factors, growth and ochratoxin A contamination of dry-cured sausage based matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alicia; Capela, Daniela; Medina, Ángel; Córdoba, Juan J; Magan, Naresh

    2015-02-01

    Dry-cured sausages are colonised by moulds during the ripening process. The temperature and the salt content (which affects water activity, aw) predispose the surface to colonisation by Penicillium species, including Penicillium nordicum and Penicillium verrucosum which can lead to contamination of the sausages with ochratoxin A (OTA). The objective of this work was to obtain scientific data on the impact that interaction between ionic water stress (aw; 0.97, 0.94, 0.90, 0.87 and 0.84) and temperature (30, 25, 20, 15 and 10°C) may have on lag phases prior to growth, growth and OTA production by some P. verrucosum and P. nordicum strains isolated from dry-cured meat products on a dry-cured sausage-based medium over a period of 12days. Although P. nordicum had shorter lag phases than P. verrucosum, the latter grew faster than P. nordicum in most conditions tested. For both species, there was no growth and OTA production at 0.84 aw at all the temperatures tested. The fungi were more tolerant at moderate ionic aw conditions (0.94 and 0.90) and 20 and 25°C. In contrast, the patterns of production of OTA were very different from those for growth. Different OTA production profiles between the two OTA-producing species were found. While P. nordicum began producing OTA in most of the conditions tested by day 6, P. verrucosum only produced the toxin in these conditions when the temperature and aw were >10°C and >0.90, respectively. However, the P. verrucosum strain produced much higher concentrations of OTA than the P. nordicum strain in all conditions. We developed contour maps of the optimum and marginal aw×temperature conditions for growth/OTA production on dry-cured sausage-based medium for the first time. This suggests that these interacting conditions during the early phases of production must be effectively controlled as these favour growth of the toxigenic Penicillia. Knowledge on the ecophysiology of these two important Penicillium species on these matrices

  15. Observations of sausage modes in magnetic pores

    CERN Document Server

    Morton, R J; Jess, D B; Mathioudakis, M

    2010-01-01

    We present here evidence for the observation of the magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) sausage modes in magnetic pores in the solar photosphere. Further evidence for the omnipresent nature of acoustic global modes is also found. The empirical decomposition method of wave analysis is used to identify the oscillations detected through a 4170 {\\AA} 'blue continuum' filter observed with the Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere (ROSA) instrument. Out of phase, periodic behavior in pore size and intensity is used as an indicator of the presence of magneto-acoustic sausage oscillations. Multiple signatures of the magneto-acoustic sausage mode are found in a number of pores. The periods range from as short as 30 s up to 450 s. A number of the magneto-acoustic sausage mode oscillations found have periods of 3 and 5 minutes, similar to the acoustic global modes of the solar interior. It is proposed that these global oscillations could be the driver of the sausage type magneto-acoustic MHD wave modes in pores.

  16. 9 CFR 319.182 - Braunschweiger and liver sausage or liverwurst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Braunschweiger and liver sausage or... Sausage § 319.182 Braunschweiger and liver sausage or liverwurst. (a) “Braunschweiger” is a cooked sausage... the following: “Braunschweiger—A Liver Sausage,” “Braunschweiger—A Liverwurst,” or...

  17. Microorganisms, Qualitative Indicators for Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marioara Nicoleta Filimon

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that, for a few years now, our focus is more and more concentrated on safety and security of meat and vegetable products, this study’s aim is to evaluate the quality of certain well - known meat products (sausages, dry salami, and half-dried salami, purchased in a supermarket, from Timisoara. Microbiological tests were made especially on sanitary microbiological indicators (Escherichia, Enterobacter, Klebsiella. These tests emphasize hygiene in processing ang handling of products. In some cases, it higtlights how various heat treatments (pasteurization type apply to food products. It also establishes the microbial load on the microscopic field and the colony forming units, by a culture method in plates, at 37º C for 48 hours. Based on the obtained results, it has been established that, concerning the microbial load and the presence or absence of coliform bacteria, studied products fall into the quality permitted by applicable law.

  18. Effect of mechanical equipment on processing technique of sausage%机械设备对香肠生产工艺的影响(二)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金生; 包莉斌

    2012-01-01

    Sausage was made by minced meat and fat of animal, which mixed homogeneous with adjuvant and food additive. Sausage has a long history in China, produced all over the country with various types. Nowadays, with the development of economic and progress of living standard, the quality requirement of sausage by consumer showed diversity. The effect of mechanical equipment on processing technique of sausage was described in this paper. Treat- ment of sausage slurry, filling equipment, smoking, steaming and ripening process system, technique of cold pack- ing storage and extending the shelf life were highlighted, in order to provide reference basis for manager to select me- chanical equipment, raw material, spices and packing material economically and reasonably.%3烟熏蒸煮加工成熟系统 这部分的加工见下图4所示。图43.1设备今天,从事肉类加工的工厂大都装设有自动化的烟熏蒸煮系统,这种系统的时间、温度和湿度是计算机精确控制的。

  19. The effects of cereal additives in low-fat sausages and meatballs. Part 2: Rye bran, oat bran and barley fibre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Karin; Godard, Ophélie; Eliasson, Ann-Charlotte; Tornberg, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Rye bran, oat bran and barley fibre have been compared as additives in low-fat sausages and meatballs. The water/protein ratio and starch content were constant to allow direct comparisons. Oat bran was the best alternative in low-fat sausages due to its gelling ability upon heating. These sausages exhibited low process (0.9%) and frying losses (10.9%), and high values of firmness (11.0 N) and sensory acceptance. The sausages containing barley fibre, with the highest amount of soluble β-glucan, had high losses (3.8% and 19.6%) and the lowest firmness (4.6 N). Rye bran was suitable in meatballs, probably due to its particulate nature, which is more acceptable in this type of meat product, where the gelling properties are not as important as in sausages. There was no significant difference between the firmness of meatballs containing rye bran (6.1 N) and the reference (7.5 N), after pan-frying. Meatballs with oat bran or barley fibre were less firm (3.6 N and 2.0 N).

  20. Meat flavour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the consumer, meat is characterized by a certain number of organoleptic qualities; among them, flavour -that is to say the association of both odour and taste- plays a leading part. This property is based upon a great number of chemical components: some volatile components are responsible for the aroma and some non-volatile ones for the taste. These substances are either made or released during the heating of the meat on account of components called precursors which are produced during the aging of the meat. The two main reactions which preside over the elaboration of flavour are: the Maillard's reaction and the autooxidation reactions. Meat flavour is associated with the animal characteristics; it is influenced by the ante- and post mortem treatments as well as by the technological treatments for storing it. The use of synthetical flavours is to be considered as possible in the future

  1. Changesin Myoglobin of Big Eye Tuna During Chilling Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevi Imelda Murniati Wodi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Big eye tuna (Thunnus obesus is one of the species of tuna which is have some value added such as have potential to improve animal protein sources, have high economic values as well as an export commodity.Mishandling and misapplication of high temparatures on the tuna handling at the tropics and sub tropics climate was significantly decreasing the value of myoglobin and affecting the solubility of protein. Myoglobin is a globular protein that have small molecular weight size and it was an important factor for determining the quality of meat and influencing factors of purchasing power by the consumer. The purpose of this experiments is to determining the changes of myoglobin content and the water soluble proteins content at some parts of big eye tuna in 9 days chilling temperatures. The portion which is analized was the ventral area, dorsal area and tail area. Myoglobin content in all portion above, both light and dark meat was analized. The results shows the decreased value of myoglobin content from first handling (day zero until day ninth (days 9th experiment. Each myoglobin contentfrom white meat at at ventral, dorsal and tail meat was decreased from 121.68 mg/100 into 41.35 mg/100, 148.2 mg/100g into 52.01 mg/100g, 105.16 mg/100g into 31.34 gr/100gram, after day ninth. The myoglobin content from dark meat at ventral, dorsal and tail meat, was decreased, too ; from 418.64 mg/100 gr into 121.01 mg/100 g, 446.21 mg/100 g into 58.34 mg/100 r and 145.65 mg/100 gr into 87.98 mg/100g after day ninth.Water soluble protein was derived into protein bands with molecular weight 15,4 kDa and 14 kDa. Its suspected as the myoglobin protein. The molecular weight difference was caused from degradation of protein during the storage.Keywords: Big eye tuna, meat, storage, myoglobin

  2. Noninvasive Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Spoilage Attributes of Chilled Pork Using Hyperspectral Scattering Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leilei; Peng, Yankun

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this research was to develop a rapid noninvasive method for quantitative and qualitative determination of chilled pork spoilage. Microbiological, physicochemical, and organoleptic characteristics such as the total viable count (TVC), Pseudomonas spp., total volatile basic-nitrogen (TVB-N), pH value, and color parameter L* were determined to appraise pork quality. The hyperspectral scattering characteristics from 54 meat samples were fitted by four-parameter modified Gompertz function accurately. Support vector machines (SVM) was applied to establish quantitative prediction model between scattering fitting parameters and reference values. In addition, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and Bayesian analysis were utilized as supervised and unsupervised techniques for the qualitative identification of meat spoilage. All stored chilled meat samples were classified into three grades: "fresh," "semi-fresh," and "spoiled." Bayesian classification model was superior to PLS-DA with overall classification accuracy of 92.86%. The results demonstrated that hyperspectral scattering technique combined with SVM and Bayesian possessed a powerful capability for meat spoilage assessment rapidly and noninvasively. PMID:27340214

  3. Noninvasive Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Spoilage Attributes of Chilled Pork Using Hyperspectral Scattering Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leilei; Peng, Yankun

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this research was to develop a rapid noninvasive method for quantitative and qualitative determination of chilled pork spoilage. Microbiological, physicochemical, and organoleptic characteristics such as the total viable count (TVC), Pseudomonas spp., total volatile basic-nitrogen (TVB-N), pH value, and color parameter L* were determined to appraise pork quality. The hyperspectral scattering characteristics from 54 meat samples were fitted by four-parameter modified Gompertz function accurately. Support vector machines (SVM) was applied to establish quantitative prediction model between scattering fitting parameters and reference values. In addition, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and Bayesian analysis were utilized as supervised and unsupervised techniques for the qualitative identification of meat spoilage. All stored chilled meat samples were classified into three grades: "fresh," "semi-fresh," and "spoiled." Bayesian classification model was superior to PLS-DA with overall classification accuracy of 92.86%. The results demonstrated that hyperspectral scattering technique combined with SVM and Bayesian possessed a powerful capability for meat spoilage assessment rapidly and noninvasively.

  4. Enumeration, identification and safety proprieties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from pork sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. Dias

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB are indigenous microorganisms occurring in pork sausages. The utilization of selected autochthonous LAB may improve the safety of meat products. This study aims to enumerate and identify LAB in pork sausage and to characterize their safety properties, such as antimicrobial susceptibility and antibacterial activity. A total of 189 sealed packages of pork sausages were collected in seven municipalities (27 samples in each city of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Microbiological analyses were performed to enumerate LAB. Two pre-selection criteria were applied to 567 isolates of LAB: catalase activity and tolerance to pH 2. A total of 32 strains of UFLA SAU were selected, characterized phenotypically and identified through 16S rDNA region sequencing. The susceptibility to antimicrobial and antibacterial activities of isolates was evaluated. The LAB count ranged from 3.079 to 8.987 log10 CFU/g. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus paracasei were identified in the samples. UFLA SAU 11, 20, 34, 86, 131 and 258 showed a profile of susceptibility to four antimicrobials: erythromycin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and gentamycin. In the antibacterial activity test, with exception of UFLA SAU 1, all other strains showed efficiency in inhibiting Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhiand Listeria monocytogenes. In the statistical analysis there was interaction among strains of Lactobacillus against the pathogens tested. L. monocytogenes (P=0.05 was more sensitive to Lactobacillus strains and the highest inhibitory activity against this pathogen was achieved by strains UFLA SAU 135, 226, 238 and 258. Thus, UFLA SAU 11, 20, 34, 86, 131, 135, 226, 238 and 258 possess safety characteristics for application in meat products.

  5. Frequency of contamination Listeria monocytogenes of raw dried cured vacuum packed sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristo Daskalov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to collect actual data concerning the frequency of contamination with Listeria monocytogenes of some very popular in Bulgaria raw dried cured vacuum packed sausages, produced from October 2004 till May 2008. 148 vacuum-packed samples were taken from 9 different food business operators during all seasons of the year. The samples were analyzed according to USDA method for meat foods. Ten specimens were positive for presence of Listeria monocytogenes equal to 6,75% of all tested samples. In two other raw dried cured sausages L.welshimeri and L.innocua were found, but these species are not pathogenic for consumers. In the period before the official implementation of HACCP system (01.01.2006 in Bulgaria, 52 samples were examined and 5 Listeria monocytogenes isolates were found (~10%. 2,5 years after the HACCP implementation, 96 specimens from the same meat factories were tested and 5 Listeria monocytogenes isolates (5,2% were detected. Samples taken from lots, produced in winter time were contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes more often (7 of all 10 than specimens taken during other seasons. Data were discussed through the point of view of the effectiveness of hygienic practices and HACCP system application. Also, application of ‘microbiological criterion’ set in COMMISSION REGULATION (EC No 2073/2005 for ready-to-eat foods unable to support the growth of L. monocytogenes was considered.

  6. Measurement and assessment of aflatoxin B1 and its producing molds in Iranian sausages and burgers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Maktabi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is one of the most well-known hepatocarcinogens in humans. Contamination of raw materials, used in the production of sausages and burgers, with aflatoxin producing molds can lead to increased level of aflatoxin in the final products and can impose hazards to human health. Unfortunately, aflatoxin is resistant to heating and freezing processes, etc. and can remain in these products untile consumption. Methods: During a six-month period, 45 sausage and 53 burger samples from valid brands across the country were randomly purchased from the stores. The samples were analyzed for AFB1 by ELISA technique. Meanwhile, the number of molds was calculated and aflatoxin producing molds were identified by direct and slide culture methods. Results: The findings showed that 2 susage samples (4.9% and 3 burger samples (6.3% were contaminated with >1 ng/g aflatoxin. Moreover, 4 burger samples (8.9% contaminated with mold included aspergillus flavus, aspergillus niger, mucor, and penicillium while, none of the susage samples showed mold contamination. Conclusion: The Iranian meat products had a relative aflatoxin B1 contamination during the study period, but the contamination rate was low and in allowable range. Standard hygienic preparation and packaging of meat products molds is recommended to reduce fungal contamination, especially aflatoxin-producing molds.

  7. Combined Effect of Monoxide Hemoglobin and Sodium Nitrite on Physicochemical, Microbiological and Sensory Properties of Pork Sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengjiang Tan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sodium nitrite (NaNO2 faces a challenge in the meat industry because of its carcinogenicity. The studies about nitrite substitutes have attracted a considerable interest for many years. This study aims at the combined effects of monoxide hemoglobin (COHb and NaNO2 on physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of pork sausages. The addition of COHb led to the reductions in L*, b*, TBA, VBN and aerobic plate count as well as the increase in a* (p<0.05. The samples with 0.005% NaNO2 and 0.2% COHb addition had equal even better sensory color, flavor, mouthfeel and slice traits than those with 0.015% NaNO2 addition during storage. Moreover, such sample had less than 30 cfu/100 g Escherichia coli and no detectable Staphylococcus aureus during 29 days storage. Therefore, COHb showed a potential in the manufacture of sausages

  8. Dietary exposure to volatile and non-volatile N-nitrosamines from processed meat products in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Susan Strange; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Christensen, Tue;

    2015-01-01

    the carcinogenicity for the majority of the non-volatile NA (NVNA) remains to be elucidated. Danish adults (15–75 years) and children (4–6 years) consume 20 g and 16 g of processed meat per day (95th percentile), respectively. The consumption is primarily accounted for by sausages, salami, pork flank (spiced...

  9. Toward Probiotict Food Product from Meat Through Isolation and Identification Lactic Acid Bacteria As Probiotic Culture Stater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunilas Yunilas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic food products of meat can provide extensive benefits, to increase the shelf life and nutritional value also improve the taste. The use of lactic acid bacteria culture (LAB derived from the isolation of the meat and the addition of probiotic cultures (Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria in fermented sausage processing is expected to produce a probiotic sausage products with nutritional value, and better shelf life and improve health. This study aimed to isolate and identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB of meat as a starter culture fermented sausages. The parameters observed were gram test, catalase, motility, gas production, type of fermentation, growth at various temperatures and pH. The results were obtained 28 isolates, 17 isolates were able to produce acid and 8 of them are lactic acid bacteria (LAB with the characteristics of gram-positive, catalase negative, not motile, produces gas, are hetero and homo fermentative, optimum growth temperature of 300C and a few of them are able to grow on pH 3.5. Lactic acid bacteria that able to be combined with probiotics as sausage starter culture to the probiotic food products of meat.

  10. Tenderness charactherization of ostrich meat commercial cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Conte Hadlich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ostrich meat has become an interesting source of protein as well as being an alternative to red meat, because of its healthy fatty acid profile, with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and low content of intramuscular fat, which arouses the interest of people who want a low animal fat diet. Ostrich meat is also appreciated by the tenderness, since it is one of the larger impact characteristics on the acceptance of a meat product for consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tenderness of different ostrich meat commercial cuts and certificate that all studied cuts present tenderness acceptable by consumers. The laboratory tests were performed at the Laboratory of Biochemistry of Proteins (FMVZ, being measured shear force of seven commercial cuts of ostrich meat. The cuts were: internal thigh, external thigh, filet plan, filet out, filet small, rump and filet fan. The samples were boiled in water bath controlled by time and temperature. After chilling, fragments of 1.0 x 1.0 x 3.0 cm were removed from samples. Shear force measurements were performed using a mechanical Warner-Bratzler Shear Force equipment. The shear force means were: internal thigh (3.5 kg, external thigh (2.8 kg, filet plan (2.4 kg, filet out (1.6 kg, filet small (3.5 kg, rump (3.3 kg and filet fan (2.0 kg. All the commercial cuts evaluated had very low values of shear force, denoting meat extremely tender. The classification of meat tenderness is based on shear force values, being values below 4.6 kg considered meat with desirable tenderness. All ostrich meat commercial cuts analyzed had shear force values lower than 4.6 kg, being classified as meat of extreme tenderness. The results found in this work allow concluding that ostrich meat can be considered tender. These findings lead us to consider the ostrich meat as an interesting alternative to red meat, in relation to tenderness and healthy fatty acid profile, being favorable for people suffering from

  11. Evaluation of antioxidative properties of Geranium macrorrhizum and Potentilla fructiosa extracts in Dutch style fermented sausages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miliauskas, G.; Mulder, E.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Houben, J.H.; Beek, van T.A.; Venskutonis, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    Antioxidative properties of Geranium macrorrhizum, Potentilla fruticosa and Rosmarinus officinalis (as a reference) extracts were evaluated in Dutch style fermented sausages. Extracts were incorporated into sausages during preparation. The sausages were subsequently fermented, tested and compared to

  12. EFFECT OF NITRITE AND CITRIC ACID ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND pH OF THE CANNED BEEF SAUSAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M.A. MAHA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of nitrite and citric acid as preservatives on the chemical composition and pH of the canned beef sausage were investigated after three months storage at room temperature (35±5ºc. Two experiments were conducted in this study, the first, was undertaken to determine the effect of nitrite as a preservative on the chemical composition and pH of the canned beef sausages retorted at 107.2°C (225ºF for 80 minutes, and at 115.5°C (240ºF for 40 minutes. The second experiment, which was based on the results of the first one, was conducted to determine the effects of the absence of nitrite on the canned beef sausage processed with meat treated by immersion in 1% citric acid before processing at (80 and 30ºc for one minute and drained, then the product retorted at 107.2°C for 80 minutes. The evaluation of percentages of the dry matter, ash, crude protein, fat and also pH were done monthly. The results in experiment 1 indicated that, percentages of the dry matter, ash and crude protein before and after canning of sausages were not significantly different (P>0.05. The fat (% was significantly different among treatments (P0.05 for the raw, cooked and canned sausages. Generally it was observed a decrease in moisture content (increases in dry matter content, ash%, crude protein fat (% and pH value with increasing of storage period. Citric acid had no clear effect on chemical properties and pH value.

  13. Danish strategies to control Campylobacter in broilers and broiler meat: facts and effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Boysen, Louise; Galliano, C.;

    2009-01-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. have been the most common bacterial cause of human gastrointestinal disease in Denmark since 1999. In 2003, the Danish voluntary strategy to control Campylobacter was intensified. The focus was on biosecurity, allocation of meat from Campylobacter-negative broilers...... to the production of chilled products, and consumer information campaigns. From 2002 to 2007, the percentage of Campylobacter-positive broiler flocks at slaughter decreased from 43% to 27%. After processing, Campylobacter-positive samples of chilled broiler meat fell from 18% in 2004 to 8% in 2007. Furthermore...

  14. PIGS BREEDING FOR THE PRODUCTION OF TRADITIONAL MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuro Senčić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The fertile Slavonia is known for production of several types of cured meats: kulen, kulen sis, sausage, ham and bacon, and other pork products (“krvavica” - blood sausage, “švargl” - a type of brawn where chopped parts of head are stuffed inside the pig’s stomach, “čvarci” - a variant of pork crisps, fat. These products require “mature pigs” of adequate slaughter quality. Production of pigs intended for traditional meat products may take place in different production systems (open, closed, semi-open, “organic”. Each of these systems provides a specific quality of pigs for slaughter, reflecting on the quality of the final product. Production systems can have a significant impact on growth performance and carcass and meat quality of pigs. This effect arises from the interaction between housing conditions, the amount and composition of food and used pig genotype. The choice of a production system depends on local production conditions, pig genotype, consumer demand (market for a given product quality, and other factors. Due to their quality, the traditional Slavonian meat products can become a recognizable Croatian brand in both domestic and international markets. Production of standard quality products requires standard quality of pigs. Therefore this book is focused on such pigs production.

  15. 9 CFR 319.140 - Sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR Chapter III, Subchapter E, or in 21 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter A or Subchapter B. In addition to... permitting that use in this subchapter or in 9 CFR Chapter III, Subchapter E, or in 21 CFR Chapter I... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sausage. 319.140 Section...

  16. 斩拌方法对低温乳化香肠品质的影响%Effect of chopping methods on quality of low temperature emulsified sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宝才; 孙建清; 周辉; 祝义亮; 周光宏

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve water and oil exuding,texture and edible quality of low temperature emulsified sausage, the effects of four chopping methods for fat and muscle meat, including an one-step chopping method, two three-step chopping methods and a tat-muscle meat separate chopping method, on low temperature emulsified sausage quality characteristics were investigated to optimize the chopping method. Sausage was made of chicken and pork and its quality was determined by measuring water and oil-binding capacity, textural properties, sensory quality and microstructure. The results showed that among the four chopping methods, the sausage which was made by the fat- muscle meat separate chopping method had the lowest cooking loss and lowest total expressible fluid, the water and oil-binding capacity was the best. The chopping methods had little influence on springiness and cohesiveness of the sausage,but had a remarkable influence on hardness,chewiness,shearing force and shearing work of the sausage,and the sausage made by the fat-muscle meat separate chopping method had maximal above mentioned parameters, also had the largest index L-value, a-value and sensory qualities. The scanning electron microscopy indicated that the protein matrix of the sausage made by the separate chopping method was more compacted than that of the sausages by the other methods. The sausage made by the separate chopping about fat and muscle had the best qualities.%为了改善低温乳化香肠出水出油、质构和口感问题,研究斩拌方法对低温乳化香肠品质的影响。以鸡肉和猪肉为主要原料,研究4种斩拌方法,即一步斩拌法、2种三步斩拌法和肥瘦肉分离斩拌法对低温乳化香肠保水保油性、质构特性、感官品质和微观结构的影响,以确定乳化香肠的合理斩拌方法。结果表明:肥瘦肉分离斩拌法制作低温乳化香肠的蒸煮损失率和总压出汁液最低,保水保油性最好;斩拌方法对

  17. Standing sausage modes in curved coronal slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, D. J.; Nakariakov, V. M.

    2016-09-01

    Context. Magnetohydrodynamic waveguides such as dense coronal loops can support standing modes. The ratios of the periods of oscillations for different longitudinal harmonics depend on the dispersive nature of the waveguide and so may be used as a seismological tool to determine coronal parameters. Aims: We extend models of standing sausage modes in low β coronal loops to include the effects of loop curvature. The behaviour of standing sausage modes in this geometry is used to explain the properties of observed oscillations that cannot be accounted for using straight loop models. Methods: We perform 2D numerical simulations of an oscillating coronal loop, modelled as a dense slab embedded in a potential magnetic field. The loop is field-aligned and so experiences expansion with height in addition to being curved. Standing sausage modes are excited by compressive perturbations of the loop and their properties are studied. Results: The spatial profiles of standing sausage modes are found to be modified by the expanding loop geometry typical for flaring loops and modelled by a potential magnetic field in our simulations. Longitudinal harmonics of order n > 1 have anti-nodes that are shifted towards the loop apex and the amplitude of anti-nodes near the loop apex is smaller than those near the loop footpoints. Conclusions: We find that the observation of standing sausage modes by the Nobeyama Radioheliograph in a flaring coronal loop on 12 January 2000 is consistent with interpretation in terms of the global mode (n = 1) and third harmonic (n = 3). This interpretation accounts for the period ratio and spatial structure of the observed oscillations.

  18. Detection of pork adulteration in processed meat by species-specific PCR-QIAxcel procedure based on D-loop and cytb genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Hassan; El-Garhy, Hoda A S; Moustafa, Mahmoud M A

    2014-12-01

    Detection of pork meat adulteration in "halal" meat products is a crucial issue in the fields of modern food inspection according to implementation of very strict procedures for halal food labelling. Present study aims at detecting and quantifying pork adulteration in both raw and cooked manufactured sausages. This is by applying an optimized species-specific PCR procedure followed by QIAxcel capillary electrophoresis system. Manufacturing experiment was designed by incorporating pork with beef meat at 0.01 to 10 % substitution levels beside beef and pork sausages as negative and positive controls, respectively. Subsequently, sausages were divided into raw and cooked sausages then subjected to DNA extraction. Results indicated that PCR amplifications of mitochondrial D-loop and cytochrome b (cytb) genes by porcine-specific primers produced 185 and 117 bp pork-specific DNA fragments in sausages, respectively. No DNA fragments were detected when PCR was applied on beef sausage DNA confirming primers specificity. For internal control, a 141-bp DNA fragment of eukaryotic 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene was amplified from pork and beef DNA templates. Although PCR followed by either QIAxcel or agarose techniques were efficient for targeted DNA fragments differentiation even as low as 0.01 % (pork/meat: w/w). For proficiency, adequacy, and performance, PCR-QIA procedure is highly sensitive, a time-saver, electronically documented, mutagenic-reagent free, of little manual errors, accurate in measuring PCR fragments length, and quantitative data supplier. In conclusion, it can be suggested that optimized PCR-QAI is considered as a rapid and sensitive method for routine pork detection and quantification in raw or processed meat.

  19. Monitoring of the dissemination of Salmonella in the chicken Frankfurt-sausage productionline of a sausage factory in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre de Freitas Luiz

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat and its derivatives are among the foodstuffs considered by environmental health authorities to present the highest risks to the public. A total of 185 samples were collected in five monthly batches, from different processing stages in a sausage plant that uses mechanically-deboned chicken meat (MDCM, and testedfor the presence of Salmonella. Enrichment was carried out in both Kauffman's tetrathionate broth and Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth and isolation on Salmonella-Shigella agar and brilliant-green agar. Live Salmonella bacteria were isolated from six samples of the raw meat and from the emulsion, in batches three, four, and five, but not from any sample in batches one or two. The six isolated strains were all classified as Salmonella Albany, which has not previously been reported in MDCM. Of the two enrichment broths, Rappaport-Vassiliadis gave the better results. The pattern of contamination suggests a probable common source, given that a new supplier was used in the third, fourth, and fifth months. It was also shown that the industrial cooking was effective in preventing Salmonella surviving in the final product.

  20. Modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Limberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand for low-fat beef products has led the food industry to use fat substitutes such as modified starch. About 14% of broken rice is generated during processing. Nevertheless, this by-product contains high levels of starch; being therefore, great raw material for fat substitution. This study evaluated the applicability of chemically and physically modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages. Extruded and phosphorylated broken rice was used in low-fat sausage formulation. All low-fat sausages presented about 55% reduction in the fat content and around 28% reduction in the total caloric value. Fat replacement with phosphorylated and extruded broken rice starch increased the texture acceptability of low-fat sausages, when compared to low-fat sausages with no modified broken rice. Results suggest that modified broken rice can be used as fat substitute in sausage formulations, yielding lower caloric value products with acceptable sensory characteristics.

  1. Sensory Evaluation and Textural Properties of Mushroom Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Lu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fresh mushroom was used as primary material to produce mushroom sausages and their qualities was assessed by sensory evaluation and textural analysis. The processing procedures include clean, slice, blanch, crush and pulp, add accessories, stuff, heat and cool. Ingredients for mushroom sausage are mushroom 100, chicken 0~10, soybean protein isolate 10, corn starch 10, oil 2, spice 2.4, salt 1, sugar 1 and carrageenan 0.8. The optimal mushroom for sausage processing is Pleurotus nebrodensis and the following is Pleurotus ostreatus and other white or light color mushrooms. Mushroom sausages possess many advantages as far as nutrition, safety, cost and processing compared to normal sausages. This study shows that sausage is a potential and effective method for mushroom processing.

  2. Comparison of Quality of Bologna Sausage Manufactured by Electron Beam or X-Ray Irradiated Ground Pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Mee-Hye; Lee, Ju-Woon; Yoon, Young-Min; Kim, Jong Heon; Moon, Byeong-Geum; Kim, Jae-Hun; Song, Beom-Suk

    2014-01-01

    Ground lean pork was irradiated by an electron beam or X-rays to compare the effects of two types of radiation generated by a linear accelerator on the quality of Bologna sausage as a model meat product. Raw ground lean pork was vacuum packaged at a thickness of 1.5 cm and irradiated at doses of 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 kGy by an electron beam (2.5 MeV) or X-rays (5 MeV). Solubility of myofibrillar proteins, bacterial counts, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values were determined for raw meat samples. Bologna sausage was manufactured using the irradiated lean pork, and total bacterial counts, TBARS values, and quality properties (color differences, cooking yield, texture, and palatability) were determined. Irradiation increased the solubility of myofibrillar proteins in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05). Bacterial contamination of the raw meat was reduced as the absorbed dose increased, and the reduction was the same for both radiation types. Differences were observed only between irradiated and non-irradiated samples (p<0.05). X-ray irradiation may serve as an alternative to gamma irradiation and electron beam irradiation.

  3. Effects of the storage time on the folic acid added to ready-to-eat meat products manufactured by irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, I.; García, M. L.; Selgas, M. D.

    2013-04-01

    Three different meat products enriched with folic acid (FA) (2.4 mg/100 g) were manufactured: hamburgers, cooked and dry fermented sausages. They were prepared as ready-to-eat (RTE) products using E-beam radiation (2 and 3 kGy) to ensure their safety. The stability of FA and sensory properties of the irradiated meat products were studied during three months of storage under freezing conditions for hamburgers and refrigeration conditions for cooked and dry fermented sausages. FA content was stable in non-irradiated and irradiated hamburgers and cooked sausages over the storage period, whereas it decreased 20% in non-irradiated dry fermented sausages and 12-8% in irradiated samples at 2 and 3 kGy, respectively. Nevertheless, the final amount remained sufficient to provide the recommended daily intake. Panelists rated the sensory properties of the hamburger as satisfactory even after irradiation and 90 days of storage. The overall acceptability of RTE cooked and dry fermented sausages improved slightly with storage (P>0.05).

  4. Chemistry and technology of Cured and Smoked Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Mathur

    1967-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in the chemistry and technology of cured and smoked meat products are reviewed. Various factors physical, chemical and microbiological affecting water holding capacity of cured meats and cured colour formation and its stability during storage are discussed. Methods of preparation of various types of cured and smoked meat products have been briefly described. Developments in the use of synthetic casings and skinless sausages have been mentioned. Smoke constituents, their role and physico-chemical aspects of mechanism and functions of smoking are discussed. Advancements in the methods of smoke generation, conventional smoking and some kilns, electrostatic smoking and smoking by use of liquid smokes have been described. Some of the methods of preparation of liquid smokes are also given.

  5. Seasonal influence on the prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter in retail broiler meat in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Vigre, Håkan; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    In Denmark, the incidence of human campylobacteriosis cases, as well as the Campylobacter prevalence in broiler flocks, is strongly influenced by season with a summer peak in July–August. Therefore, it was considered that the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler meat sold at retail in Denmark...... might also be influenced by season. A retrospective survey analysis was performed on 2001–2007 national surveillance data of the prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter in all conventional broiler flocks at slaughter, and in randomly sampled broiler meat at retail. There was a significant effect...... of season on the occurrence of Campylobacter in meat at retail; the largest effect was found for domestic chilled meat. Thus, the Campylobacter prevalence in Danish broiler flocks, which fluctuated with season, was found to be a strong predictor for the occurrence of Campylobacter in fresh, chilled, Danish...

  6. Lipid oxidation, sensory characteristics, and color of fresh pork sausage from immunologically castrated pigs stored frozen for up to 12 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Hamlow, Katelyn A; Tavárez, Marcos A; Schroeder, Aubrey L; Dilger, Anna C

    2016-05-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the quality characteristics of fresh sausage manufactured from immunologically castrated (IC) pigs, an emerging technology in the pork industry. Study 1: Fresh sausage patties from ground Boston butts fabricated from PC (physically castrated) pigs fed 0.55% SID (standard illeal digestible) lysine, IC pigs fed 0.55% SID lysine, and IC pigs fed 0.65% SID lysine were made and not standardized to a similar content of fat content. Study 2: fat and lean trim obtained from IC and PC pigs was made into fresh sausage patties, targeting 25% lipid. Patties (1.25 cm) were placed on trays and assigned to 0, 4, or 12 weeks frozen storage and then, after frozen storage, placed in simulated retail display conditions for 5 days. Patties were evaluated for color stability, sensory and textural properties, and lipid oxidation. Data were analyzed as a one way ANOVA with repeated measures where appropriate. In both studies, sausage discolored with both increased time in frozen storage and with increased time in retail display (P < 0.01). However, within each week of frozen storage, all treatments were equally discolored in both studies. Treatment did not affect the sensory characteristics or textural properties of fresh sausage in either study. Lipid oxidation did not differ by treatment in study 1. In study 2, lipid oxidation was reduced (P < 0.05) in IC compared to PC by approximately 0.1 mg malonaldehyde/kg meat, but there were no differences within each storage week. Increasing frozen storage time increased lipid oxidation an off-flavor scores in both studies (P < 0.05). Overall, immunological castration had no detrimental effects on color stability, sensory characteristics, or textural properties of fresh pork sausage. PMID:27247765

  7. Microbial deterioration of vacuum-packaged chilled beef cuts and techniques for microbiota detection and characterization: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lucila Hernández-Macedo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Gas production from microbial deterioration in vacuum-packs of chilled meat leads to pack distension, which is commonly referred as blown pack. This phenomenon is attributed to some psychrophilic and psychrotrophic Clostridium species, as well as Enterobacteria. The ability of these microorganisms to grow at refrigeration temperatures makes the control by the meat industry a challenge. This type of deterioration has been reported in many countries including some plants in the Midwestern and Southeastern regions of Brazil. In addition to causing economic losses, spoilage negatively impacts the commercial product brand, thereby impairing the meat industry. In the case of strict anaerobes species they are difficult to grow and isolate using culture methods in conventional microbiology laboratories. Furthermore, conventional culture methods are sometimes not capable of distinguishing species or genera. DNA-based molecular methods are alternative strategies for detecting viable and non-cultivable microorganisms and strict anaerobic microorganisms that are difficult to cultivate. Here, we review the microorganisms and mechanisms involved in the deterioration of vacuum-packaged chilled meat and address the use of molecular methods for detecting specific strict anaerobic microorganisms and microbial communities in meat samples.

  8. Effect of composition and properties of chitosan-based edible coatings on microflora of meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis A. Baranenko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Analysis of the properties of various chitosan grades has resulted in a working hypothesis that chitosan can be used as part of protective film-forming coatings for meat and meat products. The aim of this study was the research of composition, properties and antibacterial activity of chitosan-based coatings used for cold storage of meat and meat products. Material and methods. Protective coatings, developed by the authors, based on organic acids and chi- tosan with food gelatin, or distarch glycerol, or wheat fiber, or sodium alginate, or guar gum have been used as research material. The coatings were applied on the surfaces of retail cuts of veal and rabbit meat, boiled sausages, smoked sausages and smoked-boiled pork brisket. Antimicrobial activity of the solutions was evaluated in vitro. Microbial indicators of the mixtures were also determined by the zone of inhibition assay. Dynamic viscosity, the activation energy of viscous flow and pH of mixtures of fluids were measured. During the storage of meat and meat products total viable count of microorganisms was determined. Results. Polymer solutions of chitosan:starch and chitosan:gelatin are technologicaly compatible, solutions of chitosan:fiber are two-phase colloidal systems. Coatings did not alter the samples inherent flavour char- acteristics. All coatings reduced total viable count of microorganisms compared to control samples without coating. Composition based on 2% solution of chitosan and organic acids and 2% gelatin solution in a ratio of 1:1 has the strongest bacteriostatic effect for meat and meat products. Including potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate in gelatin and chitosan solutions mixture for protective coating was not found reasonable, because of their lower bacteriostatic effect. Combined application of vacuum and protective coatings pro- vided the strongest suppressing effect on microflora in all samples. Conclusions.The chitosan-based edible coatings

  9. Tenderisation of spent hen meat using ginger extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveena, B M; Mendiratta, S K

    2001-07-01

    1. The purpose of this work was to study the effect of ginger extract (GE) on tenderness of spent hen meat. 2. Spent hen meat chunks at either the pre- or post-chilled stage were marinated with different concentrations (0%, 1%, 3% and 5% v/w) of GE and were evaluated after 24 h of treatment. 3. GE treatment increased the pH, moisture, cooking yield, total pigments, water holding capacity, collagen solubility, protein extractability, muscle fibre diameter and decreased the shear force values. 4. The electrophoretic pattern of muscle proteins revealed extensive proteolysis and reduction in number of protein bands in GE treated samples. 5. Tenderness scores were higher in samples treated at post-chilled stage. Of the different concentrations of GE examined, 3% was found optimum for tenderisation. PMID:11469554

  10. The effect of soy hydrolysates on changes in cholesterol content and its oxidation products in fine - ground model sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Bilska

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Meat products belong to products particularly at risk of fat oxidation processes. One of the methods to prevent disadvantageous oxidative changes of lipids in food is the application of antioxidants. Material and methods. The experimental material consisted of fine – ground model sausages. Produced processed meats differed in terms of the presence and amount of acid and enzymatic soy hydrolysates (0.3% and 0.7%. The reference sample comprised processed meat product with no hydrolysate added. Model processed meat products were stored at 4°C for 29 days. The analyses included changes in peroxide value, changes in cholesterol and its oxidation products. Results. It was found that changes of peroxide value, 7α-OHC, 7β-OHC, α-epoxy-C, β-epoxy-C, 20α-OHC, 25-OHC and total oxisterols were statistically significantly affected, apart from storage time, also by the type and level of applied hydrolysates. The addition of enzymatic and acid hydrolysates to batter of experimental sausages effectively inhibited the process of fat oxidation. Conclusions. In samples with enzymatic hydrolysate an approx. 20% loss of initial cholesterol content was recorded. In contrast, in the other samples this loss amounted to approx. 10%. The process of cholesterol metabolism in tested processed meat products was affected by their storage time and the type of added hydrolysate. It was observed that the highest dynamics of cholesterol metabolism occurred in a sample with no hydrolysate added. The level of total oxisterols in the sample with no addition of hydrolysate was over two times higher than in samples with an addition of hydrolysate.

  11. Development of satiating and palatable high-protein meat products by using experimental design in food technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Kristine Sivertsen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Foods high in protein are known to satiate more fully than foods high in other constituents. One challenge with these types of food is the degree of palatability. This study was aimed at developing the frankfurter style of sausages that would regulate food intake as well as being the preferred food choice of the consumer. Design and measures: 16 sausage varieties with commercial (PE% 20 or higher amount of protein (PE% 40, being modified with vegetable fat (3% of rapeseed oil, and smoked or not, underwent a sensory descriptive analysis, in which the information was used to choose a subsample of four sausages for a satiety test. Twenty-seven subjects were recruited based on liking and frequency of sausage consumption. The participants ranged in age from 20 to 28, and in body mass index (BMI between 19.6 and 30.9. The students were served a sausage meal for five consecutive days and then filled out a questionnaire to describe their feelings of hunger, satiety, fullness, desire to eat an their prospective consumption on a visual analogue scale (VAS starting from right before, right after the meal, every half hour for 4 h until the next meal was served, and right after the second meal. Results and conclusion: The higher protein sausages were less juicy, oily, fatty, adhesive, but harder and more granular than with lower amount of protein. The high-protein sausages were perceived as more satiating the first 90 min after the first meal. Some indication of satiety effect of added oil versus meat fat. No significant differences in liking among the four sausage varieties.

  12. Yeast strains as potential aroma enhancers in dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Mónica; Corral, Sara; Cano-García, Liliana; Salvador, Ana; Belloch, Carmela

    2015-11-01

    Actual healthy trends produce changes in the sensory characteristics of dry fermented sausages therefore, new strategies are needed to enhance their aroma. In particular, a reduction in the aroma characteristics was observed in reduced fat and salt dry sausages. In terms of aroma enhancing, generally coagulase-negative cocci were selected as the most important group from the endogenous microbiota in the production of flavour compounds. Among the volatile compounds analysed in dry sausages, ester compounds contribute to fruity aroma notes associated with high acceptance of traditional dry sausages. However, the origin of ester compounds in traditional dry sausages can be due to other microorganisms as lactic acid bacteria, yeast and moulds. Yeast contribution in dry fermented sausages was investigated with opposite results attributed to low yeast survival or low activity during processing. Generally, they affect sausage colour and flavour by their oxygen-scavenging and lipolytic activities in addition to, their ability to catabolize fermentation products such as lactate increasing the pH and contributing to less tangy and more aromatic sausages. Recently, the isolation and characterization of yeast from traditional dry fermented sausages made possible the selection of those with ability to produce aroma active compounds. Molecular methods were used for genetic typing of the isolated yeasts whereas their ability to produce aroma compounds was tested in different systems such as in culture media, in model systems and finally on dry fermented sausages. The results revealed that the appropriate selection of yeast strains with aroma potential may be used to improve the sensory characteristics of reformulated fermented sausages. PMID:25765533

  13. Qualitative Assessment for Toxoplasma gondii Exposure Risk Associated with Meat Products in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Miao; Buchanan, Robert L; Dubey, Jitender P; Hill, Dolores E; Lambertini, Elisabetta; Ying, Yuqing; Gamble, H Ray; Jones, Jeffrey L; Pradhan, Abani K

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a global protozoan parasite capable of infecting most warm-blooded animals. Although healthy adult humans generally have no symptoms, severe illness does occur in certain groups, including congenitally infected fetuses and newborns, immunocompromised individuals including transplant patients. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that consumption of raw or undercooked meat products is one of the major sources of infection with T. gondii. The goal of this study was to develop a framework to qualitatively estimate the exposure risk to T. gondii from various meat products consumed in the United States. Risk estimates of various meats were analyzed by a farm-to-retail qualitative assessment that included evaluation of farm, abattoir, storage and transportation, meat processing, packaging, and retail modules. It was found that exposure risks associated with meats from free-range chickens, nonconfinement-raised pigs, goats, and lamb are higher than those from confinement-raised pigs, cattle, and caged chickens. For fresh meat products, risk at the retail level was similar to that at the farm level unless meats had been frozen or moisture enhanced. Our results showed that meat processing, such as salting, freezing, commercial hot air drying, long fermentation times, hot smoking, and cooking, are able to reduce T. gondii levels in meat products. whereas nitrite and/or nitrate, spice, low pH, and cold storage have no effect on the viability of T. gondii tissue cysts. Raw-fermented sausage, cured raw meat, meat that is not hot-air dried, and fresh processed meat were associated with higher exposure risks compared with cooked meat and frozen meat. This study provides a reference for meat management control programs to determine critical control points and serves as the foundation for future quantitative risk assessments.

  14. Qualitative Assessment for Toxoplasma gondii Exposure Risk Associated with Meat Products in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Miao; Buchanan, Robert L; Dubey, Jitender P; Hill, Dolores E; Lambertini, Elisabetta; Ying, Yuqing; Gamble, H Ray; Jones, Jeffrey L; Pradhan, Abani K

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a global protozoan parasite capable of infecting most warm-blooded animals. Although healthy adult humans generally have no symptoms, severe illness does occur in certain groups, including congenitally infected fetuses and newborns, immunocompromised individuals including transplant patients. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that consumption of raw or undercooked meat products is one of the major sources of infection with T. gondii. The goal of this study was to develop a framework to qualitatively estimate the exposure risk to T. gondii from various meat products consumed in the United States. Risk estimates of various meats were analyzed by a farm-to-retail qualitative assessment that included evaluation of farm, abattoir, storage and transportation, meat processing, packaging, and retail modules. It was found that exposure risks associated with meats from free-range chickens, nonconfinement-raised pigs, goats, and lamb are higher than those from confinement-raised pigs, cattle, and caged chickens. For fresh meat products, risk at the retail level was similar to that at the farm level unless meats had been frozen or moisture enhanced. Our results showed that meat processing, such as salting, freezing, commercial hot air drying, long fermentation times, hot smoking, and cooking, are able to reduce T. gondii levels in meat products. whereas nitrite and/or nitrate, spice, low pH, and cold storage have no effect on the viability of T. gondii tissue cysts. Raw-fermented sausage, cured raw meat, meat that is not hot-air dried, and fresh processed meat were associated with higher exposure risks compared with cooked meat and frozen meat. This study provides a reference for meat management control programs to determine critical control points and serves as the foundation for future quantitative risk assessments. PMID:26613916

  15. ANTIMAGIC LABELING OF GENERALIZED SAUSAGE GRAPHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oudone Phanalasy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An antimagic labeling of a graph with q edges is a bijection from the set of edges to the set of positive integers {1,2,...,q} such that all vertex weights are pairwise distinct, where the vertex weight of a vertex is the sum of the labels of all the edges incident with that vertex. A graph is antimagic if it has an antimagic labeling. In this paper we construct antimagic labeling for the family of generalized sausage graphs.

  16. Effect of pumpkin on the quality characteristics and storage quality of aerobically packaged chicken sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar, Fayaz Ahmed; Kumar, Sunil; Bhat, Zuhaib Fayaz; Kumar, Pavan

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of different levels of pumpkin on the quality characteristics of chicken sausages. The pumpkin was incorporated at three different levels viz. 6, 12 and 18 percent replacing lean meat in the formulation. The products were analyzed for various physicochemical and sensory attributes. pH, emulsion stability, cooking yield, crude protein, ether extract and ash content of the products showed significantly (p < 0.05) decreasing trend with increasing levels of incorporation of pumpkin however, there was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the moisture and crude fibre content. Based on various parameters, 12 percent level of incorporation was optimized as best. Chicken sausages with optimum level of pumpkin along with control were aerobically packaged in LDPE pouches and assessed for storage quality under refrigerated (4 ± 1°C) conditions. The mean values of pH and all the sensory parameters showed significantly (p < 0.05) decreasing trend for both control as well as treatment samples whereas TBARS (mg malonaldehyde/kg) value, total plate count (log cfu/g) and yeast and mould count (log cfu/g) showed significantly (p < 0.05) increasing trend with storage. Coliforms (log cfu/g) were not detected throughout the period of storage. Thus, fibre enriched chicken sausages could be successfully stored for a period of 14 days at refrigeration temperature (4 ± 1°C) without any significant loss in quality. PMID:24494185

  17. 9 CFR 318.22 - Determination of added water in cooked sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sausages. 318.22 Section 318.22 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.22 Determination of added water in cooked sausages. (a) For purposes of this section, the following definitions apply. (1) Cooked sausage. Cooked sausage is any...

  18. Improvement of shelf stability and processing properties of meat products by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effects of gamma irradiation on the processing properties of meat products, emulsion-type sausage, beef patties and pork loin ham were manufactured. Most contaminated bacteria were killed by 3 kGy-irradiation to raw ground beef, and sausage can be manufactured with desirable flavor, a reduction of NaCl and phosphate, and extension of shelf life using gamma irradiation on the raw meat. The beef patties were manufactured with the addition of antioxidants (200 ppm), BHA, ascorbyl palmitate, α-tocopherol, or β-carotene, and gamma-irradiation. Retardation of lipid oxidation appeared at the patties with an antioxidant. A dose of 5 kGy was observed to be as effective as the use of 200 ppm NaNO2 to provide and maintain the desired color of the product during storage. After curing, irradiation, heating and smoking could extensively prolong the shelf life of the hams

  19. Improvement of shelf stability and processing properties of meat products by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Ju-Woon; Yook, Hong-Sun; Lee, Kyong-Haeng; Kim, Hee-Yun

    2002-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of gamma irradiation on the processing properties of meat products, emulsion-type sausage, beef patties and pork loin ham were manufactured. Most contaminated bacteria were killed by 3 kGy-irradiation to raw ground beef, and sausage can be manufactured with desirable flavor, a reduction of NaCl and phosphate, and extension of shelf life using gamma irradiation on the raw meat. The beef patties were manufactured with the addition of antioxidants (200 ppm), BHA, ascorbyl palmitate, α-tocopherol, or β-carotene, and gamma-irradiation. Retardation of lipid oxidation appeared at the patties with an antioxidant. A dose of 5 kGy was observed to be as effective as the use of 200 ppm NaNO 2 to provide and maintain the desired color of the product during storage. After curing, irradiation, heating and smoking could extensively prolong the shelf life of the hams.

  20. Improvement of shelf stability and processing properties of meat products by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, M.-W. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr; Lee, J.-W.; Yook, H.-S.; Lee, K.-H.; Kim, H.-Y

    2002-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of gamma irradiation on the processing properties of meat products, emulsion-type sausage, beef patties and pork loin ham were manufactured. Most contaminated bacteria were killed by 3 kGy-irradiation to raw ground beef, and sausage can be manufactured with desirable flavor, a reduction of NaCl and phosphate, and extension of shelf life using gamma irradiation on the raw meat. The beef patties were manufactured with the addition of antioxidants (200 ppm), BHA, ascorbyl palmitate, {alpha}-tocopherol, or {beta}-carotene, and gamma-irradiation. Retardation of lipid oxidation appeared at the patties with an antioxidant. A dose of 5 kGy was observed to be as effective as the use of 200 ppm NaNO{sub 2} to provide and maintain the desired color of the product during storage. After curing, irradiation, heating and smoking could extensively prolong the shelf life of the hams.

  1. Numerical simulation of fundamental trapped sausage modes

    CERN Document Server

    Cécere, M; Reula, O

    2011-01-01

    Context: We integrate the 2D MHD ideal equations of a straight slab to simulate observational results associated with fundamental sausage trapped modes. Aims: Starting from a non-equilibrium state with a dense chromospheric layer, we analyse the evolution of the internal plasma dynamics of magnetic loops, subject to line-tying boundary conditions, and with the coronal parameters described in Asai et al. (2001) and Melnikov et al. (2002) to investigate the onset and damping of sausage modes. Methods: To integrate the equations we used a high resolution shock-capturing (HRSC) method specially designed to deal appropriately with flow discontinuities. Results: Due to non-linearities and inhomogeneities, pure modes are difficult to sustain and always occur coupled among them so as to satisfy, e.g., the line-tying constraint. We found that, in one case, the resonant coupling of the sausage fundamental mode with a slow one results in a non-dissipative damping of the former. Conclusions: In scenarios of thick and den...

  2. The Assessment of Red Beet as a Natural Colorant, and Evaluation of Quality Properties of Emulsified Pork Sausage Containing Red Beet Powder during Cold Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Choi, Jung-Seok; Moon, Sung-Sil; Jeong, Jin-Yeon; Kim, Gap-Don

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess red beet as a natural colorant in emulsified pork sausage and to investigate the effect of red beet on quality characteristics of emulsified pork sausage during 20 d of cold storage. Red beet was prepared as a powder and a substitute with sodium nitrite at 0.5% and 1.0% levels in emulsified pork sausage. Red beet significantly increased the moisture content and pH (pred beet powder (pred beet treatments slightly increased during 20 d of cold storage at 4℃ (pRedness dramatically increased with red beet powder (pred beet addition (pred beet powder (p>0.05). Texture and 2-thiobabituric acid reactive substance were also not affected by red beet addition (p>0.05). Therefore, red beet could be a good natural colorant in emulsified pork sausage but it needs additional processing, such as betalain concentration and extraction as a juice, to be used as an antioxidant in meat products. PMID:26761285

  3. Proteolytic Characterization of Trimmed Beef Fermented Sausages Inoculated by Indonesian Probiotics: Lactobacillus plantarum IIA-2C12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus IIA-2B4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Nurul Afiyah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Proteolysis is one of the most important biochemical changes affecting proteins during the ripening and preservation of fermented beef sausages. In this study, proteolytic activities of two Indonesian probiotics, Lactobacillus plantarum IIA-2C12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus IIA-2B4 used as starters in trimmed beef are investigated. IIA-2B4 used as starters in trimmed beef are investigated. L. plantarum IIA-2C12 and L. acidophilus displayed remarkable proteolytic activities against milk casein substrate, in which the activity of L. plantarum IIA-2C12 is higher than that of L. acidophilus IIA-2B4. Similar evidences were observed when proteolytic activities of both strains were visualized by using SDS-Page against meat sarcoplasmic proteins. The differences in the number of proteases encoded by the genomes of both starters might account for these differences. The activities of both strains were slightly reduced upon storage at room temperature for 28 days due to decreasing of the amount of substrate and or stability of proteases. In addition, we found also that the sausage inoculated by L. acidophilus IIA-2B4 tends to produce more aromatic amino acids than that of L. plantarum IIA-2C12. This might differently contribute to flavor (especially aroma of both sausages. Altogether, this is, to our knowledge, first evidences for the proteolytic activity of L. acidophilus strain towards muscle proteins during sausage fermentation.

  4. WATER SPRAY-CHILLING OF BEEF CARCASSES AND MEAT AGEING ON WEIGHT LOSS, COLOR AND LONGISSIMUS LUMBORUM ACCEPTANCE ASPERSÃO DE ÁGUA FRIA NO INÍCIO DO RESFRIAMENTO DE CARCAÇAS BOVINAS E MATURAÇÃO DA CARNE SOBRE O PESO, COR E ACEITAÇÃO DO MÚSCULO LONGISSIMUS LUMBORUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEDRO EDUARDO DE FELÍCIO

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of spray-chilling in carcasses weight loss, purge loss, color and appearance of aged striploin (m. Longissi-mus lumborum steaks. Two lots of intact male, nearly 12 month old, grain finished cattle, were slaughtered, being 16 of the Montana composite breed, in the first slaughter, and 24 crossbreds (½ Nelore X ½ Simental in the second one. After bleeding, electrical stimulation, skinning and evisceration, the carcasses submitted to one of the two cooling systems: (1 Without spray-chilling (SA; (2 With spray-chilling (CA. Carcasses were weighted before and after cooling. In the boning room steaks of 2.5 cm thick from the striploin were taken, vacuum packaged, and aged for 7, 14, 30 and 60 days. Samples were then removed from the package, placed in an expanded polystyrene trays covered with a PVC film, and exposed in refrigerated displays for 48 hours. CIE Lab color was measured after 24 hours using a hand colorimeter. A visual analysis of the samples was also done for the attributes of color, overall acceptability, and buying option. The spray-chilling was efficient in reducing the weight loss (P<0.05. Effects (P<0.001 of the spray-chilling and aging time on purge loss were observed. The samples from the CA carcasses had higher (P<0.001 purge loss, which had an increase at 30 or more days of aging in this treatment but not in the SA. No effect (P>0.05 of the spray-chilling treatment and aging time was observed on the color visual analysis.

    Key-words:  Beef quality purge loss,  spray-chilling, striploin, vacuum package.

    O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar os efeitos da aspersão de água gelada, nas primeiras seis horas de resfriamento, nas perdas de peso por evaporação das carcaças e, também, do tempo de maturação em embalagem a vácuo, nas perdas por exsudação da carne, e na cor e aceita

  5. [Biochemistry and functional characterization of squid mantle meat (Dosidicus gigas)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugoch, L; Guarda, A; María Pérez, L; Isabel Donghi, M

    2000-12-01

    A study for the characterization of frozen giant squid mantle (meat) protein stored at -25 degrees C for 8 month was started. In the present research, the following functional properties were investigate: emulsifying, water holding and gel forming capacities. Optimal conditions for the separation and differentiation of miofibrillar and sarcoplasmatic proteins were also studied. It was found that the unfrozen giant squid mantle meat es capable of emulifying 2.817,4 g of oil/g of protein and holding capacity was 3.64 g of water/g of protein. Related to the gel forming capacity, it was not obtain, probably due to excessive storage of the meat. With regard to miofibrilar protein obtention of the squid mantle meat, it was found that two low ionic strength washings (I = 0.05), the sarcoplasmic proteins were practically eliminated from the protein matrix. The differentiation of miofibrilar and sarcoplasmatic proteins was obtained by PAGE-SDS of the squid mantle meat extracted at two different ionic strength (I = 0.05 and I = 0.5). This work demonstrates that the giant squid mantle protein has a high emulsifying and water holding capacity, and it can be used, as a raw material, for the improvement of sausage products. About the gelling products, more studies will be necessary with fresh squid mantle meat to conclude about this functional property.

  6. [Biochemistry and functional characterization of squid mantle meat (Dosidicus gigas)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugoch, L; Guarda, A; María Pérez, L; Isabel Donghi, M

    2000-12-01

    A study for the characterization of frozen giant squid mantle (meat) protein stored at -25 degrees C for 8 month was started. In the present research, the following functional properties were investigate: emulsifying, water holding and gel forming capacities. Optimal conditions for the separation and differentiation of miofibrillar and sarcoplasmatic proteins were also studied. It was found that the unfrozen giant squid mantle meat es capable of emulifying 2.817,4 g of oil/g of protein and holding capacity was 3.64 g of water/g of protein. Related to the gel forming capacity, it was not obtain, probably due to excessive storage of the meat. With regard to miofibrilar protein obtention of the squid mantle meat, it was found that two low ionic strength washings (I = 0.05), the sarcoplasmic proteins were practically eliminated from the protein matrix. The differentiation of miofibrilar and sarcoplasmatic proteins was obtained by PAGE-SDS of the squid mantle meat extracted at two different ionic strength (I = 0.05 and I = 0.5). This work demonstrates that the giant squid mantle protein has a high emulsifying and water holding capacity, and it can be used, as a raw material, for the improvement of sausage products. About the gelling products, more studies will be necessary with fresh squid mantle meat to conclude about this functional property. PMID:11464670

  7. Aspects of quality assurance in processing natural sausage casings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnker, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Natural sausage casings are produced from the intestines of various species and used as edible containers for many different types of sausage around the world. Casings must therefore be fit for human consumption and must meet all food safety and hygiene requirements that apply to food of animal orig

  8. Hepatitis E Virus in Pork Liver Sausage, France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berto, A.; Grierson, S.; Hakze-van der Honing, van der R.W.; Martelli, F.; Johne, R.; Reetz, J.; Ulrich, R.G.; Pavio, N.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Banks, M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated viability of hepatitis E virus (HEV) identified in contaminated pork liver sausages obtained from France. HEV replication was demonstrated in 1 of 4 samples by using a 3-dimensional cell culture system. The risk for human infection with HEV by consumption of these sausages should be

  9. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in poultry meat in Qena, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Karmi

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To study the prevalence of pathogenic coagulase positive, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in poultry meat and its products. Materials and Methods: A total of 125 poultry samples were collected during 2012 in Qena governorate for presence of pathogenic coagulase positive, methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Samples were taken from freshly slaughtered whole chicken carcasses (25/125), chicken portions (25/125), chicken luncheon (25/125), chicken sausages ...

  10. Evaluation of natural preservatives in combination with acid whey for use in fermented sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Maria Wójciak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Natural antioxidant and antimicrobial systems are set to become an important component in food preservation methodology. The effect of alternative natural preservatives (Sinapis alba L.-M, Rosmarinus officinalis L.-R, Juniperus communis L.-J in combination with acid whey (AW was investigated after the ripening period (21d and over a prolonged storage period of sausage. An antioxidant activity of extracts exercise was performed. The antimicrobial, oxidative stability and sensory properties of these natural preservatives were compared to curing-control (C. Significantly lower rancid odor and rancid flavor (1.48 were observed for R and M compared with the C sample. The low level of these attributes evidenced the antioxidant properties of the R sample, which confirmed the lower CD (~0.48-0.48 µmol mg−1 and TBARS values (~0.41-1.02 mg MDA kg−1 during sausage storing and the highest antioxidant activity against ABTS+ radicals (~85.45 %. Incorporation of acid whey with rosemary extract will give the product a threefold effect: high quality (sensory acceptance, healthy benefit (elimination of nitrite and nitrate from meat products and safety (improved microbiological and oxidative stability.

  11. Spatial damping of propagating sausage waves in coronal cylinders

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Ming-Zhe; Li, Bo; Xia, Li-Dong; Yu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Sausage modes are important in coronal seismology. Spatially damped propagating sausage waves were recently observed in the solar atmosphere. We examine how wave leakage influences the spatial damping of sausage waves propagating along coronal structures modeled by a cylindrical density enhancement embedded in a uniform magnetic field. Working in the framework of cold magnetohydrodynamics, we solve the dispersion relation (DR) governing sausage waves for complex-valued longitudinal wavenumber $k$ at given real angular frequencies $\\omega$. For validation purposes, we also provide analytical approximations to the DR in the low-frequency limit and in the vicinity of $\\omega_{\\rm c}$, the critical angular frequency separating trapped from leaky waves. In contrast to the standing case, propagating sausage waves are allowed for $\\omega$ much lower than $\\omega_{\\rm c}$. However, while able to direct their energy upwards, these low-frequency waves are subject to substantial spatial attenuation. The spatial damping ...

  12. Rabbit meat processing: historical perspective to future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Petracci

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In past centuries, because rabbits are relatively small, animals slaughtered for consumption were generally eaten immediately. However, since a single rabbit would offer little more product than could be consumed at one sitting, little effort was devoted to developing preserved rabbit products (such as salted or dried meat, sausages, etc.. For this reason, although there is a rich history of recipes using rabbit meat in the Mediterranean area, there are few traditional further-processed products. Nowadays, even though the processing industry is pushing more and more towards the introduction of more attractive products (i.e. ready meals, ready-to-cook, etc. for consumers with little time for meal preparation, most rabbit meat worldwide is still sold as whole carcass or cut-up parts. This review analyses the main strength and weakness factors regarding the use of rabbit meat to manufacture further processed products. Bearing in mind these considerations, it then describes the more promising processing technologies for raw meat materials to obtain added-value products (marinated, formed, emulsified, coated, etc. by exploiting rabbit meat’s intrinsic characteristics, such as high protein/low fat content coupled with a balanced n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratio, low cholesterol and heme-iron content. Major trends in meat product formulation (modulation of lipid content and composition, use of novel antioxidants and salt reduction are also discussed by highlighting strategies to provide healthier meat products meeting current nutritional needs. Finally, major packaging solutions for rabbit meat and meat products (ordinary and modified atmosphere, vacuum are considered.

  13. A study on the toxigenesis by Clostridium botulinum in nitrate and nitrite-reduced dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hospital, Xavier F; Hierro, Eva; Stringer, Sandra; Fernández, Manuela

    2016-02-01

    Nitrite has been traditionally used to control Clostridium botulinum in cured meat products. However, in the case of dry fermented sausages, environmental factors such as pH, aw and the competitive microbiota may exert a more relevant role than nitrite in the inhibition of the growth and toxin production by C. botulinum. In this challenge test study, two varieties of Mediterranean dry sausages (salchichón and fuet) were inoculated with spores of C. botulinum Group I (proteolytic) and C. botulinum Group II (nonproteolytic). Sausages were prepared with 150 mg/kg of NaNO3 and 150 mg/kg of NaNO2 (maximum ingoing amounts allowed by the European Union regulation), with a 25% and 50% reduction, and without nitrate/nitrite. The initial pH in both products was 5.6, and decreased to values below 5.0 in salchichón and to 5.2 in fuet. Lactic acid bacteria counts reached 8-9 log cfu/g after fermentation. The aw decreased from initial values of 0.96 to about 0.88-0.90 at the end of ripening. Botulinum neurotoxin was not detected in any of the sausages, including those manufactured without nitrate and nitrite. Despite the environmental conditions were within the range for germination and growth of C. botulinum Group I during the first 8 days of the ripening process in fuet and 10-12 days in salchichón, acidity, aw and incubation temperature combined to inhibit the production of toxin, independently of the concentration of curing agents. Although decreasing or even removing nitrate/nitrite from the formula did not compromise safety regarding C. botulinum in the conditions tested in this study, their antimicrobial role should not be underestimated in the case that other hurdles could fail or other ripening conditions were used, and also considering the effect of nitrite on other pathogens. PMID:26619314

  14. Scientific Opinion on the public health risks related to the maintenance of the cold chain during storage and transport of meat. Part 2 (minced meat from all species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fresh meat intended for the production of minced meat may be contaminated by a range of pathogens including Salmonella spp. and verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC. These may grow if the temperatures are not maintained below 5 °C along the continuum from carcass chilling to mincing. Moreover Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica will grow at chill temperatures, albeit slowly, but significant growth may occur during prolonged storage. Current legislation (Regulation (EC 853/2004 requires that red meat carcasses are immediately chilled after post-mortem inspection to not more than 7 °C throughout and that this temperature be maintained until mincing which must take place not more than 6 or 15 (vacuum-packed meat days after slaughter. The corresponding figures for poultry are 4 °C and 3 days. The impact of storage time between slaughter and mincing on bacterial pathogen growth was investigated using predictive modelling. Storage time-temperature combinations that allow growth of Salmonella, VTEC, L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica equivalent to those obtained under the conditions defined by Regulation (EC 853/2004 were identified. As the modelling assumed favourable pH and aw for bacterial growth, no microbial competition and no lag phase, the equivalent times reported are based on worst-case scenarios. This analysis suggested, for example, that red meat, vacuum packed beef and poultry could be stored at 2 °C for up to 14, 39 and 5 days, respectively, without more bacterial pathogen growth occurring than that which would be achieved under current legislative conditions. It was therefore concluded that alternative time-temperature combinations for the storage of fresh meat between slaughter and mincing are possible without increasing bacterial pathogen growth, and maximum times for the storage of fresh meat intended for minced meat preparation are provided for different storage temperatures. The impact of spoilage on

  15. Effects of adding red wine on the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of uncured frankfurter-type sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xi; Sebranek, Joseph G; Lee, Hyun Yong; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality and sensory characteristics of RTE frankfurter-type sausage cured with celery juice powder and including red wine. Four frankfurter treatments including a conventionally cured treatment without red wine (control) and three treatments cured with pre-converted vegetable juice powder and 0%, 5% or 10% (v/w) red wine were prepared. Results showed that adding 5% red wine increased the a*-value, and the textural resilience, cohesiveness and springiness of the frankfurters, as well as decreased lipid/protein oxidation of the final products. Added wine also introduced new volatiles (alcohol and ester compounds) to the frankfurters. The principal component (PC) analysis showed that the pre-converted vegetable juice powder achieved the same effects as the conventional curing agents for typical frankfurter properties. However, the addition of excess amounts of red wine (10%) to the meat batter decreased the pH of meat batter and accelerated lipid oxidation.

  16. Microbiological quality of poultry meat: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GC Mead

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat can be contaminated with a variety of microorganisms, including those capable of spoiling the product during chill storage, and certain foodborne pathogens. Human illness may follow from handling of raw meat, undercooking or mishandling of the cooked product. While Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. remain the organisms of greatest global concern in this respect, others present include the more recently reported Arcobacter and Helicobacter spp. and, occasionally, verotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Also considered here is the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance among poultry-associated pathogens. Because of the need for a systematic and universally applicable approach to food safety control, the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP concept is increasingly being introduced into the Poultry Industry, and Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA is being applied to microbial hazards. Among a number of completed and on-going studies on QRA are those undertaken by FAO/WHO on Salmonella and Campylobacter in broilers. In the case of Campylobacter, however, any QRA must assume at present that all strains have the same pathogenic potential for humans and comparable survival capabilities, even though this is unlikely to be the case. Implementation of the HACCP system in poultry processing plants addresses zoonotic agents that are not detectable by conventional meat inspection procedures and can help to control contamination of carcasses with spoilage organisms. The system brings obvious benefits in optimising plant hygiene, ensuring compliance with legislation and providing evidence of 'due diligence' on the part of the processor. It is now being applied globally in two different situations: in one, such as that occurring in the USA, carcass contamination is clearly reduced as carcasses pass through the process and are finally chilled in super-chlorinated water. There is also the option to use a chemical-rinse treatment for further

  17. 电子鼻对模拟金锣鸡肉肠风味香精的识别%Identification of Simulated Jinluo Chicken Sausage Essence by Electronic Nose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张硕; 王玉田; 孟鑫

    2012-01-01

    利用电子鼻鉴别模拟金锣鸡肉肠风味香精与金锣鸡肉肠的风味差别。运用电子鼻采集两样品的香气轮廓,得到电子鼻传感器的响应值,并通过主成分分析和统计质量控制分析多元统计方法进行数据分析。结果表明:金锣鸡肉肠和模拟金锣鸡肉肠风味香精之间风味存在差别,调配香精工作需进一步改善,更好的模拟鸡肉肠风味。%The difference of flavor between Jinluo chicken sausage and stimulated Jinluo chicken sausage essence by electronic nose was discussed in this study. Aroma composition of two samples was collected by electronic nose, and the response values was acquired. In addition, data analysis was proceeded by using main component analysis (PCA) and statistical quality control analysis (SQC). Results showed that the flavor between stimulated Jinluo chicken sausage and Jinluo chicken sausage essence is different. Therefore, meat taut comoosition need to be improved in order to imitate chicken sausage flavor.

  18. Association of Processed Meat Intake with Hypertension Risk in Hemodialysis Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yu Wu

    Full Text Available In this cross-sectional study, we hypothesized that hemodialysis patients consuming greater processed meat is associated with hypertension risk, which can be partly explained by the high sodium content in processed meat. From September 2013 to May 2014, one hundred and four patients requiring chronic hemodialysis treatment were recruited from hemodialysis centers. Data on systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure before receiving dialysis, and 3-day dietary records of the recruited patients were collected. HD patients with systolic and diastolic blood pressures greater than140 mmHg and higher than 90 mmHg, respectively, were considered hypertension risk. Protein foods were divided into 4 categories: red meat, white meat, soybeans, and processed meat (e.g., sausage and ham. In a model adjusted for energy intake and hypertension history, additional servings of processed meats was positively associated to systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 2.1 [1.0-4.3], and diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg (odds ratio: 2.5 [1.2-5.5]. After adjustment for dietary sodium contents or body mass index (BMI, most associations were substantially attenuated and were no longer significant. In systolic blood pressure greater than140 mmHg, one serving per day of red meats (β = -1.22, P < .05 and white meats (β = -0. 75, P = .05 was associated with a reduced risk compared with one serving per day of processed meats. Similarly, compared with one serving per day of processed meat, a reduced risk of diastolic blood pressure higher than 90 mmHg was associated with one serving per day of red meat (β = -1. 59, P < .05, white meat (β = -0. 62, P < .05. Thus, in these hemodialysis patients, intake of processed meat is significantly positively associated with higher blood pressure risk, and both sodium contents in processed meat and BMI significantly contributes to this association.

  19. Dongpo Meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Su Dongpo (1037-1101), a famous literary figure of the Song Dynasty (960-1279), was fond of pork braised in brown sauce. He liked it so much that he wrote a poem about how to cook the dish. When Su took the post of Hangzhou Prefecture chief in 1089, he organized laborers to dredge the West Lake, store water and irrigate the fields. The locals, knowing that Su liked to eat meat, presented him with gifts of pork to show their gratitude for his good service. Soon, Su had so much pork that he did not know what to do with it He

  20. A Study of the Characteristics of Lactobacillus Plantarum Isolated from Sausage in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lactic acid bacteria are widely used for the fermentation and preservation of dairy and meat products and to improve their aroma and texture. The aim of this study wasto screen Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from sausage for detection of plasmids, protein bandsand phages, to find possible linkage of bacteriocin production to genetic location. Material and Methods: Two Lactobacillus plantarum with antibacterial activitywere isolated from sausage. Bacterial plasmids were isolated by alkali lysis and electrophoresis through agarose gel. Proteins were precipitated from cell-free supernatants by ammoniumsulphate and analysed by SDS-PAGE. For detection of phages, mitomycin C of final concentration of 2.5 óg/ml was used and phages were detected by transmission electron microscopy. Results: One plasmid of about 4.5 kbp was detected in one Lactobacillus plantarum strain.Two bands of proteins were found on SDS-PAGE. The molecular weight of protein bands of Lacto. plantarum without plasmid was higher than the protein bands of Lacto. plantarum with plasmid. A phage was detected on the cell wall of one strain of Lacto. Plantarum; no plasmid was detected in this Lacto. plantarum. It appears that antibacterial activity is located in the phage of this strain. Conclusion: The high molecular weight of proteins with a wide spectrum effect on bacteria may indicated chromosome-coded bacteriocin. The role of phages in lactobacilli couldbe a factor which inhibit meat product starter cultures or attributed in antimicrobial activity, i.e.antibacterial genes might be on chromosomal phages. Bacteriophages could be a threat toindustrial fermentation foods.

  1. Chosen quality parameters of pork sausage produced without curing mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Kostecki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to determine the infl uence of the dried celeriac juice addition, as a nitrogenous compounds sources, on the quality of the experimental pork sausage. Material and methods. In the sausages with vegetable preparation addition and in traditionally cured sausages amount of the sodium nitrate (III and sodium nitrate (V was determined (in the batter and 24 h after production. Moreover the total number of aerobic bacteria, number of coli forms, anaerobic survived bacteria, coagulase positive staphylococci, Listeria monocytogenes and occurrence of Salmonella in 25 g (according to Polish Standards was determined during sausages storing (after 2, 14 and 21 days. Also sensory evaluation was carried out (after 2 and 14 days. After 2, 7, 14 and 21 days the amount of drip loss in the package was determined. Result. In the experimental sausage produced with the addition of vegetable preparation (E0, the content was 2.2 times higher of sodium nitrate (V while sodium nitrate (III three times lower, compared to traditionally cured sausages (K. In the E0 sausages faster aerobic microorganisms proliferation was observed. However, in these products, in comparison to the control group (K, no higher contamination with coliform bacteria, anaerobic sporulating bacteria, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Listeria monocytogenes or Salmonella was found. The sensory evaluation (colour in cross-section, fl avour, taste, consistency showed no statistically significant difference between the experimental sausages. Conclusions. In the sausages produced with dried celeriac juice addition there was above twice more sodium nitrate (V and threefold less sodium nitrate (III in comparison to traditionally cured sausages and faster growth of aerobic bacteria was demonstrated. Sensory quality of ‘cold’ and ‘hot’ sausages without curing salt was worse, but the score number was never lower than 4,1, so the sausages were accepted. In the

  2. Time-dependent depletion of nitrite in pork/beef and chicken meat products and its effect on nitrite intake estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Leonardo; Darnerud, Per Ola; Toldrá, Fidel; Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    The food additive nitrite (E249, E250) is commonly used in meat curing as a food preservation method. Because of potential negative health effects of nitrite, its use is strictly regulated. In an earlier study we have shown that the calculated intake of nitrite in children can exceed the acceptable daily intake (ADI) when conversion from dietary nitrate to nitrite is included. This study examined time-dependent changes in nitrite levels in four Swedish meat products frequently eaten by children: pork/beef sausage, liver paté and two types of chicken sausage, and how the production process, storage and also boiling (e.g., simmering in salted water) and frying affect the initial added nitrite level. The results showed a steep decrease in nitrite level between the point of addition to the product and the first sampling of the product 24 h later. After this time, residual nitrite levels continued to decrease, but much more slowly, until the recommended use-by date. Interestingly, this continuing decrease in nitrite was much smaller in the chicken products than in the pork/beef products. In a pilot study on pork/beef sausage, we found no effects of boiling on residual nitrite levels, but frying decreased nitrite levels by 50%. In scenarios of time-dependent depletion of nitrite using the data obtained for sausages to represent all cured meat products and including conversion from dietary nitrate, calculated nitrite intake in 4-year-old children generally exceeded the ADI. Moreover, the actual intake of nitrite from cured meat is dependent on the type of meat source, with a higher residual nitrite levels in chicken products compared with pork/beef products. This may result in increased nitrite exposure among consumers shifting their consumption pattern of processed meats from red to white meat products. PMID:26743589

  3. Time-dependent depletion of nitrite in pork/beef and chicken meat products and its effect on nitrite intake estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Leonardo; Darnerud, Per Ola; Toldrá, Fidel; Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The food additive nitrite (E249, E250) is commonly used in meat curing as a food preservation method. Because of potential negative health effects of nitrite, its use is strictly regulated. In an earlier study we have shown that the calculated intake of nitrite in children can exceed the acceptable daily intake (ADI) when conversion from dietary nitrate to nitrite is included. This study examined time-dependent changes in nitrite levels in four Swedish meat products frequently eaten by children: pork/beef sausage, liver paté and two types of chicken sausage, and how the production process, storage and also boiling (e.g., simmering in salted water) and frying affect the initial added nitrite level. The results showed a steep decrease in nitrite level between the point of addition to the product and the first sampling of the product 24 h later. After this time, residual nitrite levels continued to decrease, but much more slowly, until the recommended use-by date. Interestingly, this continuing decrease in nitrite was much smaller in the chicken products than in the pork/beef products. In a pilot study on pork/beef sausage, we found no effects of boiling on residual nitrite levels, but frying decreased nitrite levels by 50%. In scenarios of time-dependent depletion of nitrite using the data obtained for sausages to represent all cured meat products and including conversion from dietary nitrate, calculated nitrite intake in 4-year-old children generally exceeded the ADI. Moreover, the actual intake of nitrite from cured meat is dependent on the type of meat source, with a higher residual nitrite levels in chicken products compared with pork/beef products. This may result in increased nitrite exposure among consumers shifting their consumption pattern of processed meats from red to white meat products. PMID:26743589

  4. Antimicrobial Activities of Nisin, Tea Polyphenols, and Chitosan and their Combinations in Chilled Mutton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li; Zou, Likou; Yang, Qianru; Xia, Jinghua; Zhou, Kang; Zhu, Yuanting; Han, Xinfeng; Pu, Biao; Hu, Bin; Deng, Wenwen; Liu, Shuliang

    2016-06-01

    Antimicrobial activities of nisin, tea polyphenols (TPs), and chitosan, and their combinations were evaluated against both Gram-positive bacteria (GPB) and Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) by the agar dilution method. Results showed that the MIC of nisin was 2.44 to 1250 mg/L for GPB and reached 5000 mg/L for GNB. The MICs of TPs and chitosan were 313 to 625 mg/L and 469 mg/L for GNB, and 156 to 5000 mg/L and 234 to 938 mg/L for GPB, respectively. These results indicated that TPs and chitosan exhibited inhibitory effects against both GPB and GNB, whereas nisin inhibited the growth of GPB only. Based on the orthogonal test of their MICs, and evaluation of preservative effect and sensory attributes in chilled mutton, the optimum combination was chosen as 0.625, 0.313, and 3.752 g/L for nisin, TPs, and chitosan, respectively. By using the optimum treatment, the shelf life of chilled mutton was extended from 6 to 18 d at 4 °C in the preservative film packages. These results indicate that the combination of nisin, TPs, and chitosan could be used as preservatives to efficiently inhibit the growth of spoilage microorganisms and pathogens in meat, thus improving the safety and shelf life of chilled mutton. PMID:27096939

  5. Contributing data for risk assessment of traditional fermented sausages: “Salpicão de Vinhais” and “Chouriça de Vinhais”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Campelos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available “Salpicão de Vinhais” and “Chouriça de Vinhais” are traditional dry-fermented smoked meat sausages produced in Vinhais, a small region of Trás-os-Montes, Portugal. The scientific knowledge of this sausage variety is limited. Seventy-seven samples of “Salpicão” and “Chouriça de Vinhais” were purchased from producers, local markets and retail stores. Their microbiological and physical chemical characteristics were analysed. The same analyses were performed on the raw materials and ingredients and products during the production processes. Regarding the pathogenic flora, Staphylococcus aureus, spores of sulphite reducing clostridia, Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Yersinia spp. and Salmonella spp. were not detected in any of the samples analysed; Listeria monocytogenes was detected in 14.3% of the samples. The manufacturing process, namely fermentation, ripening/drying and smoking reduced the numbers of pathogen and hygiene indicator micro-organisms.

  6. Nutrient Composition of Retail Samples of Australian Beef Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Judy; Nguyen, Van; Adorno, Paul; Droulez, Veronique

    2015-11-19

    Some nutrient data for beef sausages in Australia's food composition table, NUTTAB 2010, is over 25 years old and may no longer reflect the composition of this popular food. To update this, 41 retail samples of fresh beef sausages were purchased in Melbourne, Australia, in May 2015. Each purchase was analysed, uncooked, for moisture, protein and fat. Sausages were then grouped by fat content into one of three composites and analysed for a wide range of nutrients, before and after dry heat cooking, the most popular sausage cooking method. Fat content in raw sausages averaged 14.9 g/100 g, 30% lower than NUTTAB values, varying from 7.3 to 22.6 g/100 g. This indicates it is possible to formulate leaner sausages that meet consumer expectations and may qualify for certain nutrition labelling statements. Under current Australian labelling requirements, two low fat sausages contain sufficient protein, B12, niacin, phosphorus and zinc to qualify as a good source of these nutrients and sufficient iron, selenium and vitamin A to qualify as a source of these. Sodium levels are higher than fresh beef, ranging from 680 to 840 mg/100 g. These data will be used to update NUTTAB and support product labelling and consumer education.

  7. [Fatty acid content of sausages manufactured in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo de Vizcarrondo, C; Martín, E

    1997-06-01

    The moisture and lipid content as well as the fatty acid composition of sausages were determined. Lipids were extracted and purified with a mixture of cloroform/methanol 2:1. Fatty acids in the lipid extract were methylated with 4% sulfuric acid/methanol solution and later were separated as methyl esters by gas liquid cromatography (GLC). Sausages presented a lipid content between 7.10% for canned sausages and 35.23% for the cocktail type. Most of the fatty acids were monounsatured with oleic acid as the major component with values between 42.54% for ham sausage and 48.83% for francfort type. Satured fatty acids followed, with palmitic acid as the major component in a range between 21.46% and 26.59% for bologna and Polaca sausage respectively. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were present in less quantities with concentration of linoleic acid between 8.5% (cotto salami type) and 12.60% (cocktail type). Turkey and poultry sausages presented a higher content of polyunsaturated and less saturated fatty acids than the other types of sausages studied. PMID:9659435

  8. An isoperimetric inequality for the Wiener sausage

    CERN Document Server

    Peres, Yuval

    2011-01-01

    Let $(\\xi(s))_{s\\geq 0}$ be a standard Brownian motion in $d\\geq 1$ dimensions and let $(D_s)_{s \\geq 0}$ be a collection of open sets in $\\R^d$. For each $s$, let $B_s$ be a ball centered at 0 with $\\vol(B_s) = \\vol(D_s)$. We show that $\\E[\\vol(\\cup_{s \\leq t}(\\xi(s) + D_s))] \\geq \\E[\\vol(\\cup_{s \\leq t}(\\xi(s) + B_s))]$, for all $t$. In particular, this implies that the expected volume of the Wiener sausage increases when a drift is added to the Brownian motion.

  9. Quantitative detection of pork in commercial meat products by TaqMan® real-time PCR assay targeting the mitochondrial D-loop region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Miju; Yoo, Insuk; Lee, Shin-Young; Hong, Yeun; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2016-11-01

    The TaqMan® real-time PCR assay using the mitochondrial D-loop region was developed for the quantitative detection of pork in processed meat products. The newly designed primers and probe specifically amplified pork without any cross-reactivity with non-target animal species. The limit of detection of the real-time PCR assay was 0.1pg of heat-treated pork meat and 0.1% (w/w) pork meat in beef and chicken meat mixtures. The quantitative real-time PCR assay was applied to analyze the pork meat content in 22 commercial processed meat products including jerkies, press hams, sausages, hamburger patties and steaks, grilled short rib patties, and nuggets. The developed real-time PCR method was able to detect pork meat in various types of processed meat products that declared the use of pork meat on their label. All processed meat products that declared no use of pork meat showed a negative result in the assay. The method developed in this study showed sensitivity and specificity in the quantification of pork meat in commercial processed meat products. PMID:27211626

  10. Definition of a Standard Protocol to Determine the Growth Potential of Listeria Monotgenes and Yersinia Enterocolitica in Pork Sausage Produced in Abruzzo Region, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Diana; Romantini, Romina; Santarelli, Gino Angelo; Prencipe, Vincenza

    2014-01-01

    Pork meat products consumed raw or after a short period of fermentation can be considered at risk for food safety. Sausages (fresh sausage made from pork meat) are produced in several Italian regions, with variation in ingredients. In some Italian Regions, including Abruzzo, these products are frequently consumed raw or undercooked, after a variable period of fermentation. The European Community food regulation promotes the use of challenge tests to determine safety levels. This study is aimed to ensure safety of Abruzzo’s sausages, compared with growth potential (δ) of Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica, and also aims to define an experimental standard protocol document to carry out challenge tests. Guidelines classify ready-to-eat foods in categories that are able to support (δ>0.5 log10 ufc/g) and not support (δ≤0.5 log10 ufc/g) the growth of Listeria monocytogenes. The products were manufactured according to traditional recipes and were contaminated in laboratory. Results from the experiment yielded information useful to assess the ability of these products to support the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. The batches of sausages were stored at 8, 12, 18 and 20°C to get statistical evaluation. The results showed that, despite the conditioning of the storage temperature and the level of water activity, both organisms remain in the product in concentrations similar to those leading or being able to increase its charge. In particular, the period of greatest consumption of this product (7/8 days of preparation) corresponds to the period of greatest growth of pathogenic microorganisms studied, except for those stored at a temperature of 8°C, which are safer for the consumer. PMID:27800415

  11. Definition of a standard protocol to determine the growth potential of Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica in pork sausage produced in Abruzzo Region, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Franca Sperandii

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pork meat products consumed raw or after a short period of fermentation can be considered at risk for food safety. Sausages (fresh sausage made from pork meat are produced in several Italian regions, with variation in ingredients. In some Italian Regions, including Abruzzo, these products are frequently consumed raw or undercooked, after a variable period of fermentation. The European Community food regulation promotes the use of challenge tests to determine safety levels. This study is aimed to ensure safety of Abruzzo’s sausages, compared with growth potential (δ of Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica, and also aims to define an experimental standard protocol document to carry out challenge tests. Guidelines classify ready-to-eat foods in categories that are able to support (δ>0.5 log10 ufc/g and not support (δ≤0.5 log10 ufc/g the growth of Listeria monocytogenes. The products were manufactured according to traditional recipes and were contaminated in laboratory. Results from the experiment yielded information useful to assess the ability of these products to support the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. The batches of sausages were stored at 8, 12, 18 and 20°C to get statistical evaluation. The results showed that, despite the conditioning of the storage temperature and the level of water activity, both organisms remain in the product in concentrations similar to those leading or being able to increase its charge. In particular, the period of greatest consumption of this product (7/8 days of preparation corresponds to the period of greatest growth of pathogenic microorganisms studied, except for those stored at a temperature of 8°C, which are safer for the consumer.

  12. Use of low-dose irradiation to enhance the safety and quality of chilled ready meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The market for 'cook-chill' ready meals has expanded significantly during the past ten years. This specific category of food has been defined as a catering system based on the full cooking of food followed by fast chilling and storage in controlled temperature conditions (0-3 deg. C) and subsequent thorough re-heating before consumption. Such meals cover a wide range of commodities including meat, poultry, fish, vegetables, pasta and desserts and are used at home by consumers and by the catering industry for use, for example, as hospital meals or meals-on-wheels. These products have a relatively short shelf-life with a recommended maximum shelf-life of 5 days at 0-3 deg. C including the day of cooking. In addition, there are other concerns with regard to microbiological quality, reduced sensory quality and decreased nutritive value. It has been suggested that low-dose irradiation could be used to extend the shelf-life of these products while at the same time reducing the risk of food poisoning. Research carried out at QUB and DARD has readily demonstrated that the safety and shelf-life of chilled ready meals consisting of meat (chicken, beef or pork) and certain vegetables (e.g. broccoli, carrots and roast potatoes) can be enhanced by irradiation doses of 2 or 3 kGy without having a detrimental effect on sensory or nutritional quality. To date, investigations have been limited to such traditional meals with no research being carried out on the more popular ready meals such as lasagna, cottage pies, curries, etc. which have a relatively short shelf-life upon purchase. It is therefore the objective of this work program to investigate the effect of low-dose irradiation (1-5 kGy) on the microbiological, sensory and nutritional quality of these meals and to determine if their overall quality can be enhanced

  13. The effects of electron beam irradiation on sterilization and preservation of chilled pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S The effects of electron beam irradiation on the sterilization and preservation of chilled pork were studied. The aim of this investigation was to provide academic and technical basis for application of electron beam irradiation on meat industry. The response surface analysis was used with electron beam energy(X1) and dose(X2) as factors and colony form unit(Y) as responses. The results have been shown that the model of sterilization of chilled pork by electron beam irradiation can be expressed Y=3.78-0.24X1-0.13X2-0.16X1X2-0.18X12+0.15X12(R2=0.9755). It has been found there is a interaction between electron beam energy and absorbed doses, and the significance sequence of factors is absorbed dose>interaction> electron beam energy. When absorbed doses are in range from 3.23 kGy to 4.0 kGy and electron beam energy is in range from 2.3 MeV to 3.8 MeV, the colony form unit would drop 2 logarithm units. The shelf life of samples treated with electron beam irradiation is longer by about 12 d than that of control samples when the samples are stored at 4 degree C. When the samples are stored at 7∼10 degree C, shelf life of samples treated with electron beam irradiation is longer by about 9 d than that of control samples. The results showed that electron beam irradiation has the effects of sterilization and preservation on chilled pork. This study has been confirmed that the application of electron beam irradiation is very useful for meat industry. (authors)

  14. Guns on Campus: A Chilling Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mash, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    The author of this article observes that, while much has been written on the overall topic of safety with regard to allowing guns on college campuses, little has been said about how allowing the possession of deadly weapons can create a "chilling effect" on academic discussions. This article considers how some universities have…

  15. Combination of irradiation with other treatments to improve the shelf-life and quality of meat and meat products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects were studied of low dose gamma irradiation in combination with other treatments (acetic acid and a sodium tripolyphosphate dip for buffalo meat; a hot water dip for lamb meat; ascorbic acid for chicken and curing for meat products) on the shelf-life of prepacked meats at chilled and ambient temperatures in terms of the microbiological, chemical and sensory qualities. Meats irradiated at 2.5 kGy had a shelf-life of 4 weeks at 0-3 deg. C, 2 weeks at 7-10 deg. C and 42 h at 28-30 deg. C, and showed a remarkable improvement in the microbiological quality. irradiation resulted in the reduction/elimination of microorganisms of public health significance, e.g. Enterobacteriaceae, Salmonella, staphylococci and faecal coliforms. In contrast, the corresponding control samples had a shelf-life of less than 2 weeks at 0-3 deg. C, 1 week at 7-10 deg. C and 18 h at ambient temperature (28-30 deg. C). A high level of microorganisms such as Enterobacteriaceae, staphylococci, Salmonella and sulphite reducing Clostridia were detected in the control samples during storage. A combination of acetic acid/hot water pretreatment and irradiation further improved the microbiological quality of the meats, while a pretreatment of sodium tripolyphosphate enhanced the retention of colour and the juiciness of the meat samples. The effects were observed at all the storage temperatures. For the meat products, a low dose of irradiation reduced the total viable counts by 1-2 log cycles, and also eliminated Enterobacteriaceae, staphylococci and Salmonella throughout the storage period. The irradiated meat products had a shelf-life of 2 weeks at 0-3 deg. C and 24 h at 28-30 deg. C, while the non-irradiated meat products had a shelf-life of 1 week at 0-3 deg. C and 18 h at 28-30 deg. C. (author)

  16. Functional meat and meat products from unconventional meat species

    OpenAIRE

    Cullere, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The present thesis, which includes four main researches, aimed to study functional meat and meat products obtained from unconventional meat species, namely the rabbit and the ostrich. The first research tested the single and combined dietary supplementation with 5% Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) and 3% Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) to growing rabbits for 3 and 6 weeks, and it is articulated in four different subchapters. The first subchapter considered the effect on total tract apparent ...

  17. Fffect of Nisin on Chilled Pork Preservation%Nisin对冷鲜肉保质期的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李巍

    2012-01-01

    [目的]考察乳酸链球菌素(Nisin)对冷鲜肉保藏过程中品质的影响.[方法]将Nisin和山梨酸钾分别置于装有200 g鲜肉的保鲜袋中,放在4℃冰箱中保藏.通过对保藏期的冷鲜肉理化指标和感官指标的评价,考察了Nisin对冷鲜肉保存过程中的汁液损失率、菌落总数、pH、挥发性盐基氮(TVB-N)、硫代巴比妥酸反应物(TBARS)和感官特性等品质指标的影响.[结果]冷鲜肉储藏过程中,加入Nisin后,可使肉体汁液流失较慢,能更有效地使肉体保鲜;可使冷鲜肉保存的时间最长,保质期可达12 d,比加入山梨酸钾的延长了2d.感官评价表明,加入Nisin的肉体在感官上仍呈红色,肉体的弹性和组织状态都较好.[结论]Nisin对冷鲜肉延长保藏期的效果更加明显,可延长冷鲜肉的鲜度和货架期.%[ Objective] The study aimed to investigate the effect of Nisin on the quality of the chilled pork during the preservation. [ Method] The Nisin and potassium sorbet were respectively put into the fresh-keeping bags with 200 g meat and preserved in the refrigerator at 4 ℃. Through the evaluation on the physical and chemical indexes and the senses index of the chilled pork in the preservation period, the effects of the Nisin on the quality parameters such as the loss rate of meat juice,total bacterial count,pH values,total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) ,thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values and the sensory characteristics of the chilled pork in the preservation were investigated. [Result] During the preservation of the chilled pork,adding Nisin could make the lower loss of meat juice,thus more effectively keeping the meat freshness and could make the cold meat preserve the longest period,with the shelf life of 12 d,being extended by 2 d compared with the potassium sorbet. The sensory evaluation showed that after adding the Nisin the meat body was still red on the sensory and was better on the flexibility and

  18. Role of Nitrite in Processed Meat Products and its Degradation during their Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILIRJANA BOCI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents the analytical data of nitrite level obtained from the experimental work done on meat processed samples taken from a meat processing plant in Tirana. There has been a long debate and health concern about the nitrite content in meat products. Nitrite is added to e.g. sausages, and hams and other meat products to preserve these products and keep them free from dangerous bacteria. Among the aims are preventing botulism, a dangerous food poison. But also it’s important to use the smallest possible amount of nitrite as a preservative because nitrite in meat can also form nitrosamines, which can damage the health. That’s why the role of nitrite in processed meat and its recommended level conform to new EC Regulations are given in the introduction part of this paper. It is important that the nitrite level be monitored during all the processing steps up to the end consumers. This makes the objective of this paper. It gives the analytical data on nitrite level on meat processed samples taken and tested during their storage and ripening period of time. Different kinds of meat products are taken and tested to evaluate the influence of various parameters (storage time, time until to the end consumers, various kinds of packing in the degradation rate of ingoing nitrite.

  19. Linguiças frescais elaboradas com carne de avestruz: características físico-químicas Ostrich Brazilian sausage: physicochemical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Soares Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A carne de avestruz por apresentar baixos conteúdos de colesterol, gordura intramuscular e altas percentagens de ácidos graxos poli-insaturados ômega-3 é considerada uma carne vermelha saudável e de grande aceitação junto aos consumidores. Considerando que os recortes resultantes da desossa das carcaças de avestruz são partes consideradas menos nobres, desenvolveu-se a produção de três formulações de linguiça frescal tendo como base a carne de avestruz (recortes e aparas, promovendo as análises físico-químicas e colorimétricas com o objetivo caracterizar o perfil físico-químico e colorimétrico dessas diferentes formulações. As três formulações se encontraram dentro dos padrões físico-químicos estipulados pela legislação brasileira (BRASIL, 2000 e não apresentaram diferença significativa entre si, com exceção do teor de cinzas, mais alto nas linguiças mistas. Na análise do teor de pH, observou-se diferença significativa entre os tratamentos, com pH maior nas linguiças puras em relação às mistas. As linguiças puras foram mais escuras e vermelhas que as mistas, sendo que a mista de avestruz, suína e frango foi a mais clara. As linguiças frescais puras ou mistas elaboradas com carne de avestruz são uma opção viável de produção e comercialização, podendo concorrer no mercado com as linguiças tradicionais com perspectiva de êxito.Ostrich's meat has low contents of colestherol and intramuscular fat and high percentages of poliunsaturated fat acid -3 so it's known as a healthy red meat with consumer great acceptability. Considering that ostrich trim (meat resulting from boning is considered a less noble part, three formulations of ostrich (trim Brazilian sausage were produced. Physicochemical analyses and color evaluation (L*, a*, b* were made to determine formulations' physicochemical characteristics and colorimetric profile. The physicochemical results of all formulations were in accord with the

  20. Low-fat frankfurters from protein concentrates of tilapia viscera and mechanically separated tilapia meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavenaghi-Altemio, Angela D; Alcade, Lígia B; Fonseca, Gustavo G

    2013-11-01

    In order to develop a healthy low-fat frankfurter-type sausage, different formulations were developed with tilapia viscera surimi (T1) and two with mechanically separated tilapia meat (MSTM) surimi (T2 and T3), all without pig lard addition. Due to technological problems observed for T1 sausage during cooking, it was not further investigated. The functionality of the other two formulations was evaluated based on proximate composition, pH, water activity, and texture. Finally, microbiological and sensory analyses based on acceptance tests were performed. Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. were found to be absent. T2 showed higher frequencies for the attributes color (90.0%) and overall acceptability (86.7%), while T3 showed higher frequencies for taste (86.7%) and texture (96.7%). The surimi concentration was reflected in the physical properties of the sausages. It was found that the addition of MSTM surimi to sausage favored greater cutting strength (3.9 N for T2 and 4.9 N for T3). Beyond the surimi utilization, the total replacement of pig lard by cassava starch and soybean protein had also contributed with the texture properties. PMID:24804055

  1. Development of jerked sausage technology with grain bioproducts

    OpenAIRE

    Капрельянц, Леонід Вікторович; Шлапак, Галина Всеволодівна; Бужилов, Микола Георгійович

    2015-01-01

    Research work on the development of technology of fermented sausages to provide them probiotic properties and microflora protection by the use of grain product is conducted in the article.On the basis of theoretical and practical part of science it is concluded that the development of technology of sausages with probiotic properties is possible and appropriate. Materials and products are chosen. Modern technological scheme of production to ensure efficient processing of raw materials and prod...

  2. Approximations of the Wiener sausage and its curvature measures

    CERN Document Server

    Rataj, Jan; Meschenmoser, Daniel; 10.1214/09-AAP596

    2009-01-01

    A parallel neighborhood of a path of a Brownian motion is sometimes called the Wiener sausage. We consider almost sure approximations of this random set by a sequence of random polyconvex sets and show that the convergence of the corresponding mean curvature measures holds under certain conditions in two and three dimensions. Based on these convergence results, the mean curvature measures of the Wiener sausage are calculated numerically by Monte Carlo simulations in two dimensions. The corresponding approximation formulae are given.

  3. Use of smart photochromic indicator for dynamic monitoring of the shelf life of chilled chicken based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizio, Ana Paula Dutra Resem; Prentice, Carlos

    2014-03-01

    This study evaluated the applicability of a photochromic time temperature indicator (TTI) to monitor the time-temperature history and shelf life of chilled boneless chicken breast. The results showed that the smart indicator showed good reproducibility during the discoloring process in all the conditions investigated. The response was not only visibly interpretable but also well adaptable to measurement using appropriate equipment. For an activation configuration of 4 s of ultraviolet light (UV) per label, the TTI's rate of discoloration was similar to the quality loss of the meat samples analyzed. Thus, the photochromic label (4 s UV/label) attached to the samples set out to be a dynamic shelf-life label, assuring consumers the final point of quality of chilled boneless chicken breast in an easy and precise form, providing a reliable tool to monitor the supply chain of this product. PMID:24334043

  4. Use of smart photochromic indicator for dynamic monitoring of the shelf life of chilled chicken based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizio, Ana Paula Dutra Resem; Prentice, Carlos

    2014-03-01

    This study evaluated the applicability of a photochromic time temperature indicator (TTI) to monitor the time-temperature history and shelf life of chilled boneless chicken breast. The results showed that the smart indicator showed good reproducibility during the discoloring process in all the conditions investigated. The response was not only visibly interpretable but also well adaptable to measurement using appropriate equipment. For an activation configuration of 4 s of ultraviolet light (UV) per label, the TTI's rate of discoloration was similar to the quality loss of the meat samples analyzed. Thus, the photochromic label (4 s UV/label) attached to the samples set out to be a dynamic shelf-life label, assuring consumers the final point of quality of chilled boneless chicken breast in an easy and precise form, providing a reliable tool to monitor the supply chain of this product.

  5. Listeria Monocytogenes Persistence in Ready-to-Eat Sausages and in Processing Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureddu, Anna; Mazza, Roberta; Fois, Federica; Meloni, Domenico; Bacciu, Roberto; Piras, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is of major concern in the fermented meat products and is able to persist in their processing environments. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the virulence profile and the persistence capacity of L. monocytogenes strains isolated in Sardinian fermented sausages processing plants. Food (ground meat, sausages at the end of acidification and ripening stage) and environmental samples (a total of n. 385), collected from 4 meat processing plants located in Sardinia (Italy), were examined to detect L. monocytogenes presence. All the L. monocytogenes isolates were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. A subset of strains was also characterised by multiplex PCR-based serogrouping, using the lmo0737, lmo1118, ORF2819 and ORF2110 genes. Three different multiplex PCRs were used to obtain the virulence profiles by the rrn, hlyA, actA, prfA, inlA, inlB, iap, plcA, plcB and mpl marker genes. Furthermore, in vitro biofilm forming ability and resistance to disinfectants were carried out on microtiter plate. The overall prevalence was 31.5% in food, and 68.5% in environmental samples. The prevalent serotype resulted 1/2c (43%), followed by 1/2a (40%), 4b (8.6%), and 1/2b (8.6%). The amplification products of the virulence genes were found in all the isolates with the following prevalence: 77.1% hlyA; 100% rrn; 100% prfA; 97.1% iap; 65.7% inlB; 88.6% inlA; 100% plcA; 100% plcB and 74.3% mpl. As for biofilm forming ability, 37.1% of the strains were positive and resulted weak producer, but all the isolates were sensible to disinfectants showing a reduction of L. monocytogenes growth after each incubation time. More appropriate technologies and application of measures of hygienic control should be implemented to prevent the L. monocytogenes growth and cross-contamination in salsiccia sarda processing plants. PMID:27800316

  6. Listeria monocytogenes persistence in ready-to-eat sausages and in processing plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mureddu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is of major concern in the fermented meat products and is able to persist in their processing environments. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the virulence profile and the persistence capacity of L. monocytogenes strains isolated in Sardinian fermented sausages processing plants. Food (ground meat, sausages at the end of acidification and ripening stage and environmental samples (a total of n. 385, collected from 4 meat processing plants located in Sardinia (Italy, were examined to detect L. monocytogenes presence. All the L. monocytogenes isolates were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR method. A subset of strains was also characterised by multiplex PCR-based serogrouping, using the lmo0737, lmo1118, ORF2819 and ORF2110 genes. Three different multiplex PCRs were used to obtain the virulence profiles by the rrn, hlyA, actA, prfA, inlA, inlB, iap, plcA, plcB and mpl marker genes. Furthermore, in vitro biofilm forming ability and resistance to disinfectants were carried out on microtiter plate. The overall prevalence was 31.5% in food, and 68.5% in environmental samples. The prevalent serotype resulted 1/2c (43%, followed by 1/2a (40%, 4b (8.6%, and 1/2b (8.6%. The amplification products of the virulence genes were found in all the isolates with the following prevalence: 77.1% hlyA; 100% rrn; 100% prfA; 97.1% iap; 65.7% inlB; 88.6% inlA; 100% plcA; 100% plcB and 74.3% mpl. As for biofilm forming ability, 37.1% of the strains were positive and resulted weak producer, but all the isolates were sensible to disinfectants showing a reduction of L. monocytogenes growth after each incubation time. More appropriate technologies and application of measures of hygienic control should be implemented to prevent the L. monocytogenes growth and crosscontamination in salsiccia sarda processing plants.

  7. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in poultry meat in Qena, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Karmi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the prevalence of pathogenic coagulase positive, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in poultry meat and its products. Materials and Methods: A total of 125 poultry samples were collected during 2012 in Qena governorate for presence of pathogenic coagulase positive, methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Samples were taken from freshly slaughtered whole chicken carcasses (25/125, chicken portions (25/125, chicken luncheon (25/125, chicken sausages (25/125 and chicken burgers (25/125.Results: It was observed that 44% (11/25, 52% (13/25, 40% (10/25, 24% (6/25 and 44% (11/25 of bacterial isolates were positive for methicillin-resistance tests for freshly slaughtered whole chicken carcasses, chicken portions, chicken luncheon, chicken sausages and chicken burgers respectively. Higher contamination rate of MRSA was found in raw poultry meat and the lower rate in poultry meat products subjected to heat treatment and preservatives. Conclusion: Poultry meat and its products were considered as an important source of spreading of MRSA in humans. Hence, strict hygienic measures should be taken in poultry slaughter houses and in food preparing establishments.

  8. 猪肉肠中亚麻籽胶、卡拉胶和黄原胶的相互作用%Interaction Effect of Flaxseed Gum, Carrageenan and Xanthan Gum on Pork Sausages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙健; 王鹏; 徐幸莲; 周光宏

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the interaction effects of flaxseed gum (FG), carrageenan and xanthan gum (XG) on pork meat sausages. A factorial design was applied to analyze the effects of different amounts of added FG, carrageenan and XG on the water-holding capacity and oil-holding capacity of pork meat sausages. The results indicated that the presence of FG could significantly increase the water-holding capacity of pork meat sausages after roasting at 60 ℃ for 20, 40, 60 min or 80 min (P〈0.01). Carrageenan had no significant effect on the water-holding capacity of pork meat sausages after roasting at 60 ℃ for 20 min or 40 min. A significant interaction effect between FG and XG was observed on the water-holding capacity of pork meat sausages after roasting at 60 ℃ for 20 min or 40 min. Three types of gums could be ranked in decreasing order of their effect on the water-holding capacity of pork meat sausages as FG 〉 XG 〉 carrageenan. The oil-holding capacity of pork sausages immersed in ethanol diethyl ether for 40 min and 60 min was influenced significantly by FG (P 〈 0.05) but not significantly influenced by XG or carrageenan. FG had the highest effect on the oil-holding capacity of pork sausages, followed by XG; the effect of carrageenan was the weakest.%研究猪肉肠中亚麻籽胶、卡拉胶和黄原胶的相互作用。采用析因设计,在猪肉肠加工过程中,添加不同量的亚麻籽胶、卡拉胶和黄原胶,分析上述胶类对猪肉肠保水性、保油性的影响。结果表明:添加亚麻籽胶可显著地增强猪肉肠在60℃条件下烘20、40、60、80min的保水能力(P〈0.01)。卡拉胶对猪肉肠在60℃条件下烘20、40min的保水能力无显著性的影响,亚麻籽胶与黄原胶对猪肉肠在60℃条件下烘20、40min都有显著性交互作用(P〈O.05);保水能力从高到低依次为:亚麻籽胶、黄原胶、卡拉胶。亚麻籽

  9. Quality Evaluation of Meat Products in Relation to Packaging and Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of low-dose radiation (2 and 80% N2 gas and stored at 5 degree celsius for eight weeks. Fresh samples were irradiated with 1 kGy while smoked sausages were irradiated to 2 and 4 kGy doses. Quality evaluation were conducted every week. Mechanical properties of films were determined at the start and at the end of the storage period. Vacuum alone extended the shelf life of fresh meat to 40 days while MAP to 44 days. Vacuum packaging or MAP with 1 kGy made meat still acceptable up to the 48th day. Packaging system with NPI and PVNP were able to protect sausages against deterioration for 8 weeks. While two kGy with vacuum and MAP extended the storage life of sausages for more than the eight weeks of storage, 4 kGy dose can double the shelf life of unirradiated samples. Sensory tests showed no effects on the acceptability of the irradiated products. Tensile and tear strength of all films used decreased after storage periol. Irradiation did not significantly affect these properties of film, transmission rates for gas and water vapor through NPI and PVNP

  10. Study on factors (pH, water activity, salt content) affecting the growth of Listeria Monocytogenes in raw dried cured sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Daskalov Hristo; Fejzullah Fejzulla; Stoyahchev Todora

    2013-01-01

    Commission Regulation (EC) 2073:2005 considers the factors which can support or inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenesin ready-to-eat foods. The aim of the experiments was to examine the values of pH, water activity (aw), salt content and level of contamination with Listeria monocytogenes of some popular in Bulgaria raw dried cured vacuum packed sausages, produced from June 2006 till May 2008. 81 vacuum-packed samples were taken from 5 different meat producing plants during the period ...

  11. Higher Chilling-Tolerance of Grafted-Cucumber Seedling Leaves upon Exposure to Chilling Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-yong; TIAN Hai-xia; LI Xin-guo; MENG Jing-jing; HE Qi-wei

    2008-01-01

    The roots of figleaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia, as rootstock) could improve the resistance of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Jinyan 4, as scion) to low temperature. In this experiment, the root activity and photosynthetic activity of photosystems in the own-rooted and grafted-cucumber plants were studied at chilling temperature (4℃) under low irradiance (100 μmol m-2 s-1 PFD). Compared with dark adaptation seedlings, the chlorophyll a fluorescence transient curve and the oxidizable P700 (P700+) of both the own-rooted and grafted seedlings decreased, and PS2 and PSl of the own-rooted seedling leaves were more inhibited than that of grafted ones at the end of chilling stress. The reduced triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC), which was used to reflect the root activity, kept stable in grafted seedling roots at the end of chilling stress, while it decreased noticeably in the own-rooted seedling roots. These results implied that the root system activity of the grafted seedling roots was higher than that of the own-rooted ones. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was higher in both the grafted seedling roots and leaves than that in own-rooted seedlings at both room temperature and chilling temperature. Upon exposure to chilling stress, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content, which reflects the degree of lipid peroxidation, increased markedly in the own-rooted seedling roots and leaves and kept stable in the grafted-cucumber seedlings.

  12. Directional distribution of chilling winds in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saue, Triin

    2016-08-01

    Wind chill equivalent temperature (WCET) is used to define thermal discomfort in winter months. Directional distributions of winds, which are associated with uncomfortable weather, were composed of three climatologically different Estonian locations: Vilsandi, Kuusiku, and Jõhvi. Cases with wind chill equivalent temperature <-10 °C, which could be classified as "uncomfortable or worse," were investigated. Additional thresholds were used to measure weather risk. The 25th percentile of daily minimum WCET was tested to measure classical prevalent wind directions in Estonia: W, SW, and NW bring warm air in winter from the North Atlantic, while winds from the East-European plain (NE, E, and SE) are associated with cold air. The eastern prevalence was stronger when a lower threshold was used. A directional approach may find several applications, such as building, agricultural, landscape, or settlement planning.

  13. DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A TAMBAQUI SAUSAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sleder

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In Brazil, fish are sold in retail fresh or frozen, whole, or gutted. To increase consumption, convenient products with good sensory attributes should be offered. The objective of this study was to develop and characterize, through physicochemical, microbiologica, and sensory traits, a fresh sausage of tambaqui fish (Colossoma macropomum. Three formulations, with different percentages of fat (0, 4.5, and 9% were developed. To determine shelf life, samples of the products were refrigerated at 4 ºC for 12 days and microbiological analyses were performed on days 0, 3, 7, and 12. Analyses of centesimal composition, shear force, cooking weight loss, and water-holding capacity were carried out. The shelf life of the fresh sausages was estimated at 7 days of storage. The sensory attributes evaluated were aroma, color, flavor, succulence, texture, and overall appearance. All treatments showed high acceptance rates, above 80%. The treatment with 9% fat showed the highest mean values in the evaluated attributes, with 86.6%, 83.4%, 92%, 88.2%, 87.2%, and 85.8% for aroma, color, flavor, succulence, texture and overall appearance, respectively. The centesimal composition of the treatments showed the following variations in g.100 g-1: moisture, 72.73 to 68.82; protein, 18.85 to 18.90; lipids, 2.90 to 8.33; and ash, 3.86 to 4.20. Shear force varied from 5.92 to 8.14 N; water-holding capacity varied from 71.83 to 74.71% and cooking weight loss, from 24.21 to 26.59%.

  14. "Sausage" and "Toothbrush" in the Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Myungkook J.; Dawson, William; Van Weeren, Reinout J.; Wittman, David M.; Merging Cluster Collaborations

    2016-06-01

    Radio-relic clusters are a subclass of merging clusters that exhibit elongated diffuse radio emissions at the periphery of the systems. A number of observational and theoretical studies support the premise that the relics trace the locations of shock fronts induced by cluster mergers. Detailed analysis of the radio relic data enables us to put independent constraints on the key parameters necessary in our reconstruction of the merging scenario, including the direction of the merger, the projection angle between the merger axis and the plane of the sky, the shock velocity, and the time since the impact. Because of the limited observational time window set by both development and deterioration of mature shocks, only a few tens of radio relic clusters are known to date. In this poster, we present a detailed study of the two radio-relic clusters CIZA J2242.8+5301 and RX J0603.3+4214, whose peculiar radio-relic morphologies give them the nicknames "Sausage" and "Toothbrush", respectively. Both clusters possess remarkably large (~2 Mpc) radio relics stretched perpendicular to the hypothesized merger axes. After briefly reviewing previous studies, we highlight our recent weak-lensing analysis of these two interesting systems. We find that the "Sausage" cluster's dark matter is elongated along the merger axis and composed of two massive systems, each weighing ~1015 solar masses. On the other hand, the dark matter of the "Toothbrush" cluster is distributed complicatedly and resolved into at least four subclusters with relatively modest masses. Our weak-lensing studies help us to constrain the merger scenarios and enable detailed follow-up numerical studies in the future.

  15. Packaging for meat products

    OpenAIRE

    Vojtíšková, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    Packaging for meat products Summary Packaging is usually integral to production process in meat industry. The packing has mainly influence on shelf life and quality of meat and meat products. It protects the product from adverse effects such as oxidation, especially fats. In addition it affects transport, storage and serves as a means of communication with customers (logo, marketing benefits, legislation). Significant is also the impact of packaging to keep attractive look of the prod...

  16. The radurisation of meat and meat products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preservation of meat by means of radurisation has been thoroughly investigated during the past three decades. Several objectives can be achieved, although not all of them may be commercially substantiated. The elimination of health hazardous micro-organisms through radurisation, presently applied to various other foodstuffs, should be extended to meat, especially chicken

  17. Lipid stability in meat and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, P A; Sheehy, P J; Galvin, K; Kerry, J P; Buckley, D J

    1998-01-01

    Lipid oxidation is one of the main factors limiting the quality and acceptability of meats and meat products. Oxidative damage to lipids occurs in the living animal because of an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species and the animal's defence mechanisms. This may be brought about by a high intake of oxidized lipids or poly-unsaturated fatty acids, or a low intake of nutrients involved in the antioxidant defence system. Damage to lipids may be accentuated in the immediate post-slaughter period and, in particular, during handling, processing, storage and cooking. In recent years, pressure to reduce artificial additive use in foods has led to attempts to increase meat stability by dietary strategies. These include supplementation of animal diets with vitamin E, ascorbic acid, or carotenoids, or withdrawal of trace mineral supplements. Dietary vitamin E supplementation reduces lipid and myoglobin oxidation, and, in certain situations, drip losses in meats. However, vitamin C supplementation appears to have little, if any, beneficial effects on meat stability. The effect of feeding higher levels of carotenoids on meat stability requires further study. Some studies have demonstrated that reducing the iron and copper content of feeds improves meat stability. Post-slaughter carnosine addition may be an effective means of improving lipid stability in processed meats, perhaps in combination with dietary vitamin E supplementation. PMID:22060722

  18. Multiple headspace-solid phase microextraction for the determination of migrants coming from a self-stick label in fresh sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canellas, E; Vera, P; Nerín, C

    2016-04-15

    Most fresh sausages are sold with a self-stick adhesive label stuck directly on it. Because of that, the substances in the adhesive could migrate into the fresh sausage. In this work, the multiple headspace-solid-phase microextraction technique has been optimized to quantify the migrants found in the fresh sausage. All the compounds could be analyzed by this technique since its concentration decay exponentially with the number of extractions with good correlation coefficients (0.8258-0.9987). Then, migration assays were carried out and an evaluation of the potential risk for the human health was undertaken with the conclusion that the migration of the compounds from the label does not endanger human health. The results were compared those obtained in migration to casing filled with isooctane used as fat food simulant by Canellas et al. (2014). The values obtained for isooctane (10-600 ng/g) were much higher than the migration values found in the meat stuffed in casing expressed as ng/g of fat content (ranged from 0.02 to 3.3 ng/g of fat content). This finding shows that in some scenarios, it is difficult to simulate the intended contact of materials used in food packaging with simulants. PMID:26616920

  19. Multiple headspace-solid phase microextraction for the determination of migrants coming from a self-stick label in fresh sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canellas, E; Vera, P; Nerín, C

    2016-04-15

    Most fresh sausages are sold with a self-stick adhesive label stuck directly on it. Because of that, the substances in the adhesive could migrate into the fresh sausage. In this work, the multiple headspace-solid-phase microextraction technique has been optimized to quantify the migrants found in the fresh sausage. All the compounds could be analyzed by this technique since its concentration decay exponentially with the number of extractions with good correlation coefficients (0.8258-0.9987). Then, migration assays were carried out and an evaluation of the potential risk for the human health was undertaken with the conclusion that the migration of the compounds from the label does not endanger human health. The results were compared those obtained in migration to casing filled with isooctane used as fat food simulant by Canellas et al. (2014). The values obtained for isooctane (10-600 ng/g) were much higher than the migration values found in the meat stuffed in casing expressed as ng/g of fat content (ranged from 0.02 to 3.3 ng/g of fat content). This finding shows that in some scenarios, it is difficult to simulate the intended contact of materials used in food packaging with simulants.

  20. Analysis of microbiological contamination in mixed pressed ham and cooked sausage in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung-Su; Wang, Jun; Park, Joong-Hyun; Forghani, Fereidoun; Moon, Jin-San; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the microbial contamination levels (aerobic bacteria plate count [APC], coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes) in mixed pressed ham and cooked sausage. A total of 180 samples were collected from factories with and without hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) systems at four steps: after chopping (AC), after mixing (AM), cooling after the first heating process, and cooling after the second heating process. For ham, APCs and coliform and E. coli counts increased when ingredients were added to the meat at the AC step. Final product APC was 1.63 to 1.85 log CFU/g, and coliforms and E. coli were not detected. S. aureus and L. monocytogenes were found in nine (15.0%) and six (10.0%) samples, respectively, but only at the AC and AM steps and not in the final product. Sausage results were similar to those for ham. The final product APC was 1.52 to 3.85 log CFU/g, and coliforms and E. coli were not detected. S. aureus and L. monocytogenes were found in 29 (24.2%) and 25 (20.8%) samples at the AC and AM steps, respectively, but not in the final product. These results indicate that the temperature and time of the first and second heating are of extreme importance to ensure the microbiological safety of the final product regardless of whether a HACCP system is in place. Microorganism contamination must be monitored regularly and regulations regarding sanitization during processing should be improved. Education regarding employee personal hygiene, environmental hygiene, prevention of cross-contamination, ingredient control, and step-by-step process control is needed to reduce the risk of food poisoning. PMID:24674432

  1. Analysis of microbiological contamination in mixed pressed ham and cooked sausage in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung-Su; Wang, Jun; Park, Joong-Hyun; Forghani, Fereidoun; Moon, Jin-San; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the microbial contamination levels (aerobic bacteria plate count [APC], coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes) in mixed pressed ham and cooked sausage. A total of 180 samples were collected from factories with and without hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) systems at four steps: after chopping (AC), after mixing (AM), cooling after the first heating process, and cooling after the second heating process. For ham, APCs and coliform and E. coli counts increased when ingredients were added to the meat at the AC step. Final product APC was 1.63 to 1.85 log CFU/g, and coliforms and E. coli were not detected. S. aureus and L. monocytogenes were found in nine (15.0%) and six (10.0%) samples, respectively, but only at the AC and AM steps and not in the final product. Sausage results were similar to those for ham. The final product APC was 1.52 to 3.85 log CFU/g, and coliforms and E. coli were not detected. S. aureus and L. monocytogenes were found in 29 (24.2%) and 25 (20.8%) samples at the AC and AM steps, respectively, but not in the final product. These results indicate that the temperature and time of the first and second heating are of extreme importance to ensure the microbiological safety of the final product regardless of whether a HACCP system is in place. Microorganism contamination must be monitored regularly and regulations regarding sanitization during processing should be improved. Education regarding employee personal hygiene, environmental hygiene, prevention of cross-contamination, ingredient control, and step-by-step process control is needed to reduce the risk of food poisoning.

  2. The chilled storage life and retail display performance of vacuum and carbon dioxide packed hot deboned beef striploins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R G; Penney, N; Gilbert, K V; Moorhead, S M; Scott, S M

    1996-04-01

    Two cooling regimes that complied with the New Zealand meat hygiene requirement that hot deboned meat be chilled to +7 °C or less within 24 hr of leaving the slaughter floor were evaluated for the production of chilled table meats. Electrically stimulated hot deboned bull beef half striploins were either vacuum or carbon dioxide packed before being cooled in accordance with either Regime 1 (cool at +5 °C for 24 hr, transfer to chiller operating at -1.0 ± 0.5 °C) or Regime 2 (cool at +5 °C for 24 hr, hold at 5 °C for 6 days, transfer to chiller operating at -1.0 ± 0.5 °C). Striploins were removed from -1.0 °C storage 8, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 and 98 days after slaughter and subjected to microbiological, tenderness, sensory and retail display performance evaluations. Both Regimes 1 and 2 produced meat of acceptable mean tenderness, 8 kgF (MIRINZ Tenderometer) in either vacuum or carbon dioxide packs within 28 and 8 days of slaughter, respectively. However, 70 days after slaughter the first signs of over-ageing became apparent. Steaks from Regimes 1 and 2 maintained acceptable visual appearance during retail display at 5 °C for 48 hr and 24 hr, respectively. After these times, the product was judged by the panel to be unacceptable because of its dull dark lean tissue and grey to green discoloration of the fat. Poor colour stability during retail display was mirrored by deterioration of sensory attributes, particularly aroma which is indicative of incipient spoilage. While carbon dioxide packaging in combination with Regime 1 offered an initial microbiological advantage over vacuum packaging, this advantage was not, however, carried over into retail display. Poor colour and sensory stability during retail display suggest that chilled table cuts derived from hot deboned bull beef are more suited to the Hotel-Restaurant-Institutional (HRI) trade than supermarket retailing. To serve the HRI, vacuum packed hot deboned bull beef primal cuts processed by Regime 1

  3. Use of Ultraviolet Light for the Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Lactic Acid Bacteria Species in Recycled Chill Brines

    OpenAIRE

    Gailunas, Karol Marie

    2003-01-01

    Ready-to-eat meat products have been implicated in several foodborne listeriosis outbreaks. Microbial contamination of these products can occur after the product has been thermally processed and is being rapidly chilled using salt brines. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ultraviolet irradiation on the inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria in a model brine chiller system. Two concentrations of brines (7.9%w/w or 13.2%w/w) were inoculated w...

  4. The influence of inulin addition on the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of reduced-fat cooked sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šojić Branislav V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of reduced-fat (approximately 35 % lower cooked sausage, made with addition of 5% inulin, (sausage A were examined and compared with those of conventionally cooked sausage (sausage B. Chemical composition was evaluated according to standard ISO methods. Instrumental measurements of colour (L

  5. Development and validation of a UHPLC-HR-Orbitrap-MS method for the simultaneous determination of androstenone, skatole and indole in porcine meat and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanken, Kaat; Wauters, Jella; Vercruysse, Vicky; Aluwé, Marijke; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Boar taint is an off-odour that entails negative consumer reactions. In this study two extraction and UHPLC-HRMS analysis methods, valuable for evaluation of consumer acceptance towards boar meat, were developed for quantification of indole, skatole, and androstenone in different meat products. Sample pretreatment consisted of extraction with methanol and a homogenising step (cooked ham, minced meat, tenderloin, bacon, cutlets, blade loin, uncooked ham) or a melting step (salami sausage and liver paste). Both methods were validated according to CD 2002/657/EC and ISO 17025 guidelines. Good performance characteristics were obtained. Good linearity (R(2) ⩾ 0.99) and no lack of fit was observed (95% confidence interval; F-test, p > 0.05). Also good recovery (89-110%) and satisfactory precision: repeatability (RSD ⩽ 14.9%) and within-laboratory reproducibility (RSD ⩽ 17.2%) were obtained. Analysis of cooked ham and salami sausage samples proved the applicability of both methods for routine analysis. PMID:26213060

  6. Estabilidad de Salchichas con Hidrocoloides y Emulsificantes Stability of Sausages with Emulsifiers and Hydrocolloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A.G. Ramos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar las mejoras en la estabilidad de emulsiones cárnicas (salchichas, comparando los efectos de la incorporación de distintos emulsificantes e hidrocoloides. Las salchichas fueron preparadas, en un molino coloidal, con una fórmula base y se comparó el efecto de la incorporación de la goma xántica, guar, carragenina o alginato y a su vez con hidrocoloides específicos. Se determinó la estabilidad en la cocción de forma gravimétrica, en baño termostatizado a 70°C durante 30 min. La pérdida de grasa por el tratamiento térmico fue determinada de forma gravimétrica. Se cuantificó la pérdida de agua de las muestras almacenadas durante 21 días cada 48h. a 5°C. Las emulsiones con emulsificantes e hidrocoloides fueron aproximadamente un 2% más estables en la cocción, porque perdieron menor cantidad de agua durante el almacenamiento y un 2,25% menos de separación de grasa. Se concluye que la incorporación de estos emulsificantes e hidrocoloides, disminuye las pérdidas de grasa y agua durante el tratamiento térmico y el almacenamientoThe objective of this study was to evaluate improvements in the stability of meat emulsions (sausage by comparing the effects of incorporating different emulsifiers and hydrocolloids. Sausages were prepared using a colloidal mill using a basic formula, to which was added guar gum, xanthan gum, carrageenan, alginate and emulsifiers. The cooking stability was determined gravimetrically at 70°C in a water bath for 30 min. Fat loss during heat treatment was determined gravimetrically. Water loss was quantified at 5°C for 21 days at 48h intervals. The sausage containing emulsifiers and hydrocolloids were about 2% more stable during cooking because they lost smaller quantities of water during storage and had 2.25% lower fat separation. It is concluded that addition of these emulsifiers and hydrocolloids decreased the loss of fats and water during heat treatment and storage

  7. Ethylene Production by Chilled Cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C Y; Adams, D O

    1980-11-01

    Chilling at 2.5 C accelerated the synthesis of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and C(2)H(4) production in cucumber fruit. Skin tissue contained higher levels of ACC and was more sensitive to chilling than was cortex tissue. Accumulation of ACC in chilled tissue was detected after 1 day of chilling and remained elevated even after C(2)H(4) production started to decline. These data suggest that ACC synthesis is readily stimulated by chilling, whereas the system that converts ACC to C(2)H(4) is vulnerable to chilling injury. Chilling-induced C(2)H(4) production was inhibited by amino-ethoxyvinylglycine, sodium benzoate, propyl gallate, 2,4-dinitrophenol, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, and cycloheximide. The utilization of methionine for ACC formation and chilling-induced C(2)H(4) biosynthesis was established using l-[3,4-(14)C]methionine. Chilled tissue had a higher capacity to convert l-[3,4-(14)C]methionine to ACC and C(2)H(4) than did nonchilled tissue. PMID:16661538

  8. Heat Treatment as Control of E. coli and Salmonella Species in Meat Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of E. coli and Salmonella species as food poisoning microorganisms in ready to cook meat products. 30 samples from each of minced beef, beef burger, sausage, kofta and hawawshy from Cairo markets were examined and their acceptance was discussed. The effect of different temperatures; 37 °C, 44.5 ° C, 180 ° C for 15 minute and 150 °C for 30 minutes , frying and boiling were discussed. A total of 150 samples were positive for E. coli (100%) and 1 sausage sample was positive for Salmonella species (1.3%). The samples were irradiated at 10 kGy for elimination of all microorganisms then inoculated with E.coli (10 6 ) and Salmonella enteritidis . The effect of high temperatures on the irradiated and inoculated samples was discussed

  9. 香辛料对发酵香肠风味影响的研究现状%Current Status of Studies on Spices Effect on the Flavor of Fermented Sausages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张根生; 于敏; 程健博; 丁小君

    2015-01-01

    Spices greatly contribute to the flavor of fermented sausages. This paper expounds the direct contribution of flavor compounds of spices to the flavor of fermented sausages and the effect of spices on microbes in fermented sausages and consequently on its flavor characteristics. At the same time, future directions for research on the mechanism of action of spices in fermented sausages are discussed, which will provide valuable references for the development and research of high-quality fermented meat products.%香辛料对发酵香肠的风味具有重要影响,从香辛料成分对发酵香肠风味的影响及香辛料影响微生物而引起风味的改变两个方面阐述了香辛料对发酵香肠风味的影响,并对香辛料在发酵香肠中的作用机理方向进行了展望,旨在为更好地开发研究高品质发酵香肠提供借鉴和参考。

  10. Immobilization of Cells and Enzymes for Fermented Dairy or Meat Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Claude P.; Lee, Byong H.; Saucier, Linda

    Historically, we can find fermented products in almost all cultural backgrounds around the world. Notably, there are many different milk or meat-based foods and this chapter will focus on them (Kosikowski 1982; Wood 1998). Cheese, yoghurt, sour cream, kefir, or cultured butter are probably the most common fermented dairy products, but many regional varieties exist (Farnworth 2004). Fermented meats are typically found as dry sausages (Lüke 1998). Yeasts are mostly involved in the manufacture of bread and alcoholic beverages, which are basically cereal- or fruit-based products. In fermented meat and milk, the main microorganisms used are the lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Yeast and molds are rather involved in ripening. Therefore, the LAB will constitute the main focus of this chapter.

  11. Meat consumption and cancer of the large bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truswell, A S

    2002-03-01

    Since the major reviews on diet and cancer by the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and by the British Department of Health's Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy (COMA) in 1997 and 1998, additional epidemiological studies relating (red) meat consumption and colorectal cancer have been published or found by search. These are collected here. Thirty adequate case-control studies have been published up to 1999 (from 16 different countries). Twenty of them found no significant association of (red) meat with colorectal cancer. Of the remaining 10 studies reporting an association, some obtained statistical significance only in rectal or colon cancers, another only in men, not women, or found a stronger association with pasta and rice, or used an inadequate food list in the food frequency questionnaire. Fifteen cohort studies have now been published. Only in three were significant associations of (red) meat found with colorectal cancer. Two of these positive studies were from the same group in the USA (relative risk 1.7). The results of the third positive study appear to conflict with data from part of the vegetarians follow up mortality study. Here, five groups of vegetarians (in three different countries) with socially matched controls were followed up (total 76 000 people). Mortality from colorectal cancer was not distinguishable between vegetarians and controls. While it is still possible that certain processed meats or sausages (with a variety of added ingredients) or meats cooked at very high temperature carry some risk, the relationship between meats in general and colorectal cancer now looks weaker than the 'probable' status it was judged to have by the WCRF in 1997. PMID:11965518

  12. COMPARISON OF COMMERCIAL DNA KITS AND TRADITIONAL DNA EXTRACTION PROCEDURE IN PCR DETECTION OF PORK IN DRY/FERMENTED SAUSAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Djurkin Kušec

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study four commercially available DNA extraction kits (Wizard® Genomic DNA Purification Kit, High Pure PCR Template Kit, DNeasy mericon Food and GeneJET PCR Purification Kit, as well as standard phenol/chloroform isolation technique have been evaluated regarding their concentration, purity and suitability for amplification of porcine DNA in dry/fermented sausages. The isolates were assessed for quantity and quality using spectrophotometer (IMPLEN GmbH, Germany. To verify template usability and quality of isolated DNA, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting at porcine cytochrome b by species specific primers was used. The comparison of extraction methods revealed satisfactory efficiency and purity of all extraction kits, while with standard phenol/chloroform isolation method high concentrations of DNA with low A260/280 were obtained. However, all the investigated techniques proved to be suitable for identification of porcine DNA in dry/fermented sausage. Thus, the standard phenol/chloroform DNA extraction method, as the cost-effective one, can be recommended as a good alternative to more expensive isolation kits when investigating the presence of pork DNA in dry/ fermented meat products.

  13. Spatial damping of propagating sausage waves in coronal cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ming-Zhe; Chen, Shao-Xia; Li, Bo; Xia, Li-Dong; Yu, Hui

    2015-09-01

    Context. Sausage modes are important in coronal seismology. Spatially damped propagating sausage waves were recently observed in the solar atmosphere. Aims: We examine how wave leakage influences the spatial damping of sausage waves propagating along coronal structures modeled by a cylindrical density enhancement embedded in a uniform magnetic field. Methods: Working in the framework of cold magnetohydrodynamics, we solve the dispersion relation (DR) governing sausage waves for complex-valued, longitudinal wavenumber k at given real angular frequencies ω. For validation purposes, we also provide analytical approximations to the DR in the low-frequency limit and in the vicinity of ωc, the critical angular frequency separating trapped from leaky waves. Results: In contrast to the standing case, propagating sausage waves are allowed for ω much lower than ωc. However, while able to direct their energy upward, these low-frequency waves are subject to substantial spatial attenuation. The spatial damping length shows little dependence on the density contrast between the cylinder and its surroundings, and depends only weakly on frequency. This spatial damping length is of the order of the cylinder radius for ω ≲ 1.5vAi/a, where a and vAi are the cylinder radius and the Alfvén speed in the cylinder, respectively. Conclusions: If a coronal cylinder is perturbed by symmetric boundary drivers (e.g., granular motions) with a broadband spectrum, wave leakage efficiently filters out the low-frequency components.

  14. Inferring Flare Loop Parameters with Measurements of Standing Sausage Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ming-Zhe; Chen, Shao-Xia; Li, Bo; Xia, Li-Dong; Yu, Hui

    2016-03-01

    Standing fast sausage modes in flare loops were suggested to account for a considerable number of quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) in the light curves of solar flares. This study continues our investigation into the possibility of inverting the measured periods P and damping times τ of sausage modes to deduce the transverse Alfvén time R/v_{Ai}, density contrast ρi/ρe, and the steepness of the density distribution transverse to flare loops. A generic dispersion relation governing linear sausage modes is derived for pressureless cylinders where density inhomogeneity of arbitrary form takes place within the cylinder. We show that in general the inversion problem is under-determined for QPP events where only a single sausage mode exists, whether the measurements are spatially resolved or unresolved. While R/v_{Ai} can be inferred to some extent, the range of possible steepness parameters may be too broad to be useful. However, for spatially resolved measurements where an additional mode is present, it is possible to deduce self-consistently ρi/ρe, the profile steepness, and the internal Alfvén speed v_{Ai}. We show that at least for a recent QPP event that involves a fundamental kink mode in addition to a sausage one, flare loop parameters are well constrained even if the specific form of the transverse density distribution remains unknown. We conclude that spatially resolved, multi-mode QPP measurements need to be pursued to infer flare loop parameters.

  15. Microbial successions are associated with changes in chemical profiles of a model refrigerated fresh pork sausage during an 80-day shelf life study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Andrew K; David, Jairus R D; Gilbreth, Stefanie Evans; Smith, Gordon; Nietfeldt, Joseph; Legge, Ryan; Kim, Jaehyoung; Sinha, Rohita; Duncan, Christopher E; Ma, Junjie; Singh, Indarpal

    2014-09-01

    Fresh pork sausage is produced without a microbial kill step and therefore chilled or frozen to control microbial growth. In this report, the microbiota in a chilled fresh pork sausage model produced with or without an antimicrobial combination of sodium lactate and sodium diacetate was studied using a combination of traditional microbiological methods and deep pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. In the untreated system, microbial populations rose from 10(2) to 10(6) CFU/g within 15 days of storage at 4°C, peaking at nearly 10(8) CFU/g by day 30. Pyrosequencing revealed a complex community at day 0, with taxa belonging to the Bacilli, Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Clostridia. During storage at 4°C, the untreated system displayed a complex succession, with species of Weissella and Leuconostoc that dominate the product at day 0 being displaced by species of Pseudomonas (P. lini and P. psychrophila) within 15 days. By day 30, a second wave of taxa (Lactobacillus graminis, Carnobacterium divergens, Buttiauxella brennerae, Yersinia mollaretti, and a taxon of Serratia) dominated the population, and this succession coincided with significant chemical changes in the matrix. Treatment with lactate-diacetate altered the dynamics dramatically, yielding a monophasic growth curve of a single species of Lactobacillus (L. graminis), followed by a uniform selective die-off of the majority of species in the population. Of the six species of Lactobacillus that were routinely detected, L. graminis became the dominant member in all samples, and its origins were traced to the spice blend used in the formulation.

  16. Dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus at different temperatures and with different ingredient levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1995-01-01

    Sausages with added Staphylococcus xylosus were fermented at different temperatures and with different added levels of salt, glucose, nitrite, nitrate and Pediococcus pentosaceus in accordance with a six factor fractional design. The odour of the sausages was evaluated by a quantitative descriptive...... tested using multiple linear regression and analysis of variance. The study showed that salami odour was more pronounced in sausages fermented at low temperature than in sausages fermented at high temperature and added nitrite, glucose and P. pentosaceus. High temperature sausages had a more sour...

  17. Effect of antioxidants on stabilization of meat products fortified with n-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S; Faustman, C; Djordjevic, D; Faraji, H; Decker, E A

    2006-01-01

    The effects of an n-3 oil emulsion, with and without added antioxidants, on lipid oxidation in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-fortified meat products were studied. An emulsion of n-3 PUFAs was prepared (25% algal oil, 2.5% whey protein isolates, 10mM sodium citrate, 0.2% potassium sorbate, 500ppm of 70% mixed tocopherols, 100μM EDTA, pH 3, pasteurized at 75°C for 30min) and incorporated into fresh ground turkey, and fresh pork sausage (20% fat) to achieve a concentration of 500mg n-3 PUFA/110g meat. An antioxidant combination containing rosemary (0.2% w/w; radical quencher), citrate (0.5% w/w; sequestrant) and erythorbate (1g/kg product; reductant) was prepared and incorporated into ground turkey patties (5cm dia, 1.5cm thick) or fresh pork sausages (5cm dia, 1.5cm thick). Meat products were stored at 4°C or -18°C and analyzed for color (L*, a*, b* values), lipid oxidation (TBARS and lipid hydroperoxides) and n-3 PUFA profile. a* Values of refrigerated ground turkey patties decreased with storage, and an antioxidant combination effect was observed after 4 days (Psausages at 4°C, control+antioxidant (CON+ANTI), and n-3+antioxidant (n-3+ANTI) groups showed greater a* values than controls (CON) indicating that the antioxidant combination stabilized meat color. TBARS and lipid hydroperoxides of both n-3 PUFA-enhanced meat products increased with storage (P0.05). These results provide support for including antioxidant protection in n-3 PUFA fortified meat products.

  18. Meat analog: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malav, O P; Talukder, S; Gokulakrishnan, P; Chand, S

    2015-01-01

    The health-conscious consumers are in search of nutritious and convenient food item which can be best suited in their busy life. The vegetarianism is the key for the search of such food which resembles the meat in respect of nutrition and sensory characters, but not of animal origin and contains vegetable or its modified form, this is the point when meat analog evolved out and gets shape. The consumers gets full satisfaction by consumption of meat analog due to its typical meaty texture, appearance and the flavor which are being imparted during the skilled production of meat analog. The supplement of protein in vegetarian diet through meat alike food can be fulfilled by incorporating protein-rich vegetative food grade materials in meat analog and by adopting proper technological process which can promote the proper fabrication of meat analog with acceptable meat like texture, appearance, flavor, etc. The easily available vegetables, cereals, and pulses in India have great advantages and prospects to be used in food products and it can improve the nutritional and functional characters of the food items. The various form and functional characters of food items are available world over and attracts the meat technologists and the food processors to bring some innovativeness in meat analog and its presentation and marketability so that the acceptability of meat analog can be overgrown by the consumers. PMID:24915320

  19. 蛋清蛋白乳化香肠的加工工艺研究%Study on processing technique of emulsion sausage with egg white protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪学荣

    2012-01-01

    Fresh pork meat and egg white protein were used as primary raw materials to make emul- sion sausage. Influences of curing time, emulsion stirring time and chopping time on the quality of emul- sion sausage were studied. The best processing technology was determined by orthogonal test based on sen- sory evaluation, shear force and water holding capacity. The results showed that curing time, emulsion stirring time and chopping time had effects on the quality of emulsion sausage in varying degrees. The best technological conditions explored by orthodoxy test were as follows : curing time 4 d, emulsion stirring time 5 rain, chopping time 5 min. Under this condition, the quality of emulsion sausage was better.%以新鲜猪肉、蛋清蛋白为主要原料制作乳化香肠,主要研究了腌制时间、乳化搅拌时间和肉糜斩拌时间对乳化香肠品质的影响。通过感官评价、剪切力、系水力三个指标进行正交分析确定最佳加工工艺,实验结果表明,腌制时间、乳化搅拌和肉糜斩拌都对乳化香肠品质均有不同程度的影响,通过正交试验得到乳化香肠的最佳加工工艺条件为腌制时间4d、乳化搅拌时间5rain,乳化肉糜斩拌时间5min,在此最佳加工工艺条件下,乳化香肠的品质较佳。

  20. Performance of a chill ATES system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midkiff, K.C.; Song, Y.K.; Schaetzle, W.J. [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)] [and others

    1989-03-01

    An aquifer air-conditioning system has been installed to cool the Student Recreation Center on the University of Alabama Campus. This research program encompasses the monitoring of the operation of the aquifer system and provision of emplacements to the system. The monitoring includes establishing the instrumentation, acquiring data, and analyzing the results. The instrumentation allows the measurement of water flow rates and corresponding temperatures, electrical energy input, aquifer temperatures at nineteen monitoring wells, and aquifer levels at six monitoring wells. Recent acquifer performance data indicate that 76% of the chill energy stored was recovered for the period Oct/86 - Sep/87 and 70% for the period Oct/87 - Sep/88. This is a substantial improvement over recoveries of 38% for the 1985 season and 55% for 1986. The overall coefficient of performance was 5.4 for Oct/86 - Sep/87 and 4.6 for Oct/87 - Sep/88. THe system has supplied 100% of the cooling with only about one-half of the energy input required by a conventional system. Some of the increased recovery of chilled water is a result of modifying the production well operation to reduce the regional flow of water toward the northwest. All warm water is withdrawn form the southeast wells, chilled, and injected in northwest wells. The cold water then withdrawn from the cold wells is used for air-conditioning but not reinjected into the aquifer. Additional flow control is provided by pumping (and discarding) water out of a southeast well, although the complete results of this new strategy are as yet unclear.

  1. Sensory characteristics and consumer liking of sausages with 10% fat and added rye or wheat bran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe Arildsen; Vuholm, Stine; Aaslyng, Margit Dall;

    2014-01-01

    Improving the nutritional profile of sausages through the addition of dietary fiber might affect appetite, sensory characteristics, and liking differently depending on the fiber source. This study investigates the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of sausages with 10% (w/w) fat...... and added rye or wheat bran. Sensory descriptive attributes (odor, appearance, texture, and flavor) of rye bran sausage (RBS) and wheat bran sausage (WBS) were evaluated by a trained sensory panel (n = 9). A sausage with wheat flour (WFS) and two commercial 20% (20%S) and 10% (10%S) (w/w) fat sausages were...... also included. Liking was investigated in consumer tests with two Danish target groups (49 children aged between six and nine and 24 parents). RBS and WBS were similar with regard to their sensory descriptive attributes, but the structure of these sausages was coarser and the color was more brown than...

  2. Effect of fat quality on sausage processing, texture, and sensory characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Arica A; Dilger, Anna C

    2014-03-01

    Fresh pork sausage was manufactured to determine the effects of animal diet (unsaturated or control) and inclusion of corn oil during processing (0% and 14% fat replacement). Bologna was manufactured to investigate only diet effects. Processing, textural, sensory, visual, and storage characteristics were evaluated. Processing yield was improved 2.9 percentage units in fresh sausage but reduced 1.8 units in bologna in unsaturated compared with control diets. Break strength of fresh sausage was reduced 0.6 kg by oil inclusion. Both unsaturated fat and including oil during processing resulted in softer texture of fresh sausage, while increased unsaturation in bologna resulted in firmer or unchanged textural properties. Fresh sausage with oil was lighter colored (5.3 L* units increased) with more fat smearing. In fresh sausage, lipid oxidation remained below 1mg/kg MDA during 12 weeks frozen storage. Overall, changes in fat quality minimally affected sausage quality, likely providing acceptable products to consumers.

  3. Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli on broiler carcasses after chilling in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Perdoncini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli have been associated with gastrointestinal disorders in human beings, due mainly to the consumption of chicken meat. Despite control measures for reducing contamination by these bacteria, the detection of Campylobacter in carcasses after chilling remains high. A total of 105 carcasses were assessed by the horizontal detection method in five federally inspected slaughterhouses in southern Brazil in 2012 and in the first three months of 2013. Campylobacterwas isolated in 37.1% of the carcasses, of which 97.5% contained C. jejuni and 2.5% were infected by C. coli. The rate of positive carcasses across the slaughterhouses ranged from 0 to 71.4%. Determining the occurrence of Campylobacter among flocks is crucial for estimating the microbial load at specific points along the slaughtering process and for minimizing the risk of contamination of end products by Campylobacter.

  4. Enhancing Lipid Stability in Irradiated Beef Mince by Oleoresins and/ or Ascorbic Acid during Chilling Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipid Oxidation, fatty acids profile and sensory properties of irradiated beef mince (2.5 kGy) treated with oleoresins (rosemary or ginger), ascorbic acid, or combination of ascorbic acid and oleoresins were investigated during 30 days of chilled storage. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as an indication of lipid oxidation, of irradiated control samples were significantly higher than those of non irradiated control and samples treated with rosemary and ginger oleoresins. By GC-MS analysis, it was found that the relative percentage of total saturated fatty acids (TSFA) increased in all treatments. However, the highest increase was recorded in irradiated control samples compared to non irradiated control samples. Beef mince samples treated with oleoresins (rosemary or ginger) had the best scores for discoloration and off odour. Thus, the addition of oleoresins (rosemary or ginger) to beef mince before irradiation could be an easily applied method to minimize oxidative degradation of irradiated meat

  5. Community dynamics of coagulase-negative staphylococci during spontaneous artisan-type meat fermentations differ between smoking and moulding treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, M; Myter, N; De Vuyst, L; Leroy, F

    2013-08-16

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) that are naturally present in the raw meat batter of fermented sausages or that originate from the addition of a starter culture play a role in flavour development. A wide species diversity of CNS can be present in fermented meats, but it is not fully clear yet how specific process parameters select for specific CNS by affecting their community dynamics. Therefore, the influence of smoking and moulding treatments on the CNS community dynamics in spontaneously fermented, artisan-type sausages was investigated. During the fermentation stage, the meat batter was in all cases dominated by Staphylococcus saprophyticus, in addition to Lactobacillus sakei as governing lactic acid bacterium. Following fermentation, the bacterial communities were not perturbed by the smoking treatment, since both L. sakei and S. saprophyticus remained dominant throughout the ripening stage and prevailed in the end-products. Yet, when fermentation was followed by a moulding step with Penicillium nalgiovense, a shift of the CNS communities towards dominance by Staphyloccocus equorum was seen, despite a similar evolution of L. sakei. This effect was possibly due to a pH rise caused by the mould, a hypothesis which was reinforced by the finding that the isolated strain S. equorum DBX-S-17 was more sensitive to low pH than the isolated strain S. saprophyticus DFL-S-12 during growth experiments in brain heart infusion (BHI). Differences in CNS communities may affect sausage flavour, due to intraspecies variations in metabolic conversions of, for instance, amino acids. The fact that 3-methyl-butanal was only found in the moulded sausage, which was dominated by S. equorum, may be related to the finding that the isolated strain of this species was able to produce this compound in BHI medium, whereas the isolated strain of S. saprophyticus was not.

  6. Chilled Ammonia Process for CO2 Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darde, Victor Camille Alfred; Thomsen, Kaj; Well, Willy J.M. van;

    2010-01-01

    The chilled ammonia process absorbs the CO2 at low temperature (2–10°C). The heat of absorption of carbon dioxide by ammonia is significantly lower than for amines. In addition, degradation problems can be avoided and a high carbon dioxide capacity is achieved. Hence, this process shows good...... and pressure up to 100bars. The results show that solid phases consisting of ammonium carbonate and bicarbonate are formed in the absorber. The heat requirements in the absorber and in the desorber have been studied. The enthalpy calculations show that a heat requirement for the desorber lower than 2GJ/ton CO2...

  7. Chilled ammonia process for CO2 capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darde, Victor Camille Alfred; Thomsen, Kaj; van Well, Willy J. M;

    2009-01-01

    The chilled ammonia process absorbs the CO2 at low temperature (2-10 degrees C). The heat of absorption of carbon dioxide by ammonia is significantly lower than for amines. In addition, degradation problems can be avoided and a high carbon dioxide capacity is achieved. Hence, this process shows...... C and pressure up to 100 bars [1]. The results show that solid phases consisting of ammonium carbonate and bicarbonate are formed in the absorber. The energy requirements in the absorber and in the desorber have been studied. The enthalpy calculations show that an energy requirement for the desorber...

  8. UNDERSTANDING CONSUMERS' ATTITUDE TOWARD MEAT LABELS AND MEAT CONSUMPTION PATTERN

    OpenAIRE

    Rimal, Arbindra; Fletcher, Stanley M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper addressed consumers' attitude toward meat labels and the influence of different aspects of meat labels on beef, poultry and seafood consumption using a national survey data. Nutrition and ingredient information on meat labels were positively related with attitude toward meat labels as well as meat consumption frequency.

  9. On standing sausage waves in photospheric magnetic waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Dorotovic, I; Freij, N; Karlovsky, V; Marquez, I

    2012-01-01

    By focusing on the oscillations of the cross-sectional area and the intensity of magnetic waveguides located in the lower solar atmosphere, we aim to detect and identify magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) sausage waves. Capturing several series of high-resolution images of pores and sunspots and employing wavelet analysis in conjunction with empirical mode decomposition (EMD) makes the MHD wave analysis possible. For this paper, two sunspots and one pore (with a light bridge) were chosen as representative examples of MHD waveguides in the lower solar atmosphere. The sunspots and pore display a range of periods from 4 to 65 minutes. The sunspots support longer periods than the pore - generally enabling a doubling or quadrupling of the maximum pore oscillatory period. All of these structures display area oscillations indicative of MHD sausage modes and in-phase behaviour between the area and intensity, presenting mounting evidence for the presence of the slow sausage mode within these waveguides. The presence of fast an...

  10. Characteristics of Chicken Sausage Treated with Using Tofu Dregs Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahadi Didi Ismanto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tofu dregs flour serve the purpose of addition-agent in sausage making, as a whole sausage yielded to accept SNI 01-3820-1995. Usage of tofu dregs flour which more and more causing protein rate to increase, so do usage of sago flour will increase carbohydrate rate. Acceptable and best composition of panelist is treatment D = chicken flesh 75% : sago flour 15% : tofu dregs flour 10%. Best sausage characteristic and panelist is with water content 66,71%, fat rate 3,54%, ash content 1,74%, protein rate 13,91%, carbohydrate rate 14,10%, cooking yield 76,24%, juiciness 22,78%, reduction diameter -1,85%, reduction thickness 3,63%, folding test 4,67%.

  11. Chilling and heat requirements for flowering in temperate fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Dai, Junhu; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Yu, Haiying; Xu, Jianchu; Luedeling, Eike

    2014-08-01

    Climate change has affected the rates of chilling and heat accumulation, which are vital for flowering and production, in temperate fruit trees, but few studies have been conducted in the cold-winter climates of East Asia. To evaluate tree responses to variation in chill and heat accumulation rates, partial least squares regression was used to correlate first flowering dates of chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) and jujube (Zizyphus jujube Mill.) in Beijing, China, with daily chill and heat accumulation between 1963 and 2008. The Dynamic Model and the Growing Degree Hour Model were used to convert daily records of minimum and maximum temperature into horticulturally meaningful metrics. Regression analyses identified the chilling and forcing periods for chestnut and jujube. The forcing periods started when half the chilling requirements were fulfilled. Over the past 50 years, heat accumulation during tree dormancy increased significantly, while chill accumulation remained relatively stable for both species. Heat accumulation was the main driver of bloom timing, with effects of variation in chill accumulation negligible in Beijing’s cold-winter climate. It does not seem likely that reductions in chill will have a major effect on the studied species in Beijing in the near future. Such problems are much more likely for trees grown in locations that are substantially warmer than their native habitats, such as temperate species in the subtropics and tropics.

  12. 76 FR 166 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... imports of fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway (56 FR 14920, 14921). Following five-year reviews... imports of fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway (71 FR 7512). The Commission is now conducting...), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ \\1\\ No response to this request...

  13. Carcass and meat quality traits in Nellore and F1 Nellore-Araguaia crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, N V; Aboujaoude, C; Vieira, G S; Paiva, V V; Moraes Neto, R A; Gondim, V S; Alves, L R; Torres, M C L; Antunes, R C

    2015-05-22

    We evaluated and compared carcass traits and meat quality in Nellore cattle and F1 crosses between Nellore and Araguaia, where 17 individuals were from the Nellore group and 19 were ½ Nellore and ½ Araguaia crosses. All animals belonged to the same birth season and were raised in pasture systems under the same nutritional, environmental, and management conditions. When the animals reached slaughter weight, they were taken to an industrial slaughterhouse where food was not provided for 24 h (free access to water); they were then stunned, bled, the leather was removed, and they were eviscerated. The carcasses were weighed (hot weight), kept in chilled storage for approximately 24 h at 4°C, and weighed again to obtain the chilled carcass weight. Carcass yield, carcass length, carcass width, leg length, thigh perimeter, loin eye area (LEA), retail cuts, cooling loss, pH, fat depth, marbling rate, intramuscular fat, color, and shear force were analyzed and sensory analysis of the meat was conducted. Significant differences (P meat's sensory characteristics, but contributed to an improvement in carcass traits, providing an alternative for farmers that aim for good meat quality, with a higher meat percentage.

  14. Frequency and damping rate of fast sausage waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahani, S. Vasheghani; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Goossens, M. [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B bus 2400, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Hornsey, C. [Centre for Fusion, Space, and Astrophysics, Physics Department, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-01

    We investigate the frequency and damping rate of fast axisymmetric waves that are subject to wave leakage for a one-dimensional magnetic cylindrical structure in the solar corona. We consider the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dispersion relation for axisymmetric MHD waves superimposed on a straight magnetic cylinder in the zero β limit, similar to a jet or loop in the solar corona. An analytic study accompanied by numerical calculations has been carried out to model the frequency, damping rate, and phase speed of the sausage wave around the cut-off frequency and in the long wavelength limit. Analytic expressions have been obtained based on equations around the points of interest. They are linear approximations of the dependence of the sausage frequency on the wave number around the cut-off wavelength for both leaky and non-leaky regimes and in the long wavelength limit. Moreover, an expression for the damping rate of the leaky sausage wave has been obtained both around the cut-off frequency and in the long wavelength limit. These analytic results are compared with numerical computations. The expressions show that the complex frequencies are mainly dominated by the density ratio. In addition, it is shown that the damping eventually becomes independent of the wave number in the long wavelength limit. We conclude that the sausage mode damping directly depends on the density ratios of the internal and external media where the damping declines in higher density contrasts. Even in the long wavelength limit, the sausage mode is weakly damped for high-density contrasts. As such, sausage modes could be observed for a significant number of periods in high-density contrast loops or jets.

  15. Changes in physicochemical and microbiological properties of isoflavone-treated dry-cured sausage from sulfur-fed pork during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Han; Pyun, Chang-Won; Hong, Go-Eun; Kim, Soo-Ki; Yang, Cheul-Young; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the physicochemical and microbiological properties of isoflavone-treated dry cured sausage from sulfur fed pork (0.3%) during storage at 15°C for 45 days. Groups were divided into three treatments: dry-cured sausages produced with pork fed general diet as the control group (CON), sulfur-fed pork (SUL) and isoflavone-(0.25%) treated sulfur-fed pork (ISO). Moisture content in all groups decreased dramatically from 55-57% to 10-11% during storage, whereas crude protein, crude fat, and ash content increased (P < 0.05). The ISO group showed excellent antioxidant effect compared to CON during storage. Redness and lightness of ISO was higher than that of CON during storage. VBN in the ISO group was significantly lower than that in the CON and SUL treatments during 30 and 45 days of storage (P < 0.05). A total plate count of ISO was significantly lower than that of CON at 45 days (P < 0.05). In this study, adding isoflavone to meat products indicated prevention of lipid oxidation and improved color stability in meat products.

  16. Development of green tea flavor chicken ham sausage%茶香风味鸡肉火腿肠的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武忠民; 林坚; 林惠斌

    2012-01-01

    介绍一种新香型鸡肉火腿肠的研发思路和相关技术;通过对市场现有鸡肉类产品的分析,搭配绿茶的特征香气及茶多酚的养生概念,研制成功茶香风味鸡肉火腿肠;并介绍其生产需要的配方、工艺和过程参数,以及相关的市场分析;该产品旨在丰富国内鸡肉类产品系列,提供新的香气享受给消费者,同时也可扩大清真类产品。%The research and development idea,and related technology of this new flavor type of chicken sausage were introduced;through the analysis of the existing chicken meat products in the market,combining with the characteristic aroma and health concept of tea polyphenols,the product named Green Tea Flavour Chicken Ham Sausage was successfully developed.And the formula,technique,process parameters and related market analysis were introduced.The purpose of this product was to enrich chicken meat products,to provide new aroma flavor enjoy to the consumers,also enlarge the market of Muslim products.

  17. Mechanism of silicon influence on the chill of cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fraś

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work an analytical solution of general validity is used to explain mechanism of the silicon influence on the absolute chill tendency (CT and chill (w of cast iron. It is found that CT can be related to nucleation potential of graphite (Nv, growth parameter (μ of eutectic cells, temperature range (ΔTsc and the pre-eutectic austenite volume fraction (fγ. It has been shown that silicon additions: a impede the growth of graphite eutectic cells, μ, b expands the temperature range ΔTsc, c increases the nucleation potential of graphite Nv, d lowers the pre-eutectic austenite volume fraction, fγ. and in consequence the absolute chilling tendency, CT decreases. The minimum wall thicknesses for chilled castings, or chill widths (w in wedge shaped castings is related to CT and as silcon contents increases, the w value also increases.

  18. Effect of Amaranthus Pigments on Quality Characteristics of Pork Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Cunliu; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Hui; Chen, Conggui

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the possibility of substituting Amaranthus pigments for nitrates in the of manufacture pork sausage. Five treatments of pork sausages (5% fat) with two levels of sodium nitrite (0 and 0.015%), or three levels (0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3%) of pigments extracted from red Amaranthus were produced. The addition of Amaranthus pigments resulted in the significant increase of a* values, sensory color, flavor and overall acceptance scores, but the significa...

  19. SHELF-LIFE OF REFRIGERATED SAUSAGE PACKAGED IN MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. De Filippo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Different lots of refrigerated sausage variously prepared and packaged under modified atmosphere were examined. The results of microbiological controls and sensory characteristic demonstrate that the shelf life of refrigerated sausage , produced using Leuconostoc carnosum 4010, as culture starter, and different levels of CO2, during the mixing step might be longer in comparison to control samples. In particular we had better colour and a good flavour until 7 days post production and lower level of contaminant flora. All lots were conforms to microbiological criteria for foodstuffs fixed by COMMISSION REGULATION (EC No 2073/2005 of 15 November 2005.

  20. Nut crop yield records show that budbreak-based chilling requirements may not reflect yield decline chill thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Katherine S.; Dose, Volker; Da Silva, David; Brown, Patrick H.; DeJong, Theodore M.

    2015-06-01

    Warming winters due to climate change may critically affect temperate tree species. Insufficiently cold winters are thought to result in fewer viable flower buds and the subsequent development of fewer fruits or nuts, decreasing the yield of an orchard or fecundity of a species. The best existing approximation for a threshold of sufficient cold accumulation, the "chilling requirement" of a species or variety, has been quantified by manipulating or modeling the conditions that result in dormant bud breaking. However, the physiological processes that affect budbreak are not the same as those that determine yield. This study sought to test whether budbreak-based chilling thresholds can reasonably approximate the thresholds that affect yield, particularly regarding the potential impacts of climate change on temperate tree crop yields. County-wide yield records for almond ( Prunus dulcis), pistachio ( Pistacia vera), and walnut ( Juglans regia) in the Central Valley of California were compared with 50 years of weather records. Bayesian nonparametric function estimation was used to model yield potentials at varying amounts of chill accumulation. In almonds, average yields occurred when chill accumulation was close to the budbreak-based chilling requirement. However, in the other two crops, pistachios and walnuts, the best previous estimate of the budbreak-based chilling requirements was 19-32 % higher than the chilling accumulations associated with average or above average yields. This research indicates that physiological processes beyond requirements for budbreak should be considered when estimating chill accumulation thresholds of yield decline and potential impacts of climate change.

  1. 两段式冷却对牛肉食用品质的影响%Effect of two-stage chilling on eating quality of beef

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高淑娟; 毛衍伟; 王秀江; 胡铁军; 罗欣

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to study the effect of two-stage chilling on eating quality of beef. Twenty crossbred cattle were selected (Yanbian cattle X Simmental cattle) to study the effect of two-stage chilling (TC -13--15℃ for 2 h, air velocity of 3 m/s, then changed into conventional chilling till 24 h) and conventional chilling (CC 0-4℃ for 24 h) on eating quality value of beef. The test results showed: Two-stage chilling increased the rate of the carcass temperature drop, decreased the rate of pH value drop, decreased evaporative loss of carcasses, helped to improve the color of beef, and increased shear stress, but had no significant effect on water holding capacity of beef, In the cattle slaughter process, the separate two-stage chilling treatment could decrease the tenderness of meat. With the increase of aging time, shear stress value would decrease. Electrical stimulation treatment should be combined with two-stage chilling to improve the eating quality of meat.%为探讨两段式冷却对牛肉食用品质的影响,以20头杂交牛胴体(延边牛×西门塔尔牛)按试验设计进行两段式冷却(温度-13~-15℃、时间2 h,风速3 m/s,随后转入常规冷却间至24 h)和常规冷却处理(温度0~4℃、时间24 h)相比较,研究不同处理对牛肉食用品质的影响.表明:两段式冷却处理加快胴体温度下降速率,减缓pH值下降速率,显著降低胴体冷却质量损失,使肉的色泽鲜红,提高肉的剪切力,对背最长肌的保水性无影响.可以认为在肉牛屠宰加工流程中,单独采用两段式冷却处理能降低肉的嫩度,但随时间的增加,剪切力值会有所降低,建议应用时结合电刺激处理来同时改善肉的食用品质.

  2. Composition assessment of raw meat mixtures using ultrasonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedito, J; Carcel, J A; Rossello, C; Mulet, A

    2001-04-01

    The use of ultrasonic velocity measurements to determine the composition of dry fermented sausages was assessed. Mixtures of ground lean and fatty tissues were prepared to cover a wide range of fat (2-90 wt.%), moisture (7-76 wt.%), and protein (2-21 wt.%) contents. The ultrasonic velocity in fat decreased on average 5.6 ms(-1) per °C increase in temperature, due to the negative temperature coefficient for fat and the fat melting, which is observed in (DSC) differential scanning calorimetry analysis. The ultrasonic velocity temperature dependence allowed the determining of the fat, moisture and protein+others content, by measuring the ultrasonic velocity in the mixtures at 4 and 25°C and using a semi-empirical equation. The explained variance was 99.6% for fat, 98.7% for moisture and 85.4% for protein+others. The results obtained show the feasibility of using ultrasonic velocity measurement to assess the composition of meat products such as dry fermented sausages, rapidly and non-destructively. PMID:22061708

  3. 柑橘类副产物在乳化香肠中的应用研究进展%A Review on Recent Applications of Citrus Byproducts in Emulsion-Type Sausages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单兵; 李兴民; 张昊; 甄少波; 李宝珍; 任发政

    2013-01-01

    乳化型香肠由高度斩拌的肌肉和脂肪组成,出水、出油问题一直是乳化型香肠主要的质量问题.富含果胶等膳食纤维的柑橘类副产物可以改善乳化型香肠的蒸煮品质,提高乳化型香肠的功能性质,近年来得到广泛的研究.本文综述了柑橘类副产物改善乳化型香肠品质的应用研究进展,为国内柑橘类副产物改善肉制品品质的相关应用研究提供一定的指导.%Emulsion-type sausages are of fairly homogeneous texture upon heat denaturation of the finely comminuted mixture of muscle proteins and fat particles.Emulsion-type sausages are characteristic of high fat and calories.Water and oil exuding of emulsion-type sausages have always been a practical quality problem for many manufacturers.Citrus byproducts with enriched diet fiber such as pectins have been widely researched in recent years for its technological and functional benefits to emulsion-type sausages.This article reviews recent applications of citrus by-products in emulsion-type sausages aiming to provide some guidelines to improve the quality of meat products with citrus by-products.

  4. Ruminant meat as a raw material for fermented meat products

    OpenAIRE

    VOTAVA, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to obtain information on availability of ruminant meat, especially game, for the production of fermented meat products. The thesis provides an overview of different types of ruminants, whose meat is used in human nutrition. It summarizes the chemical composition of many species of domesticated meats or wildlife animals. The properties of these meats are discussed with regard to their use in the manufacture of fermented meat products, technology and factors affect...

  5. Healthier meat and meat products: Their role as functional foods

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Colmenero, Francisco; Carballo, José; Cofrades, Susana

    2001-01-01

    This review deals with the implications of meat and meat products for human health. It analyses the effect of the presence or absence of various factors: fat, fatty acid composition, cholesterol, calorific value, salt, nitrite or lipid oxidation products that can cause health problems. Bearing in mind these considerations, it then describes the strategies used in animal production, treatment of meat raw material and reformulation of meat products to obtain healthier meat and meat products. Fu...

  6. Meat science research tendencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Arturo García Macías

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Meat is a high quality food due its higher protein content, besides to provide energy, vitamins particularly B complex, water and minerals, resulting in an appreciated food for humans. Even in same country, consumers search for different stuffs, since north consumers looks for meat cuts with fat and bone, whereas center-south consumers prefers fatless debones meat cuts. Modern consumers demand excellent appearance, color, taste and flavor in foods, microbiologically safe, minimal processed and curing salts, very nutritive and cheap. All these together in one single product are a hard challenge in the meat products area.

  7. Tenacity of Alaria alata mesocercariae in homemade German meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fuentes, Hiromi; Hamedy, Ahmad; von Borell, Eberhard; Luecker, Ernst; Riehn, Katharina

    2014-04-17

    A renewed interest in the pathogenic potential of Alaria alata mesocercariae emerged over the last 10years as a result of increased findings of this parasite in feral pigs during official examination for Trichinella spp. Cases of food associated human alariosis in North America suggest that a risk associated with the consumption of traditional raw cured products from infected wild boar meat cannot be neglected because the commonly applied preservation techniques may not necessarily kill the mesocercariae. In addition, changes in consumer behavior and new preparation methods for game meat (e.g. pink roasting and grilling) may increase the risk for food-associated parasitic infections. Thus, there is a strong need for the evaluation of the tenacity of A. alata mesocercariae against different physical and chemical influences as pertaining to common preservation and preparation techniques. Against this backdrop the aim of our work was a sound analysis of the survivability of A. alata mesocercariae during curing, fermentation, cold smoking and drying in raw cured meat products. Eighty three samples of traditional German meat products were prepared from naturally infected game meat and partly spiked with additional vital mesocercariae to achieve an adequate dose of infection. The resultant products were examined chronologically for dead and viable A. alata mesocercariae with the Alaria mesocercariae migration technique. After 24h of production, vital A. alata mesocercariae were still found in raw type sausages but no vital parasites were detected in the final products. Based on these results a possible risk for the consumer for an infection with A. alata mesocercariae through the consumption of contaminated raw cured products can be largely ruled out if the respective food technological procedures are carried out properly. However, a risk for the consumer cannot be excluded in cases of very early consumption of these products. PMID:24553052

  8. SOME PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SURIMI-LIKE MATERIAL MADE FROM GOAT MEAT AS AFFECTED BY SUCROSE LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Mega

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to study the effect of sucrose level on the physico-chemicalproperties of goat surimi. The muscle tissue of round meat of goat was separated from fat andconnective tissue manually and then was cut into 3 cm size of meat for mincing by using meat mincer.Then, the minced meat was washed three times by using chilling water (5-10oC which the final washingused chilled 0.5% NaCl solution. The ratio of water to minced meat in washing was 3:1. The final stepwas dewatering by pressing washed minced meat in the screen of linen mesh manually. Finally, rawsurimi was stirred with sucrose 3% (P1, 4% (P2 and 5% (P3 and added sodium tripolyphosphate 0.2%for each treatment. The result showed that both pH and Water Holding Capacity (WHC increasedsignificantly from P1 (P<0.05, whereas the gel strength was no different. The incline of WHC wasfollowed by the incline of crude protein content. However, sucrose could not affect ash and fat contentas well as salt-soluble protein. Sucrose supplementation at 4% in goat surimi produced the bestcharacteristics of goat surimi.

  9. Effect of gamma radiation on residual nitrate and nitrite in some meat and chicken products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to establish the residual nitrate and nitrite and concentrations of six heavy metals in meat products samples that purchased from retail outlets in Sharkia governorate, Egypt. The possibility of using gamma irradiation at doses of 3, 5 and 7 KGy for reducing residual nitrate and nitrite was studied. The results showed that most of samples under investigation above the maximum permissible limit of nitrate in Egypt. Gamma irradiation at doses of 3, 5 and 7 KGy reduced the levels of nitrate and nitrite proportionally to applied doses. The irradiation dose of 7 KGy was more effective for reducing the level of residual nitrate and nitrite. Heavy metals concentrations were determined using the inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (ICPS) in non-irradiated samples. The results showed that the concentration of Pb in meat products was ranged between 0.643-0.828, 0.548, 0.598-0.844, 0.574-0.877, 0.324-0.568 and 0.156-0.432 mg/kg (wet weight basis) in pastirma, chicken luncheon, fresh sausages, burger, minced chicken and minced beef meat, respectively, but the values of Hg ranged between 0.0965-0.839, 0.121, 0.147-0.218, 0.114-0.258, 0.087-0.143 and 0.057-0.124 mg/kg in pastirma, chicken luncheon, fresh sausages, burger, minced chicken and beef meat, respectively. The content of iron ranged between 0.336, 0.362-4.284, 0.364-0.611, 0.264-0.336 and 0.276-0.314 mg/kg in chicken luncheon, fresh sausages, burger, minced chicken and beef meat, respectively. However, the results indicated that, the most of meat products under investigation had high concentrations from toxic metals of Pb and Hg than the permissible limits that recommended by FAO/WHO of person daily. Therefore, the consumption of high amount of these commodities dose not pose a health risk for the consumer

  10. Behavior of foodborne pathogens in Teewurst raw spreadable sausage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teewurst is a traditional raw spreadable sausage of Germanic origin that is widely consumed in different countries worldwide including the United States. According to the USDA/FSIS Food Standards and Labeling Policy Book teewurst is an uncooked product processed with or without curing that is cold s...

  11. Inferring flare loop parameters with measurements of standing sausage modes

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Ming-Zhe; Li, Bo; Xia, Li-Dong; Yu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Standing fast sausage modes in flare loops were suggested to account for a considerable number of quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) in the light curves of solar flares. This study continues our investigation into the possibility to invert the measured periods $P$ and damping times $\\tau$ of sausage modes to deduce the transverse Alfv\\'en time $R/v_{\\rm Ai}$, density contrast $\\rho_{\\rm i}/\\rho_{\\rm e}$, and the steepness of the density distribution transverse to flare loops. A generic dispersion relation (DR) governing linear sausage modes is derived for pressureless cylinders where density inhomogeneity of arbitrary form takes place within the cylinder. We show that in general the inversion problem is under-determined for QPP events where only a single sausage mode exists, be the measurements spatially resolved or unresolved. While $R/v_{\\rm Ai}$ can be inferred to some extent, the range of possible steepness parameters may be too broad to be useful. However, for spatially resolved measurements where an addit...

  12. Superintegrability of Geodesic Motion on the Sausage Model

    CERN Document Server

    Arutyunov, G; Medina-Rincon, D

    2016-01-01

    Reduction of the $\\eta$-deformed sigma model on ${\\rm AdS}_5 \\times {\\rm S}^5$ to the two-dimensional squashed sphere $({\\rm S}^2)_{\\eta}$ can be viewed as a special case of the Fateev sausage model where the coupling constant $\

  13. Fast-sausage oscillations in coronal loops with smooth boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopin, I.; Nagorny, I.

    2014-12-01

    Aims: The effect of the transition layer (shell) in nonuniform coronal loops with a continuous radial density profile on the properties of fast-sausage modes are studied analytically and numerically. Methods: We modeled the coronal waveguide as a structured tube consisting of a cord and a transition region (shell) embedded within a magnetic uniform environment. The derived general dispersion relation was investigated analytically and numerically in the context of frequency, cut-off wave number, and the damping rate of fast-sausage oscillations for various values of loop parameters. Results: The frequency of the global fast-sausage mode in the loops with a diffuse (or smooth) boundary is determined mainly by the external Alfvén speed and longitudinal wave number. The damping rate of such a mode can be relatively low. The model of coronal loop with diffuse boundary can support a comparatively low-frequency, global fast-sausage mode of detectable quality without involving extremely low values of the density contrast. The effect of thin transition layer (corresponds to the loops with steep boundary) is negligible and produces small reductions of oscillation frequency and relative damping rate in comparison with the case of step-function density profile. Seismological application of obtained results gives the estimated Alfvén speed outside the flaring loop about 3.25 Mm/s.

  14. Volatile compounds released during ripening in Italian dried sausage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Lars Oddershede; Dorigoni, V.; Zanardi, E.;

    2001-01-01

    A commercial production was analysed at six stages during ripening. Water content, pH and bacterial counts were followed, and volatile compounds from sausages were extracted by dynamic headspace sampling and analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Total concentrations of all classes...

  15. Heterocyclic amines in meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliye BULGAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Heterocyclic amines (HA are the mutagenic/carcinogenic compounds which generate as a result of cooking of red meat, poultry meat and fish fillets at high temperatures. Up to 20 different HAs were detected and classified in the researches that conducted on these types of meats cooked at high temperatures. HAs are the products of Maillard reactions and the Strecker degredation of main precursors such as creatine/creatinine, aminoacid and the polysaccharides. Many physical and chemical factors effect the formation of HAs. Thus, it was reported by many researchers that utilizing coating and marination processes in addition to using natural and synthetic antioxidants and seasonings-plant extracts were effective on inhibiting/decreasing the formation of HAs. Additionally, boiling/steaming and microwave cooking methodologies were recommended instead of barbecuing, grilling or frying to inhibit/decrease the formation of HAs. The HAs formed in meat and meat products and the factors which have effects on the formation of HAs are presented in this review.

  16. Formation and mitigation of N-nitrosamines in nitrite preserved cooked sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, S S; Granby, K; Duedahl-Olesen, L

    2015-05-01

    Literature on formation and mitigation of N-nitrosamine (NA) and especially non-volatile NA (NVNA) in meat products is scarce and the present study is therefore a relevant contribution to the field. We found positive correlation between the levels of N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP), N-nitrosohydroxyproline (NHPRO), N-nitrosoproline (NPRO), N-nitrosothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (NTCA) and N-nitroso-2-methyl-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (NMTCA) and the amount of nitrite added to cooked pork sausages. The levels studied were 0, 60, 100, 150, 250 and 350 mg kg(-)(1). The levels of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) remained at or below limit of quantification. Erythorbic acid inhibited the formation of NHPRO, NPRO, NPIP and NTCA. This inhibition was for NTCA and NMTCA counteracted by addition of free iron. Ascorbyl palmitate had less inhibitory effect than erythorbic acid and a combination of the two provided no further protection. Increasing the black pepper content increased the levels of NPIP and NMTCA. Only slight effects of increased fat content and addition of tripolyphosphate were observed. PMID:25529714

  17. Reseptioptimointi cook and chill -tuotantotapaan : Case: Kolarin keskuskeittiö

    OpenAIRE

    Pääkkölä, Henna

    2010-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli perehtyä cook and chill -tuotantotapaan ja tutkia sen vaikutuksia reseptioptimointiin. Tavoitteena oli selvittää cook and chill -tuotantotavan etuja ja mahdollisia haasteita ammattikeittiön ruokatuotannossa sekä tuottaa aiheesta tietoa suomenkielisiä lukijoita varten. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli myös optimoida Kolarin keskuskeittiön lounasruokalistan lämpimille aterioille cook and chill -tuotantotapaan soveltuvat ruokaohjeet sekä valmistusprosessikuvaukset. T...

  18. Eat Without Meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Young people across China are becoming vegetarians for a variety of reasons,from weight loss to worries about the quality of meat Avegetarian diet,once associated with monks or priests,has become fashionable in China,spawning the launch of a raft of restaurants cater- ing to a new no-meat clientele.

  19. Meat and Drink

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立

    2003-01-01

    英语对话A: Do you think he’ll be doing the business all his life?B: I don’t think so. Doing business is not his meat and drink.A: What’s his meat and drink, then?B: He wants to write books. Books are what he depends on for life.

  20. The Incidence of Enterobacteriaceae Causing Food Poisoning in Some Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Fatem Al-Mutairi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of seventy five samples of meat products, 25 of each of kofta, sausage, and shawerma were collected from different supermarkets and shops in Giza governorate, Egypt to be examined bacteriologically to determine its sanitary quality. The current study was done at April to July 2009. The mean aerobic plate count values were 28.4×105, 24.3×104 and 7×105 CFU/g, respectively. Enterobacteriaceae count was 10.14×105, 5×104 and 37.8×104 CFU/g, respectively While the Coliforms (MPN count was 7×102, 3×102 and 4.59×102 CFU/g, respectively. Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp, Klebsiella spp and Proteus spp were isolated from 7(28%, 0(0%, 4(16% and 2(8%; 3(12%, 2(8%, 1(4% and 2 (8%; 5 (20%, 1(4%, 3(12 and 2(8% of kofta, sausage and shawerma samples respectively. Further, Citrobacter spp was isolated from 1(4% of shawerma samples. 80% of Escherichia coli isolates were enteropathogenic (O166, O78, O126, O55, O26, O20, O25 : K11, O119, O125 : K70, O146, O126 while 20% were untypable. Salmonella Buntantan was isolated from 8% of sausage samples while Salmonella Kentucky was isolated from 4% of shawerma samples.

  1. Effect of Fat Level and the Ripening Time on Quality Traits of Fermented Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Jang, Kyoung-Hwan; Chung, Ku-Young

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the fat reduction on the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of fermented sausages during ripening and drying. Low fat fermented sausages were produced with different fat levels (30%, 20%, 10%, and 5%) under ripening conditions and fermented process. Samples from each treatment were taken for physicochemical and microbiological analyses on the 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 21st day of ripening. In proximate analysis, the fat reduction in sausages produced an increase in moisture, protein and ash contents during ripening and drying (pbasic nitrogen (VBN) value of the low fat samples was significantly higher (pPseudomonas counts of sausages showed no significant differences. Production of low fat sausages resulted in the physicochemical and microbiological attributes equal to or better than the high fat sausages without negative effects, except only a higher VBN and weight loss. PMID:26732335

  2. Human perception of indoor environment generated by chilled ceiling combined with mixing ventilation or localised chilled beam under cooling mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Nygaard, Linette; Uth, Simon C.;

    2014-01-01

    Experiments with 24 subjects were performed to study and compare the human perception of the indoor environment under summer conditions generated by a chilled ceiling combined with overhead mixing ventilation and localised chilled beam. The experiments were performed in an experimental chamber (4....../s during the 20 min period of physical activity, when the occupant was not at the desk with the localised chilled beam, resulting in increase of the air temperature in the room. Subjects used questionnaires to answer on thermal sensation and acceptability, perceived air quality, air movement and SBS...

  3. Effects of Ripening Duration and Rosemary Powder Addition on Salchichon Modified Sausage Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Jong-Hyun; Shim, Kwan-Seob; Shin, Daekeun

    2015-01-01

    The ripening durations and ingredients for the Salchichon sausages were modified to increase pork rear leg consumption by Korean consumers. The salchichon, a ripened pork sausage, was produced to evaluate the efficacy of two different ripening durations with and without rosemary powder on salchichon sausage quality, and the treatments were: i) 45 days of ripening without rosemary, ii) 60 days of ripening without rosemary, iii) 45 days of ripening with 0.05% rosemary, and iv) 60 days of ripeni...

  4. Volatile profile, lipid oxidation and protein oxidation of irradiated ready-to-eat cured turkey meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xi; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-10-01

    Irradiation had little effects on the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values in ready-to-eat (RTE) turkey meat products, while it increased protein oxidation at 4.5 kGy. The volatile profile analyses indicated that the amount of sulfur compounds increased linearly as doses increased in RTE turkey meat products. By correlation analysis, a positive correlation was found between benzene/ benzene derivatives and alcohols with lipid oxidation, while aldehydes, ketones and alkane, alkenes and alkynes were positively correlated with protein oxidation. Principle component analysis showed that irradiated meat samples can be discriminated by two categories of volatile compounds: Strecker degradation products and radiolytic degradation products. The cluster analysis of volatile data demonstrated that low-dose irradiation had minor effects on the volatile profile of turkey sausages (<1.5 kGy). However, as the doses increased, the differences between the irradiated and non-irradiated cured turkey products became significant.

  5. CHANGES OF BACKSCATTERING PARAMETERS DURING CHILLING INJURY IN BANANAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NORHASHILA HASHIM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The change in backscattering parameters during the appearance of chilling injury in bananas was investigated. Bananas were stored at a chilling temperature for two days and the degrees of the chilling injuries that appeared were measured before, during and after storage using backscattering imaging and visual assessment. Laser lights at 660 nm and 785 nm wavelengths were shot consecutively onto the samples in a dark room and a camera was used to capture the backscattered lights that appeared on the samples. The captured images were analysed and the changes of intensity against pixel count were plotted into graphs. The plotted graph provides useful information of backscattering parameters such as inflection point (IP, slope after inflection point (SA, and full width at half maximum (FWHM and saturation radius (RSAT. Results of statistical analysis indicated that there were significant changes of these backscattering parameters as chilling injury developed.

  6. SOME ASPECTS OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS OF CASTINGS IN COATED CHILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Krutilin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of technological process of pouring into coated iron chill is presented. It is shown that the process is very sensitive to the change of technological parameters, is rather complex in regulation and control.

  7. A novel approach to assess temporal sensory perception of muscle foods: application of a time-intensity technique to diverse Iberian meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorido, Laura; Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Although dynamic sensory techniques such as time-intensity (TI) have been applied to certain meat products, existing knowledge regarding the temporal sensory perception of muscle foods is still limited. The objective of the present study was to apply TI to the flavour and texture perception of three different Iberian meat products: liver pâté, dry-cured sausages ("salchichon") and dry-cured loin. Moreover, the advantages of using dynamic versus static sensory techniques were explored by subjecting the same products to a quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). TI was a suitable technique to assess the impact of composition and structure of the three meat products on flavour and texture perception from a dynamic perspective. TI parameters extracted from the TI-curves and related to temporal perception enabled the detection of clear differences in sensory temporal perception between the meat products and provided additional insight on sensory perception compared to the conventional static sensory technique (QDA).

  8. Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of propolis in “Alheira”, a fermented meat sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Casquete

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP in the control of Listeria innocua PHLS 2030c (as a surrogate for Listeria monocytogenes during storage of Alheira at 4°C. Total phenolic content was evaluated to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration of EEP against the growth of L. innocua by the agar dilution method. Alheiras were manufactured by incorporating EEP (0.28 mg/mL and pathogenic bacteria and storage during 62 days at 4°C. Growth of L. innocua was determined during storage. The behaviour of L. innocua in the food matrix was significantly affected (p < 0.01 by the addition of EEP. The ethanolic extract of propolis reduced the Listeria population to below the detection limit of the technique after 8 days of storage. These results suggest that incorporation of EEP in a food susceptible to Listeria contamination may be an interesting alternative to existing chemical preservatives and can extend the shelf life of these products.

  9. Partial Fat Replacement by Boiled Quinoa on the Quality Characteristics of a Dry-Cured Sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Diez, Ana; Caro, Irma; Castro, Amaya; Salvá, Bettit K; Ramos, Daphne D; Mateo, Javier

    2016-08-01

    Different approaches have been previously studied in order to reduce the fat content of dry-cured sausages. Among them, the use of polysaccharides, such as fiber, gums, or starch, have been proposed for fat replacing. Although scarcely studied, it is likely that starchy grains and vegetables might also be used as potential fat replacers in those sausages. Quinua is a starchy seed with high nutritive value, which contains substances of technological interest in dry-cured manufacturing. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of replacing fat by quinoa on the quality characteristics of a small diameter dry-cured sausage. Three types of sausages were prepared: a control (C; no fat replacement; 30% of pork back-fat), a quinoa half-fat (50% of fat replacement; 15% of pork back-fat), and a quinoa low-fat (LF; 85% of fat replacement; 4.5% of pork back-fat) sausage. Sausages were analyzed for proximate and microbial composition, volatile compounds, and instrumental texture and color. Descriptive and hedonic sensory analyses were also performed. Fat reduction resulted in higher aw , protein content, hardness, chewiness and redness values and spice-derived volatile levels, and in lower cohesiveness values (P sausages than in C sausages (P sausages by consumers.

  10. Maturity acceleration of Italian dried sausage by Staphylococcus carnosus - Relationship between maturity and flavor compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Louise Heller; Holck, A.; Jensen, Anni;

    2002-01-01

    The mature flavor of Salame Milano, an Italian dried sausage, was increased in two ways: by increasing maturation time or with a strain of Staphylococcus carnosus. The sensory and volatile profiles of the sausages were determined and the data analyzed by analysis of variance and chemometrics....... Sausages with S. carnosus 833 matured more than 2 wk faster than control sausages. Maturity correlated significantly with higher amounts of branched-chain aldehydes and alcohols and both branched- and straight-chain methyl ketones-compounds arising from the breakdown of the amino acids leucine, isoleucine...

  11. Development of radicidation process for eradicating Salmonella and Staphylococcus from pork meat products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Processed meat products including pork salami, luncheon meat, ham and cocktail sausages maintained at sub-zero temperatures in retail cold storage were found to possess counts of mesophilic aerobes, Staphylococcus and Salmonella counts in the ranges of 106 - 107 and 104 - 105 and 10 - 100 cfu/g, respectively. When these processed meat products were subjected to a gamma radiation dose of 2.5 kGy, under cryogenic condition, counts of mesophilic aerobes and Staphylococcus of the samples were reduced by 3-4 log cycles. At the same time, products were completely free from Salmonella. Inoculated pack studies indicated that gamma radiation dose of 4 kGy would suffice to eliminate Salmonella completely even in the case of samples, which were artificially inoculated with a heavy initial inoculum of 106 cfu/g. A trained taste panel gave high organoleptic ratings, the radicidized meat products in terms of odour, colour and texture, establishing 4 kGy as an optimum radicidation dose for frozen pork meat products. (author)

  12. The effect of water plant extracts addition on the oxidative stability of meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina M. Wójciak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Natural antioxidants extracted from plants have a lot of antioxidants catechins, epigallocatechins (green tea rosmariquinone, rosmaridiphenol (rosemary, capsaicinoids (red pepper. They can be used as alternatives to the synthetic antioxidants because of their equivalence or greater effect on inhibition of lipid oxidation and haem pigment (nitrosohemachrome protection. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of addition of green tea extract, red pepper extract and rosemary extract while curing process on colour and lipid stability during refrigerated storage of meat products. Material and methods. The pork meat was ground (10 mm plate and divided into four equal parts. To the first part (control sample – C was added curring mixture in amount of 2.2% in a ratio of meat dissolved in water. To the rests of parts were added the same curring mixtures in the same proportion dissolved in 0.5% water plant extracts: green tea (GT, red pepper (P, rosemary (R respectively. All samples were left at 4°C for 24 hours. After curing, samples were stuffed in casings and then heated in water until a final internal temperature of 70°C was reached. All samples were stored up to 30 days at 4°C. Analysis of acidity, oxidation – reduction potential, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, surface colour (Hunter L*, a* and b* values were measured directly after production and after 10, 20 and 30 days of chilling storage. Results. The addition of the plant extracts (pepper, green tea, rosemary to the pork meat samples does not change significantly acidity of the samples during chilling storage. All plants extracts effectively reduce lipid oxidation in cooked pork meat compared to the control. Pepper extract was effective in maintaining redness because of its reduction activity (low potential redox value in sample and low TBARS values in sample during chilling storage. Conclusions. Addition of pepper extract and green tea extract in

  13. Authenticity control of game meat products--a single method to detect and quantify adulteration of fallow deer (Dama dama), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon) by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druml, Barbara; Grandits, Stephanie; Mayer, Walter; Hochegger, Rupert; Cichna-Markl, Margit

    2015-03-01

    This contribution presents a single real-time PCR assay allowing the determination of the deer content (the sum of fallow deer (Dama dama), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon)) in meat products to detect food adulteration. The PCR assay does not show cross-reactivity with 20 animal species and 43 botanical species potentially contained in game meat products. The limit of quantification is 0.5% for fallow deer and red deer and 0.1% for sika deer. The deer content in meat products is determined by relating the concentration obtained with the deer PCR assay to that obtained with a reference system which amplifies mammals and poultry DNA. The analysis of binary meat mixtures with pork, a meat mixture containing equal amounts of fallow deer, red deer and sika deer in pork and a model game sausage showed that the quantification approach is very accurate (systematic error generally <25%).

  14. Effects of Domestic Storage and Thawing Practices on Salmonella in Poultry-Based Meat Preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccato, Anna; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Cibin, Veronica; Barrucci, Federica; Cappa, Veronica; Zavagnin, Paola; Longo, Alessandra; Catellani, Paolo; Ricci, Antonia

    2015-12-01

    Among consumer food handling practices, time-temperature abuse has been reported as one of the most common contributory factors in salmonellosis outbreaks where the evidence is strong. The present study performed storage tests of burgers, sausages, and kebabs and investigated (i) the effect of refrigerator temperatures (4°C versus 8 or 12°C, which were the temperatures recorded in 33 and 3%, respectively, of domestic refrigerators in Italy), with or without prior temperature abuse (25°C for 2 h, simulating transport of meats from shop to home), and (ii) the impact of the thawing method (overnight in the refrigerator at 8°C versus on the kitchen countertop at 23°C) on the presence and numbers of Salmonella bacteria. Storage tests were carried out on naturally or artificially (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium at ca. 10 CFU/g) contaminated products, while freezing-thawing tests were conducted only on artificially contaminated products (Salmonella Typhimurium at ca. 10, 100, and 1,000 CFU/g). The results from the artificially contaminated products showed significant (P 710 MPN/g) in kebabs after 7 and 10 days but more moderate growth in sausages (i.e., from ca. 14 MPN/g to a maximum of 96 MPN/g after 9 days of storage). Storage of naturally contaminated burgers or sausages (contamination at or below 1 MPN/g) at 4, 8, or 12°C and a short time of temperature abuse (2 h at 25°C) did not facilitate an increase in the presence and numbers of Salmonella bacteria. Thawing overnight in the refrigerator led to either a moderate reduction or no change of Salmonella Typhimurium numbers in burgers, sausages, and kebabs. Overall, this study showed that domestic storage and thawing practices can affect food safety and that time-temperature abuse can cause a substantial increase of Salmonella numbers in some types of poultry-based meat preparations, highlighting that efforts for the dissemination of consumer guidelines on the correct storage and handling of meats need

  15. Extension of the Vane Pump-Grinder Technology to Manufacture Finely Dispersed Meat Batters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmscher, Stefan B; Gibis, Monika; Herrmann, Kurt; Oechsle, Anja Maria; Kohlus, Reinhard; Weiss, Jochen

    2016-03-01

    A vane pump-grinder system was extended to enable the manufacture of finely dispersed emulsion-type sausages by constructing and attaching a high-shear homogenizer at the outlet. We hypothesized that the dispersing capabilities of the extended system may be improved to the point of facilitating meat-fat emulsification due to an overall increased volumetric energy input EV . Coarsely ground raw material mixtures were processed to yield meat batters at varying volume flow rates (10 to 60 L/min) and rotational rotor speeds of the homogenizer nrotor (1000 to 3400 rpm). The normalized torques acting on pump, grinder, and homogenizer motors were recorded and unit power consumptions were calculated. The structure of the manufactured meat batters and sausages were analyzed via image analysis. Key physicochemical properties of unheated and heated batters, that is, texture, water-binding, color, and solubilized protein were determined. The mean diameter d10 of the visible lean meat particles varied between 352 and 406 μm whereas the mean volume-surface diameter d32 varied between 603 and 796 μm. The lightness L* ranged from 66.2 to 70.7 and correlated with the volumetric energy input and product structure. By contrast, varying process parameters did not impact color values a* (approximately 11) and b* (approximately 8). Interestingly, water-binding and protein solubilization were not affected. An exponential process-structure relationship was identified allowing manufacturers to predict product properties as a function of applied process parameters. Raw material mixtures can be continuously comminuted, emulsified, and subsequently filled into casings using an extended vane pump-grinder.

  16. Meat, Poultry and Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Select meat substitutes such as dried beans, peas, lentils or tofu (soybean curd) in entrees, salads or ... one-cup serving of cooked beans, peas or lentils, or soybean curd (tofu) can replace a 2- ...

  17. 冷却肉的保质期%Shelf-life of Chilled Meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张子平

    2008-01-01

    食品的保质期(Shelf-life)是指从食品加工、包装完毕,直到其安全性或质量特征变得不可接受的时间。食品在保质期内随着时间的推移会发生生物化学、物理特性和微生物菌相的变化。影响食品

  18. Sampling and Homogenization Strategies Significantly Influence the Detection of Foodborne Pathogens in Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rohde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient preparation of food samples, comprising sampling and homogenization, for microbiological testing is an essential, yet largely neglected, component of foodstuff control. Salmonella enterica spiked chicken breasts were used as a surface contamination model whereas salami and meat paste acted as models of inner-matrix contamination. A systematic comparison of different homogenization approaches, namely, stomaching, sonication, and milling by FastPrep-24 or SpeedMill, revealed that for surface contamination a broad range of sample pretreatment steps is applicable and loss of culturability due to the homogenization procedure is marginal. In contrast, for inner-matrix contamination long treatments up to 8 min are required and only FastPrep-24 as a large-volume milling device produced consistently good recovery rates. In addition, sampling of different regions of the spiked sausages showed that pathogens are not necessarily homogenously distributed throughout the entire matrix. Instead, in meat paste the core region contained considerably more pathogens compared to the rim, whereas in the salamis the distribution was more even with an increased concentration within the intermediate region of the sausages. Our results indicate that sampling and homogenization as integral parts of food microbiology and monitoring deserve more attention to further improve food safety.

  19. Fracture analysis of chilled cast iron camshaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ping; Li Fengjun; Cai Anke; Wei Bokang

    2009-01-01

    The fracture of a camshaft made of chilled cast iron, installed in a home-made Fukang car, happened only after running over a distance of 6,200 km. The fractured camshaft was received to conduct a series of failure analyses using visual inspection, SEM observation of fracture section, microstructure analysis, chemical composition analysis and hardness examination and so on, while those of CKD camshaft made by Citroen Company in France was also simultaneously analyzed to compare the difference between them. The results showed that the fracture of the camshaft mainly results from white section in macrostructure and Ledeburite in microstructure; the crack in the fractured camshaft should be recognized to initiate at the boundary of coarser needle-like carbide and matrix, and then propagate through the transverse section. At the same time, the casting defects such as dendritic shrinkage, accumulated inclusion and initiated crack and abnormal external force might stimulate the fracture of camshaft as well. Based on failure analysis, some measures have been employed, and as a result, the fracture of home-made camshafts has been effectively prevented.

  20. Cooked sausage batter cohesiveness as affected by sarcoplasmic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, M M; Wieliczko, K; Lim, R; Turnwald, S; Macdonald, G A

    2002-05-01

    In the first trial, m. semitendinosus and m. biceps femoris were held at 0, 10 and 35 °C until they entered rigor, and in the second trial, minced m. semitendinosus was washed in water for 15, 30, 45 or 60 min. The samples from both the trials were then used to make a finely comminuted sausage batter. Soluble sarcoplasmic protein (SSP) levels decreased with increasing rigor temperature (P batter shear stress was not affected by SSP level, but batter shear strain decreased with the decreasing SSP level associated with an increasing rigor temperature (P batter from the washed samples compared to that of controls. The results suggest that sarcoplasmic proteins are important in determining the strain values (cohesiveness) of cooked sausage batter.

  1. Standing sausage modes in coronal loops with plasma flow

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Bo; Xia, Li-Dong; Yu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic waves are important for diagnosing the physical parameters of coronal plasmas. Field-aligned flows appear frequently in coronal loops.We examine the effects of transverse density and plasma flow structuring on standing sausage modes trapped in coronal loops, and examine their observational implications. We model coronal loops as straight cold cylinders with plasma flow embedded in a static corona. An eigen-value problem governing propagating sausage waves is formulated, its solutions used to construct standing modes. Two transverse profiles are distinguished, one being the generalized Epstein distribution (profile E) and the other (N) proposed recently in Nakariakov et al.(2012). A parameter study is performed on the dependence of the maximum period $P_\\mathrm{max}$ and cutoff length-to-radius ratio $(L/a)_{\\mathrm{cutoff}}$ in the trapped regime on the density parameters ($\\rho_0/\\rho_\\infty$ and profile steepness $p$) and flow parameters (magnitude $U_0$ and profile steepness $u$). For e...

  2. Adonis meat products

    OpenAIRE

    Sidani, Yusuf Munir; Jamali, Dima

    2003-01-01

    This case addresses the ethical dilemma facing a Lebanese meat processing organization in light of tightening meat import regulations. Within this broad contextual framework, the case touches on a number of relevant business issues, including proactive industry analysis and contingency planning, the use and abuse of political strategies in achieving competitive advantage, and the dynamics of ethical decision-making in different cultures. The case is ideal for business ethics courses. I...

  3. Modeling the Effect of Storage Temperatures on the Growth of Listeria monocytogenes on Ready-to-Eat Ham and Sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ke; Hong, Sung-Sam; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to model the growth kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes on ready-to-eat ham and sausage at different temperatures (4 to 35°C). The observed data fitted well with four primary models (Baranyi, modified Gompertz, logistic, and Huang) with high coefficients of determination (R(2) > 0.98) at all measured temperatures. After the mean square error (0.009 to 0.051), bias factors (0.99 to1.06), and accuracy factors (1.01 to 1.09) were obtained in all models, the square root and the natural logarithm model were employed to describe the relation between temperature and specific growth rate (SGR) and lag time (LT) derived from the primary models. These models were validated against the independent data observed from additional experiments using the acceptable prediction zone method and the proportion of the standard error of prediction. All secondary models based on each of the four primary models were acceptable to describe the growth of the pathogen in the two samples. The validation results indicate that the optimal primary model for estimating the SGR was the Baranyi model, and the optimal primary model for estimating LT was the logistic model in ready-to-eat (RTE) ham. The Baranyi model was also the optimal model to estimate the SGR and LT in RTE sausage. These results could be used to standardize predictive models, which are commonly used to identify critical control points in hazard analysis and critical control point systems or for the quantitative microbial risk assessment to improve the food safety of RTE meat products.

  4. Interaction among Nutritive, Textural, and Sensory Properties of Rabbit Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Wambui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutritive, textural, and sensory properties of commercial fresh rabbit sausages and their interactions were evaluated. The mean contents of moisture, protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate were 43.89 ± 1.66%, 9.82 ± 2.71%, 22.37 ± 1.7%, 2.99 ± 0.10%, and 20.94 ± 3.05%, respectively. Conversely, the mean values of hardness, adhesiveness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness were 103.36 ± 3.48 N, −4.54 ± 1.58 N s, 3.38 ± 0.67 mm, 0.15 ± 0.03, 16.07 ± 3.20 N, and 55.73 ± 20.44 N mm, respectively. The moisture and protein contents showed significant negative correlation while three remaining nutritive properties showed significant positive correlation with textural properties (P<0.05 for all parameters. The score for nonparametric ranking of sensory properties like appearance/colour, flavour, juiciness, and tenderness ranged from 28.28 to 38.78, 29.41 to 35.91, 30.06 to 37.38, 26.75 to 40.69, and 29.03 to 36.75, respectively. In conclusion, rabbit sausages formulated with low quantities of moisture and protein result in hard sausages with low acceptability by sensory panellist. To improve the sausages, it is recommended that processors develop an optimal formulation.

  5. Microbial and chemical origins of the bactericidal activity of thermally treated yellow mustard powder toward Escherichia coli O157:H7 during dry sausage ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Fernando B; Belland, Julie; Holley, Richard A

    2011-01-31

    Work examines the origin of bactericidal activity in mustard flour and explores the relative contribution from starter cultures, E. coli O157:H7 itself and other sources. Bacteria can degrade naturally occurring glucosinolates in mustard and form isothiocyanates with antimicrobial activity. In the present work, 24 starter cultures (mostly from commercial mixtures) were screened for their capacity to decompose the glucosinolate, sinalbin. The most active pair, Pediococcus pentosaceus UM 121P and Staphylococcus carnosus UM 123 M, were used together for the production of dry fermented sausage contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 (~6.5 log CFU/g). They were compared to industrial starters used previously (P. pentosaceus UM 116P and S. carnosus UM 109 M) for their reduction of E. coli O157:H7 viability. Sausage batches containing hot mustard powder (active myrosinase), cold mustard powder (inactivated myrosinase), autoclaved mustard powder (inactivated myrosinase) and no mustard flour (control) were prepared. Interestingly, both pairs of starter cultures yielded similar results. Elimination of E. coli O157:H7 (>5 log CFU/g) occurred after 31 days in the presence of hot flour and in 38 days when the cold flour was added. Reductions >5 log CFU/g of the pathogen did not occur (up to 38 days) in the control group. It was found that E. coli O157:H7 itself had a greater effect on sinalbin conversion than either pair of starter cultures, and glucosinolate degradation by the starter cultures was less important in determining E. coli survival. The autoclaved powder caused more rapid bactericidal action against E. coli O157:H7, yielding a >5 log CFU/g reduction in 18 days. This may have been a result of the formation and/or release of antimicrobial substances by the autoclave treatment. Autoclaved mustard powder could potentially solve an important challenge facing the meat industry as it strives to manufacture safe dry fermented sausages. PMID:21146240

  6. Desenvolvimento de embutido fermentado por Lactobacillus probióticos: características de qualidade Production of fermented sausage using probiotic Lactobacillus strains: quality characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Ernlund Freitas de Macedo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Os probióticos têm sido largamente utilizados em produtos lácteos. Recentemente, seu uso em produtos cárneos tem despertado interesse, principalmente em embutidos fermentados consumidos na forma crua e sem aquecimento prévio. Verificou-se a influência da utilização de Lactobacillus casei, L. paracasei e L. rhamnosus sobre as características físico-químicas e sensoriais de embutido fermentado, bem como o desenvolvimento e a viabilidade das culturas no produto cárneo. Os embutidos foram processados em quatro tratamentos, sendo o primeiro tratamento usado como controle, enquanto os demais receberam a adição de uma espécie de Lactobacillus probiótico, seguindo procedimento de fabricação descrito para salame italiano por um período de 25 dias. A presença das culturas probióticas promoveu redução mais rápida do pH dos embutidos em relação ao tratamento controle, proporcionando gosto ácido mais intenso na avaliação sensorial, principalmente para cepa de L. rhamnosus. O crescimento de Staphylococcus xylosus da cultura starter sofreu redução com a adição dos probióticos, porém o desenvolvimento de Pediococcus pentosaceus não foi afetado. Os probióticos testados mostraram crescimento durante o processamento e permaneceram viáveis no produto final. Ficou demonstrada a viabilidade da utilização das culturas probióticas em embutido cárneo fermentado, principalmente L. casei e L. paracasei, preservando suas propriedades tecnológicas e sensoriais.Probiotic Lactobacillus strains have been widely used in dairy products. Recently, attention has been directed to the use of probiotics in meat products, mainly in fermented sausages. The effect of the utilization of Lactobacillus casei, L. paracasei and L. rhamnosus strains on physical-chemical, microbiological and sensory quality of fermented sausage was evaluated. The sausages were processed in four batches: one was used as the control, while the other three batches

  7. A Field-Theoretic Approach to the Wiener Sausage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekovar, S.; Pruessner, G.

    2016-05-01

    The Wiener Sausage, the volume traced out by a sphere attached to a Brownian particle, is a classical problem in statistics and mathematical physics. Initially motivated by a range of field-theoretic, technical questions, we present a single loop renormalised perturbation theory of a stochastic process closely related to the Wiener Sausage, which, however, proves to be exact for the exponents and some amplitudes. The field-theoretic approach is particularly elegant and very enjoyable to see at work on such a classic problem. While we recover a number of known, classical results, the field-theoretic techniques deployed provide a particularly versatile framework, which allows easy calculation with different boundary conditions even of higher momenta and more complicated correlation functions. At the same time, we provide a highly instructive, non-trivial example for some of the technical particularities of the field-theoretic description of stochastic processes, such as excluded volume, lack of translational invariance and immobile particles. The aim of the present work is not to improve upon the well-established results for the Wiener Sausage, but to provide a field-theoretic approach to it, in order to gain a better understanding of the field-theoretic obstacles to overcome.

  8. Pale, soft, and exudative poultry meat--Reviewing ways to manage at the processing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbut, S

    2009-07-01

    This review focuses on ways the industry can currently deal with pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) poultry meat. Overall, the rapid increase in poultry meat consumption and the move toward selling more cut-up parts have resulted in some complaints associated with meat quality. Because no genetic marker related to PSE in poultry used by breeders has yet been identified, processors can employ several pre- and postrigor strategies to minimize the magnitude of the problem. They include reducing stress before slaughter (e.g., during catching, transportation, waiting period, unloading) and during stunning (gas vs. electrical). Later, there is a need to better understand and adjust processing conditions such as electrical stimulation, chilling rate, and maturation. When dealing with cut-up parts or deboned meat, strategies such as identifying and separating PSE meat, diverting it to no or low moisture-added products, and including additives to compensate for the poor water holding and texture can be beneficial. The potential contribution of ingredients such as starches (regular, modified), carrageenans, and enzymes is discussed. When it comes to formed products (e.g., nuggets), gentle brine addition and the use of low-pressure forming equipment can also help to minimize the effects of using PSE meat. PMID:19531724

  9. Chemical safety of meat and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrée, Sabine; Jira, W; Schwind, K-H; Wagner, H; Schwägele, F

    2010-09-01

    Since the Second World War the consumer behaviour in developed countries changed drastically. Primarily there existed the demand for sufficient food after a period of starvation, afterwards the desire for higher quality was arising, whereas today most people ask for safe and healthy food with high quality. Therefore a united approach comprising consistent standards, sound science and robust controls is required to ensure consumers' health and to maintain consumers' confidence and satisfaction. Chemical analysis along the whole food chain downstream (tracking) from primary production to the consumer and upstream (tracing) from the consumer to primary production is an important prerequisite to ensure food safety and quality. In this frame the focus of the following paper is the "chemical safety of meat and meat products" taking into account inorganic as well as organic residues and contaminants, the use of nitrite in meat products, the incidence of veterinary drugs, as well as a Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) system assessing (prioritizing) vulnerable food chain steps to decrease or eliminate vulnerability.

  10. Application of composite protective coatings on the surface of sausages with different water content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Tyburcy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Emulsion coatings on the surface of sausages counteract weight loss during storage. Therefore they could be applied instead of synthetic foils, which are used for vacuum packaging. The aim of this study was the assessment of the properties of two emulsion coatings (with different carrageenan content applied on the surface of two Polish sausages with various water content (kabanosy and frankfurterki. Material and methods. Sausages were coated with emulsions containing gelatine, kappa-carrageenan, beeswax, lard, glycerol and water. Coated and uncoated sausages were stored for 7, 14 or 21 days at the temperature of 4-6°C. After each storage period weight losses and hardness of peeled sausages, as well as colour values (L*, a*, b* and water activity of removed coatings were determined. Results. Coated sausages incurred smaller weight loss and after similar storage periods they were characterized by lower hardness in comparison with uncoated sausages. Reducing the carrageenan content decreased the consumption of emulsion for coating. However, it did not have any impact on the barrier properties of coating. Water activity of coatings decreased during storage. Their colour values also changed. Conclusions. Irrespective of water content in the sausages, emulsion coatings effectively inhibited their weight loss during storage. The coating with lower content of carrageenan could be recommended. Instability of coatings colour during storage implies the need of adding a colorant to the composition of emulsion.  

  11. The Shape of a Sausage: A Challenging Problem in the Calculus of Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Michael A. B.

    2010-01-01

    Many familiar household objects (such as sausages) involve the maximization of a volume under geometric constraints. A flexible but inextensible membrane bounds a volume which is to be filled to capacity. In the case of the sausage, a full analytic solution is here provided. Other related but more difficult problems seem to demand approximate…

  12. 不同种木薯变性淀粉对鸡肉肠品质的影响%Effect of different kinds of modified tapioca starch on the qualities of chicken sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    畅阳; 王鹏; 徐幸莲; 姜珊珊

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different kinds of modified tapioca starch and native starch on the quality characteristics of chicken sausages were investigated.Three kinds of modified starches including starch acetate,cross-linked esterified starch and phosphate starch were added during chopping respectively.The cooking yield,color,texture profile analysis(TPA)and sensory characteristics were measured.The results showed that different modified starch had no significant effect on the cooking yield(P0.05).The sausage with starch acetate had the highest color L value.The textural characteristic of sausages with modified starch were better than sausage with native starch(P0.05).The sausage with cross-linked esterified starch had the highest hardness,springiness,chewiness and cohesiveness.The sensory evaluation showed that the product containing starch acetate had higher sensory scores compared with the products with other starch.Overall,the modified starch could improve the quality attributes of chicken sausage,and starch acetate was more suitable to the meat products.%对比研究了在斩拌过程中添加6%的木薯变性淀粉(醋酸酯淀粉、交酯淀粉和磷酸酯淀粉)和木薯原淀粉对鸡肉肠品质的影响。结果发现:添加变性淀粉的鸡肉肠的产率差异不显著(P〉0.05);添加醋酸酯淀粉的鸡肉肠的L*值最大;添加变性淀粉的产品的质构特性要明显好于添加原淀粉的鸡肉肠(P〈0.05),其中添加交酯淀粉的产品的硬度、咀嚼性、弹性和凝聚性最高。感官评定结果显示,添加醋酸酯淀粉产品的品质优于添加其它种类变性淀粉的产品。醋酸酯木薯淀粉更适合于肉类产品实际生产中。

  13. 添加超细粉碎盐煸鸡骨泥对鸡肉肠品质的影响%Effect of adding superfine-smashed salt-baked chicken bone paste on quality of chicken sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘媛; 蔡蕊; 阮征; 李汴生; 郭伟波; 林光明

    2012-01-01

    Adding a certain proportion of superfine-smashed salt-baked chicken bone paste into chicken sausage would increase sausage's flavor and nutrition,but decreased its texture quality to a certain degree.Based on normal formula and processing conditions of ordinary chicken sausage,the effects of adding 4%,8%,12%,16%(db) superfine-smashed salt-baked chicken bone paste on quality of chicken sausage were studied.The color,TPA and sensory evaluation were used to indicate the quality of the chicken sausage.With bone paste addition increasing,L value of minced chicken meat and chicken sausage decreased,and b value increased;while the gel strength,hardness and chewiness decreased,and spring decreased firstly(0%~8%) and then increased(8%~16%);sensory evaluation score increased firstly and then decreased.The sausage with 12%(db) of bone paste was of the highest sensory-acceptance.%在鸡肉肠中添加一定比例的超细粉碎盐焗鸡骨泥会增加肉肠的风味和营养,但添加后可能会对鸡肉肠凝胶的质构带来不利影响。以普通鸡肉肠的加工为基础,分别添加4%、8%、12%、16%(按干基计)的骨泥,通过采用单因素实验,根据色泽和质构特性测定,并结合感官评定分析,探讨了盐焗鸡骨泥对鸡肉肠品质特性的影响。当骨泥添加量增加,鸡肉肠和鸡肉糜的L*值下降,b*值上升;鸡肉肠的凝胶强度、硬度、咀嚼性均下降,弹性先下降(0%~8%骨泥添加量)后上升(8%~16%骨泥添加量);鸡肉肠的感官得分先上升后下降。当骨泥添加量为12%时,鸡肉肠的感官接受度最高,为最佳盐焗鸡骨泥添加量。

  14. Agricultural by-products with bioactive effects: A multivariate approach to evaluate microbial and physicochemical changes in a fresh pork sausage enriched with phenolic compounds from olive vegetation water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasolato, Luca; Carraro, Lisa; Facco, Pierantonio; Cardazzo, Barbara; Balzan, Stefania; Taticchi, Agnese; Andreani, Nadia Andrea; Montemurro, Filomena; Martino, Maria Elena; Di Lecce, Giuseppe; Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Novelli, Enrico

    2016-07-01

    The use of phenolic compounds derived from agricultural by-products could be considered as an eco-friendly strategy for food preservation. In this study a purified phenol extract from olive vegetation water (PEOVW) was explored as a potential bioactive ingredient for meat products using Italian fresh sausage as food model. The research was developed in two steps: first, an in vitro delineation of the extract antimicrobial activities was performed, then, the PEOVW was tested in the food model to investigate the possible application in food manufacturing. The in vitro tests showed that PEOVW clearly inhibits the growth of food-borne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. The major part of Gram-positive strains was inhibited at the low concentrations (0.375-3mg/mL). In the production of raw sausages, two concentrates of PEOVW (L1: 0.075% and L2: 0.15%) were used taking into account both organoleptic traits and the bactericidal effects. A multivariate statistical approach allowed the definition of the microbial and physicochemical changes of sausages during the shelf life (14days). In general, the inclusion of the L2 concentration reduced the growth of several microbial targets, especially Staphylococcus spp. and LABs (2log10CFU/g reduction), while the increasing the growth of yeasts was observed. The reduction of microbial growth could be involved in the reduced lipolysis of raw sausages supplemented with PEOVW as highlighted by the lower amount of diacylglycerols. Moisture and aw had a significant effect on the variability of microbiological features, while food matrix (the sausages' environment) can mask the effects of PEOVW on other targets (e.g. Pseudomonas). Moreover, the molecular identification of the main representative taxa collected during the experimentation allowed the evaluation of the effects of phenols on the selection of bacteria. Genetic data suggested a possible strain selection based on storage time and the addition of

  15. Agricultural by-products with bioactive effects: A multivariate approach to evaluate microbial and physicochemical changes in a fresh pork sausage enriched with phenolic compounds from olive vegetation water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasolato, Luca; Carraro, Lisa; Facco, Pierantonio; Cardazzo, Barbara; Balzan, Stefania; Taticchi, Agnese; Andreani, Nadia Andrea; Montemurro, Filomena; Martino, Maria Elena; Di Lecce, Giuseppe; Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Novelli, Enrico

    2016-07-01

    The use of phenolic compounds derived from agricultural by-products could be considered as an eco-friendly strategy for food preservation. In this study a purified phenol extract from olive vegetation water (PEOVW) was explored as a potential bioactive ingredient for meat products using Italian fresh sausage as food model. The research was developed in two steps: first, an in vitro delineation of the extract antimicrobial activities was performed, then, the PEOVW was tested in the food model to investigate the possible application in food manufacturing. The in vitro tests showed that PEOVW clearly inhibits the growth of food-borne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. The major part of Gram-positive strains was inhibited at the low concentrations (0.375-3mg/mL). In the production of raw sausages, two concentrates of PEOVW (L1: 0.075% and L2: 0.15%) were used taking into account both organoleptic traits and the bactericidal effects. A multivariate statistical approach allowed the definition of the microbial and physicochemical changes of sausages during the shelf life (14days). In general, the inclusion of the L2 concentration reduced the growth of several microbial targets, especially Staphylococcus spp. and LABs (2log10CFU/g reduction), while the increasing the growth of yeasts was observed. The reduction of microbial growth could be involved in the reduced lipolysis of raw sausages supplemented with PEOVW as highlighted by the lower amount of diacylglycerols. Moisture and aw had a significant effect on the variability of microbiological features, while food matrix (the sausages' environment) can mask the effects of PEOVW on other targets (e.g. Pseudomonas). Moreover, the molecular identification of the main representative taxa collected during the experimentation allowed the evaluation of the effects of phenols on the selection of bacteria. Genetic data suggested a possible strain selection based on storage time and the addition of

  16. Influence of dietary oils and protein level on pork quality. 2. Effects on properties of fat and processing characteristics of bacon and frankfurter-style sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teye, G A; Wood, J D; Whittington, F M; Stewart, A; Sheard, P R

    2006-05-01

    Palm kernel oil (PKO) and palm oil (PO) are used in tropical countries as cheaper substitutes for conventional feed sources such as soya bean oil (SBO) but little is known about their effects on meat quality. This study, therefore, evaluated the effects of these three dietary oils on the fatty acid composition (FA) of pork fat and the qualities of belly bacon and frankfurter sausage. The 3×2 factorial design also included high and low dietary protein. Total cooking loss, water loss and fat losses were determined in frankfurter sausages at chopping temperatures from 2 to 24°C. PKO resulted in a poor P:S ratio (0.34) and a relatively hard fat (slip point 32.8°C), but resulted in bacon with a higher tensile cohesive force and more high quality slices, judged subjectively. PO had a fatty acid composition closer to the SBO control, a better P:S ratio than PKO (0.48) and softer fat. There was a trend for total cooking losses and fat losses to be higher in PKO compared with PO and SBO at all chopping temperatures, suggesting that the firmest, most saturated fat (PKO) was least suitable for frankfurter production. The low protein diet increased the concentration of saturated fatty acids and increased fat firmness but its effect on fatty acid composition and other properties were less marked than those of oil type.

  17. Risk-based control of food-borne pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica in the Italian fermented sausages Cacciatore and Felino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataragas, M; Bellio, A; Rovetto, F; Astegiano, S; Decastelli, L; Cocolin, L

    2015-05-01

    Fermentation is the most important killing step during production of fermented meats to eliminate food-borne pathogens. The objective was to evaluate whether the food-borne pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica may survive during the production of two Italian fermented sausages. Sausage batter was inoculated with five strains of L. monocytogenes or S. enterica (ca. 10(5)-10(6) cfu/g) and their kinetic behavior was monitored during production. Both pathogens survived relatively well (in Cacciatore L. monocytogenes and S. enterica inactivation was ca. 0.38±0.23 and 1.10±0.24 log cfu/g, respectively; in Felino was ca. 0.39±0.25 and 1.62±0.38 log cfu/g, respectively) due to the conditions prevailing during production (slow dehydration rate, small reduction of water activity and fermentation temperature mainly below 20 °C during the first 48 h of fermentation). Quantitative analysis of data originating from challenge tests provide critical information on which combinations of the process parameters would potentially lead to better control of the pathogens. PMID:25612557

  18. Effect of high pressure on physicochemical properties of meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckow, Roman; Sikes, Anita; Tume, Ron

    2013-01-01

    The application of high pressure offers some interesting opportunities in the processing of muscle-based food products. It is well known that high-pressure processing can prolong the shelf life of meat products in addition to chilling but the pressure-labile nature of protein systems limits the commercial range of applications. High pressure can affect the texture and gel-forming properties of myofibrillar proteins and, hence, has been suggested as a physical and additive-free alternative to tenderize and soften or restructure meat and fish products. However, the rate and magnitude at which pressure and temperature effects take place in muscles are variable and depend on a number of circumstances and conditions that are still not precisely known. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the effects of high pressure on muscle tissue over a range of temperatures as it relates to meat texture, microstructure, color, enzymes, lipid oxidation, and pressure-induced gelation of myofibrillar proteins.

  19. Standing sausage modes in coronal loops with plasma flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Chen, Shao-Xia; Xia, Li-Dong; Yu, Hui

    2014-08-01

    Context. Magnetohydrodynamic waves are important for diagnosing the physical parameters of coronal plasmas. Field-aligned flows appear frequently in coronal loops. Aims: We examine the effects of transverse density and plasma flow structuring on standing sausage modes trapped in coronal loops, and examine their observational implications in the context of coronal seismology. Methods: We model coronal loops as straight cold cylinders with plasma flow embedded in a static corona. An eigen-value problem governing propagating sausage waves is formulated and its solutions are employed to construct standing modes. Two transverse profiles are distinguished, and are called profiles E and N. A parameter study is performed on the dependence of the maximum period Pmax and cutoff length-to-radius ratio (L/a)cutoff in the trapped regime on the density parameters (ρ0/ρ∞ and profile steepness p) and the flow parameters (its magnitude U0 and profile steepness u). Results: For either profile, introducing a flow reduces Pmax obtainable in the trapped regime relative to the static case. The value of Pmax is sensitive to p for profile N, but is insensitive to p for profile E. By far the most important effect a flow introduces is to reduce the capability for loops to trap standing sausage modes: (L/a)cutoff may be substantially reduced in the case with flow relative to the static one. In addition, (L/a)cutoff is smaller for a stronger flow, and for a steeper flow profile when the flow magnitude is fixed. Conclusions: If the density distribution can be described by profile N, then measuring the sausage mode period can help deduce the density profile steepness. However, this practice is not feasible if profile E more accurately describes the density distribution. Furthermore, even field-aligned flows with magnitudes substantially smaller than the ambient Alfvén speed can make coronal loops considerably less likely to support trapped standing sausage modes. Appendix A is available in

  20. Crab Meat with Potherb Mustard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Ingredients: Eight fresh crab. 75 grams of potherb mustard, two egg whites, scallions, ginger and cooking wine. Salt to the taste. Directions: 1. Slice and deep fry the potherb mustard till crisp. Place fried mustard on plate. 2. Steam the crab and remove meat. Stir fry meat with scallions, ginger, cooking wine and salt, Return meat to crab shells. 3. Beat egg white until stiff. Cover the crab meat with mixture and garnish. Steam meat for a few minutes. 4. Place the crab shells on fried mustard and serve. This attractive red and white dish features delicious crab meat with savory crisp mustard leaves.

  1. 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline - key aroma compound in Mediterranean dried sausages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    2000-01-01

    In a study characterising sausage types from various parts of Europe, ten Mediterranean and Northern European fermented, dried sausages were compared using static headspace gas chromatography-olfactometry and a sniffing panel of five members. The greatest difference between the Northern...... and Southern types were attributed to a burned coffee odour from smoke in the smoked sausages and a popcorn note in the Mediterranean products covered with mould. The two compounds were 2-furfurylthiol and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, respectively. An analysis of five dried, moulded sausages showed that the surface...... edge of the sausages contained higher amounts of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline than the core, indicating that the mould growing on the surface of Mediterranean products produces 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline....

  2. Proteolytic characterisation in grass carp sausage inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaohua; Lin, Shengli; Zhang, Qilin

    2014-02-15

    The proteolysis in grass carp sausages inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum ZY40 and Pediococcus pentosaceus GY23 was investigated. As fermentation progressed, sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins in both sausages were obviously degraded, and the proteolytic process was more intense in sausages inoculated with P. pentosaceus GY23. The increases in α-amino nitrogen, trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble peptides and free amino acids were also detected in both sausages. The differences in α-amino nitrogen content and free amino acids concentration were due to the activity of inoculated lactic acid bacteria, while endogenous enzymes contributed to the release of TCA-soluble peptides. Our findings indicate that lactic acid bacteria influence proteolytic characterisation in fermented fish sausage, with strain-dependent activity.

  3. Halal authenticity issues in meat and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakyinsige, Khadijah; Man, Yaakob Bin Che; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2012-07-01

    In the recent years, Muslims have become increasingly concerned about the meat they eat. Proper product description is very crucial for consumers to make informed choices and to ensure fair trade, particularly in the ever growing halal food market. Globally, Muslim consumers are concerned about a number of issues concerning meat and meat products such as pork substitution, undeclared blood plasma, use of prohibited ingredients, pork intestine casings and non-halal methods of slaughter. Analytical techniques which are appropriate and specific have been developed to deal with particular issues. The most suitable technique for any particular sample is often determined by the nature of the sample itself. This paper sets out to identify what makes meat halal, highlight the halal authenticity issues that occur in meat and meat products and provide an overview of the possible analytical methods for halal authentication of meat and meat products.

  4. POULTRY MEAT IN THE PRODUCTION OF MEAT PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ciril Varga; Vlado Strelec; Marko Volk

    2000-01-01

    The authors had studied the possibility of the use of various types of poultry meat, factors which could have and adverse impact upon the microbiological quality of the raw material, technology of meat products production and the quality of products.

  5. Putative paternal factors controlling chilling tolerance in Korean market-type cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilling temperatures (Korean market-type cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants during winter and early spring growing seasons. Inheritance to chilling in U.S. processing cucumber is controlled by cytoplasmic (maternally) and nuclear factors. To understand inherit...

  6. Influence of fresh date palm co-products on the ripening of a paprika added dry-cured sausage model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sánchez, Ana María; Ciro-Gómez, Gelmy; Vilella-Esplá, José; Ben-Abda, Jamel; Pérez-Álvarez, José Ángel; Sayas-Barberá, Estrella

    2014-06-01

    Date palm co-products are a source of bioactive compounds that could be used as a new ingredient for the meat industry. An intermediate food product (IFP) from date palm co-products (5%) was incorporated into a paprika added dry-cured sausage (PADS) model system and was analysed for physicochemical parameters, lipid oxidation and sensory attributes during ripening. Addition of 5% IFP yielded a product with physicochemical properties similar to the traditional one. Instrumental colour differences were found, but were not detected visually by panellists, who also evaluated positively the sensory properties of the PADS with IFP. Therefore, the IFP from date palm co-products could be used as a natural ingredient in the formulation of PADS.

  7. Tenderizing Meat with Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavson, Paul K.; Lee, Richard J.; Chambers, George P.; Solomon, Morse B.; Berry, Brad W.

    2001-06-01

    Investigators at the Food Technology and Safety Laboratory have had success tenderizing meat by explosively shock loading samples submerged in water. This technique, referred to as the Hydrodynamic Pressure (HDP) Process, is being developed to improve the efficiency and reproducibility of the beef tenderization processing over conventional aging techniques. Once optimized, the process should overcome variability in tenderization currently plaguing the beef industry. Additional benefits include marketing lower quality grades of meat, which have not been commercially viable due to a low propensity to tenderization. The simplest and most successful arrangement of these tests has meat samples (50 to 75 mm thick) placed on a steel plate at the bottom of a plastic water vessel. Reported here are tests which were instrumented by Indian Head investigators. Carbon-composite resistor-gauges were used to quantify the shock profile delivered to the surface of the meat. PVDF and resistor gauges (used later in lieu of PVDF) provided data on the pressure-time history at the meat/steel interface. Resulting changes in tenderization were correlated with increasing shock duration, which were provided by various explosives.

  8. Sustainability and meat consumption: is reduction realistic?

    OpenAIRE

    Jantine Voordouw; Hans Dagevos

    2013-01-01

    Meat is critical with respect to sustainability because meat products are among the most energy-intensive and ecologically burdensome foods. Empirical studies of the meat-consumption frequency of Dutch consumers show that, apart from meat-avoiders and meat-eaters, many people are meat-reducers that eat no meat at least one day per week. Meat-consumption frequencies provide empirical evidence for different modes of “flexitarianism,” including light, medium, and heavy flexitarians. In particula...

  9. 中式保健香肠的研究进展%Present status of research on healthcare sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯桂芳

    2011-01-01

    Research of healthcare sausage by food scientist was sorted since 2000. Healthcare sausage series had low-fat-low-cholesterol sausage,low-salt-high-water sausage,low-nitrate-low-nitrosamine sausage,sausage with dietary fiber,sausage with medicine food.%分类归纳了近10年食品工作者对中式保健功能香肠的研究,主要有低脂低胆固醇系列、低盐高水系列、低硝酸盐低亚硝胺类系列、含膳食纤维系列、添加药食同源食物系列。

  10. Appetite and food intake after consumption of sausages with 10% fat and added wheat or rye bran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuholm, Stine; Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Sørensen, Karina Vejrum;

    2014-01-01

    The use of dietary fibers as fat-replacers in sausages gives less energy-dense and thereby healthier foods. Also, dietary fibers have been shown to induce satiety. The objectives of this study were to investigate if appetite sensations and energy intake was affected by (1) addition of dietary...... and rye bran added to sausages decreased appetite sensations and thereby has a potential added health benefit beyond the role as fat-replacer. The satisfying effect of dietary fibers appears to be more pronounced when added to sausages than when added to bread, stressing the importance of food matrix...... fibers to sausages, (2) type of dietary fibers and (3) the food matrix of the dietary fibers. In this randomized cross-over study 25 young men were served four test meals; wheat bran sausages, rye bran sausages, rye bran bread and wheat flour sausages. The test meals were served as breakfast after...

  11. Identification of chilling and heat requirements of cherry trees—a statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedeling, Eike; Kunz, Achim; Blanke, Michael M.

    2013-09-01

    Most trees from temperate climates require the accumulation of winter chill and subsequent heat during their dormant phase to resume growth and initiate flowering in the following spring. Global warming could reduce chill and hence hamper the cultivation of high-chill species such as cherries. Yet determining chilling and heat requirements requires large-scale controlled-forcing experiments, and estimates are thus often unavailable. Where long-term phenology datasets exist, partial least squares (PLS) regression can be used as an alternative, to determine climatic requirements statistically. Bloom dates of cherry cv. `Schneiders späte Knorpelkirsche' trees in Klein-Altendorf, Germany, from 24 growing seasons were correlated with 11-day running means of daily mean temperature. Based on the output of the PLS regression, five candidate chilling periods ranging in length from 17 to 102 days, and one forcing phase of 66 days were delineated. Among three common chill models used to quantify chill, the Dynamic Model showed the lowest variation in chill, indicating that it may be more accurate than the Utah and Chilling Hours Models. Based on the longest candidate chilling phase with the earliest starting date, cv. `Schneiders späte Knorpelkirsche' cherries at Bonn exhibited a chilling requirement of 68.6 ± 5.7 chill portions (or 1,375 ± 178 chilling hours or 1,410 ± 238 Utah chill units) and a heat requirement of 3,473 ± 1,236 growing degree hours. Closer investigation of the distinct chilling phases detected by PLS regression could contribute to our understanding of dormancy processes and thus help fruit and nut growers identify suitable tree cultivars for a future in which static climatic conditions can no longer be assumed. All procedures used in this study were bundled in an R package (`chillR') and are provided as Supplementary materials. The procedure was also applied to leaf emergence dates of walnut (cv. `Payne') at Davis, California.

  12. Replacement of Pork Meat with Pork Head Meat for Frankfurters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of reducing pork meat concentrations from 50% to 30% and replacing it with up to 20% pork head meat on chemical composition, cooking characteristics, physicochemical and textural properties, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of frankfurters was determined. The highest moisture content in frankfurters was found in the control and T1 (frankfurter with 45% pork meat + 5% pork head). Protein and fat contents in frankfurters with pork head meat added were significantly (pcolor, and tenderness of sensory characteristics of frankfurters added with different amounts of pork meat or pork head meat were not significantly (p>0.05) different from those of the control or there treatments. Frankfurters in T4 (frankfurter with 30% pork meat + 20% pork head) had the lowest (p0.05) from that in the control. Frankfurters with higher pork head meat concentrations had lower flavor, juiciness, and overall acceptability scores. Therefore, replacing pork meat with pork head meat in the formulation could successfully produce results similar to those of control frankfurters. The best results were obtained when 10% pork head meat was used to replace pork meat. PMID:27621683

  13. Sustainability and meat consumption: is reduction realistic?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dagevos, H.; Voordouw, J.

    2013-01-01

    Meat is critical with respect to sustainability because meat products are among the most energy-intensive and ecologically burdensome foods. Empirical studies of the meat-consumption frequency of Dutch consumers show that, apart from meat-avoiders and meat-eaters, many people are meat-reducers that

  14. Salmonella and Campylobacter reduction and quality characteristics of poultry carcasses treated with various antimicrobials in a post-chill immersion tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, G M; Bauermeister, L J; Bratcher, C L; Singh, M; McKee, S R

    2013-08-01

    Innovations in poultry processing include implementation of antimicrobials in post-chill decontamination tanks. In this study, a total of 160 broiler carcasses were analyzed to evaluate the efficacy of five post-chill water treatments consisting of 0.004% (40ppm) total chlorine, 0.04% (400ppm) or 0.1% (1000ppm) peracetic acid (PAA), and 0.1% (1000ppm) or 0.5% (5000ppm) lysozyme against Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. In addition, sensory analysis was performed to evaluate any associated effects of the antimicrobials on quality attributes of chicken breast meat. Treatment with 0.04% and 0.1% PAA was most effective (P≤0.05) in reducing populations of Salmonella and Campylobacter as compared to the chlorine treatment at 0.004% and lysozyme treatments at 0.1% and 0.5%, as well as the water treatment and the positive control. Treatment with the various antimicrobials was not found to have negative (P≤0.05) impacts on sensory attributes. Results from this study suggest that utilizing PAA as an antimicrobial in a post-chill immersion tank is an effective application for reducing Salmonella and Campylobacter on carcasses while maintaining product quality.

  15. Amelioration of Chilling Injuries in Watermelon Seedlings by Abscisic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Korkmaz, Ahmet

    2002-01-01

    A greenhouse study, designed in a randomized complete block design with five replications, was carried out at Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA, in the spring of 1997. The objective of the study was to investigate whether abscisic acid (ABA) would mitigate chilling damages in the watermelon, a chilling-sensitive plant. 'Crimson Sweet' [Citrullus lanatus (Thumb) Matsum. & Nakai.] watermelon seedlings were grown in a greenhouse with a temperature regime of 25ºC (day) and 20ºC...

  16. Pattern of microbial contamination of meat during meat display at the Bodija meat market, Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. J. Awosanya

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of microbial contamination of meat carcasses on display on wooden tables over a period of 90 minutes at the Bodija meat market was studied. This is to understudy the role of meat display methods on meat contamination. Swab samples were taken from four wooden meat display tables and meat carcasses on them at intervals of 30 minutes for a period of 1 hour 30 minutes and cultured on nutrient agar and Macconkey agar to determine the total aerobic counts (TAC and coliform counts (TCC over time. The result showed that the mean log TAC and TCC increased significantly (P<0.05 on the wooden meat display tables by 0.11 and 0.30 log CFU/cm2respectively and on the meat carcasses by 0.29 log CFU/cm2 each over the 1 hour 30 minutes period. There is a direct relationship (r = + 1 in the pattern of microbial growth (TAC and TCC on the wooden meat display tables and meat carcasses on display with time. This is suggestive of a common extraneous source of contamination of both the meat display tables and meat displayed on them. It is therefore recommended that meat carcasses should be hygienically displayed by preventing direct exposure to air and other environmental conditions so as to minimize contamination.

  17. Study on factors (pH, water activity, salt content affecting the growth of Listeria Monocytogenes in raw dried cured sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daskalov Hristo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Commission Regulation (EC 2073:2005 considers the factors which can support or inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenesin ready-to-eat foods. The aim of the experiments was to examine the values of pH, water activity (aw, salt content and level of contamination with Listeria monocytogenes of some popular in Bulgaria raw dried cured vacuum packed sausages, produced from June 2006 till May 2008. 81 vacuum-packed samples were taken from 5 different meat producing plants during the period of study. Average water activity level of the tested sausages was 0,87 ± 0,035; pH level - 5,61 ± 0,59 and salt content - 4,12 ± 1,11%. Four specimens contained Listeria spp. (two samples L.monocytogenes, one L.welshimeri and one L.innocua. All contaminated raw dried cured sausages had aw bellow ≤ 0,92 and pH ≥ 4,4 or pH ≥ 5. After 3 months of storage of the same contaminated samples at 40C, in three of them Listeria spp. (two L.monocitogenes and L.welshimeri survived and was detected. Salt content of the samples varied from 2,46 to 6,28% and was not able to affect the growth of L.monocytogenes.Data showed that the detected levels of aw could support the growth of L.monocytogenes in only 6 (7,4% of the tested samples. pH values lower than 5 were presented in three samples and only the combination with low aw was able to inhibit the growth of L.monocytogenes. The detected levels of salt content did not affect the presence and growth of L.monocytogenes. ‘Microbiological criterion’ set in COMMISSION REGULATION (EC No 2073/2005 for ready-to-eat foods unable to support the growth of L. monocytogenescan be applied to 75 (92,6% of the tested sausages.

  18. 啤酒和腊肠中N,N-二甲基亚硝胺的测定%Determination of N-dimethyl nitrosamine in beer and sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘印平; 刘玉欣; 云鹏; 路杨; 王丽英; 常凤启; 杨立新

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish a method for the determination of N-dimethyl nitrosamine in beer and sausage by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.MethodsHomogenized samples sequentially were extracted by methylene chloride, centrifugation, and SILICA/PSA columns cleanup before analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Quantification of N-dimethyl nitrosamine was based on the use of D6-N-dimethyl nitrosamine.ResultsThe present method showed acceptable recoveries of 66.9%~103.4%, with relative standard deviation (RSD) ranging from 2.5% to 7.7%. Analysis of 30 beer samples and 8 sausage samples by the current method were successfully performed. N,N-dimethyl nitrosamine were not detected in beer samples. Two positive sausage samples were detected and the content was lower than the limited value of 3.0 µg/kg in meat products.ConclusionThis quantitative method is demonstrated to be rapid, simple, and high sensitive, which can be applied in the accurate determination of N-dimethyl nitrosamine in beer and sausage.%目的:建立气相色谱-质谱法(gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, GC-MS)测定啤酒和腊肠中N,N-二甲基亚硝胺的方法。方法试样经二氯甲烷超声提取、离心, SILICA/PSA玻璃柱净化后气相色谱/质谱仪直接测定, D6-N,N-二甲基亚硝胺内标法定量。结果加标回收率范围为66.9%~103.4%,相对标准偏差(RSD)在2.5%~7.7%。将该方法用于实际样品分析,30份啤酒中均未检出N,N-二甲基亚硝胺,8份腊肠样品中检出2份阳性样品,含量均低于肉制品中N,N-二甲基亚硝胺限量值3.0µg/kg。结论此方法简便快速,灵敏度较高,可以用于啤酒和腊肠中N,N-二甲基亚硝胺的准确定量。

  19. Modelling the influence of inulin as a fat substitute in comminuted meat products on their physico-chemical characteristics and eating quality using a mixture design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Derek F; Resconi, Virginia C; Kerry, Joseph P; Hamill, Ruth M

    2014-03-01

    The effects of fat substitution using two commercial inulin products on the physico-chemical properties and eating quality of a comminuted meat product (breakfast sausage) were modelled using a specialised response surface experiment specially developed for mixtures. 17 treatments were assigned representing a different substitution level for fat with inulin. Sausages were formulated to contain pork shoulder, back fat/inulin, water, rusk and seasoning (44.3, 18.7, 27.5, 7 and 2.5% w/w). Composition, sensory, instrumental texture and colour characteristics were assessed. Fructan analysis showed that inulin was unaffected by heat or processing treatments. Models showed increasing inulin inclusions decreased cook loss (pinulin concentration, with panellists also scoring products containing inulin as less tender (pinulin to deliver a prebiotic health effect.

  20. A microbiological survey of fresh meat in the supermarket trade. Part 2: beef retail cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortjé, G L; Nel, L; Jordaan, E; Naudé, R T; Holzapfel, W H; Grimbeek, R J

    1989-01-01

    An assessment was made of the microbiological quality of the final product (different retail cuts), produced by two different retail supermarket groups (A & B). The influence of sanitary conditions on the microbiological quality of the final product was evaluated, and the possible influences on shelf life were determined. Supermarket group A (Sup group A) received carcasses with significantly lower surface counts of micro-organisms than supermarket group B (Sup group B), while the latter had a more efficient overall sanitation programme than supermarket group A. Five cuts were monitored for the presence of total aerobic counts, psychrotrophic counts, lactobacilli, Enterobacteriaceae and numbers of Pseudomonadaceae present. A shelf life study was also executed by repeating these enumerations on the same meat samples after refrigerated storage at 5°C for 2 and 4 days, respectively. It is generally accepted that a good refrigeration or chilling regime will preserve the inherent meat quality, but in this study it was found that neither served as a guarantee of quality. The more stringent hygiene at retail level of Sup group B yielded consistently lower mean counts of the different bacterial groups for all the meat cuts monitored and, thus meat with an extended shelf life. The total count (at 30°C) on meat cuts was the highest, followed by the psychrotrophs, the Pseudomonadaceae the Enterobacteriaeae and the lactobacilli. Minced meat generally had the highest mean aerobic total microbial counts. This count on minced meat might be a suitable indicator for monitoring the overall sanitary condition of a retail premises. The results re-emphasized the multi-factorial complexity of fresh meat quality and shelf life. The microbial quality of the raw material (carcasses), the maintenance of the cold chain, sanitary condition of premises, equipment and personnel surfaces and general management practices are factors that collectively determine the microbiological quality of the