WorldWideScience

Sample records for chilled cargo

  1. Chills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chills refers to feeling cold after being in a cold environment. The word can also refer to ... Chills (shivering) may occur at the beginning of an infection. They are most often associated with a ...

  2. Chilled beam application guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, David; Gräslund, Jonas; Hogeling, Jaap; Lund Kristiansen, Erik; Reinikanen, Mika; Svensson, Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    Chilled beam systems are primarily used for cooling and ventilation in spaces, which appreciate good indoor environmental quality and individual space control. Active chilled beams are connected to the ventilation ductwork, high temperature cold water, and when desired, low temperature hot water system. Primary air supply induces room air to be recirculated through the heat exchanger of the chilled beam. In order to cool or heat the room either cold or warm water is cycled through the heat exchanger.

  3. Chilling Tendency and Chill of Cast Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. Fra(s); M. Górny; W. Kapturkiewicz; H. López

    2008-01-01

    An analytical expression is presented for the susceptibility of liquid cast iron to solidify according tothe Fe-C-X metastable system (also known as the chilling tendency of cast iron, CT). The analysis incorpo-rates the nucleation and growth processes associated with the eutectic transformation. The CT is related tothe physicochemical state of the liquid, the eutectic cells in the flake graphite, and the number of nodules innodular cast iron. In particular, the CT can be related to the critical wall thickness, Scr, or the chill width, Wcr,in wedge shaped castings. Finally, this work serves as a guide for understanding the effect of technical fac-tors such as the melt chemistry, the spheroidizing and inoculation practice, and the holding time and tam-perature on the resultant CT and chill of the cast iron. Theoretical calculations of Scr and Wcr compare wellwith experimental data for flake graphite and nodular cast iron.

  4. STUDY OF CYLPEBS CHILLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Marukovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods of increasing the shock resistance of cast-iron grinding bodies are researched. The models of heat transfer in the process of casting and shock-abrasive wear are presented. Tooling to produce experimental samples of milling bodies chilling(gravity die casting is manufactured, samples of cylpebs are produced.

  5. Irradiation of chilled lamb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilled, vacuum-packed New Zealand lamb loins have been irradiated at doses between 1-8 kGy. The report outlines the methods used and provides dosimetry details. An appendix summarises the results of a taste trial conducted on the irradiated meat by the Meat Industry Research Institute of New Zealand. This showed that, even at 1 kGy, detectable flavours were induced by the radiation treatment

  6. Photosynthetic responses to chilling in a chilling-tolerant and chilling-sensitive Miscanthus hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, P C; Sage, R F

    2016-07-01

    Miscanthus is a C4 perennial grass being developed for bioenergy production in temperate regions where chilling events are common. To evaluate chilling effects on Miscanthus, we assessed the processes controlling net CO2 assimilation rate (A) in Miscanthus x giganteus (M161) and a chilling-sensitive Miscanthus hybrid (M115) before and after a chilling treatment of 12/5 °C. The temperature response of A and maximum Rubisco activity in vitro were identical below 20 °C in chilled and unchilled M161, demonstrating Rubisco capacity limits or co-limits A at cooler temperatures. By contrast, A in M115 decreased at all measurement temperatures after growth at 12/5 °C. Rubisco activity in vitro declined in proportion to the reduction in A in chilled M115 plants, indicating Rubisco capacity is responsible in part for the decline in A. Pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase activities were also reduced by the chilling treatment when assayed at 28 °C, indicating this enzyme may also contribute to the reduction in A in M115. The maximum extractable activities of PEPCase and NADP-ME remained largely unchanged after chilling. The carboxylation efficiency of the C4 cycle was depressed in both genotypes to a similar extent after chilling. ΦP :ΦCO2 remained unchanged in both genotypes indicating the C3 and C4 cycles decline equivalently upon chilling. PMID:26714623

  7. 46 CFR 154.534 - Cargo pumps and cargo compressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pumps and cargo compressors. 154.534 Section 154... Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.534 Cargo pumps and cargo compressors. Cargo pumps and cargo compressors must shut-down automatically when the quick-closing shut-off valves under §§...

  8. Welding Using Chilled-Inert-Gas Purging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgee, William F.; Rybicki, Daniel J.

    1995-01-01

    Report describes study of fusion welding using chilled inert gas. Marked improvement shown in welding of aluminum using chilled helium gas. Chilling inert gas produces two additional benefits: 1) creation of ultradense inert atmosphere around welds; 2) chilled gas cools metal more quickly down to temperature at which metals not reactive.

  9. Groupage Cargo Transportation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksejevs Ruslans; Guseinovs Raufs; Medvedev Alexander N.; Guseynov Sharif E.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we consider a specific problem of optimal planning of maritime transportation of multiproduct cargo by ships of one (corporate strategy) or several (partially corporate strategy) companies: the core of the problem consists of the existence of the network of intermediate seaports (i.e. transitional seaports), where for every ship arrived the cargo handling is done, and which are situated between the starting and the finishing seaports. In this work, there are mathematical models b...

  10. Targeting and design of chilled water network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Minimum flowrate targeting for chilled water network. • Mixed series/parallel configuration of chilled water-using units. • Integrated cooling and chilled water networks. - Abstract: Chilled water is a common cooling agent used in various industrial, commercial and institutional facilities. In conventional practice, chilled water is distributed via chilled water networks (CHWNs) in parallel configuration to provide required air conditioning and/or equipment cooling in the heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system. In this paper, process integration approach based on pinch analysis technique is used to address energy efficiency issues in the CHWN system for grassroots design problem. Graphical and algebraic targeting techniques are developed to identify the minimum chilled water flowrate needed to remove a given amount of heat load from the CHWN. Doing this leads to higher chilled water return temperature and enhanced energy efficiency of the HVAC system. A recent proposed network design technique is extended to synthesize the CHWN in a mixed series/parallel configuration. A novel concept of integrated cooling and chilled water networks (IWN) is also proposed in this work, with its targeting and design techniques presented. Hypothetical examples and an industrial case study are solved to elucidate the proposed approaches

  11. Groupage Cargo Transportation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksejevs Ruslans

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we consider a specific problem of optimal planning of maritime transportation of multiproduct cargo by ships of one (corporate strategy or several (partially corporate strategy companies: the core of the problem consists of the existence of the network of intermediate seaports (i.e. transitional seaports, where for every ship arrived the cargo handling is done, and which are situated between the starting and the finishing seaports. In this work, there are mathematical models built from scratch in the form of multicriteria optimization problem; then the goal attainment method of Gembicki is used for reducing the built models to a one-criterion problem of linear programming.

  12. 21 CFR 890.5940 - Chilling unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chilling unit. 890.5940 Section 890.5940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5940 Chilling unit....

  13. Cook & Chill - Rapid Chilling of Food 'in situ'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    Rapid cooling of products is of increasing importance for food preservation and for industrial processes. Slurry ice (Binary Ice) is a two-phase cooling fluid consisting of suspended ice crystals in an aqueous solution or mixture. Latent energy contained in the fluid yields rapid cooling which...... is expressed in high cooling velocity. It is, however, difficult to establish cooling curves for every product and process. Using two readings from a cooling process allows the va��to be determined of a constant OCT which expresses the specific cooling velocity and serves to establish cooling curves...... for a given product and process and to compare different cooling fluids and methods. Chilling of hot products in professional cooking kettles immediately after cooking is achieved best by using Binary Ice. The paper gives an equation, which describes the cooling velocity for such kettles and other products...

  14. 46 CFR 154.315 - Cargo pump and cargo compressor rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pump and cargo compressor rooms. 154.315 Section... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.315 Cargo pump and cargo compressor rooms. (a) Cargo pump rooms and cargo compressor rooms must be above the weather deck and must be within the cargo area. (b) Where pumps...

  15. Suppression of volatile production in tomato fruit exposed to chilling temperature and alleviation of chilling injury by a pre-chilling heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilling exposure of tomato fruit to 5 °C for less than 5 days at mature green stage does not cause visual symptom of chilling injury (CI), however, it is unknown whether such conditions would impact flavor quality (internal CI) after ripening, and if a pre-chilling heat treatment could alleviate in...

  16. Cargo-cult training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magueijo, João

    2009-12-01

    Richard Feynman, in one of his famous rants, evoked as a metaphor what he called "cargo-cult science". During the Second World War, the indigenous people of the South Pacific became accustomed to US Air Force planes landing on their islands, invariably bringing a profusion of desirable goods and tasty foods. When the war ended, they were distressed by the discontinuation of this popular service. So, they decided to take action. They cleared elongated patches of land to make them look like runways. They lit wood fires where they had seen electric floodlights guiding in the planes. They built a wooden shack and made a man sit inside with two halves of a coconut on each ear and bamboo bars sticking out like antennas: he was the "air controller". And they waited for the planes to return.

  17. Directional distribution of chilling winds in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saue, Triin

    2015-11-01

    Wind chill equivalent temperature (WCET) is used to define thermal discomfort in winter months. Directional distributions of winds, which are associated with uncomfortable weather, were composed of three climatologically different Estonian locations: Vilsandi, Kuusiku, and Jõhvi. Cases with wind chill equivalent temperature prevalent wind directions in Estonia: W, SW, and NW bring warm air in winter from the North Atlantic, while winds from the East-European plain (NE, E, and SE) are associated with cold air. The eastern prevalence was stronger when a lower threshold was used. A directional approach may find several applications, such as building, agricultural, landscape, or settlement planning.

  18. Guns on Campus: A Chilling Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mash, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    The author of this article observes that, while much has been written on the overall topic of safety with regard to allowing guns on college campuses, little has been said about how allowing the possession of deadly weapons can create a "chilling effect" on academic discussions. This article considers how some universities have…

  19. Operational efficiency in STS cargo processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    A multifaceted program is presented that addresses both the operational aspects of Shuttle-cargo integration and the needs of the STS Cargo Community. The program consists of the following key elements: (1) processing team awareness of cargo needs and requirements; (2) standardization of Orbiter preparation and cargo integration procedures and methods; (3) maximum application of state-of-the-art ADP techniques in all relevant areas; (4) continual review of cargo integration facility and ground system capabilities versus requirements and enhancement; (5) continual assessment of proposed cargo processing changes for safety and other needs; and (6) review of cargo processing philosophies, policies, and concepts for potential improvements.

  20. Higher Chilling-Tolerance of Grafted-Cucumber Seedling Leaves upon Exposure to Chilling Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-yong; TIAN Hai-xia; LI Xin-guo; MENG Jing-jing; HE Qi-wei

    2008-01-01

    The roots of figleaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia, as rootstock) could improve the resistance of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Jinyan 4, as scion) to low temperature. In this experiment, the root activity and photosynthetic activity of photosystems in the own-rooted and grafted-cucumber plants were studied at chilling temperature (4℃) under low irradiance (100 μmol m-2 s-1 PFD). Compared with dark adaptation seedlings, the chlorophyll a fluorescence transient curve and the oxidizable P700 (P700+) of both the own-rooted and grafted seedlings decreased, and PS2 and PSl of the own-rooted seedling leaves were more inhibited than that of grafted ones at the end of chilling stress. The reduced triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC), which was used to reflect the root activity, kept stable in grafted seedling roots at the end of chilling stress, while it decreased noticeably in the own-rooted seedling roots. These results implied that the root system activity of the grafted seedling roots was higher than that of the own-rooted ones. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was higher in both the grafted seedling roots and leaves than that in own-rooted seedlings at both room temperature and chilling temperature. Upon exposure to chilling stress, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content, which reflects the degree of lipid peroxidation, increased markedly in the own-rooted seedling roots and leaves and kept stable in the grafted-cucumber seedlings.

  1. Directional distribution of chilling winds in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saue, Triin

    2016-08-01

    Wind chill equivalent temperature (WCET) is used to define thermal discomfort in winter months. Directional distributions of winds, which are associated with uncomfortable weather, were composed of three climatologically different Estonian locations: Vilsandi, Kuusiku, and Jõhvi. Cases with wind chill equivalent temperature <-10 °C, which could be classified as "uncomfortable or worse," were investigated. Additional thresholds were used to measure weather risk. The 25th percentile of daily minimum WCET was tested to measure classical prevalent wind directions in Estonia: W, SW, and NW bring warm air in winter from the North Atlantic, while winds from the East-European plain (NE, E, and SE) are associated with cold air. The eastern prevalence was stronger when a lower threshold was used. A directional approach may find several applications, such as building, agricultural, landscape, or settlement planning.

  2. 49 CFR 1544.228 - Access to cargo and cargo screening: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... threat assessments for cargo personnel in the United States. 1544.228 Section 1544.228 Transportation... COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.228 Access to cargo and cargo screening: Security threat assessments... paragraph (b) of this section— (1) Each individual must successfully complete a security threat...

  3. Ethylene Production by Chilled Cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C Y; Adams, D O

    1980-11-01

    Chilling at 2.5 C accelerated the synthesis of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and C(2)H(4) production in cucumber fruit. Skin tissue contained higher levels of ACC and was more sensitive to chilling than was cortex tissue. Accumulation of ACC in chilled tissue was detected after 1 day of chilling and remained elevated even after C(2)H(4) production started to decline. These data suggest that ACC synthesis is readily stimulated by chilling, whereas the system that converts ACC to C(2)H(4) is vulnerable to chilling injury. Chilling-induced C(2)H(4) production was inhibited by amino-ethoxyvinylglycine, sodium benzoate, propyl gallate, 2,4-dinitrophenol, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, and cycloheximide. The utilization of methionine for ACC formation and chilling-induced C(2)H(4) biosynthesis was established using l-[3,4-(14)C]methionine. Chilled tissue had a higher capacity to convert l-[3,4-(14)C]methionine to ACC and C(2)H(4) than did nonchilled tissue. PMID:16661538

  4. 46 CFR 153.908 - Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring... Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge: Categories... lading, a written statement of the following: (1) For Category A or B NLS, the cargo's viscosity at 20...

  5. 46 CFR 154.1810 - Cargo manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo manual. 154.1810 Section 154.1810 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1810 Cargo manual. (a) No person... navigable waters of the United States, or a U.S. flag vessel, unless the vessel has on board a cargo...

  6. 46 CFR 153.907 - Cargo information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo information. 153.907 Section 153.907 Shipping... Information § 153.907 Cargo information. (a) The master shall ensure that the following information for each... process for the vessel. (b) The master shall make sure that the following information for cargoes...

  7. Determination of high-risk cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Leo A.; Smith, Douglas E.; Khan, Siraj M.

    1994-10-01

    The approach and methodology used in the determination of the type of cargo containing concealments of commercial quantities of narcotics such as cocaine and heroin is described. This high-risk cargo enters the United States through border crossings at land, seaports and airports. The volume and variety of cargos make it a complex and challenging task for the U.S. Customs Service.

  8. Cargo-shell and cargo-cargo couplings govern the mechanics of artificially loaded virus-derived cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llauró, Aida; Luque, Daniel; Edwards, Ethan; Trus, Benes L.; Avera, John; Reguera, David; Douglas, Trevor; Pablo, Pedro J. De; Castón, José R.

    2016-04-01

    Nucleic acids are the natural cargo of viruses and key determinants that affect viral shell stability. In some cases the genome structurally reinforces the shell, whereas in others genome packaging causes internal pressure that can induce destabilization. Although it is possible to pack heterologous cargoes inside virus-derived shells, little is known about the physical determinants of these artificial nanocontainers' stability. Atomic force and three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy provided mechanical and structural information about the physical mechanisms of viral cage stabilization beyond the mere presence/absence of cargos. We analyzed the effects of cargo-shell and cargo-cargo interactions on shell stability after encapsulating two types of proteinaceous payloads. While bound cargo to the inner capsid surface mechanically reinforced the capsid in a structural manner, unbound cargo diffusing freely within the shell cavity pressurized the cages up to ~30 atm due to steric effects. Strong cargo-cargo coupling reduces the resilience of these nanocompartments in ~20% when bound to the shell. Understanding the stability of artificially loaded nanocages will help to design more robust and durable molecular nanocontainers.Nucleic acids are the natural cargo of viruses and key determinants that affect viral shell stability. In some cases the genome structurally reinforces the shell, whereas in others genome packaging causes internal pressure that can induce destabilization. Although it is possible to pack heterologous cargoes inside virus-derived shells, little is known about the physical determinants of these artificial nanocontainers' stability. Atomic force and three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy provided mechanical and structural information about the physical mechanisms of viral cage stabilization beyond the mere presence/absence of cargos. We analyzed the effects of cargo-shell and cargo-cargo interactions on shell stability after encapsulating two

  9. Performance of a chill ATES system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midkiff, K.C.; Song, Y.K.; Schaetzle, W.J. [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)] [and others

    1989-03-01

    An aquifer air-conditioning system has been installed to cool the Student Recreation Center on the University of Alabama Campus. This research program encompasses the monitoring of the operation of the aquifer system and provision of emplacements to the system. The monitoring includes establishing the instrumentation, acquiring data, and analyzing the results. The instrumentation allows the measurement of water flow rates and corresponding temperatures, electrical energy input, aquifer temperatures at nineteen monitoring wells, and aquifer levels at six monitoring wells. Recent acquifer performance data indicate that 76% of the chill energy stored was recovered for the period Oct/86 - Sep/87 and 70% for the period Oct/87 - Sep/88. This is a substantial improvement over recoveries of 38% for the 1985 season and 55% for 1986. The overall coefficient of performance was 5.4 for Oct/86 - Sep/87 and 4.6 for Oct/87 - Sep/88. THe system has supplied 100% of the cooling with only about one-half of the energy input required by a conventional system. Some of the increased recovery of chilled water is a result of modifying the production well operation to reduce the regional flow of water toward the northwest. All warm water is withdrawn form the southeast wells, chilled, and injected in northwest wells. The cold water then withdrawn from the cold wells is used for air-conditioning but not reinjected into the aquifer. Additional flow control is provided by pumping (and discarding) water out of a southeast well, although the complete results of this new strategy are as yet unclear.

  10. Chilled Ammonia Process for CO2 Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darde, Victor Camille Alfred; Thomsen, Kaj; Well, Willy J.M. van;

    2010-01-01

    The chilled ammonia process absorbs the CO2 at low temperature (2–10°C). The heat of absorption of carbon dioxide by ammonia is significantly lower than for amines. In addition, degradation problems can be avoided and a high carbon dioxide capacity is achieved. Hence, this process shows good...... pressure up to 100bars. The results show that solid phases consisting of ammonium carbonate and bicarbonate are formed in the absorber. The heat requirements in the absorber and in the desorber have been studied. The enthalpy calculations show that a heat requirement for the desorber lower than 2GJ/ton CO2...

  11. Chilled ammonia process for CO2 capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darde, Victor Camille Alfred; Thomsen, Kaj; van Well, Willy J. M;

    2009-01-01

    The chilled ammonia process absorbs the CO2 at low temperature (2-10 degrees C). The heat of absorption of carbon dioxide by ammonia is significantly lower than for amines. In addition, degradation problems can be avoided and a high carbon dioxide capacity is achieved. Hence, this process shows...... C and pressure up to 100 bars [1]. The results show that solid phases consisting of ammonium carbonate and bicarbonate are formed in the absorber. The energy requirements in the absorber and in the desorber have been studied. The enthalpy calculations show that an energy requirement for the desorber...

  12. Cargo Assured Access to International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Boeing's Cargo Assured Access logistics delivery system will provide a means to transport cargo to/from the International Space Station, Low Earth Orbit and the moon using Expendable Launch Vehicles. For Space Station, this capability will reduce cargo resupply backlog during nominal operations (e.g., supplement Shuttle, Progress, ATV and HTV) and augment cargo resupply capability during contingency operations (e.g., Shuttle delay and/or unavailability of International Partner launch or transfer vehicles). This capability can also provide an autonomous means to deliver cargo to lunar orbit, a lunar orbit refueling and work platform, and a contingency crew safe haven in support of NASA's new Exploration Initiative.

  13. 76 FR 166 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... imports of fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway (56 FR 14920, 14921). Following five-year reviews... imports of fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway (71 FR 7512). The Commission is now conducting...), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ \\1\\ No response to this request...

  14. Effects of chilling on protein synthesis in tomato suspension cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of chilling on cell growth, cell viability, protein content and protein composition in suspension cultures of L. esculentum and L. hirsutum was investigated. Cell growth for both species was arrested at 2 degrees C but when cultures were transferred to 25 degree C cell growth resumed. There was no difference in viability between control and chilled cultures of L. esculentum, however, L. hirsutum control cultures exhibited larger amounts of Fluorescein Diacetate induced fluorescence than chilled cultures. 35S-methionine incorporation into proteins was 2.5-2 times higher in L. hirsutum than in L. esculentum. Quantitative and qualitative differences, in 35S-methionine labelled proteins, between chilled and control cultures were observed by SDS-PAGE and fluorography. Protein content in chilled cultures decreased over time but then increased when cultures were transferred to 25 degrees C

  15. Mechanism of silicon influence on the chill of cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fraś

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work an analytical solution of general validity is used to explain mechanism of the silicon influence on the absolute chill tendency (CT and chill (w of cast iron. It is found that CT can be related to nucleation potential of graphite (Nv, growth parameter (μ of eutectic cells, temperature range (ΔTsc and the pre-eutectic austenite volume fraction (fγ. It has been shown that silicon additions: a impede the growth of graphite eutectic cells, μ, b expands the temperature range ΔTsc, c increases the nucleation potential of graphite Nv, d lowers the pre-eutectic austenite volume fraction, fγ. and in consequence the absolute chilling tendency, CT decreases. The minimum wall thicknesses for chilled castings, or chill widths (w in wedge shaped castings is related to CT and as silcon contents increases, the w value also increases.

  16. Cod and rainbow trout as freeze-chilled meal elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Nielsen, Jette; Jørgensen, Bo;

    2010-01-01

    Meal elements' are elements of a meal, e.g. portions of pre-fried meat, sauces, frozen fish or pre-processed vegetables typically prepared industrially. The meal elements are distributed to professional satellite kitchens, where the staff can combine them into complete meals. Freeze-chilling is a...... process consisting of freezing and frozen storage followed by thawing and chilled storage. Combining the two would enable the manufacturer to produce large quantities of frozen meal elements to be released into the chill chain according to demand. We have studied the influence of freeze-chilling on the...... quality attributes of cod and rainbow trout portions. Sensory profiling and chemical analyses were used to determine the changes in quality after slow thawing and subsequent chill storage and to find the high-quality shelf life. RESULTS: Cod had a consistent and high sensory quality during the first 6...

  17. Cargo-shell and cargo-cargo couplings govern the mechanics of artificially loaded virus-derived cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llauró, Aida; Luque, Daniel; Edwards, Ethan; Trus, Benes L; Avera, John; Reguera, David; Douglas, Trevor; Pablo, Pedro J de; Castón, José R

    2016-04-28

    Nucleic acids are the natural cargo of viruses and key determinants that affect viral shell stability. In some cases the genome structurally reinforces the shell, whereas in others genome packaging causes internal pressure that can induce destabilization. Although it is possible to pack heterologous cargoes inside virus-derived shells, little is known about the physical determinants of these artificial nanocontainers' stability. Atomic force and three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy provided mechanical and structural information about the physical mechanisms of viral cage stabilization beyond the mere presence/absence of cargos. We analyzed the effects of cargo-shell and cargo-cargo interactions on shell stability after encapsulating two types of proteinaceous payloads. While bound cargo to the inner capsid surface mechanically reinforced the capsid in a structural manner, unbound cargo diffusing freely within the shell cavity pressurized the cages up to ∼30 atm due to steric effects. Strong cargo-cargo coupling reduces the resilience of these nanocompartments in ∼20% when bound to the shell. Understanding the stability of artificially loaded nanocages will help to design more robust and durable molecular nanocontainers. PMID:27091107

  18. Nut crop yield records show that budbreak-based chilling requirements may not reflect yield decline chill thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Katherine S.; Dose, Volker; Da Silva, David; Brown, Patrick H.; DeJong, Theodore M.

    2015-06-01

    Warming winters due to climate change may critically affect temperate tree species. Insufficiently cold winters are thought to result in fewer viable flower buds and the subsequent development of fewer fruits or nuts, decreasing the yield of an orchard or fecundity of a species. The best existing approximation for a threshold of sufficient cold accumulation, the "chilling requirement" of a species or variety, has been quantified by manipulating or modeling the conditions that result in dormant bud breaking. However, the physiological processes that affect budbreak are not the same as those that determine yield. This study sought to test whether budbreak-based chilling thresholds can reasonably approximate the thresholds that affect yield, particularly regarding the potential impacts of climate change on temperate tree crop yields. County-wide yield records for almond ( Prunus dulcis), pistachio ( Pistacia vera), and walnut ( Juglans regia) in the Central Valley of California were compared with 50 years of weather records. Bayesian nonparametric function estimation was used to model yield potentials at varying amounts of chill accumulation. In almonds, average yields occurred when chill accumulation was close to the budbreak-based chilling requirement. However, in the other two crops, pistachios and walnuts, the best previous estimate of the budbreak-based chilling requirements was 19-32 % higher than the chilling accumulations associated with average or above average yields. This research indicates that physiological processes beyond requirements for budbreak should be considered when estimating chill accumulation thresholds of yield decline and potential impacts of climate change.

  19. Green channel cargo inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiation detection device was installed in the lanes of a highway toll station, radioactive rays which was collimated emitted through the measured, and arrived the detector. The average density of the fresh agricultural products belonged to Green channel and other prohibited items vary greatly, the absorption of radiation are different between the Green Channel Cargo and other substances. Prior to the experimental group, different standard samples which represent different models and goods were measured, the different standard samples were stored in a computer database. When the trucks get through the Green Channel, the detector will detect the radiation signal and bring to the computer, the computer will process the measured data, and make a conclusion whether the goods are Green Channel cargo. (authors)

  20. Human perception of indoor environment generated by chilled ceiling combined with mixing ventilation or localised chilled beam under cooling mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Nygaard, Linette; Uth, Simon C.;

    2014-01-01

    Experiments with 24 subjects were performed to study and compare the human perception of the indoor environment under summer conditions generated by a chilled ceiling combined with overhead mixing ventilation and localised chilled beam. The experiments were performed in an experimental chamber (4...... simulate direct solar load on the floor (270 W). The total heat load in the room was 56 W/m2. The air temperature around the workstation by the window was kept either 26 or 28 oC. The supplied air by the overhead mixing ventilation and the primary supply air of the localised chilled beam was kept at 13 L....../s and 16 0C. The localised chilled beam was installed over the workstation placed by the simulated window. During the experiment the subjects were delegated control over the primary flow rate supplied by the localised chilled beam. The whole exposure lasted 2 hours with 30 min of acclimatisation before...

  1. NWA Cargo Is Granted Additional Cargo Frequencies to China Four all-cargo frequencies per week granted by U.S. Department of Transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ NWA Cargo, the cargo division of Northwest Airlines, will expand its all-cargo freighter service between the United States and China after being awarded four additional frequencies per week by the U.S. Department of Transportation.

  2. Reseptioptimointi cook and chill -tuotantotapaan : Case: Kolarin keskuskeittiö

    OpenAIRE

    Pääkkölä, Henna

    2010-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli perehtyä cook and chill -tuotantotapaan ja tutkia sen vaikutuksia reseptioptimointiin. Tavoitteena oli selvittää cook and chill -tuotantotavan etuja ja mahdollisia haasteita ammattikeittiön ruokatuotannossa sekä tuottaa aiheesta tietoa suomenkielisiä lukijoita varten. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli myös optimoida Kolarin keskuskeittiön lounasruokalistan lämpimille aterioille cook and chill -tuotantotapaan soveltuvat ruokaohjeet sekä valmistusprosessikuvaukset. T...

  3. 46 CFR 64.89 - Cargo pump unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pump unit. 64.89 Section 64.89 Shipping COAST... HANDLING SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.89 Cargo pump unit. (a) A cargo pump unit that fills or...) The cargo pump power unit must be— (1) Diesel; (2) Hydraulic; (3) Pneumatic; or (4) Electric. (c)...

  4. CHANGES OF BACKSCATTERING PARAMETERS DURING CHILLING INJURY IN BANANAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NORHASHILA HASHIM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The change in backscattering parameters during the appearance of chilling injury in bananas was investigated. Bananas were stored at a chilling temperature for two days and the degrees of the chilling injuries that appeared were measured before, during and after storage using backscattering imaging and visual assessment. Laser lights at 660 nm and 785 nm wavelengths were shot consecutively onto the samples in a dark room and a camera was used to capture the backscattered lights that appeared on the samples. The captured images were analysed and the changes of intensity against pixel count were plotted into graphs. The plotted graph provides useful information of backscattering parameters such as inflection point (IP, slope after inflection point (SA, and full width at half maximum (FWHM and saturation radius (RSAT. Results of statistical analysis indicated that there were significant changes of these backscattering parameters as chilling injury developed.

  5. SOME ASPECTS OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS OF CASTINGS IN COATED CHILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Krutilin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of technological process of pouring into coated iron chill is presented. It is shown that the process is very sensitive to the change of technological parameters, is rather complex in regulation and control.

  6. Human Response to Personalized Ventilation Combined with Chilled Ceiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Marcol, Bartosz;

    2014-01-01

    , the use of radiant ceiling cooling will provide operative temperature lower than the air temperature and will improve further occupants’ thermal comfort at warm environment. Therefore combining PV with chilled ceiling may be an effective way to provide thermal comfort in rooms at temperature higher...... than the recommended in the standards upper temperature limit of 26°C. In this paper response of 24 human subjects to a PV combined with chilled ceiling system (CCPV) is compared with the response to mixing ventilation combined with chilled ceiling (CCMV). Participants were provided with control of....../return water temperature for chilled ceiling was 15,5/16,8°C at room air temperature of 26°C and 19,5/20,6°C at 28°C. During the experiment the subjects were performing typical office tasks at workstations with computers. Exposure included also increased activity level office work for a period of 25 min. At...

  7. ChillFish: A Respiration Game for Children with ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Sonne, Tobias; Jensen, Mads Møller

    2016-01-01

    Breathing exercises can help children with ADHD control their stress level, but it can be hard for a child to sustain attention throughout such an exercise. In this paper, we present ChillFish, a breath-controlled biofeedback game designed in collaboration with ADHD professionals to investigate the possibilities of combining breathing exercises and game design. Based on a pilot study with 16 adults, we found that playing ChillFish had a positive effect, helping the participants to reach a rel...

  8. 46 CFR 151.45-6 - Maximum amount of cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... temperature corresponding to the vapor pressure of the cargo at the safety relief valve setting. A reduction... required for a cargo vapor pressure equal to the relief valve setting. d L=Density of cargo at the...

  9. 46 CFR 28.885 - Cargo gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo gear. 28.885 Section 28.885 Shipping COAST GUARD... Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.885 Cargo gear. (a) The safe working load (SWL) for the assembled gear... the load the gear is approved to lift, excluding the weight of the gear itself. (b) All wire...

  10. 48 CFR 470.203 - Cargo preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo preference. 470.203 Section 470.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS COMMODITY ACQUISITIONS 470.203 Cargo preference. An agency having responsibility under this subpart...

  11. Fracture analysis of chilled cast iron camshaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ping; Li Fengjun; Cai Anke; Wei Bokang

    2009-01-01

    The fracture of a camshaft made of chilled cast iron, installed in a home-made Fukang car, happened only after running over a distance of 6,200 km. The fractured camshaft was received to conduct a series of failure analyses using visual inspection, SEM observation of fracture section, microstructure analysis, chemical composition analysis and hardness examination and so on, while those of CKD camshaft made by Citroen Company in France was also simultaneously analyzed to compare the difference between them. The results showed that the fracture of the camshaft mainly results from white section in macrostructure and Ledeburite in microstructure; the crack in the fractured camshaft should be recognized to initiate at the boundary of coarser needle-like carbide and matrix, and then propagate through the transverse section. At the same time, the casting defects such as dendritic shrinkage, accumulated inclusion and initiated crack and abnormal external force might stimulate the fracture of camshaft as well. Based on failure analysis, some measures have been employed, and as a result, the fracture of home-made camshafts has been effectively prevented.

  12. Vehicle and cargo inspection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbinski, Victor V.; Orphan, Victor J.

    1997-02-01

    Vehicle and Cargo Inspection System (VACIS) is comprised of a 1 Curie 137Cs gamma-ray source in a shield and collimator which produces a fan-shaped beam designed to intercept a vertical array of gama-ray detectors contained in a tower structure. The source and detector modules straddle the vehicle or container being inspected and are mounted on self-propelled trolleys which travel in synchronization along two parallel tracks covering the length of the scanned object. The signals from the gamma-ray detector array are processed and displayed so as to produce a 2D gamma-radiographic image of the object. Testing of the system on a variety of empty and lightly-loaded vehicles and containers has demonstrated the effectiveness of VACIS in detecting hidden contraband. For example, a small sample of cocaine only 1.5 inches thick was readily detected in a container.

  13. Inhibition of chloroplast protein synthesis following light chilling of tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study we looked at the effects of a high light chill on the pulsed incorporation of 35S methionine into total, stromal, and thylakoid proteins of lightly abraded leaflets of 18-21 day old tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill ca. Floramerica) seedlings. Based on gel fluorographic patterns of marker proteins that are indicative of the net rates of chloroplast and cytoplasmic protein synthesis, there appears to be a nearly complete cessation of chloroplastic protein synthesis. No labeling is observed for either the stromal large subunit of Rubisco or the thylakoid-bound alpha and beta subunits of the coupling factor. One notable exception, however, appears to be the 32 kd, D1 protein. Its net synthetic rate remains high despite the inhibition of other chloroplastically synthesized proteins. The small subunit of Rubicso, LHCP-II, as well as several other proteins of known cytoplasmic origin, were still synthesized, albeit, at lower than control rates. Light chilling of chill-insensitive spinach produced a similar, but less dramatic differential behavior between chloroplastic and cytoplasmic protein synthesis. It appears, in chilling-sensitive plants, that chloroplast protein synthesis exhibits a greater sensitivity to low temperature inhibition than does cytoplasmic protein synthesis and that recovery of chloroplast protein synthesis may play an important role in recovery of photosynthetic activity following chilling

  14. 46 CFR 105.25-10 - Cargo pumping installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pumping installation. 105.25-10 Section 105.25-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS... Installed Below Decks § 105.25-10 Cargo pumping installation. (a) Cargo pumps shall not be installed in...

  15. 46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154.412... Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion...) carries a cargo that corrodes the tank material. Note: Corrosion allowance for independent tank type C...

  16. 46 CFR 154.195 - Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. 154.195 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.195 Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. (a) An aluminum cargo tank and its... the aluminum cargo tank must meet the steel structural standards of the American Bureau of...

  17. 46 CFR 154.562 - Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. 154.562 Section 154.562 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Hose § 154.562 Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. Each cargo hose must pass a hydrostatic pressure test...

  18. 29 CFR 1918.87 - Ship's cargo elevators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's cargo elevators. 1918.87 Section 1918.87 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.87 Ship's cargo elevators. (a) Safe working load. The safe working loads of ship's cargo elevators shall be determined and...

  19. 46 CFR 153.977 - Supervision of cargo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supervision of cargo transfer. 153.977 Section 153.977 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS... Procedures § 153.977 Supervision of cargo transfer. The person in charge of cargo transfer shall:...

  20. 46 CFR 151.13-5 - Cargo segregation-tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo segregation-tanks. 151.13-5 Section 151.13-5... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Cargo Segregation § 151.13-5 Cargo segregation—tanks. (a... and list the various degrees of segregation required. Paragraphs and (2) of this section explain...

  1. 46 CFR 154.500 - Cargo and process piping standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo and process piping standards. 154.500 Section 154... SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.500 Cargo and process piping standards. The cargo...

  2. 41 CFR 102-117.140 - What is cargo preference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is cargo preference... cargo preference? Cargo preference is the statutory requirement that all, or a portion of all, ocean... the cargo preference laws must be approved by: Department of Transportation Maritime...

  3. Putative paternal factors controlling chilling tolerance in Korean market-type cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilling temperatures (Korean market-type cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants during winter and early spring growing seasons. Inheritance to chilling in U.S. processing cucumber is controlled by cytoplasmic (maternally) and nuclear factors. To understand inherit...

  4. System for inspection of stacked cargo containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenzo, Stephen

    2011-08-16

    The present invention relates to a system for inspection of stacked cargo containers. One embodiment of the invention generally comprises a plurality of stacked cargo containers arranged in rows or tiers, each container having a top, a bottom a first side, a second side, a front end, and a back end; a plurality of spacers arranged in rows or tiers; one or more mobile inspection devices for inspecting the cargo containers, wherein the one or more inspection devices are removeably disposed within the spacers, the inspection means configured to move through the spacers to detect radiation within the containers. The invented system can also be configured to inspect the cargo containers for a variety of other potentially hazardous materials including but not limited to explosive and chemical threats.

  5. Design of heavy lift cargo aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the bird of the skies of the future. The heavy lift cargo aircraft which is currently being developed by me has twice the payload capacity of an Antonov...

  6. IP-1 Certification of Cargo Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagler, Lisle [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-10-05

    The purpose and scope of this engineering note is to demonstrate that the structural design of the cargo container complies with the IP-1 container requirements of 49 CFR 173.410 as required by CFR 173.411.

  7. Identification of chilling and heat requirements of cherry trees—a statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedeling, Eike; Kunz, Achim; Blanke, Michael M.

    2013-09-01

    Most trees from temperate climates require the accumulation of winter chill and subsequent heat during their dormant phase to resume growth and initiate flowering in the following spring. Global warming could reduce chill and hence hamper the cultivation of high-chill species such as cherries. Yet determining chilling and heat requirements requires large-scale controlled-forcing experiments, and estimates are thus often unavailable. Where long-term phenology datasets exist, partial least squares (PLS) regression can be used as an alternative, to determine climatic requirements statistically. Bloom dates of cherry cv. `Schneiders späte Knorpelkirsche' trees in Klein-Altendorf, Germany, from 24 growing seasons were correlated with 11-day running means of daily mean temperature. Based on the output of the PLS regression, five candidate chilling periods ranging in length from 17 to 102 days, and one forcing phase of 66 days were delineated. Among three common chill models used to quantify chill, the Dynamic Model showed the lowest variation in chill, indicating that it may be more accurate than the Utah and Chilling Hours Models. Based on the longest candidate chilling phase with the earliest starting date, cv. `Schneiders späte Knorpelkirsche' cherries at Bonn exhibited a chilling requirement of 68.6 ± 5.7 chill portions (or 1,375 ± 178 chilling hours or 1,410 ± 238 Utah chill units) and a heat requirement of 3,473 ± 1,236 growing degree hours. Closer investigation of the distinct chilling phases detected by PLS regression could contribute to our understanding of dormancy processes and thus help fruit and nut growers identify suitable tree cultivars for a future in which static climatic conditions can no longer be assumed. All procedures used in this study were bundled in an R package (`chillR') and are provided as Supplementary materials. The procedure was also applied to leaf emergence dates of walnut (cv. `Payne') at Davis, California.

  8. Characterizing X-ray Attenuation of Containerized Cargo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birrer, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Divin, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glenn, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martz, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wang, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-02

    X-ray inspection systems can be used to detect radiological and nuclear threats in imported cargo. In order to better understand performance of these systems, the attenuation characteristics of imported cargo need to be determined. This project focused on developing image processing algorithms for segmenting cargo and using x-ray attenuation to quantify equivalent steel thickness to determine cargo density. These algorithms were applied to over 450 cargo radiographs. The results are summarized in this report.

  9. Amelioration of Chilling Injuries in Watermelon Seedlings by Abscisic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Korkmaz, Ahmet

    2002-01-01

    A greenhouse study, designed in a randomized complete block design with five replications, was carried out at Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA, in the spring of 1997. The objective of the study was to investigate whether abscisic acid (ABA) would mitigate chilling damages in the watermelon, a chilling-sensitive plant. 'Crimson Sweet' [Citrullus lanatus (Thumb) Matsum. & Nakai.] watermelon seedlings were grown in a greenhouse with a temperature regime of 25ºC (day) and 20ºC...

  10. ChillFish: A Respiration Game for Children with ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Jensen, Mads Møller

    2016-01-01

    Breathing exercises can help children with ADHD control their stress level, but it can be hard for a child to sustain attention throughout such an exercise. In this paper, we present ChillFish, a breath-controlled biofeedback game designed in collaboration with ADHD professionals to investigate the...... possibilities of combining breathing exercises and game design. Based on a pilot study with 16 adults, we found that playing ChillFish had a positive effect, helping the participants to reach a relaxed state similar to the one offered by traditional breathing exercises. Further, we analyze the opportunities and...

  11. Quality effect of freeze-chilling in cod and rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Nielsen, Jette; Jørgensen, Bo;

    -chilling on the quality of raw fish portions as an example of a meal element. The thawing of frozen products during transport was mimicked by placing cardboard boxes with frozen, vacuum packaged portions of fish in a chilling facility and allowing them to thaw slowly. To mimic possible subsequent chill storage...

  12. Inhibition of photosynthesis by chilling in moderate light: a comparison of plants sensitive and insensitive to chilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, R A; Raison, J K

    1989-12-01

    Photosynthetic activity, in leaf slices and isolated thylakoids, was examined at 25° C after preincubation of the slices at either 25° C or 4° C at a moderate photon flux density (PFD) of 450 μmol·m(-2)·s(-1), or at 4° C in the dark. The plants used wereSpinacia oleracea L.,Cucumis sativus L. andNerium oleander L. which was acclimated to growth at 20° C or 45° C. The plants were grown at a PFD of 550 μmol·m(-2)·s(-1). Photosynthesis, measured as CO2-dependent O2 evolution, was not inhibited in leaf slices from any plant after preincubation at 25° C at a moderate PFD or at 4° C in the dark. However, exposure to 4° C at a moderate PFD induced an inhibition of CO2-dependent O2 evolution within 1 h inC. sativus, a chilling-sensitive plant, and in 45° C-grownN. oleander. The inhibition in these plants after 5 h reached 80% and 40%, respectively, and was independent of the CO2 concentration but was reduced at O2 concentrations of less than 3%. Methyl-viologen-dependent O2 exchange in leaf slices from these plants was not inhibited. There was no photoxidation of chlorophyll, in isolated thylakoids, or any inhibition of electron transport at photosystem (PS)II, PSI or through both photosystems which would account for the inhibition of photosynthesis. The conditions which inhibit photosynthesis in chilling-sensitive plants do not cause inhibition inS. oleracea, a chilling-insensitive plant, or in 20° C-grownN. oleander. The CO2-dependent photosynthesis, measured at 5° C, was reduced to about 3% of that recorded at 25° C in chilling-sensitive plants but only to about 30% in the chilling-insensitive plants. Methyl-viologen-dependent O2 exchange, measured at 5° C, was greater than 25% of the activity at 25° C in all the plants. The results indicate that the mechanism of the chilling-induced inhibition of photosynthesis does not involve damage to PSII. That inhibition of photosynthesis is observed only in the chilling-sensitive plants indicates it is

  13. Indirect estimation of radioactivity in containerized cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring radioactive material in containerized cargo challenges the state of the art in national and international efforts to detect illicit nuclear and radiological material in transported containers. Current systems are being evaluated and new systems envisioned to provide the high probability of detection necessary to thwart potential threats, combined with extremely low nuisance and false alarm rates necessary to maintain the flow of commerce impacted by the enormous volume of commodities imported in shipping containers. Maintaining flow of commerce also means that inspection must be rapid, requiring relatively non-intrusive, indirect measurements of cargo from outside containers to the extent possible. With increasing information content in such measurements, it is natural to ask how the information might be combined to improve detection. Toward this end, we present an approach to estimating isotopic activity of naturally occurring radioactive material in cargo grouped by commodity type, combining container manifest data with radiography and gamma-ray spectroscopy aligned to location along the container. The heart of this approach is our statistical model of gamma-ray counts within peak regions of interest, which captures the effects of background suppression, counting noise, convolution of neighboring cargo contributions, and down-scattered photons to provide estimates of counts due to decay of specific radioisotopes in cargo alone. Coupled to that model, we use a mechanistic model of self-attenuated radiation flux to estimate the isotopic activity within cargo, segmented by location within each container, that produces those counts. We test our approach by applying it to a set of measurements taken at the Port of Seattle in 2006. This approach to synthesizing disparate available data streams and extraction of cargo characteristics, while relying on several simplifying assumptions and approximations, holds the potential to support improvement of

  14. 77 FR 10772 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 166) and determined on April 8, 2011 that it would conduct full reviews (76 FR 22422, April..., 2011 (76 FR 38698). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on November 30, 2011, and all persons who... COMMISSION Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway Determination On the basis of the record...

  15. Chilling the Messenger: The Impact of Libel on Community Newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Elizabeth K.; Moore, Roy L.

    A study used a new attitude and behavioral scale for measuring the chilling effect--an undercurrent of fear with respect to publishing decisions--and to determine the impact, if any, of threatened or actual libel suits on community newspapers. The editors and/or publishers of all 167 newspapers in Kentucky with a circulation of less than 50,000…

  16. Uncertainty Quantification for Cargo Hold Fires

    CERN Document Server

    DeGennaro, Anthony M; Martinelli, Luigi; Rowley, Clarence W

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold -- first, to introduce the application of high-order discontinuous Galerkin methods to buoyancy-driven cargo hold fire simulations, second, to explore statistical variation in the fluid dynamics of a cargo hold fire given parameterized uncertainty in the fire source location and temperature. Cargo hold fires represent a class of problems that require highly-accurate computational methods to simulate faithfully. Hence, we use an in-house discontinuous Galerkin code to treat these flows. Cargo hold fires also exhibit a large amount of uncertainty with respect to the boundary conditions. Thus, the second aim of this paper is to quantify the resulting uncertainty in the flow, using tools from the uncertainty quantification community to ensure that our efforts require a minimal number of simulations. We expect that the results of this study will provide statistical insight into the effects of fire location and temperature on cargo fires, and also assist in the optimization of f...

  17. Characterizing Complexity of Containerized Cargo X-ray Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guangxing [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martz, Harry [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glenn, Steven [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Divin, Charles [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Birrer, Nat [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-19

    X-ray imaging can be used to inspect cargos imported into the United States. In order to better understand the performance of X-ray inspection systems, the X-ray characteristics (density, complexity) of cargo need to be quantified. In this project, an image complexity measure called integrated power spectral density (IPSD) was studied using both DNDO engineered cargos and stream-of-commerce (SOC) cargos. A joint distribution of cargo density and complexity was obtained. A support vector machine was used to classify the SOC cargos into four categories to estimate the relative fractions.

  18. Fluctuation effects in bidirectional cargo transport

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Sarah; Santen, Ludger

    2014-01-01

    We discuss a theoretical model for bidirectional cargo transport in biological cells, which is driven by teams of molecular motors and subject to thermal fluctuations. The model describes explicitly the directed motion of the molecular motors on the filament. The motor-cargo coupling is implemented via linear springs. By means of extensive Monte Carlo simulations we show that the model describes the experimentally observed regimes of anomalous diffusion, i.e. subdiffusive behavior at short times followed by superdiffusion at intermediate times. The model results indicate that subdiffuse regime is induced by thermal fluctuations while the superdiffusive motion is generated by correlations of the motors' activity. We also tested the efficiency of bidirectional cargo transport in crowded areas by measuring its ability to pass barriers with increased viscosity. Our results show a remarkable gain of efficiency for high viscosities.

  19. Institute Cargo Clauses : Nova verzija 2009.

    OpenAIRE

    Lovrić, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Institute Cargo Clauses, 2009. znače izmijenjene i dopunjene Institute Cargo Clauses iz 1982. Osnovni razlozi za reviziju prijašnjih uvjeta leže u pojavi novih rizika, potrebi da se uvjeti kargo osiguranja prilagode promjenama u suvremenom transportnom sustavu te jezično i terminološki osuvremene. Novi uvjeti donose niz rješenja koja znače modernizaciju u odnosu na rješenja Marine Insurance Acta iz 1906. Redaktori novih uvjeta vodili su računa i o tome da pojedine odredbe budu jasnije form...

  20. Trajanje osiguranja prema Institute Cargo Clauses (2009.)

    OpenAIRE

    Petrinović, Ranka; Lovrić, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Institute Cargo Clauses iz 2009. zapravo su izmjene i dopune Institute Cargo Clauses iz 1982. Osnovni su razlozi za reviziju prijašnjih uvjeta u pojavi novih rizika, potrebi da se uvjeti kargo-osiguranja prilagode promjenama u suvremenome transportnom sustavu te jezično i terminološki osuvremene. Novi uvjeti donose više rješenja koja znače modernizaciju u usporedbi s onima u Marine Insurance Acta iz 1906., pa se prezentiraju kao klauzule za novo tisućljeće. Među bitnim promjenama koje donose ...

  1. 46 CFR 105.20-3 - Cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Specific Requirements-Cargo Tanks § 105.20-3 Cargo tanks. (a... subjected, except that in no case shall the thickness of the shell or head be less than that specified...

  2. Short and long term effects of root and shoot chilling of ransom soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, R L; Thomas, S A; Kramer, P J

    1983-11-01

    The immediate short term effects on some physiological processes and the long term effects on morphology and reproductive development of root- and shoot-chilled soybeans (Glycine max L. cv Ransom) were studied. Roots or shoots of 16- or 17-day-old plants were chilled at 10 degrees C for one week, and then rewarmed to 25 degrees C. Leaf elongation rate, net CO(2) uptake rate, and stomatal conductance decreased during root or shoot chilling. Root chilling had only temporary effects on water relations, while shoot chilling caused large changes in potentials during chilling. Most processes measured returned to control levels after two days of rewarming. Root-chilled plants harvested 90 days after emergence were similar in morphology and seed weight to controls. Shoot-chilled plants showed a large increase over controls in axillary branch growth, but an early abortion of flowers and a delayed resumption of flowering caused a 78% reduction in seed weight. Root chilling in this study was found to have little or no long term effect on the plants, while shoot chilling caused significant changes in vegetative morphology, and a delay in flowering and subsequent pod filling. PMID:16663300

  3. 49 CFR 172.448 - CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label. 172.448 Section 172.448... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.448 CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label. (a) Except for size and color, the CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label must be as follows: ER14JA09.001 (b) The CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label must be black on...

  4. 46 CFR 151.25-2 - Cargo handling space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo handling space. 151.25-2 Section 151.25-2 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Environmental Control § 151.25-2 Cargo handling space. Pump rooms, compressor rooms, refrigeration rooms, heating rooms, instrument rooms or other closed...

  5. 33 CFR 157.23 - Cargo and ballast system information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.23 Cargo and ballast system information. (a... automatic and manual operation of the cargo and ballast system in the vessel. (b) The format and information... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cargo and ballast...

  6. 46 CFR 153.440 - Cargo temperature sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo temperature sensors. 153.440 Section 153.440 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS... Temperature Control Systems § 153.440 Cargo temperature sensors. (a) Except as prescribed in paragraph (c)...

  7. 48 CFR 52.228-9 - Cargo Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Insurance. 52.228-9... Insurance. As prescribed in 28.313(a), insert the following clause: Cargo Insurance (MAY 1999) (a) The..., cargo insurance of $_____ per vehicle to cover the value of property on each vehicle and of $_____...

  8. 46 CFR 151.20-20 - Cargo transfer methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 90 percent of the set pressure of the cargo tank safety relief valve. The pressurizing line shall be... shall be fitted with a safety relief valve set to lift at a pressure no higher than 80 percent of the cargo tank safety relief valve setting. (d) When cargo vapors are flammable, combustible or toxic,...

  9. THE ANALYSIS OF THE LOGISTICS ORGANIZATION OF CUSTOMS CARGO PROCESSING

    OpenAIRE

    N. Ponomariova; Stoliar, T.

    2008-01-01

    The matter concerning customs logistics being an integral part of cargo delivery logistics range of international routes has been considered. The aim of functioning of cargo customs handling process has been determined. The application of Petri network theory for the purpose of customs cargo handling model development has been proved.

  10. Development of 60Co cargo train inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author introduces the research and development of 60Co cargo train inspection system. With the use of radiography principle, every car image is acquired when the cargo train runs through the inspection channel. It is evaluated whether the cargo in car matches the corresponding customs declaration information with digital image processing techniques. The system has been installed in railway port at Manzhouli Customs

  11. Molecular approach to intracellular cargo transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Ahmet

    2010-03-01

    Landmark discoveries in the study of cytoplasmic motors have been made through advances in single molecule biophysics and detailed mechanistic models exist for kinesin and dynein. However, the function of motors in physiological conditions has not been carefully tested. In cells, more than few dyneins can attach to the same cargo and interact with the opposite polarity motors of kinesin. To study the molecular crosstalk between the motors, we have used intraflagellar transport (IFT) in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model system. Ultrahigh spatio-temporal tracking of single cargo movement showed that IFT particles move for long distances unidirectionally with 8 nm increments, agreeing with measured step sizes of kinesin and dynein. To measure how many motors transport each cargo, we have linked large polystyrene beads to internal IFT particles through a transmembrane protein. Force measurements indicated that, on average, 3-4 motors transport cargoes in each direction. The results showed that IFT motors are tightly coordinated and might be involved in recycling each other to the appropriate end of the flagellum.

  12. 78 FR 68784 - Cargo Securing Manuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). D. Public... Practice for Cargo Stowage and Securing E.O. Executive Order FR Federal Register IMO International Maritime.... vessels or for foreign vessels operating in U.S. waters. In a notice (64 FR 1648; Jan. 11,...

  13. 46 CFR 64.91 - Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge. 64.91 Section... PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.91 Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge. The cargo pump discharge must have a relief valve that is— (a) Fitted between the cargo...

  14. Influence of taxol on the response of platelets to chilling.

    OpenAIRE

    White, J. G.

    1982-01-01

    Platelets have a characteristic lenslike appearance in circulating blood. In vitro studies have shown that the discoid shape is supported by a circumferential band of microtubules. Early studies demonstrated that chilling caused platelets to lose their disklike form and become irregularly convoluted with multiple pseudopods. The cold-induced shape change was associated with disappearance of the annular band of microtubules. Rewarming caused reassembly of the circumferential bundle and recover...

  15. Thermoeconomic evaluation of air conditioning system with chilled water storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new thermoeconomic evaluation methodology has been presented. • The relationship between thermodynamic and economic performances has been revealed. • A key point for thermal storage technology further application is discovered. • A system has been analyzed via the new method and EUD method. - Abstract: As a good load shifting technology for power grid, chilled energy storage has been paid more and more attention, but it always consumes more energy than traditional air conditioning system, and the performance analysis is mostly from the viewpoint of peak-valley power price to get cost saving. The paper presents a thermoeconomic evaluation methodology for the system with chilled energy storage, by which thermodynamic performance influence on cost saving has been revealed. And a system with chilled storage has been analyzed, which can save more than 15% of power cost with no energy consumption increment, and just certain difference between peak and valley power prices can make the technology for good economic application. The results show that difference between peak and valley power prices is not the only factor on economic performance, thermodynamic performance of the storage system is the more important factor, and too big price difference is a barrier for its application, instead of for more cost saving. All of these give a new direction for thermal storage technology application

  16. Chill-inducing music enhances altruism in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime eFukui

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Music is a universal feature of human cultures, and it has both fascinated and troubled many researchers. In this paper we show through the Dictator Game that an individual’s listening to preferred chill-inducing music may promote altruistic behavior that extends beyond the bounds of kin selection or reciprocal altruism. Participants were 22 undergraduate and postgraduate students who were divided into two groups, the In-group (IG and the Out-group (OG, and they acted as dictators. The dictators listened to their own preferred chill-inducing music, to music they disliked, or to silence, and then played the Dictator Game. In this hypothetical experiment, the dictators were given real money (which they did not keep and were asked to distribute it to the recipients, who were presented as stylized images of men and women displayed on a computer screen. The dictators played the Dictator Game both before and after listening to the music. Both male and female dictators gave more money after listening to their preferred music and less after listening to the music they disliked, whereas silence had no effect on the allocated amounts. The group to which the recipient belonged did not influence these trends. The results suggest that listening to preferred chill-inducing music promotes altruistic behavior.

  17. Chill-inducing music enhances altruism in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Hajime; Toyoshima, Kumiko

    2014-01-01

    Music is a universal feature of human cultures, and it has both fascinated and troubled many researchers. In this paper we show through the dictator game (DG) that an individual's listening to preferred "chill-inducing" music may promote altruistic behavior that extends beyond the bounds of kin selection or reciprocal altruism. Participants were 22 undergraduate and postgraduate students who were divided into two groups, the in-group and the out-group, and they acted as dictators. The dictators listened to their own preferred "chill-inducing" music, to music they disliked, or to silence, and then played the DG. In this hypothetical experiment, the dictators were given real money (which they did not keep) and were asked to distribute it to the recipients, who were presented as stylized images of men and women displayed on a computer screen. The dictators played the DG both before and after listening to the music. Both male and female dictators gave more money after listening to their preferred music and less after listening to the music they disliked, whereas silence had no effect on the allocated amounts. The group to which the recipient belonged did not influence these trends. The results suggest that listening to preferred "chill-inducing" music promotes altruistic behavior. PMID:25389411

  18. Impact of the sampling method and chilling on the Salmonella recovery from pig carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanantwerpen, Gerty; De Zutter, Lieven; Berkvens, Dirk; Houf, Kurt

    2016-09-01

    Differences in recovery of Salmonella on pig carcasses using non-destructive and destructive sampling methods is not well understood in respect to the chilling processes applied in slaughterhouses. Therefore, in two slaughterhouses, four strains at two different concentrations were inoculated onto pork skin. Inoculated skin samples were sampled before and after chilling with two sampling methods: swabbing and destruction. Both slaughterhouses were visited three times and all tests were performed in triplicate. All samples were analysed using the ISO-method and recovered isolates were confirmed by PFGE. The chilling system (fast or conventional cooling) nor the sampling step (before and after chilling) did not significantly influence the recovery of Salmonella. However, swabbing after chilling leads to an underestimation of the real number of contaminated carcasses. Therefore, destructive sampling is the more designated sampling method after chilling. PMID:27236225

  19. Two-Pipe Chilled Beam System for Both Cooling and Heating of Office Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Gordnorouzi, Rouzbeh; Hultmark, Göran;

    2013-01-01

    Simulations were performed to compare a conventional 4-pipe chilled beam system and a 2-pipe chilled beam system. The objective was to establish requirements, possibilities and limitations for a well-functioning 2-pipe chilled beam system for both cooling and heating of office buildings. The...... consumption and hence energy savings in the 2-pipe chilled beam system in comparison with the 4-pipe system. The 2-pipe chilled beam system used high temperature cooling and low temperature heating with a water temperature of 20°C to 23°C, available for free most of the year. The system can thus take...... advantage of renewable energy. The results showed that the energy consumption was 3% less in the 2-pipe chilled beam system in comparison with the conventional 4-pipe system when moving cooled and heated water through the building, transferring the energy to where it is needed. Using free cooling (taking...

  20. Discharging Part of LNG Liquid Cargo Handling Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Zhou Yang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the national economy, it is important to develop LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas liquid cargo handling simulator. In this paper, the discharging part of Liquid Cargo Handling Simulator of LNG Carriers is developed by Visual Basic. The system includes 5 major forms and 3 mathematical models such as cargo pump model, the pressure and temperature model of the LNG vapour in the cargo tank and the liquid level model. The system can complete the unloading task. The system has become a preliminary model of LNG liquid cargo handlings simulator training.

  1. Physiological and Biochemical Mechanisms of Seed Priming-Induced Chilling Tolerance in Rice Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Saddam; Khan, Fahad; Hussain, Hafiz A.; Nie, Lixiao

    2016-01-01

    Rice belongs to tropical and subtropical environments and is extremely sensitive to chilling stress particularly during emergence and early stages of seedling development. Seed priming can be a good approach to enhance rice germination and stand establishment under chilling stress. The present study examined the role of different seed priming techniques viz., hydropriming, osmopriming, redox priming, chemical priming, and hormonal priming, in enhancing the chilling tolerance in rice. The most...

  2. Reestablishment of ion homeostasis during chill-coma recovery in the cricket Gryllus pennsylvanicus

    OpenAIRE

    MacMillan, Heath A.; Williams, Caroline M.; Staples, James F.; Sinclair, Brent J.

    2012-01-01

    The time required to recover from cold-induced paralysis (chill-coma) is a common measure of insect cold tolerance used to test central questions in thermal biology and predict the effects of climate change on insect populations. The onset of chill-coma in the fall field cricket (Gryllus pennsylvanicus, Orthoptera: Gryllidae) is accompanied by a progressive drift of Na+ and water from the hemolymph to the gut, but the physiological mechanisms underlying recovery from chill-coma are not unders...

  3. Aviation System Analysis Capability Air Carrier Investment Model-Cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jesse; Santmire, Tara

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC) Air Cargo Investment Model-Cargo (ACIMC), is to examine the economic effects of technology investment on the air cargo market, particularly the market for new cargo aircraft. To do so, we have built an econometrically based model designed to operate like the ACIM. Two main drivers account for virtually all of the demand: the growth rate of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and changes in the fare yield (which is a proxy of the price charged or fare). These differences arise from a combination of the nature of air cargo demand and the peculiarities of the air cargo market. The net effect of these two factors are that sales of new cargo aircraft are much less sensitive to either increases in GDP or changes in the costs of labor, capital, fuel, materials, and energy associated with the production of new cargo aircraft than the sales of new passenger aircraft. This in conjunction with the relatively small size of the cargo aircraft market means technology improvements to the cargo aircraft will do relatively very little to spur increased sales of new cargo aircraft.

  4. Dual roles for hepatic lectin receptors in the clearance of chilled platelets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumjantseva, Viktoria; Grewal, Prabhjit K; Wandall, Hans H;

    2009-01-01

    Rapid chilling causes glycoprotein-Ib (GPIb) receptors to cluster on blood platelets. Hepatic macrophage beta(2) integrin binding to beta-N-acetylglucosamine (beta-GlcNAc) residues in the clusters leads to rapid clearance of acutely chilled platelets after transfusion. Although capping the beta......-Morell receptor binding, become increasingly involved in platelet removal. Macrophages rapidly removed a large fraction of transfused platelets independent of their storage conditions. With prolonged platelet chilling, hepatocyte-dependent clearance further diminishes platelet recovery and survival after...... transfusion. Inhibition of chilled platelet clearance by both beta(2) integrin and Ashwell-Morell receptors may afford a potentially simple method for storing platelets in the cold....

  5. Detection of Neutron Sources in Cargo Containers

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, J. I.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the problem of detecting the presence of clandestine neutron sources, such as would be produced by nuclear weapons containing plutonium, within cargo containers. Small, simple and economical semiconductor photodiode detectors affixed to the outsides of containers are capable of producing statistically robust detections of unshielded sources when their output is integrated over the durations of ocean voyages. It is possible to shield such sources with thick layers of neutron-abs...

  6. Design of a spanloader cargo aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    With a growing demand for fast international freight service, the slow-moving cargo ships currently in use will soon find a substantial portion of their clients looking elsewhere. One candidate for filling this expected gap in the freight market is a span-loading aircraft (or 'flying wing') capable of long-range operation with extremely large payloads. This report summarizes the design features of an aircraft capable of fulfilling a long-haul, high-capacity cargo mission. The spanloader seeks to gain advantage over conventional aircraft by eliminating the aircraft fuselage and thus reducing empty weight. The primary disadvantage of this configuration is that the cargo-containing wing tends to be thick, thus posing a challenge to the airfoil designer. It also suffers from stability and control problems not encountered by conventional aircraft. The result is an interesting, challenging exercise in unconventional design. The report that follows is a student written synopsis of an effort judged to be the best of eight designs developed during the year 1988-1989.

  7. Effects of Dry Chilling on the Microflora on Beef Carcasses at a Canadian Beef Packing Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Youssef, M K; Yang, X

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the course of effects on the microflora on beef carcasses of a commercial dry chilling process in which carcasses were dry chilled for 3 days. Groups of 25 carcasses selected at random were sampled when the chilling process commenced and after the carcasses were chilled for 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, and 67 h for determination of the numbers of aerobes, coliforms, and Escherichia coli. The temperatures of the surfaces and the thickest part of the hip (deep leg) of carcasses, as well as the ambient air conditions, including air temperature, velocity, and relative humidity (RH), were monitored throughout the chilling process. The chiller was operated at 0°C with an off-coil RH of 88%. The air velocity was 1.65 m/s when the chiller was loaded. The initial RH levels of the air in the vicinity of carcasses varied with the locations of carcasses in the chiller and decreased rapidly during the first hour of chilling. The average times for shoulder surfaces, rump surfaces, and the deep leg of carcasses to reach 7°C were 13.6 ± 3.1, 16.0 ± 2.4 and 32.4 ± 3.2 h, respectively. The numbers of aerobes, coliforms, and E. coli on carcasses before chilling were 5.33 ± 0.42, 1.95 ± 0.77, 1.42 ± 0.78 log CFU/4,000 cm(2), respectively. The number of aerobes on carcasses was reduced by 1 log unit each in the first hour of chilling and in the subsequent 23 h of chilling. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the numbers of aerobes recovered from carcasses after 24 and 67 h of chilling. The total numbers (log CFU/100,000 cm(2)) on carcasses before chilling and after the first hour of chilling were 3.86 and 2.24 for coliforms and 3.30 and 2.04 for E. coli. The subsequent 23 h of chilling reduced the numbers of both groups of organisms by a further log unit. No coliforms or E. coli were recovered after 67 h of chilling. The findings show that the chilling regime investigated in this study resulted in significant reductions of all

  8. An entransy dissipation-based optimization principle for building central chilled water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recently developed entransy theory is introduced in this paper to tackle the heat transfer processes in building central chilled water systems so as to improve their energy efficiency. We first divide the irreversible heat transfer processes into four categories: (1) air mixing processes; (2) heat transfer processes between chilled water and air; (3) chilled water mixing processes; and (4) heat transfer processes between chilled water and refrigerant. The formulas of entransy dissipation rates for each irreversible process are derived, and then the total entransy dissipation rate in the whole chilled water systems is obtained, which connects the geometrical structures of each heat exchanger and the operating parameters of each fluid directly to the demands of users and the supply of refrigerating unit. Based on the formula of entransy dissipation rate together with the conditional extremum method in mathematics, two optimization equation groups are deduced theoretically. Simultaneously solving such equation groups will easily find the optimal central chilled water system with the highest energy efficiency. Finally, a simple building central chilled water system with two users is taken as an example to illustrate the applications of the newly proposed optimization principle. -- Highlights: ► A general principle for the optimization of building central chilled water systems is developed based on the entransy theory. ► The total entransy dissipation connects the structural and operating parameters of chilled water systems directly to the users’ demands. ► Two optimization equation groups are derived theoretically for designing the optimal chilled water system with the highest energy efficiency. ► A practical building central chilled water system is optimized to illustrate the applications of the newly proposed optimization principle.

  9. Dark-chilling of Seedlings Affects Initiation and Morphology of Broccoli Inflorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta GRABOWSKA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The constant supply of broccoli heads for a vegetable market can be kept by the differentiation of sowing time and the age of seedlings. Dark-chilling of young seedlings can also modify the time of transplanting, subsequent plant development, yield and inflorescence quality. The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of seedling dark-chilling on the inflorescence initiation and the morphological quality of broccoli heads. The experiment was carried out at the University of Agriculture in Krakow (South Poland in the years 2009 and 2010, with broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck medium late cultivar ‘Monaco’ F1. The examined factors were the age of seedlings (4-, 6-, 8-, and 10-week-old and dark-chilling (2°C/2 weeks and non-chilled control. Microscopic analysis of the apex sections was performed to determine the time of the inflorescence differentiation in chilled and non-chilled seedlings of different age. Chosen morphological features of the mature heads were also described as depended on age and chilling of seedlings. The inflorescence initiation was observed between 4 and 6 week of the plant ontogeny. Especially 4-week-old seedlings, chilled by two weeks, were more advanced in the generative development in comparison to non-chilled control. Low temperature applied in the seedling stage did not cause the head buttoning. Inflorescences developed by broccoli planted from 4 and 6-week-old seedlings, both chilled and control, were characterized by the best visual quality, determined by a convex head shape, tight branching angle, small and uniform size and regular form of flower buds. Chilling of oldest, 8- and 10-week-old seedlings negatively affected the inflorescence quality, through planed and spread shape of heads and non-uniform shape of flower buds.

  10. Modeling and Analysis of a Horizontal Direct Chill Casting Process

    OpenAIRE

    Garðar Garðarsson 1984

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate bleedouts in Horizontal Direct Chill casting process and to make a complete finite volume model of such process. The casting machine that was investigated and used as a reference for the numerical model, was the HDC casting machine at Alcoa Fjarðaál in Iceland. One of Fjarðaál‘s main production problems are bleedouts in the HDC casting machine and the consequences of recurrent bleedouts is production loss. To analyse the problem, historical data w...

  11. Lifa Air Secure Box method for chilled beam cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Leppälä, Vesa-Jukka

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this Bachelor’s Thesis was to introduce a chilled beam cleaning method and to develop an improved version for the prototype introduced in 2011. This thesis was commissioned by Lifa Air Ltd. The company itself is specialized in improving Indoor Air Quality and offers a wide range of products meant for ventilation cleaning. The aim for the development work was to fill the requirements and needs set by the company based on the research done, and to construct a working and improv...

  12. Chill-inducing music enhances altruism in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Fukui, Hajime; Toyoshima, Kumiko

    2014-01-01

    Music is a universal feature of human cultures, and it has both fascinated and troubled many researchers. In this paper we show through the dictator game (DG) that an individual’s listening to preferred “chill-inducing” music may promote altruistic behavior that extends beyond the bounds of kin selection or reciprocal altruism. Participants were 22 undergraduate and postgraduate students who were divided into two groups, the in-group and the out-group, and they acted as dictators. The dictato...

  13. Effects of chill casting processes on secondary dendrite arm spacing and densification of Al-Si-Mg alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on the resin bonded sand casting process, the effects of chill processes on the secondary dendrite arm spacing(SDAS) and densification of Al-Si-Mg alloy were studied. The influences of the chill thickness and effective distance of chill operating on the SDAS were researched; and the effect of chillheat capacity on SDAS was investigated. The result reveals that,SDAS decreases with increasing the thickness of chill but the effect of chill is finite. The effective distance of chill operating for the chill with different thickness were obtained, and the functional relations among modulus, length of castings and thickness of chill were discussed, and the synthetical network chart of the relation among them was plotted. The relationship between local solidification rate and SDAS was defined by means of quadratic polynomial regression.

  14. A chilling-resistant agent for seedling raising of early-season rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANLingcheng; SUNLonghua

    1992-01-01

    Our lab experiments in 1986 and 1987 showed that the CR-4, a kind of chilling-sesistant agent, could obviously increase the chilling resistance of rice seedlings. The survival of seedlings was significantly higher than that of the check when located in low temperature. For example, after the seedlings were treated for 2 d at 1-0℃,

  15. Tenderness of Pork Muscles as Influenced by Chilling Rate and Altered Carcass Suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Elin; Møller, Anders Juel

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of tenderness improvements in porcine muscles (longissimus dorsi, semimembranosus, biceps femoris) in 72 carcasses by using combinations of three different chilling rates and two different suspennnsion methods.......Evaluation of tenderness improvements in porcine muscles (longissimus dorsi, semimembranosus, biceps femoris) in 72 carcasses by using combinations of three different chilling rates and two different suspennnsion methods....

  16. Chills in Different Sensory Domains: Frisson Elicited by Acoustical, Visual, Tactile and Gustatory Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, Oliver; Katzur, Bjorn; Kopiez, Reinhard; Altenmuller, Eckart

    2011-01-01

    "Chills" (frisson manifested as goose bumps or shivers) have been used in an increasing number of studies as indicators of emotions in response to music (e.g., Craig, 2005; Guhn, Hamm, & Zentner, 2007; McCrae, 2007; Panksepp, 1995; Sloboda, 1991). In this study we present evidence that chills can be induced through aural, visual, tactile, and…

  17. Chilling Tolerance and Physiological Parameters as Influenced by Grafting in Watermelon Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hui-ying; ZHU Zhu-jun; LU Guo-hua; QIAN Qiong-qiu

    2003-01-01

    The influences of different rootstocks on chilling tolerance and physiological parameters in wa-termelon seedlings have been studied. The results showed that grafting improved the chilling tolerance. Com-pared with own-rooted watermelon seedlings, the grafted watermelon seedlings had lower chilling injury index,lower electrolytic leakage (%), lower malondialdehyde (MDA) content, higher chlorophyll and proline con-tent, and higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (AsA-POD) and de-hydroascorbate reductase (DR) in the leaves under iow temperature stress. There was a considerable differenceof chilling tolerance among different grafted watermelon seedlings due to the difference of rootstock chillingtolerance. After low temperature treatment, the grafted seedling with higher chilling tolerance had lower elec-trolytic leakage ( %), lower MDA content, higher proline content and higher activities of SOD, AsA-POD andDR in the leaves compared with the grafted seedling with weaker chilling tolerance. From these, we could con-clude that chilling tolerance of watermelon seedlings may be related to higher antioxidative ability and mem-brane stability in the plants. The chilling tolerance of grafted seedling could be properly evaluated by compre-hensive physiological indexes but not a single physiological index.

  18. The Relationships between Rheological Properties and Structural Changes of Chilled Abalone Meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Xin; ZHANG Zhaohui; TANG Zhixu; TASHIRO Yuri; OGAWA Hiroo

    2003-01-01

    The quantitative correlation between theological properties and structural characteristic values of chilled abalone meat was studied. Structural changes were observed, and these values were enumerated using image processing and analysis technique. Structural changes in the myofibrils and collagen fibrils were the greatest in chilling for 24 h. After chilling for 48 h, similar structures of vertical and cross sections were observed. For chilling from 0h to 72h, the instantaneous modulus E0 of the both section meat decreases gradually with time, but no significant differences were observed after chilling for 48 h.The relaxation time and viscosity of both sections attained the same values for the same chilling time, but increased gradually with increasing chilling time. Meanwhile, a negative correlation between the structural characteristic values (Dm, Am,Rvm), and rheological properties (E1,τi,η1) clearly exists. Some logarithmic expressions have been obtained for these negative correlations. These results suggest that the difference in rheological properties between the cross and vertical sections was mainly due to the structural changes of myofibrils and collagen fibrils, and rheological properties are influenced quantitatively by the structural characteristic values for chilling from 0 h to 72 h.

  19. Diversity of low chill peaches from Asia, Brasil, Europe and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    One hundred fifty-five peach (Prunus persica) cultivars, from Asia, Brazil, Europe, and the USA, were examined using eleven SSRs to study the genetic relationships among low chill as compared to high chill peach germplasm. Data was analyzed by NTSYSpc to form a similarity matrix using Nei and Li’s ...

  20. An Inexpensive Radiosonde Chilled Mirror Sensor: An Old Technology With New Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidlin, F. J.; Busalacchi, Antonio J. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The availability of an inexpensive chilled mirror dewpoint sensor has made improved atmospheric relative humidity measurements accessible. Comparisons between the chilled mirror sensor and routine radiosonde sensors have provided new information on the limitation and reliability of the routine measurements. The chilled mirror has observed detailed moisture profiles at cirrus cloud levels when cirrus was not visible, a feature that routine sensors fail to observe. Comparison measurements between the chilled mirror, the carbon resistive (hygristor) and, the capacitive sensors will be discussed. Measurements from three locations (Wallops Island; Andros Island, Bahamas; and Camborne, UK) will be highlighted. It is conceivable that the chilled mirror sensor, when its capability is fully understood, may be sufficiently reliable to serve as a reference.

  1. Development of transport technique by chilling for melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptela: Dephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effect of chilling on mass-reared melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae COQ., groups of adult flies were exposed to 3, 0.5, -2.2 and -3.5°C for 6, 12, 24 and 48h. The recovery and longevity of adult chilled for less than 24h at about 0.5°C was not adversely affected. A special container for chilled flies, which was able to keep the temperature below 10°C for 4h, was designed for their long-distance transport. The longevities of flies using aerial distribution by helicopter and hand release on the ground using the chilled transport container were compared with direct release from an emergence box without chilling at Miyagi Island in Okinawa Prefecture. There were no significant differences in longevity between the three release methods

  2. Chemical additive to enhance antimicrobial efficacy of chlorine and control cross-contamination during immersion chill of broiler carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immersion chilling during broiler processing can be a site for cross contamination between the occasional highly contaminated carcass and those that are co-chilled. Chlorine is often used as a chill tank antimicrobial but it can be overcome with heavy organic loads associated with the constant supp...

  3. Effects of Aesthetic Chills on a Cardiac Signature of Emotionality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sumpf

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that a cardiac signature of emotionality (referred to as EK, which can be computed from the standard 12 lead electrocardiogram, ECG, predicts inter-individual differences in the tendency to experience and express positive emotion. Here, we investigated whether EK values can be transiently modulated during stimulation with participant-selected music pieces and film scenes that elicit strongly positive emotion.The phenomenon of aesthetic chills, as indicated by measurable piloerection on the forearm, was used to accurately locate moments of peak emotional responses during stimulation. From 58 healthy participants, continuous EK values, heart rate, and respiratory frequency were recorded during stimulation with film scenes and music pieces, and were related to the aesthetic chills. EK values, as well as heart rate, increased significantly during moments of peak positive emotion accompanied by piloerection.These results are the first to provide evidence for an influence of momentary psychological state on a cardiac signature of emotional personality (as reflected in EK values. The possibility to modulate ECG amplitude signatures via stimulation with emotionally significant music pieces and film scenes opens up new perspectives for the use of emotional peak experiences in the therapy of disorders characterized by flattened emotionality, such as depression or schizoid personality disorder.

  4. [Effects of chilling stress on antioxidant system and ultrastructure of walnut cultivars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing-hua; Wang, Hong-xia; Zhang, Zhi-hua; Gao, Yi

    2015-05-01

    In order to reveal cold hardiness mechanisms and ascertain suitable cold hardiness biochemical indicators of walnut (Juglans regia) , three walnut cultivars ' Hartley' , 'Jinlong 1' and 'Jinlong 2' with strong to weak tolerance of chilling stress, were used to investigate variations of leaf antioxidant enzyme activity and superoxide anion (O2-·) content in one year-old branches under chilling stress at 1 °C in leaf-expansion period. The mesophyll cells ultrastructure of ' Hartley' and 'Jinlong 2' under chilling stress were also observed by transmission electron microscope. The results showed that the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) enzyme activities were the strongest and O2-· content was the lowest in chilling-tolerant cultivar ' Hartley' under chilling stress among the three cultivars. The ultrastructure of the mesophyll cells was stable, and chilling injury symptoms of the leaves were not observed. In chilling-sensitive cultivar 'Jinlong 2' , the SOD, POD and catalase enzyme ( CAT) activities decreased sharply, and the O2-· content was kept at a high level under chilling stress. The ultrastructure of the mesophyll cells was injured obviously at 1 °C∟ for 72 hours. Most of chloroplasts were swollen, and grana lamella became thinner and fewer. A number of chloroplasts envelope and plasma membrane were damaged and became indistinct. At the same time, the edges of some of 'Jinlong 2' young leaves became water-soaked. It was concluded that the ultrastructure stability of mesophyll cells under chilling stress was closely related to walnut cold hardiness. SOD, POD enzyme activities and O2-· content in walnut leaves could be used as biochemical indicators of walnut cold hardiness in leaf-expansion period. There might be a correlation between the damage of cell membrane system and reactive oxygen accumulation under chilling stress. PMID:26571647

  5. Cargo transportation by two species of motor protein

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yunxin

    2012-01-01

    The cargo motion in living cells transported by two species of motor protein with different intrinsic directionality is discussed in this study. Similar to single motor movement, cargo steps forward and backward along microtubule stochastically. Recent experiments found that, cargo transportation by two motor species has a memory, it does not change its direction as frequently as expected, which means that its forward and backward step rates depends on its previous motion trajectory. By assuming cargo has only the least memory, i.e. its step direction depends only on the direction of its last step, two cases of cargo motion are detailed analyzed in this study: {\\bf (I)} cargo motion under constant external load; and {\\bf (II)} cargo motion in one fixed optical trap. Due to the existence of memory, for the first case, cargo can keep moving in the same direction for a long distance. For the second case, the cargo will oscillate in the trap. The oscillation period decreases and the oscillation amplitude increase...

  6. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF TRANSPORT CARGO COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Okorokov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Making the qualitative administrative decisions defining strategy and tactics of transport cargo complexes development, and also its subsystems, is possible only in the presence of flexible optimization model. This model has to consider multiparametricity and multicriteriality of the given task, uncertainty and vagueness of input information, and also to provide process automation of searching the best parameters of the given production facility. The purpose of the research is to develop procedures for the strategic management of complex with view of the most important factors and their stochastic nature, which will execute the improvement of technical equipment of TCC. Methodology. The problem of strategic management is based on solving the complex of issues of the optimal number of shunting locomotives, optimal processing capability of handling the front and rational capacity of warehouses. The problem is solved on the basis of the proposed optimality criterion – the specific set of profit per unit of capital assets of freight industry. The listed problems are solved using simulation modeling of the freight industry. Findings. The use of developed procedure allows one to improve the technical equipment of the freight stations and complexes. Originality. For the first time it was developed the procedure of strategic management of development. This procedure allows taking into account the probabilistic nature of demand for services of transport freight complexes and technological processes of client services on the complex stations. The proposed procedure can be applied during when planning the investments in the creation of transport freight complexes. Practical value. Use as a basic tool of simulation models of complex cargo operation allows estimating the effectiveness of the capital investments, the level of operating costs, as well as the quality of meeting the demands of potential customers in transportations at the stage of

  7. NLS cargo transfer vehicle propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, Hank C.; Langford, G. K.

    1992-02-01

    The propulsion system of the Cargo Transfer Vehicle is designed to meet a wide range of requirements associated with the National Launch System (NLS) resupply function for Space Station Freedom. It provides both orbit adjustment and precise vehicle control capability, and is compatible with close proximity operation at the space station as well as return on the shuttle for ground refurbishment and reuse. Preliminary trade studies have resulted in designing and sizing an integrated bipropellant system using monomethyl hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide. Design and analysis activities are continuing, and the design will evolve and mature as part of the NLS program.

  8. Transportation of nanoscale cargoes by myosin propelled actin filaments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Persson

    Full Text Available Myosin II propelled actin filaments move ten times faster than kinesin driven microtubules and are thus attractive candidates as cargo-transporting shuttles in motor driven lab-on-a-chip devices. In addition, actomyosin-based transportation of nanoparticles is useful in various fundamental studies. However, it is poorly understood how actomyosin function is affected by different number of nanoscale cargoes, by cargo size, and by the mode of cargo-attachment to the actin filament. This is studied here using biotin/fluorophores, streptavidin, streptavidin-coated quantum dots, and liposomes as model cargoes attached to monomers along the actin filaments ("side-attached" or to the trailing filament end via the plus end capping protein CapZ. Long-distance transportation (>100 µm could be seen for all cargoes independently of attachment mode but the fraction of motile filaments decreased with increasing number of side-attached cargoes, a reduction that occurred within a range of 10-50 streptavidin molecules, 1-10 quantum dots or with just 1 liposome. However, as observed by monitoring these motile filaments with the attached cargo, the velocity was little affected. This also applied for end-attached cargoes where the attachment was mediated by CapZ. The results with side-attached cargoes argue against certain models for chemomechanical energy transduction in actomyosin and give important insights of relevance for effective exploitation of actomyosin-based cargo-transportation in molecular diagnostics and other nanotechnological applications. The attachment of quantum dots via CapZ, without appreciable modulation of actomyosin function, is useful in fundamental studies as exemplified here by tracking with nanometer accuracy.

  9. Performance of personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling in an office room: inhaled air quality and contaminant distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    In a simulated two persons’ office room inhaled air quality and contaminant distribution provided with personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling, mixing ventilation only, chilled ceiling with mixing ventilation and chilled ceiling with mixing and personalized ventilation was studied...... people (exhaled air, bioeffluents) and building materials (wall painting). Personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling ensured highest air quality at the workstation under all conditions. Pollutant concentration in the occupied zone away from the workstations did not differ substantially...... between the tested systems. Chilled ceiling combined with personalized ventilation working as the only air supplying system may be optimal solution in many buildings....

  10. Effects of Short-Term Chilling Stress on the Photosystems and Chloroplast Ultrastructure in Sweet Pepper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin-guo; BI Yu-ping; ZHAO Shi-jie; MENG Qing-wei; HE Qi-wei; ZOU Qi

    2005-01-01

    By measuring chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, composition of fatty acids, active oxygen species and activities of some antioxidant enzymes, effects of chilling stress (4℃) in the low light (100 μmol m-2 s-1) on chilling-sensitive plants were studied. After 6 h chilling stress (4℃) in the low light, the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSⅡ (Fv/Fm) of sweet pepper leaves decreased by 35.6%, and the oxidizable P700 decreased by 60%. However, chilling stress in the dark had no effect on both of them. Unsaturation of fatty acids in thylakoid membrane was accelerated, which might be helpful to stabilize photosynthetic apparatus. Distortion and swelling of grana caused by chilling in the dark probably decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes, which resulted in the accumulation of active oxygen species. On the contrary,photooxidation might be related to the disintegration and unstacking of grana. Chilling stress induced photoinhibition of PSⅡ and PSⅠ, and active oxygen species might be one of the factors causing the decrease of the oxidizable P700. PSⅠseemed to be more sensitive to chilling stress in the low light than PSⅡ.

  11. A chilling sensitive mutant of Arabidopsis with altered steryl-ester metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A chilling-sensitive mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana was isolated and subjected to genetic, physiological, and biochemical analysis. The chilling-sensitive nature of the mutant line is due to a single recessive nuclear mutation at a locus designated chs1. In contrast to wild-type plants, which are not adversely affected by low temperatures, the chs1 mutant is killed by several days of exposure to temperatures below 18 degree C. Following exposure to chilling temperatures, the mutant displays two common symptoms of chilling injury - leaf chlorosis and electrolyte leakage. In these respects, the physiological response of the mutant to low temperatures mimics the response observed in some naturally occurring chilling sensitive species. The biochemical basis of chilling sensitivity was explored by examining the pattern of incorporation of 14CO2 into soluble metabolites and lipids in wild-type and mutant plants. The only difference observed between the mutant and wild type was that following low temperature treatment, the mutant accumulated 10-fold more radioactivity in a specific class of neutral lipids which were identified by a variety of criteria to be steryl-esters. The accumulation of radioactivity in the steryl-ester fraction occurs 24 hours before there is any visible evidence of chilling injury

  12. Reduction of Chilling Injury and Ultrastructural Damage in Cherry Tomato Fruits After Hot Water Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jing; FU Mao-run; ZHAO Yu-ying; MAO Lin-chun

    2009-01-01

    The effects of hot water treatment in alleviating chilling injury and reducing ultrastructural damage of mature-green cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicun esculentum cv. cerasiform Alef) were investigated. Mature-green cherry tomato fruits were treated in water at 40℃ or 45℃ for 5 rain or 15 rain, and then stored at 5℃ for 19 days followed by ripening at 20℃. Water treatment at 40℃ for 15 rain increased tolerance of cherry tomato fruits to chilling stress, indicating as low outbreak of skin lesion, high color a* value, and low electrolyte leakage. Treated fi'uits showed typical climacteric respiration and developed normal red color with chlorophyll degradation and lyeopene accumulation during ripening, while fruits without treatment failed to develop red color and suffered skin lesion. After 19 days of chilling, heated fruits showed the conversion of chloroplast to ehromoplast with the disappearance of thylakoids. Mitochondria and other cell organelles were not adversely affected in treated fruits. However, ultrastruetures in periearp cells in control fruits severely damaged with extensive disorganization of cytoplasm, swelled chloroplasts, distorted and unstacked thylakoids. Chloroplast was the first and most severely impacted organelle by chilling stress. Hot water treatment (40℃ for 15 min) before storage alleviated chilling injury in cherry tomato fruits. The results suggest that chilling injury is related with the damage of cell structure under chilling stress.

  13. Music chills: The eye pupil as a mirror to music's soul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laeng, Bruno; Eidet, Lise Mette; Sulutvedt, Unni; Panksepp, Jaak

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated whether music-induced aesthetic "chill" responses, which typically correspond to peak emotional experiences, can be objectively monitored by degree of pupillary dilation. Participants listened to self-chosen songs versus control songs chosen by other participants. The experiment included an active condition where participants made key presses to indicate when experiencing chills and a passive condition (without key presses). Chills were reported more frequently for self-selected songs than control songs. Pupil diameter was concurrently measured by an eye-tracker while participants listened to each of the songs. Pupil size was larger within specific time-windows around the chill events, as monitored by key responses, than in comparison to pupil size observed during 'passive' song listening. In addition, there was a clear relationship between pupil diameter within the chills-related time-windows during both active and passive conditions, thus ruling out the possibility that chills-related pupil dilations were an artifact of making a manual response. These findings strongly suggest that music chills can be visible in the moment-to-moment changes in the size of pupillary responses and that a neuromodulatory role of the central norepinephrine system is thereby implicated in this phenomenon. PMID:27500655

  14. Physiological and Biochemical Mechanisms of Seed Priming-Induced Chilling Tolerance in Rice Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Saddam; Khan, Fahad; Hussain, Hafiz A; Nie, Lixiao

    2016-01-01

    Rice belongs to tropical and subtropical environments and is extremely sensitive to chilling stress particularly during emergence and early stages of seedling development. Seed priming can be a good approach to enhance rice germination and stand establishment under chilling stress. The present study examined the role of different seed priming techniques viz., hydropriming, osmopriming, redox priming, chemical priming, and hormonal priming, in enhancing the chilling tolerance in rice. The most effective reagents and their pre-optimized concentrations based on preliminary experiments were used in this study. Two different rice cultivars were sown under chilling stress (18°C) and normal temperatures (28°C) in separate growth chambers. A non-primed control treatment was also maintained for comparison. Chilling stress caused erratic and delayed germination, poor seedling growth, reduced starch metabolism, and lower respiration rate, while higher lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide accumulation in rice seedlings of both cultivars. Nevertheless, all the seed priming treatments effectively alleviated the negative effects of chilling stress. In addition, seed priming treatments triggered the activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase, and enhanced the accumulations of glutathione and free proline in rice seedlings, which suggests that these measures help prevent the rice seedlings from chilling induced oxidative stress. Chemical priming with selenium and hormonal priming with salicylic acid remained more effective treatments for both rice cultivars under chilling stress than all other priming treatments. The better performance and greater tolerance of primed rice seedlings was associated with enhanced starch metabolism, high respiration rate, lower lipid peroxidation, and strong antioxidative defense system under chilling stress. PMID:26904078

  15. Operating characteristics and efficiencies of an active chilled beam terminal unit under variable air volume mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appropriately designing and maintaining temperature and relative humidity in a given space is essential for active chilled beam systems, where condensation should be strictly prevented. As a consequence, the Total Cooling Output Capacity (TCOC) of an active chilled beam system should be matched with the total cooling load of the applied space, as well as the Sensible Heat Ratio (SHR) of the system with the SHR of the space. From such a perspective, this paper for the first time explored the operating characteristics of a 2-way discharge active chilled beam terminal unit. Based on an experimentally verified model of the unit, a series of realistic simulations were carried out under various primary air volume flow rates and various chilled water volume flow rates. Inherent correlations between the TCOC and SHR were revealed. In the meanwhile, the operating efficiencies of the unit were also measured by an energy saving potential index ε, which is defined as the ratio of chilled water sensible cooling output capacity to the total sensible cooling output capacity. In addition, influences of different primary air and space conditions on the operating characteristics and efficiencies were studied. The results obtained in this study are expected to facilitate a better understanding of the active chilled beam terminal unit, so as to the designs, the operating principles, and the control strategies of active chilled beam systems for an improved indoor thermal environment. - Highlights: • The operating characteristics and efficiencies of an active chilled beam terminal unit were revealed. • The performance indexes were correlated and mutually constrained with a colorful trapezoid. • The sensitivity of the performance indexes to actual primary air and space conditions were evaluated. • Application range of the active chilled beam terminal unit can be enlarged at a low primary air relative humidity

  16. "On-off" thermoresponsive coating agent containing salicylic acid applied to maize seeds for chilling tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Guan

    Full Text Available Chilling stress is an important constraint for maize seed establishment in the field. In this study, a type of "on-off" thermoresponsive coating agent containing poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-butylmethacrylate (Abbr. P(NIPAm-co-BMA hydrogel was developed to improve the chilling tolerance of coated maize seed. The P(NIPAm-co-BMA hydrogel was synthesized by free-radical polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm and butylmethacrylate (BMA. Salicylic acid (SA was loaded in the hydrogel as the chilling resistance agent. SA-loaded P(NIPAm-co-BMA was used for seed film-coating of two maize varieties, Huang C (HC, chilling-tolerant and Mo17 (chilling-sensitive, to investigate the coated seed germination and seedling growth status under chilling stress. The results showed that the hydrogel obtained a phase transition temperature near 12°C with a NIPAM to MBA weight ratio of 1: 0.1988 (w/w. The temperature of 12°C was considered the "on-off" temperature for chilling-resistant agent release; the SA was released from the hydrogel more rapidly at external temperatures below 12°C than above 12°C. In addition, when seedlings of both maize varieties suffered a short chilling stress (5°C, higher concentrations of SA-loaded hydrogel resulted in increased germination energy, germination percentage, germination index, root length, shoot height, dry weight of roots and shoots and protective enzyme activities and a decreased malondialdehyde content in coated maize seeds compared to single SA treatments. The majority of these physiological and biochemical parameters achieved significant levels compared with the control. Therefore, SA-loaded P(NIPAm-co-BMA, a nontoxic thermoresponsive hydrogel, can be used as an effective material for chilling tolerance in film-coated maize seeds.

  17. "On-off" thermoresponsive coating agent containing salicylic acid applied to maize seeds for chilling tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yajing; Li, Zhan; He, Fei; Huang, Yutao; Song, Wenjian; Hu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Chilling stress is an important constraint for maize seed establishment in the field. In this study, a type of "on-off" thermoresponsive coating agent containing poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-butylmethacrylate) (Abbr. P(NIPAm-co-BMA)) hydrogel was developed to improve the chilling tolerance of coated maize seed. The P(NIPAm-co-BMA) hydrogel was synthesized by free-radical polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) and butylmethacrylate (BMA). Salicylic acid (SA) was loaded in the hydrogel as the chilling resistance agent. SA-loaded P(NIPAm-co-BMA) was used for seed film-coating of two maize varieties, Huang C (HC, chilling-tolerant) and Mo17 (chilling-sensitive), to investigate the coated seed germination and seedling growth status under chilling stress. The results showed that the hydrogel obtained a phase transition temperature near 12°C with a NIPAM to MBA weight ratio of 1: 0.1988 (w/w). The temperature of 12°C was considered the "on-off" temperature for chilling-resistant agent release; the SA was released from the hydrogel more rapidly at external temperatures below 12°C than above 12°C. In addition, when seedlings of both maize varieties suffered a short chilling stress (5°C), higher concentrations of SA-loaded hydrogel resulted in increased germination energy, germination percentage, germination index, root length, shoot height, dry weight of roots and shoots and protective enzyme activities and a decreased malondialdehyde content in coated maize seeds compared to single SA treatments. The majority of these physiological and biochemical parameters achieved significant levels compared with the control. Therefore, SA-loaded P(NIPAm-co-BMA), a nontoxic thermoresponsive hydrogel, can be used as an effective material for chilling tolerance in film-coated maize seeds. PMID:25807522

  18. Physiological and biochemical mechanisms of seed priming-induced chilling tolerance in rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saddam eHussain

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice belongs to tropical and subtropical environments and is extremely sensitive to chilling stress particularly during emergence and early stages of seedling development. Seed priming can be a good approach to enhance rice germination and stand establishment under chilling stress. The present study examined the role of different seed priming techniques viz., hydropriming, osmopriming, redox priming, chemical priming, and hormonal priming, in enhancing the chilling tolerance in rice. The most effective reagents and their pre-optimized concentrations based on preliminary experiments were used in this study. Two different rice cultivars were sown under chilling stress (18˚C and normal temperatures (28˚C in separate growth chambers. A non-primed control treatment was also maintained for comparison. Chilling stress caused erratic and delayed germination, poor seedling growth, reduced starch metabolism and lower respiration rate, while higher lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide accumulation in rice seedlings of both cultivars. Nevertheless, all the seed priming treatments effectively alleviated the negative effects of chilling stress. In addition, seed priming treatments triggered the activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase, and enhanced the accumulations of glutathione and free proline in rice seedlings, which suggests that these measures help prevent the rice seedlings from chilling induced oxidative stress. Chemical priming with selenium and hormonal priming with salicylic acid remained more effective treatments for both rice cultivars under chilling stress than all other priming treatments. The better performance and greater tolerance of primed rice seedlings was associated with enhanced starch metabolism, high respiration rate, lower lipid peroxidation, and strong antioxidative defense system under chilling stress.

  19. Information tecnology and its impact on port cargo distribution businness

    OpenAIRE

    Trampus, Francesca

    2002-01-01

    The IT revolution has dynamised the port cargo business: up-to-date software is needed to optimize operations such as vessel loading, yard planning, equipment flow, gate handling, administration and invoicing and it is also essential for vessel tracking, electronic declaration of cargo and passengers and as a communication platform to all port users.

  20. 29 CFR 1917.14 - Stacking of cargo and pallets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stacking of cargo and pallets. 1917.14 Section 1917.14 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... pallets. Cargo, pallets and other material stored in tiers shall be stacked in such a manner as to...

  1. 33 CFR 155.775 - Maximum cargo level of oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum cargo level of oil. 155.775 Section 155.775 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Personnel, Procedures, Equipment, and Records § 155.775 Maximum cargo level of oil. (a) For the purposes...

  2. Integrated Quality Assurance of Chilled Food Fish at Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Marco Thorup; Olsen, Karsten Bæk; Popescu, Valeriu

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the IQAS project is to improve the quality of fresh fish (white fish and flat fish) landed by the Community vessels significantly and to increase the proportion of the fish caught used for food purposes, as well as to improve the on-board working conditions. This will be achieved by......, container labelling and data storage system has been developed to specify the quality of the fish to the buyer at the point of sale by reference to the actual time/temperature history of the fish prior to the sale and to the measurements of length and weight...... specifying and developing safe, efficient, mechanized on-board handling systems enabling the catch to be sorted, gutted, bled, characterized for length and weight, prepared quickly and correctly for rapid chilling and to be stored in appropriate, labelled containers at 0°C until sold. A monitoring, measuring...

  3. Respiratory Response of Dormant Nectarine Floral Buds on Chilling Deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Yue; GAO Dong-sheng; LI Ling; CHEN Xiu-de; XU Ai-hong

    2010-01-01

    Changes in main biochemical respiratory pathways in dormant nectarine floral buds were studied with nectarine trees (Prunus persica.var,nectariana cv.Shuguang) in order to determine the function of respiration in dormancy release.Oxygen-electrode system and respiratory inhibitors were used to measure total respiratory rates and rates of respiratory pathways.Results showed that chilling deficiency blocked the transition of respiratory mode,and made buds stay in a state of high level pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and low level tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA).The decline of PPP and activation of TCA occurred synchronously with the release of dormancy.In addition,the inhibition of PPP stimulated a respiration increase related with TCA.It could be concluded that the function of PPP activation in dormancy release might be limited and PPP declination inducing TCA activation might be part of respiration mode transition mechanism during bud sprouting.

  4. Two-Pipe Chilled Beam System for Both Cooling and Heating of Office Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Afshari, Alireza; Gordnorouzi, Rouzbeh; Hultmark, Göran; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2013-01-01

    Simulations were performed to compare a conventional 4-pipe chilled beam system and a 2-pipe chilled beam system. The objective was to establish requirements, possibilities and limitations for a well-functioning 2-pipe chilled beam system for both cooling and heating of office buildings. The building model had a net volume of 3669 m3, (L*B: 25.5m*11.5 m) and net ceiling height of 2.55 m. The building model was assumed to consist of 78 office rooms, 6 meeting rooms and 5 corridors with a 50% o...

  5. Thermal environment and air quality in office with personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2015-01-01

    The thermal environment and air quality conditions provided with combined system of chilled ceiling and personalized ventilation (PV) were studied in a simulated office room for two occupants. The proposed system was compared with total volume HVAC solutions used today, namely mixing ventilation...... and chilled ceiling combined with mixing ventilation. The objective of the study was to evaluate whether PV can be the only ventilation system in the rooms equipped with chilled ceiling. The room air temperature was 26°C in cases with traditional systems and 28°C when PV was used. PV supplied air with...

  6. Analysis and Evaluation Indicator Selection of Chilling Tolerance of Different Cotton Genotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objectivc] This study aimed to investigate the chilling tolerance of seedlings of different cotton genotypes and screen appropriate indicators for assess- ing chilling tolerance, to establish reliable mathematical evaluation model for chilling tolerance of cotton, thus providing theoretical basis for breeding and promoting new chilling-tolerant cotton germplasms and large-scale evaluation of chilling tolerance of cotton varieties. [Method] Fifteen cotton varieties (lines) were used as experimental materials. The photosynthetic gas exchange parameters, chlorophyll fluorescence ki- netic parameters, chlorophyll content, relative soluble sugar content, malonaldehyde content, relative proiine content, relative conductivity and other 12 physiological indi- cators of seedling leaves under low temperature treatment (5 ℃, 12 h) and recovery treatment (25 ℃. 24 h) were determined; based on the chilling tolerance coefficient (CTC) of various individual indicators, the comprehensive evaluation of chilling toler- ance was conducled by using principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster anal- ysis and stepwise regression analysis. [Result] The results showed that the 12 indi- vidual physiological indicators could be classified into 7 independent comprehensive components by principal component analysis; 15 cotton varieties (lines) were clus- tered into three categories by using membership function method and hierarchical cluster analysis; the mathematical model for evaluating chilling tolerance of cotton seedlings was established: D =0.275 -0.244Fo1 +0.206Fv/Fm1+0.326g,%-0.056SS + 0.225MDA+O.O38REC (FF=0.995), and the evaluation accuracy of the equation was higher than 94.25%,0. Six identification indicators closely related to chilling tolerance were screened, including Fo,, Fv/Fm1, Seedling leaves of cotton varieties (lines) gs2, SS, MDA, and REC. [Conclusion] with high chilling tolerance are less dam- aged under low temperature stress, and are able to maintain

  7. Environmental control of microtubule-based bidirectional cargo-transport

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Sarah; Santen, Ludger

    2014-01-01

    Inside cells, various cargos are transported by teams of molecular motors. Intriguingly, the motors involved generally have opposite pulling directions, and the resulting cargo dynamics is a biased stochastic motion. It is an open question how the cell can control this bias. Here we develop a model which takes explicitly into account the elastic coupling of the cargo with each motor. We show that bias can be simply controlled or even reversed in a counterintuitive manner via a change in the external force exerted on the cargo or a variation of the ATP binding rate to motors. Furthermore, the superdiffusive behavior found at short time scales indicates the emergence of motor cooperation induced by cargo-mediated coupling.

  8. Cryoprotectants protect medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos from chilling injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Jing; Zhou, Guang-Bin; Wang, Yan-Ping; Fu, Xiang-Wei; Zhu, Shi-En

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of six cryoprotectants (dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), glycerol (Gly), methanol (MeOH), ethylene glycol (EG), 1,2-propylene glycol (PG) and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) on the survival of medaka (Oryzias lapites) embryos at low temperatures (0 and -5C). Firstly, the embryos at 8 to 16-cell stages were exposed to different concentrations (1 to 4 mol per L) of DMSO, Gly, MeOH, EG, PG and DMF for 40min at 26C. After removal of the cryoprotectants (CPAs), the embryo survivals were assessed by their development into live fries following 9 day of culture. The results showed that the higher concentration of the CPA, the lower survival of the embryos; and that the toxicity of the six CPAs to medaka embryos is in the order of PG < MeOH = DMSO < Gly < EG < DMF (P < 0.05). Secondly, based on the results obtained above, embryos at 8 to 16-cell stages or other stages were exposed to 2 mol per L of PG, MeOH or DMSO for up to 180 min at 0C and up to 80 min at -5C respectively. The 8 to 16-cell embryos treated with MeOH at low temperatures showed highest survival. Thirdly, when embryos at different stages were treated with 2 mol per L of MeOH at -5C for 60 min, 16-somite stage embryos showed highest survival, followed by 4-somite, neurula, 50 percent epiboly, blastula, 32-cell and 8 to 16-cell embryos. These results demonstrated that PG had the lowest toxicity to medaka embryos among the six permeable CPAs at 26C, whereas MeOH showed highest cryoprotective efficiency under chilling conditions and chilling injury decreased gradually with the development of medaka embryos. PMID:22576114

  9. Fatalities to occupants of cargo areas of pickup trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C L; Agran, P F; Winn, D G; Greenland, S

    2000-07-01

    We sought to describe the fatalities to occupants of pickup truck cargo areas and to compare the mortality of cargo area occupants to passengers in the cab. From the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) files for 1987-1996, we identified occupants of pickup trucks with at least one fatality and at least one passenger in the cargo area. Outcomes of cargo area occupants and passengers in the cab were compared using estimating equations conditional on the crash and vehicle. Thirty-four percent of deaths to cargo occupants were in noncrash events without vehicle deformation. Fifty-five percent of those who died were age 15-29 years and 79% were male. The fatality risk ratio (FRR) comparing cargo area occupants to front seat occupants was 3.0 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 2.7-3.4). The risk was 7.9 (95% CI = 6.2-10.1) times that of restrained front seat occupants. The FRR ranged from 92 (95% CI = 47-179) in noncrash events to 1.7 (95% CI = 1.5-1.9) in crashes with severe vehicle deformation. The FRR was 1.8 (95% CI = 1.4-2.3) for occupants of enclosed cargo areas and 3.5 (95% CI = 3.1-4.0) for occupants of open cargo areas. We conclude that passengers in cargo areas of pickup trucks have a higher risk of death than front seat occupants, especially in noncrash events, and that camper shells offer only limited protection for cargo area occupants. PMID:10868756

  10. 49 CFR 1546.213 - Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for...: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the United States. This section applies in the United...— (1) Each individual must successfully complete a security threat assessment or comparable...

  11. 49 CFR 1548.15 - Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for individuals having unescorted access to cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for... SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY INDIRECT AIR CARRIER SECURITY § 1548.15 Access to cargo: Security threat... must successfully complete a security threat assessment or comparable security threat...

  12. Transporting "exceptional cargo" on the CERN sites

    CERN Multimedia

    EN Department

    2012-01-01

    When the Transport Service is managing "exceptional cargo", the driver and the escort are often in charge of an operation involving equipment worth many hundred thousand francs. Equipment that may well be irreplaceable for a facility or an experiment.   The members of the Transport Service who carry out these tasks are very professional and are – needless to say – highly concentrated on the job. They count on your understanding and support in the traffic on site. Their convoys are – for good reasons – moving slowly. Kindly do not overtake, do not cut in in front of them and do not drive too closely. Respect the escort and do not position yourself between the truck and the escort vehicles. The EN department counts on your courtesy on the road.  

  13. A Liquid Cargo Handling Training Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvin Villabø

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a computer-based, real-time training simulator for liquid cargo handling. The mathematical model description is modular and emphasizes the flow generating part. The flow model applies network theory to describe the logical piping connections and the overall flow system performance, while Bernoulli's equation is used for the description of the piping elements. Numerically the Newton-Raphson method is applied for computation of the non-linear flow model. The programming language is HP-FORTRAN IV and the simulator is implemented on an HP minicomputer system. The instructor part of the system is interactive and controlled by the use of a standard ASCII terminal. The simulation part of the system is running in real-time or scaled real-time, and is controlled from the trainee's panel.

  14. Neutrino oscillation provides clues to dark matter and signals from the chilled universe

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The new verification that oscillations exists and neutrinos have mass though not detectible easy provides the first clue to extra dimensions, dark matter, hyperspace and chilled universe acting as a platform below it. (1/2 page)

  15. Aesthetic Chills: Knowledge-Acquisition, Meaning-Making, and Aesthetic Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeller, Felix; Perlovsky, Leonid

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the relation between aesthetic emotions, knowledge-acquisition, and meaning-making. We briefly review theoretical foundations and present experimental data related to aesthetic chills. These results suggest that aesthetic chills are inhibited by exposing the subject to an incoherent prime prior to the chill-eliciting stimulation and that a meaningful prime makes the aesthetic experience more pleasurable than a neutral or an incoherent one. Aesthetic chills induced by narrative structures seem to be related to the pinnacle of the story, to have a significant calming effect and subjects describe a strong empathy for the characters. We discuss the relation between meaning-making and aesthetic emotions at the psychological, physiological, narratological, and mathematical levels and propose a series of hypotheses to be tested in future research. PMID:27540366

  16. Human response to individually controlled micro environment generated with localized chilled beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uth, Simon C.; Nygaard, Linette; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov;

    2014-01-01

    Indoor environment in a single-office room created by a localised chilled beam with individual control of the primary air flow was studied. Response of 24 human subjects when exposed to the environment generated by the chilled beam was collected via questionnaires under a 2-hour exposure including...... different work tasks at three locations in the room. Response of the subjects to the environment generated with a chilled ceiling combined with mixing air distribution was used for comparison. The air temperature in the room was kept at 26 or 28 °C. Results show no significant difference in the overall and...... local thermal sensation reported by the subjects with the two systems. Both systems were equally acceptable. At 26°C the individual control of the localised chilled beam lead to higher acceptability of the work environment. At 28°C the acceptability decreased with the two systems. It was not acceptable...

  17. Process for nondestructively testing with radioactive gas using a chill set sealant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An article surface is nondestructively tested for substantially invisible surface voids by absorbing a radioactive gas thereon. The adsorbed radioactive gas is disproportionately retained on those surfaces presented by the substantially invisible surface voids as compared to the remaining surfaces of the article contacted by the radioactive gas. The radiation released by the radioactive gas remaining adsorbed is used to identify the substantially invisible voids. To immobilize the radioactive gas adjacent or within the surface voids, a sealant composition is provided which is capable of being chill set. The temperatures of the article surface to be tested and the sealant composition are then related so that the article surface is at a temperature below the chill set temperature of the sealant composition and the sealant composition is at a temperature above its chill set temperature. The article portion to be tested is then coated with sealant composition to form a chill set coating thereon of substantially uniform thickness. (U.S.)

  18. Mapping quantitative trait loci associated with chilling requirement, heat requirement and bloom date in peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shenghua; Bielenberg, Douglas G; Zhebentyayeva, Tetyana N; Reighard, Gregory L; Okie, William R; Holland, Doron; Abbott, Albert G

    2010-03-01

    *Chilling requirement, together with heat requirement, determines the bloom date, which has an impact on the climatic distribution of the genotypes of tree species. The molecular basis of floral bud chilling requirement is poorly understood, despite its importance to the adaptation and production of fruit trees. In addition, the genetic nature of heat requirement and the genetic interrelationships among chilling requirement, heat requirement and bloom date remain unclear. *A peach (Prunus persica) F(2) population of 378 genotypes developed from two genotypes with contrasting chilling requirements was used for linkage map construction and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. The floral bud chilling and heat requirements of each genotype were evaluated over 2 yr and the bloom date was scored over 4 yr. *Twenty QTLs with additive effects were identified for three traits, including one major QTL for chilling requirement and two major QTLs for bloom date. The majority of QTLs colocalized with QTLs for other trait(s). In particular, one genomic region of 2 cM, pleiotropic for the three traits, overlapped with the sequenced peach EVG region. *This first report on the QTL mapping of floral bud chilling requirement will facilitate marker-assisted breeding for low chilling requirement cultivars and the map-based cloning of genes controlling chilling requirement. The extensive colocalization of QTLs suggests that there may be one unified temperature sensing and action system regulating chilling requirement, heat requirement and bloom date together. PMID:20028471

  19. Effect of heat shock on the chilling sensitivity of trichomes and petioles of African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltveit, Mikal E.; Hepler, Peter K.

    2004-05-01

    Chilling at 6 degrees C caused an immediate cessation of protoplasmic streaming in trichomes from African violets (Saintpaulia ionantha), and a slower aggregation of chloroplasts in the cells. Streaming slowly recovered upon warming to 20 degrees C, reaching fairly stable rates after 4, 15, 25 and 35 min for tissue chilled for 2 min and for 2, 14 and 24 h, respectively. The rate of ion leakage from excised petioles into an isotonic 0.2 M mannitol solution increased after 12 h of chilling and reached a maximum after 3 days of chilling. A heat shock at 45 degrees C for 6 min reduced chilling-induced rates of ion leakage from excised 1-cm petiole segments by over 50%, namely to levels near that from non-chilled control tissue. Heat-shock treatments themselves had no effect on the rate of ion leakage from non-chilled petiole segments. Protoplasmic streaming was stopped by 1 min of heat shock at 45 degrees C, but slowly recovered to normal levels after about 30 min Chloroplasts aggregation was prevented by a 1 or 2 min 45 degrees C heat-shock treatment administered 1.5 h before chilling, but heat-shock treatments up to 6 min only slightly delayed the reduction in protoplasmic streaming caused by chilling. Tradescantia virginiana did not exhibit symptoms associated with chilling injury in sensitive species (i.e. cessation of protoplasmic streaming in stamen hairs and increased ion leakage from leaf tissue). PMID:15086815

  20. Injuries to occupants in cargo areas of pickup trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agran, P; Winn, D; Anderson, C

    1994-11-01

    Transporting passengers in the cargo area of pickup trucks is a public health safety issue in the United States. Our study compared crashes involving passengers in the cargo area with those involving passengers in the cab. We obtained data for all injury events of pickup occupants for 1990 from the California Highway Patrol. A total of 702 traffic reports coded as having passengers riding in pickup truck beds involved 1,685 passengers in the cargo area and 865 in the cab. Significantly more events involving passengers in the cargo area occurred in summer in rural areas and were noncollisions than did events with only cab passengers. Crashes with passengers in the cargo area resulted in death in 5% of passengers. Of the drivers, 81% were male and 22% were younger than 20 years. Among the 1,685 passengers in the cargo area, 65% were male, 36% were younger than 15 years, and 30% were ages 15 to 19 years. Passengers in the cargo area were more frequently ejected and more seriously injured than their counterparts in the cab. Legislation to restrict travel in truck beds and the design of restraints for this area are some measures that may reduce the risk of injury. PMID:7810125

  1. Self-optimizing Control of Cooling Tower for Efficient Operation of Chilled Water Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiao; Li, Yaoyu; Seem, John E.; Li, Pengfei

    2012-01-01

    The chilled-water systems, mainly consisting of electric chillers and cooling towers, are crucial for the ventilating and air conditioning systems in commercial buildings. Energy efficient operation of such systems is thus important for the energy saving of commercial buildings. This paper presents an extremum seeking control (ESC) scheme for energy efficient operation of the chilled-water system, and presents a Modelica based dynamic simulation model for demonstrating the effectiveness of th...

  2. Exploring Aesthetic Chill Parameters and their Associations with Demographic, Lifestyle and Personality Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Hobbel, Sabine Hobbel

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation reviews the literature on individual differences associated with the experience of Aesthetic Chills, and reports a large questionnaire study, completed by 46 international students. Ordinal logistic regressions confirmed previously reported significant and positive relations between Openness and the frequency of Aesthetic Chills in poetry and music (McCrae 2007; Kunkel, Pramstaller, Grant, & von Georgi, 2008). Prior reported correlations between the frequency of Aesthetic Ch...

  3. The effect of lethal doses of X-rays on chilled and thyroidectomized animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempelmann, L.H.; Trujillo, T.T.; Knowlton, N.P. Jr.

    1949-04-19

    The chilling of animals has been shown to offer some protection from the lethal effects of radiation. An effort has been made to extend the study of the effects of chilling on the lethal effects of x radiation and to determine whether or not the lowering of the basal metabolic rate by thyroidectomy will give similar protection. Five experiments were carried out using mice and rats as the experimental animals.

  4. Developmental stages of cultivated strawberry flowers in relation to chilling sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Ariza, Maria Teresa; Soria, Carmen; Martínez-Ferri, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors affecting flower development may limit the yields of fruiting crops worldwide. In temperate regions, chilling temperatures during flower development can compromise fruit production, but their negative effects vary depending on the differing susceptibilities of each developmental stage. The cultivated strawberry (Fragaria× ananassa Duch.) is widely grown worldwide but financial returns are influenced by sudden shifts to chilling temperatures occurring during the cropping ...

  5. Dorsoventral variations in dark chilling effects on photosynthesis and stomatal function in Paspalum dilatatum leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Soares-Cordeiro, Ana Sofia; Driscoll, Simon P.; Arrabaça, Maria Celeste; Foyer, Christine H.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of dark chilling on the leaf-side-specific regulation of photosynthesis were characterized in the C4 grass Paspalum dilatatum. CO2- and light-response curves for photosynthesis and associated parameters were measured on whole leaves and on each leaf side independently under adaxial and abaxial illumination before and after plants were exposed to dark chilling for one or two consecutive nights. The stomata closed on the adaxial sides of the leaves under abaxial illumination and no ...

  6. Preparation and characterization of microparticles of piroxicam by spray drying and spray chilling methods

    OpenAIRE

    Dixit, M.; Kini, A.G.; Kulkarni, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    Piroxicam, an anti-inflammatory drug, exhibits poor water solubility and flow properties, poor dissolution and poor wetting. Consequently, the aim of this study was to improve the dissolution of piroxicam. Microparticles containing piroxicam were produced by spray drying, using isopropyl alcohol and water in the ratio of 40:60 v/v as solvent system, and spray chilling technology by melting the drug and chilling it with a pneumatic nozzle to enhance dissolution rate. The prepared formulations ...

  7. Effect of LaCI3 on the chilling tolerance of rice seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIMeiru; LIUHongxian; WANGYirou

    1997-01-01

    The rice variety Tesanai 2 is susceptible to chilling. Exposure of the seedlings grown at 28±1℃ and under a photo flux density(PFD) of 30 μmol/m2s to 1℃ and under a PFD of 150μmol/m2s for 2 d caused a physiological disorder called chilling injury which reduced the survival rate to 50%.

  8. Effects of watertable and fertilizer management on susceptibility of tomato fruit to chilling injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a 2-year study (1993-1994), 'New Yorker' tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants grown in field lysimeters were subjected to four water table depth (WTD) treatments (0.3, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 m from the soil surface) factorially combined with 5 potassium/calcium fertilization combinations. Mature-green fruit from four replicates of each treatment were stored at 5C for 21 days, and fruit color was monitored with a tristimulus colorimeter. Fruit were subsequently allowed to ripen at 20C for 10 days, at which time chilling injury was assessed on the basis of delayed ripening and area of lesions. Potassium and calcium applied in the field had no effect on chilling tolerance of the fruit. In the drier year (1993), shallower WTD treatments generally yielded fruit that changed color less during chilling and were more chilling-sensitive based on delayed ripening. In the wetter year, differences in color change and chilling tolerance between WTD, if any, were small. Over both years, lesion area varied with WTD, but not in a consistent manner. Based on these results, we suggest that differences in water availability should be considered when studying tomato fruit chilling

  9. Improving chill control in iron powder treated slightly hypereutectic grey cast irons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Riposan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies revealed that in eutectic to slightly hypereutectic grey irons (CE = 4.3%-4.5% the presence of austenite dendrites provides an opportunity to improve the cast iron properties, as a high number of eutectic cells are “reinforced” by austenite dendrites. An iron powder addition proved to be important by promoting dendritic austenite in hypereutectic irons, but was accompanied by adverse effect on the characteristics of potential nuclei for graphite. The purpose of the present paper is to investigate the solidification pattern of these irons. Chill wedges with different cooling moduli (CM = 0.11 – 0.43 cm were poured in resin bonded sand and metal moulds. Relative clear / mottled / total chill measurement criteria were applied. Iron powder additions led to a higher chill tendency, while single inoculation showed the strongest graphitizing effect. The various double treatments show an intermediate position, but the inoculant added after iron powder appears to be the most effective in reducing base iron chill tendency, for all cooling moduli and chill evaluation parameters. This performance reflects the improved properties of (Mn,XS polygonal compounds as nucleation sites for graphite, especially in resin bonded sand mould castings. Both austenite and graphite nucleation benefit from a double addition of iron powder + inoculant, with positive effect on the final structure and chill tendency.

  10. Technical and economic evaluation of advanced air cargo system concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews NASA air cargo market studies, reports on NASA and NASA-sponsored studies of advanced freighter concepts, and identifies the opportunities for the application of advanced technology. The air cargo market is studied to evaluate the timing for, and the potential market response to, advanced technology aircraft. The degree of elasticity in future air freight markets is also being investigated, since the demand for a new aircraft is most favorable in a price-sensitive environment. Aircraft design studies are considered with attention to mission and design requirements, incorporation of advanced technologies in transport aircraft, new cargo aircraft concepts, advanced freighter evaluation, and civil-military design commonality.

  11. 19 CFR 122.117 - Requirements for transit air cargo transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for transit air cargo transport. 122... Requirements for transit air cargo transport. (a) Transportation—(1) Port to port. Transit air cargo may be... cargo, a receipt shall be given. The receipt shall be made by the airline responsible for transport...

  12. 46 CFR 153.436 - Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo. 153.436... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.436 Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo. A heat transfer fluid separated from the cargo by only one wall (for example, the heat transfer fluid in a...

  13. 46 CFR 153.371 - Minimum relief valve setting for refrigerated cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum relief valve setting for refrigerated cargo... Design and Equipment Cargo Venting Systems § 153.371 Minimum relief valve setting for refrigerated cargo tanks. The relief valve setting for a containment system that carries a refrigerated cargo must at...

  14. 46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a... vapor pressure described in § 153.371(b); or (2) An alarm that operates when the cargo's...

  15. 46 CFR 154.707 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: Ventilation. 154.707 Section 154.707 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES... Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.707 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Ventilation. (a)...

  16. 46 CFR 98.25-55 - Cargo piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... piping by means of seamless steel pipe expansion bends. Special consideration will be given for packless... Cargo piping. (a) Piping shall be of seamless steel meeting the requirements of § 56.60-1 of...

  17. Bidirectionality From Cargo Thermal Fluctuations in Motor-Mediated Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Miles, Christopher E

    2016-01-01

    Molecular motor proteins serve as an essential component of intracellular transport by generating forces to haul cargoes along cytoskeletal filaments. In some circumstances, two species of motors that are directed oppositely (e.g. kinesin, dynein) can be attached to the same cargo. The resulting net motion is known to be bidirectional, but the mechanism of switching remains unclear. In this work, we propose a mean-field mathematical model of the mechanical interactions of two populations of molecular motors with diffusion of the cargo (thermal fluctuations) as the fundamental noise source. By studying a simplified model, the delayed response of motors to rapid fluctuations in the cargo is quantified, allowing for the reduction of the full model to two "characteristic positions" of each of the motor populations. The system is then found to be "metastable", switching between two distinct directional transport states, or bidirectional motion. The time to switch between these states is then investigated using WKB...

  18. 46 CFR 98.25-80 - Cargo hose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... rubber or other hose material acceptable to the Commandant, shall be fitted to the liquid or vapor lines... valve. (d) Before being placed in service, each new cargo hose, with all necessary fittings...

  19. Stochastic modeling of cargo transport by teams of molecular motors

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Sarah; Santen, Ludger

    2014-01-01

    Many different types of cellular cargos are transported bidirectionally along microtubules by teams of molecular motors. The motion of this cargo-motors system has been experimentally characterized in vivo as processive with rather persistent directionality. Different theoretical approaches have been suggested in order to explore the origin of this kind of motion. An effective theoretical approach, introduced by M\\"uller et al., describes the cargo dynamics as a tug-of-war between different kinds of motors. An alternative approach has been suggested recently by Kunwar et al., who considered the coupling between motor and cargo in more detail. Based on this framework we introduce a model considering single motor positions which we propagate in continuous time. Furthermore, we analyze the possible influence of the discrete time update schemes used in previous publications on the system's dynamic.

  20. Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) Cargo Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampiceni, John J.; Harper, Lon T.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the New Shuttle Orbiter's Multi- Purpose Logistics Modulo (MPLM) Cargo Heat Exchanger (HX) and associated MPLM cooling system. This paper presents Heat Exchanger (HX) design and performance characteristics of the system.

  1. Bidirectional cargo transport: Moving beyond tug-of-war

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, William O.

    2016-01-01

    Preface Vesicles, organelles and other intracellular cargo are transported by kinesin and dynein motors, which move in opposite directions along microtubules. This bidirectional cargo movement is frequently described as a “tug-of-war” between oppositely-directed motors attached to the same cargo. However, although many experimental and modeling studies support the tug-of-war paradigm, numerous knockout and inhibition studies in a variety of systems have found that inhibiting one motor leads to diminished motility in both directions, which is a “paradox of codependence” that challenges it. In an effort to resolve this paradox, three classes of bidirectional transport models, termed microtubule tethering, mechanical activation, and steric disinhibition, are proposed and a general mathematical modeling framework for bidirectional cargo transport is put forward to guide future experiments. PMID:25118718

  2. 33 CFR 157.134 - Cargo tank drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.134 Cargo...

  3. Aggregating Secondary Source Data for Air Cargo Prescreening Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to improve the effectiveness of air cargo prescreening by enabling background knowledge about companies and products to be used for threat assessment....

  4. Running Club Warm Up Staves Off Winter's Chill

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Not deterred by winter's chill, over 900 runners met at the CERN Prévesin site for Escalade training. Think the sudden cold snap is a reason to stay indoors? Think again! The CERN running club has just recently had the honour of holding the November 11th Escalade training session, and with over 900 runners present at the Prévessin site it was clear that the chilly temperatures were no barrier whatsoever. The story behind Escalade training starts back in 1977 when a group of running enthusiasts from the Stade Genève club decided to organize a running race in the Old Town in conjunction with the Escalade festivities. They were told that no normal people would think of organizing a running race in the month of December, but fortunately they ignored the advice! From the initial 50 or so runners, these Escalade races have grown into an institution and now attract upwards of 15,000 people of all ages from 5 to over 80 each year. And with over 30% of each year's runners participat...

  5. Start of the big chill for the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The cooling of Sector 7-8 of the LHC, the first to undergo the process, is under way to the 1.9 K necessary for superconductivity. During the night of 14 to 15 March, an important milestone was reached when the entire sector was cooled to 4.5 K, the temperature of liquid helium. The two graphs above show the progression of cooling in Sector 7-8. The first gives the status of the sector on Tuesday 6 March at 4:00 pm, the second on Wednesday 7 March at 10:00 am. Each square represents a magnet.It's the start of the big chill for the LHC. Since the middle of January, the teams from the Accelerator Cryogenics group have been working to cool down the first sector of the machine. Three kilometres of magnets between Point 7 (Ferney-Voltaire) and Point 8 (Prévessin) are to be cooled to 1.9 Kelvin (-271°C), colder than outer space. The first step in the process was to cool the sector to 80 K. Following mechanical and electrical integrity tests at this temperature, it was then further cooled to 20 K for additional e...

  6. The Cargo Tray Industry in India – A Market Research

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Martin; Ohlsson, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Title: The Cargo Tray Industry in India – A Market Research Authors: Martin Eriksson and Tobias Ohlsson Supervisor: Cecilia Lindh University: University of MälardalenDepartment: School of Sustainable Development of Society and TechnologyCourse: Bachelor thesis in Business Administration, 15 credits Research question: Is the Indian cargo tray industry a promising place for Autoform to make futureinvestments? Target group: The primary target is Autoform. The secondary target group is other cara...

  7. CARGO INSURANCE. TOTAL LOSS UNDER NORWEGIAN, ENGLISH AND RUSSIAN LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Evstigneeva, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    This Master Thesis was created because of great personal interest towards marine insurance as such ans cargo insurance in particular. The purpose of this work is to give a proper overview of three legal fields - Norwegian, English and Russian Law. Cargo insurance is of no doubts tremendously important nowadays. How often do people consider where the goods they use daily are coming from? Some tea from India, a new phone form Japan, household appliances from Germany. All these goods were made l...

  8. Three-dimensional container and cargo inspection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumer, Tumay O.; Su, Chih-Wu; Baritelle, J.; Rhoton, B.

    1997-02-01

    A fusion of two independent but complementary three- dimensional imaging techniques is proposed for detecting drugs in containers, cargo, mail and luggage. The containers, cargo, mail and/or luggage are scanned using a combined neutron and gamma ray source. A detector that can detect both neutrons and gamma rays is used to produce three dimensional images from both signals. The two images will be combined and analyzed by a fast host computer to detect drugs that may be concealed in the container, cargo and/or luggage. The two independent signatures from both neutrons and gamma rays, when analyzed simultaneously, may help determine the type of concealed material inside the containers. Containers, cargo and luggage are filled with a large variety of materials. Imaging them only in two dimensions may result in a poor contraband detection probability as different materials may shield each other. Therefore, a true three-dimensional imaging system is proposed, where the individual items inside the container or cargo can be resolved. This is expected to lead to reliable identification of the drugs even in small quantities. Such a system will also pinpoint the location of the suspected item and help expedite inspection by law enforcement agents. The proposed detection system produces two complementary three- dimensional images of the containers, cargo and/or luggage. These images are combined and analyzed by a specially developed algorithm to identify and locate the contraband automatically.

  9. Influence of mist-chilling on post-harvest quality of fresh strawberries Cv. Mara des Bois and Gariguette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allais, Irene [Cemagref, UMR Genial, 24, avenue des Landais B.P. 50085, 63172 Aubiere Cedex (France); Letang, Guy [Cemagref, UMR Genial, Parc de Tourvoie, B.P. 44, 92163 Antony Cedex (France)

    2009-09-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of mist-chilling on high-grade strawberry post-harvest quality (Cultivars ''Gariguette'' and ''Mara des Bois''). Strawberries were chilled at 2 C using three processes: air blast chilling at 0.3 m s{sup -1} or 1 m s{sup -1} and mist-chilling at 1 m s{sup -1}. After chilling, fruits were submitted to different distribution chains characterised by different handling conditions and storage temperatures (2 C or 7 C) and by a 12 h retailing step at 20 C. Strawberry quality was assessed by measuring 7 parameters: weight loss, commercial loss, firmness, sugar content, acidity, colour and sensory quality. Compared to air-chilling, mist-chilling did not reduce chilling time but it reduced weight loss by 20-40%. Mist-chilling had no detrimental effect on commercial loss defined as the percentage of fruit more than 1/3 of surface affected. It did not induce any major changes on strawberry quality. Temperature fluctuations undergone during cold storage and retailing had a detrimental effect on weight loss. The beneficial effect of packaging on weight loss was confirmed. (author)

  10. Genome-wide association analysis of ten chilling tolerance indices at the germination and seedling stages in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Juan; Zhang, Jianhua; Li, Wenzhen; Hu, Wei; Duan, Lichao; Feng, Yang; Qiu, Fazhan; Yue, Bing

    2013-08-01

    Maize seedlings are very sensitive to chilling, especially during the transition phase from heterotrophic to autotrophic growth. Genetic dissection of the genetic basis of chilling tolerance would provide useful information for genetic improvement of maize inbreds. In this study, genome-wide association analysis was conducted to explore the genetic architecture of maize chilling tolerance at the seed germination and seedling stages with an association panel of 125 inbreds. Ten tolerance indices (ratios of the performance of 10 germination rates and seedling growth-related traits under chilling stress and control conditions) were investigated to assess the ability of chilling tolerance of the inbreds, and a total of 43 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with chilling tolerance were detected, with none of them being related to chilling tolerance at both the germination and seedling stages simultaneously. Correlation analysis also revealed that the genetic basis of chilling tolerance at the seed germination stage is generally different from that at the seedling stage. In addition, a total of 40 candidate genes involving 31 of the 43 single nucleotide polymorphisms were predicted, and were grouped into five categories according to their functions. The possible roles of these candidate genes in chilling tolerance were also discussed. PMID:23551400

  11. Why do insects enter chill coma? Low temperature and high extracellular potassium compromises muscle function in Locusta migratoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Findsen, Anders; Pedersen, Thomas Holm; Nielsen, Ole Bækgaard;

    Many insect species enter a comatose state when their body temperature is lowered to a critical limit (critical thermal minimum) but the physiological and cellular processes that underlie chill coma are still unresolved. Several studies have demonstrated that transition into chill-coma involves a...... disruption of neuro-muscular performance. It has also been shown that ion homeostasis (particularly extracellular [K+]) is disrupted during chill coma. Neuro-muscular failure associated with chill coma is therefore likely to be caused by direct effects of reduced temperature as well as indirect, force-depressing...

  12. Genome-wide Association Analysis of Ten Chilling Tolerance Indices at the Germination and Seedling Stages in Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Huang; Jianhua Zhang; Wenzhen Li; Wei Hu; Lichao Duan; Yang Feng; Fazhan Qiu

    2013-01-01

    Maize seedlings are very sensitive to chilling,especially during the transition phase from heterotrophic to autotrophic growth.Genetic dissection of the genetic basis of chilling tolerance would provide useful information for genetic improvement of maize inbreds.In this study,genome-wide association analysis was conducted to explore the genetic architecture of maize chilling tolerance at the seed germination and seedling stages with an association panel of 125 inbreds.Ten tolerance indices (ratios of the performance of 10 germination rates and seedling growth-related traits under chilling stress and control conditions)were investigated to assess the ability of chilling tolerance of the inbreds,and a total of 43 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with chilling tolerance were detected,with none of them being related to chilling tolerance at both the germination and seedling stages simultaneously.Correlation analysis also revealed that the genetic basis of chilling tolerance at the seed germination stage is generally different from that at the seedling stage.In addition,a total of 40 candidate genes involving 31 of the 43 single nucleotide polymorphisms were predicted,and were grouped into five categories according to their functions.The possible roles of these candidate genes in chilling tolerance were also discussed.

  13. Study of a Two-Pipe Chilled Beam System for both Cooling and Heating of Office Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordnorouzi, Rouzbeh; Hultmark, Göran; Afshari, Alireza;

    Active chilled beam systems are used to provide heating and cooling in order to achieve comfortable thermal indoor climate. For heating and cooling applications, an active chilled beam has two water circuits comprising four pipes that supply warm and cold water respectively to the beam coil...... according to the space demand. Lindab Comfort A/S has introduced an active chilled beam system which has just one water circuit (two pipes) that is used for both heating and cooling. The concept is based on high temperature cooling and low temperature heating. In this study the energy saving potential of...... the new two-pipe active chilled beam system is investigated....

  14. Performance evaluation of solar-assisted air-conditioning system with chilled water storage (CIESOL building)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We present a new solar-assisted air-conditioning system’s operation sequence. ► This mode considers the chilled water tanks action with variable-speed pump. ► It permits to save about 20% and 30% of energy and water consumption, respectively. ► It allows storing the excess cooling capacity of the absorption chiller. ► It prevents the sudden start/stop (on/off cycles) of the absorption chiller. - Abstract: This study presents the performance of solar-assisted air-conditioning system with two chilled water storage tanks installed in the Solar Energy Research Center building. The system consists mainly of solar collectors’ array, a hot-water driven absorption chiller, a cooling tower, two hot storage tanks, an auxiliary heater as well as two chilled storage tanks. The chilled water storage tank circuit was further investigated in order to find the optimum solar system’s operation sequence while providing the best energy performance. Firstly, we carried out a study about the dynamics of building’s cooling load and the necessity of the integration of chilled water storage tanks to solar system. Subsequently, the new system’s operation mode was proposed to reduce the energy consumption. The results demonstrate that we can save about 20% of the total energy consumption and about 30% of water consumption applying the new operation sequence, which takes into account the chilled water tanks action. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the integration of chilled water storage tanks allows to reduce the sudden absorption chiller on/off cycles, thereby improving the efficiency of the solar-assisted system.

  15. Chilling rate effects on pork loin tenderness in commercial processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, S D; King, D A; Wheeler, T L

    2012-08-01

    The present experiment was conducted to provide a large-scale objective comparison of pork LM tenderness and other meat quality traits among packing plants that differ in stunning method and carcass chilling rate. For each of 2 replicates, pigs were sourced from a single barn of a commercial finishing operation that fed pigs from a single terminal crossbred line. On each day, 3 trucks were loaded, with each of those trucks delivering the pigs to a different plant. Plant A used CO(2) stunning and conventional spray chilling; Plant B used CO(2) stunning and blast chilling; and Plant C used electrical stunning and blast chilling. The boneless, vacuum-packaged loin was obtained from the left side of each carcass (n = 597; 100 · plant(-1) · replicate(-1)). As designed, HCW, LM depth, and LM intramuscular fat percentage did not differ among plants (P > 0.05). By 1.67 h postmortem (1 h after the carcasses exited the harvest floor), the average deep LM temperature was >10°C warmer for Plant A than Plants B and C (32.1°C, 21.6°C, and 19.3°C, for Plants A, B, and C, respectively) and deep LM temperature continued to be >10°C warmer for Plant A until 4.17 h or 6.33 h postmortem than for Plants C and B, respectively. Both plants that used blast chilling produced loins with greater LM slice shear force at 15 d postmortem than did the plant that used conventional spray chilling (P 25 kg) LM slice shear force values was greater for Plant B than Plant A (14.7% vs. 1%; P electrical stunning (P < 0.05). This research shows that differences in chilling systems among pork packing plants can have a strong influence on loin chop tenderness. PMID:22307481

  16. Chill unit accumulation and necessity of rest breaking agents in South African table grape production regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avenant Eunice

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of table grapes in warm regions of South Africa is complicated by problems associated with delayed and uneven bud break. Rest breaking agents, mainly hydrogen cyanamide, are applied to overcome these problems. The chill unit accumulation of the five major table grape production regions in South Africa was compared with the minimum chilling required to obtain a high bud break percentage (>80% and even bud break, defined as 200 hours between 0 and 10 ∘C, or 400 hours at 3 ∘C. The effect of chilling accumulation (0, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 hours at 3 ∘C on bud break of dormant cuttings of three table grape cultivars was investigated in controlled studies in a glass house over a three year period. Cuttings used in the study were collected from commercial vineyards in Saron in the Berg River Valley (representing a warm region and the Hex River Valley (representing a cool region. Sultanina and Sugraone cuttings from Saron required at least 200 hours at 3 ∘C to obtain a final bud break % of 80%+. A final bud break % of 80%+ was obtained with all Sultanina cuttings from Hex River Valley. Treatments receiving 400 and 800 hours at 3 ∘C, showed the most rapid rate of bud break. Prime cuttings collected from Saron, receiving 0, 50, 100 and 400 hours at 3 ∘C, showed a more rapid bud break process, as well as a higher final bud break % compared to Sugraone and Sultanina. It seems as if Prime has a lower chilling requirement than the other two cultivars. The model of Dokoozlian for quantifying chilling status is applicable to Saron and the Hex River Valley. The necessity of using rest breaking chemicals in the Saron area, for obtaining a high bud break % and even bud break, was confirmed. The Hex River Valley receives sufficient chilling temperatures to obtain a high bud break %, but rest breaking chemicals can be used to obtain more even bud break. The use of hydrogen cyanamide for improved and even bud break is a general

  17. Rapid detection of total viable count of chilled pork using hyperspectral scattering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yankun; Tao, Feifei; Li, Yongyu; Wang, Wei; Chen, Jingjing; Wu, Jianhu; Dhakal, Sagar

    2010-04-01

    A rapid nondestructive measurement method for determining the total viable count of chilled pork was studied. Chilled pork samples were purchased from supermarket and then stored in refrigerator at 4°C. Every 24 hours, hyperspectral images were collected from the chilled pork samples in 400-1100nm region, in parallel total viable counts were obtained by classical microbiological plating methods. The 3-parameter modified lorentzian distribution function was applied to fit the scattering profiles of all samples and the fitting results were satisfactorily high in region 470-943 nm. Then the parameters extracted were used to establish PLSR models. The prediction results for the parameter a, b, c, b×c are 0.945, 0.918, 0.919, 0.935 respectively. The study show that the hyperspectral technology can accurately tracks the increase of total viable count of chilled pork during 2-14 days storage at 4°C, and so indicate it a valid tool for assessing the quality and safety properties of chilled pork rapidly and nondestructively in the future.

  18. Quantitative Phosphoproteomics Reveals Signaling Mechanisms Associated with Rapid Cold Hardening in a Chill-Tolerant Fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teets, Nicholas M; Denlinger, David L

    2016-08-01

    Rapid cold hardening (RCH) is a physiological adaptation in which brief chilling (minutes to hours) significantly enhances the cold tolerance of insects. RCH allows insects to cope with sudden cold snaps and diurnal variation in temperature, but the mechanistic basis of this rapid stress response is poorly understood. Here, we used phosphoproteomics to identify phosphorylation-mediated signaling events that are regulated by chilling that induces RCH. Phosphoproteomic changes were measured in both brain and fat bodies, two tissues that are essential for sensing cold and coordinating RCH at the organismal level. Tissues were chilled ex vivo, and changes in phosphoprotein abundance were measured using 2D electrophoresis coupled with Pro-Q diamond labeling of phosphoproteins followed by protein identification via LC-MS/MS. In both tissues, we observed an abundance of protein phosphorylation events in response to chilling. Some of the proteins regulated by RCH-inducing chilling include proteins involved in cytoskeletal reorganization, heat shock proteins, and proteins involved in the degradation of damaged cellular components via the proteasome and autophagosome. Our results suggest that phosphorylation-mediated signaling cascades are major drivers of RCH and enhance our mechanistic understanding of this complex phenotype. PMID:27362561

  19. Effect of Polyamine Priming on Chilling Tolerance of Lolium perenne during Seed Imbibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingfen WANG; Puchang WANG; Jiahai WU; Lili ZHAO; Bentian MO; Jun LI

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to investigate the effect of potyamine priming on physiological and biochemical variations of Lolium perenne embryos and seed germination. [Method] With annual Lolium perenne (Diamond T and Grazing-8000) as experimental materials, after priming with 0.5 mmol/L putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) for 24 h and chilling imbibition at 5 ℃ for 12, 24, 36 and 48 h, the effect of Put, Spd and Spm priming on chilling tolerance and germination ability of annual Lolium perenne seeds during imbibition was investigated. [Result] Put, Spd and Spm priming improved the activities of peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and content of soluble protein content under low temperature stress, significantly in-creased the germination rate, and shortened the average germination duration. After chilling imbibition for 48 h, compared with the control, the average germination rate of annual Lolium perenne seeds was improved by 15.5% and 12.0% after Put, Spd and Spm priming, and the average germination duration was shortened by 1.21 and 1.14 d. During seed imbibition, the chilling tolerance of Grazing-8000 was stronger than that of Diamond T. Overall, Put, Spd and Spm treatment could increase the chilling tolerance of annual Lolium perenne seeds during imbibition, and improve the germination ability of seeds under low temperature stress. [Conclusion] Results of this study provided theoretical basis for the application of seed priming technology in the production of annual ryegrass.

  20. Determination of Chilling and Heat Requirements of Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Majid Rahemi; Zahra Pakkish

    2009-01-01

    Determination of chilling and heat requirements of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) cultivars is important for satisfactory growth and development, particularly when large-scale commercial production is desired. This experiment was conducted to determine chilling requirement inducing vegetative and flower buds of Kalle-Ghuchi, Owhadi, Ahmad-Ahgaei, and Akbari pistachio. Shoots with enough vegetative and flower buds were taken from pistachio trees during autumn 2007 and 2008 when temperature reached to≤15℃. Cuttings with flower buds were kept under (5±1)℃ for 0, 600, 650, 700, 750, 800, 850, 900, 950, 1000, 1050, 1100, 1150, 1200, 1250, and 1300 h, respectively, and cuttings with vegetative buds were kept at 51℃ until 1 500 h. The results indicated that pistachio eultivars requite chilling time between 750-1 400 h and heat requirements between 8 852-15 420 growing degree hours (GDH). Consequently, Kalle-Ghuehi had the lowest chilling (750-950 h), and heat (8 852-9 768 GDH) requirements, Ahmad-Aghaei and Owhadi had intermediate (1 000-1 250 h, 10 656-13 320 GDH) and Akbari had the highest chilling (1 200-1 400 h) and heat (11 863-15420 GDH) requirement.

  1. Improving Gas Turbine efficiency by chilled water system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Asadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The process in a gas turbine plant involves certain losses which can be divided into internal and external losses. In term of internal losses, the main factor is changing the state of working fluid. Since the temperature of atmospheric air may vary within a wide range, its variations can influence strongly the efficiency of gas turbine plants. With growing ambient air temperature, the specific volume of air increases, which can result in a larger work spent for air compression in the compressor. One of the most effective method for increasing the efficiency of gas turbine plants is to raise the gas temperature before the turbine. Since this temperature is the highest temperature in the cycle, this method is applicable for gas turbine plants of any scheme and type. However, there are some limitations on increasing gas temperature. The allowable temperature for reliable operation is between 1000 and 1400 k. However, decreasing ambient air temperature to increase the efficiency of gas turbine plants is easier and at low costs compared to rising gas temperature. As a decrease of 1°C temperature of inlet air increases the power output by 1%. In this paper our objective is improving the efficiency of gas turbine plants by decreasing ambient air temperature. To reach this we use a heat exchanger with different strip fins. The temperature of chilled water is constant on 7C°, but the ambient air temperature is variable between 20 and 36 C°. After designing process some graphs are presented, which give required mass flow rate to reach slightly ambient air temperature.

  2. Climate Change Impact on Evapotranspiration, Heat Stress and Chill Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, R. L.; Marras, S.; Spano, D.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon dioxide concentration scenarios project an increase in CO2 from 372 ppm to between 500 and 950 ppm by the year 2100, and the potential effect on temperature, humidity, and plant responses to environmental factors are complex and concerning. For 2100, mean daily temperature increase projections range from 1.2oC to 6.8oC depending on greenhouse gas emissions. On the bad side, higher temperatures are often associated with increases in evapotranspiration (ET), heat stress, and pest infestations. On the good side, increased temperature is commonly related to less frost damage, faster growth, and higher production in some cases. One misconception is that global warming will increase evapotranspiration and, hence, agricultural water demand. As the oceans and other water bodies warm, evaporation and humidity are likely to increase globally, but higher humidity tends to reduce plant transpiration and hence ET. Higher CO2 concentrations also tend to reduce ET, and, in the end, the increase in ET due to higher temperature is likely to be offset by a decrease in ET due to higher humidity and CO2. With a decrease in daytime evapotranspiration, the canopy temperature is likely to rise relative to the air temperature, and this implies that heat stress could be worse than predicted by increased air temperature. Daily minimum temperatures are generally increasing about twice as fast as maximum temperatures presumably because of the increasing dew point temperatures as more water vapor is added to the atmosphere. This could present a serious problem to meet the chill requirement for fruit and nut crops. Growing seasons, i.e., from the last spring to the first fall frost, are likely to increase, but the crop growth period is likely to shorten due to higher temperature. Thus, spring frost damage is unlikely to change but there should be fewer damaging fall frost events. In this paper, we will present some ideas on the possible impact of climate change on evapotranspiration and

  3. Failure of cargo aileron’s actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zucca

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During a ferry flight, in a standard operation condition and at cruising level, a military cargo experienced a double hydraulic system failure due to a structural damage of the dual booster actuator. The booster actuator is the main component in mechanism of aileron’s deflection. The crew was able to arrange an emergency landing thanks to the spare oil onboard: load specialists refilled the hydraulic reservoirs. Due to safety concerns and in order to prevent the possibility of other similar incidents, a technical investigation took place. The study aimed to carry out the analysis of root causes of the actuator failure. The Booster actuator is composed mainly by the piston rod and its aluminum external case (AA7049. The assembly has two bronze caps on both ends. These are fixed in position by means of two retainers. At one end of the actuator case is placed a trunnion: a cylindrical protrusion used as a pivoting point on the aircraft. The fracture was located at one end of the case, on the trunnion side, in correspondence to the cap and over the retainer. One of the two fracture surfaces was found separated to the case and with the cap entangled inside. The fracture surfaces of the external case indicated fatigue crack growth followed by ductile separation. The failure analysis was performed by means of optical, metallographic, digital and electronic microscopy. The collected evidences showed a multiple initiation fracture mechanism. Moreover, 3D scanner reconstruction and numerical simulation demonstrated that dimensional non conformances and thermal loads caused an abnormal stress concentration. Stress concentration was located along the case assy outer surface where the fatigue crack originated. The progressive rupture mechanism grew under cyclical axial load due to the normal operations. Recommendations were issued in order to improve dimensional controls and assembly procedures during production and overhaul activities.

  4. Spectroscopic neutron radiography for a cargo scanning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahon, Jill; Danagoulian, Areg; MacDonald, Thomas D.; Hartwig, Zachary S.; Lanza, Richard C.

    2016-06-01

    Detection of cross-border smuggling of illicit materials and contraband is a challenge that requires rapid, low-dose, and efficient radiographic technology. The work we describe here is derived from a technique which uses monoenergetic gamma rays from low energy nuclear reactions, such as 11B(d,nγ)12C, to perform radiographic analysis of shipping containers. Transmission ratios of multiple monoenergetic gamma lines resulting from several gamma producing nuclear reactions can be employed to detect materials of high atomic number (Z), the details of which will be described in a separate paper. Inherent in this particular nuclear reaction is the production of fast neutrons which could enable neutron radiography and further characterization of the effective-Z of the cargo, especially within the range of lower Z. Previous research efforts focused on the use of total neutron counts in combination with X-ray radiography to characterize the hydrogenous content of the cargo. We present a technique of performing transmitted neutron spectral analysis to reconstruct the effective Z and potentially the density of the cargo. This is made possible by the large differences in the energy dependence of neutron scattering cross-sections between hydrogenous materials and those of higher Z. These dependencies result in harder transmission spectra for hydrogenous cargoes than those of non-hydrogenous cargoes. Such observed differences can then be used to classify the cargo based on its hydrogenous content. The studies presented in this paper demonstrate that such techniques are feasible and can provide a contribution to cargo security, especially when used in concert with gamma radiography.

  5. 46 CFR 151.05-2 - Compliance with requirements for tank barges carrying benzene and benzene containing cargoes, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... benzene and benzene containing cargoes, or butyl acrylate cargoes. 151.05-2 Section 151.05-2 Shipping... Compliance with requirements for tank barges carrying benzene and benzene containing cargoes, or butyl acrylate cargoes. A tank barge certificated to carry benzene and benzene containing cargoes or...

  6. Rapid induction of microsomal delta 12(omega 6)-desaturase activity in chilled Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A L; Lloyd, D; Harwood, J L

    1993-11-15

    The activity of microsomal delta 12-desaturase in Acanthamoeba castellanii was increased after growing cultures were chilled from the optimal growth temperature (30 degrees C) to 15 degrees C. This increase was detectable in microsomes isolated from organisms subjected to only 10 min chilling. The mechanism of induction was investigated. The increase in activity on chilling was greatly reduced when protein synthesis was blocked before the temperature shift. Thus the major mechanism for the induction of delta 12-desaturase is increased protein synthesis. delta 12-Desaturase activity was higher when assayed at 20 degrees C than when assayed at 30 degrees C, but these changes were not due to the increased solubility of O2 at 20 degrees C. The major substrate of delta 12-desaturase was found to be 1-acyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine. PMID:8250841

  7. Chilling Tolerance of Cucumber During Germination is Related to Expression of Lysine Decarboxylase Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Ming-hui; LI Xiao-ming; CHEN Jin-feng; CHEN Long-zheng; QIAN Chun-tao

    2005-01-01

    Using cDNA-AFLP technique, a specific fragment was isolated from cucumber cultivar Changchun mici possessing chilling tolerance induced at low temperature (15℃). This fragment, named cctr 132, could not be induced in the chilling sensitive cucumber cultivar Beijing jietou. After recovering the fragment, sequencing and translating, the results of blastx and blastp in GenBank of NCBI indicated that CCTR132 had 88.37% identities and 100% positives with Oryza sativa putative lysine decarboxylase-like protein respectively, and PGGXGTXXE, the putative conserved domain of lysine decarboxylase family, was detected from CCTR132, suggesting the cucumber chilling tolerance during germination is related to the expression of the lysine decarboxylase gene.

  8. Protection of ultrastructure in chilling-stressed banana leaves by salicylic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Guo-zhang; WANG Zheng-xun; XIA Kuai-fei; SUN Gu-chou

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Chilling tolerance of salicylic acid (SA) in banana seedlings (Musa acuminata cv., Williams 8818) was investigated by changes in ultrastructure in this study. Methods: Light and electron microscope observation. Results: Pretreatment with 0.5 mmol/L SA under normal growth conditions (30/22 ℃) by foliar spray and root irrigation resulted in many changes in ultrastructure of banana cells, such as cells separation from palisade parenchymas, the appearance of crevices in cell walls, the swelling of grana and stromal thylakoids, and a reduction in the number of starch granules. These results implied that SA treatment at 30/22 ℃ could be a type of stress. During 3 d of exposure to 7 ℃ chilling stress under low light, however, cell ultrastructure of SA-pretreated banana seedlings showed less deterioration than those of control seedlings (distilled water-pretreated). Conclusion:SA could provide some protection for cell structure of chilling-stressed banana seedling.

  9. Simulation Of A Photofission-Based Cargo Interrogation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael; Gozani, Tsahi; Stevenson, John; Shaw, Timothy

    2011-06-01

    A comprehensive model has been developed to characterize and optimize the detection of Bremsstrahlung x-ray induced fission signatures from nuclear materials hidden in cargo containers. An effective active interrogation system should not only induce a large number of fission events but also efficiently detect their signatures. The proposed scanning system utilizes a 9-MV commercially available linear accelerator and the detection of strong fission signals i.e. delayed gamma rays and prompt neutrons. Because the scanning system is complex and the cargo containers are large and often highly attenuating, the simulation method segments the model into several physical steps, representing each change of radiation particle. Each approximation is carried-out separately, resulting in a major reduction in computational time and a significant improvement in tally statistics. The model investigates the effect on the fission rate and detection rate by various cargo types, densities and distributions. Hydrogenous and metallic cargos, homogeneous and heterogeneous, as well as various locations of the nuclear material inside the cargo container were studied. We will show that for the photofission-based interrogation system simulation, the final results are not only in good agreement with a full, single-step simulation but also with experimental results, further validating the full-system simulation.

  10. Simulation Of A Photofission-Based Cargo Interrogation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive model has been developed to characterize and optimize the detection of Bremsstrahlung x-ray induced fission signatures from nuclear materials hidden in cargo containers. An effective active interrogation system should not only induce a large number of fission events but also efficiently detect their signatures. The proposed scanning system utilizes a 9-MV commercially available linear accelerator and the detection of strong fission signals i.e. delayed gamma rays and prompt neutrons. Because the scanning system is complex and the cargo containers are large and often highly attenuating, the simulation method segments the model into several physical steps, representing each change of radiation particle. Each approximation is carried-out separately, resulting in a major reduction in computational time and a significant improvement in tally statistics. The model investigates the effect on the fission rate and detection rate by various cargo types, densities and distributions. Hydrogenous and metallic cargos, homogeneous and heterogeneous, as well as various locations of the nuclear material inside the cargo container were studied. We will show that for the photofission-based interrogation system simulation, the final results are not only in good agreement with a full, single-step simulation but also with experimental results, further validating the full-system simulation.

  11. Stokes Efficiency of Molecular Motor-Cargo Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhou

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A molecular motor utilizes chemical free energy to generate a unidirectional motion through the viscous fluid. In many experimental settings and biological settings, a molecular motor is elastically linked to a cargo. The stochastic motion of a molecular motor-cargo system is governed by a set of Langevin equations, each corresponding to an individual chemical occupancy state. The change of chemical occupancy state is modeled by a continuous time discrete space Markov process. The probability density of a motor-cargo system is governed by a two-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation. The operation of a molecular motor is dominated by high viscous friction and large thermal fluctuations from surrounding fluid. The instantaneous velocity of a molecular motor is highly stochastic: the past velocity is quickly damped by the viscous friction and the new velocity is quickly excited by bombardments of surrounding fluid molecules. Thus, the theory for macroscopic motors should not be applied directly to molecular motors without close examination. In particular, a molecular motor behaves differently working against a viscous drag than working against a conservative force. The Stokes efficiency was introduced to measure how efficiently a motor uses chemical free energy to drive against viscous drag. For a motor without cargo, it was proved that the Stokes efficiency is bounded by 100% [H. Wang and G. Oster, (2002]. Here, we present a proof for the general motor-cargo system.

  12. Optimisation of key performance measures in air cargo demand management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander May

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article sought to facilitate the optimisation of key performance measures utilised for demand management in air cargo operations. The focus was on the Revenue Management team at Virgin Atlantic Cargo and a fuzzy group decision-making method was used. Utilising intelligent fuzzy multi-criteria methods, the authors generated a ranking order of ten key outcome-based performance indicators for Virgin Atlantic air cargo Revenue Management. The result of this industry-driven study showed that for Air Cargo Revenue Management, ‘Network Optimisation’ represents a critical outcome-based performance indicator. This collaborative study contributes to existing logistics management literature, especially in the area of Revenue Management, and it seeks to enhance Revenue Management practice. It also provides a platform for Air Cargo operators seeking to improve reliability values for their key performance indicators as a means of enhancing operational monitoring power.

  13. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene and modified atmosphere packaging on chilling injury, and antioxidative defensive mechanism of sweet pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) are chilling sensitive vegetable, and develop injury when stored at temperatures less than 7 C. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) (650 ppb) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on chilling injuries of sweet pepper...

  14. Effects of chlorine or chlorine dioxide during immersion chilling on recovery of bacteria from broiler carcasses and chiller water

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the microbiological impact of immersion chilling broiler carcasses with chlorine or chlorine dioxide. Eviscerated, pre-chill commercial broiler carcasses were cut into left and right halves along the keel bone, and each half was rinsed (HCR) in 100 mL of 0.1% pept...

  15. The benefits of liposomes for chilling canine sperm for 4 days at 4°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belala, Redha; Delay, Juliette; Amirat, Lamia; Ropers, Marie-Hélène; Guillou, Jocya Le; Anton, Marc; Schmitt, Eric; Thorin, Chantal; Michaud, Sandrine; Kaidi, Rachid; Tainturier, Daniel; Bencharif, Djemil

    2016-05-01

    This study comprises 3 experiments exploring the possible benefits and mechanism of action of liposomes for chilling (4°C) canine sperm over a period of 4 days. In the first experiment, 20 ejaculates collected from 5 Beagle dogs were chilled in an extender containing 6% low density lipoproteins (LDL) (Control), or one of 7 extenders containing different concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15, 20%) of liposomes (LIPO). These ejaculates were chilled over 4 days and motility was assessed daily using a Hamilton Thorne analyzer (HTM-IVOS, 14.0). The 2% LIPO obtained the best results (p=0.038) after four days (72.55% motile spermatozoa and 31.4% progressive spermatozoa). In experiment 2, 10 ejaculates were collected from same 5 dogs and chilled in 6% LDL or 2% LIPO-based extenders. Sperm integrity characteristics were assessed prior to refrigeration and every 48h for four days (D0, D2, and D4). Acrosome integrity was assessed using the FITC-PSA test (Fluorescein IsoThiocyanate-Pisum Sativum Agglutinin), plasma membrane (PM) integrity using both the hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOSt) and SYBR14/Propidium Iodide test (SYBR14/PI), and DNA integrity using the Acridine-Orange test (AO). The 2% LIPO extender provided equivalent preservation of sperm integrity parameters to the reference extender (6% LDL). In experiment 3, a Langmuir-Blodgett trough was used to evaluate the mechanistic interactions between LDL, LIPO, prostatic fluid, and the canine spermatozoal membrane during chilling. Results indicate that LDL and LIPO interact differently with the biomimetic membrane. The most likely conclusion of these findings is that LDL and liposomes employ different protective mechanisms during the chilling (4°C) of canine spermatozoa. PMID:26952759

  16. Microbiological shelf life of fresh, chilled reindeer meat (M. longissimus dorsi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Wiklund

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this pilot study loin muscles (M. longissimus dorsi from six reindeer calves (aged 4 months were used to determine shelf life of fresh, chilled reindeer meat stored at +4 °C, measured as microbiological quality (aerobic microorganisms and Escherichia coli. The loins were collected at boning 3 days post slaughter and divided in five pieces that were randomly assigned to five different storage times; sampling directly after packaging and after chilled storage for 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks at +4 °C. Samples were vacuum packaged and transported chilled to Hjortens Laboratory in Östersund, Sweden (accredited by SWEDAC according to SS-EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005 for food analysis where the storage, microbiological sampling and analysis took place according to the protocols of Nordic Committee on Food Analysis (NMKL. The total amount of aerobic microorganisms at the first sampling directly after packaging (three days post slaughter was 3.4 ± 0.3 log10 CFU/g. After two and three weeks of vacuum packaged chilled storage at +4°C the microbiological quality of the samples was on the border-line to poor (6.8 ± 0.3 log10 CFU/g. At four and five weeks of chilled storage the levels of aerobic microorganisms were significantly highest (P≤0.05 and the limit for acceptable quality of 7 log10 CFU/g aerobic bacteria had been passed (7.3 ± 0.3 log10 CFU/g and 7.8 ± 0.3 log10 CFU/g, respectively. Very few of the reindeer meat samples were contaminated with Escherichia coli bacteria. The results from the present pilot study suggest that storage time for vacuum packaged fresh, chilled reindeer meat should not exceed 3 weeks at a temperature of +4 °C.

  17. Cold-induced sudden reversible lowering of in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence after saturating light pulses : a sensitive marker for chilling susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcher, W; Neuner, G

    1989-03-01

    In chilling-sensitive plants (Glycine max, Saintpaulia ionantha, Saccharum officinarum) a sudden reversible drop in chlorophyll fluorescence occurs during photosynthetic induction immediately following saturating light pulses at low temperatures in the range 4 to 8 degrees C. A comparison of two soybean cultivars of different chilling sensitivities revealed that this phenomenon, termed lowwave, indicates specific thresholds of low temperature stress. Its occurrence under controlled chilling can be regarded as a quantitative marker for screening chilling susceptibility in angiosperms. PMID:16666615

  18. Effect of cargo size and shape on the transport efficiency of the bacterial Tat translocase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Neal; Bageshwar, Umesh; Musser, Siegfried M

    2013-04-01

    The Tat machinery translocates fully-folded and oligomeric substrates. The passage of large, bulky cargos across an ion-tight membrane suggests the need to match pore and cargo size, and therefore that Tat transport efficiency may depend on both cargo size and shape. A series of cargos of different sizes and shapes were generated using the natural Tat substrate pre-SufI as a base. Four (of 17) cargos transported with significant (>20% of wild-type) efficiencies. These results indicate that cargo size and shape significantly influence Tat transportability. PMID:23422074

  19. Effect of irradiation and storage time on lipid oxidation of chilled pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Anwei; Wan, Fachun; Xu, Tongcheng; Du, Fangling; Wang, Wenliang; Zhu, Qingjun

    2011-03-01

    The effects of γ-irradiation with different doses (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy) and storage time (0-30 days) on the lipid oxidation of chilled pork and the combined effect of irradiation and antioxidant on the lipid oxidative stability during storage at 4 °C were investigated. The results indicated that irradiation treatment increased lipid oxidation, measured as peroxide (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values. Lipid oxidation was increased with the increase in storage time. The addition of tea polyphenol (TP) was effective in controlling the lipid oxidation of chilled pork after irradiation during cold storage.

  20. Effect of irradiation and storage time on lipid oxidation of chilled pork

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Anwei [Institute of Atomic Energy Application in Agriculture, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Science, Jinan 250100 (China); Wan Fachun [Institute of the Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Science, Jinan 250100 (China); Xu Tongcheng [Institute of Atomic Energy Application in Agriculture, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Science, Jinan 250100 (China); Du Fangling, E-mail: anweich@126.co [Institute of Atomic Energy Application in Agriculture, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Science, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang Wenliang; Zhu Qingjun [Institute of Atomic Energy Application in Agriculture, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Science, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2011-03-15

    The effects of {gamma}-irradiation with different doses (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy) and storage time (0-30 days) on the lipid oxidation of chilled pork and the combined effect of irradiation and antioxidant on the lipid oxidative stability during storage at 4 {sup o}C were investigated. The results indicated that irradiation treatment increased lipid oxidation, measured as peroxide (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values. Lipid oxidation was increased with the increase in storage time. The addition of tea polyphenol (TP) was effective in controlling the lipid oxidation of chilled pork after irradiation during cold storage.

  1. Analytical Method for Differentiation of Chilled and Frozen-Thawed Chicken Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova Ivelina; Ivanov Galin; Shikov Vasil; Ivanova Snezhana

    2014-01-01

    : Chilled and frozen chicken breast and thigh meat were stored at +4±1 oC and - 20±1 oC, respectively. Maillard reaction between ribose and meat proteins of the chicken samples was initiated. The changes in the ribose-induced Maillard reaction rate during chilled and frozen storage of chicken meat were evaluated on the bases of corrected absorbance values (A420*) and bovine melanoidin equivalent values (mg BME/g). Application of BME as a measure of ribose-induced Maillard reaction rate enable...

  2. Effect of irradiation and storage time on lipid oxidation of chilled pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of γ-irradiation with different doses (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy) and storage time (0-30 days) on the lipid oxidation of chilled pork and the combined effect of irradiation and antioxidant on the lipid oxidative stability during storage at 4 oC were investigated. The results indicated that irradiation treatment increased lipid oxidation, measured as peroxide (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values. Lipid oxidation was increased with the increase in storage time. The addition of tea polyphenol (TP) was effective in controlling the lipid oxidation of chilled pork after irradiation during cold storage.

  3. The Relationship Between Heat-induced Chilling Tolerance and Endogenous ABA Levels in Mangoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Shi-jiang; JI Zuo-liang

    2002-01-01

    Heating "Zhihua" mangoes (Mangifera indica L. cv. Zhihua) in hot air at 38℃ for 12hours significantly reduced the development of chilling injury following storage for 12days at 2℃. Prolonging the heating up to 72hours acquired similar results. During the 12 days' storage at 2℃ following heating for 72hours, the membrane leakage of the mango peels showed little change, while it increased with time for the control fruits, and the endogenous ABA levels in the heated fruits were higher than that in the control. These results indicated that higher ABA rates were linked with stronger chilling tolerance in mangoes.

  4. STUDY ON MORPHOLOGY OF CHROMIUM IN CHILLED Cu-0.14%-2.0%Cr ALLOYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.W.Yang; Z.K.Fan

    2004-01-01

    The morphology of chromium in chilled Cu-Cr alloys with 0.14%-2.0% Cr has been studied. The results showed that eutectic Cr phase takes a fibrous shape, and pre-eutectic Cr is dendritic in the studied chilled Cu-Cr alloy. During solute treatment of the eutectic and super-eutectic Cu-Cr alloys, only part of chromium particles dissolved in copper phase,some fiber and dendritic chromium still remained. Forging before solute treatment can reduce the size of primary Cr particles, which benefits the aging structure.

  5. Innovative two-pipe active chilled beam system for simultaneous heating and cooling of office buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maccarini, Alessandro; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian;

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the energy savings potential of an innovative two-pipe system in an active chilled beam application for heating and cooling of office buildings. The characteristic of the system is its ability to provide simultaneous heating and cooling by transferring...... heating, cooling and ventilation loads were calculated by the program and an annual energy consumption evaluation of the system was made. Simulation results showed that the innovative two-pipe active chilled beam system used approximately 5% less energy than a conventional four-pipe system....

  6. Potential energy savings with personalized ventilation coupled with passive chilled beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyubenova, Velina S.; Holsøe, Jan W.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2011-01-01

    distribution used today. The potential of PV for energy saving has been studied little. In this study, the energy saving potential of desk mounted PV in conjunction with either mixing ventilation or a passive chilled beam system is compared to mixing ventilation alone by means of computer simulations. An open...... 20% (and up to 40% when extending the temperature in the room by 2 °C above the upper limit recommended in the standards) compared to mixing ventilation only. When PV was combined with passive chilled beams, the reduction of the supplied air was up to 80%. This ventiltion strategy may lead to energy...

  7. Freshness assessment of thawed and chilled cod fillets packed in modified atmosphere using near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøknæs, Niels; Jensen, K.N.; Andersen, Charlotte Møller;

    2002-01-01

    Near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectra was recorded of 105 samples of cod mince prepared from chill stored thawed cod fillets of varying quality in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). Traditional chemical, physical, microbiological and sensory quality methods developed for assessing fresh fish...... products were determined on the same cod fillets. The purpose was to evaluate the potential of NIR spectroscopy for estimating (i) frozen storage temperature, (ii) frozen storage period and (iii) chill storage period of thawed-chilled MAP Barents Sea cod fillets. Furthermore, the potential for measuring of......). Systematic differences in the NIR measurements on minced cod fillets were primarily due to the chill storage duration (days at 2 degreesC) on thawed-chilled MAP fillets. PLSR models based on wavelengths selected by a new Jack-knife method resulted in a correlation coefficient of 0.90 between measured and...

  8. Effect of local chilling on morphology of primary α (Al) in semi-solid A356 alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zheng; MAO Wei-min; ZHAO Zhen-duo

    2008-01-01

    The semi-solid slurry of A356 alloy was prepared by low superheat pouring and slightly electromagnetic stirring, in which a pure copper rod was used to produce local chilling. The effect of chilling by the rod on morphology and size of primary α (Al) in A356 was researched. The results indicate that the chilling by the rod remarkably affects the morphology and the size of primary α (Al). Primary α (Al) with particle-like shape is distributed uniformly in A356, and there is no transient area in structure morphology. Compared with the samples prepared without the local chilling, the nucleation rate, morphology and grain size of primary α (Al) in A356 prepared by low superheat pouring and slightly electromagnetic stirring with the rod are markedly improved. Under the condition of chilling, the pouring temperature can be suitably raised to obtain primary α (Al) with particle-like shape.

  9. Detection of Shielded Nuclear Material in a Cargo Container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho National Laboratory, along with Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Idaho State University's Idaho Accelerator Center, are developing electron accelerator-based, photonuclear inspection technologies for the detection of shielded nuclear material within air-, rail-, and especially, maritime-cargo transportation containers. This paper describes a developing prototypical cargo container inspection system utilizing the Pulsed Photonuclear Assessment (PPA) technology, incorporates interchangeable, well-defined, contraband shielding structures (i.e., ''calibration'' pallets) providing realistic detection data for induced radiation signatures from smuggled nuclear material, and provides various shielded nuclear material detection results. Using a 4.8-kg quantity of depleted uranium, neutron and gamma-ray detection responses are presented for well-defined shielded and unshielded configurations evaluated in a selected cargo container inspection configuration

  10. Detection of shielded nuclear material in a cargo container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James L.; Norman, Daren R.; Haskell, Kevin J.; Sterbentz, James W.; Yoon, Woo Y.; Watson, Scott M.; Johnson, James T.; Zabriskie, John M.; Bennett, Brion D.; Watson, Richard W.; Moss, Cavin E.; Frank Harmon, J.

    2006-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory, along with Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Idaho State University's Idaho Accelerator Center, are developing electron accelerator-based, photonuclear inspection technologies for the detection of shielded nuclear material within air-, rail-, and especially, maritime-cargo transportation containers. This paper describes a developing prototypical cargo container inspection system utilizing the Pulsed Photonuclear Assessment (PPA) technology, incorporates interchangeable, well-defined, contraband shielding structures (i.e., "calibration" pallets) providing realistic detection data for induced radiation signatures from smuggled nuclear material, and provides various shielded nuclear material detection results. Using a 4.8-kg quantity of depleted uranium, neutron and gamma-ray detection responses are presented for well-defined shielded and unshielded configurations evaluated in a selected cargo container inspection configuration.

  11. Detection of shielded nuclear material in a cargo container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho National Laboratory, along with Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Idaho State University's Idaho Accelerator Center, are developing electron accelerator-based, photonuclear inspection technologies for the detection of shielded nuclear material within air-, rail-, and especially, maritime-cargo transportation containers. This paper describes a developing prototypical cargo container inspection system utilizing the Pulsed Photonuclear Assessment (PPA) technology, incorporates interchangeable, well-defined, contraband shielding structures (i.e., 'calibration' pallets) providing realistic detection data for induced radiation signatures from smuggled nuclear material, and provides various shielded nuclear material detection results. Using a 4.8-kg quantity of depleted uranium, neutron and gamma-ray detection responses are presented for well-defined shielded and unshielded configurations evaluated in a selected cargo container inspection configuration

  12. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags fro Reducing Exploration Mission Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) division is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  13. Reducing Mission Logistics with Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep-out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  14. Optimizing an undulating magnetic microswimmer for cargo towing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Emiliya; Or, Yizhar

    2016-06-01

    One of the promising capabilities of magnetic microswimmers is towing a cargo, which can be used for targeted drug delivery or performing tissue biopsy. A key question is what should be the optimal size ratio between the cargo and the swimmer's flexible tail. This question is addressed here for the simplest theoretical model of a magnetic microswimmer undergoing planar undulations—a spherical load connected by a torsion spring to a rigid slender link. The swimmer's dynamic is formulated and leading-order expressions for its motion are obtained explicitly under small-amplitude approximation. Optimal combinations of magnetic actuation frequency, torsion stiffness, and tail length for maximizing displacement, average speed, or energetic efficiency are obtained. The theoretical results are compared with reported experiments in several types of cargo-towing magnetic microswimmers.

  15. Experimental ship fire measurements with simulated radioactive cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from a series of eight test fires ranging in size from 2.2 to 18.8 MW conducted aboard the Coast Guard fire test ship Mayo Lykes at Mobile, Alabama are presented and discussed. Tests aboard the break bulk type cargo ship consisted of heptane spray fires simulating engine room and galley fires, wood crib fires simulating cargo hold fires, and pool fires staged for comparison to land based regulatory fire results. Primary instrumentation for the tests consisted of two pipe calorimeters that simulated a typical package shape for radioactive materials packages

  16. SHIP AND CARGO MORTGAGE, TWO DIFFERENT LEGAL VIEWPOINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abouata

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the subject-matter of cargo and ship mortgage are similar (providing financial security for creditors,the regulations of these contracts, differ from each other essentially with regard to the conditionality of taking possession in concluding the contract, the possibility of endorsement and cession in mortgage document, the creditor s kind of real right ,the preference of prior or latter creditor in vindication of right and the effect of mortgage loss on the contract and the possibility of recovery of claim. Moreover the cargo mortgage regulations are, in some regards and aspects, contrary to general legal rules and hence subject to criticism.

  17. Column generation approaches to ship scheduling with flexible cargo sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønmo, Geir; Nygreen, Bjørn; Lysgaard, Jens

    cargo sizes to the column generation framework is not straightforward, and we handle the flexible cargo sizes heuristically when solving the subproblems. This leads to convergence issues in the branch-and-price search tree, and the optimal solution cannot be guaranteed. Hence we have introduced a method...... that generates an upper bound on the optimal objective. We have compared our method with an a priori column generation approach, and our computational experiments on real world cases show that the Dantzig-Wolfe approach is faster than the a priori generation of columns, and we are able to deal with...

  18. SPECIFICS OF ORGANIZATIONAL AND FUNCTIONAL MECHANISM TO PROVIDE IMPLEMENTATION OF MARKETING STRATEGY OF CARGO HAULERS

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchenko, Galina

    2013-01-01

    Specifics of implementation of marketing strategy of cargo haulers are identified. Indicators of their marketing strategies’ efficiency are reviewed. The structure of organizational and functional mechanism of implementation of marketing strategies’ by cargo haulers is suggested.

  19. 46 CFR 154.1210 - Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1210 Hold space, void... spaces containing cargo piping must have: (1) A fixed mechanical ventilation system; or (2) A...

  20. 46 CFR 308.512 - Declaration of shipments under Open Cargo Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.512... shipments and a closing report for all outward shipments, and pay the premium and fees, for all...

  1. 49 CFR 178.348 - Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.348 Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle....

  2. 49 CFR 178.346 - Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.346 Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle....

  3. 49 CFR 178.347 - Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.347 Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle....

  4. Can chilling tolerance of C4 photosynthesis in Miscanthus be transferred to sugarcane?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study was to investigate if chilling tolerance of C4 photosynthesis in Miscanthus can be transferred to sugarcane. Net leaf CO2 uptake (Asat) and the maximum operating efficiency of photosystem II ('PSII) were measured in warm conditions (25 °C/20 °C), and then during and following ...

  5. The passive response of the Integral Fast Reactor concept to the chilled inlet accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simple methods are described for bounding the passive response of a metal fueled liquid-metal cooled reactor to the chilled inlet accident. Calculation of these bounds for a prototype of the Integral Fast Reactor concept shows that failure limits --- eutectic melting, sodium boiling and fuel pin failure --- are not exceeded. 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  6. Georgia Institute of Technology chilled water system evaluation and master plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-15

    As the host of the Olympic Village for the 1996 Atlanta Olympics, Georgia Tech has experienced a surge in construction activities over the last three years. Over 1.3 million square feet of new buildings have been constructed on the Georgia Tech campus. This growth has placed a strain on the Georgia Tech community and challenged the facilities support staff charged with planning and organizing utility services. In concert with Olympic construction, utility planners have worked to ensure long term benefits for Georgia Tech facilities while meeting the short term requirements of the Olympic Games. The concentration of building construction in the northwest quadrant of the campus allowed planners to construct a satellite chilled water plant to serve the needs of this area and provide the opportunity to integrate this section of the campus with the main campus chilled water system. This assessment and master plan, funded in part by the US Department of Energy, has evaluated the chilled water infrastructure at Georgia Tech, identified ongoing problems and made recommendations for long term chilled water infrastructure development and efficiency improvements. The Georgia Tech office of Facilities and RDA Engineering, Inc. have worked together to assemble relevant information and prepare the recommendations contained in this document.

  7. (Re)constituting Community through Narrative Argument: "Eros" and "Philia" in "The Big Chill."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, James

    1993-01-01

    Analyzes the way a specific narrative text (Lawrence Kasdan's 1983 feature film "The Big Chill") confronts the relationship between communal norms and political possibilities. Shows how the film enacts a complex disjunctive narrative argument endorsing a specific form of communal affiliation (what Hannah Arendt refers to as "Philia") and rejecting…

  8. Texture evolution of continuous cast and direct chill cast AA 3003 aluminum alloys during cold rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The texture evolution of continuous cast (CC) and direct chill cast (DC) AA 3003 aluminum alloys during cold rolling was investigated by X-ray diffraction. The relationship between texture volume fractions and rolling true strain was described quantitatively by mathematical formulae. The effect of processing method (CC vs. DC) on texture evolution was determined

  9. Corrosion of an aluminum alloy chilled in flowing seawater and the effect of cathodic prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabuki, A. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-hiroshima, 739-8527 (Japan); Yasunaga, D.T. [Technical Development Group, Kobe Steel Ltd. 9-12, Kita-Shinagawa 5-chome, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, 141-0001 (Japan); Shibutani, T.; Shinkai, K. [Machinery and Engineering Company, Kobe Steel Ltd. 3-1, Shinhama 2-chome, Arai, Takasago, Hyogo 676-8670 (Japan)

    2007-05-15

    A new type of jet-in-slit testing apparatus for a specimen, chilled with a peltier element, was developed to investigate corrosion on the heat transfer surface of an aluminum alloy heat exchanger, in contact with a liquefaction gas at cryogenic temperature and in flowing seawater. The specimen can be chilled, even under flowing conditions, using this apparatus. Corrosion tests and polarization measurements of a specimen chilled by a peltier element were carried out in flowing seawater at various temperatures. The effect of chilling a specimen was equivalent to the effect achieved for a test in solution at a lower temperature. The process was dependent on a passive film, formed on the surface of the aluminum alloy specimen, as evidenced by polarization measurements. The extent of corrosion damage increased with increasing temperature of the solution, and showed maximum damage at high temperature. At high temperatures, erosion-corrosion was found at the central part of the specimen, but the effect of flow was negligible at low temperature. Corrosion tests for a cathodically polarized specimen were conducted under flowing conditions. Corrosion damage was accelerated by cathodic polarization at lower temperatures. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.21 Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a)...

  11. 77 FR 12800 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway: Revocation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Norway, 76 FR 166 (January 3, 2011). As a result of its reviews, the Department found that revocation of... Duty Order, 76 FR 70409 (November 14, 2011), and Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway: Final... from Norway, 77 FR 10772 (February 23, 2012) and USITC Publication 4303 (February 2012), entitled...

  12. Analisis Kecepatan Bottom Block Terhadap Struktur Mikro Produk Direct Chill Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soejono Tjitro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct chill casting process is used to produce to ingot. To produce to ingot is influenced such as bottom block speed. The objective of this research is to examine to ingot's microstructures. To use to bottom block speed is 57 mm/min and 67 mm/min. The pouring temperature of melt aluminum alloys is 750oC. Water flow rate is constant. Testing specimen is round shape which diameter and length each 70 mm and 400 mm. Microstructures on longitudinal and transversal round is investigated. Generally, microstructures of product of Direct Casting Process is non-uniform dendritic. Grain shape of 67 mm/minute bottom block rate is larger than 57 mm/minute bottom block rate. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Proses Direct Chill Casting digunakan untuk menghasilkan ingot. Proses pembuatan ingot ini dipengaruhi antara lain kecepatan bottom block. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengamati pengaruh kecepatan bottom block terhadap struktur mikro ingot. Kecepatan bottom block yang digunakan 57 mm/menit dan 67 mm/menit. Temperatur tuang paduan aluminium 750oC. Debit air konstan. Spesimen uji berbentuk round dengan diameter 70 mm dan panjang 400 mm. Struktur mikro yang diamati pada ke arah longitudinal dan transversal round. Struktur mikro yang dihasilkan proses direct chill casting secara umum adalah dendritik yang tidak seragam. Bentuk butir kecepatan bottom block 67 mm/menit lebih besar daripada kecepatan bottom block 57 mm/menit. Kata kunci: direct chill casting, struktur mikro, kecepatan bottom block.

  13. Performance of Chilled Beam with Radial Swirl Jet and Diffuse Ceiling Air Supply in Heating Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertheussen, Bård; Mustakallio, Panu; Melikov, Arsen Krikor;

    2013-01-01

    The performance of diffuse ceiling air supply and chilled beam with swirl jet (CSW) in heating mode (winter situation) was studied and compared with regard to the generated indoor environment. An office mock-up with one occupant was simulated in a test room (4.5 x 3.95 x 3.5 m3 (L x W x H...

  14. Chemical additive to maximize antimicrobial effect of chlorine during pilot scale immersion chilling of broiler carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    A prior laboratory scale study demonstrated the potential for T-128, a proprietary blend including propylene glycol and phosphoric acid, to enhance the antimicrobial efficacy of chlorine during immersion chilling of broiler parts. The objective of the current study was to test the addition of T-128...

  15. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Rice at Filling Stage under Chilling Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Wang; Weitong Cui; Shihua Shen

    2012-01-01

    Using comparative proteomic analysis,we carried out an investigation aiming at a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of chilling stress adaptation in rice (O.sativa L.ssp.indica cultivar 93-11) at early filling stage.The rice plants at early filling stage were exposed to 12℃ for 6 h,12 h,24 h,48 h.Analysis of the dynamic proteome profile of the uppermost internodes showed that 99 protein spots were differentially expressed during this process.Among them,45 protein spots were found to be up-regulated and 54 protein spots were down-regulated in responding to chilling stress.81 protein spots were successfully identified through MALDITOF MS and database searching.Those identified proteins were the products of 65 genes,and could be sorted into 8 functional categories.Among them,secondary metabolism related proteins such as S-adenosylmethionine synthetase were up-regulated.That lignification-related proteins were up-regulated by chilling stress indicated the uppermost internodes supporting ear would be enhanced to resist the chilling stress.

  16. The wind chill temperature effect on a large-scale PV plant—an exergy approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xydis, George

    2013-01-01

    disregarded atmospheric variables in planning new PV plants, in fact, do play a significant role on the plant's overall exergetic efficiency as wind chill temperature. The solar potential around a windy coastal hilly area was studied and presented on the basis of field measurements and simulations...

  17. Effects of chills on the solidification pattern of an axial steel cast impeller

    OpenAIRE

    Copur, M.; Turan, A; Eruslu, M. N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents three-dimensional simulation of transient conduction heat transfer within an axial impeller (AISI 1016), two different sizes of chills (AISI 1016), core (green sand) and mold (green sand) by using Ansys CFX. Specific heat, density and thermal conductivity of AISI 1016 steel, mold and Core materials are considered as functions of temperatures

  18. Tappet Chill Depth Measuring by Magnetic Permeability and Inductance Displacement Meter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is possible to measure different position along the axle direction of tappet. According to the maximum output of signal, the boundary of white iron structure and mottled iron structure can be deduced, and at the same time, it is possible to use inductance displacement meter to show the chill depth which is the distance from the boundary to the end.

  19. FORMATION OF WEAR-RESISTANT CHROMIUM CAST IRON CASTING INTO THE CHILL MOLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Marukovich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of thermal processes of formation of castings from wearproof chromic cast irons for replaceable details of centrifugal mills and crushers is carried out. Influence of protective and dividing coverings on intensity of heating of the chill mold is investigated.

  20. FORMATION OF WEAR-RESISTANT CHROMIUM CAST IRON CASTING INTO THE CHILL MOLD

    OpenAIRE

    E. I. Marukovich; V. M. Ilyushenko; P. Yu. Duvalov

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of thermal processes of formation of castings from wearproof chromic cast irons for replaceable details of centrifugal mills and crushers is carried out. Influence of protective and dividing coverings on intensity of heating of the chill mold is investigated.

  1. Alternative Layouts for the Carbon Capture with the Chilled Ammonia Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valenti, Gianluca; Bonalumi, Davide; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup;

    2013-01-01

    Many alternatives are being investigated for the carbon capture, but none appears to have been proved as the choice for full-scale applications. This work considers the Chilled Ammonia Process for coal-fired Ultra Super Critical power plants. Three layouts are simulated with Aspen Plus...

  2. Effects of chills on the solidification pattern of an axial steel cast impeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Copur

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents three-dimensional simulation of transient conduction heat transfer within an axial impeller (AISI 1016, two different sizes of chills (AISI 1016, core (green sand and mold (green sand by using Ansys CFX. Specific heat, density and thermal conductivity of AISI 1016 steel, mold and Core materials are considered as functions of temperatures

  3. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE MANAGEMENT ON THE CARGO MOTOR TRANSPORTATION ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    Kylnytsvska, Y.; Gluhova, S.

    2014-01-01

    In the article the efficiency of accounts receivable management on cargo motor transportation enterprises is analyzed using the method of statistical analysis, namely middle descriptions of variation row of account receivable of cargo motor transportation enterprises are analysed; the analysis of unevenness of distributing of the account receivable of cargo motor transportation enterprises is conducted; the degree of dirigibility of conduct of debtors of cargo motor transportation enterprises...

  4. 46 CFR 154.705 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: General. 154.705 Section 154.705... Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.705 Cargo boil-off as fuel: General. (a) Each cargo boil-off fuel system under § 154.703(c) must meet §§ 154.706 through 154.709. (b) The piping in the cargo boil-off...

  5. Safety evaluation for packaging (Onsite) transport of LSA-II liquids in MC-312 cargo tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes the onsite transfer of bulk LSA-II radioactive liquids in the 222-S Laboratory Cargo Tank and Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility Cargo Tanks (which are U.S. Department of Transportation MC-312 specification cargo tanks) from their operating facilities to tank farm facilities

  6. 46 CFR 154.706 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Fuel lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: Fuel lines. 154.706 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.706 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Fuel lines. (a) Gas fuel lines must not pass through accommodation, service, or control spaces. Each gas fuel line...

  7. 46 CFR 308.549 - Application for appointment of Cargo Underwriting Agent, Form MA-319.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Iv-General § 308.549 Application for appointment of Cargo Underwriting Agent, Form MA-319. Any domestic insurance company authorized to do a marine insurance business in any State of the United States may apply for appointment as a Cargo Underwriting...

  8. 46 CFR 154.650 - Cargo tank and process pressure vessel welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank and process pressure vessel welding. 154.650... Equipment Construction § 154.650 Cargo tank and process pressure vessel welding. (a) Cargo tank and process pressure vessel welding must meet Subpart 54.05 and Part 57 of this chapter. (b) Welding consumables...

  9. 46 CFR 154.701 - Cargo pressure and temperature control: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pressure and temperature control: General. 154.701 Section 154.701 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.701 Cargo pressure and temperature control:...

  10. 46 CFR 153.370 - Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature... temperature cargo tanks. The relief valve setting for a containment system that carries a cargo at ambient temperature must at least equal the cargo's vapor pressure at 46 °C (approx. 115 °F)....

  11. 46 CFR 91.60-5 - Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. 91.60-5..., 1974 § 91.60-5 Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. (a) All vessels on an international voyage are required to have a Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. This certificate shall be issued...

  12. 46 CFR 189.60-5 - Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. 189.60-5..., 1974 § 189.60-5 Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. (a) All vessels on an international voyage are required to have a Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. This certificate shall be issued...

  13. 7 CFR 1493.3 - Restrictions on programs and cargo preference statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on programs and cargo preference... Restrictions on programs and cargo preference statement. (a) Restrictions on use of credit guarantees. (1... service the debt associated with such sales. (b) Cargo preference laws. The provisions of the...

  14. 46 CFR 154.709 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Gas detection equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: Gas detection equipment. 154.709 Section 154.709 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.709 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Gas detection...

  15. 46 CFR 154.708 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: Valves. 154.708 Section 154.708 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.708 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Valves. (a) Gas fuel lines to the...

  16. Microbiological evaluation of chicken carcasses in an immersion chilling system with water renewal at 8 and 16 hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, L C T; Pereira, J G; Spina, T L B; Izidoro, T B; Oliveira, A C; Pinto, J P A N

    2012-05-01

    Since 2004, Brazil has been the leading exporter of chicken. Because of the importance of this sector in the Brazilian economy, food safety must be ensured by control and monitoring of the production stages susceptible to contamination, such as the chilling process. The goal of this study was to evaluate changes in microbial levels on chicken carcasses and in chilling water after immersion in a chilling system for 8 and 16 h during commercial processing. An objective of the study was to encourage discussion regarding the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture Livestock and Food Supply regulation that requires chicken processors to completely empty, clean, and disinfect each tank of the chilling system after every 8-h shift. Before and after immersion chilling, carcasses were collected and analyzed for mesophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, and Escherichia coli. Samples of water from the chilling system were also analyzed for residual free chlorine. The results do not support required emptying of the chiller tank after 8 h; these tanks could be emptied after 16 h. The results for all carcasses tested at the 8- and 16-h time points indicated no significant differences in the microbiological indicators evaluated. These data provide both technical and scientific support for discussing changes in federal law regarding the management of immersion chilling water systems used as part of the poultry processing line. PMID:22564950

  17. Transportation of Nanoscale Cargoes by Myosin Propelled Actin Filaments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persson, Malin; Gullberg, Maria; Tolf, Conny; Lindberg, A. Michael; Mansson, Alf; Kocer, Armagan

    2013-01-01

    Myosin II propelled actin filaments move ten times faster than kinesin driven microtubules and are thus attractive candidates as cargo-transporting shuttles in motor driven lab-on-a-chip devices. In addition, actomyosin-based transportation of nanoparticles is useful in various fundamental studies.

  18. 14 CFR 29.787 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... emergency landing conditions of § 29.561. (b) There must be means to prevent the contents of any compartment...) Under the emergency landing conditions of § 29.561, cargo and baggage compartments must— (1) Be... any of the escape facilities provided for use after an emergency landing; or (2) Have...

  19. 14 CFR 27.787 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... emergency landing conditions of § 27.561. (b) There must be means to prevent the contents of any compartment...) Under the emergency landing conditions of § 27.561, cargo and baggage compartments must— (1) Be... any of the escape facilities provided for use after an emergency landing; or (2) Have...

  20. Study on Alternative Cargo Launch Options from the Lunar Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheryl A. Blomberg; Zamir A. Zulkefli; Spencer W. Rich; Steven D. Howe

    2013-07-01

    In the future, there will be a need for constant cargo launches from Earth to Mars in order to build, and then sustain, a Martian base. Currently, chemical rockets are used for space launches. These are expensive and heavy due to the amount of necessary propellant. Nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) are the next step in rocket design. Another alternative is to create a launcher on the lunar surface that uses magnetic levitation to launch cargo to Mars in order to minimize the amount of necessary propellant per mission. This paper investigates using nuclear power for six different cargo launching alternatives, as well as the orbital mechanics involved in launching cargo to a Martian base from the moon. Each alternative is compared to the other alternative launchers, as well as compared to using an NTR instead. This comparison is done on the basis of mass that must be shipped from Earth, the amount of necessary propellant, and the number of equivalent NTR launches. Of the options, a lunar coil launcher had a ship mass that is 12.7% less than the next best option and 17 NTR equivalent launches, making it the best of the presented six options.

  1. Shift designs for freight handling personnel at air cargo terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Aiying; Grunow, Martin

    2009-01-01

    resources efficiently, we implement a new mechanism for demand leveling. In addition, we consider the qualification hierarchy between build-up and break-down workers. A case study based on the real-life data shows that the model is useful for manpower planning at air cargo terminals and the integrated...

  2. 48 CFR 752.228-9 - Cargo insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo insurance. 752.228-9... insurance. As prescribed in 728.313(a), the following preface is to be used preceding the text of the clause at FAR 52.228-9: Preface: To the extent that marine insurance is necessary or appropriate under...

  3. Combining technologies - radiography and neutron based - for cargo security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inspection of air and sea cargo has traditionally been done by X-ray systems of various energies relying on operators to analyze images looking for anomalies in the image of cargo that may signify a threat. This has shown only limited success in detecting explosives and other threats, which do not have any distinctive shapes. OSI Systems, through its subsidiaries Rapiscan and Ancore, has combined high-energy x-ray radiography with thermal neutron analysis (TNA) to create the combined system-''TNX''. The system provides automatic material specific detection of bulk threat items, like explosives, while furnishing the operator with a high-resolution image for weapons detection and also to identify anomalies for the TNA to inspect. Similarly the Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA) can be combined with high-energy x-ray to create a ''FNX'' system for both air and sea cargo applications. This enables the operator obtain a three dimensional image of the material composition of the cargo under inspection and remove the clutter from the image leaving only the potentially hazardous material(s) automatically while viewing a high resolution image for manifest verification and weapons. The current status of the technology will be discussed and data be presented

  4. 46 CFR 151.50-5 - Cargoes having toxic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Gravity type cargo tanks shall be fitted with an approved pressure-vacuum relief valve of not less than 21... or pressure vacuum relief valve shall be directed in such a manner as to not impinge on another tank... from the safety or pressure vacuum relief valve as a result of a fire or other casualty. In...

  5. 46 CFR 151.20-5 - Cargo system valving requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... will cause the quick closing shutoff valves to close in case of fire. Quick closing shutoff valves... penetrations are not applicable to nozzles at which pressure vacuum or safety relief valves are fitted. (a... conditions, every cargo piping system shall be provided with one of the following sets of control valves...

  6. 29 CFR 1918.85 - Containerized cargo operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... required in paragraph (a)(3) of this section, or it exceeds the capacity of the lifting appliance. (d... rated capacity. (D) The lift angle is at 80 to 90 degrees; (E) The distance between the lifting beam and... maximum cargo weight, in pounds. (b) Container weight. No container shall be hoisted by any...

  7. 46 CFR 13.309 - Eligibility: Cargo course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TANKERMEN Requirements for âTankerman-PIC (Barge)â Endorsement § 13.309 Eligibility: Cargo course. Each applicant for an original “Tankerman-PIC (Barge)” endorsement shall present a certificate of completion from a course in DL or LG appropriate for tank barges and for Tankerman-PIC or Tankerman-PIC (Barge),...

  8. Mars Hybrid Propulsion System Trajectory Analysis. Part II; Cargo Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture in which both chemical and electric propulsion systems are used to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By combining chemical and electrical propulsion into a single spaceship and applying each where it is more effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper shows the feasibility of the hybrid transportation architecture to pre-deploy cargo to Mars and Phobos in support of the Evolvable Mars Campaign crew missions. The analysis shows that the hybrid propulsion stage is able to deliver all of the current manifested payload to Phobos and Mars through the first three crew missions. The conjunction class trajectory also allows the hybrid propulsion stage to return to Earth in a timely fashion so it can be reused for additional cargo deployment. The 1,100 days total trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to deliver cargo to Mars every other Earth-Mars transit opportunity. For the first two Mars surface mission in the Evolvable Mars Campaign, the short trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to be reused for three round-trip journeys to Mars, which matches the hybrid propulsion stage's designed lifetime for three round-trip crew missions to the Martian sphere of influence.

  9. 46 CFR 148.01-7 - Permitted cargoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... heating and ignition. Note: Definitions of hazard classes of hazardous materials are found in 49 CFR 171.8 and 49 CFR 173.500. (b) A mixture or blend of two or more cargoes, one or more of which is listed in... Flammable solid Contact with water may cause self heating. Coconut meal pellets (or copra...

  10. 19 CFR 4.62 - Accounting for inward cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounting for inward cargo. 4.62 Section 4.62 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.62 Accounting for inward...

  11. Column generation approaches to ship scheduling with flexible cargo sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønmo, Geir; Nygreen, Bjørn; Lysgaard, Jens

    2010-01-01

    consequences for the times used in the ports because both the loading and unloading times depend on the cargo sizes. We found it computationally hard to find exact solutions to the subproblems, so our method does not guarantee to find the optimum over all solutions. To be able to say something about how good...

  12. Integrated cargo routing and ship scheduling in liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    The problem consists of creating routes and schedules for a heterogeneous fleet of ships while determining the cargo routing and the speed for all relevant port pair/ship combinations. Transshipment is allowed in ports with transshipment capabilities. The service frequency is fixed at one week...

  13. 33 CFR 157.132 - Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.132 Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor emissions. Each tank vessel having a COW system under §...

  14. Determining the physiochemical changes and time of chilling injury incidence during cold storage of pomegranate fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghipour Leila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent warming (IW is a good postharvest technique to prevent or alleviate chilling injuries during cold storage. Performing the warming treatment at the period of time before chilling injury is irreversible during storage, and it is the first prerequisite for a successful IW treatment. In order to determine the fruit physiochemical changes and time of irreversible chilling injury incidence during cold storage of pomegranate fruit (cv. Rabab-e-Neyriz, this research was conducted. Fruits were stored at 2 ± 0.5°C and 90 ± 5% relative humidity for 90 days. At 15-day intervals, 40 fruits (four replicates and 10 fruits in each replicate were sampled and further stored at 20°C for 3 days (shelf life. Chilling injury (CI index and weight loss (WL in intact fruits, electrolyte leakage (EL and K leakage (KL in peel samples, total soluble solids (TSS, titratable acidity (TA, TSS/TA ratio and pH in fruit juice were measured. With respect to quality parameters, TSS did not change significantly under cold storage. According to TA changes, the TSS/TA ratio was decreased up to 30 days but subsequently increased and the highest ratio was detected at the end of storage, which was significantly higher than the TSS/TA ratio at the harvest time. Results related to CI index, WL, EL and KL showed that pomegranate fruits could be stored cold without significant chilling damages up to 30 days. It was suggested that performing the IW treatment during this period could be concomitant with desired effects in long-term storage of this commercial cultivar.

  15. Why do insects enter and recover from chill coma? Low temperature and high extracellular potassium compromises muscle function in Locusta migratoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Findsen, Anders; Pedersen, Thomas Holm; Petersen, Asbjørn G;

    2014-01-01

    When exposed to low temperatures, many insect species enter a reversible comatose state (chill coma), which is driven by a failure of neuromuscular function. Chill coma and chill coma recovery have been associated with a loss and recovery of ion-homeostasis (particularly extracellular [K+]) and...... accordingly onset of chill coma has been hypothesised to result from depolarization of membrane potential caused by loss of ion-homeostasis. Here we examined whether onset of chill coma is associated with a disturbance in ion balance by examining the correlation between disruption of ion homeostasis and onset...... of chill coma in locusts exposed to cold at varying rates of cooling. Chill coma onset temperature changed maximally 1°C under different cooling rates and marked disturbances of ion homeostasis were not observed at any of the cooling rates. In a second set of experiments we used isolated tibial...

  16. National Security Science and Technology Initiative: Air Cargo Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, Philip R [ORNL; White, Tim [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Cespedes, Ernesto [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Bowerman, Biays [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Bush, John [Battelle

    2010-11-01

    The non-intrusive inspection (NII) of consolidated air cargo carried on commercial passenger aircraft continues to be a technically challenging, high-priority requirement of the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate (DHS S&T), the Transportation Security Agency and the Federal Aviation Administration. The goal of deploying a screening system that can reliably and cost-effectively detect explosive threats in consolidated cargo without adversely affecting the flow of commerce will require significant technical advances that will take years to develop. To address this critical National Security need, the Battelle Memorial Institute (Battelle), under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with four of its associated US Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, Idaho, and Brookhaven), conducted a research and development initiative focused on identifying, evaluating, and integrating technologies for screening consolidated air cargo for the presence of explosive threats. Battelle invested $8.5M of internal research and development funds during fiscal years 2007 through 2009. The primary results of this effort are described in this document and can be summarized as follows: (1) Completed a gap analysis that identified threat signatures and observables, candidate technologies for detection, their current state of development, and provided recommendations for improvements to meet air cargo screening requirements. (2) Defined a Commodity/Threat/Detection matrix that focuses modeling and experimental efforts, identifies technology gaps and game-changing opportunities, and provides a means of summarizing current and emerging capabilities. (3) Defined key properties (e.g., elemental composition, average density, effective atomic weight) for basic commodity and explosive benchmarks, developed virtual models of the physical distributions (pallets) of three commodity types and three

  17. Nitric Oxide Mediates 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Induced Antioxidant Defense in Leaves of Elymus nutans Griseb. Exposed to Chilling Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjuan Fu

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO and 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA are both extremely important signalling molecules employed by plants to control many aspects of physiology. In the present study, the role of NO in ALA-induced antioxidant defense in leaves of two sources of Elymus nutans Griseb. (Damxung, DX and Zhengdao, ZD was investigated. Chilling stress enhanced electrolyte leakage, accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and superoxide radical in two E. nutans, which were substantially alleviated by exogenous ALA and NO application. Pretreatment with NO scavenger PTIO or NOS inhibitor L-NNA alone and in combination with ALA induced enhancements in electrolyte leakage and the accumulation of MDA, H2O2 and superoxide radical in leaves of DX and ZD exposed to chilling stress, indicating that the inhibition of NO biosynthesis reduced the chilling resistance of E. nutans and the ALA-enhanced chilling resistance. Further analyses showed that ALA and NO enhanced antioxidant defense and activated plasma membrane (PM H+-ATPase and decreased the accumulation of ROS induced by chilling stress. A pronounced increase in nitric oxide synthase (NOS activity and NO release by exogenous ALA treatment was found in chilling-resistant DX plants exposed to chilling stress, while only a little increase was observed in chilling-sensitive ZD. Furthermore, inhibition of NO accumulation by PTIO or L-NNA blocked the protective effect of exogenous ALA, while both exogenous NO treatment and inhibition of endogenous NO accumulation did not induce ALA production. These results suggested that NO might be a downstream signal mediating ALA-induced chilling resistance in E. nutans.

  18. Freshness assessment of thawed and chilled cod fillets packed in modified atmosphere using near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøknæs, Niels; Jensen, K.N.; Andersen, Charlotte Møller; Martens, H.

    2002-01-01

    Near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectra was recorded of 105 samples of cod mince prepared from chill stored thawed cod fillets of varying quality in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). Traditional chemical, physical, microbiological and sensory quality methods developed for assessing fresh fish...... predicted duration of chill storage period (days at 2 degreesC). The root-mean-square error of cross- validation (RMSECV) was 3.4 d at 2 degreesC. NIR measurements provided promising results for evaluation of freshness for thawed-chilled MAP cod fillets completing the traditionally quality methods. However...

  19. Effect of pre-chilling and environmental factors on breaking seed dormancy and germination of three foxtail species

    OpenAIRE

    Vajihe AMINI; Faezeh ZAEFARIAN; Rezvani, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The effect of wet and dry pre-chilling duration, pH, osmotic stress, salt stress and planting depth on seed germination and seedling emergence of three foxtail species (Setaria glauca, S. verticillata and S. viridis) was investigated in a series of laboratory and greenhouse experiments. Both wet and dry pre-chilling for 45 days promoted seed germination of S. glauca compared with the control. Pre-chilling was not significantly effective in seed dormancy breaking of S. viridis and S. verticill...

  20. Working out of generalized dynamic model of cargo fixation with cargo pads jointly with flexible and thrust elements under the action spatial force system

    OpenAIRE

    Khabibulla TURANOV; Elena TIMUKHINA

    2011-01-01

    The article gives an account of the results of working out a generalized dynamic model of fixation of cargo with pads jointly with flexible and thrust elements. Working out a generalized dynamic model of cargo fixation is rather a complicated problem not in the sense of solving differential equations systems but in the sense of presenting them as a complex mechanical system “cargo – pads – flexible elements – thrust bars”. Generalized dynamic model of cargo with pads observed that this model ...

  1. Vesicular glutamate transporter 1 orchestrates recruitment of other synaptic vesicle cargo proteins during synaptic vesicle recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ping-Yue; Marrs, Julia; Ryan, Timothy A

    2015-09-11

    A long standing question in synaptic physiology is how neurotransmitter-filled vesicles are rebuilt after exocytosis. Among the first steps in this process is the endocytic retrieval of the transmembrane proteins that are enriched in synaptic vesicles (SVs). At least six types of transmembrane proteins must be recovered, but the rules for how this multiple cargo selection is accomplished are poorly understood. Among these SV cargos is the vesicular glutamate transporter (vGlut). We show here that vGlut1 has a strong influence on the kinetics of retrieval of half of the known SV cargos and that specifically impairing the endocytosis of vGlut1 in turn slows down other SV cargos, demonstrating that cargo retrieval is a collective cargo-driven process. Finally, we demonstrate that different cargos can be retrieved in the same synapse with different kinetics, suggesting that additional post-endocytic sorting steps likely occur in the nerve terminal. PMID:26224632

  2. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Vacuum Purge System Chilled Water System Design Description (SYS 47-4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    2000-06-13

    This system design description (SDD) addresses the Vacuum Purge System Chilled Water (VPSCHW) system. The discussion that follows is limited to the VPSCHW system and its interfaces with associated systems. The reader's attention is directed to Drawings H-1-82162, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Process Equipment Skid P&ID Vacuum System, and H-1-82224, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Mechanical Utilities Process Chilled Water P&ID. Figure 1-1 shows the location and equipment arrangement for the VPSCHW system. The VPSCHW system provides chilled water to the Vacuum Purge System (VPS). The chilled water provides the ability to condense water from the multi-canister overpack (MCO) outlet gases during the MCO vacuum and purge cycles. By condensing water from the MCO purge gas, the VPS can assist in drying the contents of the MCO.

  3. Effect of Nb on Structure and Mechanical Properties of Chilled Cast Iron at Room and Elevated Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qijie ZHAI; Li FU; Huaying ZHAI

    2004-01-01

    Effect of Nb on microstructure and mechanical properties of chilled cast iron at room and elevated temperatures is studied in this research. The results demonstrate that the cast structure and mechanical properties of chilled cast iron at room and elevated temperatures are improved with the addition of trace amount of Nb. However, if Nb was added too much, the cast structure and mechanical properties of chilled cast iron would deteriorate. The suitable content of Nb in chilled cast iron is about 0.05% (mass fraction). Except the dissolution in the matrix of cast iron the excessive Nb will form Nb-rich phases in three morphologies. Those are lumpy NbC, complicated strip-like phase and compound with pearlite structure.

  4. Comparison of residual stresses in sand- and chill casting of ductile cast iron wind turbine main shafts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Frandsen, J. O.; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2015-01-01

    In this work, simulations of pouring, solidification and cooling, and residual stress evolution of sand and chill cast wind turbine main shafts is performed. The models are made in the commercial software MAGMAsoft. As expected, the cooling rate of the sand casting is shown to be much lower than...... for the chill casting, resulting in a very course microstructure.From the simulations the nodule count is found to be 17 nodules per mm2 and 159 nodules permm2 for the sand and chill casting, respectively, in the critical region of the main bearing seat.This is verified from nodule counts performed on...... the real cast main shafts. Residual stressevaluations show an overall increase of the maximum principal stress field for the chill casting,which is expected. However, the stresses are found to be in compression on the surface of thechill cast main shaft, which is unforeseen....

  5. 46 CFR 153.490 - Cargo Record Book and Approved Procedures and Arrangements Manual: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Record Book and Approved Procedures and... Cargo Record Book and Approved Procedures and Arrangements Manual: Categories A, B, C, and D. (a) Unless... carry NLS cargo, a ship must have— (1) If U.S., a Cargo Record Book published by the Coast Guard...

  6. Variation in chilling tolerance for photosynthesis and leaf extension growth among genotypes related to the C-4 grass Miscanthus xgiganteus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowacka, K; Adhikari, S; Peng, JH; Gifford, J; Juvik, JA; Long, SP; Sacks, EJ

    2014-09-08

    The goal of this study was to identify cold-tolerant genotypes within two species of Miscanthus related to the exceptionally chilling-tolerant C-4 biomass crop accession: M. xgiganteus 'Illinois' (Mxg) as well as in other Mxg genotypes. The ratio of leaf elongation at 10 degrees C/5 degrees C to that at 25 degrees C/25 degrees C was used to identify initially the 13 most promising Miscanthus genotypes out of 51 studied. Net leaf CO2 uptake (A(sat)) and the maximum operating efficiency of photosystem II (Phi(PSII)) were measured in warm conditions (25 degrees C/20 degrees C), and then during and following a chilling treatment of 10 degrees C/5 degrees C for 11 d. Accessions of M. sacchariflorus (Msa) showed the smallest decline in leaf elongation on transfer to chilling conditions and did not differ significantly from Mxg, indicating greater chilling tolerance than diploid M. sinensis (Msi). Msa also showed the smallest reductions in A(sat) and Phi(PSII), and greater chilling-tolerant photosynthesis than Msi, and three other forms of Mxg, including new triploid accessions and a hexaploid Mxg 'Illinois'. Tetraploid Msa 'PF30153' collected in Gifu Prefecture in Honshu, Japan did not differ significantly from Mxg 'Illinois' in leaf elongation and photosynthesis at low temperature, but was significantly superior to all other forms of Mxg tested. The results suggested that the exceptional chilling tolerance of Mxg 'Illinois' cannot be explained simply by the hybrid vigour of this intraspecific allotriploid. Selection of chilling-tolerant accessions from both of Mxg's parental species, Msi and Msa, would be advisable for breeding new highly chilling-tolerant Mxg genotypes.

  7. CFX Analysis of the Heat and Mass Transfer During the Chilling of a Lamb Carcass using a 3D Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hannon, Joseph; Keane, Garrett; O'Flaherty, Micheal

    2013-01-01

    Lamb meat is a popular red meat which must go through a complex refrigeration process before being served at the dinner table to reduce bacterial growth and retain meat quality. A major disadvantage of chilling is the drip losses which are losses in weight by evaporation of water contained within the meat. The aim of this work is to simulate the conventional chilling process of a lamb carcass using a three dimensional model.

  8. Artificial selection on chill-coma recovery time in Drosophila melanogaster: Direct and correlated responses to selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerken, Alison R; Mackay, Trudy F C; Morgan, Theodore J

    2016-07-01

    Artificial selection can be used to create populations with extreme phenotypic responses to environmental stressors. When artificial selection is applied to a single component of a stress response, this selection may result in correlated responses in other stress responses, a phenomenon called cross-tolerance, which is ultimately controlled by the genetic correlations among traits. We selected for extreme responses to cold tolerance by selecting for chill-coma recovery time from a single temperate population of Drosophila melanogaster. Chill-coma recovery time is a common metric of low, but non-lethal, cold temperature tolerance. Replicated divergent artificial selection was applied to a genetically variable base population for 31 generations, resulting in two cold resistant, two cold susceptible, and two unselected control lines. To quantify the relationship between selection on chill-coma recovery and other metrics of thermal performance, we also measured survivorship after acute cold exposure, survivorship after chronic cold exposure, survivorship after cold exposure following a pre-treatment period (rapid cold hardening), starvation tolerance, and heat tolerance. We find that chill-coma recovery time is heritable within this population and that there is an asymmetric response to increased and decreased chill-coma recovery time. Surprisingly, we found no cross-tolerances between selection on chill-coma recovery time and the other environmental stress response traits. These results suggest that although artificial selection has dramatically altered chill-coma recovery time, the correlated response to selection on other stress response phenotypes has been negligible. The lack of a correlated response suggests that chill-coma recovery time in these selection lines is likely genetically independent from measures of cold survivorship tested here. PMID:27264892

  9. Comparative metabolomic analysis reveals a reactive oxygen species-dominated dynamic model underlying chilling environment adaptation and tolerance in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyu; Luo, Wei; Zhao, Yuan; Xu, Yunyuan; Song, Shuhui; Chong, Kang

    2016-09-01

    Cold, a major environmental stress for plants, has been studied intensively for decades. Its response system has been revealed, especially at the transcriptional level. The mechanisms underlying recovery growth and environmental adaptation, however, remain unknown. Taking advantage of a naturally existing system, two subspecies of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) with significant divergence in chilling tolerance, we analyzed representative japonica and indica varieties, Nipponbare and 93-11, using comparative metabolomic analysis at six time points covering chilling treatment and recovery. In total, 223 known metabolites were detected. During chilling treatment, significant biochemical changes were centered on antioxidation. During recovery, a wide-ranging chilling response was observed. Large-scale amino acid accumulation occurred, consistent with the appearance of chilling injury. At the mid-treatment stage, the accumulation of antioxidation-related compounds appeared earlier in Nipponbare than in 93-11, consistent with the higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in japonica vs indica varieties. A significant contribution of ROS-mediated gene regulation, rather than the C-repeat binding factor/dehydration-responsive-element binding factor (CBF/DREB) regulon, to the more vigorous transcriptional stress response in Nipponbare was revealed by RNA-seq. Accordingly, during recovery, the induction of stress-tolerant-related metabolites was more active in the chilling-tolerant variety Nipponbare. Senescence-related compounds accumulated only in the chilling-sensitive variety 93-11. Our study uncovers the dynamic metabolic models underlying chilling response and recovery, and reveals a ROS-dominated rice adaptation mechanism to low-temperature environments. PMID:27198693

  10. “On-Off” Thermoresponsive Coating Agent Containing Salicylic Acid Applied to Maize Seeds for Chilling Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Yajing; Li, Zhan; He, Fei; Huang, Yutao; Song, Wenjian; Hu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Chilling stress is an important constraint for maize seed establishment in the field. In this study, a type of “on-off” thermoresponsive coating agent containing poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-butylmethacrylate) (Abbr. P(NIPAm-co-BMA)) hydrogel was developed to improve the chilling tolerance of coated maize seed. The P(NIPAm-co-BMA) hydrogel was synthesized by free-radical polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) and butylmethacrylate (BMA). Salicylic acid (SA) was loaded in the hydrog...

  11. Development of a Cargo Screening Process Simulator: A First Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Siebers, Peer-Olaf; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    The efficiency of current cargo screening processes at sea and air ports is largely unknown as few benchmarks exists against which they could be measured. Some manufacturers provide benchmarks for individual sensors but we found no benchmarks that take a holistic view of the overall screening procedures and no benchmarks that take operator variability into account. Just adding up resources and manpower used is not an effective way for assessing systems where human decision-making and operator compliance to rules play a vital role. Our aim is to develop a decision support tool (cargo-screening system simulator) that will map the right technology and manpower to the right commodity-threat combination in order to maximise detection rates. In this paper we present our ideas for developing such a system and highlight the research challenges we have identified. Then we introduce our first case study and report on the progress we have made so far.

  12. Implementation of cargo MagLev in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Chris R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Peterson, Dean E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leung, Eddie M [MAGTEC ENGINEERING

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have been completed in the United States, but no commercial MagLev systems have been deployed. Outside the U.S., MagLev continues to attract funding for research, development and implementation. A brief review of recent global developments in MagLev technology is given followed by the status of MagLev in the U.S. The paper compares the cost of existing MagLev systems with other modes of transport, notes that the near-term focus of MagLev development in the U.S. should be for cargo, and suggests that future MagLev systems should be for very high speed cargo. The Los Angeles to Port of Los Angeles corridor is suggested as a first site for implementation. The benefits of MagLev are described along with suggestions on how to obtain funding.

  13. Exogenous Melatonin Treatment Increases Chilling Tolerance and Induces Defense Response in Harvested Peach Fruit during Cold Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shifeng; Song, Chunbo; Shao, Jiarong; Bian, Kun; Chen, Wei; Yang, Zhenfeng

    2016-06-29

    The effect of exogenous melatonin on chilling injury in peach fruit after harvest was investigated. To explore the optimum concentration of melatonin for chilling tolerance induction, peach fruit were treated with 50, 100, or 200 μM melatonin for 120 min and then stored for 28 days at 4 °C. The results showed that application of melatonin at 100 μM was most effective in reducing chilling injury of peach fruit after harvest. Peaches treated with melatonin at this concentration displayed higher levels of extractable juice rate and total soluble solids than the non-treated peaches. In addition, melatonin treatment enhanced expression of PpADC, PpODC, and PpGAD and consequently increased polyamines and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) contents. Meanwhile, the upregulated transcripts of PpADC and PpODC and inhibited PpPDH expression resulted in the higher proline content in melatonin-treated fruit compared to the control fruit. Our results revealed that melatonin treatment may be a useful technique to alleviate chilling injury in cold-stored peach fruit. The chilling tolerance of harvested peaches induced by melatonin treatment is associated with higher levels of polyamine, GABA, and proline. These data provided here are the first protective evidence of exogenous melatonin in harvested horticultural products in response to direct chilling stress. PMID:27281292

  14. Cold Stress Tolerance in Psychrotolerant Soil Bacteria and Their Conferred Chilling Resistance in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) under Low Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Parthiban; Kim, Kiyoon; Krishnamoorthy, Ramasamy; Mageswari, Anbazhagan; Selvakumar, Gopal; Sa, Tongmin

    2016-01-01

    The present work aimed to study the culturable diversity of psychrotolerant bacteria persistent in soil under overwintering conditions, evaluate their ability to sustain plant growth and alleviate chilling stress in tomato. Psychrotolerant bacteria were isolated from agricultural field soil samples colleced during winter and then used to study chilling stress alleviation in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum cv Mill). Selective isolation after enrichment at 5°C yielded 40 bacterial isolates. Phylogenetic studies indicated their distribution in genera Arthrobacter, Flavimonas, Flavobacterium, Massilia, Pedobacter and Pseudomonas. Strains OS211, OB146, OB155 and OS261 consistently improved germination and plant growth when a chilling stress of 15°C was imposed and therefore were selected for pot experiments. Tomato plants treated with the selected four isolates exhibited significant tolerance to chilling as observed through reduction in membrane damage and activation of antioxidant enzymes along with proline synthesis in the leaves when exposed to chilling temperature conditions (15°C). Psychrotolerant physiology of the isolated bacteria combined with their ability to improve germination, plant growth and induce antioxidant capacity in tomato plants can be employed to protect plants against chilling stress. PMID:27580055

  15. Use of gamma irradiation for improving the hygienic quality of chilled chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresh, chilled chicken carcasses were irradiated at 2.5 kGy and stored at 40 degree C. At intervals samples were withdrawn for microbial, chemical and sensory evaluation. Result showed that combination of a 2.5 kGy irradiation dose and storage at 4 degree C were adequate for a radicidised chicken process. Immediately after irradiation, the microbial spoilage was reduced by at least 4 log cycles. The carcasses were qf excellent quality for at least 16 days of storage and were free from Salmonella and other food pathogens. Changes in chemical composition (moisture, fat, protein, ash and amino acids) and sensory quality of chicken carcasses irradiated at 2.5 kGy were not significant. Therefore the dose of 2.5 kGy should be the target for chilled chicken irradiation process

  16. An operational experience with cooling tower water system in chilling plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooling towers are popular in industries as a very effective evaporative cooling technology for air conditioning. Supply of chilled water to air conditioning equipments of various plant buildings and cooling tower water to important equipments for heat removal is the purpose of chilling plant at PRPD. The cooling medium used is raw water available at site. Water chemistry is maintained by make-up and blowdown. In this paper, various observations made during plant operation and equipment maintenance are discussed. The issues observed was scaling and algal growth affecting the heat transfer and availability of the equipment. Corrosion related issues were observed to be less significant. Scaling indices were calculated to predict the behavior. (author)

  17. Calculation of the Chilling Requirement for Air Conditioning in the Excavation Roadway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueping Qin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To effectively improve the climate conditions of the excavation roadway in coal mine, the calculation of the chilling requirement taking air conditioning measures is extremely necessary. The temperature field of the surrounding rock with moving boundary in the excavation roadway was numerically simulated by using finite volume method. The unstable heat transfer coefficient between the surrounding rock and air flow was obtained via the previous calculation. According to the coupling effects of the air flow inside and outside air duct, the differential calculation mathematical model of air flow temperature in the excavation roadway was established. The chilling requirement was calculated with the selfdeveloped computer program for forecasting the required cooling capacity of the excavation roadway. A good air conditioning effect had been observed after applying the calculated results to field trial, which indicated that the prediction method and calculation procedure were reliable.

  18. Up-grading the quality of chilled chicken by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresh, chilled chicken carcasses were irradiated at 2.5 kGy and stored at 4 deg C. At intervals samples were withdrawn for microbial, chemical and sensory evaluation. Results showed that combination of a 2.5 kGy irradiation dose and storage at 4 deg C were adequate for a radicidised chicken process. Immediately after irradiation, the microbial spoilage was reduced by at least 4 log cycles. The carcasses were of excelllent quality for at least 16 days of storage and were free from Salmonella and other food pathogenes. Changes in chemical composition ( moisture, fat, protein, ash and amino acids) and sensory quality of chicken carcasses irradiated at 2.5 kGy were not significant. Therefore the dose of 2.5 kGy should be the target for chilled chicken irradiation process

  19. Impact of personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling on eye irritation symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Marcol, Bartosz; Kaczmarczyk, Jan;

    2014-01-01

    , elevated air movement toward face and increased radiant cooling may have impact on the eye symptoms. Twenty four human subjects participated in experiments with PV combined with chilled ceiling system (CCPV) and with mixing ventilation (MV) combined with chilled ceiling (CCMV). In the experiments with PV...... at workstations with computers. Exposure included also a higher activity level office work for a period of 25 min outside computer workstations. The influence of the environment on eye symptoms was assessed by subjective votes and objective measurements. Subjects reported on the eye irritation and the intensity...... of eye dryness 6 times throughout each experiment. Eye tear film samples were taken at the beginning and the end of the exposure. The blinking rate was analysed in the beginning and at the end of exposures. The preliminary results of the analyses reveal that the environment subjects were exposed to had...

  20. Inhibition Effect of Herbal Preservatives on Listeria monocytogenes on Chilled Pork

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Liu; KONG Baohua; DIAO Xinping; LIU Jing

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the growth situation of Listeria monocytogenes on chilled pork and the effect of herbal preservatives on this pathogen.The inhibitions of herbal preservatives were identified. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of cinnamon and clove were all 0.79 mg·mL-1,while the rosemary was 1.58 mg.mL-1.And the composite herbal preservatives were got through orthogonal experiment.The optimum proportion was as following on agar medium:1.16 mg·mL-1 cinnamon+2.38 mg·mL-1 rosemary+3.17mg·mL-1 clove (herb combination number 5),while on chilled pork,the strong inhibition of L.monocytogenes was showed,which demonstrated that the surface application of herb combination resulted in an effective delay of L.monocytogenes growth.

  1. The Application Model of Moving Objects in Cargo Delivery System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Feng-li; ZHOU Ming-tian; XU Bo

    2004-01-01

    The development of spatio-temporal database systems is primarily motivated by applications which track and present mobile objects. In this paper, solutions for establishing the moving object database based on GPS/GIS environment are presented, and a data modeling of moving object is given by using Temporal logical to extent the query language, finally the application model in cargo delivery system is shown.

  2. Reject or embrace? Messengers and electric cargo bikes

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Johannes; Kihm, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    One of many approaches to react to the challenges faced by urban freight can be the introduction of electric cargo bikes as an environmentally friendly mode of transport for courier deliveries. Since this market consists of highly decentralized decision-making structures, it is important to characterize the individuals involved and their perceptions in order to estimate market potentials and identify barriers to market uptake. To achieve this goal, we use information from a nationwide survey ...

  3. SIMULATION OF CARGO CONTAINER INTERROGATION BY D-D NEUTRONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High fidelity, three-dimensional computer models based on a CAD drawing of an intermodal cargo container, representative payload objects, and detector array panels were developed to simulate the underlying physical events taking place during active interrogation. These computer models are used to assess the performance of interrogation systems with different sources and detection schemes. In this presentation, we will show that the use oversimplified models, such as analyzing homogenized payloads only, can lead to errors in determining viable approaches for interrogation

  4. SHIP AND CARGO MORTGAGE, TWO DIFFERENT LEGAL VIEWPOINTS

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Abouata

    2015-01-01

    Although the subject-matter of cargo and ship mortgage are similar (providing financial security for creditors),the regulations of these contracts, differ from each other essentially with regard to the conditionality of taking possession in concluding the contract, the possibility of endorsement and cession in mortgage document, the creditor s kind of real right ,the preference of prior or latter creditor in vindication of right and the effect of mortgage loss on the contract and the pos...

  5. SIMULATION OF CARGO CONTAINER INTERROGATION BY D-D NEUTRONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou, Tak Pui; Antolak, Arlyn

    2007-02-15

    High fidelity, three-dimensional computer models based on a CAD drawing of an intermodal cargo container, representative payload objects, and detector array panels were developed to simulate the underlying physical events taking place during active interrogation. These computer models are used to assess the performance of interrogation systems with different sources and detection schemes. In this presentation, we will show that the use oversimplified models, such as analyzing homogenized payloads only, can lead to errors in determining viable approaches for interrogation.

  6. Hydrogel Walkers with Electro-Driven Motility for Cargo Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Yang; Wei Wang; Chen Yao; Rui Xie; Xiao-Jie Ju; Zhuang Liu; Liang-Yin Chu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, soft hydrogel walkers with electro-driven motility for cargo transport have been developed via a facile mould-assisted strategy. The hydrogel walkers consisting of polyanionic poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid-co-acrylamide) exhibit an arc looper-like shape with two “legs” for walking. The hydrogel walkers can reversibly bend and stretch via repeated “on/off” electro-triggers in electrolyte solution. Based on such bending/stretching behaviors, the hydrogel walkers ...

  7. Cargo-Positioning System for Next-Generation Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Jon; Colton, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    A report discusses a proposed system for mounting loaded pallets in the cargo bay of a next-generation space-shuttle-like spacecraft, such that the center of mass of the cargo would lie within a 1-in. (2.54-cm) cube that would also contain the center of mass of the spacecraft. The system would include (1) an algorithm for planning the locations of the pallets, given the geometric and weight properties of the pallets, and the geometric restrictions of the cargo bay; (2) quick-connect/quick-disconnect mounting mechanisms similar to those now used on air hoses; (3) other mounting mechanisms, comprising mostly spring-loaded pins, in a locking subsystem that would prevent shifting of the pallets under load; and (4) mechanisms for performing fine position adjustments to satisfy the center-of-mass requirement. The position- adjusting mechanisms would be motor-driven lead-screw mechanisms in groups of three - one for positioning each pin of the locking subsystem along each of three mutually perpendicular coordinate axes. The system also would include a triple-threaded screw that would provide compensation for thermal expansion or contraction of the spacecraft.

  8. A Novel Multilayered RFID Tagged Cargo Integrity Assurance Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming Hour; Luo, Jia Ning; Lu, Shao Yong

    2015-01-01

    To minimize cargo theft during transport, mobile radio frequency identification (RFID) grouping proof methods are generally employed to ensure the integrity of entire cargo loads. However, conventional grouping proofs cannot simultaneously generate grouping proofs for a specific group of RFID tags. The most serious problem of these methods is that nonexistent tags are included in the grouping proofs because of the considerable amount of time it takes to scan a high number of tags. Thus, applying grouping proof methods in the current logistics industry is difficult. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a method for generating multilayered offline grouping proofs. The proposed method provides tag anonymity; moreover, resolving disputes between recipients and transporters over the integrity of cargo deliveries can be expedited by generating grouping proofs and automatically authenticating the consistency between the receipt proof and pick proof. The proposed method can also protect against replay attacks, multi-session attacks, and concurrency attacks. Finally, experimental results verify that, compared with other methods for generating grouping proofs, the proposed method can efficiently generate offline grouping proofs involving several parties in a supply chain using mobile RFID. PMID:26512673

  9. Diffusion-Limited Cargo Loading of an Engineered Protein Container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschoche, Reinhard; Hilvert, Donald

    2015-12-30

    The engineered bacterial nanocompartment AaLS-13 is a promising artificial encapsulation system that exploits electrostatic interactions for cargo loading. In order to study its ability to take up and retain guests, a pair of fluorescent proteins was developed which allows spectroscopic determination of the extent of encapsulation by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). The encapsulation process is generally complete within a second, suggesting low energetic barriers for proteins to cross the capsid shell. Formation of intermediate aggregates upon mixing host and guest in vitro complicates capsid loading at low ionic strength, but can be sidestepped by increasing salt concentrations or diluting the components. Encapsulation of guests is completely reversible, and the position of the equilibrium is easily tuned by varying the ionic strength. These results, which challenge the notion that AaLS-13 is a continuous rigid shell, provide valuable information about cargo loading that will guide ongoing efforts to engineer functional host-guest complexes. Moreover, it should be possible to adapt the protein FRET pair described in this report to characterize functional capsid-cargo complexes generated by other encapsulation systems. PMID:26637019

  10. Secreted primary human malignant mesothelioma exosome signature reflects oncogenic cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, David W; Ji, Hong; Chen, Maoshan; Robinson, Bruce W S; Dick, Ian M; Creaney, Jenette; Simpson, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a highly-aggressive heterogeneous malignancy, typically diagnosed at advanced stage. An important area of mesothelioma biology and progression is understanding intercellular communication and the contribution of the secretome. Exosomes are secreted extracellular vesicles shown to shuttle cellular cargo and direct intercellular communication in the tumour microenvironment, facilitate immunoregulation and metastasis. In this study, quantitative proteomics was used to investigate MM-derived exosomes from distinct human models and identify select cargo protein networks associated with angiogenesis, metastasis, and immunoregulation. Utilising bioinformatics pathway/network analyses, and correlation with previous studies on tumour exosomes, we defined a select mesothelioma exosomal signature (mEXOS, 570 proteins) enriched in tumour antigens and various cancer-specific signalling (HPGD/ENO1/OSMR) and secreted modulators (FN1/ITLN1/MAMDC2/PDGFD/GBP1). Notably, such circulating cargo offers unique insights into mesothelioma progression and tumour microenvironment reprogramming. Functionally, we demonstrate that oncogenic exosomes facilitate the migratory capacity of fibroblast/endothelial cells, supporting the systematic model of MM progression associated with vascular remodelling and angiogenesis. We provide biophysical and proteomic characterisation of exosomes, define a unique oncogenic signature (mEXOS), and demonstrate the regulatory capacity of exosomes in cell migration/tube formation assays. These findings contribute to understanding tumour-stromal crosstalk in the context of MM, and potential new diagnostic and therapeutic extracellular targets. PMID:27605433

  11. Calcium and cargoes as regulators of myosin 5a activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myosin 5a is a two-headed actin-dependent motor that transports various cargoes in cells. Its enzymology and mechanochemistry have been extensively studied in vitro. It is a processive motor that takes multiple 36 nm steps on actin. The enzymatic activity of myosin 5 is regulated by an intramolecular folding mechanism whereby its lever arms fold back against the coiled-coil tail such that the motor domains directly bind the globular tail domains. We show that the structure seen in individual folded molecules is consistent with electron density map of two-dimensional crystals of the molecule. In this compact state, the actin-activated MgATPase activity of the molecule is markedly inhibited and the molecule cannot move processively on surface bound actin filaments. The actin-activated MgATPase activity of myosin 5a is activated by increasing the calcium concentration or by binding of a cargo-receptor molecule, melanophilin, in vitro. However, calcium binding to the calmodulin light chains results in dissociation of some of the calmodulin which disrupts the ability of myosin 5a to move on actin filaments in vitro. Thus we propose that the physiologically relevant activation pathway in vivo involves binding of cargo-receptor proteins

  12. Secreted primary human malignant mesothelioma exosome signature reflects oncogenic cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, David W.; Ji, Hong; Chen, Maoshan; Robinson, Bruce W. S.; Dick, Ian M.; Creaney, Jenette; Simpson, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a highly-aggressive heterogeneous malignancy, typically diagnosed at advanced stage. An important area of mesothelioma biology and progression is understanding intercellular communication and the contribution of the secretome. Exosomes are secreted extracellular vesicles shown to shuttle cellular cargo and direct intercellular communication in the tumour microenvironment, facilitate immunoregulation and metastasis. In this study, quantitative proteomics was used to investigate MM-derived exosomes from distinct human models and identify select cargo protein networks associated with angiogenesis, metastasis, and immunoregulation. Utilising bioinformatics pathway/network analyses, and correlation with previous studies on tumour exosomes, we defined a select mesothelioma exosomal signature (mEXOS, 570 proteins) enriched in tumour antigens and various cancer-specific signalling (HPGD/ENO1/OSMR) and secreted modulators (FN1/ITLN1/MAMDC2/PDGFD/GBP1). Notably, such circulating cargo offers unique insights into mesothelioma progression and tumour microenvironment reprogramming. Functionally, we demonstrate that oncogenic exosomes facilitate the migratory capacity of fibroblast/endothelial cells, supporting the systematic model of MM progression associated with vascular remodelling and angiogenesis. We provide biophysical and proteomic characterisation of exosomes, define a unique oncogenic signature (mEXOS), and demonstrate the regulatory capacity of exosomes in cell migration/tube formation assays. These findings contribute to understanding tumour-stromal crosstalk in the context of MM, and potential new diagnostic and therapeutic extracellular targets. PMID:27605433

  13. A Novel Multilayered RFID Tagged Cargo Integrity Assurance Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Hour Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To minimize cargo theft during transport, mobile radio frequency identification (RFID grouping proof methods are generally employed to ensure the integrity of entire cargo loads. However, conventional grouping proofs cannot simultaneously generate grouping proofs for a specific group of RFID tags. The most serious problem of these methods is that nonexistent tags are included in the grouping proofs because of the considerable amount of time it takes to scan a high number of tags. Thus, applying grouping proof methods in the current logistics industry is difficult. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a method for generating multilayered offline grouping proofs. The proposed method provides tag anonymity; moreover, resolving disputes between recipients and transporters over the integrity of cargo deliveries can be expedited by generating grouping proofs and automatically authenticating the consistency between the receipt proof and pick proof. The proposed method can also protect against replay attacks, multi-session attacks, and concurrency attacks. Finally, experimental results verify that, compared with other methods for generating grouping proofs, the proposed method can efficiently generate offline grouping proofs involving several parties in a supply chain using mobile RFID.

  14. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua, and Lactic acid bacteria species in chill brine

    OpenAIRE

    Meadows, Bridget Archibald

    2004-01-01

    SURVIVAL OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES, LISTERIA INNOCUA, AND LACTIC ACID BACTERIA SPECIES IN CHILL BRINES Bridget Archibald Meadows (ABSTRACT) Listeria monocytogenes is the major pathogen in ready-to-eat meat products such as deli meats and frankfurters. Contamination can occur via the salt brines that are used to cool thermally processed meats. Both L. monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria can grow and thrive under these brine conditions, and may become competitive with each ot...

  15. Thrills, Chills, Frissons, and Skin Orgasms: Toward an Integrative Model of Transcendent Psychophysiological Moments in Music

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas D. Harrison; Psyche eLoui

    2014-01-01

    Music has a unique power to elicit moments of intense emotional and psychophysiological response. These moments – termed chills, thrills, frissons, etc. – are subjects of introspection and philosophical debate, as well as scientific study in music perception and cognition. The present article integrates the existing multidisciplinary literature in an attempt to define a comprehensive, testable, and ecologically valid model of transcendent psychophysiological moments in music.

  16. Adaptation to altitude affects the senescence response to chilling in the perennial plant Arabis alpina

    OpenAIRE

    Wingler, Astrid; Juvany, Marta; Cuthbert, Caroline; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2014-01-01

    In annual plants with determinate growth, sugar accumulation signals high carbon availability once growth has ceased, resulting in senescence-dependent nutrient recycling to the seeds. However, this senescence-inducing effect of sugars is abolished at cold temperature, where sugar accumulation is important for protection. Here, natural variation was exploited to analyse the effect of chilling on interactions between leaf senescence, sugars, and phytohormones in Arabis alpina, a perennial plan...

  17. In vivo pectin solubility in ripening and chill-injured tomato fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Domingos P. F.; Huber, Donald J.

    2008-01-01

    In vivo pectin solubility was examined in ripening and chill-injured tomato fruit with down-regulated polygalacturonase (PG, EC 3.2.1.15) activity and untransformed wild-type fruit by analyzing a pressure-extracted fluid of apoplastic origin. Pectin concentration in the apoplastic fluid increased threefold during ripening and was not affected by endogenous PG. In contrast, PG strongly affected pectin concentration in a bulk pericarp fluid obtained after tissue disruption. There was a 14-fo...

  18. Developmental stages of cultivated strawberry flowers in relation to chilling sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, Maria Teresa; Soria, Carmen; Martínez-Ferri, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors affecting flower development may limit the yields of fruiting crops worldwide. In temperate regions, chilling temperatures during flower development can compromise fruit production, but their negative effects vary depending on the differing susceptibilities of each developmental stage. The cultivated strawberry (Fragaria× ananassa Duch.) is widely grown worldwide but financial returns are influenced by sudden shifts to chilling temperatures occurring during the cropping cycle. Despite this important limitation, knowledge of F.× ananassa flower development is lacking, in contrast to the diploid wild-type strawberry (F. vesca). In this study we describe steps in floral development of cultivated strawberry and define their vulnerability to chilling temperatures. To achieve this, flower buds from strawberry plants of cv. 'Camarosa' were labelled and monitored from bud initiation until anthesis. Description of morphological and functional changes during flower development was based on histological sections and scanning electron microscopy. To determine the impact of low temperatures at different developmental stages, plants carrying buds of different sizes were chilled at 2 °C for 24 h. Several parameters related to male and female gametophyte development were later evaluated in flowers as they approached anthesis. Fragaria× ananassa flower development was divided into 16 stages according to landmark events. These stages were similar to those documented for F. vesca but three new additional intermediate stages were described. Timing of developmental processes was achieved by correlating developmental staging with specific bud sizes and days before anthesis. Time to reach anthesis from early bud stages was 17-18 days. During this period, we detected four critical periods vulnerable to low temperatures. These were mostly related to male gametophyte development but also to injury to female organs at late developmental stages. These results provide

  19. Thrills, Chills, Frissons, and Skin Orgasms: Toward an Integrative Model of Transcendent Psychophysiological Moments in Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas D. Harrison

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Music has a unique power to elicit moments of intense emotional and psychophysiological response. These moments – termed chills, thrills, frissons, etc. – are subjects of introspection and philosophical debate, as well as scientific study in music perception and cognition. The present article integrates the existing multidisciplinary literature in an attempt to define a comprehensive, testable, and ecologically valid model of transcendent psychophysiological moments in music.

  20. Sensory quality control in the chilled and frozen ready meal, soup and sauce sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Swainson, Mark; McWatt, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This chapter discusses the use of sensory evaluation in the assurance of product quality within the food production sectors of ready meals, soups and sauces. The chapter methodically reviews typical food processing stages, from recipe development through to end product supply, and considers how sensory assessment methods can be utilised to help assure the quality of the end products within these selected High Risk Chilled Food sectors.

  1. Manipulation of monoubiquitin improves chilling tolerance in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yanan; Zhang, Meng; Guo, Qifang; Wang, Guokun; Gong, Jiangfeng; Xu, Ying; Wang, Wei

    2014-02-01

    Ubiquitin (Ub) is a multifunctional protein that mainly functions to tag proteins for selective degradation by the 26S proteasome. We cloned an Ub gene TaUb2 from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) previously. To study the function of TaUB2 in chilling stress, sense and antisense Ub transgenic tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.), as well as wild type (WT) and vector control β-glucuronidase (T-GUS) plants, were used. Under stress, leaf wilting in sense plants was significantly less than in controls, but more severe in antisense plants. Meanwhile, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) in sense plants were greater than controls, but lower in antisense plants during chilling stress and recovery. Less wilting in sense plants resulted from improved water status, which may be related to the accumulation of proline and solute sugar. Furthermore, as indicated by electrolyte leakage, membrane damage under stress was less in sense plants and more severe in antisense plants than controls. Consistent with electrolyte leakage, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content was less in sense plants, but more in antisense plants compared to controls. Meanwhile, the less accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the greater antioxidant enzyme activity in sense plants implied the improved antioxidant competence by the overexpression of monoubiquitin gene Ta-Ub2 from wheat. We suggest that overexpressing Ub is a useful strategy to promote chilling tolerance. The improvement of ROS scavenging may be an important mechanism underlying the role of Ub in promoting plants tolerant to chilling stress. PMID:24445300

  2. Thrills, chills, frissons, and skin orgasms: toward an integrative model of transcendent psychophysiological experiences in music

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Luke; Loui, Psyche

    2014-01-01

    Music has a unique power to elicit moments of intense emotional and psychophysiological response. These moments – termed “chills,” “thrills”, “frissons,” etc. – are subjects of introspection and philosophical debate, as well as scientific study in music perception and cognition. The present article integrates the existing multidisciplinary literature in an attempt to define a comprehensive, testable, and ecologically valid model of transcendent psychophysiological moments in music....

  3. Music Chills: The Eye Pupil as a Window to the Soul of Music

    OpenAIRE

    Eidet, Lise Mette

    2015-01-01

    Strong emotional and bodily experiences with music are a very complex phenomenon that may be best observed in terms of the involuntary bodily reactions that can accompany strong musical experiences. Based on the relationship between the activation of noradrenaline (NE) and changes in pupil size, there is a theoretical ground for studying pupillary reactions when experiencing music chills. In the present study, participants listened to self-chosen songs versus control songs chosen by the other...

  4. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine

    OpenAIRE

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Feygenberg, Oleg; Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars ‘Hass’ and ‘Ettinger’ for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered ...

  5. Extending Shelf Life of Chilled Pork by Combination of Chitosan Coating With Spice Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Xiufang; KONG Baohua

    2008-01-01

    The effects of spices (cinnamon, rosemary, clove) extracts and chitosan on microbiological growth, drip loss, color, and lipid oxidation of fresh chilled meat stored for 28 days at 4"C were investigated. There were four treatments: control, coated with spices(cimmamon 1.5g·L-1+rosemary 1.5·L-1+colve 1.0 g·L-1),coated with 0.5% chitosan,coated with spices and chitosan.Chitosan coating resulted in significant inhibition of microbial growth (P<0.05), while the lowest microbial counts were obtained in the samples containing both chitosan and spices, indicating a possible synergistic effect. Chitosan and its combinations with spices also showed the most intense antioxidative effect when compared to the controls (P<0.05). Meanwhile, chitosan coating could decrease water loss and keep better color of chilled meat. The combined spice extracts and chitosan coating could effectively extend the shelf life of chilled meat.

  6. Growth crystallography of silicon phases in unmodified, impurity and chill modified Al-Si eutectic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In aluminium-silicon eutectic alloys the faceted silicon phase can have different morphologies and the solidification pattern can be changed by solidification conditions and by minor additions to the melt. The crystallography of eutectic silicon in the unmodified aluminium-silicon eutectic alloys has been studied in detail by scanning (SEM) and transmission techniques. Modification of the silicon by strontium and treatment of the aluminium-silicon alloys by antimony as well as the effect of chill modification have also been examined. The growth modes of the observed morphologies are discussed. Strontium modification results in decreased spacing and increased undercooling and multiple twinning was observed in the silicon fibres at all growth rates. These observations are reconciled with a modification mechanism in which strontium adsorbs at the silicon growth front, poisoning growth steps operating during flake growth and creating lattice instabilities which result in multiple twinning. In chill modified fibres, however, only cozonal twinning was observed and the density of twins decreased as the growth rate increased. The growth mechanism of chill modified fibres is reconciled with a modification mechanism that assumes a faceted-non/faceted transition in the silicon phase

  7. Analytical Method for Differentiation of Chilled and Frozen-Thawed Chicken Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Ivelina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available : Chilled and frozen chicken breast and thigh meat were stored at +4±1 oC and - 20±1 oC, respectively. Maillard reaction between ribose and meat proteins of the chicken samples was initiated. The changes in the ribose-induced Maillard reaction rate during chilled and frozen storage of chicken meat were evaluated on the bases of corrected absorbance values (A420* and bovine melanoidin equivalent values (mg BME/g. Application of BME as a measure of ribose-induced Maillard reaction rate enables comparability of the data obtained by different spectrophotometers. It was found that the BME values of chicken meat frozen stored for more than 15 days were significantly (P<0.05 lower than BME values of chilled-stored samples. According to the suggested threshold limit values the chicken thigh and breast meat with BME values lower than 30 mg BME/g and 51 mg BME/g, respectively could be classified as frozen-thawed.

  8. Hydrogen sulfide is involved in the chilling stress response in Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peining Fu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is an important signaling molecule involved in several stress-resistance processes in plants, such as drought and heavy metal stresses. However, little is known about the roles of H2S in responses to chilling stress. In this paper, we demonstrated that chilling stress enhance the H2S levels, the H2S synthetase (L-/D-cysteine desulfhydrase, L/DCD activities, and the expression of L/DCD gene in Vitis vinifera L. ‘F-242’. Furthermore, the seedlings were treated with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, a H2S donor and hypotaurine (HT, a H2S scavenger at 4°C to examine the effects of exogenous H2S on grape. The results revealed that the high activity of superoxide dismutase and enhanced expression of VvICE1 and VvCBF3 genes, but low level of super oxide anion radical, malondialdehyde content and cell membrane permeability were detected after addition of NaHS. In contrast, HT treatment displayed contrary effect under the chilling temperature. Taken together, these data suggested that H2S might be directly involved in the cold signal transduction pathway of grape.

  9. Antimicrobial Activities of Nisin, Tea Polyphenols, and Chitosan and their Combinations in Chilled Mutton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li; Zou, Likou; Yang, Qianru; Xia, Jinghua; Zhou, Kang; Zhu, Yuanting; Han, Xinfeng; Pu, Biao; Hu, Bin; Deng, Wenwen; Liu, Shuliang

    2016-06-01

    Antimicrobial activities of nisin, tea polyphenols (TPs), and chitosan, and their combinations were evaluated against both Gram-positive bacteria (GPB) and Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) by the agar dilution method. Results showed that the MIC of nisin was 2.44 to 1250 mg/L for GPB and reached 5000 mg/L for GNB. The MICs of TPs and chitosan were 313 to 625 mg/L and 469 mg/L for GNB, and 156 to 5000 mg/L and 234 to 938 mg/L for GPB, respectively. These results indicated that TPs and chitosan exhibited inhibitory effects against both GPB and GNB, whereas nisin inhibited the growth of GPB only. Based on the orthogonal test of their MICs, and evaluation of preservative effect and sensory attributes in chilled mutton, the optimum combination was chosen as 0.625, 0.313, and 3.752 g/L for nisin, TPs, and chitosan, respectively. By using the optimum treatment, the shelf life of chilled mutton was extended from 6 to 18 d at 4 °C in the preservative film packages. These results indicate that the combination of nisin, TPs, and chitosan could be used as preservatives to efficiently inhibit the growth of spoilage microorganisms and pathogens in meat, thus improving the safety and shelf life of chilled mutton. PMID:27096939

  10. Full-scale chilled pipeline frost heave testing, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, B. [Northern Engineering and Scientific, Anchorage, AK (United States); Isaacs, R.M. [RMI Associates, Camano Island, WA (United States); Myrick, J.E. [Myrick International, Tyler, TX (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed a chilled pipeline frost-heave testing facility that was developed to simulate and record the rate of frost heave and frost-bulb growth for a buried, chilled pipeline in frost-susceptible soil and to determine the effectiveness of different mitigation techniques. The test facility, which was established near Fairbanks, Alaska, in 1979, has 10 test sections using 1.22-metre-diameter pipe. The testing involved un-insulated, insulated, and insulated with over-excavation and gravel berm configurations as well as the frost heave of the chilled pipeline. The test facility was described in detail. Frost heave and frost-bulb growth measurements from the first 10 months of testing were presented, as these are the first data to enter the public domain. The testing was undertaken to investigate the frost-heave relationships between sections, to better understand frost heave in permafrost, to explore possible mitigation options, and to advance the predicative capabilities of frost heave models. 12 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

  11. Use of Aloe vera-based extender for chilling and freezing collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, A L P; Lima, G L; Peixoto, G C X; Silva, A M; Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R

    2016-05-01

    As an alternative for the conservation of collared peccary semen, this research aims at evaluating the use of Aloe vera (AV) extract as a cryoprotectant for semen chilling and freezing. Five ejaculates were divided in two aliquots that were diluted in Tris plus egg yolk (EY; 20%) or AV extract (20%) and chilled at 5 °C. In both treatments, an adequate semen conservation was achieved and values closer to 40% motile sperm with viability and osmotic response ranging from 20% to 40%, and normal morphology of 80% were found after 36 hours of storage. Moreover, 12 other ejaculates were diluted in Tris plus EY (20%) or AV extract (5, 10, or 20%) and glycerol (3%). Samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen and thawed after 1 week. After thawing, all the treatments containing EY or AV provided similar values for sperm morphology, viability, osmotic response, membrane integrity, sperm motility, amplitude of lateral head, beat cross frequency, and rapid, low, and static subpopulations, but the highest values for straightness and the lowest values for curvilinear velocity were found using 20% AV (P < 0.05). In conclusion, we found that AV extract at a 20% concentration could be used as an alternative substitute to EY in the formulation of Tris extenders for collared peccaries' semen chilling or freezing. PMID:26830302

  12. How molecular motors are arranged on a cargo is important for vesicular transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P Erickson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial organization of the cell depends upon intracellular trafficking of cargos hauled along microtubules and actin filaments by the molecular motor proteins kinesin, dynein, and myosin. Although much is known about how single motors function, there is significant evidence that cargos in vivo are carried by multiple motors. While some aspects of multiple motor function have received attention, how the cargo itself--and motor organization on the cargo--affects transport has not been considered. To address this, we have developed a three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation of motors transporting a spherical cargo, subject to thermal fluctuations that produce both rotational and translational diffusion. We found that these fluctuations could exert a load on the motor(s, significantly decreasing the mean travel distance and velocity of large cargos, especially at large viscosities. In addition, the presence of the cargo could dramatically help the motor to bind productively to the microtubule: the relatively slow translational and rotational diffusion of moderately sized cargos gave the motors ample opportunity to bind to a microtubule before the motor/cargo ensemble diffuses out of range of that microtubule. For rapidly diffusing cargos, the probability of their binding to a microtubule was high if there were nearby microtubules that they could easily reach by translational diffusion. Our simulations found that one reason why motors may be approximately 100 nm long is to improve their 'on' rates when attached to comparably sized cargos. Finally, our results suggested that to efficiently regulate the number of active motors, motors should be clustered together rather than spread randomly over the surface of the cargo. While our simulation uses the specific parameters for kinesin, these effects result from generic properties of the motors, cargos, and filaments, so they should apply to other motors as well.

  13. Final Report, Next-Generation Mega-Voltage Cargo-Imaging System for Cargo Conainer Inspection, March 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. James Clayton, Ph.D., Varian Medical Systems-Security & Inspection Products; Dr. Emma Regentova, Ph.D, University of Nevada Las Vegas; Dr. Evangelos Yfantis, Ph.D., University of Nevada, Las Vegas

    2007-03-27

    The UNLV Research Foundation, as the primary award recipient, teamed with Varian Medical Systems-Security & Inspection Products and the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV) for the purpose of conducting research and engineering related to a "next-generation" mega-voltage imaging (MVCI) system for inspection of cargo in large containers. The procurement and build-out of hardware for the MVCI project has been completed. The K-9 linear accelerator and an optimized X-ray detection system capable of efficiently detecting X-rays emitted from the accelerator after they have passed through the device is under test. The Office of Science financial assistance award has made possible the development of a system utilizing a technology which will have a profound positive impact on the security of U.S. seaports. The proposed project will ultimately result in critical research and development advances for the "next-generation" Linatron X-ray accelerator technology, thereby providing a safe, reliable and efficient fixed and mobile cargo inspection system, which will very significantly increase the fraction of cargo containers undergoing reliable inspection as the enter U.S. ports. Both NNSA/NA-22 and the Department of Homeland Security's Domestic Nuclear Detection Office are collaborating with UNLV and its team to make this technology available as soon as possible.

  14. Final Report, Next-Generation Mega-Voltage Cargo-Imaging System for Cargo Container Inspection, March 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UNLV Research Foundation, as the primary award recipient, teamed with Varian Medical Systems-Security and Inspection Products and the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV) for the purpose of conducting research and engineering related to a ''next-generation'' mega-voltage imaging (MVCI) system for inspection of cargo in large containers. The procurement and build-out of hardware for the MVCI project has been completed. The K-9 linear accelerator and an optimized X-ray detection system capable of efficiently detecting X-rays emitted from the accelerator after they have passed through the device is under test. The Office of Science financial assistance award has made possible the development of a system utilizing a technology which will have a profound positive impact on the security of U.S. seaports. The proposed project will ultimately result in critical research and development advances for the ''next-generation'' Linatron X-ray accelerator technology, thereby providing a safe, reliable and efficient fixed and mobile cargo inspection system, which will very significantly increase the fraction of cargo containers undergoing reliable inspection as the enter U.S. ports. Both NNSA/NA-22 and the Department of Homeland Security's Domestic Nuclear Detection Office are collaborating with UNLV and its team to make this technology available as soon as possible

  15. Avaliação da necessidade de frio em pessegueiro Avaliation of chilling requirement in peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idemir Citadin

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A necessidade de frio de seis cultivares de pessegueiro [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] foi estudada em plantas de um e dois anos, em vasos, submetidas a 150; 300; 450 e 600 horas a 2ºC, e em ramos coletados periodicamente em plantas sob condições de frio natural, a campo. Considerando os resultados obtidos nos dois experimentos, estima-se que a necessidade de frio de 'Precocinho' é em torno de 300 horas a 2ºC, equivalente a 150 unidades de frio (UF pelo modelo de Utah, ou próxima a 200 horas abaixo de 12ºC; para 'Eldorado' e 'Rio grandense', em 450 horas a 2ºC (225 UF ou 365 horas abaixo de 12ºC; para 'BR-1', em 450 horas a 2ºC (225 UF ou 418 horas abaixo de 12ºC; e para 'Planalto' e 'Della Nona', acima de 600 horas a 2ºC (>300 UF. Não foi possível estabelecer a necessidade de frio abaixo de 12ºC para 'Della Nona'.Chilling requirement was investigated in six peach [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] cultivars observing plants in containers, with one or two years, artificially chilled by 150, 300, 450, and 600 hours at 2ºC, and in excised shoots that were periodically taken from the orchard during the rest period. Chilling requirement of 'Precocinho' is 300 hours at 2ºC (around 150 chilling units - CU - using Utah Model or around 200 hours under 12ºC; 'Riograndense' and 'Eldorado' have 450 chilling hours at 2ºC (225 CU or 365 chilling hours under 12ºC; 'BR-1' is 450 chilling requirement at 2ºC (225 CU or 418 chilling hours under 12 ºC; and 'Planalto' and 'Della Nona' are over 600 chilling hours at 2ºC (>300 CU. It was not possible to estimate chilling requirement in 'Della Nona' using temperatures under 12 ºC.

  16. Chilling of carcasses from double muscled cattle: time-temperature evolution and predictive modelling of growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Clostridium perfringens

    OpenAIRE

    Delhalle, Laurent; Collignon, Bertrand; Dehard, Sandrine; Didimo Imazaki, Pedro Henrique; Daube, Georges; Clinquart, Antoine

    2010-01-01

    The time/temperature combination during carcass chilling is of concern in order to avoid bacterial growth. The chilling speed is lower in carcasses with high muscular development such as large cattle from the Belgian Blue breed. Three slaughterhouses were selected for temperature and pH measurements during the chilling process at 6 different days on 4 half carcasses in order to obtain representative data from heavy carcasses with high muscular development. Predictive microbiology was used to ...

  17. Rested and stressed farmed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) chilled in ice or slurry and effects on quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digre, Hanne; Erikson, Ulf; Aursand, Ida G; Gallart-Jornet, Lorena; Misimi, Ekrem; Rustad, Turid

    2011-01-01

    The main objectives of this study were to investigate (1) whether rested harvest of farmed cod was better maintained by chilling with slurry rather than by traditional ice storage, (2) whether chilling with slurry would be a feasible chilling method to assure low core temperatures (≤0 °C) at packing of gutted fish, and (3) the effects of superchilling compared with traditional ice on selected quality parameters of cod during storage. In the experiment, seawater slurry at -2.0 ± 0.3 °C was used. Anesthetized (AQUI-S™), percussion stunned, and stressed cod chilled in slurry were compared. Cod stored on ice were used as reference group. The fish were evaluated at the day of slaughter, and after 7 and 14 d of storage according to handling stress (initial muscle pH, muscle twitches, rigor mortis), core temperatures, quality index method, microbial counts, weight changes, salt and water content, water distribution, pH, adenosine triphosphate-degradation products, K-value, water-holding capacity, fillet color, and texture. Chilling cod in slurry was more rapid than chilling in ice. Prechilling (1 d) of cod in slurry before subsequent ice storage resulted in lower quality 7 d postmortem compared with both ice and continuous slurry storage. The potential advantages of superchilling became more prominent after 14 d with lower microbiological activity, better maintenance of freshness (lower total quality index scores and lower K-values) compared with fish stored on ice. A drawback with slurry-stored fish was that cloudy eyes developed earlier, in addition to weight gain and salt uptake compared to ice-stored fish. Practical Application: Chilling is an essential operation in any fish-processing plant. This manuscript addresses different applications of slurry ice in the processing and storage of Atlantic cod. Cod quality was assessed after 7 and 14 d of iced and superchilled storage. PMID:21535722

  18. Effects of Exogenous Silicon on the Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes and Lipid Peroxidation in Chilling-Stressed Cucumber Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jiao-jing; LIN Shao-hang; XU Pei-lei; WANG Xiu-juan; BAI Ji-gang

    2009-01-01

    In order to increase vegetable productivity by improving environmental conditions,this article investigates the effects of exogenous silicon on the activities of major antioxidant enzymes and on lipid peroxidation under chilling stress,and it examines whether silicon-induced chilling tolerance is mediated by an increase in antioxidant activity.Cucumis sativus cv.Jinchun 4 was hydroponically cultivated to the two-leaf stage,at which point seedlings were watered with different concentrations of silicon (0,0.1 and 1 mmol L-1) and separately exposed to normal (25/18℃) or chilling (15/8℃) temperatures for six days under low light (100 umol m-2 s-1).Data were collected from the second leaves on the percentage of withering and the levels of endogenous silicon,malondialdehyde (MDA),hydrogen peroxide (H2O2),superoxide radical (O2·-), superoxide dismutase (SOD,EC 1.15.1.1),glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px,EC 1.11.1.9),ascorbate peroxidase (APX,EC 1.11.1.11),monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR,EC 1.6.5.4),glutathione reductase (GR,EC 1.6.4.2),reduced glutathione (GSH) and ascorbate (AsA).Compared to normal temperatures,chilling resulted in partially withered leaves and increased MDA content.When 0.1 or 1 mmol L-1 exogenous silicon was combined with chilling.the withering of the cucumber leaves was reduced relative to the original chilling treatment,while the endogenous silicon content was increased,antioxidants such as SOD,GSH-Px,APX,MDHAR,GR,GSH,and AsA were more active,and the levels of H2O2,O2·-,and MDA were lower.We propose that exogenous silicon leads to greater deposition of endogenous silicon and thereby increases antioxidant activities and reduces lipid peroxidation induced by chilling.

  19. A platform for actively loading cargo RNA to elucidate limiting steps in EV-mediated delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard, Joshua N.; Hung, Michelle E.

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate intercellular communication through transfer of RNA and protein between cells. Thus, understanding how cargo molecules are loaded and delivered by EVs is of central importance for elucidating the biological roles of EVs and developing EV-based therapeutics. While some motifs modulating the loading of biomolecular cargo into EVs have been elucidated, the general rules governing cargo loading and delivery remain poorly understood. To investigate how general ...

  20. Analytical basis of technology asymmetrical allocation of cargo masses common centre in wagons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khabibulla TURANOV

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the account of results of the analytical basis of technology asymmetrical cargo allocation in a wagon during rolling stock movement on track unevenness waves. The finite analytical formulas have been obtained for determination of response of wagon bogie spring sets in case of simultaneous displacement of cargo masses common centre longitudinally and sideways to the wagon, which make it possible to ground the cargo allocation according to admissible value of wagon vertical dynamic addition coefficient.

  1. 46 CFR 36.10-1 - Cargo pump relief valves-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pump relief valves-TB/ALL. 36.10-1 Section 36.10-1..., Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 36.10-1 Cargo pump relief valves—TB/ALL. (a) Cargo pump relief valves and pressure gages may be omitted, however, a suitable device shall be fitted to stop...

  2. A Framework for Analysis of Security Measures Within On-airport Cargo Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Rountree, Carla; Demetsky, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 displayed the shortcomings of aviation security in the United States. Most of the attention on aviation security since that time has focused on airline passengers, their luggage, and their carry-on items, leaving air cargo security on the back burner. The lack of security screening and screening guidelines of cargo traveling by both passenger and all-cargo aircraft is the driving purpose behind this research project: the development of a framework t...

  3. Report on the 2011 and 2012 NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) / Alaska State Cargo Airship Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstettler, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    This presentation will summarize the Cargo Airships for Northern Operations workshop that was held August 24-25, 2011. This workshop co-sponsored by NASA ARC and the Alaska State Department of Transportation was initiated by interest from Alaska Lt. Governor Mead Treadwell for assistance in investigating the potential benefits of proposed cargo airships for the Alaskan economy and societal needs. The workshop provided a brief background on the technology and operational aspects of conventional airships and hybrids followed by presentations on issues affecting cargo airship operations such as weather management, insurance, regulations, crew duty/rest rules, and available support infrastructures. Speakers representing potential cargo airship users from Alaskan State and commercial organizations presented the needs they felt could be met by cargo airship services. Presenters from Canadian private and military interests also detailed applications and missions that cargo airships could provide to remote regions of Canada. Cost drivers of cargo airship operations were also addressed and tools for modeling and analyzing operational factors and costs affecting cargo airship operations were discussed. Four breakout sessions were held which allowed workshop participants to contribute inputs to four topic areas: Business Approaches and Strategies (financing incentives public/private partnerships etc) for Airship Development and Operation, Design, Development, Production Challenges, and Possible Solutions, Regulatory, Certification, Legal, and Insurance Issues, and Operational Issues, Customer Requirements, and Airship Requirements. A follow on to the 2011 cargo airship workshop is being planned for July 31 August 2, 2012. A status update on this second workshop will also be presented.

  4. X-ray scan detection for cargo integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Juan; Miller, Steve

    2011-04-01

    The increase of terrorism and its global impact has made the determination of the contents of cargo containers a necessity. Existing technology allows non-intrusive inspections to determine the contents of a container rapidly and accurately. However, some cargo shipments are exempt from such inspections. Hence, there is a need for a technology that enables rapid and accurate means of detecting whether such containers were non-intrusively inspected. Non-intrusive inspections are most commonly performed utilizing high powered X-ray equipment. The challenge is creating a device that can detect short duration X-ray scans while maintaining a portable, battery powered, low cost, and easy to use platform. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a methodology and prototype device focused on this challenge. The prototype, developed by PNNL, is a battery powered electronic device that continuously measures its X-ray and Gamma exposure, calculates the dose equivalent rate, and makes a determination of whether the device has been exposed to the amount of radiation experienced during an X-ray inspection. Once an inspection is detected, the device will record a timestamp of the event and relay the information to authorized personnel via a visual alert, USB connection, and/or wireless communication. The results of this research demonstrate that PNNL's prototype device can be effective at determining whether a container was scanned by X-ray equipment typically used for cargo container inspections. This paper focuses on laboratory measurements and test results acquired with the PNNL prototype device using several X-ray radiation levels.

  5. Photonuclear-based Detection of Nuclear Smuggling in Cargo Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have performed experiments in La Honda, California and at the Idaho Accelerator Center in Pocatello, Idaho to assess and develop a photonuclear-based detection system for shielded nuclear materials in cargo containers. The detection system, measuring photonuclear-related neutron emissions, is planned for integration with the ARACOR Eagle Cargo Container Inspection System (Sunnyvale, CA). The Eagle Inspection system uses a nominal 6-MeV electron accelerator and operates with safe radiation exposure limits to both container stowaways and to its operators. The INEEL has fabricated custom-built, helium-3-based, neutron detectors for this inspection application and is performing an experimental application assessment. Because the Eagle Inspection system could not be moved to LANL where special nuclear material was available, the response of the Eagle had to be determined indirectly so as to support the development and testing of the detection system. Experiments in California have successfully matched the delayed neutron emission performance of the ARACOR Eagle with that of the transportable INEEL electron accelerator (i.e., the Varitron) and are reported here. A demonstration test is planned at LANL using the Varitron and shielded special nuclear materials within a cargo container. Detector results are providing very useful information regarding the challenges of delayed neutron counting near the photofission threshold energy of 5.5 - 6.0 MeV, are identifying the possible utilization of prompt neutron emissions to allow enhanced signal-to-noise measurements, and are showing the overall benefits of using higher electron beam energies

  6. Photonuclear-based Detection of Nuclear Smuggling in Cargo Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. L.; Haskell, K. J.; Hoggan, J. M.; Norman, D. R.; Yoon, W. Y.

    2003-08-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have performed experiments in La Honda, California and at the Idaho Accelerator Center in Pocatello, Idaho to assess and develop a photonuclear-based detection system for shielded nuclear materials in cargo containers. The detection system, measuring photonuclear-related neutron emissions, is planned for integration with the ARACOR Eagle Cargo Container Inspection System (Sunnyvale, CA). The Eagle Inspection system uses a nominal 6-MeV electron accelerator and operates with safe radiation exposure limits to both container stowaways and to its operators. The INEEL has fabricated custom-built, helium-3-based, neutron detectors for this inspection application and is performing an experimental application assessment. Because the Eagle Inspection system could not be moved to LANL where special nuclear material was available, the response of the Eagle had to be determined indirectly so as to support the development and testing of the detection system. Experiments in California have successfully matched the delayed neutron emission performance of the ARACOR Eagle with that of the transportable INEEL electron accelerator (i.e., the Varitron) and are reported here. A demonstration test is planned at LANL using the Varitron and shielded special nuclear materials within a cargo container. Detector results are providing very useful information regarding the challenges of delayed neutron counting near the photofission threshold energy of 5.5 - 6.0 MeV, are identifying the possible utilization of prompt neutron emissions to allow enhanced signal-to-noise measurements, and are showing the overall benefits of using higher electron beam energies.

  7. Automatic continuous monitoring system for dangerous sites and cargoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of creation of automatic comprehensive continuous monitoring system for nuclear and radiation sites and cargoes of Rosatom Corporation, which carries out data collecting, processing, storage and transmission, including informational support to decision-making, as well as support to modelling and forecasting functions, are considered. The system includes components of two levels: site and industry. Currently the system is used to monitor over 8000 integrated parameters, which characterise the status of nuclear and radiation safety on Rosatom sites, environmental and fire safety

  8. Scanner for the detection of contraband in air cargo containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: There is a growing worldwide need to rapidly scan bulk air cargo for contraband such as illicit drugs and explosives. CSIRO has been working with Australian Customs Service to develop an innovative and cost-effective solution capable of directly scanning air freight containers in 1-2 minutes without unpacking. A new scanner has been developed that combines fast neutron and gamma-ray radiography to provide high-resolution images that include information on material composition. A full-scale prototype scanner has been successfully tested in the laboratory and a commercial-scale scanner will be installed at Brisbane airport in 2005. Copyright (2005) Australian Institute of Physics

  9. Advanced gamma ray technology for scanning cargo containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orphan, Victor J; Muenchau, Ernie; Gormley, Jerry; Richardson, Rex

    2005-01-01

    The shipping industry is striving to increase security for cargo containers without significantly impeding traffic. Three Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) development programs are supporting this effort. SAIC's ICIS system combines SAIC's VACIS gamma ray imaging, radiation scanning, OCR, elemental analysis and other technologies to scan containers for nuclear materials and other hazards in normal terminal traffic. SAIC's enhanced gamma ray detector improves VACIS image resolution by a factor of three. And SAIC's EmptyView software analyzes VACIS images to automatically verify empty containers. PMID:15996470

  10. High energy gamma ray telescope using a cargo airplane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method to measure high energy gamma rays from astronomical objects is presented. In this method, we use commercial cargo airplanes to get the altitude near the air shower maximum. Gamma rays with the energy greater than 100 GeV can be detected by the lead-glass based detector. Directions of gamma rays are determined by those of the secondary electrons (positrons) in the showers. The angular resolution obtained by this method is considered to be better than 1 degree. The detector is sensitive to the gamma ray point sources. (author)

  11. Collinear swimmer propelling a cargo sphere at low Reynolds number

    CERN Document Server

    Felderhof, B U

    2014-01-01

    The swimming velocity and rate of dissipation of a linear chain consisting of two or three little spheres and a big sphere is studied on the basis of low Reynolds number hydrodynamics. The big sphere is treated as a passive cargo, driven by the tail of little spheres via hydrodynamic and direct elastic interaction. The fundamental solution of Stokes' equations in the presence of a sphere with no-slip boundary condition, as derived by Oseen, is used to model the hydrodynamic interactions between the big sphere and the little spheres.

  12. Advanced γ ray technology for scanning cargo containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shipping industry is striving to increase security for cargo containers without significantly impeding traffic. Three Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) development programs are supporting this effort. SAIC's ICIS system combines SAIC's VACIS[reg] γ ray imaging, radiation scanning, OCR, elemental analysis and other technologies to scan containers for nuclear materials and other hazards in normal terminal traffic. SAIC's enhanced γ ray detector improves VACIS image resolution by a factor of three. And SAIC's EmptyView software analyzes VACIS images to automatically verify empty containers

  13. Optimization of the imported air express cargo distribution problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang, T.L.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the delivering network of imported air express cargo as an integrated multi-depot vehicle routing problem. Integrated multi-depot vehicle routing problem attempts to decide which service centers should be used and how much freight should be unloaded in each service center. The role of an exchange point which is allowing the delivery vans and shuttles to exchange imported and exported goods is also addressed. Test results demonstrate the feasibility of the four models so these are highly promising for use in a diverse array of applications, such as in home delivery and reverse logistics.

  14. The legal and documentary aspects of sale of oil cargoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is divided into three main sections. The first part discusses a number of specific areas where sale contracts in the oil markets differ from traditional CIF or FOB contracts in other trades and where difficulties have therefore arisen which are peculiar to the oil trade. The second part deals with the passing of ownership and risk in oil cargoes. Finally it looks at certain documentary aspects of oil trading transactions, again concentrating on areas such as letters of indemnity, where the oil markets differ from the traditional commodity markets. (author)

  15. Use of Irradiation to Improve the Safety and Quality of Chilled Pad Thai (Stir Fry Rice Noodle with Dried Shrimp)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pad Thai, which is stir fried rice noodle with dried shrimp, was subjected to gamma irradiation. Two components (cooked rice noodle and spicy sauce with dried shrimp) were separately packed and inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli. D10 values of both pathogens were lower when pathogens were contaminated in cooked rice noodle. No survivors of both contaminated pathogens during 4 weeks of chilled storage when dose of 4 kGy was applied in the two components. After irradiation, texture of cooked rice noodle was softer and its color changed from white to yellow whereas redness of spicy sauce and dried shrimp decreased together with increase in pH of spicy sauce. During storage under chilled condition, all samples changed almost in the same pattern in term of harder texture and decrease in moisture content of cooked rice noodle, paler color of dried shrimp and spicy sauce and increase in pH of sauce. Panelists preferred non-irradiated Pad Thai at the beginning of storage but no difference was found at the end of storage. Dose of 4 kGy was recommended because chilled Pad Thai was free from pathogens, safe from microbial spoilage and acceptable sensory quality. Shelf life of chilled Pad Thai could be extended to more than 4 weeks compared to normal chilled ready meal, which has shelf life 5-7 days

  16. Studi Eksperimen Pengaruh Variasi Dimensi Cil Dalam (Internal Chill Terhadap Cacat Penyusutan (Shrinkage Pada Pengecoran Aluminium 6061

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhadi Ginanjar Kusuma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium merupakan salah satu material yang semakin banyak dimanfaatkan terutama pada industri komponen mesin. Cacat pada hasil cor sangat dihindari karena akan berpengaruh pada kualitas hasil yang merubah dimensi dan sifat mekanik dari benda hasil cor. Shrinkage merupakan cacat yang terjadi karena perbedaan kecepatan pendinginan pada benda cor. Penambahan variasi ukuran dimensi cil dalam (internal chill bertujuan untuk menganalisa pengaruh perubahan dimensi terhadap cacat shrinkage pada pengecoran. Penelitian pembuatan benda coran dilakukan dengan menggunakan bahan coran aluminium 6061 dengan menggunakan metode pengecoran pasir. Sistem saluran yang digunakan menggunakan ketentuan AFS. Jenis saluran yang digunakan adalah horizontal parting-line, serta pasir cetak dengan komposisi pasir silica 89%, bentonit 7,5%, dan air 3,5%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pengaruh penggunaan dimensi internal chill terhadap prosentase jumlah cacat shrinkage dengan diameter 15, 20, dan 25 secara berurutan sebesar 3,82, 1,28, dan 1,01%. Penggunaan variasi dimensi internal chill pada pengecoran benda yang semakin diperbesar dapat berfungsi dengan baik serta menggeser lokasi cacat penyusutan menjauhi internal chill. Grafik yang didapatkan dari pengukuran pada internal chill diameter 25 mm (daerah yang mengalami prosentase cacat terkecil memiliki kemampuan menyerap panas lebih baik daripada diameter 15 dan 20 mm.

  17. Effect of Maturity Stage on the Gene Expression of Antioxidative Enzymes in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Fruits Under Chilling Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Chun-lu; MI Hong-bo; ZHAO Yu-ying; HE Zhi-ping; MAO Lin-chun

    2013-01-01

    The gene expression patterns of antioxidative enzymes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruits at four different maturity stages, immature (3-8 d after anthesis (DAA), mature (9-16 DAA), breaker (17-22 DAA), and yellow (35-40 DAA), were determined before and after cold storage at 2°C for 9 d and after subsequent rewarming at 20°C for 2 d. The electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde content in cucumber fruits were increased after cold storage and subsequent rewarming. Increased expressions of peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and monodehydroascorbate reductase after cold storage played an important role in cucumber fruits to cope with chilling injury. The elevated cyt-superoxide dismutase, catalase, APX and dehydroascorbate reductase after subsequent rewarming in cucumber fruits facilitated the recovery from chilling stress. The highest expression levels of all the seven antioxidative enzyme genes in yellow fruits might be responsible for the enhanced chilling tolerance. Cucumber fruits at earlier developmental stages was more susceptible to chilling stress than those at later stages. The relative higher gene expressions of antioxidative enzymes genes at earlier developmental stages may be the responses to the sever oxidative stress caused by chilling injury.

  18. Studying Wind Chill Index as a Climatic Index Effective on the Health of Athletes and Tourists Interested in Winter Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Estimating wind chill index as one of the indexes effective in body comfort, specifically for athletes and tourists interested in winter sports. Methods Meteorology data including temperature and the percentage of relative humidity of 6 synoptic stations of Chaharmahal-Bakhtiyrai province, Iran from 1990 to 2007 were extracted from Iranian Meteorology Site. In order to calculate the values of wind chill, the innovative formula of NOAA Meteorology Services Center [T (WC= 35.74+0.6215T-35.75V+0.4275TV] was used. Results After analyzing wind in all stations, it became evident that the great percentage of wind calm related to fall, and spring had the most wind distortions. In studying the mean temperature during this studying period, Koohrang station with mean of 9.8°C was identified as the coldest station and Lordegan with a mean of 17°C represented the warmest station of the region observed. According to degrees derived from wind chill index, Koohrang station in January with a mean of −28.75 was known as the coldest and roughest station. Conclusion Among the studied stations, Koohrang had the most intensive degrees of wind chill occurrence and Lordegan had the calmest conditions. Therefore, athletes and tourists should use warmer clothes and covers in cold seasons in Koohrang in comparison with other studied regions, in order to protect themselves from the negative effects of sudden cold and occurrence of intense wind chills.

  19. Effect of modification melt treatment on casting/chill interfacial heat transfer and electrical conductivity of Al-13% Si alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayan Prabhu, K.; Ravishankar, B.N

    2003-11-15

    For successful modelling of the solidification process, a reliable heat transfer boundary condition data is required. These boundary conditions are significantly influenced by the casting and mould parameters. In the present work, the effect of sodium modification melt treatment on casting/chill interfacial heat transfer during upward solidification of an Al-13% Si alloy against metallic chills is investigated using thermal analysis and inverse modelling techniques. In the presence of chills, modification melt treatment resulted in an increase in the cooling rate of the solidifying casting near the casting/chill interfacial region. The corresponding interfacial heat flux transients and electrical conductivities are also found to be higher. This is attributed to (i) improvement in the casting/chill interfacial thermal contact condition brought about by the decrease in the surface tension of the liquid metal on addition of sodium and (ii) increase in the electronic heat conduction in the initial solidified shell due to change in the morphology of silicon from a acicular type to a fine fibrous structure and increase in the ratio of the modification rating to the secondary dendrite arm spacing.

  20. Simulation Study of Al-1Mn/Al-10Si Circular Clad Ingots Prepared by Direct Chill Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li; Kang, Huijun; Chen, Zongning; Fu, Ying; Wang, Tongmin

    2016-02-01

    A modified direct chill casting process based on Novelis FusionTM Technology co-casting process was used recently to prepare Al-1Mn/Al-10Si circular clad ingots. In the current study, a comprehensive simulation model was developed to investigate the direct chill casting process for preparing the Al-1Mn/Al-10Si circular clad ingots, and a parametric study and experimental research of the direct chill casting process was conducted to explore potential success and failure casting conditions. The simulation results revealed the bonding mechanism of the Al-1Mn/Al-10Si interface in the direct chill casting process and identified the effect of certain parameters on casting performance. The results indicated that the effect of casting speed and Al-1Mn casting temperature on the variations of the minimum solid fraction of Al-1Mn at the interface is stronger than that of cooling water flow rate in inner mold, while Al-10Si casting temperature is the weakest of the four casting parameters. The corresponding experimental results verified that Al-1Mn/Al-10Si circular clad ingot with acceptable metallurgical bonding can be successfully prepared by direct chill casting process under the proper casting parameters. The thickness of diffusion zone is about 40 μm, and the fractured position in tensile test was located in the Al-1Mn alloy side which indicated the strength of the interfacial region is higher than that of Al-1Mn alloy.

  1. Isolation and Expression Profile Analysis of Genes Relevant to Chilling Stress During Seed Imbibition in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Meer.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Li-bao; LI Shu-yan; HE Guang-yuan

    2009-01-01

    Germination of soybean seed is always arrested by chilling imbibitional stress,and this phenomenon is widespread in the plant seed kingdom,but has not been studied at molecular level.In this experiment,eDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) technique was applied to isolate genes relevant to chilling stress (4~C) during soybean seed imbibition.Eight genes were found to be up-regulated and two were down-regulated during chilling stress respectively.Four up-regulated genes were selected to analyze the expression profiles during imbibition under chilling condition.It was demonstrated that the four genes were induced significantly by 4℃ for 24 h,and decreased when the temperature was shifted from 4 to 22℃.GMCHI,a highly chilling stress-induced gene which responded to abseisic acid (ABA),polyethylene glycol (PEG) and NaCl,showed great stress-resistance according to published reports.Cos78 was identified to be induced by PEG.However,Cos66 and Cos36 transcription showed no change to ABA,PEG,and NaCl.From the characteristic of genes isolated from the embryonic axis,we concluded that soybean seeds have different pathways to adapt to various biotic and abiotic stresses by regulating many signal transduction pathways.

  2. Chilling-Mediated DNA Methylation Changes during Dormancy and Its Release Reveal the Importance of Epigenetic Regulation during Winter Dormancy in Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulshan Kumar

    Full Text Available Winter dormancy is a well known mechanism adopted by temperate plants, to mitigate the chilling temperature of winters. However, acquisition of sufficient chilling during winter dormancy ensures the normal phenological traits in subsequent growing period. Thus, low temperature appears to play crucial roles in growth and development of temperate plants. Apple, being an important temperate fruit crop, also requires sufficient chilling to release winter dormancy and normal phenological traits, which are often associated with yield and quality of fruits. DNA cytosine methylation is one of the important epigenetic modifications which remarkably affect the gene expression during various developmental and adaptive processes. In present study, methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism was employed to assess the changes in cytosine methylation during dormancy, active growth and fruit set in apple, under differential chilling conditions. Under high chill conditions, total methylation was decreased from 27.2% in dormant bud to 21.0% in fruit set stage, while no significant reduction was found under low chill conditions. Moreover, the demethylation was found to be decreased, while methylation increased from dormant bud to fruit set stage under low chill as compared to high chill conditions. In addition, RNA-Seq analysis showed high expression of DNA methyltransferases and histone methyltransferases during dormancy and fruit set, and low expression of DNA glcosylases during active growth under low chill conditions, which was in accordance with changes in methylation patterns. The RNA-Seq data of 47 genes associated with MSAP fragments involved in cellular metabolism, stress response, antioxidant system and transcriptional regulation showed correlation between methylation and their expression. Similarly, bisulfite sequencing and qRT-PCR analysis of selected genes also showed correlation between gene body methylation and gene expression. Moreover

  3. Spatial partitioning of secretory cargo from Golgi resident proteins in live cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Jamie

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To maintain organelle integrity, resident proteins must segregate from itinerant cargo during secretory transport. However, Golgi resident enzymes must have intimate access to secretory cargo in order to carry out glycosylation reactions. The amount of cargo and associated membrane may be significant compared to the amount of Golgi membrane and resident protein, but upon Golgi exit, cargo and resident are efficiently sorted. How this occurs in live cells is not known. Results We observed partitioning of the fluorescent Golgi resident T2-CFP and fluorescent cargo proteins VSVG3-YFP or VSVG3-SP-YFP upon Golgi exit after a synchronous pulse of cargo was released from the ER. Golgi elements remained stable in overall size, shape and relative position as cargo emptied. Cargo segregated from resident rapidly by blebbing into micron-sized domains that contained little or no detectable resident protein and that appeared to be continuous with the parent Golgi element. Post-Golgi transport carriers (TCs exited repeatedly from these domains. Alternatively, entire cargo domains exited Golgi elements, forming large TCs that fused directly with the plasma membrane. However, domain formation did not appear to be an absolute prerequisite for TC exit, since TCs also exited directly from Golgi elements in the absence of large domains. Quantitative cargo-specific photobleaching experiments revealed transfer of cargo between Golgi regions, but no discrete intra-Golgi TCs were observed. Conclusions Our results establish domain formation via rapid lateral partitioning as a general cellular strategy for segregating different transmembrane proteins along the secretory pathway and provide a framework for consideration of molecular mechanisms of secretory transport.

  4. Use of low-dose irradiation to enhance the safety and quality of chilled ready meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The market for 'cook-chill' ready meals has expanded significantly during the past ten years. This specific category of food has been defined as a catering system based on the full cooking of food followed by fast chilling and storage in controlled temperature conditions (0-3 deg. C) and subsequent thorough re-heating before consumption. Such meals cover a wide range of commodities including meat, poultry, fish, vegetables, pasta and desserts and are used at home by consumers and by the catering industry for use, for example, as hospital meals or meals-on-wheels. These products have a relatively short shelf-life with a recommended maximum shelf-life of 5 days at 0-3 deg. C including the day of cooking. In addition, there are other concerns with regard to microbiological quality, reduced sensory quality and decreased nutritive value. It has been suggested that low-dose irradiation could be used to extend the shelf-life of these products while at the same time reducing the risk of food poisoning. Research carried out at QUB and DARD has readily demonstrated that the safety and shelf-life of chilled ready meals consisting of meat (chicken, beef or pork) and certain vegetables (e.g. broccoli, carrots and roast potatoes) can be enhanced by irradiation doses of 2 or 3 kGy without having a detrimental effect on sensory or nutritional quality. To date, investigations have been limited to such traditional meals with no research being carried out on the more popular ready meals such as lasagna, cottage pies, curries, etc. which have a relatively short shelf-life upon purchase. It is therefore the objective of this work program to investigate the effect of low-dose irradiation (1-5 kGy) on the microbiological, sensory and nutritional quality of these meals and to determine if their overall quality can be enhanced

  5. Analysis of chill-cast NiAl intermetallic compound with copper additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, J.; Gonzalez, C.; Herrera, R.; Juarez-Islas, J. A.

    2002-10-01

    This study carried out a characterization of chill-cast NiAl alloys with copper additions, which were added to NiAl, such that the resulting alloy composition occurred in the β-field of the ternary NiAlCu phase diagram. The alloys were vacuum induction melted and casted in copper chill molds to produce ingots 0.002 m thick, 0.020 m wide, and 0.050 m long. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) performed in chill-cast ingots identified mainly the presence of the β-(Ni,Cu)Al phase. As-cast ingots showed essentially no ductility at room temperature except for the Ni50Al40Cu10 alloy, which showed 1.79% of elongation at room temperature. Ingots with this alloy composition were then heat treated under a high-purity argon atmosphere at 550 °C (24 h) and cooled either in the furnace or in air, until room temperature was reached. β-(Ni,Cu)Al and γ'(Ni,Cu)3Al were present in specimens cooled in the furnace and β-(Ni,Cu)Al, γ'(Ni,Cu)3Al plus martensite-(Ni,Cu)Al were present in specimens cooled in air. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that martensite transformation was the result of a solid-state reaction with M s ˜ 470 and M f ˜ 430 °C. Tensile tests performed on bulk heat-treated ingots showed room-temperature ductility between 3 and 6%, depending on the cooling media.

  6. The effects of electron beam irradiation on sterilization and preservation of chilled pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S The effects of electron beam irradiation on the sterilization and preservation of chilled pork were studied. The aim of this investigation was to provide academic and technical basis for application of electron beam irradiation on meat industry. The response surface analysis was used with electron beam energy(X1) and dose(X2) as factors and colony form unit(Y) as responses. The results have been shown that the model of sterilization of chilled pork by electron beam irradiation can be expressed Y=3.78-0.24X1-0.13X2-0.16X1X2-0.18X12+0.15X12(R2=0.9755). It has been found there is a interaction between electron beam energy and absorbed doses, and the significance sequence of factors is absorbed dose>interaction> electron beam energy. When absorbed doses are in range from 3.23 kGy to 4.0 kGy and electron beam energy is in range from 2.3 MeV to 3.8 MeV, the colony form unit would drop 2 logarithm units. The shelf life of samples treated with electron beam irradiation is longer by about 12 d than that of control samples when the samples are stored at 4 degree C. When the samples are stored at 7∼10 degree C, shelf life of samples treated with electron beam irradiation is longer by about 9 d than that of control samples. The results showed that electron beam irradiation has the effects of sterilization and preservation on chilled pork. This study has been confirmed that the application of electron beam irradiation is very useful for meat industry. (authors)

  7. Improving Chilling Tolerance of Maize Seedlings under Cold Conditions by Spermine Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein SAEIDNEJAD

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Low temperature is an important abiotic stress which reduces crops growth and productivity and causes physiological damages to cellular structures. The aim of this study was to investigate the probability of spermine application to improve chilling tolerance of maize under stress conditions. The treatments were included seed priming with spermine (30, 60 and 90 mg/l solutions and normal and stress condition. Seed emergence was improved by spermine priming on both conditions and mean emergence time (MET was also decreased with priming. Shoot and root length was highly reduced under stress conditions, but the treated seeds were improved along with increased spermine concentration. Seedling dry weight was also affected by priming and reduced weight of stressful seedlings was alleviated by spermine priming. Decreased relative water content on seedlings under stress was elevated by the treatments and significantly increased. Electrolyte leakage was also recovered by applied treatments while it was adversely decreased on cold conditions. Antioxidative system was highly responded to spermine application. Superoxide dismutase (SOD activity increased on both normal and stress conditions, but a little decrease was observed on seedlings treated with 90 ppm level and under chilling conditions. Catalase activity was also amplified by spermine treatments. Priming had a great effect on ascorbate peroxidase (APX activity on both stressful and normal seedlings and increased it compare with non treated seedlings. It is also important to note that with increasing spermine concentration to 90 ppm, no considerable differences were observed. Thus, 60 ppm concentration could be proposed as the appropriate level of spermine in order to improve chilling tolerance of maize seedlings.

  8. Direct chill and electromagnetic casting of aluminium alloys: Thermomechanical effects and solidification aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Drezet, Jean-Marie; Rappaz, Michel

    2005-01-01

    The tolerances of semi-continuously cast products of aluminium alloys are very critical if the scalping of the ingot faces is to be minimised before rolling. In the steady state regime of casting, the dimensions of the section of the solidified ingot are lower than those of the mould in the Direct Chill Casting (DCC) or of the inductor in the Electromagnetic Casting (EMC). The contraction of the section, several percents, is larger than the value associated with the thermal contraction of the...

  9. Effect of Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field on Macrosegregation of Horizontal Direct Chill Casting Aluminum Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhihao ZHAO; Jianzhong CUI; Jie DONG; Beijiang ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    The horizontal direct chill (HDC) casting process is a well-established production route for aluminum alloy ingot but the ingot may suffer from macrosegregation sometimes. In order to control the defect, a low frequency electromagnetic field has been applied in HDC casting process and the relevant influence has been studied. The results show that application of low frequency electromagnetic field can reduce macrosegregation in HDC casting process; and two main parameters of electromagnetic field density and frequency, have great influences on the solution distribution along the diameter of ingot. Moreover, the mechanisms of reduction of macrosegregation by electromagnetic field have been discussed.

  10. Ethylene signal transduction elements involved in chilling injury in non-climacteric loquat fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ping; ZHANG, BO; Li, Xian; Xu, Changjie; Yin, Xueren; Shan, Lanlan; Ferguson, Ian; Chen, Kunsong

    2009-01-01

    Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) is a subtropical fruit, with some cultivars such as ‘Luoyangqing’ (LYQ) susceptible to chilling injury (CI), while others such as ‘Baisha’ (BS) are resistant. Although loquats are non-climacteric, modulation of ethylene has an effect on ripening-related post-harvest CI. Therefore the role of ethylene signalling in the development of CI was investigated in fruit of both the LYQ and BS cultivars. Three ethylene receptor genes, one CTR1-like gene, and one EIN3...

  11. A consumer trial to assess the acceptability of an irradiated chilled ready meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred and seven consumers assessed the sensory quality of a chilled irradiated (2 kGy) and non-irradiated ready meal, consisting of beef and gravy, Yorkshire pudding, carrot, broccoli and roast potato 4 days after treatment. The irradiated meal was moderately to very acceptable and was not significantly different to the non-irradiated meal. The beef and gravy component of the meal was most liked by consumers. Appearance and aroma appeared to be more important than flavour of texture in the overall assessment of the meals. (Author)

  12. The oxidative stability of chilled and frozen pilchards used as feed for captive southern bluefin tuna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitz-Gerald, C.H.; Bremner, Allan

    1998-01-01

    obvious deterioration within two days. Substantial peroxide values were found and oxidised odours and flavours were clearly evident after 4 days' chilled storage. In frozen storage, oxidation occurred after only one month at a temperature of -20°C. This could be delayed if the fish were glazed with water....... Vacuum packaging in a film of low permeability to oxygen was less effective than glazing and is not recommended due to cost. Pilchards in which oxidation had commenced before freezing continued to oxidise in frozen storage irrespective of whether they were glazed or vacuum packed. It was thus thoroughly...

  13. A computational study of low-head direct chill slab casting of aluminum alloy AA2024

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mainul; Begum, Latifa

    2016-04-01

    The steady state casting of an industrial-sized AA2024 slab has been modeled for a vertical low-head direct chill caster. The previously verified 3-D CFD code is used to investigate the solidification phenomena of the said long-range alloy by varying the pouring temperature, casting speed and the metal-mold contact heat transfer coefficient from 654 to 702 °C, 60-180 mm/min, and 1.0-4.0 kW/(m2 K), respectively. The important predicted results are presented and thoroughly discussed.

  14. Achieving integrated convoys: cargo unmanned ground vehicle development and experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zych, Noah; Silver, David; Stager, David; Green, Colin; Pilarski, Thomas; Fischer, Jacob

    2013-05-01

    The Cargo UGV project was initiated in 2010 with the aim of developing and experimenting with advanced autonomous vehicles capable of being integrated unobtrusively into manned logistics convoys. The intent was to validate two hypotheses in complex, operationally representative environments: first, that unmanned tactical wheeled vehicles provide a force protection advantage by creating standoff distance to warfighters during ambushes or improvised explosive device attacks; and second, that these UGVs serve as force multipliers by enabling a single operator to control multiple unmanned assets. To assess whether current state-of-the-art autonomous vehicle technology was sufficiently capable to permit resupply missions to be executed with decreased risk and reduced manpower, and to assess the effect of UGVs on customary convoy tactics, the Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory and the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise sponsored Oshkosh Defense and the National Robotics Engineering Center to equip two standard Marine Corps cargo trucks for autonomous operation. This paper details the system architecture, hardware implementation, and software modules developed to meet the vehicle control, perception, and planner requirements compelled by this application. Additionally, the design of a custom human machine interface and an accompanying training program are described, as is the creation of a realistic convoy simulation environment for rapid system development. Finally, results are conveyed from a warfighter experiment in which the effectiveness of the training program for novice operators was assessed, and the impact of the UGVs on convoy operations was observed in a variety of scenarios via direct comparison to a fully manned convoy.

  15. Vehicle and cargo container inspection system for drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbinski, Victor V.; Orphan, Victor J.

    1999-06-01

    A vehicle and cargo container inspection system has been developed which uses gamma-ray radiography to produce digital images useful for detection of drugs and other contraband. The system is comprised of a 1 Ci Cs137 gamma-ray source collimated into a fan beam which is aligned with a linear array of NaI gamma-ray detectors located on the opposite side of the container. The NaI detectors are operated in the pulse-counting mode. A digital image of the vehicle or container is obtained by moving the aligned source and detector array relative to the object. Systems have been demonstrated in which the object is stationary (source and detector array move on parallel tracks) and in which the object moves past a stationary source and detector array. Scanning speeds of ˜30 cm/s with a pixel size (at the object) of ˜1 cm have been achieved. Faster scanning speeds of ˜2 m/s have been demonstrated on railcars with more modest spatial resolution (4 cm pixels). Digital radiographic images are generated from the detector count rates. These images, recorded on a PC-based data acquisition and display system, are shown from several applications: 1) inspection of trucks and containers at a border crossing, 2) inspection of railcars at a border crossing, 3) inspection of outbound cargo containers for stolen automobiles, and 4) inspection of trucks and cars for terrorist bombs.

  16. Vehicle and cargo container inspection system for drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vehicle and cargo container inspection system has been developed which uses gamma-ray radiography to produce digital images useful for detection of drugs and other contraband. The system is comprised of a 1 Ci Cs137 gamma-ray source collimated into a fan beam which is aligned with a linear array of NaI gamma-ray detectors located on the opposite side of the container. The NaI detectors are operated in the pulse-counting mode. A digital image of the vehicle or container is obtained by moving the aligned source and detector array relative to the object. Systems have been demonstrated in which the object is stationary (source and detector array move on parallel tracks) and in which the object moves past a stationary source and detector array. Scanning speeds of ∼30 cm/s with a pixel size (at the object) of ∼1 cm have been achieved. Faster scanning speeds of ∼2 m/s have been demonstrated on railcars with more modest spatial resolution (4 cm pixels). Digital radiographic images are generated from the detector count rates. These images, recorded on a PC-based data acquisition and display system, are shown from several applications: 1) inspection of trucks and containers at a border crossing, 2) inspection of railcars at a border crossing, 3) inspection of outbound cargo containers for stolen automobiles, and 4) inspection of trucks and cars for terrorist bombs

  17. Cargo inspection system based on pulsed fast neutron analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Douglas R.; Coates, Allison; Kuo, Stelly N.; Loveman, Robert; Pentaleri, Ed; Rynes, Joel C.

    1997-02-01

    The pulsed fast neutron analysis (PFNA) cargo inspection system (CIS) uses a nanosecond pulsed beam of fast neutrons to interrogate the contents of small volume elements -- voxels -- of a cargo container or truck. A color display shows the three-dimensional location of suspected contraband, such as drugs or explosives. The neutrons interact with the elemental contents of each vowel, and gamma rays characteristic of the elements are collected in an array of detectors. The elemental signals and their ratios give unique signatures for drugs and other contraband. From the time of arrival of the gamma rays, the position of the vowel within the truck is determined. The PFNA CIS is designed to scan five or more trucks per hour. The operator interface has been designed to assist in the rapid identification of drugs, explosives or other contraband. This paper describes the system and the tests for drugs and explosives that have been carried out during the past year. These tests were aimed at exploring the envelope of performance of the system.

  18. The salvaging of the Mont Louis cargo ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On Saturday the 25th of August 1984, at 2:20 P.M., the German car ferry Olau Britannia with 800 passengers aboard rammed the rear starboard side of the French cargo ship Mont Louis. The collision occurred in the English Channel at a point 18 kilometers north of Ostend. At 7:00 P.M. the Mont Louis sank to a depth of 15 meters at a distance of several miles by rail from Antwerp. Half the ship's hull lay uncovered at low tide. The cargo included 30 type 48-Y containers, each filled with 12 tons of UF6, and 22 empty type 30-B containers for return of the enriched uranium. The UF6 was to be enriched to 4% in the Soviet Union for use as fuel in nuclear power plants. The table below details the nature of the UF6. After salvaging operation the containers have been inspected and no damage or leaks have been detected. The accident involved no risk of radioactive or chemical contamination of the sea water. The systematic misinformation campaign by Greenpeace and news media is briefly described. (orig./HP)

  19. Relocatable cargo x-ray inspection systems utilizing compact linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetron-powered, X-band linacs with 3-4 MeV capability are compact enough to be readily utilized in relocatable high energy cargo inspection systems. Just such a system is currently under development at AS and E trade mark sign using the commercially available ISOSearch trade mark sign cargo inspection system as the base platform. The architecture permits the retention of backscatter imaging, which has proven to be an extremely valuable complement to the more usual transmission images. The linac and its associated segmented detector will provide an additional view with superior penetration and spatial resolution. The complete system, which is housed in two standard 40' ISO containers, is briefly described with emphasis on the installation and operating characteristics of the portable linac. The average rf power delivered by the magnetron to the accelerator section can be varied up to the maximum of about 1 kW. The projected system performance, including radiation dose to the environment, will be discussed and compared with other high energy systems

  20. PENGARUH CaCl2 DAN EDIBLE FILM TERHADAP PENGHAMBATAN CHILLING INJURY BUAH NANGKA KUPAS [Effect of CaCl2 and Edible Film on Chilling Injury Inhibition of fresh-cut Jackfruits

    OpenAIRE

    Ida Bagus Banyuro Partha1); Suparmo2); Moh. Ali Joko Wasono3); Maria Ulfah

    2009-01-01

    Effect of CaCl2 soaking and edible film coating to delay or inhibit chilling injury of freshly-cut jackfruit has been studied. The onset of chilling injury was monitored based on sadden increase of ethylene emission as measured on-line using CO2-laser driven photoacoustic spectrometer. Freshly cut edible part of ripe jackfruit was used as the research material. The fruit was soaked in 0%, 1%, 1,5%, 2% of CaCl2 for 15 minutes. After rinsing, sample were divided into two parts each for edible...

  1. The effect of hot-rolling on chill-cast AI-AI3Ni, chill-cast AI-AI2Cu, and Unidirectionally Solidified AI-AI3Ni Eutectic Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, F. S. J.; Cantor, B.

    1986-11-01

    The effect of hot-rolling on the mechanical properties and microstructures of chill-cast Al-Al3Ni, chill-cast Al-Al2Cu, and unidirectionally solidified Al-Al3Ni eutectic alloys has been studied. The chill-cast eutectic alloys were produced by casting into preheated mild steel molds placed on copper chills. This system promoted growth along the length of the ingot and not radially from the mold wall. Cellular microstructures resulted with good alignment of Al3Ni fibers or Al2Cu lamellae within the cells and an interfiber/lamellar spacing of ~ 1 /urn. In contrast, the Al-Al3Ni eutectic alloy was also unidirectionally solidified at a growth rate of 3 x 10-1 m s-1 in a conventional horizontal crystal grower. This produced well-aligned Al3Ni fibers with an interfiber spacing of 1.2 ώm. Both the unidirectionally solidified and chill-cast Al-Al3Ni eutectic alloy can be hot-rolled at 773 K to reductions in area of greater than 95 pct. Deformation was achieved by Al3Ni fiber fracturing followed by separation of the broken fiber fragments in the rolling direction. Additionally, for the chill-cast eutectic the cellular microstructure disappeared and the Al3Ni fibers were homogeneously distributed throughout the matrix, after area reductions of 60 to 70 pct. In both cases, the eutectic microstructure was deformed with a constant volume fraction of Al3Ni/unit volume being maintained during rolling. The chill-cast Al-Al2Cu eutectic alloy can be hot-rolled at 773 K to an area reduction of ~50 pct, after the continuous brittle Al2Cu phase within the cells has been ‘broken up’ by coarsening at high temperature. The variations of room temperature tensile properties for the chill-cast and unidirectionally solidified eutectic alloys were measured as a function of reduction of thickness during hot-rolling and the results were compared with predicted strengths from discontinuous fiber reinforcement theory.

  2. Induction of chilling tolerance in wheat during germination by pre-soaking seed with nitric oxide and gibberellin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiangnan; Jiang, Haidong; Liu, Fulai;

    2013-01-01

    Chilling depresses seed germination and seedling establishment, and is one major constraint to grain yield formation in late sown winter wheat. Seeds of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were separately pre-soaked with sodium nitroprusside (SNP, as nitric oxide donor) and Gibberellic acid (GA3......) before germination and then germinated under low temperature. SNP and GA3 pre-treatment increased seed germination rate, germination index, weights and lengths of coleoptile and radicle, while they decreased mean germination time and weight of seeds germinating under low temperature. Exogenous NO and GA3...... by exogenous NO and GA3 as a result of improved seed germination and maintenance of better reactive oxygen species homeostasis in seedling growing under chilling temperatures. It is indicated that exogenous NO was more effective than GA3 in alleviating chilling stress during seed germination and seedling...

  3. Effects of Technological Parameters and Fishing Ground on Quality Attributes of Thawed, Chilled Cod Fillets Stored in Modified Atmosphere Packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøknæs, Niels; Østerberg, Carsten; Sørensen, Rie;

    2001-01-01

    Effects were studied of various technological parameters and fishing ground on quality attributes of thawed, chilled cod fillets stored in modified atmosphere packaging Frozen fillets of Baltic Sea and Barents Sea cod, representing two commercial fishing grounds, were used as raw material....... The parameters investigated were: (1) packaging in modified atmosphere during frozen storage, (2)frozen storage period and temperature, (3),fishing ground and chill storage temperature, together with (4) the addition of trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) and sodium chloride (NaCl) to cod fillets before freezing...... or after freezing and thawing, Application of MAP during frozen storage resulted in a significant increase in the drip loss of thawed, chilled MAP cod fillets but none of the other quality attributes studied were influenced by this treatment. This implies that packaging cod fillets without MAP during...

  4. Lipid hydrolysis and oxidation in farmed gilt head sea bream (Sparus aurata) slaughtered and chilled under different icing conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubourg, S. P.; Alvarez, V.; Pena, J.

    2010-07-01

    This work focuses on the slaughtering and chilled storage (up to 14 days) related to the commercialization of fresh farmed gilt head sea bream (Spa rus aurata). A slurry ice (SI) system was applied and evaluated in comparison to traditional flake ice (FI). Lipid hydrolysis and oxidation were analyzed and compared to sensory acceptance and trimethylamine (TMA) formation. An important quality loss could be assessed in fish during slaughtering and chilling storage, according to sensory assessment and TMA formation. However, lipid damage development was found relatively low, in agreement to the different lipid quality indexes checked (lipid hydrolysis; primary, secondary and tertiary lipid oxidation). No development of rancid odor and no polyunsaturated fatty acid losses were detected. The employment of SI as a slaughtering and chilling strategy was found useful to inhibit quality loss in gilthead seabream resulting in a shelf life increase and a TMA and free fatty acid formation inhibition. (Author)

  5. Estimation of chilling requirement and effect of hydrogen cyanamide on budbreak and fruit characteristics of 'superior seedless' table grape cultivated in a mild winter climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chilling requirement and optimum time for hydrogen cyanamide (HC) application were determined for Superior Seedless table grape grown in southern Tunisia, an arid mild winter region. The reliability of five models to predict chilling accumulation for this cultivar was also investigated. In mid-November, current season shoots were excised and subjected to artificial chilling at 7 deg. C for different lengths of time. Each time, half the shoots were treated with a 2% (v/v) aqueous solution of HC, the others were sprayed with distilled water. Thereafter, these shoots were forced to budburst. Rest intensity gradually declined due to chilling accumulation. We estimated that the cultivar needed approx. 440 hours (h) of chilling, or chilling requirement (CR), to overcome endodormancy. During two dormant seasons, estimation of chilling accumulation showed that the Positive Chill Unit model was the most suitable to predict rest completion for Superior Seedless grown under our climatic conditions. Using this model, we found that the variety's CR was not always met by mid-February. In both laboratory and field trials, HC was most effective in enhancing and advancing budbreak if applied when approx. 2/3 of the cultivar's CR were met. Moreover, by this application berry weight and diameter were increased and fruit maturity was advanced. Our study indicated that HC (2%) was effective in advancing budbreak and fruit maturity of Superior Seedless table grape although its effectiveness depended on application date. (author)

  6. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes in Chilling-Induced Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.); a Data Analysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, I; Vatansever, R; Ozyigit, I I; Filiz, E

    2015-10-01

    Cold stress, as chilling (potato. Under cold stress, plants differentially modulate their gene expression to develop a cold tolerance/acclimation. In the present study, we aimed to identify the overall gene expression profile of chilling-stressed (+4 °C) potato at four time points (4, 8, 12, and 48 h), with a particular emphasis on the genes related with transcription factors (TFs), phytohormones, lipid metabolism, signaling pathway, and photosynthesis. A total of 3504 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified at four time points of chilling-induced potato, of which 1397 were found to be up-regulated while 2107 were down-regulated. Heatmap showed that genes were mainly up-regulated at 4-, 8-, and 12-h time points; however, at 48-h time point, they inclined to down-regulate. Seventy five up-regulated TF genes were identified from 37 different families/groups, including mainly from bHLH, WRKY, CCAAT-binding, HAP3, and bZIP families. Protein kinases and calcium were major signaling molecules in cold-induced signaling pathway. A collaborated regulation of phytohormones was observed in chilling-stressed potato. Lipid metabolisms were regulated in a way, highly probably, to change membrane composition to avoid cold damage and render in signaling. A down-regulated gene expression profile was observed in photosynthesis pathway, probably resulting from chilling-induced reduced enzyme activity or light-triggered ROSs damage. The findings of this study will be a valuable theoretical knowledge in terms of understanding the chilling-induced tolerance mechanisms in cultivated potato plants as well as in other Solanum species. PMID:26260485

  7. 49 CFR 178.320 - General requirements applicable to all DOT specification cargo tank motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Lading means the hazardous material contained in a cargo tank. Loading/unloading connection means the... cargo tank loading/unloading outlet to which the loading/unloading connection is attached. Manufacturer... means for attaching a closure), except that the following are not outlets: a threaded opening...

  8. 46 CFR 105.25-7 - Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system compartment. 105.25-7 Section 105.25-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO... pumping system compartment. (a) Each compartment shall be provided with a mechanical exhaust...

  9. 46 CFR 105.25-5 - Compartments or areas containing cargo tanks or pumping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments or areas containing cargo tanks or pumping systems. 105.25-5 Section 105.25-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO... or pumping systems. (a) Compartments or areas containing tanks or pumping systems shall be closed...

  10. 46 CFR 308.551 - War risk insurance clearing agency agreement for cargo, Form MA-321.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false War risk insurance clearing agency agreement for cargo... EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Iv-General § 308.551 War risk insurance... domestic insurance companies authorized to do a marine insurance business in any State of the United...

  11. 75 FR 9638 - Safety Advisory Notice: Use of Composite Cargo Tanks Manufactured Under DOT Special Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... reinforced plastic (GFRP) cargo tanks. Federal hazardous materials transportation law (Federal hazmat law; 49..., and use of FRP or GFRP cargo tank motor vehicles: Expiration SP number Holder Status date 9166... above contain the following requirement: The compatibility of the commodities and the (FRP or...

  12. 46 CFR 153.981 - Leaving room in tank for cargo expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Leaving room in tank for cargo expansion. 153.981 Section 153.981 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Transfer Procedures § 153.981 Leaving room in tank for cargo expansion. The person in charge of...

  13. 75 FR 1070 - Cargo Securing Methods for Packages in Transport Vehicles or Freight Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... SECURITY Coast Guard Cargo Securing Methods for Packages in Transport Vehicles or Freight Containers AGENCY... the public on methods for securing cargo in transport vehicles and freight containers in order...

  14. 46 CFR 31.10-16 - Inspection and certification of cargo gear-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection and certification of cargo gear-TB/ALL. 31.10... CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-16 Inspection and certification of cargo gear—TB/ALL. (a) The owner, operator... treatment of chains, rings, hooks, shackles, and swivels which require such treatment; and,...

  15. 33 CFR 126.29 - Supervision and control of dangerous cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supervision and control of... Supervision and control of dangerous cargo. (a) Authority. The Captain of the Port is authorized to require... cargo covered by this subchapter shall be undertaken and continued only under the immediate...

  16. 46 CFR 32.60-15 - Segregation of cargo; Grade E-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Segregation of cargo; Grade E-TB/ALL. 32.60-15 Section 32.60-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT... § 32.60-15 Segregation of cargo; Grade E—TB/ALL. (a) General. The galleys, living quarters,...

  17. 19 CFR 123.91 - Electronic information for rail cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic information for rail cargo required in advance of arrival. 123.91 Section 123.91 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Advance Information for Cargo Arriving by Rail or...

  18. 19 CFR 123.92 - Electronic information for truck cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic information for truck cargo required in advance of arrival. 123.92 Section 123.92 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Advance Information for Cargo Arriving by Rail or...

  19. 14 CFR 121.198 - Cargo service airplanes: Increased zero fuel and landing weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cargo service airplanes: Increased zero... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.198 Cargo service airplanes: Increased zero fuel and landing...

  20. 76 FR 4709 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Certified Cargo Screening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... off- airport and includes facilities upstream in the air cargo supply chain, such as shippers... supply chain to accept, screen, and transport air cargo. The uninterrupted collection of this information... below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for renewal in compliance with the...

  1. 49 CFR 1549.111 - Security threat assessments for personnel of certified cargo screening facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security threat assessments for personnel of... SECURITY CERTIFIED CARGO SCREENING PROGRAM Operations § 1549.111 Security threat assessments for personnel... cargo screening facility, an indirect air carrier under 49 CFR part 1548 for transport on a...

  2. 46 CFR 308.501 - Cargoes on which coverage is available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance I-Introduction § 308.501 Cargoes on which coverage is available. The Maritime Administrator will be prepared to provide marine insurance against loss or damage by the risks of... Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as amended (46 App. U.S.C. 1281(a)); (b) Shipped or to be shipped on any...

  3. 46 CFR 31.40-5 - Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate-T/ALL. 31.40... Safety Construction Certificate—T/ALL. (a) All tankships on an international voyage are required to have a Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. This certificate shall be issued by the U.S....

  4. 29 CFR Appendix III to Part 1918 - The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory.... 1918, App. III Appendix III to Part 1918—The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory) Note: This appendix is non-mandatory and provides an explanation of the mechanics in the correct spotting...

  5. 49 CFR 173.33 - Hazardous materials in cargo tank motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... pressure in accordance with 49 CFR 180.405(k). (3) Any Specification MC 310 or MC 311 cargo tank motor... this subchapter. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 173.33, see the List of CFR... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazardous materials in cargo tank motor...

  6. Control of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) tolerance to chilling stress—evaluating the role of ascorbic acid and glutathione

    OpenAIRE

    Lukatkin, Alexander S.; Anjum, Naser A.

    2014-01-01

    Chilling temperatures (1–10°C) are known to disturb cellular physiology, cause oxidative stress via creating imbalance between generation and metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading finally to cell and/or plant death. Owing to known significance of low molecular antioxidants—ascorbic acid (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) in plant stress-tolerance, this work analyzes the role of exogenously applied AsA and GSH in the alleviation of chilling stress (3°C)-impact in cucumber (Cucumis sativ...

  7. Comparison of the Performance of Chilled Beam with Swirl Jet and Diffuse Ceiling Air Supply: Impact of Heat Load Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertheussen, Bård; Mustakallio, Panu; Kosonen, Risto;

    2013-01-01

    The impact of heat load strength and positioning on the indoor environment generated by diffuse ceiling air supply and chilled beam with radial swirl jet was studied and compared. An office room with two persons and a meeting room with six persons were simulated in a test room (4.5 x 3.95 x 3.5 m3...... (ventilation effectiveness of 0.4) and the air flow rate had to be above minimum to safeguard the indoor air quality. The radial swirl jet of chilled beam also was not capable of creating complete mixing at high and concentrated heat load (ventilation effectiveness of 0.7)....

  8. Relationships between Phosphatidylglycerol Molecular Species of Thylakoid Membrane Lipids and Sensitivities to Chilling-induced Photoinhibition in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-Qin Zhu; Hua Zhao; Jian-Sheng Liang; Ben-Hua Ji; De-Mao Jiao

    2008-01-01

    In an attempt to explore the relationships between phosphatidylglycerol (PG) molecular species of thylakoid membrane lipids and sensitivities to chilling-induced photoinhibition, PG molecular species, D1 protein, electron transport activities of thylakoid membrane and the potential quantum yield (Fv/Fm) in rice treated under middle and low photon flux density (PFD) at 11℃ were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography, enzyme hydrolysis, gas phase chromatography (GC) and so on. Results showed that the major molecular species of PGs in rice thylakoid membrane were 18:3/16:0, 18:3/16:1(3t), 18:2/16:0, 18:2/16:1(3t), 18:1/16:0, 18:1116:1(3t), 16:0/16:0, 16:0116:1(3t). There were large differences in the contents of unsaturated PG molecular species such as 18:1-3/16:0-16:1(3t) and saturated PG molecular species like 16:0116:0-16:1(3t) among japonica cv 9516 (j-9516),japonica-indica hybrid F1 j-951611-SY63 (ji-95SY) and indica cv Shanyou 63 (i-SY63). J-9516 containing higher contents of unsaturated PG molecular species was manifest in stable DI protein contents under chill and tolerant to chill-induced photoinhibition. In contrast to j-9516, i-SY63 with lower contents of unsaturated PG molecular species, exhibited unstable D1 protein contents under chill and was sensitive to chill-induced photoinhibition, ji-g5SY containing middle contents of unsaturated PG molecular species between those of j-9516 and i-SY63, exhibited mid extent of sensitivity to chill-induced photoinhibition. The losses in D1 protein also account for the inhibition in electron transport activity of thylakoid membrane and the observed decline in FvlFm. The PG molecular species that is efficient in raising chilling-resistant capacity were those containing unsaturated fatty acids, namely, unsaturated PG molecular species. These results implied that the substrate selectivity of the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase In chloroplasts towards 16:0 or 18:1 displayed greatly the difference

  9. Thermal sensitivity of excitation-contraction-coupling in a chill susceptible insect, Locusta migratoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Findsen, Anders; Pedersen, Thomas Holm; Overgaard, Johannes

    Many insect species enter a state of neuromuscular paralysis when their body temperature is lowered to a critical limit but the physiological and cellular processes underlying this chill coma are largely unknown. Previous studies on locusts show that muscle force production is highly depressed at...... saturating doses of Ca2+. However, preliminary results suggest that Ca2+ affinity is markedly decreased at low temperature. A reduction in Ca2+ sensitivity of the contractile filaments at low temperature could therefore explain loss of muscle function during chill coma....

  10. Structural Basis of Cargo Recognition by Unconventional Myosins in Cellular Trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianchao; Lu, Qing; Zhang, Mingjie

    2016-08-01

    Unconventional myosins are a superfamily of actin-based molecular motors playing diverse roles including cellular trafficking, mechanical supports, force sensing and transmission, etc. The variable neck and tail domains of unconventional myosins function to bind to specific cargoes including proteins and lipid vesicles and thus are largely responsible for the diverse cellular functions of myosins in vivo. In addition, the tail regions, together with their cognate cargoes, can regulate activities of the motor heads. This review outlines the advances made in recent years on cargo recognition and cargo binding-induced regulation of the activity of several unconventional myosins including myosin-I, V, VI and X in cellular trafficking. We approach this topic by describing a series of high-resolution structures of the neck and tail domains of these unconventional myosins either alone or in complex with their specific cargoes, and by discussing potential implications of these structural studies on cellular trafficking of these myosin motors. PMID:26842936

  11. Air distribution in office environment with asymmetric workstation layout using chilled beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskela, Hannu; Haeggblom, Henna [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Lemminkaeisenkatu 14-18 B, 20520 Turku (Finland); Kosonen, Risto; Ruponen, Mika [Halton Oy, Niittyvillankuja 4, 01510 Vantaa (Finland)

    2010-09-15

    Air flow patterns and mean air speeds were studied under laboratory conditions representing a full scale open-plan office. Three basic conditions were tested: summer, spring/autumn and winter. Chilled beams were used to provide cooling, outdoor air supply and air distribution in the room. The heat sources had a notable influence on the flow pattern in the room causing large scale circulation and affecting the direction of inlet jets. The maximum air speed in the occupied zone was higher than the recommendations. The mean air speed was also high on at the floor level but low on at the head level. The air speed was highest in the summer case under high cooling load. Results indicate that especially with high heat loads, it is difficult to fulfill the targets of the existing standards in practice. Two main sources of draught risk were found: a) downfall of colliding inlet jets causing local maxima of air speed and b) large scale circulation caused by asymmetric layout of chilled beams and heat sources. The first phenomenon can cause local draught risk when the workstation is located in the downfall area. The flow pattern is not stable and the position of draught risk areas can change in time and also due to changes in room heat sources. The second phenomenon can cause more constant high air speeds on at the floor level. CFD-simulation was able to predict the general flow pattern but somewhat overestimated the air speed compared to measurements. (author)

  12. Methyl Jasmonate Reduces Chilling Injury and Maintains Postharvest Quality in Peaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Lei; ZHENG Yong-hua; ZHANG Yan-fen; WANG Feng; ZHANG Lan; LU Zhao-xin

    2003-01-01

    Zhaohui peaches (Prunus persica Batsch) were treated with 0 (CK), 1, 10 or 100 μmol L-1methyl jasmonate (MeJA) vapor at 20℃ for 24 h before stored at 0℃ for 35 d. The untreated fruits showed chilling injury (CI) symptoms after 4 wk of storage, as indicated by increased fruit firmness and reduced extractable juice, which is referred as leatheriness. Treatment with 1 and 10 μmol L-1 MeJA promoted normal ripening and softening, maintained higher levels of extractable juice, titratable acidity, pectinesterase (PE)and polygalacturonase (PG) activities, inhibited increases in fruit fresh weight loss, decay incidence, electrolyte leakage and MDA content, and improved color development, thereby preventing chilling injury symptoms development and maintaining edible quality. MeJA treatment also delayed the climacteric rise in respiratory rate, but promoted ethylene production during the later period of cold storage, suggesting that ethylene may involve in CI development of peaches. These results indicate that 1 and 10 μmol L-1 MeJA treatments could be used to reduce CI development and decay incidence in peaches.

  13. Development of a convenience and safety chilled sous vide fish dish: Diversification of aquacultural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, M C; López, G; Díaz, P; Linares, M B; Garrido, M D

    2016-04-01

    The dynamic expansion of the ready-to-eat seabream sector in its adaptation to new lifestyles has led to the search for new presentation formats in seabream (Sparus aurata). Green sauce (olive oil, wine vinegar, garlic, fresh parsley, black pepper, basil and salt) and 60 ℃ of cooking temperature were chosen by the panellists for the sous vide cooking process. Seabream fillet and sauce were packaged in polypropylene trays, cooked, chilled and stored at 2 ℃. Microbiological (total viable counts,Enterobacteriaceae,lactic acid bacteria, anaerobic psychrotrophic, moulds and yeasts, Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes), chemical (pH and TBARs) and sensory parameters were determined at 0, 7, 17, 34, 48 and 62 days. In the conditions used, the microbiological counts remained stable, and Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes were absent. The acidic sauce had a positive effect on the pH of the product, and low TBARs were obtained throughout storage. The processing conditions used in the present study allowed a chilled ready-to-eat seabream product of consistently high quality up to 62 days of storage to be obtained, representing an expansion of the products offered by the aquacultural industry. PMID:25941212

  14. Effect of extracted housefly pupae peptide mixture on chilled pork preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yansheng; Dang, Xiangli; Zheng, Xiaoxia; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Wenqing

    2010-08-01

    The peptide mixture from housefly pupae has broad spectrum antimicrobial activity but has not previously been reported as a food preservative. In this study, the preservation effects of a housefly pupae peptide mixture, nisin, and sodium dehydroacetate (DHA-S) on the number of mesophilic aerobic bacteria (MAB), total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), and pH value of chilled pork were compared. All results showed that a good preservation effect was observed among 3 treatments with the peptide mixture of housefly pupae, nisin, and DHA-S and that there was no significant difference among them. These results indicate that housefly peptide mixture has a great potential as a food preservative. The results of scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscopy suggest that the primary mechanism of housefly pupae peptide mixture may be bacterial cytoplasmic membrane lysis and pores induced in the membranes. Practical Applications: Peptide mixture extracted from housefly pupae using low-cost and simple method has broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. According to the effect on chilled pork preservation, extracted housefly peptide mixture has a great potential as a food preservative. PMID:20722941

  15. A new method for chill and shrinkage control in ladle treated ductile iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Torbj(o)rn Skaland

    2006-01-01

    The paper is undertaken with the objective of describing a new method for treating ductile cast iron in a ladle process, where the main objective is to minimize formation of eutectic carbides and shrinkage porosity during solidification. The suppression of carbide formation is associated with the nucleating properties of the nodularizer and inoculant alloys. By nucleating properties it is understood the number and potency of nuclei formed by an alloy addition. The nodularizer and inoculant additions also influence ductile iron solidification shrinkage. Some alloys may give good protection against shrinkage while others tend to promote more shrinkage.The use of vanous rare earth elements is found to have a pronounced impact on these conditions. It has been discovered that the use of pure lanthanum as the primary rare earth source in the magnesium ferrosilicon nodularizer surprisingly further improves the performance of the ductile iron ladle treatment method compared to similar methods using cerium or mishmetal bearing nodularizers. The nucleating properties are substantially improved and the risk for carbides (chill) and shrinkage formation in the sandwich or tundish ladle treated ductile iron is then minimized.The paper describes this new ladle treatment concept in detail, and gives examples from successful testing of the new nodularizing technology and how it simultaneously affects and minimizes critical ductile iron chill and shrinkage tendencies.

  16. Noninvasive Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Spoilage Attributes of Chilled Pork Using Hyperspectral Scattering Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leilei; Peng, Yankun

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this research was to develop a rapid noninvasive method for quantitative and qualitative determination of chilled pork spoilage. Microbiological, physicochemical, and organoleptic characteristics such as the total viable count (TVC), Pseudomonas spp., total volatile basic-nitrogen (TVB-N), pH value, and color parameter L* were determined to appraise pork quality. The hyperspectral scattering characteristics from 54 meat samples were fitted by four-parameter modified Gompertz function accurately. Support vector machines (SVM) was applied to establish quantitative prediction model between scattering fitting parameters and reference values. In addition, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and Bayesian analysis were utilized as supervised and unsupervised techniques for the qualitative identification of meat spoilage. All stored chilled meat samples were classified into three grades: "fresh," "semi-fresh," and "spoiled." Bayesian classification model was superior to PLS-DA with overall classification accuracy of 92.86%. The results demonstrated that hyperspectral scattering technique combined with SVM and Bayesian possessed a powerful capability for meat spoilage assessment rapidly and noninvasively. PMID:27340214

  17. Post harvest quality and chilling injury of plums: benefits of 1-methyl cyclopropene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candan, A. P.; Graell, J.; Larrigaudiere, C.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of 1-methyl cyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment on the development of chilling injury (CI) symptoms in four plum cultivars and to determine the relationship between the climacteric behavior of the cultivar and its sensitivity to this disorder. Significant differences in ripening pattern were found between the cultivars after long-term storage. Among the climacteric cultivars, Royal Zee plums showed a higher ethylene production rate than Linda Rosa and Friar cultivars. On the other hand, the Angeleno cultivar behaved as a suppressed climacteric type. The development of translucency symptoms was higher in Royal Zee than in Linda Rosa and Friar plums, and was almost absent in the suppressed climacteric cultivar. 1-MCP treatment significantly reduced ethylene production and the percentage of fruit affected by translucency in all climacteric cultivars. This treatment also delayed the ripening of the fruit during shelf life. In contrast, 1-MCP treatment did not affect the quality of Angeleno plums. Collectively these results suggest that the development of chilling injury in plums is related to the climacteric behavior of the cultivar and demonstrated the beneficial effects of 1-MCP maintaining plum quality during storage. (Author) 29 refs.

  18. Biogenic amines in pressurized vacuum-packaged cooked sliced ham under different chilled storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Capillas, C; Carballo, J; Jiménez Colmenero, F

    2007-03-01

    This work was undertaken to study how storage conditions (at constant temperatures of 2±1 and 12±1°C and temperature fluctuations at 7±5°C) affect microbial development and the production of biogenic amines in vacuum-packaged cooked sliced ham subjected to high pressure (400MPa/10min/30°C). Initially, the product exhibited low levels of contamination. Microbiological changes during storage depend on the processing (non-pressure and pressure treatment) and the chilled storage conditions. Generally, microbial growth in pressurized samples was similar to that in the non-pressurized samples, although the total viable count and lactic flora were lower and growth was delayed. Processing and storage conditions affected the formation of each amine differently. The most important changes were in tyramine, which formed more quickly in non-pressurized products stored at 12°C and with temperature fluctuations. The formation of biogenic amines in these products can be prevented not only by ensuring good manufacturing practices and applying high pressure but also by ensuring the right chilled storage conditions. PMID:22063795

  19. Tolerance to chilling and postharvest quality of ‘Pedro Sato’ guavas submitted to thermal conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Chechi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of thermal conditioning on the chilling tolerance and quality of ‘Pedro Sato’ guavas stored at 2ºC. The treatments evaluated were: 30 days at 10ºC (control; 30 days at 2ºC; one day at 45ºC + 29 days at 2ºC; two days at 45ºC + 28 days at 2ºC; two days at 35ºC + 28 days at 2ºC. After 30 days of storage plus three days at 20ºC, the firmness of the flesh and the titratable acidity were highest in the treatments with thermal conditioning. The incidence of rot was higher in fruits stored for 30 days at 10ºC and those kept for two days at 35ºC, and weight loss was higher in fruits kept for two days at 45ºC. Fruits stored for 30 days at 2ºC and those kept at 45ºC, before storage at 2ºC, did not show substantial alterations in the color of the peel during storage or shelf life, which can be associated with chilling injury.

  20. Alleviation of chilling injury in tomato fruit by exogenous application of oxalic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peiyan; Yin, Fei; Song, Lijun; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2016-07-01

    The effects of oxalic acid on the development of chilling injury (CI), energy metabolism and lycopene metabolism in tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were investigated. Mature green tomatoes were dipped in 10mmoll(-1) oxalic acid (OA) solution for 10min at 25°C. Tomatoes were subsequently stored at 4±0.5°C for 20days before being transferred to 25°C for 12days. Oxalic acid treatment apparently alleviated CI development and membrane damage; maintained higher levels of ATP and ADP; increased activities of succinic dehydrogenase (SDH), Ca(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase (Ca(2+)-ATPase) and H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (H(+)-ATPase); and elevated lycopene accumulation associated with the upregulation of PSY1 and ZDS expression in tomatoes during a period at room temperature following exposure to chilling stress. Thus, oxalic acid treatment benefited the control of CI and the maintenance of fruit quality in tomatoes stored for long periods (approximately 32days). PMID:26920276

  1. Modeling and Analysis of Chill and Fill Processes for the EDU Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayat, A.; Cartagena, W.; Majumdar, A. K.; Leclair, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's future missions may require long-term storage and transfer of cryogenic propellants. The Engineering Development Unit (EDU), a NASA in-house effort supported by both Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Glenn Research Center (GRC), is a Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) test article that primarily serves as a manufacturing pathfinder and a risk reduction task for a future CFM payload. The EDU test article, comprises a flight like tank, internal components, insulation, and attachment struts. The EDU is designed to perform integrated passive thermal control performance testing with liquid hydrogen in a space-like vacuum environment. A series of tests, with liquid hydrogen as a testing fluid, was conducted at Test Stand 300 at MSFC during summer of 2014. The objective of this effort was to develop a thermal/fluid model for evaluating the thermodynamic behavior of the EDU tank during the chill and fill processes. Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP), an MSFC in-house general-purpose computer program for flow network analysis, was utilized to model and simulate the chill and fill portion of the testing. The model contained the liquid hydrogen supply source, feed system, EDU tank, and vent system. The modeling description and comparison of model predictions with the test data will be presented in the final paper.

  2. Characterisation and modelling of defect formation in direct-chill cast AZ80 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackie, D.; Robson, J.D.; Withers, P.J. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Turski, M. [Magnesium Elektron UK, Rake Lane, Manchester, M27 8BF (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    Wrought magnesium alloys for demanding structural applications require high quality defect free cast feedstock. The aim of this study was to first identify and characterise typical defects in direct chill cast magnesium–aluminium–zinc (AZ) alloy billet and then use modelling to understand the origins of these defects so they can be prevented. Defects were first located using ultrasonic inspection and were then characterised using X-ray computed tomography (XCT) and serial sectioning, establishing the presence of oxide films and intermetallic particles Al{sub 8}Mn{sub 5} in all defects. A model was developed to predict the flow patterns and growth kinetics of the intermetallic phases during casting, which influence the formation of defects. Simulation of the growth of the intermetallic particles demonstrated that precipitation from the liquid occurs in the mould. The combination of the entrained oxide films and intermetallic particles recirculates in the liquid metal and continues to grow, until large enough to settle, which is predicted to occur at the centre of the mould where the flow is the slowest. Based on these predictions, strategies to reduce the susceptibility to defect formation are suggested. - Highlights: • Casting defects in magnesium direct chill casting have been imaged and characterised in 3-dimensions. • The occurrences of co-located clusters of particles and oxide films have been characterised and explained. • A coupled model has been developed to help interpret the observed trend for defects located towards the centre of billets.

  3. An application of the gas-fired chilling and heating units to domestic houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J.H.; Yang, Y.M.; Chae, J.M.; Bang, H.S.; Kwon, O.B.; Yoo, S.I.; Kim, T.H. [R and D Center, Korea Gas Co. (Korea); Lee, T.W.; Kim, T.H.; Kim, B.H.; Hwang, I.J.; Kim, J.Y.; Kim, C.D.; Park, S.J. [Korea Institute of Construction Technology (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    Following researches and considerations were performed in this study for an efficient application of gas-fired chilling and heating units to the residential buildings. (1) Status of domestic cooling and heating for residential building. (2) Various introduction schemes of outdoor unit. (3) Design exclusive area for the gas appliance and installation of it. (4) Ventilation of exhaust gas and heat. (5) Prepare the installation specifications or standards for gas-fired chilling and heating units. (6) Design technique of plumbing for cooling and heating. (7) Evaluation of unit's capacity considering the thermal load of domestic buildings. (8) Cooling and heating system with the unit. (9) Fundamental test for evaluation of applicability. (10) Actual design and construction of experimental house for an application and a demonstration of the developed gas units. (11) Field test for cooling and heating. (12) Evaluation of economic efficiency. (13) Establish a business potential. (14) Establishment of legal and systematic support, energy rate. (15) Troubleshooting in the course of development and application of the new gas appliance. 41 refs., 214 figs., 52 tabs.

  4. Characterisation and modelling of defect formation in direct-chill cast AZ80 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrought magnesium alloys for demanding structural applications require high quality defect free cast feedstock. The aim of this study was to first identify and characterise typical defects in direct chill cast magnesium–aluminium–zinc (AZ) alloy billet and then use modelling to understand the origins of these defects so they can be prevented. Defects were first located using ultrasonic inspection and were then characterised using X-ray computed tomography (XCT) and serial sectioning, establishing the presence of oxide films and intermetallic particles Al8Mn5 in all defects. A model was developed to predict the flow patterns and growth kinetics of the intermetallic phases during casting, which influence the formation of defects. Simulation of the growth of the intermetallic particles demonstrated that precipitation from the liquid occurs in the mould. The combination of the entrained oxide films and intermetallic particles recirculates in the liquid metal and continues to grow, until large enough to settle, which is predicted to occur at the centre of the mould where the flow is the slowest. Based on these predictions, strategies to reduce the susceptibility to defect formation are suggested. - Highlights: • Casting defects in magnesium direct chill casting have been imaged and characterised in 3-dimensions. • The occurrences of co-located clusters of particles and oxide films have been characterised and explained. • A coupled model has been developed to help interpret the observed trend for defects located towards the centre of billets

  5. Exogenous melatonin improves corn (Zea mays L.) embryo proteome in seeds subjected to chilling stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołodziejczyk, Izabela; Dzitko, Katarzyna; Szewczyk, Rafał; Posmyk, Małgorzata M

    2016-04-01

    Melatonin (MEL; N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) plays an important role in plant stress defense. Various plant species rich in this indoleamine have shown a higher capacity for stress tolerance. Moreover, it has great potential for plant biostimulation, is biodegradable and non-toxic for the environment. All this indicates that our concept of seed enrichment with exogenous MEL is justified. This work concerns the effects of corn (Zea mays L.) seed pre-sowing treatments supplemented with MEL. Non-treated seeds (nt), and those hydroprimed with water (H) or with MEL solutions 50 and 500μM (HMel50, HMel500) were compared. Positive effects of seed priming are particularly apparent during germination under suboptimal conditions. The impact of MEL applied by priming on seed protein profiles during imbibition/germination at low temperature has not been investigated to date. In order to identify changes in the corn seed proteome after applying hydropriming techniques, purified protein extracts of chilling stressed seed embryos (14 days, 5°C) were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Then proteome maps were graphically and statistically compared and selected protein spots were qualitatively analyzed using mass spectrometry techniques and identified. This study aimed to analyze the priming-induced changes in maize embryo proteome and at identifying priming-associated and MEL-associated proteins in maize seeds subjected to chilling. We attempt to explain how MEL expands plant capacity for stress tolerance. PMID:26945210

  6. Electronic Method to Detect Persons Hidden Within Cargo containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, G.M.

    1997-11-10

    Physical security technologies have been unable to address most `Trojan Horse' scenarios at vehicle portals which provide access through the perimeter of a secure area. Thorough visual searches of vehicle cargo containers are time consuming, involve a number of security personnel and are cursory at best. Vehicles entering or exiting a protected site provide an adversary with an easy pathway across secure boundaries. A method to detect the presence of persons hiding within a vehicle's enclosed cargo container has been developed by LQckheed Martin Energy Systems. The system measures vibrations coupled to the container and generated by the human heart. Each time the human heart beats, it generates a small but measurable shock wave. This shock wave is propagated through the body and transmitted to anything with which the body has contact. This wave is referred to as a baflistocardiograrn and is the mechanical equivalent to an electrocardiogram. Systems have been installed in several State prisons and have been independently tested and evaluated. The effectiveness of the system has been determined by the Thunder Mountain Evaluation Center at Fort Huachuca. Arizona. Sympathetic vibrations of the cargo container's surface can be collected using any of several detection methods, i.e. infrared, Doppler microwave, Doppler ultrasonic wave and geophones. The analog signal delivered by the sensors is passed through an amplifier and a low pass filter and then fed to a microprocessor via an analog to digital converter. When initiated by the operator, anafog signals are recorded for a specific interval of time and rate. At the end of the recording intervaL the data are analysed using wavelet transform techniques and compared with a ballistocardiographic template. If the collected data are similar, the system informs the operator that there is a high degree of probability that a person is within the vehicle. The paper describes in depth the development of the system

  7. ATHLETE: A Cargo-Handling Vehicle for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is developing a vehicle called ATHLETE: the All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer. Each vehicle is based on six wheels at the ends of six multi-degree-of-freedom limbs. Because each limb has enough degrees of freedom for use as a general-purpose leg, the wheels can be locked and used as feet to walk out of excessively soft or other extreme terrain. Since the vehicle has this alternative mode of traversing through or at least out of extreme terrain, the wheels and wheel actuators can be sized for nominal terrain. There are substantial mass savings in the wheel and wheel actuators associated with designing for nominal instead of extreme terrain. These mass savings are comparable-to or larger-than the extra mass associated with the articulated limbs. As a result, the entire mobility system, including wheels and limbs, can be about 25% lighter than a conventional mobility chassis. A side benefit of this approach is that each limb has sufficient degrees-of-freedom to use as a general-purpose manipulator (hence the name "limb" instead of "leg"). Our prototype ATHLETE vehicles have quick-disconnect tool adapters on the limbs that allow tools to be drawn out of a "tool belt" and maneuvered by the limb. A power-take-off from the wheel actuates the tools, so that they can take advantage of the 1+ horsepower motor in each wheel to enable drilling, gripping or other power-tool functions. Architectural studies have indicated that one useful role for ATHLETE in planetary (moon or Mars) exploration is to "walk" cargo off the payload deck of a lander and transport it across the surface. Recent architectural approaches are focused on the concept that the lander descent stage will use liquid hydrogen as a propellant. This is the highest performance chemical fuel, but it requires very large tanks. A natural geometry for the lander is to have a single throttleable rocket engine on

  8. Multirole cargo aircraft options and configurations. [economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, D. W.; Vaughan, J. C., III

    1979-01-01

    A future requirements and advanced market evaluation study indicates derivatives of current wide-body aircraft, using 1980 advanced technology, would be economically attractive through 2008, but new dedicated airfreighters incorporating 1990 technology, would offer little or no economic incentive. They would be economically attractive for all payload sizes, however, if RD and T costs could be shared in a joint civil/military arrangement. For the 1994-2008 cargo market, option studies indicate Mach 0.7 propfans would be economically attractive in trip cost, aircraft price and airline ROI. Spanloaders would have an even lower price and higher ROI but would have a relatively high trip cost because of aerodynamic inefficiencies. Dedicated airfreighters using propfans at Mach 0.8 cruise, laminar flow control, or cryofuels, would not provide any great economic benefits. Air cushion landing gear configurations are identified as an option for avoiding runway constraints on airport requirements and/or operational constraints are noted.

  9. A Sensor and Communications System for Containerized-Cargo Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach Jr., R R

    2005-02-10

    A public/private collaboration between federal, state, provincial, and local U.S. and Canadian governmental organizations, called the Canada - United States Cargo Security Project has been formed, with the goal to improve security of containerized cargo moving from overseas locations into eastern Canadian provinces and the Northeastern United States. The current phase of this project has two technical objectives. These are: (1) to build and test a prototype in-container sensor system able to detect unauthorized entry into the container and the presence of radioactive material, to record geographical location and environmental data, and to transmit this information via satellite communications to a remote monitoring facility, and (2) to develop a secure website where data from the in-container sensors and other information will be displayed in real or near-real time and can be made available to law enforcement and emergency response organizations as appropriate. This paper will describe these activities, currently being undertaken by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. An additional goal of the project's current phase is to integrate multi-jurisdictional training and first-responder exercises while monitoring and tracking container shipments from overseas to the US via Canadian ports-of-entry into North America. This activity is being undertaken by other project partners, which include the National Infrastructure Institute--Center for Infrastructure Expertise (NI2CIE), Transport Canada, Canadian Provinces of Quebec and Nova Scotia, Ports of Halifax and Montreal, U.S. Coast Guard (First Coast Guard District), States of New Hampshire, Maine, Vermont, and New York and the Port of Portland.

  10. Christmas Chill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    For numerous Chinese exporters, this year’s Christmas season means more despair than cheerWandering through his toy fac- tory in Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, Lin Zhanpeng barks orders as a few workers move around machines

  11. Chalillo chill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loverock, K. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada)

    2002-03-31

    The proposed $44-million Chalillo dam project in the Macal River Valley of western Belize is being met with criticism from ecological scientists who claim the project is a threat to endangered wildlife in one of Central America's most ecologically sensitive areas. Despite the criticism, Fortis Inc., a Canadian power company based in St. John's Newfoundland along with the government of Belize, is pressing ahead with the proposal claiming that it will bring in foreign investment, help alleviate poverty and decrease dependence on power imports from Mexico. Belize currently gets its energy from the Mollejon dam, from diesel generators and from the Mexican power grid. The Chalillo dam will be 49.5 metres high and will flood about 20 kilometres up the Macal River valley, destroying about 800 hectares of prime valley habitat including parts of the Mountain Pine Ridge Forest Reserve, Chiquibul Forest Reserve and Chiquibul National Park. Its generating capacity is expected to be only 8 megawatts and critics doubt that it will generate much power during the dry season. The Macal River Valley is habitat to a range of threatened species including the rare scarlet macaw, Central American river otters, Morelet's crocodiles, Central American spider monkeys, tapirs, ocelots and jaguars. In addition, the flooding would destroy 2 Mayan ruins. Eighteen leading scientists and naturalists from around the world have joined forces to protest the project. Former project partner Duke Energy of the United States decided to withdraw from the project, but Fortis, which owns 68 per cent of Belize's national electricity utility, Belize Electricity Limited, is still pressing ahead. The Prime Minister of Belize does not think it is fair for environmental groups to criticize the project when their own countries have so many dams. An independent economic analysis has shown that the dam may be profitable for Fortis but economically detrimental for Belizeans. Critics say the power would be sold to Belize Electricity at 15 cents per kilowatt hour, nearly double the current cost of power imported from Mexico. Alternative domestic supply options include electricity from bagasse units which can generate power at about 11 cents per kilowatt hour. The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) contributed nearly half a million dollars to AMEC, a Canadian engineering firm, to ensure that a proper environmental assessment was carried out. Opponents say that while the assessment clearly recognizes the project would have adverse environmental effects, it includes inaccurate and misleading information on geology and hydrology. CIDA thinks it is unfortunate that the Belize government is not heeding the conclusion of the assessment, but that the decision is beyond CIDA's influence. 1 fig.

  12. Mechanisms of lipid oxidation in pork samples irradiated at chilling temperatures and the ways to control the lipid oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of irradiation dose, storage time, concentration of oxygen and antioxidants on lipid oxidation in pork samples irradiated at chilling temperatures were studied for seeking technical approaches to control the lipid oxidation. The result indicated that the correlation between the dose and peroxide value (PV) was extremely high (pE play an important part in controlling the lipid oxidation. (authors)

  13. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins involved in ethylene-induced chilling tolerance in harvested banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Taotao; Yun, Ze; Zhang, Dandan; Yang, Chengwei; Zhu, Hong; Jiang, Yueming; Duan, Xuewu

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the mechanism involved in ethylene-induced chilling tolerance in harvested banana fruit, a gel-based proteomic study followed by MALDI-TOF-TOF MS was carried out. Banana fruit were treated with 500 ppm ethylene for 12 h and then stored at 6°C. During cold storage, the chilling tolerance was assessed and the proteins from the peel were extracted for proteomic analysis. It was observed that ethylene pretreatment significantly induced the chilling tolerance in harvested banana fruit, manifesting as increases in maximal chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) and decreased electrolyte leakage. Sixty-four proteins spots with significant differences in abundance were identified, most of which were induced by ethylene pretreatment during cold storage. The up-regulated proteins induced by ethylene pretreatment were mainly related to energy metabolism, stress response and defense, methionine salvage cycle and protein metabolism. These proteins were involved in ATP synthesis, ROS scavenging, protective compounds synthesis, protein refolding and degradation, and polyamine biosynthesis. It is suggested that these up-regulated proteins might play a role in the ethylene-induced chilling tolerance in harvested banana fruit. PMID:26528309

  14. Changes in SBPase activity influence photosynthetic capacity, growth, and tolerance to chilling stress in transgenic tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Fei; Wang, Meiling; Zhang, Shuoxin; Ai, Xizhen

    2016-01-01

    Sedoheptulose-1, 7-bisphosphatase (SBPase) is an important enzyme involved in photosynthetic carbon fixation in the Calvin cycle. Here, we report the impact of changes in SBPase activity on photosynthesis, growth and development, and chilling tolerance in SBPase antisense and sense transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants. In transgenic plants with increased SBPase activity, photosynthetic rates were increased and in parallel an increase in sucrose and starch accumulation was evident. Total biomass and leaf area were increased in SBPase sense plants, while they were reduced in SBPase antisense plants compared with equivalent wild-type tomato plants. Under chilling stress, when compared with plants with decreased SBPase activity, tomato plants with increased SBPase activity were found to be more chilling tolerant as indicated by reduced electrolyte leakage, increased photosynthetic capacity, and elevated RuBP regeneration rate and quantum efficiency of photosystem II. Collectively, our data suggest that higher level of SBPase activity gives an advantage to photosynthesis, growth and chilling tolerance in tomato plants. This work also provides a case study that an individual enzyme in the Calvin cycle may serve as a useful target for genetic engineering to improve production and stress tolerance in crops. PMID:27586456

  15. Effect of phosphate and meat (pork) types on the germination and outgrowth of Clostridium perfringens spores during abusive chilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of blends of phosphates and the pork meat type (pale, soft and exudative, PSE; normal; and dark, firm and dry, DFD) on the germination and outgrowth of Clostridium perfringens during abusive exponential chilling times was evaluated. Two different phosphates, tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSP...

  16. Alterations in Chlorophyll a Fluorescence and Pigments Concentration in the Leaves of Cauliflower and Broccoli Transplants Subjected to Chilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata WOJCIECHOWSKA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters and photosynthetic pigments content in leaves of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica cv. ‘Monaco’ F1 and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis cv. ‘Bruce’ F1 transplants were analyzed to investigate the effects of chilling temperatures (6 and 10 °C and the exposure length (1 or 2 weeks on the photosynthetic apparatus condition in 3-year experiment. Data were compared to control plants exposed to 14 °C for 1 and 2 weeks. The lowest values of maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm and the performance index (PI were observed in cauliflower chilled at 6 °C for 2 weeks. This was not accompanied by any substantial reduction in chlorophylls concentration, however, significant correlations between Fv/Fm or PI and chlorophylls content in cauliflower leaves were found. There was no negative effects of chilling on photosynthetic activity and chlorophyll content in broccoli leaves, the amount of carotenoids significantly increased in the broccoli chilled for 2 weeks in 6 °C. The chlorophyll a fluorescence indices and accelerated carotenoids synthesis showed that broccoli had less vulnerable photosynthetic apparatus to stress-induced temperatures and more efficient protection mechanisms in comparison to cauliflower transplants.

  17. 76 FR 20312 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway: Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary and Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... from Norway, pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the Act). See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 89 (January 3, 2011). Within the deadline specified in 19 CFR... International Trade Administration Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway: Extension of Time Limits...

  18. Determination of unidirectional heat transfer coefficient during unsteady-state solidification at metal casting-chill interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) for vertically upward unidirectional solidification of a eutectic Al-Si casting on water cooled copper and steel chills was measured during solidification. A finite difference method (FDM) was used for solution of the inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP). Six computer guided thermocouples were connected with the chill and casting, and the time-temperature data were recorded automatically. The thermocouples were placed, located symmetrically, at 5 mm, 37.5 mm and 75 mm from the interface. As the lateral surfaces are very well heat isolated, the unidirectional solidification process starts vertically upward at the interface surface. The measured time-temperature data files were used by a FDM using an explicit technique. A heat flow computer program has been written to estimate the transient metal-chill IHTC in the IHCP. The experimental and calculated temperatures have shown excellent agreement. The IHTC during vertically upward unidirectional solidification of an Al-Si casting on copper and steel chills have varied between about 19-9.5 kW/m2 K and 6.5-5 kW/m2 K, respectively

  19. Chilling-injury and disturbance of ion homeostasis in the coxal muscle of the tropical cockroach (Nauphoeta cinerea)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Košťál, Vladimír; Yanagimoto, M.; Bastl, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 143, č. 2 (2006), s. 171-179. ISSN 1096-4959 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/03/0099 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : chill tolerance * cold-acclimation * ion gradients Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.532, year: 2006

  20. Determination of unidirectional heat transfer coefficient during unsteady-state solidification at metal casting-chill interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahin, Haci Mehmet [Gazi Ueniversitesi, Teknik Egitim Fakueltesi, Teknikokullar, Ankara 06503 (Turkey)]. E-mail: mesahin@gazi.edu.tr; Kocatepe, Kadir [Gazi Ueniversitesi, Teknik Egitim Fakueltesi, Teknikokullar, Ankara 06503 (Turkey); Kayikci, Ramazan [Sakarya Ueniversitesi, Teknik Egitim Fakueltesi, Sakarya (Turkey); Akar, Neset [Gazi Ueniversitesi, Teknik Egitim Fakueltesi, Teknikokullar, Ankara 06503 (Turkey)

    2006-01-15

    In this study, the interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) for vertically upward unidirectional solidification of a eutectic Al-Si casting on water cooled copper and steel chills was measured during solidification. A finite difference method (FDM) was used for solution of the inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP). Six computer guided thermocouples were connected with the chill and casting, and the time-temperature data were recorded automatically. The thermocouples were placed, located symmetrically, at 5 mm, 37.5 mm and 75 mm from the interface. As the lateral surfaces are very well heat isolated, the unidirectional solidification process starts vertically upward at the interface surface. The measured time-temperature data files were used by a FDM using an explicit technique. A heat flow computer program has been written to estimate the transient metal-chill IHTC in the IHCP. The experimental and calculated temperatures have shown excellent agreement. The IHTC during vertically upward unidirectional solidification of an Al-Si casting on copper and steel chills have varied between about 19-9.5 kW/m{sup 2} K and 6.5-5 kW/m{sup 2} K, respectively.

  1. Relationships between unsaturation of thylakoid membrane lipids and xanthophyll cycle in rice under chilling and high light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To explore the differences of chilling induced sensitivity to photoinhibition between indica and japonica, xanthophyll cycle component, activity of violaxanthin deepoxidase (VDE), and unsaturation of thylakoid membrane lipids were measured. Varieties used were japonica 9516 and indica Shanyou 63 (SY 63).

  2. Application of Silicon Carbide Chills in Controlling the Solidification Process of Casts Made of IN-713C Nickel Superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Szeliga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the method of manufacturing casts made of the IN-713C nickel superalloy using the wax lost investment castingprocess and silicon carbide chills. The authors designed experimental casts, the gating system and selected the chills material. Wax pattern,ceramic shell mould and experimental casts were prepared for the purposes of research. On the basis of the temperature distributionmeasurements, the kinetics of the solidification process was determined in the thickened part of the plate cast. This allowed to establish thequantity of phase transitions which occurred during cast cooling process and the approximate values of liquidus, eutectic, solidus andsolvus temperatures as well as the solidification time and the average value of cast cooling rate. Non-destructive testing and macroscopicanalysis were applied to determine the location and size of shrinkage defects. The authors present the mechanism of solidification andformation of shrinkage defects in casts with and without chills. It was found that the applied chills influence significantly the hot spots andthe remaining part of the cast. Their presence allows to create conditions for solidification of IN-713C nickel superalloy cast withoutshrinkage defects.

  3. Contrasting effect of dark-chilling on chloroplast structure and arrangement of chlorophyll-protein complexes in pea and tomato: plants with a different susceptibility to non-freezing temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Garstka, M.; Venema, J.H.; Rumak, I.; Gieczewska, K.; Rosiak, M.; Koziol-Lipinska, J.; Vredenberg, W J; Mostowska, A.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of dark-chilling and subsequent photoactivation on chloroplast structure and arrangements of chlorophyll-protein complexes in thylakoid membranes was studied in chilling-tolerant (CT) pea and in chilling-sensitive (CS) tomato. Dark-chilling did not influence chlorophyll content and Chl a/b ratio in thylakoids of both species. A decline of Chl a fluorescence intensity and an increase of the ratio of fluorescence intensities of PSI and PSII at 120 K was observed after dark-chilling i...

  4. Effects of Chilling Stress on Photosynthetic Rate and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parameter in Seedlings of Two Rice Cultivars Differing in Cold Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guo-li; GUO Zhen-fei

    2005-01-01

    A cold-tolerant cultivar, Xiangnuo 1, and a cold-sensitive cultivar, IR50, were used to study the influence of chilling on photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in rice seedlings. The photosynthetic rates declined dramatically during chilling, and decreased by 48.7% and 67.5% in Xiangnuo 1 and IR50 seedlings, respectively, after being subjected to chilling treatment for two days. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements showed that relatively higher qP and qNP in Xiangnuo 1 were maintained to dissipate the redundant excitation energy and protect the reaction centers from chill injury; accordingly, redundant excitation energy accumulated less in the reaction centers, and antenna systems were less injured by chilling in Xiangnuo 1. On the contrary, in IR50, qP and qNP declined rapidly while Ex increased, as the chilling persisted. This result indicated that the reaction centers and antenna systems in IR50 were damaged severely by chilling, which led to the lower photosynthetic rate.

  5. El sistema de cargos en San Bernardino de Milpillas Chico, Durango

    OpenAIRE

    Chantal Cramaussel

    2013-01-01

    La principal estructura política de los tepehuanos es el sistema de cargos. En San Bernardino de Milpillas, Durango, los cargos de la Iglesia son diferentes a los del gobierno tradicional. Los segundos parecen apegarse más a las culturales locales, aunque los cargos de la Iglesia han sido objeto de transformaciones significativas para excluir a los ministros católicos en las ceremonias cristianas. La fiesta de la Candelaria, que precede a la toma de posesión de los nuevos “empleados”, muestra...

  6. Local synaptic signaling enhances the stochastic transport of motor-driven cargo in neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Newby, J. M.; Bressloff, P. C.

    2010-01-01

    The tug-of-war model of motor-driven cargo transport is formulated as an intermittent trapping process. An immobile trap, representing the cellular machinery that sequesters a motor-driven cargo for eventual use, is located somewhere within a microtubule track. A particle representing a motor-driven cargo that moves randomly with a forward bias is introduced at the beginning of the track. The particle switches randomly between a fast moving phase and a slow moving phase. When in the slow movi...

  7. Coupling of Physiological and Proteomic Analysis to Understand the Ethylene- and Chilling-Induced Kiwifruit Ripening Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minas, Ioannis S; Tanou, Georgia; Karagiannis, Evangelos; Belghazi, Maya; Molassiotis, Athanassios

    2016-01-01

    Kiwifruit [Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev.) C.F. Liang et A.R. Ferguson, cv. "Hayward"] is classified as climacteric fruit and the initiation of endogenous ethylene production following harvest is induced by exogenous ethylene or chilling exposure. To understand the biological basis of this "dilemma," kiwifruit ripening responses were characterized at 20°C following treatments with exogenous ethylene (100 μL L(-1), 20°C, 24 h) or/and chilling temperature (0°C, 10 days). All treatments elicited kiwifruit ripening and induced softening and endogenous ethylene biosynthesis, as determined by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) content and ACC synthase (ACS) and ACC oxidase (ACO) enzyme activities after 10 days of ripening at 20°C. Comparative proteomic analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE-PAGE) and nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS) revealed 81 kiwifruit proteins associated with ripening. Thirty-one kiwifruit proteins were identified as commonly regulated by the three treatments accompanied by dynamic changes of 10 proteins specific to exogenous ethylene, 2 to chilling treatment, and 12 to their combination. Ethylene and/or chilling-responsive proteins were mainly involved in disease/defense, energy, protein destination/storage, and cell structure/cell wall. Interactions between the identified proteins were demonstrated by bioinformatics analysis, allowing a more complete insight into biological pathways and molecular functions affected by ripening. The present approach provides a quantitative basis for understanding the ethylene- and chilling-induced kiwifruit ripening and climacteric fruit ripening in general. PMID:26913040

  8. Coupling of physiological and proteomic analysis to understand the ethylene- and chilling-induced kiwifruit ripening syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis S Minas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev. C.F. Liang et A.R. Ferguson, cv. ‘Hayward’ is classified as climacteric fruit and the initiation of endogenous ethylene production following harvest is induced by exogenous ethylene or chilling exposure. To understand the biological basis of this ‘dilemma’, kiwifruit ripening responses were characterized at 20 oC following treatments with exogenous ethylene (100 μL L-1, 20 oC, 24 h or/and chilling temperature (0 oC, 10 d. All treatments elicited kiwifruit ripening and induced softening and endogenous ethylene biosynthesis, as determined by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC content and ACC synthase (ACS and ACC oxidase (ACO enzyme activities after 10 d of ripening at 20 oC. Comparative proteomic analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE-PAGE and nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS revealed 81 kiwifruit proteins associated with ripening. Thirty-one kiwifruit proteins were identified as commonly regulated by the three treatments accompanied by dynamic changes of 10 proteins specific to exogenous ethylene, 2 to chilling treatment and 12 to their combination. Ethylene and/or chilling-responsive proteins were mainly involved in disease/defense, energy, protein destination/storage and cell structure/cell wall. Interactions between the identified proteins were demonstrated by bioinformatics analysis, allowing a more complete insight into biological pathways and molecular functions affected by ripening. The present approach provides a quantitative basis for understanding the ethylene- and chilling-induced kiwifruit ripening and climacteric fruit ripening in general.

  9. Improvement of the microbiological safety and shelf-life of selected chilled meals by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a growing interest to market semi-prepared and prepared meals, eventually packaged in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and distributed under chilled conditions instead of frozen state. Such products are less energy-demanding and more attractive for the consumers than frozen meals. However, they are non-sterile and potential survival of some pathogenic microorganisms and/or post-processing contamination before packaging create microbiological risks and a considerable limitation of shelf-life, especially under abusive temperature conditions, frequently occurring during retail display period and home storage. The objective of our research contract work was the demonstration of the technological feasibility of preventing the above risk by gamma irradiation of commodities such as a reconstituted breaded turkey breast meat with cheese and ham filling (called 'Cordon Bleu'), filled pasta products (a European type: 'Tortellini', and a Syrian type 'Kouba'), and 'sous vide' (mixed vegetables)

  10. Improvement of microbiological safety and shelf-life of selected chilled ready meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a growing interest to market semi-prepared and prepared meals packaged in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and distribute under chilled conditions. Such products are less energy-demanding and more attractive for the consumers than frozen meals. However, they are non-sterile and potential survival of pathogenic microorganisms and post-processing contamination before packaging create microbiological risks and much limitation of shelf-life, especially under abusive temperature conditions, frequently occurring during retail display period and home storage. The objective is to demonstrate the feasibility of preventing the above risk in products by gamma radiation in such products as reconstituted breaded turkey breast meat with cheese and ham filling ('Cordon Bleu') and intermediate moisture filled pasta products ('Tortellini' and 'Ravioli')

  11. Fatigue and chills in a 60-year-old hypertensive alcoholic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 60-year-old woman with a history of alcohol abuse and hypertension presented to the emergency room because of increasing fatigue and shaking chills. Her temperature was 39.70C (103.40F) and her blood pressure was 90/60 mm Hg. Tenderness was present in the left upper and lower quadrants of the abdomen with guarding. Laboratory findings included a white blood cell count of 20 000/mm3 (20.0x109/L) with a leftward shift, abnormal results on liver function tests, anemia, a serum urea nitrogen concentration of 44 mg/dL (15.5 mmol/L), and a creatinine level of 1.6 mg/dL (140 μmol/L), in addition to a prolonged prothrombin time. Roentgenograms of the abdomen and chest were obtained

  12. Chilled milk-based desserts as emerging probiotic and prebiotic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buriti, Flávia C A; Saad, Susana M I

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, food companies are endeavoring to differentiate their products through creative segmentation and positioning strategies based on superior functionality and quality. Some kinds of dairy desserts have shown a great market potential, as a function of consumers interested in healthier and functional products with fine taste and mouthfeel. In this context, chilled dairy desserts are emerging as attractive options for the incorporation of probiotic cultures and prebiotic ingredients, as seen in the previous launches from the food industry, as well as in the growing number of scientific studies dealing with this subject published in the last years. The main aspects involved in the development of probiotic and/or prebiotic dairy desserts for storage under refrigerated conditions are presented in this review. PMID:24188264

  13. A thermodynamic evaluation of chilled water central air conditioning systems using artificial intelligence tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Armas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available  An analysis of a chilled water central air conditioning system is presented. The object was to calculate main cycle component irreversibility, as well as evaluating this indicator’s sensitivity to operational variations. Artificial neural networks (ANN, genetic algorithms (GA and Matlab tools were used to calculate refrigerant thermodynamic properties during each cycle stage. These tools interacted with equations describing the system’s thermodynamic behaviour. Refrigerant temperature, when released from the compressor, was determined by a hybrid model combining the neural model with a simple genetic algorithm used as optimisation tool; the cycle’s components which were most sensitive to changes in working conditions were identified. It was concluded that the compressor, evaporator and expansion mechanism (in that order represented significant exergy losses reaching 85.62% of total system irreversibility. A very useful tool was thus developed for evaluating these systems. 

  14. Enhancing Lipid Stability in Irradiated Beef Mince by Oleoresins and/ or Ascorbic Acid during Chilling Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipid Oxidation, fatty acids profile and sensory properties of irradiated beef mince (2.5 kGy) treated with oleoresins (rosemary or ginger), ascorbic acid, or combination of ascorbic acid and oleoresins were investigated during 30 days of chilled storage. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as an indication of lipid oxidation, of irradiated control samples were significantly higher than those of non irradiated control and samples treated with rosemary and ginger oleoresins. By GC-MS analysis, it was found that the relative percentage of total saturated fatty acids (TSFA) increased in all treatments. However, the highest increase was recorded in irradiated control samples compared to non irradiated control samples. Beef mince samples treated with oleoresins (rosemary or ginger) had the best scores for discoloration and off odour. Thus, the addition of oleoresins (rosemary or ginger) to beef mince before irradiation could be an easily applied method to minimize oxidative degradation of irradiated meat

  15. Avocado waste for finishing pigs: Impact on muscle composition and oxidative stability during chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-López, Silvia H; Rodríguez-Carpena, Javier G; Lemus-Flores, Clemente; Grageola-Nuñez, Fernando; Estévez, Mario

    2016-06-01

    The utilization of agricultural waste materials for pig feeding may be an interesting option for reducing production costs and contributing to sustainability and environmental welfare. In the present study, a mixed diet enriched with avocado waste (TREATED) is used for finishing industrial genotype pigs. The muscle longissimus thoracis et lomborum (LTL) from TREATED pigs was analyzed for composition and oxidative and color stability and compared with muscles obtained from pigs fed a CONTROL diet. Dietary avocado had significant impact on the content and composition of intramuscular fat (IMF), reducing the lipid content in LTL muscles and increasing the degree of unsaturation. This did not increase the oxidative instability of samples. On the contrary, muscles from TREATED pigs had significantly lower lipid and protein oxidation rates during chilled storage. The color of the muscles from TREATED pigs was also preserved from oxidation. PMID:26894588

  16. Laser Surface Remelting of Medium Ni-Cr Infinite Chilling Cast Iron Roll

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAOJian-hua; ZHANGQun-li; XIESong-jing

    2004-01-01

    Laser surface remelting of medium Ni-Cr infinite chilling cast iron was performed with a continuous wave CO2 laser beam with the power of 7 KW under the argon shielding. The microstructural analysis of the laser remelted layer by optical microscope shows that the laser remelted layer consists of three zones, which is the melting zone, the transition zone and the heat affected zone. The size of the dendrite of the melting zone is only in the 1/10 to 1/30 range of that of the substrate. The distribution of the hardness of the laser remelted layer was detected, and the carrying capacity of rolling steel was also field-tested. The results show that both the hardness of the remelted layer and the carrying capacity all increase, especially, the carrying capacity was 50% increased compared with the substrate.

  17. Laser Surface Remelting of Medium Ni-Cr Infinite Chilling Cast Iron Roll

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Jian-hua; ZHANG Qun-li; XIE Song-jing

    2004-01-01

    Laser surface remelting of medium Ni-Cr infinite chilling cast iron was performed with a continuous wave CO2 laser beam with the power of 7 KW under the argon shielding. The microstructural analysis of the laser remelted layer by optical microscope shows that the laser remelted layer consists of three zones, which is the melting zone, the transition zone and the heat affected zone. The size of the dendrite of the melting zone is only in the 1/10 to 1/30 range of that of the substrate. The distribution of the hardness of the laser remelted layer was detected, and the carrying capacity of rolling steel was also field-tested. The results show that both the hardness of the remelted layer and the carrying capacity all increase,especially, the carrying capacity was 50% increased compared with the substrate.

  18. Application and Development of Preservation Technology on Chilled Meat%保鲜技术在冷却肉中的应用与发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立德; 陈峰

    2009-01-01

    冷却肉是未来肉品消费的趋势.本文综述了冷却肉保鲜技术的机理和特点,以期能对冷却肉保鲜技术的进一步研究提供参考.%The trend of meat consumption is chilled meat in the future.This paper reviews the preservation technology of chilled meat and characteristics,with a view to the preservation of chilled meat provide reference for further study.

  19. Thawed chilled Barents Sea cod fillets in modified atmosphere packaging-application of multivariate data analysis to select key parameters in good manufacturing practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøknæs, Niels; Jensen, K.N.; Guldager, H.S.;

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to select key parameters in good manufacturing practice for production of thawed chilled modified atmosphere packed (MAP) cod (Gadus morhua) fillets. The effect of frozen storage temperature (-20 and -30 C), frozen storage period (3, 6, 9 and 12 mo) and chill...... parameters in good manufacturing practice for this product. Frozen storage of up to 12 mo had no significant effect on quality attributes and shelf-life at 2degreesC was above 14 d irrespective of the time of frozen storage. As compared to a previous study with Baltic Sea, cod drip losses during chill...

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological and organoleptic quality of ready prepared chilled meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of five food borne pathogens (Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens) to irradiation in the components of a roast beef meal (beef, gravy, cauliflower with white sauce, roast potatoes and mashed potatoes) was compared. The D10 values ranged from 0.17 to 0.65 kGy, depending on the organism and plating medium. When irradiated in gravy, the pathogens generally had lower D10 values than in any of the other four components. In a subsequent study, the effect of irradiation (2 and 3 kGy) on the microbiological and sensory quality of the roast beef meals was assessed at intervals during 15 days of storage at 2-3 deg. C. A dose of 2 kGy was beneficial in improving the microbial quality of the meals, but sensory profiling techniques, using a trained panel of assessors, showed that there were significant differences between the non-irradiated and irradiated meal components during storage. The changes were most apparent in the cauliflower and potato components, and most often occurred in the colour, appearance and textural attributes tested. As these changes could have a limiting effect on the shelf-life of the meals, the suitability of other vegetables for inclusion in such irradiated meals was investigated. Irradiation and chilled storage of carrots and broccoli did not significantly affect the sensory quality when compared with the non-irradiated controls. A consumer trial of the roast beef meal (beef, gravy, roast potatoes, broccoli and carrots) found that irradiation (2 kGy) did not significantly affect the sensory quality. It was concluded that irradiation could be used to improve the microbiological safety and shelf-life of certain chilled meals without significantly affecting the organoleptic quality. (author)

  1. Cerebroside C increases tolerance to chilling injury and alters lipid composition in wheat roots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Xia Li

    Full Text Available Chilling tolerance was increased in seed germination and root growth of wheat seedlings grown in media containing 20 µg/mL cerebroside C (CC, isolated from the endophytic Phyllosticta sp. TG78. Seeds treated with 20 µg/mL CC at 4 °C expressed the higher germination rate (77.78%, potential (23.46%, index (3.44 and the shorter germination time (6.19 d; root growth was also significantly improved by 13.76% in length, 13.44% in fresh weight and 6.88% in dry mass compared to controls. During the cultivation process at 4 °C for three days and the followed 24 h at 25 °C, lipid peroxidation, expressed by malondialdehyde (MDA content and relative membrane permeability (RMP was significantly reduced in CC-treated roots; activities of lipoxygenase (LOX, phospholipid C (PLC and phospholipid D (PLD were inhibited by 13.62-62.26%, 13.54-63.93% and 13.90-61.17%, respectively; unsaturation degree of fatty acids was enhanced through detecting the contents of CC-induced linoleic acid, linolenic acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid using GC-MS; capacities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px were individually increased by 7.69-46.06%, 3.37-37.96%, and -7.00-178.07%. These results suggest that increased chilling tolerance may be due, in part, to the reduction of lipid peroxidation and alternation of lipid composition of roots in the presence of CC.

  2. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Feygenberg, Oleg; Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine. PMID:26501421

  3. 46 CFR 38.15-5 - Cargo hose-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the cargo are carried on board the vessel, they shall be of flexible metal and fabricated of seamless steel pipe and flexible joints of steel or bronze, or of other suitable material resistant to the...

  4. A cargo inspection system based on pulsed fast neutron analysis (PFNATM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cargo inspection system based on pulsed fast neutron analysis (PFNATM) is to be used at a border crossing to detect explosives and contraband hidden in trucks and cargo containers. Neutrons are produced by the interaction of deuterons in a deuterium target mounted on a moveable scan arm. The collimated pulsed fast neutron beam is used to determine the location and composition of objects in a cargo container. The neutrons produce secondary gamma rays that are characteristic of the object's elemental composition. The cargo inspection system building consists of an accelerator room and an inspection tunnel. The accelerator room is shielded and houses the injector, accelerator and the neutron production gas target. The inspection tunnel is partially shielded. The truck or container to be inspected will be moved through the inspection tunnel by a conveyor system. The facility and radiation source terms considered in the shielding design are described. (authors)

  5. Incorporating biplane wing theory into a large, subsonic, all-cargo transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyskowski, Michael K.

    1994-01-01

    If the air-cargo market increases at the pace predicted, a new conceptual aircraft will be demanded to meet the needs of the air-cargo industry. Furthermore, it has been found that not only should this aircraft be optimized to carry the intermodal containers used by the current shipping industry, but it should also be be able to operate at existing airports. The best solution to these problems is a configuration incorporating a bi-wing planform, which has resulted in significant improvements over the monoplane in lift/drag, weight reduction, and span reduction. The future of the air-cargo market, biplane theory, wind tunnel tests, and a comparison of the aerodynamic characteristics of the biplane and monoplane are discussed. The factors pertaining to a biplane cargo transport are then examined, resulting in biplane geometric parameters.

  6. Recent developments in fast neutron radiography for the interrogation of air cargo containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a worldwide need for improved methods for the scanning of consolidated air cargo for contraband such as illicit drugs and explosives. Ideally, cargo containers must be imaged without unpacking and with scan times of less than a few minutes. Fast neutron radiography techniques are particularly attractive for screening cargo. Neutrons have the required penetration, they interact with matter in a manner complementary to X-rays and they can be used to determine cargo composition. The Commonwealth Science and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) has developed a scanner for fully-loaded air cargo containers. The scanner combines fast (14 MeV) neutron and γ-ray (or X-ray) radiography, using intense radiation sources and custom high-efficiency detector arrays. The ratio of the transmissions of neutrons and X-rays provides a measure of material composition that is much more sensitive than alternative dual high-energy (MeV) X-ray systems. A full-scale prototype scanner was used by Australian Customs Service to screen incoming air cargo at Brisbane International Airport in 2005/6. The trial of the scanner at Brisbane demonstrated the material discrimination capability of the technology and its ability to make hidden organic materials more obvious. Consolidated cargo was scanned in less than two minutes allowing high volumes of cargo to be screened rapidly. CSIRO is working directly with Nuctech Company Limited, Beijing, China to develop and commercialise the next generation in air cargo scanning technology. A commercial version of the airport scanner being developed by Nuctech and CSIRO is expected to be commissioned by January 2009. The commercial scanner combines a 14 MeV fast neutron radiography system with Nuctech's dual-energy X-ray technology that uses a 6 MeV LINAC X-ray source and Binocular Stereoscopic imaging technology. The commercial scanner will have much better spatial resolution than the Brisbane scanner. The improved resolution, combined with

  7. An 18680 dwt Multipurpose/Heavy Lift Cargo Vessel, Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Grubišić, Rajko; Grubiša, Robert; Rimanić, Radojka; Vlah, Radivoj; Kučan, Edi; Štokić, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    In the article the second part of the signifi cant design features of an 18680 dwt multipurpose/ heavy lift cargo vessel is presented. The specifi c features of the ship structure design are fi rst dealt with. Then, the propulsion assembly, including the main engine, the gearbox/coupling and the controllable pitch propeller system, is described. Also, features of the electrical system are given, with special emphasis laid on the supply, driving and controlling system of the heavy cargo dec...

  8. Hybridization of General Cargo Ships to meet the Required Energy Efficiency Design Index

    OpenAIRE

    Øverleir, Magnus Anders

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis a hybrid propulsion system is proposed for a general cargo ship with the aim to meet the required Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI). The study has investigated how a hybrid propulsion system will influence the ship s EEDI value and fuel economy. The central problem is the coming challenge for the general cargo segment meeting the required efficiency value. Especially small vessels (3 000-15 000 DWT) with high speed will have troubles complying with the stricter regulations....

  9. Crystal Structures of the Tetratricopeptide Repeat Domains of Kinesin Light Chains: Insight into Cargo Recognition Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Haizhong; Lee, Han Youl; Tong, Yufeng; Hong, Bum-Soo; Kim, Kyung-Phil; Shen, Yang; Lim, Kyung Jik; Mackenzie, Farrell; Tempel, Wolfram; Park, Hee-Won (SGC-Toronto); (PPCS); (Toronto)

    2012-10-23

    Kinesin-1 transports various cargos along the axon by interacting with the cargos through its light chain subunit. Kinesin light chains (KLC) utilize its tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain to interact with over 10 different cargos. Despite a high sequence identity between their TPR domains (87%), KLC1 and KLC2 isoforms exhibit differential binding properties towards some cargos. We determined the structures of human KLC1 and KLC2 tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains using X-ray crystallography and investigated the different mechanisms by which KLCs interact with their cargos. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we attributed the specific interaction between KLC1 and JNK-interacting protein 1 (JIP1) cargo to residue N343 in the fourth TRP repeat. Structurally, the N343 residue is adjacent to other asparagines and lysines, creating a positively charged polar patch within the groove of the TPR domain. Whereas, KLC2 with the corresponding residue S328 did not interact with JIP1. Based on these finding, we propose that N343 of KLC1 can form 'a carboxylate clamp' with its neighboring asparagine to interact with JIP1, similar to that of HSP70/HSP90 organizing protein-1's (HOP1) interaction with heat shock proteins. For the binding of cargos shared by KLC1 and KLC2, we propose a different site located within the groove but not involving N343. We further propose a third binding site on KLC1 which involves a stretch of polar residues along the inter-TPR loops that may form a network of hydrogen bonds to JIP3 and JIP4. Together, these results provide structural insights into possible mechanisms of interaction between KLC TPR domains and various cargo proteins.

  10. A study of international security requirement on Hong Kong air cargo industry : development and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yu-to, Matthew; 鄧汝滔

    2012-01-01

    Currently, most of the research related to aviation sector of Hong Kong would focus on infrastructure perspective such as the building of 3rd runway in HKIA and the cooperation issues among airports in Pearl River Delta (PRD) Region in order to analyze the impact towards competitiveness of Hong Kong as a major international air cargo hub. However, there are not much research on air cargo industry has been done from security perspective but the recent trend of tightening international security...

  11. Research on combination forecast of port cargo throughput based on time series and causality analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Zhang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a combined model composed of grey-forecast model and Logistic-growth-curve model to improve the accuracy of forecast model of cargo throughput for the port. The authors also use the existing data of a current port to verify the validity of the combined model.Design/methodology/approach: A literature review is undertaken to find the appropriate forecast model of cargo throughput for the port. Through researching the related forecast model, the authors put together the individual models which are significant to study further. Finally, the authors combine two individual models (grey-forecast model and Logistic-growth-curve model into one combined model to forecast the port cargo throughput, and use the model to a physical port in China to testify the validity of the model.Findings: Test by the perceptional data of cargo throughput in the physical port, the results show that the combined model can obtain relatively higher forecast accuracy when it is not easy to find more information. Furthermore, the forecast made by the combined model are more accurate than any of the individual ones.Research limitations/implications: The study provided a new combined forecast model of cargo throughput with a relatively less information to improve the accuracy rate of the forecast. The limitation of the model is that it requires the cargo throughput of the port have an S-shaped change trend.Practical implications: This model is not limited by external conditions such as geographical, cultural. This model predicted the port cargo throughput of one real port in China in 2015, which provided some instructive guidance for the port development.Originality/value: This is the one of the study to improve the accuracy rate of the cargo throughput forecast with little information.

  12. Oligomerization of a Cargo Receptor Directs Protein Sorting into COPII-coated Transport Vesicles

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Ken; Nakano, Akihiko

    2003-01-01

    Secretory proteins are transported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi complex in vesicles coated with coat protein complex II (COPII). The incorporation of certain transport molecules (cargo) into the COPII vesicles is thought to be mediated by cargo receptors. Here we show that Emp47p, a type-I membrane protein, is specifically required for the transport of an integral membrane protein, Emp46p, from the ER. Exit of Emp46p from the ER was saturable and de...

  13. Mulheres em cargos profissionais de chefia: o paradoxo da igualdade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabia Alberton de Silva Galvane

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O artigo aqui apresentado foi construído a partir de informações obtidas em uma pesquisa realizada no ano de 2009, apresentada como Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso da Psicologia, ao Centro Universitário Barriga Verde - UNIBAVE (GALVANE, 2009. A pesquisa teve como objetivo geral verificar os sentidos produzidos por mulheres que ocupam cargos de chefia em indústrias de uma cidade do sul de Santa Catarina, Brasil. O modelo de pesquisa foi o qualitativo proposto por González Rey (2005. Os sujeitos da pesquisa foram sete mulheres e as informações obtidas por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas. Neste artigo, propõe-se revisar informações obtidas e ampliar discussões outrora realizadas, utilizando-se das contribuições teóricas de Joan Scott e Judith Butler. Entre outras questões relevantes, o estudo sugere que as entrevistadas utilizam concepções baseadas em “certa essência feminina” como estratégia de visibilidade, permanência e poder no mercado de trabalho.

  14. The complex network of global cargo ship movements

    CERN Document Server

    Kaluza, Pablo; Gastner, Michael T; Blasius, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Transportation networks play a crucial role in human mobility, the exchange of goods, and the spread of invasive species. With 90% of world trade carried by sea, the global network of merchant ships provides one of the most important modes of transportation. Here we use information about the itineraries of 16,363 cargo ships during the year 2007 to construct a network of links between ports. We show that the network has several features which set it apart from other transportation networks. In particular, most ships can be classified in three categories: bulk dry carriers, container ships and oil tankers. These three categories do not only differ in the ships' physical characteristics, but also in their mobility patterns and networks. Container ships follow regularly repeating paths whereas bulk dry carriers and oil tankers move less predictably between ports. The network of all ship movements possesses a heavy-tailed distribution for the connectivity of ports and for the loads transported on the links with s...

  15. Desktop Application Program to Simulate Cargo-Air-Drop Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The DSS Application is a computer program comprising a Windows version of the UNIX-based Decelerator System Simulation (DSS) coupled with an Excel front end. The DSS is an executable code that simulates the dynamics of airdropped cargo from first motion in an aircraft through landing. The bare DSS is difficult to use; the front end makes it easy to use. All inputs to the DSS, control of execution of the DSS, and postprocessing and plotting of outputs are handled in the front end. The front end is graphics-intensive. The Excel software provides the graphical elements without need for additional programming. Categories of input parameters are divided into separate tabbed windows. Pop-up comments describe each parameter. An error-checking software component evaluates combinations of parameters and alerts the user if an error results. Case files can be created from inputs, making it possible to build cases from previous ones. Simulation output is plotted in 16 charts displayed on a separate worksheet, enabling plotting of multiple DSS cases with flight-test data. Variables assigned to each plot can be changed. Selected input parameters can be edited from the plot sheet for quick sensitivity studies.

  16. The Lethal Cargo of Myxococcus xanthus Outer Membrane Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JamesEBerleman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Myxococcus xanthus is a bacterial micro-predator known for hunting other microbes in a wolf pack-like manner. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs are produced in large quantities by M. xanthus and have a highly organized structure in the extracellular milieu, sometimes occurring in chains that link neighboring cells within a biofilm. OMVs may be a vehicle for mediating wolf pack activity by delivering hydrolytic enzymes and antibiotics aimed at killing prey microbes. Here, both the protein and small molecule cargo of the OMV and membrane fractions of M. xanthus were characterized and compared. Our analysis indicates a number of proteins that are OMV-specific or OMV-enriched, including several with putative hydrolytic function. Secondary metabolite profiling of OMVs identifies 16 molecules, many associated with antibiotic activities. Several hydrolytic enzyme homologs were identified, including MXAN_3564 (mepA, an M36 protease homolog. Genetic disruption of mepA leads to a significant reduction in extracellular protease activity suggesting MepA is the long-predicted (yet to date unknown primary extracellular protease in M. xanthus.

  17. El sistema de cargos en San Bernardino de Milpillas Chico, Durango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Cramaussel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La principal estructura política de los tepehuanos es el sistema de cargos. En San Bernardino de Milpillas, Durango, los cargos de la Iglesia son diferentes a los del gobierno tradicional. Los segundos parecen apegarse más a las culturales locales, aunque los cargos de la Iglesia han sido objeto de transformaciones significativas para excluir a los ministros católicos en las ceremonias cristianas. La fiesta de la Candelaria, que precede a la toma de posesión de los nuevos “empleados”, muestra que los aspectos civiles de los cargos son indisociables de los rituales religiosos. Los cargos reunían funciones militares, judiciales y económicas, pero éstas han ido perdiendo vigencia por la violencia y por la compañía forestal, una notable fuente de recursos. Sin embargo, por el sistema de cargos los mestizos de Milpillas se han integrado a la organización política y la cultura de los tepehuanos.

  18. Quantifying the Dynamic Interactions Between a Clathrin-Coated Pit and Cargo Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Aubrey; Tamkun, Michael; Krapf, Diego

    2014-03-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is a major pathway of internalization of cargo in eukaryotic cells. This process involves the recruitment of cargo molecules into a growing clathrin-coated pit (CCP). However, cargo-CCP interactions are difficult to study because CCPs display a large degree of lifetime heterogeneity and the interactions with cargo molecules evolve over time. We use single-molecule total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, in combination with automatic detection and tracking algorithms, to directly visualize the recruitment of individual voltage-gated potassium channels into forming CCPs in living cells. Contrary to widespread ideas, cargo often escapes from a pit before abortive CCP termination or endocytic vesicle production. By measuring tens of thousands of capturing events, we build the distribution of capture times and the times that cargo remains confined to a CCP. An analytical stochastic model is developed and compared to the measured distributions. Due to the dynamic nature of the pit, the model is non-Markovian and it displays long-tail power law statistics. Our findings identify one source of the large heterogeneities observed in CCP maturation and provide a mechanism for the anomalous diffusion of proteins in the plasma membrane. This work was supported by National Science Foundation Grant PHY-0956714.

  19. Irradiation Effects for the Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA) Cargo Interrogation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, C.O.

    2001-02-02

    At the request of Safety and Ecology Corporation of Tennessee, radiation effects of the proposed Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA) Cargo Interrogation System have been examined. First, fissile cargo were examined to determine if a significant neutron signal would be observable during interrogation. Results indicated that ample multiplication would be seen for near critical bare targets. The water-reflected sphere showed relatively little multiplication. By implication, a fissile target shielded by hydrogenous cargo might not be detectable by neutron interrogation, particularly if reliance is placed on the neutron signal. The cargo may be detectable if use can be made of the ample increase in the photon signal. Second, dose rates were calculated at various locations within and just outside the facility building. These results showed that some dose rates may be higher than the target dose rate of 0.05 mrem/h. However, with limited exposure time, the total dose may be well below the allowed total dose. Lastly, estimates were made of the activation of structures and typical cargo. Most cargo will not be exposed long enough to be activated to levels of concern. On the other hand, portions of the structure may experience buildup of some radionuclides to levels of concern.

  20. Simulation of biomass yield of regular and chilling tolerant Miscanthus cultivars and reed canary grass in different climates of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandel, Tanka Prasad; Hastings, Astley; Jørgensen, Uffe; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2016-01-01

    Miscanthus cultivar which can emerge early in the spring would utilize more solar radiation and produce higher biomass yields. In this study, using MiscanFor model, we estimated potential biomass yield of Miscanthus in current and future climates with the assumption that breeding would provide a chilling...... tolerant Miscanthus cultivar with a base temperature (BT) of 5 °C while currently the model applies a BT of 10 °C. Also, RCG biomass yield was simulated with the MiscanFor model parameterized for RCG. The results suggest that chilling tolerant cultivars of Miscanthus would produce higher biomass yield...... throughout Europe in the current climate but the benefit of increased chilling tolerant cultivars will be smaller in the future. Although predicted biomass yield of Miscanthus was considerably lower than RCG in northern Europe in the current climate, more chilling tolerant cultivars of Miscanthus could out...