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Sample records for chilensis molina stuntz

  1. Microencapsulation of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz) leaf extracts to preserve and control antioxidant properties

    OpenAIRE

    Leslie Vidal J; Marcia Avello L; Cristina Loyola C; Jorge Campos P; Pedro Aqueveque M; Stephanie R. Dungan; Maria Galotto L; Abel Guarda M

    2013-01-01

    Microencapsulation technology is an alternative to stabilize stress factors and protect food ingredients or additives, which include environmentally sensitive bioactive principles in protective matrices to increase their functionality and life span. The objective of this research was to study conditions to obtain microcapsules with antioxidant capacity from a maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae) leaf extract by emulsification and subsequent retention after microencaps...

  2. Microencapsulation of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz leaf extracts to preserve and control antioxidant properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Vidal J

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation technology is an alternative to stabilize stress factors and protect food ingredients or additives, which include environmentally sensitive bioactive principles in protective matrices to increase their functionality and life span. The objective of this research was to study conditions to obtain microcapsules with antioxidant capacity from a maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae leaf extract by emulsification and subsequent retention after microencapsulation. Microcapsules were produced by water-in-oil emulsion (W/O using a phase of the aqueous maqui leaf extract and gum arabic, and a liquid vaseline phase. Maqui leaf extract antioxidant capacity was 99.66% compared with the aqueous phase of the emulsion at 94.38 and 93.06% for 5% and 15% gum arabic, respectively. The mean yield of maqui leaf extract microencapsulation with 5% gum arabic varied between 38 and 48%, whereas with 15% gum arabic it was 39%. Once the antioxidant microcapsules were formed, mean extract antioxidant capacity ranged between 30 and 35%. Both yields responded similarly to changes in gum arabic concentrations (5% and 15% in the aqueous phase of the emulsion; 5% concentration produced a microcapsule size from 1.0 to 10 urn. Maqui leaf extracts with high phenolic compound levels, which can be stabilized and protected by the microencapsulation process, produce new natural preservative systems as compared with their synthetic counterparts.

  3. Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz) during fruit development and maturation in Central Chile Contenidos de polifenoles y actividad antioxidante de maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz) durante el desarrollo y maduración de frutos en Chile Central

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Fredes; Gloria Montenegro; Juan Pablo Zoffoli; Miguel Gómez; Paz Robert

    2012-01-01

    Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae) is a Chilean native species which produces small berries that are mainly collected from the wild. The health benefits of maqui fruit are attributed to their high polyphenol content as well as their wide variety of anthocyanins and flavonols. One of the main factors that affect the polyphenol content in fruit is the maturity stage at harvest. The objective of this study was to determine total phenol and total anthocyanin content and a...

  4. Antioxidant activity of an unusual 3-hydroxyindole derivative isolated from fruits of Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céspedes, Carlos L; Alarcon, Julio; Valdez-Morales, Maribel; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2009-01-01

    3-Hydroxyindole was isolated from the EtOH extract of fruits of Aristotelia chilensis during analyses by HPLC/MS and GC/MS and identified by its mass fragmentation pattern and spectrophotometric data. Additionally, this extract showed an interesting antioxidant activity in DPPH, crocin and TBARS assays. The presence of this type of compound in this fruit species permits us to explain its strong antioxidant activity and its important part in the biosynthetic pathway of phenolic and alkaloid compounds in this plant. Therefore this compound could be useful for the development of future nutraceutical and antioxidant protective agents. PMID:19957448

  5. Respuestas foliares de Aristotelia chilensis (Molina Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae a la fragmentación del bosque maulino Leaf responses of Aristotelia chilensis (Molina Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae to the fragmentation of the Maulino forest

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    FIORELLA REPETTO-GIAVELLI

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La fragmentación que ha sufrido el bosque nativo de Chile debido a la fuerte presión antrópica ha causado, además de la grave pérdida de habitat, la modificación del microclima de los parches de bosque remanente que alguna vez constituyeron un bosque continuo de especies nativas. Estos cambios generarían respuestas morfológicas, químicas y fisiológicas en plantas capaces de adaptarse a las nuevas condiciones. Este estudio tiene como objetivo identificar respuestas a nivel de las hojas ante el aumento de radiación solar y disminución de agua en el suelo que ocurre al interior de los fragmentos. Para esto utilizamos a Aristotelia chilensis, especie que crece tanto en fragmentos como en bosque continuo, y comparamos parámetros relacionados a su morfología foliar en bosque y fragmentos y medimos su repercusión en la capacidad fotosintética de A. chilensis. En términos morfológicos, se observó una disminución del área foliar y del área foliar específica en los fragmentos, siendo 1,2 veces menor que en el bosque continuo. En los fragmentos, el grosor de la epidermis y del parénquima esponjoso son más de 1,3 veces mas gruesos que en el bosque continuo. El grosor del parénquima en empalizada, en cambio, no se vio modificado. La cantidad de nitrógeno en las hojas es 1,2 veces mayor en el bosque continuo que en los fragmentos, mientras que el contenido de carbono no varía. La conductancia estomática en el bosque continuo fue 1,5 veces mayor que en los fragmentos. Aristotelia chilensis responde morfológica y fisiológicamente ante los cambios abióticos generados por la fragmentación de los bosques, lo que le permite sobrevivir tanto en ambientes de baja luminosidad como el bosque continuo y en ambientes de alta luminosidad y bajo contenido hídrico como los fragmentos de bosque, manteniendo tasas fotosintéticas semejantes en ambos ambientesFragmentation of the Maulino forest implies significant habitat loss, as well as the

  6. Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz during fruit development and maturation in Central Chile Contenidos de polifenoles y actividad antioxidante de maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz durante el desarrollo y maduración de frutos en Chile Central

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    Carolina Fredes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae is a Chilean native species which produces small berries that are mainly collected from the wild. The health benefits of maqui fruit are attributed to their high polyphenol content as well as their wide variety of anthocyanins and flavonols. One of the main factors that affect the polyphenol content in fruit is the maturity stage at harvest. The objective of this study was to determine total phenol and total anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity (by ferric reducing ability of plasma FRAP assay of maqui fruits harvested at different fruit maturity stages from two wild populations located in Central Chile. Each maturity stage was determined by days from fruit set, berry size, and soluble solids. Total phenol content declined while total anthocyanin content increased from the green to light red stage. Nevertheless, both total phenol and anthocyanin content increased from the light red to dark purple stage. The highest anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity was found in the late maturity stage (dark purple. The results show that ripening in maqui fruit can be expected with 1100 growing degree-days (91 d after fruit set in Central Chile. At this moment of harvest, fruits with 18-19 °Brix have the highest anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity (FRAP. This study constitutes the first advances in the understanding of maqui fruit ripening and corresponding antioxidant activity.El maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae es una especie nativa de Chile que produce unas bayas pequeñas que se recolectan principalmente de individuos silvestres. Los beneficios para la salud atribuidos a los frutos de maqui se deben a sus altos contenidos de polifenoles, así como a la gran variedad de antocianos y flavonoles. Uno de los principales factores que afectan el contenido de polifenoles en frutos es el estado de madurez a la cosecha. El objetivo de este estudio fue

  7. Bioactive Compounds of Aristotelia chilensis Stuntz and their Pharmacological Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanucci, Valeria; D'Alonzo, Daniele; Guaragna, Annalisa; Di Marino, Cinzia; Davinelli, Sergio; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Aristotelia chilensis ([Molina], Stuntz) a member of the family Eleocarpaceae, is a plant native to Chile that is distributed in tropical and temperate Asia, Australia, the Pacific Area, and South America. The juice of its berries has important medicinal properties, as an astringent, tonic, and antidiarrhoeal. Its many qualities make the maqui berry the undisputed sovereign of the family of so-called "superfruits", as well as a valuable tool to combat cellular inflammation of bones and joints. Recently, it is discovered that the leaves of the maqui berry have important antibacterial and antitumour activities. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the traditional use, phytochemistry, and biological activity of A. chilensis using information collected from scientific journals, books, and electronic searches. Anthocyanins, other flavonoids, alkaloids, cinnamic acid derivatives, benzoic acid derivatives, other bioactive molecules, and mineral elements are summarized. A broad range of activities of plant extracts and fractions are presented, including antioxidant activity, inhibition of visible light-induced damage of photoreceptor cells, inhibition of α-glucosidase, inhibition of pancreatic lipase, anti-diabetic effects, anti-inflammatory effects, analgesic effects, anti-diabetes, effective prevention of atherosclerosis, promotion of hair growth, anti-photo ageing of the skin, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Although some ethnobotanical uses have been supported in in vitro experiments, further studies of the individual compounds or chemical classes of compounds responsible for the pharmacological effects and the mechanisms of action are necessary. In addition, the toxicity and the side effects from the use of A. chilensis, as well as clinical trials, require attention. PMID:26778456

  8. Anthocyanins in berries of Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano-Bailón, María Teresa; Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; Muñoz, Orlando; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Santos-Buelga, Celestino

    2006-01-01

    The anthocyanin composition of berries of Maqui [Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz] was determined by HPLC with photodiode array and MS detection. Eight pigments corresponding to the 3-glucosides, 3,5-diglucosides, 3-sambubiosides and 3-sambubioside-5-glucosides of delphinidin and cyanidin were identified, the principal anthocyanin being delphinidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucoside (34% of total anthocyanins). The average total anthocyanin content was 137.6 +/- 0.4mg/100g of fresh fruit (211.9 +/- 0.6 mg/100g of dry fruit). The relative high anthocyanin content and the important presence of polar polyglycosylated derivatives makes the fruits of A. chilensis an interesting source of anthocyanin extracts for food and pharmaceutical uses. PMID:16454470

  9. Elaboration and evaluation of maqui juice (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) by steam drag

    OpenAIRE

    Ximena Araneda; Elisa Quilamán; María Martínez; Daniza Morales

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was develop and evaluate maqui juice (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz), to be potentially considered as a functional beverage of natural origin, without chemical additives and minimally processed, using the technique of steam drag of type artisanal. Fruit harvested manually was used in the Region of The Araucanía (Chile). Two juice concentrates with sugar and without sugar were produced. Analyzes such as were conducted: content of soluble solids, pH, acidity, moistur...

  10. Elaboration and evaluation of maqui juice (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol. Stuntz by steam drag

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    Ximena Araneda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was develop and evaluate maqui juice (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol. Stuntz, to be potentially considered as a functional beverage of natural origin, without chemical additives and minimally processed, using the technique of steam drag of type artisanal. Fruit harvested manually was used in the Region of The Araucanía (Chile. Two juice concentrates with sugar and without sugar were produced. Analyzes such as were conducted: content of soluble solids, pH, acidity, moisture content, dry matter (DM, total ash, total sugars (AT, crude protein (PC, total polyphenols (PFT and total carbohydrates (CHT, the polyphenol content highlighting for unsweetened juice with 993.2 mg 100 mL-1 EAG and juice with sugar 829.208 mg 100 mL-1 EAG. Therefore, the technique allows to extract juice with minimal processing machin, presenting this high concentration of polyphenols.

  11. Detailed analyses of fresh and dried maqui (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) berries and juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauch, J E; Buchweitz, M; Schweiggert, R M; Carle, R

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a detailed chemical characterization of nutritionally-relevant, quality-determining constituents in dried and fresh fruits as well as juices of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) is provided. A total of 8 glycosylated anthocyanins was characterized in maqui fruits, being composed of differently substituted cyanidin and delphinidin derivatives. During processing into juice, a substantial loss in total anthocyanin contents (TAC) was observed. TAC values were also reduced after drying of maqui berries. Likewise, the browning index (BI) of fresh fruits increased during processing. Being composed of flavonol glycosides and ellagic acids, 17 non-anthocyanin phenolics were characterized in all maqui samples. Besides characterizing phenolic compounds, antioxidant activities, total phenolics, major sugars, non-volatile organic acids, minerals and trace elements were quantitated. Moreover, total lipid contents and the fruits' mainly unsaturated fatty acid profiles are reported. The presented results indicate the high potential of maqui as so far under-utilized but extremely pigment-rich "superfruit". PMID:26212975

  12. Dietary fibre concentrate from Chilean algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) pods: purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Ana María; Figuerola, Fernando; Bernuy, Enrique; Sáenz, Carmen

    2014-12-01

    Prosopis species are generally fast-growing, drought-resistant, nitrogen-fixing trees or shrubs. Fruits of Prosopis spp are indehiscent pods, where pericarp is formed by the epicarp, light brown in colour, and fibrous nature; the mesocarp known as pulp, which is rich in sugars; and the endocarp. The aim of this work was to obtain a fibre concentrate from the pods of Prosopis chilensis Mol. (Stuntz) and to determine the chemical, physical, and technological properties of the pod flour (PF) and of a fibre concentrate or pod purified flour (PPF). Acetone, ethanol, and water at different conditions of time and temperature were used in the purification process. PF showed 53.7 g/100 g of total sugar content, 4.2 g/100 g of reducing sugar content, 41.8 g/100 g of total dietary fibre, 35.8 g/100 g of insoluble fibre, and 6.0 g/100 g of soluble fibre content. The PPF has a total sugar content of 3.8 g/100 g, reducing sugar content of 2.2 g/100 g, total dietary fibre content of 80.8 g/100 g, insoluble fibre content of 75.1 g/100 g, and soluble fibre content of 5.7 g/100 g. The scanning electron microscopy analysis showed the existence of voids in the structure of PPF flour, which reveals the efficiency of the purification process with a high decrease in the total sugar content. PMID:24003035

  13. (-)-8-Oxohobartine a New İndole Alkaloid from Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian Paz; Jose Becerra; Mario Silva; Jaime Cabrera-Pardo; Viviana Burgos; Matthias Heydenreich; Bernd Schmidt

    2015-01-01

    The fruit of Aristotelia chilensis is considered a “super fruit” due to its high concentration of polyphenols displaying exceptional antioxidant capacities ORAC. From maqui berries have been reported several anthocyanins and glycosylated flavonoids, those benefits increase the attention to restudy the plant. From the leaves of A. chilensis several indole alkaloids have been reported, we in addition to aristoteline, aristone, aristoquinoline and 3-fromylindole report the spectroscopic elucidat...

  14. (--8-Oxohobartine a New İndole Alkaloid from Aristotelia chilensis (Mol. Stuntz

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    Cristian Paz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The fruit of Aristotelia chilensis is considered a “super fruit” due to its high concentration of polyphenols displaying exceptional antioxidant capacities ORAC. From maqui berries have been reported several anthocyanins and glycosylated flavonoids, those benefits increase the attention to restudy the plant. From the leaves of A. chilensis several indole alkaloids have been reported, we in addition to aristoteline, aristone, aristoquinoline and 3-fromylindole report the spectroscopic elucidation of 8-oxo-9-dehydromakomakine (1, hobartine (2 and a new alkaloid named 8-oxohobartine (3. Compound 1 to 3 did not show bactericidal activity against E. coli and S. aureus till 200 μg.

  15. Leaf phenology and its associated traits in the wintergreen species Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae) Fenología foliar y sus caracteres asociados en la especie invierno-verde Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    MARÍA ANGÉLICA DAMASCOS; Carlos Henrique B. de A. Prado

    2001-01-01

    The post-summer leaf demography of the wintergreen species Aristotelia chilensis growing near San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina, is described. Its specific leaf mass (SLM, g m-2) is compared to that of the deciduous and evergreen species of the Andean-Patagonian forests and to that of other communities abroad. The pattern of leaf emergence is intermediate, with leaf flush in spring (basal cohort, BC), followed by successive unfolding of the remaining leaves (distal cohort, DC) during summer....

  16. The Potential of Algarrobo ( Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) for Regeneration of Desertified Soils: Assessing Seed Germination Under Saline Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Claus; Gachón, Paloma; Bravo, Jaime; Navarrete, Carlos; Salas, Carlos; Ibáñez, Cristian

    2015-07-01

    Due to their multipurpose use, leguminous trees are desirable for the restoration of degraded ecosystems. Our aim was to investigate seed germination of the leguminous tree Prosopis chilensis in response to salinity, one of the major abiotic challenges of desertified soils. Germination percentages of seed from 12 wild P. chilensis populations were studied. Treatments included four aqueous NaCl concentrations (150, 300, 450, and 600 mM). In each population, the highest germination percentage was seen using distilled water (control), followed closely by 150 mM NaCl. At 300 mM NaCl or higher salt concentration, germination was progressively inhibited attaining the lowest value at 450 mM NaCl, while at 600 mM NaCl germination remained reduced but with large variation among group of samples. These results allowed us to allocate the 12 groups from where seeds were collected into three classes. First, the seeds from Huanta-Rivadavia showed the lowest percent germination for each salt condition. The second group was composed of moderately salt-tolerant seeds with 75 % germination at 300 mM NaCl, followed by 50 % germination at 450 mM NaCl and 30 % germination at 600 mM NaCl. The third group from Maitencillo and Rapel areas was the most salt tolerant with an impressive seed germination level of 97 % at 300 mM NaCl, 82 % at 450 mM NaCl, and 42 % at 600 mM NaCl. Our results demonstrate that P. chilensis seeds from these latter localities have an increased germination capability under saline stress, confirming that P. chilensis is an appropriate species to rehabilitate desertified soils.

  17. Respuestas foliares de Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae) a la fragmentación del bosque maulino Leaf responses of Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae) to the fragmentation of the Maulino forest

    OpenAIRE

    FIORELLA REPETTO-GIAVELLI; CAVIERES, LOHENGRIN A.; SIMONETTI

    2007-01-01

    La fragmentación que ha sufrido el bosque nativo de Chile debido a la fuerte presión antrópica ha causado, además de la grave pérdida de habitat, la modificación del microclima de los parches de bosque remanente que alguna vez constituyeron un bosque continuo de especies nativas. Estos cambios generarían respuestas morfológicas, químicas y fisiológicas en plantas capaces de adaptarse a las nuevas condiciones. Este estudio tiene como objetivo identificar respuestas a nivel de las hojas ante el...

  18. Leaf phenology and its associated traits in the wintergreen species Aristotelia chilensis (Mol. Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae Fenología foliar y sus caracteres asociados en la especie invierno-verde Aristotelia chilensis (Mol. Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA ANGÉLICA DAMASCOS

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The post-summer leaf demography of the wintergreen species Aristotelia chilensis growing near San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina, is described. Its specific leaf mass (SLM, g m-2 is compared to that of the deciduous and evergreen species of the Andean-Patagonian forests and to that of other communities abroad. The pattern of leaf emergence is intermediate, with leaf flush in spring (basal cohort, BC, followed by successive unfolding of the remaining leaves (distal cohort, DC during summer. The senescence of the BC occurs mainly in autumn, with a loss of 11-31 % of its SLM. The DC falls synchronously in mid-spring and the SLM loss in winter is 10-13 %. The SLM of A. chilensis (103.6 ± 6.2 g m-2 is intermediate when compared to the general mean values of deciduous (73.7 ± 15.9 g m-2 and evergreen species (154.8 ± 45.8 g m-2. The SLM of deciduous and evergreen species of three different forests near San Carlos de Bariloche varied significantly at the end of the growing season while that of A. chilensis showed more constant values. The periodicity of leaf production and senescence in A. chilensis allows the maintenance of one leaf cohort throughout the year, covering the carbon demand for flowering and leaf production in spring. This differentiates the deciduous from the wintergreen species, despite their similar mean leaf life span values, while the evergreen species have a longer leaf turnover. Considering the conditions for growth in each studied forest, the leaf life span was not the only factor determining the SLM value. This variable would also depend on multiple stresses that may act during the ontogenesis and evolution of the leaves in each phenological groupSe describe la demografía foliar después del verano de la especie invierno-verde Aristotelia chilensis, creciendo cerca de la ciudad de San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina. Se compara su peso específico foliar (SLM, g m-2 con los valores de especies deciduas y siempreverdes de los

  19. Identification and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz) Using Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastías, Adriana; Correa, Francisco; Rojas, Pamela; Almada, Rubén; Muñoz, Carlos; Sagredo, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz) is a small dioecious tree native to South America with edible fruit characterized by very high antioxidant capacity and anthocyanin content. To preserve maqui as a genetic resource it is essential to study its genetic diversity. However, the complete genome is unknown and only a few gene sequences are available in databases. Simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers, which are neutral, co-dominant, reproducible and highly variable, are desirable to support genetic studies in maqui populations. By means of identification and characterization of microsatellite loci from a maqui genotype, using 454 sequencing technology, we develop a set of SSR for this species. Obtaining a total of 165,043 shotgun genome sequences, with an average read length of 387 bases, we covered 64 Mb of the maqui genome. Reads were assembled into 4,832 contigs, while 98,546 reads remained as singletons, generating a total of 103,378 consensus genomic sequences. A total of 24,494 SSR maqui markers were identified. Of them, 15,950 SSR maqui markers were classified as perfects. The most common SSR motifs were dinucleotide (31%), followed by tetranucleotide (26%) and trinucleotide motifs (24%). The motif AG/CT (28.4%) was the most abundant, while the motif AC (89 bp) was the largest. Eleven polymorphic SSRs were selected and used to analyze a population of 40 maqui genotypes. Polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.117 to 0.82, with an average of 0.58. Non-significant groups were observed in the maqui population, showing a panmictic genetic structure. In addition, we also predicted 11150 putative genes and 3 microRNAs (miRNAs) in maqui sequences. This results, including partial sequences of genes, some miRNAs and SSR markers from high throughput next generation sequencing (NGS) of maqui genomic DNA, constitute the first platform to undertake genetic and molecular studies of this important species. PMID:27459734

  20. Identification and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz) Using Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastías, Adriana; Correa, Francisco; Rojas, Pamela; Almada, Rubén; Muñoz, Carlos; Sagredo, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz) is a small dioecious tree native to South America with edible fruit characterized by very high antioxidant capacity and anthocyanin content. To preserve maqui as a genetic resource it is essential to study its genetic diversity. However, the complete genome is unknown and only a few gene sequences are available in databases. Simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers, which are neutral, co-dominant, reproducible and highly variable, are desirable to support genetic studies in maqui populations. By means of identification and characterization of microsatellite loci from a maqui genotype, using 454 sequencing technology, we develop a set of SSR for this species. Obtaining a total of 165,043 shotgun genome sequences, with an average read length of 387 bases, we covered 64 Mb of the maqui genome. Reads were assembled into 4,832 contigs, while 98,546 reads remained as singletons, generating a total of 103,378 consensus genomic sequences. A total of 24,494 SSR maqui markers were identified. Of them, 15,950 SSR maqui markers were classified as perfects. The most common SSR motifs were dinucleotide (31%), followed by tetranucleotide (26%) and trinucleotide motifs (24%). The motif AG/CT (28.4%) was the most abundant, while the motif AC (89 bp) was the largest. Eleven polymorphic SSRs were selected and used to analyze a population of 40 maqui genotypes. Polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.117 to 0.82, with an average of 0.58. Non-significant groups were observed in the maqui population, showing a panmictic genetic structure. In addition, we also predicted 11150 putative genes and 3 microRNAs (miRNAs) in maqui sequences. This results, including partial sequences of genes, some miRNAs and SSR markers from high throughput next generation sequencing (NGS) of maqui genomic DNA, constitute the first platform to undertake genetic and molecular studies of this important species. PMID:27459734

  1. Aristotelia chilensis, Maqui

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Encylopedia of Fruit and Nuts is designed as a research reference source on temperate and tropical fruit and nut crops. Maqui or Macqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Mol.] Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae) is a shrub or small tree native to Chile and Argentina in South America. The plant typically grows as an e...

  2. Extracts of Maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis ) and Murta ( Ugni molinae Turcz.): sources of antioxidant compounds and α-Glucosidase/α-Amylase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubilar, Mónica; Jara, Claudio; Poo, Yohany; Acevedo, Francisca; Gutierrez, Cristian; Sineiro, Jorge; Shene, Carolina

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant and antihemolytic activities of crude, aqueous, and organic-aqueous extracts of maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis ) and murta ( Ugni molinae Turcz.), together with their inhibiting effect on enzymes involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates. Radical scavenging activity, inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation in a micellar system, antihemolytic activity, and inhibition of α-amylases and α-glucosidases were analyzed. Crude extracts of maqui leaves and fruits were found to be important sources of polyphenolic compounds, showing 69.0 ± 0.9 and 45.7 ± 1.1 mg GAE/g dm, respectively. Polyphenols from maqui leaves were active as antioxidants and antihemolytic compounds (p < 0.05), showing a noncompetitive inhibiting effect on α-glucosidase. Flavan-3-ol polymers and glycosylated flavonols, such as quercetin glucoside and kaempferol glucoside, were tentatively identified in extracts. This preliminary observation provides the basis for further examination of the suitability of polyphenol-enriched extracts from maqui and murta as nutritional or medicinal supplements with potential human health benefits. PMID:21294510

  3. Gas exchange and leaf specific mass of different foliar cohorts of the wintergreen shrub Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) stuntz (Eleocarpaceae) fifteen days before the flowering and the fall of the old cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Henrique B. de A. Prado; Damascos, María A.

    2001-01-01

    In the beginning of the spring Aristotelia chilensis sheds the old cohort, forms a new one and flowers. Fifteen days before the flowering and the fall we measured net photosynthesis (A), transpiration (E), water use efficiency (WUE), specific leaf mass (SLM) and area and mass of leaves per branch in old and new cohorts. Under low irradiance the old cohort exhibited higher mean values of A and WUE on area bases (P

  4. Gas exchange and leaf specific mass of different foliar cohorts of the wintergreen shrub Aristotelia chilensis (Mol. stuntz (Eleocarpaceae fifteen days before the flowering and the fall of the old cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prado Carlos Henrique B. A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In the beginning of the spring Aristotelia chilensis sheds the old cohort, forms a new one and flowers. Fifteen days before the flowering and the fall we measured net photosynthesis (A, transpiration (E, water use efficiency (WUE, specific leaf mass (SLM and area and mass of leaves per branch in old and new cohorts. Under low irradiance the old cohort exhibited higher mean values of A and WUE on area bases (P<0.05. Under high irradiance A and WUE on mass bases were higher in new cohort due to its lower SLM (42.10 gm-2 in relation to old cohort (79.53 gm-2. Because old cohort showed 3.7 times more dry mass per branch it was able to counterbalance its lower performance on mass bases. It was concluded that old cohort was an important source of carbon during two powerful sink processes in the beginning of the spring: new leaves cohort construction and flowering.

  5. Human erythrocytes are affected in vitro by flavonoids of Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwalsky, Mario; Vargas, Pedro; Avello, Marcia; Villena, Fernando; Sotomayor, Carlos P

    2008-11-01

    Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz (A. chilensis), also known as maqui, is a plant of the Elaeocarpaceae family that grows in central and southern Chile as well as southwestern Argentina. Infusions of its leaves have long been used in the traditional native herbal medicine to treat different ailments. Phytochemical studies of the plant's chemical composition of the plant indicate the presence of indolic alkaloids, flavonoids, cianidine glucosides, delfidine, malvidine, petunidine, cumarines and triterpenes. These compounds, particularly the flavonoids, have antioxidant properties. In order to evaluate the mechanisms of its toxicity and their antioxidant properties, the leaves' aqueous extracts were induced to interact with human red cells, their isolated unsealed membranes (IUM), and molecular models of the human erythrocyte membrane. These consisted of multibilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE), representative of phospholipids classes located in the outer and inner monolayers of the human erythrocyte membrane, and large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) of DMPC. The capacity of A. chilensis aqueous extracts to perturb the bilayer structure of DMPC and DMPE was evaluated by X-ray diffraction, DMPC LUV and IUM were studied by fluorescence spectroscopy, and intact human erythrocytes were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results of the present study indicate that aqueous extracts of A. chilensis induced an alteration of human erythrocyte morphology from the normal discoid shape to an echinocytic form, changes that are explained in terms of the extract interaction with the membrane's outer phospholipid monolayer. PMID:18687390

  6. Ugni Molinae, Ugni

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Encylopedia of Fruit and Nuts is designed as a research reference source on temperate and tropical fruit and nut crops. Ugni molinae (Myrtaceae) is native primarily to southern Chile with some populations in Bolivia. The aromatic, somewhat seedy, dark red fruit are primarily harvested from the w...

  7. The identity of Rana lutea Molina, 1782 (Amphibia, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Daiana P; Lavilla, Esteban O

    2013-01-01

    Rana lutea is one of the two anuran species described in 1782 by the Chilean born priest and naturalist Juan Ignacio Molina, and its nomenclatural history is confusing. After a detailed revision of the pertinent literature, we demonstrate that Bufo thaul Schneider, 1799, is a junior objective synonym of Rana lutea Molina, 1782, but based on the usage of both nomina, we revert the precedence and consider Rana lutea Molina, 1782 as a nomen oblitum whereas Bufo thaul Schneider, 1799 is a nomen protectum. Thus, the authorship of the species currently known as Pleurodema thaul (Lesson, 1826) changes to Pleurodema thaul (Schneider, 1799). PMID:24614468

  8. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Solidago chilensis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mariane Schneider; Adrieli Sachett; Amanda P. Schönell; Eduarda Ibagy; Emily Fantin; Fernanda Bevilaqua; Giana Piccinin; Glaucia D. Santo; Marta Giachini; Rafael Chitolina; Silvana M. Wildner; Ricieri Mocelin; Leila Zanatta; Walter A. Roman Junior

    2015-01-01

    AbstractSolidago chilensis Meyen, Asteraceae, is traditionally used to treat inflammation. However, phytochemical and pharmacology investigations are lacking. This study evaluated the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of hydroalcoholic extract from S. chilensis aerial parts in rats. In oral glucose tolerance tests the rats received saline (0.5 ml/100 g) in control group (C), hydroalcoholic extract (125, 250 or 500 mg/kg p.o.; n = 6) or glibenclamide (10 mg/kg p.o.; n = 6). After 30 min, ...

  9. Valores hematológicos de referencia en tortuga terrestre argentina (Chelonoidis chilensis chilensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Troiano, Juan Carlos; M.C Silva

    1998-01-01

    Se tomaron muestras sanguíneas de 150 ejemplares sanos de tortuga terrestre argentina (Chelonoidis chilensis chilensis) por medio de punción de la vena coccígea superior. Las determinaciones que se realizaron incluyeron recuentos de glóbulos rojos, leucocitos y trombocitos, hematocrito, concentración de hemoglobina, índices hematimétricos y fórmulas leucocitarias relativas, las que se compararon con otras especies de Testudinidae. No se observaron cambios estadísticamente significativos en lo...

  10. The occurrence of domoic acid linked to a toxic diatom bloom in a new potential vector: the tunicate Pyura chilensis (piure).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rivera, Américo; Pinto, Maricela; Insinilla, Andrea; Suárez Isla, Benjamín; Uribe, Eduardo; Alvarez, Gonzalo; Lehane, Mary; Furey, Ambrose; James, Kevin J

    2009-11-01

    The tunicate Pyura chilensis (Molina, 1782); Phylum Chordata; Subphylum Urochordata; Class Ascidiacea, common local name "piure" or sea squirt; a filter-feeder (plankton and suspended particles) sessile species; may play an important role in monitoring domoic acid (DA) the principal toxic component of Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). Significant DA concentrations have been determined in tunicate samples, collected during a recent ASP outbreak in Bahía Inglesa, an important scallop (Argopecten purpuratus) farming area. Several infaunal species were tested for the presence of DA, in addition to the usual scallop monitoring programme. DA was found at sub-toxic levels in filtering bivalves such as mussels (Mytilus chilensis), large mussels (Aulacomya ater) and clams (Protothaca thaca) (6.4, 5.4 and 4.7 microg DA/g tissue respectively). Of particular interest was the observation of significant accumulations of toxic Pseudo-nitzschia sp. diatoms in the internal siphon and atrium spaces of the tunicate. Toxin distribution within major tunicate organs was heterogeneous with 8.7-15.5 microg DA/g in edible tissues, 14.9-17.9 microg DA/g in the fecal material and 13.6-32.7 microg DA/g in the gut content. DA was determined by HPLC-UV and confirmed by diode-array detection and LC-MS/MS analysis. This is the first report of the presence of DA in a tunicate that is regularly consumed by coastal populations. These results confirm the need to include these organisms in sanitation programs for marine toxins. PMID:19505493

  11. Variation in phenolic compounds of Ugni molinae populations and their potential use as antioxidant supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia A. Avello

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we carried out a comparative study of total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity of aqueous leaf extracts of Ugni molinae Turcz., Myrtaceae (infusion and Soxhlet extracted prepared from continent and Juan Fernández Island samples. The results revealed that total phenol content (TPC, tannins (TTC and flavonoids (TFC for U. molinae extracts (infusion and Soxhlet extracts from island leaves were 38.5, 56.7 and 37.5% higher than those obtained with leaves from the continent, respectively. Also, HPLC profiles showed important differences between U. molinae populations. In vitro antioxidant capacity (scavenging of DPPH radical for 1% infusion and aqueous extract (Soxhlet method of U. molinae from island samples, was 15% greater than from continent samples. Further, in vivo impact of U. molinae intake (1% infusion was studied in plasma samples obtained from healthy volunteers. Participants that consumed tea prepared with leaves from island population showed higher TBARS reduction and plasma antioxidant capacity (TEAC-CUPRAC than those who consumed tea prepared with leaves from continental population. The conditions of the territory in which U. molinae populations growth could explain the differences in their composition and activity. According to results, island U. molinae populations could be an important source of study for the development of an antioxidant supplement, and thereby contribute to the use of this species that has becoming an ecological problem in the island.

  12. Variation in phenolic compounds of Ugni molinae populations and their potential use as antioxidant supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia A. Avello

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we carried out a comparative study of total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity of aqueous leaf extracts of Ugni molinae Turcz., Myrtaceae (infusion and Soxhlet extracted prepared from continent and Juan Fernández Island samples. The results revealed that total phenol content (TPC, tannins (TTC and flavonoids (TFC for U. molinae extracts (infusion and Soxhlet extracts from island leaves were 38.5, 56.7 and 37.5% higher than those obtained with leaves from the continent, respectively. Also, HPLC profiles showed important differences between U. molinae populations. In vitro antioxidant capacity (scavenging of DPPH radical for 1% infusion and aqueous extract (Soxhlet method of U. molinae from island samples, was 15% greater than from continent samples. Further, in vivo impact of U. molinae intake (1% infusion was studied in plasma samples obtained from healthy volunteers. Participants that consumed tea prepared with leaves from island population showed higher TBARS reduction and plasma antioxidant capacity (TEAC-CUPRAC than those who consumed tea prepared with leaves from continental population. The conditions of the territory in which U. molinae populations growth could explain the differences in their composition and activity. According to results, island U. molinae populations could be an important source of study for the development of an antioxidant supplement, and thereby contribute to the use of this species that has becoming an ecological problem in the island.

  13. Herbivory, foliar survival and shoot growth in fragmented populations of Aristotelia chilensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, P. A.; Grez, A. A.; Bustamante, R. O.; Simonetti, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation may modify ecological interactions such as herbivory, and these changes can impinge upon plant fitness. Through a natural experiment, we evaluated if herbivory, foliar survival and shoot growth of the evergreen tree Aristotelia chilensis differ between a continuous forest (600 ha) and small fragments (˜3 ha) of the Maulino forest. From September 2002, we monthly recorded leaf emergence, area lost to herbivores and survival in four cohorts of leaves. Although herbivory of A. chilensis was low overall (foliar area loss chilensis adults. The consequences of changes in ecological interactions triggered by forest fragmentation ought to be assessed rather than inferred from variations in patterns of resource use.

  14. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Solidago chilensis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Schneider

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSolidago chilensis Meyen, Asteraceae, is traditionally used to treat inflammation. However, phytochemical and pharmacology investigations are lacking. This study evaluated the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of hydroalcoholic extract from S. chilensis aerial parts in rats. In oral glucose tolerance tests the rats received saline (0.5 ml/100 g in control group (C, hydroalcoholic extract (125, 250 or 500 mg/kg p.o.; n = 6 or glibenclamide (10 mg/kg p.o.; n = 6. After 30 min, glucose (4 g/kg was administered. Rats treated with hydroalcoholic extract 500 demonstrated decreased glucose levels at 180 min (-22.1%, when compared with group C, similar to glibenclamide. Moreover, treatment with hydroalcoholic extract 500 significantly increased the glycogen content in the liver and soleus muscle, and hydroalcoholic extract 250 specifically inhibited the enzyme maltase when compared with group C. Furthermore, all hyperglycemic rats treated with hydroalcoholic extract (125, 250 and 500 exhibited an accentuated decrease in total cholesterol levels (-36.8%, -36.7% and -41.3%, respectively. Our results suggest that hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of hydroalcoholic extract could be associated with increased production and release of insulin as well as with insulinotropic and antioxidant effects.

  15. Litter Decomposition of Acacia caven (Molina Molina and Lolium multiflorum Lam. in Mediterranean Climate Ecosystems Descomposición de Hojarascas de Acacia caven (Molina Molina y Lolium multiflorum Lam. en Ecosistemas de Clima Mediterráneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Martínez G

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystems of the Mediterranean interior dryland of Chile, dominated by an espinal agroecosystem of Acacia caven (Molina Molina, show low productivity as a result of soil degradation. The objective of this study was to evaluate litter decomposition of A. caven and Lolium multiflorum Lam. in espinal ecosystems: well preserved (Wp 50 to 80%, typical (Pd 25 to 50%, and degraded (De with 10 to 25% cover. During 420 d and starting in April 2004 until August 2005, weight loss in litter bags and chemical composition (hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, non-structural components, ash, N, C, C/N ratio, and P were determined by using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS and the Van Soest protocol. Weight loss ranged from 31 to 52% in L. multiflorum and 26 to 40% in A. caven after 420 d. During the chemical decomposition process of L. multiflorum, cellulose degradation was relevant in the labile phase while lignin was important in the recalcitrant phase. On the other hand, non-structural components and cellulose were degraded in the labile phase and lignin in the recalcitrant stage for A. caven. Moreover, both litters improved N concentration during the decomposition process. Espinal ecosystems with higher canopy cover (Pd and Wp had a positive influence, and showed early effects during the decomposition process, especially in the De espinal ecosystem, probably because of the microenvironmental conditions it generated. A better knowledge of the dynamics of litter decomposition in ecosystems was achieved by using both techniques: litter bags and NIRS.Los ecosistemas del secano interior mediterráneo de Chile presentan una baja productividad debido a la degradación de los suelos, dominados por un agroecosistema espinal de Acacia caven (Molina Molina. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la descomposición de hojarascas de A. caven y Lolium multiflorum Lam., en ecosistemas espinales: densos (Wp con cobertura de 50-80%, poco densos (Pd 25-50% y

  16. Variation in phenolic compounds of Ugni molinae populations and their potential use as antioxidant supplement

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia A. Avello; Edgar R. Pastene; Evelyn D. Bustos; Magalis L. Bittner; José A. Becerra

    2012-01-01

    In the present work we carried out a comparative study of total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity of aqueous leaf extracts of Ugni molinae Turcz., Myrtaceae (infusion and Soxhlet extracted) prepared from continent and Juan Fernández Island samples. The results revealed that total phenol content (TPC), tannins (TTC) and flavonoids (TFC) for U. molinae extracts (infusion and Soxhlet extracts) from island leaves were 38.5, 56.7 and 37.5% higher than those obtained with leaves from the c...

  17. Hobartine: a tetracyclic indole alkaloid extracted from Aristotelia chilensis (maqui).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz Robles, Cristian; Badilla Vidal, Natalia; Suarez, Sebastián; Baggio, Ricardo

    2014-11-01

    The natural compound hobartine {systematic name: (1R)-3-[(1S,5S)-(4,4,8-trimethylbicyclo[3.3.1]non-7-en-2-yl)methyl]-2,3-dihydro-1H-indole}, C20H26N2, (I), is an indole alkaloid isolated from Aristotelia chilensis as part of a study of secondary metabolites from Chilean flora. The colourless compound has a tetracyclic structure closely related to the strongly coloured polymorphic structures discussed in Paz et al. [Acta Cryst. (2013), C69, 1509-1512] and Watson et al. [Acta Cryst. (1989), C45, 1322-1324]. The main differences reside in the absence of a keto group in (I) compared with the previous structures, as well as an endo double bond in (I) contrasting with the exo double bond found in the previous structures. The supramolecular structure of (I) in strongly related to the twofold screw axis, around which isolated chains build up, internally linked by an N-H···N hydrogen bond which is the only significant intermolecular interaction present in the structure. PMID:25370110

  18. Studies into the Stability of 3-O-Glycosylated and 3,5-O-Diglycosylated Anthocyanins in Differently Purified Liquid and Dried Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) Preparations during Storage and Thermal Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauch, Johanna E; Kroner, Mareike; Schweiggert, Ralf M; Carle, Reinhold

    2015-10-01

    Anthocyanin stabilities in diluted and differently purified maqui preparations were assessed during storage and thermal treatment at different pH values. By sequentially depleting the matrix, the influence of polar low-molecular-weight matrix constituents and non-anthocyanin phenolics was shown to be negligible. In contrast, pH substantially affected thermal stabilities of differently glycosylated cyanidin and delphinidin derivatives. At pH 3.6, half-lives of 3-O-glycosides were substantially shorter than those of respective 3,5-O-diglycosides. However, at pH 2.2, an inverse stability behavior was observed. Findings were corroborated using isolated pigments. Upon heating, cyanidin derivatives were more stable than their respective delphinidins, but their stability was similar during storage. Anthocyanins in liquid samples were more stable when stored at 4 °C as compared to 20 °C, whereas those in dried powders revealed maximum stability throughout storage. The study contains a detailed discussion and mechanistic hypothesis for the above-mentioned findings, providing insights relevant for food applications of maqui anthocyanins. PMID:26338479

  19. Insecticidal Activity of Peumus boldus Molina Essential Oil against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky Actividad Insecticida del Aceite Esencial de Peumus boldus Molina sobre Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Betancur R; Gonzalo Silva A; J. Concepción Rodríguez M; Susana Fischer G; Nelson Zapata S.M

    2010-01-01

    In stored grains, the main agents diminishing production are insects, which can produce losses between 20% and 80% before harvest or under storage. The insecticidal properties of the essential oil of fresh leaves of Peumus boldus Molina against maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky) adults were determined under laboratory conditions. The highest mortality (100%) was achieved at 4% concentration by contact with a treated glass surface. The same concentration in impregnated corn (Zea may...

  20. Antioxidant capacity of Ugni molinae fruit extract on human erythrocytes: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwalsky, Mario; Avello, Marcia

    2014-08-01

    Ugni molinae is an important source of molecules with strong antioxidant activity widely used as a medicinal plant in Southern Chile-Argentina. Total phenol concentration from its fruit extract was 10.64 ± 0.04 mM gallic acid equivalents. Analysis by means of HPLC/MS indicated the presence of the anthocyanins cyanidin and peonidin, and the flavonol quercitin, all in glycosylated forms. Its antioxidant properties were assessed in human erythrocytes in vitro exposed to HClO oxidative stress. Scanning electron microscopy showed that HClO induced an alteration in erythrocytes from a normal shape to echinocytes; however, this change was highly attenuated in samples containing U. molinae extracts. It also had a tendency in order to reduce the hemolytic effect of HClO. In addition, X-ray diffraction experiments were performed in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine bilayers, classes of lipids preferentially located in the outer and inner monolayers, respectively, of the human erythrocyte membrane. It was observed that U. molinae only interacted with DMPC. Results by fluorescence spectroscopy on DMPC large unilamellar vesicles and isolated unsealed human erythrocyte membranes also showed that it interacted with the erythrocyte membrane and DMPC. It is possible that the location of U. molinae components into the membrane outer monolayer might hinder the diffusion of HClO and of free radicals into cell membranes and the consequent decrease of the kinetics of free radical reactions. PMID:24928227

  1. Recasting Madrid and Its Characters in Munoz Molina's "Los misterios de Madrid"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Sheri Spaine

    2009-01-01

    "Los misterios de Madrid" (1992) provides a burlesque novelistic portrayal of the changing capital city and its inhabitants in the early 1990s. Spanish writer Antonio Munoz Molina creates vignettes of Madrid's people and places while showing the capital as a destination for both foreign-born immigrants and provincial Spaniards alike. In…

  2. Free radical scavenging potential of Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl fruits extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vijayakumar Mayakrishnan; Selvi Veluswamy; Priya Kannappan; Noorlidah Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate free radical scavenging activity of ethanolic extract Lagenaria siceraria (L. siceraria) (Molina) fruit. Methods: The free radical scavenging activity of the L. siceraria (Molina) fruit extract was assayed by using α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,20-azinobis 3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS), FRAP, reducing power, chelating ability and β-carotene bleaching assay. Results: The IC50 values of DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging activity was found to be 1.95 mg/mL and 19 mg/mL, respectively. In ferrous chelation assay, the percentage of inhibition was found to be 89.21%. The reducing power of ethanolic extract of L. siceraria (Molina) fruit was 0.068 at 1 mg/mL and increased to 0.192 at 5 mg/mL. Theβ-carotene linoleate bleaching assay was 46.7% at 5 mg/mL and antioxidant activity using FRAP at 0.305 for 1 mg/mL to 0.969 for 5 mg/mL. Conclusions: The results indicate that L. siceraria (Molina) fruit could be an important sources of natural radical scavengers.

  3. Sagitta chilensis nueva especie de quetognato en fiordos australes chilenos (Chaetognatha, Aphragmophora, Sagittidae) Sagitta chilensis a new species of chaetognath in Chilean fjords (Chaetognatha, Aphragmophora, Sagittidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Villenas; Sergio Palma

    2006-01-01

    Se describe por primera vez una nueva especie de quetognato del orden Aphragmophora, Sagitta chilensis n. sp., colectada en fiordos australes chilenos. Se analizaron 1065 ejemplares colectados entre la boca del Guafo y el canal Pulluche en noviembre de 2002. Estos ejemplares presentaron marcadas diferencias morfológicas con otras especies afines, como estructuras puntiagudas en el collarete y aletas, forma de aletas anteriores y posteriores, posición de las vesículas seminales y presencia de ...

  4. «Héctor Molina Riaño»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanoy Morejón Mesa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se realizó en los campos pertenecientes a la Empresa Azucarera «Héctor Molina Riaño», con el objetivo de desarrollar una metodología que permita realizar una evaluación energética y económica durante la recogida y transportación de los residuos agrícolas cañeros (RAC hasta la industria, partiendo de la determinación de los volúmenes de RAC, en campos cosechados con máquinas CAMECO y en el centro de limpieza. Para esto se utilizaron utensilios e instrumentos reglamentados por las normas de medición y control de la calidad. El valor de los RAC quedados en el campo ascendió a 3,87 t/ha, que pueden ser recogidos y transportados para producir energía y el índice de RAC para estas condiciones fue de 0,11. El volumen total de RAC a transportar desde el campo alcanzó 26 524,74 t y desde el centro de limpieza alcanzó 28 051,70 t. Según criterios planteados por diversos autores se realizó la evaluación energética de la recogida y transportación de los RAC hasta la industria, obteniéndose una energía requerida total de 680 478,34 Mcal y la energía que se puede producir con los RAC recogidos y transportado s es de 256 509 268 Mcal. También se realizó la evaluación económica, obteniéndose un gasto económico total de 411 256,27 pesos, costo de la energía producida de 909 607 pesos, con un costo unitario de 7,53 peso/t de RAC recogido y transportado y 16,66 peso/t de RAC utilizados en la generación de energía. Con estos resultados se evidencia que es factible el uso de los RAC como combustible alternativo en el sector azucarero.

  5. New isotonic drinks with antioxidant and biological capacities from berries (maqui, açaí and blackthorn) and lemon juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Villaño, Débora; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to design new isotonic drinks with lemon juice and berries: maqui [Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz], açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) and blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L.), following on from previous research. Quality parameters - including colour (CIELab parameters), minerals, phytochemical identification and quantification by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector, total phenolic content by the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, the antioxidant capacity (ABTS(+), DPPH• and [Formula: see text] assays) and biological activities (in vitro alpha-glucosidase and lipase inhibitory effects) - were tested in the samples and compared to commercially available isotonic drinks. The new isotonic blends with lemon and anthocyanins-rich berries showed an attractive colour, especially in maqui samples, which is essential for consumer acceptance. Significantly higher antioxidant and biological effects were determined in the new blends, in comparison with the commercial isotonic beverages. PMID:23815554

  6. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of wild and cultivated murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz.)

    OpenAIRE

    Thalita Riquelme Augusto; Erick Sigisfredo Scheuermann Salinas; Severino Matias de Alencar; Marisa Aparecida Bismara Regitano D'Arce; Adriano Costa de Camargo; Thais Maria Ferreira de Souza Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade a considerable increase in the number of studies addressing the use of antioxidants from natural sources has led to the identification and understanding of the potential mechanisms of biologically active components. This results from the fact that they can be used to replace synthetic antioxidants commonly used in food. Murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz) is a native berry grown in Chile, and in the present study, the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of its fruits ...

  7. Protective effect of Ugni molinae Turcz against oxidative damage of human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwalsky, M; Orellana, P; Avello, M; Villena, F

    2007-01-01

    Ugni molinae Turcz, also known as "Murtilla", is a plant that grows in the south of Chile. Infusions of its leaves have long been used in traditional native herbal medicine. The chemical composition of the leaves indicates the presence of polyphenols, which have antioxidant properties. In the present work, the antioxidant properties of U. molinae were evaluated in human erythrocytes exposed in vitro to oxidative stress induced by HClO. The experiments were carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and hemolysis measurements. The SEM observations showed that HClO induced a morphological alteration in the red blood cells from a discoid to an echinocytic form. According to the bilayer couple hypothesis, the formation of echinocytes indicates that HClO was inserted in the outer leaflet of the erythrocyte membrane. However, a concentration as low as 10 microM gallic acid equivalents (GAE) U. molinae aqueous extract neutralized the shape change effect of HClO applied in a concentration as high as 0.25 mM. The significant protection of U. molinae aqueous extract was also shown in the hemolysis experiments. In fact, very low concentrations of the extract considerably reduced the deleterious capacity of HClO to induce hemolysis in red blood cells. It is concluded that the location of the extract components into the membrane bilayer and the resulting restriction on its fluidity might hinder the diffusion of HClO and its consequent damaging effects. This conclusion can also imply that this restriction could apply to the diffusion of free radicals into cell membranes and the subsequent decrease of the kinetics of free radical reactions. PMID:17030381

  8. Avifauna en el campus de la Universidad Nacional Agraria la Molina (UNALM), Lima - Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Takano Goshima; Nadia Castro Izaguirre

    2007-01-01

    Se realizaron conteos mensuales de aves, entre Enero y Agosto de 2001, y avistamientos desde Setiembre de 2003 hasta Diciembre del mismo año, en las diferentes áreas del campus de la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (UNALM, Lima). Como resultado se obtuvo una lista que incluye 46 especies vistas por lo menos en 3 ocasiones diferentes. La mayor parte de ellas pertenece al orden Passeriformes, mientras que dentro de las familias destacan Emberizidae, Columbidae y Psittacida...

  9. Analgesic activity of Ugni molinae (murtilla) in mice models of acute pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delporte, C; Backhouse, N; Inostroza, V; Aguirre, M C; Peredo, N; Silva, X; Negrete, R; Miranda, H F

    2007-05-30

    Leaf extracts of Ugni molinae Turcz. (Myrtaceae) are used in Chilean folk medicine as analgesic and anti-inflammatory. The antinociceptive effect of dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EA) and methanol (ME) leaf extracts was assessed by intraperitoneal, oral and topical administration in writhing, tail flick, and tail formalin tests in mice. The extracts showed a dose-dependent antinociceptive activity in all the assays under different administration routes. The ED(50) values for the different tests for the DCM, EA, ME extract and reference drug (ibuprofen) were as follows. Writhing test in acetic acid (i.p. administration): 0.21, 0.37, 1.37 and 0.85mg/kg, respectively; tail flick test (oral administration): 199, 189, 120 and 45.9mg/kg. The EC(50) values for tail flick test were (topical administration): 2.0, 0.35, 1.4 and 8.2% (w/v), respectively; and the topical analgesic effects were (formalin assay) 75.5, 77.5, 31.6 and 76.5%, respectively. Ugni molinae extracts produce antinociception in chemical and thermal pain models through a mechanism partially linked to either lipooxygenase and/or cyclooxygenase via the arachidonic acid cascade and/or opioid receptors. Flavonoid glycosides and triterpenoids have been isolated from the plant and can be associated with the observed effect. Our results corroborate the analgesic effects of Ugni molinae, and justify its traditional use for treating pain. PMID:17403589

  10. SIMULACIÓN MATEMÁTICA DEL PROCESO DE SECADO DE LA GRACILARIA CHILENA (GRACILARIA CHILENSIS) MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION OF DRYING PROCESS OF CHILEAN GRACILARIA (GRACILARIA CHILENSIS)

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Vega Gálvez; Cristian Tello Ireland; Roberto Lemus Mondaca

    2007-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar y modelar la cinética de secado por aire caliente del alga Gracilaria (Gracilaria chilensis) utilizando un secador convectivo diseñado y construido en la Facultad de Ingeniería de la Universidad de La Serena a cinco temperaturas de bulbo seco (30, 40, 50, 60 y 70ºC) y velocidad de aire de 2.0±0.2 m.s-1. Para el modelado matemático se utilizan tres modelos empíricos (Newton, Henderson-Pabis & Page). Durante el experimento se observa solamente el periodo ...

  11. Fate of Ingested Aristolactams from Aristolochia chilensis in Battus polydamas archidamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzúa, Alejandro; Olguín, Angel; Santander, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    We performed a sequestration study of aristolactams (ALs) from Aristolochia chilensis in Battus polydamas archidamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) by examining the AL content of the plant, fifth instar larvae, osmeterial secretion, pupae, exuviae and feces. Aristolactam-I (AL-I) and aristolactam-II (AL-II) present in A. chilensis are sequestered by fifth instar larvae of B. polydamas archidamas. There is a preferential sequestration of AL-II, or a more efficient metabolization and excretion of AL-I, by the larva. No ALs were found in the osmeterial secretion, pupae and exuviae; in addition, little AL-I and no AL-II were found in larval frass. The two lactams, particularly AL-I, are extensively metabolized to other products in the larva. A reasonable hypothesis is that the ingested ALs are oxidized to their respective aristolochic acids. PMID:26462522

  12. The reliability of morphometric discriminant functions in determining the sex of Chilean flamingos Phoenicopterus chilensis

    OpenAIRE

    Diego MONTALTI et al

    2012-01-01

    Monomorphic birds cannot be sexed visually and discriminant functions on the basis of external morphological variations are frequently used. Our objective was to evaluate the reliability of sex classification functions created from structural measurements of Chilean flamingos Phoenicopterus chilensis museum skins for the gender assignment of live birds. Five measurements were used to develop four discriminant functions: culmen, bill height and width, tarsus length and middle toe claw. The fun...

  13. In Vitro and in Vivo Anti-Diabetic Effects of Anthocyanins from Maqui Berry (Aristotelia chilensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Rojo, Leonel E.; Ribnicky, David; Logendra, Sithes; Poulev, Alex; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Kuhn, Peter; Dorn, Ruth; Grace, Mary H; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2011-01-01

    We used a murine model of type II diabetes, which reproduces the major features of the human disease, and a number of cellular models to study the antidiabetic effect of ANC, a standardised anthocyanin-rich formulation from maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis). We also isolated delphinidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucoside (D3S5G), a characteristic anthocyanin from maqui berry, and studied its antidiabetic properties. We observed that oral administration of ANC improved fasting blood glucose levels a...

  14. Manganese speciation in Diplodon chilensis patagonicus shells: a XANES study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldati, A. L.; Vicente-Vilas, V.; Goettlicher, J.; Jacob, D. E.

    2009-04-01

    In addition to other types of climate archives, biogenic skeletons of a variety of different organisms (i.e. shells of bivalves, skeletal hard parts of corals or sponges) are increasingly used for high-resolution climate reconstructions. Bivalves are particularly suited for such analyses because they are geographically broadly distributed and have been shown to record climate and environmental information reliably and over long time intervals. Variation of environmental parameters such as food supply, substratum type, salinity, illumination, temperature, concentration of dissolved oxygen or oxygen/carbon dioxide ratio, among others, may affect growth pattern, shell structure, mineralogy, isotopic fractionation and chemistry. Thus, shell features, minor and trace element composition patterns and isotopic signals may serve as an archive of environmental history. In turn, palaeoclimatic parameters such as ambient temperature, precipitation gradients, seawater salinity and primary production can be reconstructed from the shells by means of sclerochronological and geochemical methods. However, the distribution of minor and trace elements in the biominerals is not only influenced by the environment or vital effects, but also by intrinsic biomineralisation parameters like the carbonate polymorphism and the mineral habit (Soldati et al., 2008a). Generally, it is assumed that the X2+ ions are replacing the Ca2+ ion in the calcium carbonate (CaCO3) structure, but newest findings show that amorphous (or disordered) phases may play a role in hosting some of the elements use as proxies (Meibom et al., 2008; and Finch and Allison, 2007). In this work we focused on the freshwater clam Diplodon chilensis patagonicus, a widely distributed inhabitant of lakes and rivers in southern South America. Thanks to its long life span and seasonal growth Diplodon mussels exhibit excellent characteristics to construct an accurate chronological archive, with time windows of up to around a

  15. Domestication in Murtilla (Ugni molinae) Reduced Defensive Flavonol Levels but Increased Resistance Against a Native Herbivorous Insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Fuentes, Manuel; Parra, Leonardo; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Seguel, Ivette; Ceballos, Ricardo; Quiroz, Andres

    2015-06-01

    Plant domestication can have negative consequences for defensive traits against herbivores, potentially reducing the levels of chemical defenses in plants and consequently their resistance against herbivores. We characterized and quantified the defensive flavonols from multiple cultivated ecotypes with wild ancestors of murtilla, Ugni molinae Turcz, an endemic plant from Chile, at different times of the year, and examined their effects on a native insect herbivore, Chilesia rudis Butler (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). We hypothesized that domestication results in a decrease in flavonol levels in U. molinae plants, and that this negatively affected C. rudis performance and preference. Ethanolic extracts were made from leaves, stems, and fruit of murtilla plants for flavonol analysis. Flavonols identified were kaempferol, quercetin, rutin, and quercetin 3-D-β-glucoside, the last two being the most abundant. More interestingly, we showed differences in flavonol composition between wild and cultivated U. molinae that persisted for most of the year. Relative amounts of all four flavonols were higher in wild U. molinae leaves; however, no differences were found in the stem and fruit between wild and cultivated plants. In choice and no-choice assays, C. rudis larvae gained more mass on, and consumed more leaf material of, wild as compared with cultivated U. molinae plants. Moreover, when applied to leaves, larvae ate more leaf material with increasing concentrations of each flavonol compound. Our study demonstrates that domestication in U. molinae reduced the amount of flavonols in leaves as well as the performance and preference of C. rudis, indicating that these compounds stimulate feeding of C. rudis. PMID:26313969

  16. El “Mundus Subterraneus” de Juan Ignacio Molina o el geólogo como economista

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    Orrego G., Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In general, the work of the Chilean ex Jesuit Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829 has not been studied under the light of history of geology. This article attempts to reconstruct the origin and morphology of the ideas in which the Chilean naturalist developed about the internal structure of the Earth. We will see how the geological ideas elaborated by Molina went beyond the scientific reflection. The development of a particular discipline as political economy during the eighteenth century also influenced Juan Ignacio Molina´s thoughts about the internal organization of the Earth, geological processes and the descriptions of the nature of Chilean kingdom in the late eighteenth century.En general, la obra del ex jesuita chileno Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829 no ha sido estudiada con profundidad a la luz de la historia de la geología. Este artículo reconstruye el origen y la morfología de parte de las ideas que el naturalista chileno elaboró sobre la estructura interna de la Tierra. Se verá cómo las ideas geológicas desarrolladas por Molina fueron más allá de la simple reflexión científica. El desarrollo de una disciplina particular y novedosa como la economía política, también influyó en el tipo de reflexiones que Juan Ignacio Molina desarrolló sobre la organización interior de la Tierra, los procesos geológicos y las descripciones sobre la naturaleza del Reino de Chile a fines del siglo XVIII.

  17. Lycaenid caterpillars (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae eating flowers of Dalea pennellii var. chilensis (Fabaceae in the northern Chilean Andes

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    Héctor A. Vargas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lycaenid caterpillars (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae eating flowers of Dalea pennellii var. chilensis (Fabaceae in the northern Chilean Andes. The shrub Dalea pennellii var. chilensis (Fabaceae is reported for the first time as a host plant for three Neotropical Polyommatini (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Polyommatinae: Hemiargus ramon (Dognin, 1887, Leptotes trigemmatus (Butler, 1881 and Nabokovia faga (Dognin, 1895, based on two collections performed in the western slopes of the northern Chilean Andes in two consecutive summers. The relative abundance was always above 90% for N. faga while it was always less than 5% for H. ramon and L. trigemmatus. Furthermore, N. faga was not found on inflorescences of other native Fabaceae examined in the study site. This pattern suggests a close relationship between N. faga and D. pennellii var. chilensis, at least at a local scale.

  18. The geological perspective of Italy and Chile by Abbot Juan Ignacio Molina between the 18th and 19th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Menichetti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The first geological observations in Chile can be traced to Juan Ignacio Molina, a Jesuit priest who was born in 1740 in Chile and died in 1829 in Bologna, Italy. He received a scholarship education with a strong leaning towards philosophy, the humanities and the sciences at the Jesuit College in Concepcion. In 1767, when all the Jesuits were expelled from Chile and the spanish colonies, he took refuge in Italy, first in Imola and then in Bologna where he taught Greek at the University and later natural sciences at the Archiginnasio. During his stay in Bologna at the end of the 18th century, the Jesuit community continued to play an important role in the teaching of the sciences in spite of the Napoleonic occupation. In Bologna, as early as the 16th century, Ulisse Aldrovandi was developing new concepts in geology with his study and systematic collection of fossils. At the beginning of the 18th century, the naturalist and oceanographer L.F. Marsili and one of the fathers of paleontology, G. Monti, built of Aldrovandi's work and contributed to the growth of the Science Institute and the Natural History Museum in the city. It was in this cultural context that in 1782 Molina published in Italian language the Saggio sulla storia naturale del Chile. The book was divided into four chapters, the first two of which dealt with the earth sciences. In this work Molina repeatedly compares the north-south stretched landscapes, the volcanic activity and the geology of Italy and Chile. His next work, Memorie di storia naturale, was published in 1821 and was based on several lectures given by him at the Bologna Academy of Sciences. It contained fourteen Memoria -lectures- referred to different aspects of the natural sciences and six covered geological topics. In 1815, one of Molina's lectures -later Memoria XIV-, was published under the title Less noticed analogies in three kingdom of nature. In this lecture Molina discussed the similarities between minerals

  19. Exilios y nostalgias: Antonio Muñoz Molina y Milán Kundera

    OpenAIRE

    Gallego Cuiñas, Ana

    2007-01-01

    En los albores del siglo XXI y bajo el signo de la posmodernidad, Antonio Muñoz Molina y Milán Kundera llevan a cabo en “Valdemún”-un capítulo de Sefarad- y La ignorancia una serie de operaciones y articulaciones narrativas que tienen un común denominador: el tratamiento de las “interrogaciones existenciales” del exilio y la nostalgia. Ambos autores fraguan poéticas similares en lo que a la representación del horror del pasado se refiere, y apuestan en estos textos por un resca...

  20. Articulismo en democracia. Las columnas de Antonio Muñoz Molina

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    Natalia Corbellini

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The writer's column format related to Muñoz Molina's last novels (Sefarad. Una novela de novelas; Ventanas de Manhattan; Días de diario , where the concept of genre is not clear, they alternate narrative and argumentation, tales and essay. I will analyze the writing of published columns as "Ida y vuelta" in the suplement Babelia of El país, as a format that allows experimentation with the language and the narrator; and simultaneously constructs an ego with the will of style, and for providing a rewatching form of knowledge and thought

  1. SIMULACIÓN MATEMÁTICA DEL PROCESO DE SECADO DE LA GRACILARIA CHILENA (GRACILARIA CHILENSIS MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION OF DRYING PROCESS OF CHILEAN GRACILARIA (GRACILARIA CHILENSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vega Gálvez

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar y modelar la cinética de secado por aire caliente del alga Gracilaria (Gracilaria chilensis utilizando un secador convectivo diseñado y construido en la Facultad de Ingeniería de la Universidad de La Serena a cinco temperaturas de bulbo seco (30, 40, 50, 60 y 70ºC y velocidad de aire de 2.0±0.2 m.s-1. Para el modelado matemático se utilizan tres modelos empíricos (Newton, Henderson-Pabis & Page. Durante el experimento se observa solamente el periodo de velocidad decreciente, por lo que se utiliza la ecuación de la segunda Ley de Fick para el cálculo de la difusividad efectiva de agua. El proceso de secado presenta humedades finales entre 0.096 g agua/g m.s y 0.061 g agua/g m.s para 30ºC y 70ºC, respectivamente. Tanto la difusividad como los parámetros cinéticos k1, k2 y k3 de los modelos propuestos presentan dependencia con la temperatura y al evaluarlos con la ecuación de Arrhenius se obtienen energías de activación de 39.92, 33.85, 33.49 y 33.83 kJ·mol-1, respectivamente. De acuerdo a los análisis estadísticos que se utilizan (r2, SSE, RMSE y X², el modelo de Page muestra la mejor calidad de ajuste sobre los datos experimentales, otorgando así una buena herramienta para el modelado de la cinética de secado industrial de la Gracilaria chilensis y el cálculo del tiempo de secado a diferentes temperaturas, con el fin de alcanzar un contenido de humedad comercial aceptable internacionalmente.The aim of this research is to study and to model the hot air drying kinetics of Gracialaria algae (Gracilaria chilensis, using a convective drier -designed and built at the Faculty of Engineering of Universidad de La Serena- at five dry bulb temperatures (30, 40, 50, 60 and 70ºC and an air velocity of 2.0 ± 0.2 m.s-1. Three empirical models are used for the mathematic modeling (Newton, Henderson-Pabis & Page. During the experiment, only a falling rate period is observed, hence the Fick's second

  2. Propiedades del suelo en bosques quemados de Austrocedrus chilensis en Patagonia, Argentina Soil characteristics in burned Austrocedrus chilensis forests in Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Florencia Urretavizcaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Austrocedrus chilensis, ciprés de la cordillera, es la conífera nativa más importante de la región de los bosques andino patagónicos de Argentina, donde existen 141.000 ha de rodales fundamentalmente puros. El fuego es el principal disturbio de la dinámica de estos bosques. Este estudio tuvo por objetivo analizar posibles diferencias en propiedades químicas, físicas y biológicas del suelo entre lugares no quemados (NQ, parcialmente quemados (PQ y completamente quemados (CQ de bosques de A. chilensis. El estudio se realizó en El Bolsón (41º 59’ 02’’ S-71º 33’ 20’’ O, que había sufrido un incendio 21 meses antes del estudio, y Trevelin (43º 12’ 57’’ S-71º 31’ 15’’ O, quemado casi cinco años antes. Se midieron propiedades del suelo en los primeros 10 cm de profundidad que podrían tener más influencia sobre la recuperación del bosque: densidad aparente, pH, conductividad eléctrica (CE, carbono orgánico (C, nitrógeno total (N, potasio intercambiable (K, calcio (Ca, magnesio (Mg y nitrógeno retenido en la biomasa microbiana (N-BM. En El Bolsón los sectores PQ y CQ presentaron mayor pH y CE y menor cantidad de C, N, Mg y N-BM respecto al sector NQ, lo que podría estar relacionado con la combustión de la materia orgánica. En Trevelin no se detectaron esas diferencias, sugiriendo que el contenido de nutrientes del suelo se habría recuperado por haber transcurrido un tiempo mucho más prolongado desde la ocurrencia del fuego. Luego de un incendio es deseable que la vegetación se restablezca lo antes posible para mitigar las posibles pérdidas de nutrientes y favorecer la recuperación de las propiedades de suelo, lo que puede ser beneficiado mediante la plantación de A. chilensis.Austrocedrus chilensis is the most important natural conifer in the Patagonian Andes region of southern Argentina where there are 141,000 hectares of mainly pure stands. Fire is the main disturbance in the dynamics of these

  3. The geological perspective of Italy and Chile by Abbot Juan Ignacio Molina between the 18th and 19th centuries La perspectiva geolgica del Abate Juan Ignacio Molina sobre Italia y Chile entre los siglos XVIII y XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Menichetti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The first geological observations in Chile can be traced to Juan Ignacio Molina, a Jesuit priest who was born in 1740 in Chile and died in 1829 in Bologna, Italy. He received a scholarship education with a strong leaning towards philosophy, the humanities and the sciences at the Jesuit College in Concepcion. In 1767, when all the Jesuits were expelled from Chile and the spanish colonies, he took refuge in Italy, first in Imola and then in Bologna where he taught Greek at the University and later natural sciences at the Archiginnasio. During his stay in Bologna at the end of the 18th century, the Jesuit community continued to play an important role in the teaching of the sciences in spite of the Napoleonic occupation. In Bologna, as early as the 16th century, Ulisse Aldrovandi was developing new concepts in geology with his study and systematic collection of fossils. At the beginning of the 18th century, the naturalist and oceanographer L.F. Marsili and one of the fathers of paleontology, G. Monti, built of Aldrovandi's work and contributed to the growth of the Science Institute and the Natural History Museum in the city. It was in this cultural context that in 1782 Molina published in Italian language the Saggio sulla storia naturale del Chile. The book was divided into four chapters, the first two of which dealt with the earth sciences. In this work Molina repeatedly compares the north-south stretched landscapes, the volcanic activity and the geology of Italy and Chile. His next work, Memorie di storia naturale, was published in 1821 and was based on several lectures given by him at the Bologna Academy of Sciences. It contained fourteen Memoria -lectures- referred to different aspects of the natural sciences and six covered geological topics. In 1815, one of Molina's lectures -later Memoria XIV-, was published under the title Less noticed analogies in three kingdom of nature. In this lecture Molina discussed the similarities between minerals

  4. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of wild and cultivated murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita Riquelme Augusto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade a considerable increase in the number of studies addressing the use of antioxidants from natural sources has led to the identification and understanding of the potential mechanisms of biologically active components. This results from the fact that they can be used to replace synthetic antioxidants commonly used in food. Murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz is a native berry grown in Chile, and in the present study, the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of its fruits were studied. Hydroalcoholic extracts of dehydrated fruits from two genotypes of murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz. were produced. Extracts of wild murtilla and 14-4 genotype fruits had 19.35 and 40.28mg GAE/g for Total Phenolic Compounds, 76.48, and 134.35μmol TEAC/g for DPPH, and 157.04 and 293.99 μmol TEAC/g for ABTS, respectively. Components such as quercetin, epicatechin, and gallic, benzoic and hydrocaffeic acids were identified by CG/MS analysis. All of them showed antioxidant activity. Therefore, it is possible to say that the hydroalcoholic extracts of murtilla have antioxidant potential to be used in lipidic food.

  5. How Race Is Made in America: Immigration, Citizenship, and the Historical Power of Racial Scripts by Natalia Molina

    OpenAIRE

    Guevara-Velez, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Natalia Molina presents a critical analysis of the period 1924-1965 in U.S. immigration policy and provides an opportunity for readers to examine the racialization of Mexicans in the United States and its impact on immigration legislation and naturalization.

  6. Insecticidal Activity of Peumus boldus Molina Essential Oil against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky Actividad Insecticida del Aceite Esencial de Peumus boldus Molina sobre Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky

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    Jessica Betancur R

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In stored grains, the main agents diminishing production are insects, which can produce losses between 20% and 80% before harvest or under storage. The insecticidal properties of the essential oil of fresh leaves of Peumus boldus Molina against maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky adults were determined under laboratory conditions. The highest mortality (100% was achieved at 4% concentration by contact with a treated glass surface. The same concentration in impregnated corn (Zea mays L. grain, resulted in 98.7% mortality. Mortality by fumigant action at 6 h was 100% with 35 µL oil in 0.15 L (air volume. Concentrations 1, 2 and 4% of essential oil produced 0% F1 adult emergence. At 10 d of residual effect, the 4% concentration reached 63.7% mortality. All treatments were repellent to adults of S. zeamais and corn grain germination was not affected by any treatment.Los principales agentes que disminuyen la producción en los granos almacenados son los insectos, antes de la cosecha y en el almacenamiento pueden causar pérdidas de 20 a 80%. Se evaluaron las propiedades insecticidas del aceite esencial de hojas frescas de Peumus boldus Molina para el control de adultos de gorgojo del maíz (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky en laboratorio. La mayor mortalidad (100% por contacto con una superficie de vidrio tratada se obtuvo con la concentración de 4%. Esta misma concentración produjo 98,7% de mortalidad en exposición a grano de maíz (Zea mays L. tratado. El efecto fumigante a las 6 h de exposición fue 100% con 35 µL de aceite en 0,15 L (volumen de aire. Con las concentraciones de 1, 2 y 4% de aceite esencial, el porcentaje de emergencia de la F1 fue 0%. A los 10 d de efecto residual se alcanzó 63,7% de mortalidad con la concentración de 4%. Todos los tratamientos fueron repelentes para adultos de S. zeamais y ningún tratamiento afectó la germinación de los granos.

  7. Toxicity of Boldo Peumus boldus Molina for Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky and Tribolium castaneum Herbst Toxicidad del Boldo, Peumus boldus Molina, sobre Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky y Tribolium castaneum Herbst

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    Margarita Ortiz U

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky and the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum Herbst are two key pests of stored-grain products worldwide. The insecticidal activity of boldo (Peumus boldus Molina powder, liquid ethanolic and hexanic extracts against S. zeamais and T. castaneum were evaluated under laboratory conditions. The evaluated variables were mortality, emergence of adult insects (F1, and grain weight loss. The experimental design was completely randomized. The mortality in S. zeamais was 100% even at the lowest powder concentration (0.5% w/w, whereas emergence of F1 adult insects was 0% and grain weight loss was El gorgojo del maíz (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky y el gorgojo castaño de la harina (Tribolium castaneum Herbst son plagas primarias de productos almacenados a nivel mundial. Se evaluó en laboratorio la actividad insecticida de polvo y extractos líquidos etanólicos y hexánicos del boldo (Peumus boldus Molina sobre S. zeamais y T. castaneum. Las variables evaluadas fueron mortalidad y emergencia de insectos adultos (F1 y pérdida de peso de los granos con un diseño experimental completamente al azar. La mortalidad en S. zeamais fue 100%, incluso con la concentración menor (0,5% p/p mientras que la emergencia de insectos adultos y la pérdida de peso de granos de maíz fue < 0,08%. Para T. castaneum sólo las concentraciones de 8 y 16% p/p de polvo causaron una mortalidad de 100%. Los extractos en agua, etanol, y hexano tuvieron un efecto insecticida de 100% en S. zeamais, mientras que en T. castaneum sólo el extracto en etanol alcanzó este valor. Por lo tanto, el polvo y los extractos evaluados de P. boldus presentan actividad insecticida contra S. zeamais y T. castaneum y son promisorios para utilizarse contra éstas y otras plagas de granos almacenados.

  8. Ionising radiation as a quarantine treatment for controlling Brevipalpus chilensis (Acarina: Tenuipalpidae) in Thompson Seedless grapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation was investigated as a possible quarantine treatment against the false red vine mite, Brevipalpus chilensis, on Thompson Seedless grapes. The most resistant stage of B. chilensis was the adult. Irradiation doses required to cause 90% mortality of adults, nymphs and eggs were 1307, 970, and 328 Gy, respectively. The viability of eggs from irradiated adults decreased as irradiation dose increased. At doses between 450 and 600 Gy, adult females laid eggs but they were not viable. In dose response tests at 250, 300 and 350 Gy using adult mites on grapes, the minimum irradiation dose that prevented adult reproduction was 300 Gy. A large-scale confirmatory study demonstrated the effectiveness of 300 Gy using 8 042 adult mites. An irradiation dose of 200 Gy combined with 15 day cold treatment (simulating commercial shipping conditions) was also shown to be sufficient to stop reproduction in the mite, and this treatment combination was later confirmed with 5088 adult mites. The organoleptic properties of Thompson Seedless grapes irradiated at 600 Gy were not affected, nor were ripeness parameters altered relative to soluble solids and acidity; no phytotoxicity was detected in either berries or the stem. (author)

  9. Changes in the pattern of protein synthesis of prosopis chilensis induced by high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of Prosopis chilensis, a leguminous tree from semi-arid regions of Central Chile, were germinated at temperatures of 25-30-35-40-45 and 50 degree C. Germination was 100% between 25 and 40 degree C, being faster at 35 degree C. The best temperature for root growth was also 35 degree C. There was not germination at 50 degree C. However, seedlings coming from seeds germinated at 35 degree C were capable of growing at higher temperatures of 45 and 50 degree C. Pattern of protein synthesis was followed in roots incubated with 35S-methionine at increasing temperatures between 35 and 50 degree C. SDS-PAGE of the proteins followed by fluorography shows that at temperatures above 35 degree C, new protein bands appear while others become thicker. Most of the protein bands have decreased at 50 degree C, with the exception of the new bands. A band of 70 KD, that is present at 35 degree C, is more prominent at 50 degree C. These proteins may have an important role in the thermotolerance of Prosopis chilensis to stressing temperatures

  10. Los realismos en Beatus Ille de Antonio Muñoz Molina.

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    Papa Mamour Diop

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: This work deals with the current debate about reality and its literary and artistic expression: realism. In Beatus Ille, Antonio Muñoz Molina’s first novel, the fictional universe reveals three kinds of realism: the epic and elegiac realism, the historic realismand the magic realism. SPANISH: En este trabajo, abordamos el actual debate sobre la realidad y su expresión literaria y artística: el realismo. En Beatus Ille, primera novela de Antonio Muñoz Molina, eluniverso novelesco permite percibir tres tipos de realismos: el realismo épico elegiaco, el realismo histórico o contrafactual y el realismo mágico.

  11. Column gamma-ray scanning of the 'Hector Molina' Distillery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-ray scanning, often referred to as 'column scanning', is a convenient, cost effective, fast, efficient and non-invasive technique to examine internal characteristics of a certain equipment, like alcohol distillation columns, while it is in operation. Column scanning allows to engineers, to study hydraulics tray inside of distillation column in on-line condition. It provides essential data to optimize the performance of columns, extend column run times, to evaluate effects of defective track and to identify maintenance requirements. This knowledge can reduce repair times significantly. In the year 2014, the Environmental Radiological Surveillance Laboratory from Center of Radiation Protection and Hygiene, introduced this service in the 'Hector Molina' Distillery. The diagnosis carried out allowed the detection of some anomalies in its operation. In this work the results obtained during gamma-ray scanning of the column are shown. (Author)

  12. Pollen germination capacity and viability in lagenaria siceraria (molina) standley (cucurbitaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present investigation of pollen germination and viability pertain to a monoecious species Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standley belonging to Cucurbitaceae. The pollen germination was examined up to 48 weeks in different concentrations of sucrose and boric acid solutions using 'hanging drop technique'. Viability under storage was determined by storing pollen in different humidity conditions in a refrigerator (4 deg. C), freezer (-20 deg. C. -30 deg. C), freeze drier (-60 deg. C). The pollen were also treated in vacuum and in organic solvents. Pollen stored at low temperature showed better percentage of germination compared to pollen stored at 4 deg. C and fresh. Freeze dried pollen (- 60 deg. C) showed the highest percentage of germination. (author)

  13. Diversity in bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria - (Molina Standl. Germplasm from peninsular india

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil N*, Thirupathi Reddy M, Hameedunnisa B, Vinod Someswara Rao P, Sivaraj N, Kamala V, Prasad R B N, Rao B VS K, Chakrabarty S K

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A set of 20 diverse accessions of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl., exhibited wide range of variability for qualitative and quantitative traits. The seed oil content ranged from 18.6 % (IC446598 to 28.0 % (IC446592. The fatty acid composition of bottle gourd seed oil also varied. Days to 50% flowering and peduncle length had significant positive correlation with seed oil content, whereas inter nodal length had significant negative correlation. The intermodal length and number of primary branches per plant had high positive direct effect on fruit yield per plant. Based on the traits, the accessions clustered into three distinct clusters. The diversity may be exploited for crop improvement and the potential of bottle gourd as edible oil source further explored.

  14. Fatal Envenomation of a Chilean Flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis) From Eastern Yellow Jacket Wasps (Vespula maculifrons).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suedmeyer, Wm Kirk; Trupkiewicz, John G

    2014-12-01

    A 37-year-old, female Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis) presented with severe facial angioedema, bilateral corneal and palpebral edema, nictitating membrane paralysis, bradycardia, bradypnea, hypothermia, and numerous stingers and remnants of eastern yellow jacket wasps (Vespula maculifrons) attached to the feathers of the head, palpebrae, and conjunctiva. Evaluation of 2 complete blood cell counts and results of plasma chemical analysis and serum protein electrophoresis revealed severe increases in creatinine phosphokinase and aspartate aminotransferase activity, electrolyte disturbances, and moderate increases in levels of α1, α2, β1, and γ immunoglobulins when compared with reference interval values and conspecifics. Despite intensive treatment, the bird died 19 hours after presentation. Results of histologic evaluation of tissues were compatible with envenomation. Response to envenomation in avian species is not documented but should be considered in birds presenting with angioedema. PMID:25843472

  15. Molecular detection of Plasmodium in free-ranging birds and captive flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis) in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Mary Irene; Gamble, Kathryn C; Krebs, Bethany; Goldberg, Tony L

    2014-12-01

    Frozen blood samples from 13 species of free-ranging birds (n = 65) and captive Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis) (n = 46) housed outdoors in the Chicago area were screened for Plasmodium. With the use of a modified polymerase chain reaction, 20/65 (30.8%) of free-ranging birds and 26/46 (56.5%) of flamingos were classified as positive for this parasite genus. DNA sequencing of the parasite cytochrome b gene in positive samples demonstrated that eight species of free-ranging birds were infected with five different Plasmodium spp. cytochrome b lineages, and all positive Chilean flamingos were infected with Plasmodium spp. cytochrome b lineages most closely related to organisms in the Novyella subgenus. These results show that Chilean flamingos may harbor subclinical malaria infections more frequently than previously estimated, and that they may have increased susceptibility to some Plasmodium species. PMID:25632659

  16. Isolation and Characterization of Phenolic Compounds and Anthocyanins from Murta (Ugni molinae Turcz.) Fruits. Assessment of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Junqueira-Gonçalves, Maria; Yáñez, Lina; Morales, Carolina; Navarro, Muriel; Contreras, Rodrigo A.; Zúñiga, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Berry fruit consumption has become important in the promotion of human health, mainly due to their phenolic compounds, which have been associated with protection against different pathologies, as well as antimicrobial and other biological activities. Consequently, there has been a growing interest in identifying natural antioxidants and antimicrobials from these plants. This study aimed to characterize the phenolic chemical composition and anthocyanin profile of murta (Ugni molinae Turcz.) fr...

  17. Record of vicunas (Vicugna vicugna Molina 1782 as host of Amblyomma parvitarsum Neumann 1901 (Acari: Ixodidae in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltrán-Saavedra L. Fabián

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Adult stage Ixodidae mites were collected from wild vicuna (Vicugna vicugna Molina 1782, captured at three locations from the Área Natural de Manejo Integrado Nacional Apolobamba, in the Department of La Paz, Bolivia. The collected ticks corresponded to the species Amblyomma parvitarsum (Neumann 1901. This paper constitutes the second report of A. parvitarsum in Bolivia and the first confirmed report for vicuna as definitive hosts in the Andean region of this country.

  18. Passive transfer of maternal antibodies to West Nile virus in flamingo chicks (Phoenicopterus chilensis and Phoenicopterus ruber ruber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baitchman, Eric J; Tlusty, Michael F; Murphy, Hayley W

    2007-06-01

    Passive transfer of maternal antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV) was studied in a captive population of Chilean (Phoenicopterus chilensis) and Caribbean flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber ruber). Transfer of WNV antibodies from hens to chicks was documented and measured by plaque-reduction neutralization test. Hen titers were significantly correlated to chick titers. Mean half-life of maternal WNV antibodies was 13.4 days in chicks for which half-life was measurable. PMID:17679521

  19. Feeding ecology of the Green-cheeked parakeet (Pyrrhura molinae in dry forests in western Brazil Ecologia alimentar da Tiriba-de-cara-suja (Pyrrhura molinae em matas secas do oeste brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ragusa-Netto

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pyrrhura includes small to medium-sized parakeets, which inhabit both low and dry alongside tall rainforests, mainly in South America. Pyrrhura molinae is still common, year round, in the markedly seasonal forests of western Brazil. This parakeet, as well as most Neotropical parrots, continues to be poorly understood. Hence, in the present study I examined their foraging ecology both in a highly deciduous and in a semi-deciduous forest in western Brazil. In addition, I assessed the relationship between food resource production (flowers and fruits, and the diet of this parakeet. Pyrrhura molinae exhibited a flexible diet consisting of 16 tree species, from which it consumed flowers (three species, seeds (three species, fruit pulp or aril (four species, and both pulp and seeds (six species. Parakeets consumed a wide array of fleshy fruits in the semi-deciduous forest, especially Cecropia pachystachya catkins. Conversely, in the highly deciduous forest they extensively foraged for figs (70% of the diet, in addition to nectar and seeds from dry fruits. Ficus calyptroceras, besides being abundant, bore fruits year round, and was substantially used by parakeets every month. Potentially, by exploiting a diverse set of plant food resources, and particularly due to the substantial use of figs, asynchronously produced, Pyrrhura molinae persists during the long dry season in the markedly seasonal forests of western Brazil.O gênero Pyrrhura é constituido de pequenos periquitos comuns tanto em matas secas quanto úmidas, sobretudo da América do Sul. Pyrrhura molinae ocorre durante o ano todo em florestas altamente sazonais do oeste brasileiro. Essa espécie, bem como a maioria dos psitacídeo, permanece pouco conhecida. Portanto, nesse estudo, foi examinada a ecologia alimentar de P. molinae em dois tipos de florestas secas (altamente decídua e semidecídua, do oeste brasileiro, bem como as relações entre a produção de flores frutos e a

  20. Antioxidant capacity and in vitro inhibition of adipogenesis and inflammation by phenolic extracts of Vaccinium floribundum and Aristotelia chilensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreckinger, Maria Elisa; Wang, Jinzhi; Yousef, Gad; Lila, Mary Ann; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira

    2010-08-25

    Interest in berries from South America has increased due to their potential health benefits. The objective of this study was to characterize the anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins of Vaccinium floribundum and Aristotelia chilensis , total phenolics, and antioxidant capacity and to evaluate, in vitro, the ability of their phenolic extracts to reduce adipogenesis and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The anti-inflammatory property of these extracts on RAW 264.7 macrophages was also investigated. Antioxidant capacity, measured as oxygen radical scavenging capacity and expressed as Trolox equivalents, was higher in the berries of A. chilensis. Phenolic extracts inhibited lipid accumulation by 4.0-10.8% when adipocytes were treated at maturity and by 5.9-37.9% when treated throughout differentiation. Furthermore, a proanthocyanidin-enriched fraction from V. floribundum significantly increased Pref-1 expression in preadipocytes. Phenolic extracts decreased the production of nitric oxide (3.7-25.5%) and prostaglandin E2 (9.1-89.1%) and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (9.8-61.8%) and cycloxygenase-2 (16.6-62.0%) in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. V. floribundum and A. chilensis phytochemicals limit adipogenesis and inflammatory pathways in vitro, warranting further in vivo studies. PMID:23654232

  1. Quillajasides A and B: New Phenylpropanoid Sucrose Esters from the Inner Bark of Quillaja saponaria Molina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Christiane; Conrad, Jürgen; Steingass, Christof B; Beifuss, Uwe; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2015-10-14

    The phenolic composition of freshly prepared aqueous extracts of the inner bark of Quillaja saponaria Molina was compared to that of commercially available Quillaja extracts, which are currently used as emulsifiers in foods and cosmetics. Major phenolics in both extracts were (+)-piscidic acid and several p-coumaroyl sucrose esters. Among the latter, two new compounds were isolated and characterized: α-l-rhap-(1→4)-α-l-rhap-(1→3)-(4-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl)-α-d-glup-(1→2)-(3-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl)-β-d-fruf (quillajaside A) and β-d-apif-(1→4)-α-l-rhap-(1→4)-α-l-rhap-(1→3)-(4-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl)-α-d-glup-(1→2)-(3-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl)-β-d-fruf (quillajaside B). In addition, a putative biosynthetic pathway of at least 20 structurally related p-coumaroyl sucrose esters was tentatively identified. Besides their antioxidant activity and their potential function as substrate for enzymatic browning reactions, the new compounds are highly characteristic for both the inner bark of Q. saponaria and commercial extracts derived therefrom. Consequently, they might serve as authenticity markers for the detection of Quillaja extracts in food and cosmetic formulations. PMID:26375986

  2. Human erythrocytes are affected in vitro by extracts of Ugni molinae leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwalsky, M; Orellana, P; Avello, M; Villena, F; Sotomayor, C P

    2006-08-01

    Ugni molinae Turcz, also known as "Murtilla", is a plant that grows in the south of Chile. Infusions of their leaves have long been used in traditional native herbal medicine. The chemical composition of the leaves indicates the presence of polyphenols, which have antioxidant properties. In order to evaluate the mechanisms of their antioxidant properties and the toxicity of the aqueous extracts of leaves, the extracts were induced to interact with human red cells, their isolated unsealed membranes (IUM) and large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) of dimyristoylphosphatidyltidylcholine (DMPC), representative of phospholipid classes located in the outer monolayer of the erythrocyte membrane. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations indicated that the extracts achieved a significant alteration in the shape of the erythrocytes as they changed their discoid shape to echinocytes. According to the bilayer couple hypothesis, the shape change indicates that the polyphenols were located in the outer moiety of the red cell membrane. This conclusion was confirmed by the fluorescence experiments performed in IUM and DMPC LUV. In fact, the extracts produced slight initial increases followed by sharp decreases at higher concentrations in the anisotropy and general polarization parameters. These results imply that the extracts induced structural perturbations in the acyl chain and polar group packing arrangements of the erythrocyte IUM and DMPC LUV lipid bilayers: first ordering and afterwards disordering them as the extract concentration increased. PMID:16716480

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhizal infection in two morphological root types of Araucaria araucana (Molina) K. Koch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, P; Fontenla, S B

    2010-01-01

    Araucaria araucana (Molina) K. Koch is a conifer distributed in the Andean-Patagonian forests in the south of Argentina and Chile. The main objective of this work was to relate the different root classes appearing in A. araucana to mycorrhizal behavior. Samples were collected in three different sites in the Lanín National Park (NW Patagonia, Argentina). Two different root classes were present in A. araucana: longitudinal fine roots (LFR) and globular short roots (GSR). Both had extensive mycorrhizal arbuscular symbiosis (AM) and presented abundant hyphae and coils in root cells, a characteristic of the anatomical Paris-type. Dark septate fungal endophytes were also observed. Values of total AM colonization were high, with similar partial AM% values for each root class. Seasonal differences were found for total and partial colonization, with higher values in spring compared to autumn. Regarding the percentage of fungal structures between root classes, values were similar for vesicles and arbuscules, but higher coil percentages were observed in GSR compared to LFR. The percentages of vesicles increased in autumn, whereas the arbuscule percentages increased in spring, coinciding with the plant growth peak. Results show that both root classes of A. araucana in Andean-Patagonian forests are associated with AM fungi, which may have ecological relevance in terms of the importance of this symbiosis, in response to soil nutrient-deficiencies, especially high P-retention. PMID:20589337

  4. Insecticidal activity of powder and essential oil of Cryptocarya alba (Molina Looser against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J Pinto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cereals constitute a relevant part of human and domestic animal diet. Under storage conditions, one of the most significant problems of these crops is insect pests as the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky. This insect species is usually controlled by means of synthetic insecticides but problems as toxic residues and resistance has led to the search for more friendly control alternatives such as botanical insecticides. The aim of this research was to evaluate, under laboratory conditions, the insecticidal properties of the powder and the essential oil of peumo (Cryptocarya alba [Molina] Looser; Lauraceae leaves against S. zeamais. The variables assessed were toxicity by contact and fumigant activity, adult emergence (F1, repellent effect, and impact on wheat (Triticum aestivum L. seed germination. A completely randomized design was used with five treatments and 10 replicates. The higher mortality levels were obtained at 80 g powder kg-1 grain and 40 mL essential oil kg-1 grain of C. alba; in both cases, the mortality of adult S. zeamais surpassed 80%. The emergence of adults S. zeamais (F1 was reduced by 100% at 80 g powder kg-1 grain and 40 mL essential oil kg-1 grain. Germination of wheat seeds treated with C. alba powder and essential oil was not affected. Both, the powder and the oil treatments showed repellent effect, but not fumigant activity.

  5. Memorial and biographical history of Spain: El jinete polaco by Antonio Muñoz Molina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Oliver Fuentes Kraffczyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The novel El jinete polaco by Antonio Muñoz Molina is a highly complex work in which the narrator mixes multiple plotlines in an effort to recreate or remember part of his family past. In the process, the collective memory of the town and people of Mágina (an allegoric space that represents the peasant life of the olive growers of southern Spain appears as a rich and contradictory montage of dreams and failures. And in a third level of discourse, the recent past of Spain also emerges through the main historic al events: the civil war, the protracted military government, and the economic development and current consolidation of democracy. In order to achieve this complex and ambitious narrative project, in El jinete polaco time is not represented as uninterrupted historical timeline but as the rich mixture of the simultaneous experiences of different life courses in terms of both values and cultural patterns in order to understand how the rapid social change affects relations between the various age groups. In other words, time is constructed as a synthesis of the biographical dimension within collective memory and major historical events. This paper seeks to point out the similarities and differences between biographical discourse, collective memory and history.

  6. Cuterebrid parasitism (Rogenhofera bonaerensis) on the shrubland mouse (Akodon molinae), in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigada, A M; Tripole, E S; Zuleta, G A

    1992-10-01

    We evaluated the influence of temperature, rainfall, and host relative abundance on Rogenhofera bonaerensis (Diptera, Cuterebridae) parasitism prevalence in shrubland mouse (Akodon molinae) populations in central Argentina, from February 1983 to December 1987. Parasitism did not vary significantly with host age: juvenile-subadults (32%), adults (26%), and old adults (29%). Females were more frequently parasitized (36%) than were males (20%). There was no correlation between parasitism and reproductive activity. Infested hosts were recorded most commonly in summer (January to March, 19%), and in fall (April to June, 30%). During the dry season, July through November, cuterebrid parasitism averaged only 3%. The monthly prevalence of parasitism throughout the year was not associated either with monthly precipitation nor with mean monthly temperature at the time of sampling. But a 2 to 3 month time-lag effect of both climatic variables on parasitism was recorded. Bot fly prevalence was correlated to an index of host density. We propose climate and host availability as important factors affecting bot fly parasitism in the semiarid shrubland of central Argentina. PMID:1474666

  7. Inheritance of warty fruit texture and fruit color in bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Emina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl.] is one of the most interesting species in the plant kingdom, due to the diversity of fruit shapes, sizes and ways of use. Warty genotypes are rare compared to non warty genotypes. Considering unusual external appearance of warty fruits, we focused our research on the investigation of its inheritance patterns. By crossing different bottle gourd phenotypes, we studied the mode of inheritance and identified and verified genes responsible for the fruit skin color and warty phenotype segregation. Two parental lines, LAG 70 (with warty fruit of light green color and LAG 71 (smooth fruit, variegated, F1, F2 and backcrosses populations along with both parents were evaluated. Genetic analysis indicated that warty fruit type is a result of monogenic inheritance, whereby the warty fruit type is dominant (Wt trait over to the non-warty fruit type (wt. The mode of inheritance of fruit color was controlled by recessive epistasis, with a ratio of 9 variegated (A-, B-, 3 dark green colored (aaB- and 4 light green colored (aabb fruits in the F2 generation.

  8. El abate Juan Ignacio Molina: una vida dedicada a la historia natural y civil del reino de Chile Abbot Juan Ignacio Molina: A life devoted to the natural and civil history of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Reynaldo Charrier; Francisco Herv

    2011-01-01

    Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829) naci cerca de Talca, Chile, y falleci en Bolonia, Italia. Es el primer cientfico chileno. Desde pequeo se interes por la naturaleza. Se educ con la Compaa de Jess en diversos lugares de Chile central, lo que le permiti conocer su geografa, fauna, flora y poblacin. Con 15 aos ingres a la Compaa. En 1767, abandon el pas al ser expulsada esta orden de espaa y sus dominios. Se radic en los Estados Pontificios, donde se orden de sacerdote y permaneci hasta su muerte...

  9. The reliability of morphometric discriminant functions in determining the sex of Chilean flamingos Phoenicopterus chilensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego MONTALTI et al

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Monomorphic birds cannot be sexed visually and discriminant functions on the basis of external morphological variations are frequently used. Our objective was to evaluate the reliability of sex classification functions created from structural measurements of Chilean flamingos Phoenicopterus chilensis museum skins for the gender assignment of live birds. Five measurements were used to develop four discriminant functions: culmen, bill height and width, tarsus length and middle toe claw. The functions were tested on a sample of live flamingos from a zoo. The best classification for museum flamingos was given by a function using tarsus length, bill width and middle toe claw (97%. However, this function did not give the best classification for the zoo-based flamingos (81% which had the best sex assignment by a function including measurements of tarsus, culmen and bill height and width (85%. This shows that a function giving good results in the sample from which it originated may not be as good when applied to another group of animals. Our study emphasizes the need for assessing the accuracy of a function by testing it with other methods to ensure its suitability when being applied [Current Zoology 59 (6: 851–855, 2012].

  10. Seasonal Variation and Resin Composition in the Andean Tree Austrocedrus chilensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Rachel Olate

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the changes in resin composition in South American gymnosperms associated with the different seasons of the year. The diterpene composition of 44 resin samples from seven Austrocedrus chilensis (Cupressaceae trees, including male and female individuals, was investigated in three different seasons of the year (February, June and November. Twelve main diterpenes were isolated by chromatographic means and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. The diterpene composition was submitted to multivariate analysis to find possible associations between chemical composition and season of the year. The principal component analysis showed a clear relation between diterpene composition and season. The most characteristic compounds in resins collected in summer were Z-communic acid (9 and 12-oxo-labda-8(17,13E-dien-19 oic acid methyl ester (10 for male trees and 8(17,12,14-labdatriene (7 for female trees. For the winter samples, a clear correlation of female trees with torulosic acid (6 was observed. In spring, E-communic acid (8 and Z-communic acid (9 were correlated with female trees and 18-hydroxy isopimar-15-ene (1 with male tree resin. A comparison between percent diterpene composition and collection time showed p < 0.05 for isopimara-8(9,15-diene (2, sandaracopimaric acid (4, compound (7 and ferruginol (11.

  11. The reliability of morphometric discriminant functions in determining the sex of Chilean flamingos Phoenicopterus chilensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diego MONTALTI; Maricel GRA(N)A GRILLI; René E.MARAGLIANO; Guillermo CASSINI

    2012-01-01

    Monomorphic birds cannot be sexed visually and discriminant functions on the basis of external morphological variations are frequently used.Our objective was to evaluate the reliability of sex classification functions created from structural measurements of Chilean flamingos Phoenicopterus chilensis museum skins for the gender assignment of live birds.Five measurements were used to develop four discriminant functions:culmen,bill height and width,tarsus length and middle toe claw.The functions were tested on a sample of live flamingos from a zoo.The best classification for museum flamingos was given by a function using tarsus length,bill width and middle toe claw (97%).However,this function did not give the best classification for the zoo-based flamingos (81%) which had the best sex assignment by a function including measurements of tarsus,culmen and bill height and width (85%).This shows that a function giving good results in the sample from which it originated may not be as good when applied to another group of animals.Our study emphasizes the need for assessing the accuracy of a function by testing it with other methods to ensure its suitability when being applied.

  12. Short-term feeding response of the mussel Mytilus chilensis exposed to diets containing the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella Respuesta alimentaria inicial del bivalvo Mytilus chilensis expuesto a dietas conteniendo el dinoflagelado tóxico Alexandrium catenella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE M NAVARRO

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The short-term feeding response of the bivalve Mytilus chilensis was measured using four diets containing different proportions of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella. The diets containing the highest concentrations of the dinoflagellate showed the greatest effect on the feeding activity in the mussel, with clearance and ingestión rates significantly reduced during the first hours of exposure. After this period, M. chilensis demonstrated a capacity to acclimate to the toxic diets, with feeding parameters reaching values similar to those of untreated control organisms. It was not clear if the negative effect on the feeding behavior was caused by the presence of the paralytic toxin, or due to the larger size of the dinoflagellate cells in comparison with cells of Isochrysis galbana used in the control diet. However, parallel studies with diets containing the nontoxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium affine of similar size and shape to that of A. catenella, suggested the cell size was the main cause for impairment of feeding behavior. The capacity for acclimation to either toxin or cell size by M. chilensis makes it a good indicator species for the early detection of harmful PSP events, since its relative insensitivity to the toxin allows it to quickly recover normal feeding behavior and permits it to accumulate PSP in its tissues in a short timeLa respuesta inicial del bivalvo Mytilus chilensis fue medida bajo cuatro dietas que contenían diferentes proporciones del dinoflagelado tóxico Alexandrium catenella. Las dietas que contenían las concentraciones más altas de este dinoflagelado mostraron el mayor efecto durante las primeras horas de exposición. Después de este periodo inicial, M. chilensis demostró la capacidad para aclimatarse a estas dietas tóxicas, con parámetros de alimentación que alcanzaron valores similares a aquellos de los organismos controles. No fue claro si el efecto negativo sobre la conducta de alimentación fue

  13. Egg production and hatching success of Calanus chilensis and Acartia tonsa in the northern Chile upwelling zone (23°S), Humboldt Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruz, Paula M.; Hidalgo, Pamela; Yáñez, Sonia; Escribano, Rubén; Keister, Julie E.

    2015-08-01

    Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZ's) are expanding and intensifying as result of climate change, affecting Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems. Local effects of vertical movements of OMZ's that result from changes in upwelling intensity could reduce or expand the oxygenated surface layer that most zooplanktonic species inhabit in coastal areas. Using the copepods Calanus chilensis and Acartia tonsa as model organisms, an experimental test of the impact of different dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations (between 0.5 and 5 ml L- 1) on egg production and hatching success was carried out and compared with field estimations of egg production, female and egg abundance in Mejillones Bay (23°S). Abundance of C. chilensis was highly variability and no consistent pattern in egg production and hatching success was found across DO levels, whereas A. tonsa egg production had maximum values between 2.6 and 4.7 ml O2 L- 1 and hatching success was positively correlated with DO (r = 0.75). In the field, temperature was the main factor controlling the dynamics of both species, while Chl-a and DO were also correlated with C. chilensis and A. tonsa, respectively. Principal Component Analysis showed that abundances of both copepods were controlled by temperature, stratification, OMZ depth, and Ekman transport, which together explained more than 70% of the total variance and were the main factors that modulated the populations of C. chilensis and A. tonsa in the upwelling zone of northern Chile (23°S). The differential responses of C. chilensis and A. tonsa to changes in DO concentrations associated with vertical movements of the OMZ suggest that C. chilensis may be better adapted to hypoxic conditions than A. tonsa, however both species are successful and persistent all year-round. We suggest that physiological responses of copepods could be used to evaluate population dynamics affected by the shoaling of OMZ's and the repercussions to trophic food webs of eastern boundary current systems.

  14. Robertsonian chromosome polymorphism of Akodon molinae (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae: analysis of trivalents in meiotic prophase Polimorfismo cromosómico Robertsoniano de Akodon molinae (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAÚL FERNÁNDEZ-DONOSO

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Akodon molinae (with 2n = 42-43-44 and an FN = 44 shows a remarkable polymorphism of chromosome 1 in natural and laboratory populations. Specimens 2n = 42, named single homozygotes (SH, have a chromosome pair 1 formed by two large metacentric chromosomes. Specimens 2n = 3, heterozygotes (Ht, have one chromosome 1 and two medium-sized subtelocentric chromosomes, 1a and 1b, which are homologous with the long and short arms of chromosome 1 respectively. Specimens 2n = 44 are double homozygotes (DH, with just two pairs of medium-sized subtelocentric chromosomes, 1a and 1b. Analysis of meiotic metaphases I and II showed that anomalous segregation occurs more frequently in spermatocytes carrying the 1a and 1b chromosomes. This would disturb gametogenesis and other reproductive and developmental processes, producing a marked decrease in viability of DH individuals. There is, as yet, no satisfactory explanation for these phenomena. To investigate structural elements which might explain such segregational anomalies, we have studied bivalent and trivalent synapsis in pachytene spermatocytes from SH, Ht and DH specimens. Of a total of 80 spermatocyte nuclei microspreads, the following results were obtained: of 16 microspreads from two SH individuals, 20 autosomic bivalents plus the XY bivalent were observed; of 48 microspreads from three Ht individuals, 19 autosomic bivalents, 1 trivalent and an XY bivalent were seen; and of the 16 microspreads from two DH individuals, 21 autosomic bivalents plus the XY bivalent were found. Trivalents analysed showed complete pairing between the short arms of 1a and 1b, and having an apparently normal synaptonemal complex (SC with lengths of 1 and 2.8 µm. The trivalent SC showed three telomeric ends, corresponding to arms: q1 and q1a; p1 and q1b; and p1a and p1b, with attachment plates to the nuclear envelope of normal organisation. None of the trivalents showed asynapsis or desynapsis between p1a and p1b, nor an

  15. Espectro trófico de Chelonoidis chilensis (Chelonii: Testudinidae en la provincia fitogeográfica del monte (Mendoza, Argentina

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    Richard, Enrique

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 1983 and 1991, 83 field trips were made to the biogeographical province of Monte, in Mendoza province, Argentina, in order to study the trophic spectrum of Chelonoidis chilensis, among other ecoethological aspects. The trophic period extends from September to April. Adults are herbivorous in strict sense, but this may change according to the available resourees. Trophic spectrum is composed by 14 items (Families of vegetables. Some items have toxic or potentially toxit substances. Finally, the diet of Ch. chilensis is compared with the one of Ch. donosobarrosi and with other desert tortoises.

  16. Deep Sequencing Reveals the Complete Genome and Evidence for Transcriptional Activity of the First Virus-Like Sequences Identified in Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui Berry)

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Villacreses; Marcelo Rojas-Herrera; Carolina Sánchez; Nicole Hewstone; Undurraga, Soledad F.; Juan F Alzate; Patricio Manque; Vinicius Maracaja-Coutinho; Victor Polanco

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the genome sequence and evidence for transcriptional activity of a virus-like element in the native Chilean berry tree Aristotelia chilensis. We propose to name the endogenous sequence as Aristotelia chilensis Virus 1 (AcV1). High-throughput sequencing of the genome of this tree uncovered an endogenous viral element, with a size of 7122 bp, corresponding to the complete genome of AcV1. Its sequence contains three open reading frames (ORFs): ORFs 1 and 2 shares 66%–73% amino ac...

  17. Institución Educativa Técnico Industrial Pedro Antonio Molina: eje de desarrollo y bienestar para la comunidad

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    DANIEL ALBERTO ÁLVAREZ WATSON; HENRY ORLANDO BOLAÑOS BURBANO; FRANCISCO ORLANDO VELÁSQUEZ VÁSQUEZ

    2012-01-01

    El caso analiza la situación particular de la Institución educativa Técnico Industrial Pedro Antonio Molina, el liderazgo del rector y el apoyo del sector privado en los procesos de gestión de la calidad. Esto motiva a los integrantes de la institución a trabajar en equipo para lograr la certificación de calidad, mejorando sus resultados académicos año tras año, destacándose a nivel regional y nacional, y generando cambios sociales en su entorno. Metodológicamente, se identificó una instituci...

  18. Narrativa de indios en las Historias naturales de Juan Ignacio Molina y Felipe Gómez de Vidaurre

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    Hachim Lara, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Los naturalistas europeos abordaron a los aborígenes de América, recurriendo a las narraciones que el archivo occidental poseía y que estaba a disposición de la racionalidad ilustrada en perspectiva de la administración colonial. A su vez, los criollos letrados, confrontan su episteme –a veces diferenciada– con esas narrativas occidentalistas. Así, los jesuitas chilenos Juan Ignacio Molina y Felipe Gómez de Vidaurre en sus Historias naturales, investigarán las costumbres civiles del indígena ...

  19. El camino de la biotecnología en la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Perú

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    Marcel Gutiérrez-Correa

    2013-01-01

    Se realiza un relato histórico sobre los cincuenta años que tiene la carrera de biología en la Universidad Na-cional Agraria La Molina y la gestación, inicio, desarrollo y maduración de la biotecnología en esta universidad. Se describen algunos pormenores de las tres grandes estructuraciones curriculares que finalmente derivan al establecimiento del área de biotecnología en el pregrado y en el doctorado así como a los logros alcanzados. El desarrollo de la biotecnología en la UNALM ha infl...

  20. Anatomía comparada del sistema digestivo de las rayas Urotrygon chilensis y Dasyatis sabina (Myliobatiformes Comparative anatomy of the digestive system of the skates, Urotrygon chilensis and Dasyatis sabina (Myliobatiformes

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    ABRAHAM KOBELKOWSKY

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La organización general del sistema digestivo de la raya pinta Urotrygon chilensis y la raya de espina Dasyatis sabina corresponde al patrón morfológico general de los Myliobatiformes. La dentición de estas especies muestra un dimorfismo sexual, consistente en dientes planos en las hembras y dientes puntiagudos en los machos. Entre los músculos mandibulares, el adductor mandibulae es el más complejo. Las cavidades bucofaríngea y visceral son aplanadas dorsoventralmente. El esófago es relativamente largo, el estómago tiene forma de U, el intestino está regionalizado en duodeno, intestino valvular y recto. El mesenterio dorsal está restringido al recto y la glándula rectal. Los caracteres morfológicos más notables que diferencian el sistema digestivo de las dos especies son: la presencia de esfínter cardiaco y la forma en S del recto en U. chilensis, la presencia de escotaduras en las mandíbulas y el mayor número de vueltas de la válvula espiral en D. sabina.The general organization of the digestive system of the rays Urotrygon chilensis and Dasyatis sabina fits with the general morphological pattern of the Myliobatiformes. Dentition of both species shows sexual dimorphism, having the females flattened teeth whereas pointed teeth the males. Among the mandibular muscles, the adductor mandibulae is the most complex. Both the buccopharyngeal and the visceral cavities are dorsoventrally flattened. The esophagus is long, the stomach is U shaped, and the intestine is formed by the duodene, valvular intestine and rectum. The dorsal mesentery is restricted to the rectum and rectal gland. The main morphological characters differentiating both species are: the presence in U. chilensis of the cardiac sphincter and the S shape of the rectum, and the presence in D. sabina of mandibular notches and a higher number of coils of the valvular fold of the intestine.

  1. Anatomía comparada del sistema digestivo de las rayas Urotrygon chilensis y Dasyatis sabina (Myliobatiformes) Comparative anatomy of the digestive system of the skates, Urotrygon chilensis and Dasyatis sabina (Myliobatiformes)

    OpenAIRE

    ABRAHAM KOBELKOWSKY

    2010-01-01

    La organización general del sistema digestivo de la raya pinta Urotrygon chilensis y la raya de espina Dasyatis sabina corresponde al patrón morfológico general de los Myliobatiformes. La dentición de estas especies muestra un dimorfismo sexual, consistente en dientes planos en las hembras y dientes puntiagudos en los machos. Entre los músculos mandibulares, el adductor mandibulae es el más complejo. Las cavidades bucofaríngea y visceral son aplanadas dorsoventralmente. El esófago es relativa...

  2. Síntesis biográfica de Martina Guevara Molina

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    María del Carmen Amaro Cano

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una limitada búsqueda bibliográfica, consultando fuentes secundarias existentes en la Biblioteca del Museo de las Ciencias "Carlos J. Finlay", concernientes a la fundación de la primera Secretaria de Sanidad cubana, y del mundo y a la creación de la Escuela de Enfermeras del Hospital "Nuestra Señora de las Mercedes". Fueron revisados también informes de la Asociación Nacional de Enfermeras de Cuba, fundada en 1909, así como biografías y escritos de la época acerca del hospital Nuestra Señora de las Mercedes y su Escuela de Enfermeras. El objetivo de esta búsqueda bibliográfica era poder ofrecer a las enfermeras y estudiantes actuales de Enfermería, una información básica mínima acerca de una de las primeras graduadas Martina Guevara Molina de la primera Escuela de Enfermeras de Cuba en 1902, quien se distinguió por su identidad profesional, expresada en su activa participación en la constitución de la Asociación Nacional de Enfermeras de Cuba, y por haber sido la primera enfermera cubana que recibió formación teórico-práctica como docente de enfermería. Su vida y obra debería ser estudiada con rigor, a partir de un protocolo de investigación histórica que permita acercarce a una personalidad tan importante de la profesión, como medio para estimular el reforzamiento de la vocación y la identidad profesional de las actuales y futuras profesionales de la enfermería cubana.A limited bibliographic review was made by consulting secondary sources in the Library of "Carlos J. Finlay" Sciences Museum about the foundation of the first Health Secretariat in Cuba and in the world and about the establishment of the Nursing School of "Nuestra Señora de las Mercedes" Hospital. Reports from the National Nursing Association of Cuba, founded in 1909, as well as biographies and writings from that time about this hospital and its Nursing School were also reviewed. The objective of this bilbliographic search was to give

  3. Effect of boldo (Peumus boldus Molina) infusion on lipoperoxidation induced by cisplatin in mice liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, J; Lagos, P; Rivera, P; Zamorano-Ponce, E

    2009-07-01

    Peumus boldus Molina (Monimiaceae), commonly referred to as 'boldo', is used in traditional Chilean medicine to treat hepatic and gastrointestinal diseases. Its leaves are rich in antioxidant compounds, principally alkaloids and flavonoids. This study evaluates the protective effect of a complete boldo leaf infusion on lipoperoxidation (MDA determination at 532 nm) induced by cisplatin in mice liver. To determine if the observed effect can be explained by the action of boldine or catechin, each compound was studied separately. The mice were divided into 8 groups (n = 6): (I) not treated; (II) treated with cisplatin 6 mg/Kg b.w.; (III) treated with boldo leaf infusion 5%; (IV) pretreated with boldo leaf infusion 5% and treated with cisplatin 6 mg/Kg b.w.; (V) treated with boldine 50 mg/Kg b.w.; (VI) pretreated with boldine 50 mg/Kg b.w. and treated with cisplatin 6 mg/kg.b.w.; (VII) treated with catechin; and (VIII) pretreated with catechin 50 mg/Kg b.w. and treated with cisplatin 6 mg/Kg b.w. As expected, the treatment with cisplatin significantly increased (p < 0.01) lipoperoxidation in comparison with the non-treated group. Pretreatment with boldo leaf infusion significantly diminished (p < 0.05) the lipoperoxidation induced by cisplatin with respect to the animals not pretreated with the infusion. The pretreatments with boldine and catechin significantly diminished (p < 0.05) the lipoperoxidation induced by cisplatin with respect to the group treated only with cisplatin. The results suggest that the boldo infusion is acting as a protector with respect to the oxidative hepatic damage caused by cisplatin, and that this protective ability would be due to the presence in the infusion of the natural antioxidants boldine and principally catechin. These findings suggest the potential use of the infusion as a chemoprotector. PMID:19145575

  4. Phylogenetic characterization of a novel herpesvirus found in the liver and lungs of a Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coverdill, Christopher C; Barnes, Julie A; Garner, Michael M; Hinton, Kevin L; Childress, April L; Wellehan, James F X

    2016-05-01

    A novel herpesvirus was detected in a 17-day-old Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis) with pneumonia, hepatopathy, and severe anemia that was housed in California. Postmortem examination identified a pale, enlarged liver, mildly increased fluid in the lungs, and red foci in the spleen. Histologic examination revealed marked hepatic necrosis with syncytia, splenic necrosis, and interstitial pneumonia with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions within hepatocytes and in unidentified cells of the lung. Transmission electron microscopy identified virions consistent with a herpesvirus in the nucleus and cytoplasm of degenerative hepatocytes. Nested consensus PCR, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis identified a novel herpesvirus within the genus Iltovirus in the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. PMID:27026105

  5. (E)-Ethyl 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoate: a natural polymorph extracted from Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Cristian; Moreno, Yanko; Becerra, José; Silva, Mario; Burgos, Viviana; Freire, Eleonora; Baggio, Ricardo

    2013-07-01

    The natural title compound, C11H12O4, extracted from the Chilean native tree Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui), is a polymorph of the synthetic E form reported by Xia, Hu & Rao [Acta Cryst. (2004), E60, o913-o914]. Both rotational conformers are identical from a metrical point of view, and only differ in the orientation of the 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl ring with respect to the rest of the molecule, which leads to completely different crystal structure arrangements and packing efficiencies. The reasons behind both reside in the different hydrogen-bonding interactions. PMID:23832039

  6. Estudo farmacognóstico para as espécies medicinais Alpinia zerumbet, Solidago chilensis e Eugenia uniflora

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Junior, Walter Antônio

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) B.L. Burtt & R.M. Sm. (Zingiberaceae), Solidago chilensis Meyen (Asteraceae) e Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) são conhecidas popularmente como colônia, erva-lanceta e pitangueira, sendo utilizadas na medicina tradicional para o tratamento de diversas enfermidades. Este trabalho teve por finalidade, realizar para estas espécies medicinais, análises de controle de qualidade, pesquisa fitoquímica e avaliação de atividades biológicas in vitro e in vivo. Como resu...

  7. Feeding habits of Molina's hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Carnivora: Mephitidae in the extreme south of Brazil

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    Felipe Bortolotto Peters

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of the Molina's hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782 in the extreme south of Brazil. We analyzed 60 stomachs of road-kills of C. chinga in the extreme south of Brazil. The contents revealed 808 prey parts, including invertebrates (frequency of occurrence - FO = 96.7% and relative abundance - RA = 94.7%, vertebrates (FO = 18.3% and RA = 2.8% and plants (FO = 31.7% and RA = 2.3%. We identified 18 kinds of food, including the invertebrate order Coleoptera which showed the highest FO (86.7% and RA (75.2%. Other important orders were Orthoptera (FO = 35% and RA = 10.4% and Araneae (FO = 41.7% and RA = 4%. The combination of occurrence and abundance of the preys consumed allowed classifying C. chinga as an omnivorous with a predominance of insects, especially Coleoptera, consuming other invertebrates, vertebrates and plants in smaller numbers. Behavioral and morphological adaptations of C. chinga favor the predation of insects, which are preys that offer low physical resistance and are available in all terrestrial environments.

  8. Lope de Vega Carpio, Tirso de Molina, Miguel de Cervantes, Il teatro dei Secoli d’oro, coord. M.G. Profeti

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    Marcella Trambaioli

    2016-01-01

    Reseña de Lope de Vega Carpio, Tirso de Molina, Miguel de Cervantes, Il teatro dei Secoli d’oro, coord. M.G. Profeti, Bompiani (Classici della Letteratura europea), Milán, 2014, vol. I, 2436 pp. ISBN: 9788845277252.

  9. High resolution vertical distribution of the copepod Calanus chilensis in relation to the shallow oxygen minimum zone off northern Peru using LOKI, a new plankton imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirche, H. J.; Barz, K.; Ayon, P.; Schulz, J.

    2014-06-01

    The vertical distribution of copepodite stage V and adult Calanus chilensis was studied on two transects across the Humboldt Current System off northern Peru using the LOKI system. LOKI is an optical plankton recorder, which simultaneously collects images of zooplankton and environmental data such as temperature, salinity, oxygen, and fluorescence. Image quality allowed determination of CV, females and males and identification of C. chilensis from 3 co-occurring Calanid copepods. C. chilensis was inhabiting the upper 250 m. Highest abundances with a maximum of ca. 44.000 Ind. m-2 were observed in a narrow band within Cold Coastal Water at stations closest to the coast, coinciding with the Poleward Undercurrent. This raises questions for the life cycle closure within the Humboldt Current system. In contrast to observations in the southern part of the Humboldt Current System, the three stages studied were most abundant in hypoxic waters at oxygen concentrations between 5 and 50 μM. Thus C. chilensis seems to be the only species of the family Calanidae where not only a resting stage can tolerate hypoxia, but also both adult stages. This impacts availability to predators, as despite a locally high biomass only part of the population is available to anchovy and other important fish species which are restricted to waters with higher oxygen concentrations.

  10. The effect of Anonchocephalus chilensis Riggenbach (Eucestoda: Bothriocephalidea) on infracommunity patterns in Genypterus maculatus Tschudi (Osteichthyes: Ophidiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, S A; George-Nascimento, M

    2008-09-01

    The use of parasite body size (i.e. body mass) is a promising proxy to improve the study of patterns in parasite infracommunities, which are usually analysed using only numerical descriptors. This study deals with the importance and effect of the presence of a large endoparasite species, the cestode Anonchocephalus chilensis in a marine fish species, Genypterus maculatus, on the structure of the parasite infracommunities. Numerical and volumetric measures of aggregated properties of parasite infracommunities were compared and their correlation examined. The highly dominant presence of A. chilensis by volume causes a dramatic change in the patterns observed, including a smaller total volume of the remaining species when this volumetrically dominant species is present. However, C-scores and V-ratios, both indices based on null models of species occurrence, do not support the idea of communities structured by interspecific competition. Analyses reveal that numerical and volumetric community descriptors are complementary ways to search for patterns and to reveal processes within these systems. PMID:18394212

  11. Differences in sperm ultrastructure between Mytilus chilensis and Mytilus galloprovincialis (Bivalvia, Mytilidae: could be used as a taxonomic trait?

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    Pablo A Oyarzún

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The sperm ultrastructure has been used to solve several systematic and phylogenetic problems in marine invertebrates. The sperm ultrastructure of the Chilean mussel Mytilus chilensis and Mytilus galloprovincialis corresponds to the ect-aquasperm type. Sperm from both taxa measured 55-60 μm between head (acrosome + nucleus, midpiece (only 5 mitochondria and the flagellum which in its end piece has a smaller diameter tail. The differences between both taxa are clearly shown, in the structure of the acrosome and nucleus. Therefore, according to our results and those reported in the literature, we indicate that Chilean native mussel sperm is different from other species of the Mytilus complex (M. trossulus, M. galloprovincialis and M. edulis. These differences in sperm ultrastructure found in M. chilensis, are another trait that can be used to validate the taxonomic status of the species. Differences in sperm morphology are related with reproductive isolation, and probably will be useful to understand future data on speciation. Finally, we discussed the finding that Mytilus galloprovincialis sperm from Chile have an acrosome notoriously smaller than those reported for specimens from Europe and Africa, though they have a great similarity with specimens from Japan, as reported in the literature.

  12. Evaluación y comparación de la eficiencia de dos sistemas de incubación de huevos de Genypterus chilensis (Guichenot, 1848) Evaluation and comparison of the efficiency of two incubation systems for Genypterus chilensis (Guichenot, 1848) eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Rolando Vega; Miguel Pradenas; Juan Manuel Estrada; Diego Ramírez; Iván Valdebenito; Alfonso Mardones; Patricio Dantagnan; Denis Alfaro; Francisco Encina; Cristian Pichara

    2012-01-01

    Actualmente la tendencia de la acuicultura mundial está orientada hacia la diversificación de los cultivos, principalmente de especies nativas. El congrio colorado Genypterus chilensis es un pez nativo de alta demanda gastronómica y explotación estacional que lo proyecta como candidato para el desarrollo de su tecnología de cultivo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la eficiencia de dos sistemas de incubación de masas de huevos de G. chilensis, uno con circuito cerrado de agua (SICC) y ...

  13. El abate Juan Ignacio Molina: una vida dedicada a la historia natural y civil del reino de Chile Abbot Juan Ignacio Molina: A life devoted to the natural and civil history of Chile

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    Reynaldo Charrier

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829 naci cerca de Talca, Chile, y falleci en Bolonia, Italia. Es el primer cientfico chileno. Desde pequeo se interes por la naturaleza. Se educ con la Compaa de Jess en diversos lugares de Chile central, lo que le permiti conocer su geografa, fauna, flora y poblacin. Con 15 aos ingres a la Compaa. En 1767, abandon el pas al ser expulsada esta orden de espaa y sus dominios. Se radic en los Estados Pontificios, donde se orden de sacerdote y permaneci hasta su muerte. All ense ciencias naturales y produjo su obra cientfica: Compendio de la historia geogrfica, natural y civil del reino de Chile de 1776, una versin aumentada, Ensayo sobre la historia natural de Chile de 1782 y una segunda en 1810. En ellas, abord aspectos climticos, botnicos, geolgicos, zoolgicos, mineralgicos y geogrficos del territorio. Describi el terremoto de Concepcin, las erupciones del Villarrica y Peteroa, e hizo referencia a recursos minerales. Diferenci cuatro unidades litoestratigrficas para Chile central. Clasific plantas y animales siguiendo los criterios de Linneo. En una de sus 14 memorias, Analogas menos observadas de los tres reinos de la Naturaleza, sin podrselo calificar de evolucionista, se destaca su intento de integracin entre los "seres" de los tres reinos, y en Sobre la propagacin del gnero humano en las diversas partes de la tierra, propuso tres vas diferentes para el poblamiento de Amrica. En 1802, ingres a la Academia de Ciencias de Bolonia.Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829, born next to Talca, Chile, and dead in Bologna, Italy, is the first Chilean scientist. His education in establishments of the Society of Jesus, in several localities of central Chile, allowed him to learn about its geography, flora, fauna, and population. At 15 years old he entered the Society. In 1767, he left Chile when the Jesuits were expelled from the spanish territories. In Bologna he produced his scientific contribution. Molina published in 1776 the first

  14. Chemical profile and antimicrobial activity of Boldo (Peumus boldus Molina extracts obtained by compressed carbon dioxide extraction

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    M. Mazutti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the effects of temperature (20 to 50ºC and pressure (100 to 250 bar on the extraction yield, chemical characteristics and antimicrobial activity of extracts of Peumus boldus Molina obtained by compressed carbon dioxide extraction. Results showed that the extraction variables affect the extraction yield and the chemical distribution of the major compounds present in the extracts. The extracts were chemically analyzed with regard to 1,8-cineole, trans-sabinene, pinocarveol, pinocarvone, 4-terpineol, ascaridole, piperitone oxide, limonene dioxide and n-eicosane in a GC/MSD. Antimicrobial tests demonstrated that the high-pressure CO2 extracts had activity against 13 bacteria and that better action was verified with extracts obtained at a lower CO2 extraction density and a higher temperature.

  15. Angélica y el desencadenamiento de la locura: Lope de Rueda y Tirso de Molina

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    Hermenegildo, Alfredo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available La locura, como recurso dramático, aparece en dos obras separadas por unas cuantas décadas: la Mederà, de Lope de Rueda, y La villana de la Sagra, de Tirso de Molina. En la primera, la presencia destructora y conflictiva de unos hermanos gemelos desencadena la locura de unos individuos, los padres de la protagonista, que alteran con sus andanzas la convivencia social del grupo a que pertenecen. La fiesta carnavalesca está también en la base misma de la construcción de los locos. En la obra de Tirso, la locura del galán, de don Luis, es utilizada para detener, con su fondo libresco, el desarrollo previsible de la fábula.…

  16. Estudio de viabilidad de una instalación fotovoltaica en una vivienda unifamiliar situada en Molina de Segura, Murcia

    OpenAIRE

    López Palazón, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de este documento es el de estudiar la viabilidad técnico-económica de la integración de un sistema de producción de energía eléctrica mediante tecnología fotovoltaica en la localidad de Molina del Segura, provincia de Murcia, de modo que sirva de autoconsumo para una vivienda unifamiliar y/o la venta de la energía eléctrica sobrante por la instalación fotovoltaica conectada a red, a la compañía de distribución eléctrica correspondiente de la zona. Se realizará e...

  17. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of 2alpha-hydroxy pentacyclic triterpene acids from the leaves of Ugni molinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, María C; Delporte, Carla; Backhouse, Nadine; Erazo, Silvia; Letelier, María Eugenia; Cassels, Bruce K; Silva, Ximena; Alegría, Sergio; Negrete, Rosa

    2006-08-15

    Leaf extracts of Ugni molinae Turcz. are used in the Chilean cosmetic industry on the assumption that they have decongestant, regenerative, and anti-aging properties. A bioassay-guided fractionation of this plant material showed that some extracts have potent anti-inflammatory activities. Further fractionation led to the isolation and identification of betulinic acid, a mixture of ursolic and oleanolic acids, and the 2alpha-hydroxy derivatives alphitolic, asiatic, and corosolic acids. The latter three were evaluated in vivo in the mouse ear assay for their topical anti-inflammatory activity, inducing inflammation with either arachidonic acid (AA) or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13 acetate (TPA). Only corosolic acid was active in the AA assay, with similar potency to nimesulide, but all three triterpene acids inhibited TPA-induced inflammation with potencies comparable to that of indomethacin. PMID:16697209

  18. Pharmacological reports about gastroprotective effects of methanolic extract from leaves of Solidago chilensis (Brazilian arnica) and its components quercitrin and afzelin in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Mariel; Mota da Silva, Luisa; Boeing, Thaise; Somensi, Lincon Bordignon; Cury, Benhur Judah; de Moura Burci, Ligia; Santin, José Roberto; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni; Monache, Franco Delle; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir

    2016-04-01

    Solidago chilensis Meyenmost (Asteraceae), popularly known as "Brazilian arnica" or "arnica-do-campo," is widely used in the folk medicine to treat gastric disorders. Based on this, the gastroprotective activity of S. chilensis methanolic extract was investigated. Besides, a phytochemical study allowed isolation of two flavonoids (quercitrin and afzelin). The gastroprotective effects were investigated in acute gastric ulcer models, and the antisecretory activity was assessed in vivo and in vitro. The adhered mucus levels, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were quantified in ulcerated tissues. The contribution of isolated compounds in extract effects was evaluated, and its doses were calculated according to its yield. To evaluate the in vivo healing properties of S. chilensis methanolic extract, a chronic gastric ulcer was induced in mice by 10 % acetic acid. Evaluation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) levels was also performed at the site of the acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer. In parallel, effects on cell viability and cell proliferation of fibroblasts (L929 cells) were determined by in vitro trials. Firstly, the S. chilensis methanolic extract (100 or 300 mg/kg) reduced the ulcer area induced by ethanol/HCl in mice when compared to the vehicle group. Moreover, the S. chilensis extract (300 mg/kg) prevented the mucus depletion, the increase in MPO activity and the decrease in the GSH levels in the ulcerated gastric tissue. The S. chilensis extract also was able to decrease the indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats at a dose of 100 mg/kg. The antisecretory effect of the extract (100 mg/kg, intraduodenal (i.d.)) was confirmed by the reduction in the volume and acidity in parallel to an increase in the pH of gastric content. In addition, quercitrin (1.38 mg/kg, but not 0.46 mg/kg) and afzelin (0.026 and 0.078 mg/kg) decreased the ethanol/HCl-induced gastric ulcer. In this model, quercitrin (1.38 mg/kg) prevented the depletion

  19. Análisis numérico de las especies de Prosopis L. (Fabaceae de las costas de Perú y Ecuador

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    Alicia D. Burghardt

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes revisiones coinciden en señalar 2 o 3 especies de Prosopis para el sur de Ecuador y norte de Perú: P. juliflora (SW DC, P. pallida (Humb. et Bonpl. ex Willd. Kunth y P. affinis Sprengel. En el presente trabajo se informa del análisis cuantitativo de caracteres foliares de especímenes del genero Prosopis, recolectados a lo largo de la costa desde Arequipa (Perú a Manta (Ecuador. Los resultados señalan tres grupos bien definidos. Del análisis comparativo de los tipos y ejemplares de herbario de todas las especies y sinónimos citados para la zona de estudio surge que los taxones existentes son: P. pallida, P. limensis Bentham, ambos de amplia distribución, y P. chilensis (Molina Stuntz emend Burkart restringido al valle del río Camaná. Estos tres taxones se corresponden con los tres grupos obtenidos del análisis numérico. Debe señalarse la exclusión del área de P. juliflora y P. affinis. Se sugiere no utilizar las numerosas variedades señaladas para P. pallida.

  20. New beverages of lemon juice enriched with the exotic berries maqui, açaı́, and blackthorn: bioactive components and in vitro biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Valentão, Patrícia; Moreno, Diego A; Ferreres, Federico; García-Viguera, Cristina; Andrade, Paula B

    2012-07-01

    Following previous research on lemon juice enriched with berries, the aim of this work was to design new blends based on lemon juice mixed with different edible berries of exotic and national origin: maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz), açaı́ ( Euterpe oleracea Mart.), and blackthorn ( Prunus spinosa L.). The phytochemical characterization of controls and blends was performed by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n). Their antioxidant capacity against DPPH, superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals and hypochlorous acid and their potential to inhibit cholinesterases were also assessed. The profiling of the red fruits and lemon revealed a wide range of bioactive phenolics. The novel beverage based on lemon juice and maqui berry (LM) was the most interesting blend in terms of antioxidant capacity. Berry control samples displayed reduced effects on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, the lemon juice control being always the most active. This activity was also remarkable for lemon-blackthorn (LB) and lemon-açaı́ (LA) blends, the last being the most effective inhibitor of cholinesterases among all samples. The results suggested that lemon juice enriched with berries could be of potential interest in the design of new drinks with a nutritive related function on health for chronic diseases. PMID:22642537

  1. Cadmium bioaccumulation and retention kinetics in the Chilean blue mussel Mytilus chilensis: Seawater and food exposure pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herve-Fernandez, Pedro [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Castilla 567, Valdivia (Chile); Houlbreque, Fanny, E-mail: F.Houlbreque@iaea.org [International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, 98000 Monaco (Monaco); Boisson, Florence [International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, 98000 Monaco (Monaco); Mulsow, Sandor [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Castilla 567, Valdivia (Chile); Teyssie, Jean-Louis; Oberhaensli, Francois; Azemard, Sabine; Jeffree, Ross [International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, 98000 Monaco (Monaco)

    2010-09-15

    The Chilean blue mussel (Mytilus chilensis, Hupe 1854) represents the most important bivalve exploited along the Chilean coast and is a major food source for the Chilean population. Unfortunately, local fish and shellfish farming face severe problems as a result of bioaccumulation of toxic trace metals into shellfishes. Blue mussels collected along the Chilean coasts contain levels of Cd above the regulatory limits for human consumption. In this study, we examined the bioaccumulation, depuration and organ distribution of Cd in the M. chilensis, from {sup 109}Cd-labelled bulk seawater and from feeding with {sup 109}Cd-labelled algae. The uptake of {sup 109}Cd via seawater displayed a simple exponential kinetic model suggesting that cadmium activity tends to reach an equilibrium value of 1.838 {+-} 0.175 ng g{sup -1} (mean {+-} asymptotic standard error, p < 0.001) after 78 {+-} 9 days. The depuration rate for {sup 109}Cd accumulated via seawater was slow, with only 21% of the total {sup 109}Cd accumulated in the whole mussel being eliminated after 52 days. Total elimination of Cd in mussels was adequately described by a double component kinetic model, in which the biological half-life for the long-lived component represents more than 6 months. In contrast, depuration after radiolabelled food uptake was fast, reaching only 20% of retention in 10 days. This knowledge of the long half-life of cadmium accumulated via seawater as well as the non-negligible level of cadmium accumulated into the shells is relevant to the management of Cd levels in this species and the refinement of detoxification processes in order to comply with authorized Cd levels.

  2. Nutrient uptake efficiency of Gracilaria chilensis and Ulva lactuca in an IMTA system with the red abalone Haliotis rufescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Macchiavello

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the nutrient uptake efficiency of Ulva lactuca and Gracilaria chilensis cultivated in tanks associated with the wastewater of a land-based abalone culture. The experiments evaluated different seaweed stocking densities (1200, 1900, 2600, and 3200 g m-2 and water exchange rates (60, 80, 125, and 250 L h-1. The results show that both U. lactuca and G. chilensis were efficient in capturing and removing all of the inorganic nutrients originating from the abalone cultivation for all of the tested conditions. Furthermore, an annual experiment was performed with U. lactuca, cultivated at a stocking density of 1900 g m-2 and at a water exchanged rate of 125 L h-1, in order to evaluate seasonal changes in the nutrient uptake efficiency, productivity, and growth rate associated with the wastewater of a land-based abalone culture. The results confirmed high uptake efficiency during the entire year, equivalent to a 100% removal of the NH4, NO3, and PO4 produced by the land-based abalone culture. The growth rate and productivity of U. lactuca presented a marked seasonality, increasing from fall until summer and varying from 0.5 ± 0.2% to 2.6 ± 0.2% d-1 and 10 ± 6.1% to 73.6 ± 8.4% g m-2 d-1 for sustainable growth rate and productivity, respectively. We conclude that there is sufficient evidence that demonstrates the high possibility of changing the traditional monoculture system of abalone in Chile, to a sustainable integrated multi-trophic aquaculture system, generating positive environmental externalities, including the use of U. lactuca as a biofiltration unit.

  3. Cadmium bioaccumulation and retention kinetics in the Chilean blue mussel Mytilus chilensis: Seawater and food exposure pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chilean blue mussel (Mytilus chilensis, Hupe 1854) represents the most important bivalve exploited along the Chilean coast and is a major food source for the Chilean population. Unfortunately, local fish and shellfish farming face severe problems as a result of bioaccumulation of toxic trace metals into shellfishes. Blue mussels collected along the Chilean coasts contain levels of Cd above the regulatory limits for human consumption. In this study, we examined the bioaccumulation, depuration and organ distribution of Cd in the M. chilensis, from 109Cd-labelled bulk seawater and from feeding with 109Cd-labelled algae. The uptake of 109Cd via seawater displayed a simple exponential kinetic model suggesting that cadmium activity tends to reach an equilibrium value of 1.838 ± 0.175 ng g-1 (mean ± asymptotic standard error, p 109Cd accumulated via seawater was slow, with only 21% of the total 109Cd accumulated in the whole mussel being eliminated after 52 days. Total elimination of Cd in mussels was adequately described by a double component kinetic model, in which the biological half-life for the long-lived component represents more than 6 months. In contrast, depuration after radiolabelled food uptake was fast, reaching only 20% of retention in 10 days. This knowledge of the long half-life of cadmium accumulated via seawater as well as the non-negligible level of cadmium accumulated into the shells is relevant to the management of Cd levels in this species and the refinement of detoxification processes in order to comply with authorized Cd levels.

  4. Avaliação da qualidade de folhas de boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina comercializadas em Curitiba, PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C.S. Barbosa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada a avaliação da qualidade de amostras de boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina comercializadas na Região Metropolitana de Curitiba. Os resultados mostraram que todas as amostras são autênticas, mas os resultados das análises físico-químicas mostraram-se discrepantes em relação aos parametros da Farmacopéia Brasileira e outras bibliografias de referência.Samples of boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina commercialized at the metropolitan area of Curitiba/PR were evaluated to establish their quality control patterns. The results showed that all samples are authentic but the data obtained for the physico-chemical parameters differ from those related at the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia IV ed.

  5. Recruitment Dynamics of the Relict Palm, Jubaea chilensis: Intricate and Pervasive Effects of Invasive Herbivores and Nurse Shrubs in Central Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Fleury; Wara Marcelo; Vásquez, Rodrigo A.; Luis Alberto González; Bustamante, Ramiro O.

    2015-01-01

    Shrubs can have a net positive effect on the recruitment of other species, especially relict species in dry-stressful conditions. We tested the effects of nurse shrubs and herbivory defoliation on performance (survival and growth) of nursery-grown seedlings of the largest living palm, the relict wine palm Jubaea chilensis. During an 18-month period, a total of more than 300 seedlings were exposed to of four possible scenarios produced by independently weakening the effects of nurse shrubs and...

  6. Insecticidal Properties of Peumus boldus Molina Powder Used Alone and Mixed with Lime Against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleopter: Curculionidae Propiedades Insecticidas del Polvo de Peumus boldus Molina Solo y en Mezcla con Cal contra Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

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    Gabriel Bustos-Figueroa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal properties of boldus (Peumus boldus Molina powder used alone and mixed with lime against adults of maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky were evaluated under laboratory conditions. Additionally, aeration effects (presence or absence and temperature (room temperature vs. 3 ºC on insecticidal properties were studied over time. A mortality rate of 100% was observed at 20 g kg-1 (w/w of P. boldus powder when used alone and mixed with lime in proportions of 50:50, 60:40, and 80:20. The 50% lethal concentration (LC50 for all treatments was Se evaluaron las propiedades insecticidas del polvo de boldo (Peumus boldus Molina, solo y en mezcla con cal, bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Adicionalmente, se evaluó el efecto de la aeración (presencia vs. ausencia y de la temperatura (temperatura ambiente vs. 3 ºC sobre la mortalidad y emergencia de adultos de la F1. La concentración de 20 g kg-1 (p/p del polvo de boldo ya sea solo o en combinación con cal en las proporciones de 50:50, 60:40 y 80:20 mostraron 100% de mortalidad. La concentración letal 50% (CL50, en todos los tratamientos fue menor a 5 g kg-1 (p/p mientras que la CL90 no superó 11 g kg-1 (p/p. La mezcla del polvo con los granos de maíz tanto solo como en mezcla con cal no afectó la germinación. La temperatura y la aeración no afectaron la mortalidad de los adultos parentales ni la emergencia de adultos de la F1. Cuando se mezcló el maíz con el polvo de boldo molido 24 h antes de la infestación con adultos, la mortalidad de los adultos parentales y la emergencia de adultos de la F1 fue de 100 y de 0%, respectivamente. Los resultados no fueron satisfactorios cuando el polvo de boldo almacenado durante 30, 60 y 90 d fue mezclado con el maíz infestado. La toxicidad del follaje de boldo es alta 24 h después de pulverizarse; si el tiempo es mayor, la toxicidad declina significativamente.

  7. On the Evolutionary History of Uleiella chilensis, a Smut Fungus Parasite of Araucaria araucana in South America: Uleiellales ord. nov. in Ustilaginomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riess, Kai; Schön, Max E; Lutz, Matthias; Butin, Heinz; Oberwinkler, Franz; Garnica, Sigisfredo

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary history, divergence times and phylogenetic relationships of Uleiella chilensis (Ustilaginomycotina, smut fungi) associated with Araucaria araucana were analysed. DNA sequences from multiple gene regions and morphology were analysed and compared to other members of the Basidiomycota to determine the phylogenetic placement of smut fungi on gymnosperms. Divergence time estimates indicate that the majority of smut fungal orders diversified during the Triassic-Jurassic period. However, the origin and relationships of several orders remain uncertain. The most recent common ancestor between Uleiella chilensis and Violaceomyces palustris has been dated to the Lower Cretaceous. Comparisons of divergence time estimates between smut fungi and host plants lead to the hypothesis that the early Ustilaginomycotina had a saprobic lifestyle. As there are only two extant species of Araucaria in South America, each hosting a unique Uleiella species, we suggest that either coevolution or a host shift followed by allopatric speciation are the most likely explanations for the current geographic restriction of Uleiella and its low diversity. Phylogenetic and age estimation analyses, ecology, the unusual life-cycle and the peculiar combination of septal and haustorial characteristics support Uleiella chilensis as a distinct lineage among the Ustilaginomycotina. Here, we describe a new ustilaginomycetous order, the Uleiellales to accommodate Uleiella. Within the Ustilaginomycetes, Uleiellales are sister taxon to the Violaceomycetales. PMID:26790149

  8. On the Evolutionary History of Uleiella chilensis, a Smut Fungus Parasite of Araucaria araucana in South America: Uleiellales ord. nov. in Ustilaginomycetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Riess

    Full Text Available The evolutionary history, divergence times and phylogenetic relationships of Uleiella chilensis (Ustilaginomycotina, smut fungi associated with Araucaria araucana were analysed. DNA sequences from multiple gene regions and morphology were analysed and compared to other members of the Basidiomycota to determine the phylogenetic placement of smut fungi on gymnosperms. Divergence time estimates indicate that the majority of smut fungal orders diversified during the Triassic-Jurassic period. However, the origin and relationships of several orders remain uncertain. The most recent common ancestor between Uleiella chilensis and Violaceomyces palustris has been dated to the Lower Cretaceous. Comparisons of divergence time estimates between smut fungi and host plants lead to the hypothesis that the early Ustilaginomycotina had a saprobic lifestyle. As there are only two extant species of Araucaria in South America, each hosting a unique Uleiella species, we suggest that either coevolution or a host shift followed by allopatric speciation are the most likely explanations for the current geographic restriction of Uleiella and its low diversity. Phylogenetic and age estimation analyses, ecology, the unusual life-cycle and the peculiar combination of septal and haustorial characteristics support Uleiella chilensis as a distinct lineage among the Ustilaginomycotina. Here, we describe a new ustilaginomycetous order, the Uleiellales to accommodate Uleiella. Within the Ustilaginomycetes, Uleiellales are sister taxon to the Violaceomycetales.

  9. Desarrollo del ensilado del alga Gracilaria chilensis para la alimentación del abalón rojo Haliotis rufescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Mardones

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available En Chile, el principal insumo usado como alimento para abalones son las algas Gracilaria chilensis y Macrocystis pyrifera. Estas algas experimentan una notable baja de disponibilidad en otoño e invierno, lo cual trae consigo un aumento considerable de los precios, al tener que depender del abastecimiento desde áreas cada vez más alejadas de los centros de cultivo de abalones y, eventualmente, generando impactos ecológicos indirectos en sus poblaciones. El objetivo fue elaborar y evaluar un ensilado del alga G. chilensis para la alimentación de abalón rojo (Haliotis rufescens, determinando la cantidad de lixiviados generados durante el proceso, el cambio en la composición proximal del alga, la preferencia y consumo del abalón rojo de ensilado de G. chilensis. Se logró un producto ensilado de buenas características físicas, químicas y de conservación, así como una buena aceptación por parte del abalón.

  10. Composición, riqueza de especies y abundancia de insectos defoliadores de actividad nocturna asociados a Aristotelia chilensis (maqui en el bosque maulino fragmentado Composition, species richness and abundance of nocturnal folivorous insects associated with Aristotelia chilensis (maqui in the fragmented Maulino forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XAVIERA DE LA VEGA

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En el bosque maulino, la herbivoría sobre Aristotelia chilensis (maqui es negativamente afectada por la fragmentación del bosque, siendo mayor en el bosque continuo que en los fragmentos, particularmente a inicios de la temporada de crecimiento. Este fenómeno puede deberse a cambios en la dinámica de las poblaciones de defoliadores, esencialmente insectos. En este trabajo se evaluó la abundancia, riqueza de especies y composición de insectos defoliadores de actividad nocturna presentes en A. chilensis en un bosque continuo (600 ha y en ocho fragmentos remanentes (0,4-20 ha. Los muéstreos se realizaron mensualmente, entre agosto de 2005 y febrero de 2006, en 32 ejemplares adultos de A. chilensis en el bosque continuo y en 32 ejemplares en los fragmentos. Los insectos fueron muestreados durante las cinco primeras horas de la noche. Se recolectaron 890 insectos defoliadores, pertenecientes a 17 familias y 77 especies pertenecientes a los órdenes Coleóptera, Orthoptera y Lepidoptera, siendo todas nativas. La abundancia total no varió según el habitat. Sin embargo, la fragmentación incrementó o disminuyó la abundancia de algunas especies. La riqueza de especies por árbol tampoco fue afectada por la fragmentación del bosque, aunque el número total de especies fue considerablemente mayor en los fragmentos que en el bosque continuo. La similitud de especies fue mayor dentro del bosque continuo que entre el bosque continuo y los fragmentos o que entre los fragmentos. A principios de la temporada de crecimiento de A. chilensis (septiembre, la abundancia de Sericoides obesa fue significativamente mayor en el bosque continuo que en los fragmentos. Al avanzar en la temporada, Sericoides viridis se hizo más abundante en los fragmentos. Por el tamaño y la voracidad de los insectos del género Sericoides ellos serían los principales responsables de los patrones de defoliación de A. chilensis en el bosque maulino.At the Maulino forest

  11. Change in size-at-maturity of the yellownose skate Dipturus chilensis (Guichenot, 1848 (Elasmobranchii: Rajidae in the SW Atlantic

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    Laura Paesch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 3518 specimens (1607 males, 1911 females of Dipturus chilensis were sampled. Males ranged from 44.0 to 99.0 cm and females from 45.0 to 110.0 cm. Total length composition of the grouped catches differed significantly among sexes, with females being larger than males. The sex ratio favored the females. The total length at which 50% of the specimens were retained by the gear was 69.0 cm for the males and 73.0 cm for the females. A sub-sample of 124 specimens (48 males, 76 females was analyzed for reproductive assessment. For the males, size at 50% maturity was estimated at 78.5 cm, while for the females this parameter was estimated at 81.4 cm. Preliminary observations on the description of the egg capsules are also provided.Um total de 3518 espécimes (1607 machos e 1911 fêmeas de Dipturus chilensis foi amostrado. Os machos tiveram comprimentos totais entre 44.0 e 99.0 cm e as fêmeas entre 45.0 e 110.0 cm. A composição de comprimentos totais das capturas agrupadas foi significativamente diferente entre ambos os sexos, sendo as fêmeas maiores do que os machos. A razão sexual favoreceu as fêmeas. O comprimento total em que 50% dos espécimes foram retidos pelo aparelho de pesca foi de 69.0 cm nos machos e de 73.0 cm nas fêmeas. Uma sub-amostra de 124 espécimes (48 machos e 76 fêmeas foi analisada para avaliação dos parâmetros reprodutivos. Para os machos, o tamanho de 50% de maturidade resultou em 78.5 cm enquanto que para as fêmeas este parâmetro foi estimado em 81.4 cm. Observações preliminares sobre a descrição da cápsula ovígera são também fornecidas.

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Phenolic Compounds and Anthocyanins from Murta (Ugni molinae Turcz. Fruits. Assessment of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paula Junqueira-Gonçalves

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Berry fruit consumption has become important in the promotion of human health, mainly due to their phenolic compounds, which have been associated with protection against different pathologies, as well as antimicrobial and other biological activities. Consequently, there has been a growing interest in identifying natural antioxidants and antimicrobials from these plants. This study aimed to characterize the phenolic chemical composition and anthocyanin profile of murta (Ugni molinae Turcz. fruit, and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of its extracts (ethanolic and methanolic. LC/MS of the ethanolic extracts showed the presence of three major compounds: caffeic acid 3-glu, quercetin-3-glu and quercetin, while in the methanolic acid extract they were cyanidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-arabinose and delphinidin-3-glucoside. The antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts (DPPH· and ORAC assays was higher than that of methanol acid extracts or purified anthocynins. Furthermore, the methanol acid extract showed an inhibitory activity against the bacteria E. coli and S. typhi similar to that of standard antibiotics. The results suggest that the antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract is regulated by the high content of phenolic compounds and the fruit’s characteristic color is due to the content of pelargonidin-3-arabinose and delphinidin-3-glucoside. The obtained results demonstrated the appreciable antioxidant and antibacterial activities, providing opportunities to explore murta extracts as biopreservatives.

  13. Isolation and characterization of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins from Murta (Ugni molinae Turcz.) fruits. Assessment of antioxidant and antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira-Gonçalves, Maria Paula; Yáñez, Lina; Morales, Carolina; Navarro, Muriel; A Contreras, Rodrigo; Zúñiga, Gustavo E

    2015-01-01

    Berry fruit consumption has become important in the promotion of human health, mainly due to their phenolic compounds, which have been associated with protection against different pathologies, as well as antimicrobial and other biological activities. Consequently, there has been a growing interest in identifying natural antioxidants and antimicrobials from these plants. This study aimed to characterize the phenolic chemical composition and anthocyanin profile of murta (Ugni molinae Turcz.) fruit, and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of its extracts (ethanolic and methanolic). LC/MS of the ethanolic extracts showed the presence of three major compounds: caffeic acid 3-glu, quercetin-3-glu and quercetin, while in the methanolic acid extract they were cyanidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-arabinose and delphinidin-3-glucoside. The antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts (DPPH· and ORAC assays) was higher than that of methanol acid extracts or purified anthocynins. Furthermore, the methanol acid extract showed an inhibitory activity against the bacteria E. coli and S. typhi similar to that of standard antibiotics. The results suggest that the antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract is regulated by the high content of phenolic compounds and the fruit's characteristic color is due to the content of pelargonidin-3-arabinose and delphinidin-3-glucoside. The obtained results demonstrated the appreciable antioxidant and antibacterial activities, providing opportunities to explore murta extracts as biopreservatives. PMID:25838172

  14. Identification of Fungus Flora Associated with Lagenaria Siceraria (Molina Standl in Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koffi Ahébé Marie-Hélène

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl is a cucurbit which seeds are consumed by people in rural and urban Africa. This plant is subjected to a strong parasitic and diseases pressure that reduces seeds production. Efficient fight against plant parasite, particularly fungus is a prerequisite for an improved productivity. This study was undertaken in five localities (Alepe, Bondoukou, Bongouanou, Divo and Korhogo belonging to three agroecological areas of Côte d’Ivoire. The aim was to identify fungal genera infecting L. siceraria in order to design an efficient control measure. Leaf samples with necrosis and discoloration symptoms were collected throughout the localities and subsequently, fungus were isolated and identified in laboratory. From a total of 750 samples collected, 7 types of symptoms were distinguished. Fungal genera found in all of the localities were Aspergillus, Botryosphaeria, Cochliobolus, Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia and Phoma. Only Pestalotiopsis was specific to the locality of Divo. An ANOVA test performed on the data showed a significant difference between fungal genera in terms of isolation frequency. Principal components analysis revealed that fungus distribution in each locality was correlated with climatic factors.

  15. Histopathological survey of the mussel Mytilus chilensis (Mytilidae and the clam Gari solida (Psammobiidae from southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Cremonte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 175 specimens of mussels, Mytilus chilensis (Mytilidae, and 56 specimens of clams, Gari solida (Psammobiidae, were collected in natural beds and culture sites of southern Chile. Juvenile mussel specimens (3 cm of maximum length were free of parasites and diseases, whilst the commercial sized populations was parasitized by intracellular inclusions of bacteria-like organisms in the digestive gland epithelium and in the gills, by ciliates in the gills, turbellarians similar to Paravortex (Rhabocoela in the intestine lumen and copepods attached to the gills. In addition, the disseminated neoplasia disease was also present although in low prevalences. In the clam, G. solida, prokariotic inclusions were found in the digestive gland epithelium and bacteria-like organisms in the gills, often encapsulated by haemocytes; oocysts containing up to 8 sporozoites similar to Nematopsis (Apicomplexa in the connective tissue, causing haemocytic infiltration when the intensity of infection was high; ciliates belonging to two different species (one of them similar to Trichodina inhabiting the gills; and a turbellarian similar to Paravortex in the lumen of digestive system without apparent host reaction. The populations of the bivalve species here studied were devoid of serious pathogens.

  16. Isolation and identification of Vibrio toranzoniae associated with diseased red conger eel (Genypterus chilensis) farmed in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasa, Aide; Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben; Estrada, Juan M; Romalde, Jesús L

    2015-09-30

    The present study deals with the first isolation of Vibrio toranzoniae from cultured red conger eel (Genypterus chilensis). During the summer season of 2011, mortalities were observed in young red conger eel at one aquaculture experimental rearing system in Quintay, Valparaiso, Chile. The microbiological analysis of the diseased fish resulted in the isolation of three dominant and representative isolates, designated as R.17, R.18 and R.19, which were obtained from gill, fin and external lesions from three different fish, respectively. All isolates were identified as V. toranzoniae by means of a polyphasic taxonomic approach, including phenotypic characterization, sequencing of 16S rRNA and housekeeping genes, and DNA-DNA hybridization. Inoculation of a representative strain (R18) in turbot as model fish species demonstrated the pathogenic potential for fish of the Chilean isolates. Results obtained indicate that the geographical and host distribution of V. toranzoniae is wider than expected, and that this species may have negative incidence in the culture of marine organisms. PMID:26072371

  17. Domestication and sustainable production of wild crafted plants with special reference to the Chilean Maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogel, Hermine

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The principle threats for sustainable production of wild collected medicinal plants are related to ecological factors, such as endemism, and botanical factors critical for survival, such as the collection of roots or barks or slow growing species. The sustainable way to produce raw material on a large scale would be species specific management of the wild resources that guarantees conservation of biodiversity, or bringing the species under cultivation. A checklist proposed by WHO, UICN and WWF (1993 indicates that domestication of any medicinal plant concerns plant selection and breeding, studies about propagation, cultivation techniques, plant protection, time of harvest, among others. The different domestication steps are illustrated for the Chilean maqui (Aristotelia chilensis, a wild tree whose fruits are demanded in increasing volumes by the international market because of its high antioxidant capacity. High yielding plants with good fruit quality have been selected from wild populations and accessions have been cultivated under different environmental conditions to select the most suitable genotypes for the establishment of commercial orchards.

  18. Maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) and the constituent delphinidin glycoside inhibit photoreceptor cell death induced by visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Junji; Kadekaru, Takashi; Ogawa, Kenjirou; Hitoe, Shoketsu; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Hara, Hideaki

    2013-08-15

    The protective effects of maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) extract (MBE) and its major anthocyanins [delphinidin 3,5-O-diglucoside (D3G5G) and delphinidin 3-O-sambubioside-5-O-glucoside (D3S5G)] against light-induced murine photoreceptor cells (661W) death were evaluated. Viability of 661W after light treatment for 24 h, assessed by the tetrazolium salt (WST-8) assay and Hoechst 33342 nuclear staining, was improved by addition of MBE, D3G5G, and D3S5G. Intracellular radical activation in 661W, evaluated using the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive probe 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2,7-dichlorodihydro fluorescein diacetate acetyl ester (CM-H2DCFDA), was reduced by MBE and its anthocyanins. The anti-apoptosis mechanism of MBE was evaluated by light-induced phosphorylation of p38. MBE significantly suppressed the light-induced phosphorylation of p38. These findings indicate that MBE and its anthocyanidins suppress the light-induced photoreceptor cell death by inhibiting ROS production, suggesting that the inhibition of phosphorylated-p38 may be involved in the underlying mechanism. PMID:23561088

  19. Presence of a Phytoplasma Associated with Witches’-Broom Disease in Ugni molinae Turcz. and Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers.) Sleumer Determined by DAPI, PCR, and DNA Sequencing Presencia de un Fitoplasma Asociado a la Enfermedad de "Escoba de Bruja" en Ugni molinae Turcz. y Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers.) Sleumer Determinado Mediante DAPI, PCR y Secuenciación de ADN

    OpenAIRE

    Nolberto Arismendi S; Nancy Andrade S; Ricardo Riegel Sch; Roberto Carrillo Ll.

    2010-01-01

    Murta (Ugni molinae Turcz.) and common chaura (Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers.) Sleumer) are native species of Chile. Plants of both species have shown over-branching like witches' broom. The causal agents of these symptoms in many plants are phytoplasma. To verify the presence of these microorganisms, DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed in symptomatic and asymptomatic plants. Positive PCR samples were sequenced to identif...

  20. RETINAL MORPHOLOGY AND ELECTRORETINOGRAPHY IN TWO VISUALLY FORAGING CHARADRIIFORMES BIRDS WITH DIFFERENT FEEDING ACTIVITY RHYTHMS: THE DOUBLE-STRIPED THICK-KNEE (BURHINUS BISTRIATUS WAGLER, 1829 AND THE SOUTHERN LAPWING (VANELLUS CHILENSIS L., 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Figueroa R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Our study compares the visual function of the Double-striped Thick-knee (Burhinus bistriatus Wagler,1829, which forages primarily during dusk and at night, and the Southern Lapwing (Vanellus chilensis L., 1758, which is known to forage during daytime and occasionally at night, analyzing morphological and electrophysiological aspects of their retina. The fact that thick-knees have large eyes and are nocturnally actives suggest that, compared with the diurnal lapwing, they should have a very sensitive retina under low light intensity. Electroretinograms (ERGs were obtained from anesthetized live birds at different light intensities in photopic and scotopic conditions, and the retinae were subsequently processed for histological analysis. The scotopic ERG b-waves of B. bistriatus, at all light intensities, were always of larger amplitude than those of V. chilensis. However, the a-waves of both species were of similar amplitude. Under photopic conditions, V. chilensis yield highest a- and b-wave amplitudes than B. bistriatus. The latter has a larger dialated pupil diameter and a greater axial length/equatorial diameter ratio than V. chilensis. Likewise, the rod density of B. bistriatus significantly exceeds that of V. chilensis. In the latter, cone density tends to be higher than in B. bistriatus while the rods:cones ratio were lower. Rod outer segments of B. bistriatus strongly exceed in length those of any other Charadriiformes species studied so far, but are thinner than those of V. chilensis. In contrast, the latter has thicker cone outer segments and outer and inner plexiform layers than B. bistriatus. Similarly, ganglion cells are more abundant per unit area in V. chilensis. Our combined results reveal a higher retinal sensitivity of B. bistriatus under low light conditions, in accordance with their crepuscular and nocturnal foraging strategies. V. chilensis, although mainly active during daylight, appears to have a moderate retinal

  1. De la Historia moral a la Historia civil en el Compendio de la Historia Civil del Reyno de Chile (1787 del abate Juan Ignacio Molina

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    Luis Hachim Lara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El jesuíta Juan Ignacio Molina escribió el Compendio de la Historia Geográfica, Natural y Civil deIReynodeChile (1776 y el Compendio de la HistoriaCivil del ReynodeChile (1787 en el exilio italiano. En los estudios sobre los jesuítas, sus Historias naturales no han sido exploradas en cuanto a la importancia cultural, literaria y crítica que implican. En este trabajo se tratarán algunos rasgos de la escritura de la Historia que constituyen el discurso de la ciencia y que muestran el desarrollo que va desde la Historia naturaly moral -que desde Aristótelesy Plinio representa la ciencia clásica- a los nuevos modos de conocer que representa el modelo de ciencia de la Ilustración. En consecuencia, el aporte del Abate Molina en su Compendio de la Historia Civil consiste en incorporar la concepción de progreso en los usos y costumbres de los indígenas, aportando una visión de integración diferente a la civilidad. Sabemos que con posterioridad al siglo dieciocho el aporte de muchos astrónomos, médicos y científicos jesuítas -en América- construyeron las bases de la ciencia moderna y progresiva, representando la continuidad más que la regresión en el desarrollo científico tal como lo concebimos actualmente.TheJesuit Juan Ignacio Molina vimte the Compendiode la Historia Geográfica, natural y Civil del Reyno de Chile (1776 y el Compendio de la Historia Civil del Reyno de Chile (1787 in exile in Italy. In relation to criticism, the thinking of the naturalist of the company in the transition -some see opposition-from the model of traditional and scholastic science to the paradigm of modern and enlightened science was importantThis assignment will consider some of the characteristics of the writing of history, which constitute the discourse of science and show the development from the moral and natural history -the classical science of Aristotle and Plinio- to the new forms of knowledge that represent the model of science of the enlight

  2. ENRIQUECIMIENTO AMBIENTAL DE NUTRIA MARINA Lontra felina (MOLINA 1782) EN EL PARQUE ZOOLÓGICO HUACHIPA ENTRE FEBRERO Y MARZO DEL 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Diana Ruiz Ramos; Edward Iván Díaz Carrillo

    2008-01-01

    El enriquecimiento ambiental es una herramienta empleada para mejorar situaciones de aburrimiento, estrés y así evitar enfermedades causadas por la inactividad de la vida en cautiverio en la fauna silvestre. El presente trabajo se desarrolló con 2 individuos de nutria marina Lontra felina (Molina 1782) en cautiverio, durante cinco semanas: en la primera semana se realizó la determinación de los patrones de comportamiento mediante un muestreo Ad libitum, y durante las cuatro semanas restantes ...

  3. Control of the biological process through continuous measurement of the sludge age. Experiences in the WWTP Molina de Segura (Murcia, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the results obtained when a sludge age based control is incorporated in the biological process of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Greater stability of the biological process is achieved when this control is implemented in WWTP of Molina de Segura. In particular biodiversity has increased and it has been possible to reduce and stabilize the secondary sludge production. An improvement of the sludge decantation and a reduction of the specific volumetric load of secondary clarifiers have also been observed. finally, costs have been reduced dur to the decrease of cationic polyelectrolyte consumption. (Author) 16 refs.

  4. Tropos y fotos para establecer identidad en El jinete polaco de Antonio Muñoz Molina

    OpenAIRE

    Corbellini, Natalia

    2008-01-01

    A partir de la lectura de El jinete polaco Antonio Muñoz Molina se reflexiona sobre la construcción del discurso sobre la memoria histórica que realiza el autor en esta novela. Se analiza la utilización de fotos e imágenes como motivos a partir de los cuales los personajes arman su relato del pasado desde una perspectiva personal. Se pone en consideración este procedimiento con otras novelas del autor y como característica de autores contemporáneos.

  5. Factibilidad técnica y financiera de explotación del cangrejo dorado de Juan Fernández (Chaceon chilensis Technical and financial feasibility of the commercial fishery of Juan Fernandez's golden crab (Chaceon chilensis

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    Guillermo Martínez González

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la factibilidad técnica y financiera que tendría el montaje de una actividad productiva en el archipiélago de Juan Fernández, basada en la explotación del cangrejo dorado (Chaceon chilensis. Para evaluar el proyecto flota-planta, se utilizó un enfoque de tipo sistémico, que permitió estudiar y estructurar esta situación problema. Se consideró factible una producción de 14,4 ton de cangrejo trozado (pinzas y patas, cocido y congelado sin caparazón, en porciones de 1/2 y 3/4 libras; y 33,6 ton de carne de cangrejo, cocida y congelada en bloques de 1 y 2 libras. Para esta producción, la materia prima se obtendría de la actividad extractiva de 10 embarcaciones artesanales, las cuales operarían en forma complementaria o alternativa a la pesca de langosta. El proyecto es altamente sensible a los precios tanto de mercado de los productos como de playa de la materia prima. La gran proporción de la inversión se debe al capital de trabajo destinado a la compra de materia prima, en valores que permiten al sector artesanal absorber la inversión en innovaciones tecnológicas requeridas para implementar su flota. Los resultados de la evaluación financiera indican 73% de probabilidad de éxito en la inversión, Tasa Interna de Retorno (TIR del 49%, Retorno sobre la Inversión (RSI de 1,73 y Valor Actual Neto (VAN de 17.538,6 UF, equivalentes a $238.963.970The technical and financial feasibility of the golden crab fishery (Chaceon chilensis in Juan Fernandez's archipelago was analyzed. To evaluate the investment project, a systemic approach was used to analyze and to structure this situation problem. It was considered feasible an annual production of 14,4 ton of pieces of crab (pincers and legs, cooked and frozen without shell, in portions of 1/2 and 3/4 pounds; and 33,6 ton of crab meat, cooked and frozen in blocks of 1 and 2 pounds. For this production, the raw material would be supply by the extractive activity of 10 artisanal

  6. Synaptic silencing and plasma membrane dyshomeostasis induced by amyloid-β peptide are prevented by Aristotelia chilensis enriched extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentealba, Jorge; Dibarrart, Andrea; Saez-Orellana, Francisco; Fuentes-Fuentes, María Cecilia; Oyanedel, Carlos N; Guzmán, José; Perez, Claudia; Becerra, José; Aguayo, Luis G

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of different types of extracellular and neurotoxic aggregates of amyloid-β (Aβ). Recently, bioactive compounds extracted from natural sources showing neuroprotective properties have become of interest in brain neurodegeneration. We have purified, characterized, and evaluated the protective potential of one extract enriched in polyphenols obtained from Aristotelia chilensis (MQ), a Chilean berry fruit, in neuronal models of AD induced by soluble oligomers of Aβ1-40. For example, using primary hippocampal cultures from rats (E18), we observed neuroprotection when the neurons were co-incubated with Aβ (0.5 μM) plus MQ for 24 h (Aβ = 23 ± 2%; Aβ + MQ = 3 ± 1%; n = 3). In parallel, co-incubation of Aβ with MQ recovered the frequency of Ca2+ transient oscillations when compared to neurons treated with Aβ alone (Aβ = 72 ± 3%; Aβ + MQ = 86 ± 2%; n = 5), correlating with the changes observed in spontaneous synaptic activity. Additionally, MAP-2 immunostaining showed a preservation of the dendritic tree, suggesting that the toxic effect of Aβ is prevented in the presence of MQ. A new complex mechanism is proposed by which MQ induces neuroprotective effects including antioxidant properties, modulation of cell survival pathways, and/or direct interaction with the Aβ aggregates. Our results suggest that MQ induces changes in the aggregation kinetics of Aβ producing variations in the nucleation phase (Aβ: k1 = 2.7 ± 0.4 × 10-3 s-1 MQ: k1 = 8.3 ± 0.6 × 10-3 s-1) and altering Thioflavin T insertion in β-sheets. In conclusion, MQ induces a potent neuroprotection by direct interaction with the Aβ aggregates, generating far less toxic species and in this way protecting the neuronal network. PMID:22728896

  7. Terminología botánica indígena en el vocabulario castellano-mexicano (1555 de Fray A. de Molina

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    Galeote Manuel

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Las voces indígenas de la flora americana, que fray Alonso de Molina incluye en la sección castellana de su obra: Aquí comience un vocabulario en la lengua castellana y mexicana (México, Juan Pablos, 1555 se analizan desde el punto de vista histórico y sociolingüístico. Se trata del primer vocabulario de Molina el Nebrija de las Indias y, además, el primer diccionario impreso en México y en América. En las entradas castellanas, los términos indígenas americanos de la flora (plantas y frutas constituyen uno de los campos onomasiológicos más numerosos (maíz, cacao, maguey, chía, ají, etc. De los once términos indígenas hemos contabilizado casi un centenar de ocurrencias. En conclusión, este vocabulario muestra el fondo léxico patrimonial del español y los indoamericanismos que se acomodaron a las estructuras de la lengua castellana.

  8. LA VOZ NARRATIVA COMO COMPROMISO CON LA VERDAD ANÁLISIS DEL NARRADOR EN LA NOVELA LA NOCHE DE LOS TIEMPOS, DE MUÑOZ MOLINA

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    Enrique Arroyas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este artículo consiste en un análisis de la voz narrativa de la novela La noche de los tiempos, según un modelo comunicativo que abarca tanto aspectos sintácticos y semánticos como pragmáticos que permitan arrojar luz sobre el sentido del texto. Desde un enfoque pragmático se analiza la finalidad de la narración como acto comunicativo en la que se plantea la relación del discurso con su contexto y del enunciador con el enunciatario. La elección de la voz narrativa y su focalización es uno de los grandes aciertos de esta novela de Muñoz Molina, puesto que en ella reside su verosimilitud y su carácter ético. Abstract: This article examines the narrative voice of La noche de los tiempos, a novel by Antonio Muñoz Molina, according to a communicative model that treats syntactic, semantic, and pragmatics aspects that shed light on the meaning of the text.From a pragmatic perspective I analyze the purpose of the narrative as a communicative act which establishes a relationship of the discourse to its context and of the narrator to the narratee. The choice of narrative voice and its focalization is one of the great achievements of this novel, since it is the source of the work’s verisimilitude and ethical character.

  9. Health status and bioremediation capacity of wild freshwater mussels (Diplodon chilensis) exposed to sewage water pollution in a glacial Patagonian lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Castro, Juan M; Rocchetta, Iara; Bieczynski, Flavia; Luquet, Carlos M

    2014-04-01

    Deleterious effects on health and fitness are expected in mussels chronically exposed to sewage water pollution. Diplodon chilensis inhabiting SMA, an area affected by untreated and treated sewage water, shows increased hemocyte number and phagocytic activity, while bacteriolytic and phenoloxidase activities in plasma and reactive oxygen species production in hemocytes are lower compared to mussels from an unpolluted area (Yuco). There are not differences in cell viability, lysosomal membrane stability, lipid peroxidation and total oxygen scavenging capacity between SMA and Yuco mussels' hemocytes. Energetic reserves and digestive gland mass do not show differences between groups; although the condition factor is higher in SMA than in Yuco mussels. Gills of SMA mussels show an increase in mass and micronuclei frequency compared to those of Yuco. Mussels from both sites reduce bacterial loads in polluted water and sediments, improving their quality with similar feeding performance. These findings suggest that mussels exposed to sewage pollution modulate physiological responses by long-term exposure; although, gills are sensitive to these conditions and suffer chronic damage. Bioremediation potential found in D. chilensis widens the field of work for remediation of sewage bacterial pollution in water and sediments by filtering bivalves. PMID:24589503

  10. Deep Sequencing Reveals the Complete Genome and Evidence for Transcriptional Activity of the First Virus-Like Sequences Identified in Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui Berry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Villacreses

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report the genome sequence and evidence for transcriptional activity of a virus-like element in the native Chilean berry tree Aristotelia chilensis. We propose to name the endogenous sequence as Aristotelia chilensis Virus 1 (AcV1. High-throughput sequencing of the genome of this tree uncovered an endogenous viral element, with a size of 7122 bp, corresponding to the complete genome of AcV1. Its sequence contains three open reading frames (ORFs: ORFs 1 and 2 shares 66%–73% amino acid similarity with members of the Caulimoviridae virus family, especially the Petunia vein clearing virus (PVCV, Petuvirus genus. ORF1 encodes a movement protein (MP; ORF2 a Reverse Transcriptase (RT and a Ribonuclease H (RNase H domain; and ORF3 showed no amino acid sequence similarity with any other known virus proteins. Analogous to other known endogenous pararetrovirus sequences (EPRVs, AcV1 is integrated in the genome of Maqui Berry and showed low viral transcriptional activity, which was detected by deep sequencing technology (DNA and RNA-seq. Phylogenetic analysis of AcV1 and other pararetroviruses revealed a closer resemblance with Petuvirus. Overall, our data suggests that AcV1 could be a new member of Caulimoviridae family, genus Petuvirus, and the first evidence of this kind of virus in a fruit plant.

  11. Deep sequencing reveals the complete genome and evidence for transcriptional activity of the first virus-like sequences identified in Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui Berry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villacreses, Javier; Rojas-Herrera, Marcelo; Sánchez, Carolina; Hewstone, Nicole; Undurraga, Soledad F; Alzate, Juan F; Manque, Patricio; Maracaja-Coutinho, Vinicius; Polanco, Victor

    2015-04-01

    Here, we report the genome sequence and evidence for transcriptional activity of a virus-like element in the native Chilean berry tree Aristotelia chilensis. We propose to name the endogenous sequence as Aristotelia chilensis Virus 1 (AcV1). High-throughput sequencing of the genome of this tree uncovered an endogenous viral element, with a size of 7122 bp, corresponding to the complete genome of AcV1. Its sequence contains three open reading frames (ORFs): ORFs 1 and 2 shares 66%-73% amino acid similarity with members of the Caulimoviridae virus family, especially the Petunia vein clearing virus (PVCV), Petuvirus genus. ORF1 encodes a movement protein (MP); ORF2 a Reverse Transcriptase (RT) and a Ribonuclease H (RNase H) domain; and ORF3 showed no amino acid sequence similarity with any other known virus proteins. Analogous to other known endogenous pararetrovirus sequences (EPRVs), AcV1 is integrated in the genome of Maqui Berry and showed low viral transcriptional activity, which was detected by deep sequencing technology (DNA and RNA-seq). Phylogenetic analysis of AcV1 and other pararetroviruses revealed a closer resemblance with Petuvirus. Overall, our data suggests that AcV1 could be a new member of Caulimoviridae family, genus Petuvirus, and the first evidence of this kind of virus in a fruit plant. PMID:25855242

  12. Influence of oxygenation and quality of sediment on the survival of Scolelepis chilensis (Spionidae: Polychaeta in Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

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    Evelyn Machado Silva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the tolerance of the polychaete Scolelepis chilensis to variation in oxygenation and sediment to obtain data for environmental impact studies. Individuals were collected at Flamengo Beach, Rio de Janeiro. Favorable combinations of environmental characteristics of Guanabara Bay explain the survival of the organisms, although the introduction of pollutants produces heavily degraded areas. Among the groups of benthic fauna, polychaetes especially play an important role in the functioning and structure of aquatic communities. Scolelepis chilensis is widely distributed due to its morphological characteristics, which allow it to adapt to diverse marine environments. However, this study showed that this polychaete has a high mortality rate under hypoxic conditions, meaning that this species is more sensitive to environments with low oxygen. Furthermore, the mortality rate increases considerably in situations of hypoxia associated with contaminated sediment, indicating that this species is sensitive to environments with contaminated sediment and low oxygen supply. Thus, the intense and continuous input of pollutants could lead to a future deficit of oxygen and extreme anaerobic conditions, which may cause destruction of various marine ecosystems.

  13. AGRO-BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LAGENARIA (Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. IN IMAGES AND SYMBOLS Агро-ботанические характеристики лагенарии (Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. в образах и символах

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the agro-botanical characteristics of pumpkin annual plants – lagenaria ( Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. have been consider in article. The task of the analytical study went in search of communication between anatomic-morphological characteristics of plant and use this in the images, the iconography of the cultural traditions of different nation

  14. Biología reproductiva de Convolvulus chilensis (Convolvulaceae en una población de Aucó (centro-norte de Chile Reproductive biology of Convolvulus chilensis (Convolvulaceae in a population of Aucó (north-central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena H. Suárez

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Convolvulus chilensis es una hierba perenne, única representante endémica de la familia Convolvulaceae en Chile. Se estudió el sistema de reproducción, fenología, morfología y longevidad floral de C. chilensis en una población natural ubicada en la localidad de Aucó, dentro de la Reserva Nacional Las Chinchillas, IV Región, Chile. Se montó un experimento de polinización controlada considerando los tratamientos de polinización natural, polinización cruzada, autopolinización manual, autopolinización automática y apomixis, evaluándose su efecto sobre la formación de frutos y el número de semillas producidas por fruto. Adicionalmente, se compararon los siguientes atributos de la progenie según tipo de polinización (autopolinización o polinización cruzada: peso de semilla, germinación, altura y número de hojas de plántulas de ocho semanas en condiciones de invernadero. Se encontró que C. chilensis es una especie autocompatible, parcialmente autógama (capaz de autopolinizarse sin mediador y parcialmente apomíctica (capaz de producir semillas sin participación de gameto masculino. La longevidad floral fue estimada en 5,25 h. Durante este período, aproximadamente en 1,5 h hay disponibilidad de polen en los estambres. El período de floración se extiende por 22 semanas (agosto a enero. El tratamiento de apomixis presentó el menor porcentaje de formación de frutos y la menor cantidad de semillas por flor en comparación a los tratamientos de polinización natural, cruzada manual, autopolinización automática y autopolinización manual, los cuales no mostraron diferencias entre sí en ambos atributos. El tipo de polinización (autopolinización o polinización cruzada no afecta el desempeño de la progenie en los atributos de semilla y plántula evaluadosThe perennial herb Convolvulus chilensis is the only endemic species of the Convolvulaceae in Chile. The breeding system, phenology, morphology and floral longevity of C

  15. Evaluación y comparación de la eficiencia de dos sistemas de incubación de huevos de Genypterus chilensis (Guichenot, 1848 Evaluation and comparison of the efficiency of two incubation systems for Genypterus chilensis (Guichenot, 1848 eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Vega

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente la tendencia de la acuicultura mundial está orientada hacia la diversificación de los cultivos, principalmente de especies nativas. El congrio colorado Genypterus chilensis es un pez nativo de alta demanda gastronómica y explotación estacional que lo proyecta como candidato para el desarrollo de su tecnología de cultivo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la eficiencia de dos sistemas de incubación de masas de huevos de G. chilensis, uno con circuito cerrado de agua (SICC y el otro con circuito abierto (SICA; su eficiencia fue medida por el porcentaje de eclosión de huevos. Dos ensayos fueron realizados midiendo y comparando los porcentajes de fecundación y eclosión de huevos en cuatro réplicas entre los dos sistemas, encontrándose solo diferencias significativas entre los porcentajes de fecundación del bioensayo 2. El bioensayo 1 tuvo un 81% promedio de fecundación de los huevos y el porcentaje promedio de eclosión para el SICC fue 42,9 ± 34,5% y para el SICA fue 0,0 ± 0,0%. El bioensayo 2 tuvo un porcentaje promedio de fecundación de los huevos de 87,3 ± 2,6% para el SICC y 79,8 ± 3,2% para el SICA y el porcentaje promedio de eclosión para el SICC fue 27,9 ± 33,7% y para el SICA fue 4,8 ± 5,6%. Se discuten los parámetros de incubación para obtener una máxima eclosión y se entrega una proposición para mejorar el sistema SICC. El sistema de incubación con circuito cerrado de agua generó mayores sobrevivencias en los huevos de G. chilensis.The current trend in world aquaculture is towards the diversification of cultures, mainly native species. The red cusk eel Genypterus chilensis is a native Chilean species of high gastronomic demand and seasonal exploitation that is projected as a candidate for the development of farming technology. The objective of this study was to test the efficiency of two incubation systems for G. chilensis egg masses, one with a closed water circuit (SICC and the other with an

  16. Método rápido de determinación del sexo en el erizo comestible Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782) y su aplicación en estudios biológico-pesqueros Simple methodology to identify sex of sea urchin Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782), and its application to fishery-biological studies

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Palma G; Patricio Arana E

    1996-01-01

    La identificación del sexo en el erizo comestible Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782), es difícil de realizar si no se realiza un análisis de laboratorio, lo que motiva que en la mayoría de las investigaciones efectuadas sobre este recurso se consideren ambos sexos en conjunto. En el presente artículo se describe una metodología simple para establecer el sexo en el erizo, lo que permite obtener parámetros biológico-pesqueros en forma separada para machos y hembras. A través de los procedimientos ...

  17. Control of the biological process through continuous measurement of the sludge age. Experiences in the WWTP Molina de Segura (Murcia, Spain); Control del proceso biologico mediante la medida en continuo de la edad del fango. Experiencias en la EDAr Molina de Segura (Murcia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, F.; Pradas, P.; Lardin, C.; Simon, P.

    2010-07-01

    This paper reports the results obtained when a sludge age based control is incorporated in the biological process of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Greater stability of the biological process is achieved when this control is implemented in WWTP of Molina de Segura. In particular biodiversity has increased and it has been possible to reduce and stabilize the secondary sludge production. An improvement of the sludge decantation and a reduction of the specific volumetric load of secondary clarifiers have also been observed. finally, costs have been reduced dur to the decrease of cationic polyelectrolyte consumption. (Author) 16 refs.

  18. Composición, riqueza de especies y abundancia de insectos defoliadores de actividad nocturna asociados a Aristotelia chilensis (maqui) en el bosque maulino fragmentado Composition, species richness and abundance of nocturnal folivorous insects associated with Aristotelia chilensis (maqui) in the fragmented Maulino forest

    OpenAIRE

    XAVIERA DE LA VEGA; AUDREY A GREZ

    2008-01-01

    En el bosque maulino, la herbivoría sobre Aristotelia chilensis (maqui) es negativamente afectada por la fragmentación del bosque, siendo mayor en el bosque continuo que en los fragmentos, particularmente a inicios de la temporada de crecimiento. Este fenómeno puede deberse a cambios en la dinámica de las poblaciones de defoliadores, esencialmente insectos. En este trabajo se evaluó la abundancia, riqueza de especies y composición de insectos defoliadores de actividad nocturna presentes en A....

  19. Cruzamientos interpoblacionales en Mytilus chilensis, un bivalvo de importancia comercial y sus efectos sobre el crecimiento en longitud de la valva durante la etapa larval Inter-population breeding in Mytilus chilensis, an economically important bivalve, and its effects on the shell length during the larval stage

    OpenAIRE

    JE Toro; AC Alcapán; RA Stead

    2008-01-01

    Dos poblaciones naturales de Mytilus chilensis aisladas geográficamente fueron utilizadas para realizar los cruzamientos experimentales en el presente trabajo. En todos los cruzamientos, utilizando un diseño factorial con réplicas, ocurrió fertilización de las ovas, no detectándose diferencias significativas entre los cruzamientos intra e interpoblacionales en cuanto al porcentaje de ovas que desarrollaron larvas al día 4 (P > 0,05). Sin embargo, el porcentaje de larvas anormales al día 4 fue...

  20. Occurrence of Conepatus chinga (Molina (Mammalia, Carnivora, Mustelidae and other terrestrial mammals in the Serra do Mar, Paraná, Brazil

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    Nilton C. Cáceres

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper 19 additional mammalian species are reported in the Atlantic forest of the Paranean Serra do Mar, southern Brazil, including threatened and rare species. These findings resulted from a one-year field research in the western slope of the Serra do Mar, Piraquara municipality, with additional review of reports about mammal distribution in the region. Preliminarily mammal richness in the region is round 54 species, but this number could be higher with more systematic surveys, particularly with regards to bats. The occurrence of the hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782, is reported for the first time in the eastern portion of Paraná, a State vastly deforested during the last century in Brazil.Neste artigo, 19 espécies adicionais de mamíferos são informadas para a Floresta Atlântica da Serra do Mar paranaense, sul do Brasil, incluindo espécies ameaçadas e raras. Este relato é resultado de uma pesquisa de campo de um ano na vertente oeste da Serra do Mar, município de Piraquara¸ com revisão adicional de relatos sobre a distribuição de mamíferos na região. A riqueza preliminar de mamíferos na Serra do Mar paranaense é de 54 espécies, mas este número poderá aumentar quando mais inventários faunísticos forem realizados, principalmente para morcegos. A ocorrência do cangambá, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782, é relatada pela primeira vez na porção leste do Paraná, um Estado altamente desflorestado neste último século no Brasil.

  1. Effect of methanolic extract of Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standley fruits on marble-burying behavior in mice: Implications for obsessive-compulsive disorder

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    R P Prajapati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is the fourth most common mental disorder and is diagnosed nearly as often as asthma and diabetes mellitus. Over the last decade, the inhibition of burying of glass marbles by mice has been used as an index of anti-OCD drug action in the so-called marble-burying test. Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standley (LS, commonly known as "bottle gourd" (English, possesses several medicinal properties; little is known about its action as a nerve tonic. Objective: The purpose of this study was to characterize the anti-OCD (anti-compulsive activity of the methanolic extract of the fruits of L. siceraria (Molina Standley (LS using the marble-burying behavior in mice. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted in specific animal models of Swiss albino mice to evaluate marble-burying behavior. Results and Conclusions: Intraperitonial administration of 25 and 50 mg/kg of LS extract significantly (P < 0.001 decreased the total number of buried marbles. The effect was comparable to that of the fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.. Fluoxetine and LS fruit extract do not produce any overt motor dysfunction. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the methanolic extract of LS showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, sterols, proteins, tannins and carbohydrates. The results of the study for the first time show that the plant possesses anti-compulsive (anti-OCD activity, confirming the traditional claims. Future research should focus on the identification and the mechanism of action of the constituents from this plant.

  2. Juice and phenolic fractions of the berry Aristotelia chilensis inhibit LDL oxidation in vitro and protect human endothelial cells against oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Rottmann, Soledad; Aspillaga, Augusto A; Pérez, Druso D; Vasquez, Luis; Martinez, Alvaro L F; Leighton, Federico

    2002-12-18

    Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles is a key event in the development of atherosclerosis. Oxidized LDL induces oxidative stress and modifies gene expression in endothelial cells. Berries constitute a rich dietary source of phenolic antioxidants. We found that the endemic Chilean berry Aristotelia chilensis (ach) has higher phenol content and scores better for total radical-trapping potential and total antioxidant reactivity in in vitro antioxidant capacity tests, when compared to different commercial berries. The juice of ach is also effective in inhibiting copper-induced LDL oxidation. In human endothelial cell cultures, the addition of ach juice significantly protects from hydrogen peroxide-induced intracellular oxidative stress and is dose-dependent. The aqueous, anthocyanin-rich fraction of ach juice accounts for most of ach's antioxidant properties. These results show that ach is a rich source of phenolics with high antioxidant capacity and suggest that it may have antiatherogenic properties. PMID:12475268

  3. Heavy metal concentrations and biomarkers of oxidative stress in native mussels (Mytilus edulis chilensis) from Beagle Channel coast (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Claudia A; Giarratano, Erica; Amin, Oscar A; Comoglio, Laura I

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of oxidative stress biomarkers of pollution in native mussels Mytilus edulis chilensis from the Beagle Channel. Spatial and seasonal variations of catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and lipid peroxidation in gills and digestive gland were analyzed in relation to environmental parameters, heavy metals in sediment and in tissue. Four sites with anthropogenic impact and a control site were selected and monitored during the four seasons of 2007. We found significant differences among sites in concentrations of dissolved nutrients and heavy metals in sediments, with the highest values recorded at sites with anthropogenic pressure. Different patterns were observed between concentrations of metals in tissues and in sediments suggesting differences in bioavailability. There were also significant differences in biomarker responses among sites, despite the strong seasonal variability. Our results showed relatively moderate levels of pollution in the study area as a result of urban influences. PMID:21704346

  4. TENSIONES ENTRE LITERATURA, CIENCIA, EXPERIENCIA E HISTORIA EN UN INTELECTUAL DE LA SATTELZEIT HISPANOAMERICANA: LOS PREFACIOS EN LA PROSA CIENTÍFICA DE JUAN IGNACIO MOLINA Tensions between literature, science, experience and history in an intellectual of the Sattelzeit in Spanish America: the prefaces in the scientific prose of Juan Ignacio Molina

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    Adolfo de Nordenflycht B

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio se propone una revisión de los prefacios de las principales obras de Juan Ignacio Molina (el Compendio anónimo de 1776, el Saggio de 1782 traducido al español como Compendio en 1788 y el Saggio de 1810 a fin de evidenciar cómo ciertos aspectos literarios de su prosa científica -en particular, los problemas del género (ensayo, compendio la escritura de "historias naturales", el significado del narrar y el sentido de la experiencia del sujeto- ilustran las tensiones inherentes durante el proceso del cambio semántico del concepto de "ciencia" en el marco de la Sattelzeit hispanoamericana.A study which propounds a review of the prefaces of Juan Ignacio Molina's principal works (the anonymous Compendio 1116, the Saggio 1782, translated into Spanish like Compendio in 1788 and the Saggio 1810 in order to demonstrate how certain literary aspects of his scientific prose -in particular, gender issues (essay, compendium, the writing of "Natural History", the meaning of the narrative and the sense of the subject's experience- ¡Ilustrate the tensions inherent in the process of semantic change of the concept of "science" in the frame of the Sattelzeit in Spanish América.

  5. Método rápido de determinación del sexo en el erizo comestible Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782 y su aplicación en estudios biológico-pesqueros Simple methodology to identify sex of sea urchin Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782, and its application to fishery-biological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Palma G

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available La identificación del sexo en el erizo comestible Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782, es difícil de realizar si no se realiza un análisis de laboratorio, lo que motiva que en la mayoría de las investigaciones efectuadas sobre este recurso se consideren ambos sexos en conjunto. En el presente artículo se describe una metodología simple para establecer el sexo en el erizo, lo que permite obtener parámetros biológico-pesqueros en forma separada para machos y hembras. A través de los procedimientos que se describen, es posible separar las distribuciones de frecuencias de tallas obtenidas en los muestreos, sin diferenciar el sexo, en las correspondientes a machos y hembras. Este procedimiento es especialmente útil cuando los sexos presentan diferencias de crecimiento o mortalidad.Sex identification of the edible sea urchin Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782, is difficult if not done in a laboratory, therefore most of the studies on this resource does not consider sexes separately. This paper describes a simple methodology to identify sex of the sea urchin, enabling the estimation of fishery-biological parameters separately for males and females. Through the described procedures, it is possible to separate by sex the length frequency distributions from samples taken without differentiating males from females. This procedure becomes specially useful when sexes show differences in growth or mortality.

  6. Ophiuroidea das regiões antartica e subantartica: 2. variação em Gorgonocephalus chílensis (Philippi (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea, Gorgonocephalidae Ophiuroidea from antarctic and subantarctic regions: 2. variation on Gorgonocephalus chilensis (Philippi (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea, Gorgonocephalidae

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    Ana Maria Gouveia Monteiro

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados 198 exemplares de Gorgonocephalus chilensis das regiões antártica e subantartica, tendo-se em vista a variação de caracteres morfológicos externos. Foi constatada uma grande variação nas características morfológicas externas, que parece independer de localização geográfica.A revision is presented on the variability of the ornamentation and other extermal morphological aspects of Gorgonocephalus chilensis. The samples were obtained along the period of 1962 to 1972 by the R/V "Hero" and "Eltanin" (USARP and by the R/V "Almirante Saldanha" from the Brazilian Navy.

  7. Actividad de polvo, extractos y aceite esencial de Peumus boldus Molina solos y en mezcla con Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner contra Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) y Helicoverpa zea (Boddie).

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Aguayo, Gonzalo Iván

    2010-01-01

    Se evaluaron en condiciones de laboratorio e invernadero las propiedades insecticidas del polvo, aceite esencial y extracto en cloruro de metileno de Boldo (Peumus boldus Molina), además del alcaloide boldina y el terpeno 1-8-cineol (eucaliptol), solos y en combinación con Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner contra larvas de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) y Helicoverpa zea Boddie. Se realizaron bioensayos para evaluar mortalidad, efecto en el ciclo de vida y las preferencias alimenticias de l...

  8. Introducción al estudio de las mineralizaciones del Señorío y Tierra de Molina de Aragón (Guadalajara, España)

    OpenAIRE

    Mata Perelló, José M.; Octavio PUCHE RIART

    1992-01-01

    In this communication it's efected an introduction to the study of the mineralizations placed in the Señorio and Tierra de Molina de Aragón an historical demarcation of Guadalajara situated in the Sistema Ibérico. In this comunication, we will introduce the Study Castilian mineralizations between them, C/Ag are present as well as stratiform iron and copper mineralization.

  9. Presence of a Phytoplasma Associated with Witches’-Broom Disease in Ugni molinae Turcz. and Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers. Sleumer Determined by DAPI, PCR, and DNA Sequencing Presencia de un Fitoplasma Asociado a la Enfermedad de "Escoba de Bruja" en Ugni molinae Turcz. y Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers. Sleumer Determinado Mediante DAPI, PCR y Secuenciación de ADN

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    Nolberto Arismendi S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Murta (Ugni molinae Turcz. and common chaura (Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers. Sleumer are native species of Chile. Plants of both species have shown over-branching like witches' broom. The causal agents of these symptoms in many plants are phytoplasma. To verify the presence of these microorganisms, DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were performed in symptomatic and asymptomatic plants. Positive PCR samples were sequenced to identify the pathogens involved. In individuals of both species with witches’ broom symptoms, DAPI staining showed fluorescent bodies in the phloem tissues, but not in asymptomatic plants. Verification by nested-PCR, phytoplasmatic DNA was amplified from diseased murta and chaura, but not in apparently healthy plants. Sequencing of amplified products allowed locating phytoplasma within the ash yellows group (16SrVII and related to Candidatus phytoplasma fraxini. This is the first report of phytoplasma in Chilean native species. Considering the diversity of plant species infected by the ash yellows group suggests that G. phillyreifolia and U. molinae could be a phytoplasma reservoir for other economically important agricultural crops.La murta (Ugni molinae Turcz. y la chaura común (Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers. Sleumer son especies nativas de Chile. En plantas de ambas especies se ha observado una sobre-ramificación de tipo "escoba de bruja". En muchas plantas los agentes causales de esta sintomatología son fitoplasmas. Para verificar la presencia de estos microorganismos se analizaron plantas con y sin síntomas mediante tinciones DAPI (4’,6-diamidino-2-fenilindol y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR. Muestras positivas en la PCR fueron secuenciadas para identificar al fitopatógeno implicado. En individuos de ambas especies con síntomas de escoba de bruja, la tinción DAPI permitió observar cuerpos fluorescentes en los tejidos del floema, situaci

  10. Modulating effects of orally supplied Euglena gracilis on the physiological responses of the freshwater mussel Diplodon chilensis, exposed to sewage water pollution in a Patagonian river (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Castro, Juan M; Rocchetta, Iara; Conforti, Visitación; Pascual, Mariano; Luquet, Carlos M

    2016-04-01

    In order to test if orally supplied Euglena sp. cells modulate the physiological status of bivalves during bioremediation procedures, we evaluated the effect of Euglena gracilis diet on the immune response, oxidative balance and metabolic condition of Diplodon chilensis exposed to sewage water pollution. Mussels were fed for 90 days with E. gracilis (EG) or Scenedesmus vacuolatus (SV, control diet), and then exposed for 10 days at three sites along the Pocahullo river basin: 1) an unpolluted site, upstream of the city (control, C); 2) upstream (UpS) and 3) downstream (DoS) from the main tertiary-treated sewage discharge, in the city of San Martín de los Andes, Northwest Patagonia, Argentina. Our results show that the total hemocyte number decreases while pollution load increases along the river course for both, EG and SV mussels. Phagocytic activity is higher in EG mussels than in SV ones under all conditions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in hemocytes increases with the increase in the pollution load, being significantly higher for EG mussels than for SV ones at DoS; no changes are observed for total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC). Hemocytes' viability is increased for E. gracilis diet at C and remains unchanged in this group of mussels when exposed at the polluted sites. Lysosomal membrane stability is higher in EG mussels than in SV ones for all conditions, although it is decreased at polluted sites compared with that at C. Antioxidant (catalase) and detoxifying (gluthatione S-transferase) defenses are generally lower in gills and digestive gland of EG mussels than in SV ones. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS) is evident in gills of EG mussels at C, and in digestive gland of the same group, at all the sites. Gill mass factor (GF) is affected by the E. gracilis diet; it is increased at C and decreased at polluted sites when compared with that of SV ones. Digestive gland mass factor (DGF) is higher in EG mussels than in SV ones. In D. chilensis

  11. Bioactivity of Peumus boldus Molina, Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav. Tul. and Laureliopsis philippiana (Looser Schodde (Monimiacea essential oils against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky

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    Carmen Herrera-Rodríguez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky is one of most important pest of stored seeds worldwide, but its current control method is based on the use of synthetic insecticides, usually leading to undesirable problems such as insecticide residues on treated food, human intoxications, and insect resistance development. Therefore the search of friendly alternative methods is required. The aim of this study was to assess, under laboratory conditions, the insecticidal properties of Peumus boldus Molina, Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav. Tul., and Laureliopsis philippiana (Looser Schodde essential oils against S. zeamais. The phytochemical analysis of the three essential oils showed 1,8-cineole, safrole and methyleugenol as the common components; all of them documented with insecticidal activity from essential oils from other plant species. The highest toxicity (100% mortality of these three oils acting as a contact insecticide was observed at 24 h exposure at 4% concentration. The estimated LC50 values for P. boldus, L. sempervirens, and L. philippiana were 0.37, 1.02, and 0.28 μL g-1, respectively. Peumus boldus exhibited the highest fumigant activity with 100% adult mortality at 30 μL oil L-1 air. At ≥ 0.5% (v/w concentration, all essential oils showed repellent activity. These three essential oils showed a promissory insecticidal activity against the maize weevil.

  12. Bioactivity of a water extract of boldus (Peumus boldus Molina against Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith and Helicoverpa zea Boddie (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Gonzalo Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal properties of water-extract of Peumus boldus Molina and its effect on the development cycle and feeding habits of Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith and Helicoverpa zea Boddie were evaluated under laboratory conditions in concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0% (w/w. Spodoptera frugiperda was the most susceptible with 75% mortality at 7 d at 8% P. boldus concentration, while H. zea had only 30% mortality. LC50 was 2.31 mL kg-1 for S. frugiperda and 16.05 mL kg¹ for H. zea. When the extract concentration increased in the diet, larval size and weight, percentage of pupation and number of adults decreased, and the time required to reach those states was greater. Neonate larvae fed primarily on the diet with the lower extract concentration and the control was preferred by more than 50% of larvae. Inhibition of feeding, growth, weight gain of 3rd instar larvae as well as new biomass production decreased with concentration of the extract.

  13. Landscape dynamics and fire activity since 6740 cal yr BP in the Cantabrian region (La Molina peat bog, Puente Viesgo, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Obiol, R.; García-Codron, J. C.; Pèlachs, A.; Pérez-Haase, A.; Soriano, J. M.

    2016-03-01

    A lack of paleobotanic studies with adequate resolution and multiproxy approaches has limited proper discussion of vegetation dynamics in Cantabria and of the role of fires in the configuration of the plant landscape during the Holocene in the northwest part of the Iberian peninsula. The pollen diagram of La Molina peat bog in Puente Viesgo (43°15‧38″ N-3°58‧37″ W; ETRS89), located at 484 m.a.s.l., and the study of its sedimentary charcoals allowed the acquisition of a continuous and thorough fire sequence for the last 6700 cal yr BP and an understanding of its relationship to the forest. The results show the importance of human influence on the incidence and characteristics of fire activity during the different phases studied: the Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age, Roman period, and Middle Ages. A synergy seems to exist between dry climate periods (especially during Bond events 3 and 4) and a greater presence of biomass. As the Holocene advances, vegetation coverage clearly tends to decrease. This study provides key elements for understanding the role of fire activity in the forest dynamics of deciduous and evergreen Quercus, Corylus, Pinus, Fagus, and Alnus and demonstrates the strongly artificialized character of the present landscape.

  14. Effect of vacuum storage on shelf life of a grain protector based on Peumus boldus Molina foliage powder and lime against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsk

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    Paulina Rivera

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, Coleoptera: Curculionidae is a key pest of stored grain maize. As an ecological pest control alternative, the use of botanical insecticides, such as powder from boldus (Peumus boldus Molina foliage singly or mixed with lime, has been evaluated. Unfortunately, its shelf life is very short and does not exceed 15 d. The effectiveness of vacuum storage on insecticidal properties of a natural grain protector produced with boldus powder:lime at proportions of 50:50 and 60:40 against adults of S. zeamais was assessed under laboratory conditions. Treatments were evaluated at 1% and 2% (w/w for 150 d of storage. All treatments based on boldus powder kept the level of mortality by contact activity over 80% at 150 d of storage. The highest toxicity, as a fumigant, was observed in treatments 50:50 at 2% and 60:40 at 1% and 2% with mortality over 60%. The grain weight loss was less than 1% and seed germination was not affected. With the exception of 0:100 at 2% without vacuum storage, all treatments were repellent to S. zeamais. Vacuum storage extended shelf life of the grain protector for 150 d.

  15. El uso de moluscos de agua dulce (Diplodon chilensis patagonicus en el sitio Angostura 1 (Departamento de General Conesa, Río Negro The use of freshwater mollusks (Diplodon Chilensis patagonicus at Angostura 1 site (General Conesa District, Río Negro province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Prates

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En esta nota se presentan los resultados del estudio de las valvas de moluscos de agua dulce (Diplodon chilensis patagonicus recuperadas en el componente inferior del sitio arqueológico Angostura 1 (Departamento de General Conesa, provincia de Río Negro. Los atributos tenidos en cuenta para el análisis de los especímenes fueron: lateralidad de las valvas, tamaño, estado de fragmentación y presencia de periostraco; en forma secundaria se consideraron otras variables tales como evidencias de combustión y relación espacial con el resto de los materiales. A partir de estos datos y de la información contextual se propone la asociación de las valvas con el registro arqueológico del sitio (materiales líticos, cerámicos, óseos y vegetales y se discuten algunos procesos de formación vinculados con la actividad humana.This note presents the results of an analysis of freshwater mollusk shells (Diplodon chilensis patagonicus recovered from the lower cultural component of the Angostura 1 archaeological site (General Conesa District, Rio Negro Province, Argentina. Primarily, morphological features of this assemblage were analyzed, including: laterality, size, state of fracture, and the presence of periostracum. Secondarily, burning evidence and spatial relationships were considered. Site formation processes linked to human activity are discussed in light of these results and the contextual information from the site, i.e., mollusk shells associated with other archaeological remains (lithics, pottery, bones, and organic remains. It is proposed that the presence of freshwater mollusk shells in Angostura 1 site is linked to human activity.

  16. How do cold-sensitive species endure ice ages? Phylogeographic and paleodistribution models of postglacial range expansion of the mesothermic drought-tolerant conifer Austrocedrus chilensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Cintia P; Kitzberger, Thomas; Arbetman, Marina P; Premoli, Andrea C

    2015-11-01

    In view of global climate change, it is important to understand the responses of tree species to climate changes in the past. Combinations of phylogeographic analysis of genetic evidence, coupled with species distribution models (SDMs), are improving our understanding on this subject. We combined SDMs and microsatellite data from populations of the entire range of Austrocedrus chilensis, a dominant mesotherm (cold-sensitive) conifer of dryland forests of the southern Andes, to test the hypothesis of long-distance postglacial migration from northern and warmer refugia at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The SDM indicated suitable conditions for Austrocedrus in northern Chile (western) at the LGM and largely unsuitable conditions in Argentina (eastern). Population genetic diversity and effective population sizes within populations decreased southward along the Andes, consistent with the hypothesis of long-distance dispersal from a northern refugium. Results support the hypothesis of one (or a few) warmer (low latitude) refugia in Chile for Austrocedrus. On balance, the evidence suggests that in contrast to cold-tolerant tree taxa with the capacity to fast-track postglacial warming thanks to local refugia, cold-sensitive species might have undergone long-distance range expansion, lagging behind progressive climate change throughout the Holocene. PMID:26079667

  17. Caracterización de los suelos de usos agrícolas e industrial de la comarca de Molina de Segura (Murcia) para una planificación racional del territorio

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez García, Ana María

    2016-01-01

    El presente estudio pretende conocer la situación actual de los suelos de la comarca de Molina de Segura (Murcia) así como ver si presentan una planificación racional del territorio ya que no había estudios anteriores que caracterizaran tan detalladamente los tipos y usos de los suelos de esta comarca. Los dos principales tipos de suelos presentes son Regosoles calcáricos (suelos poco evolucionados con un horizonte A ócrico en superficie como único horizonte diagnóstico y con abundante car...

  18. Distribución paleogeográfica de las unidades del Pérmico y del Triásico en el sector Molina de Aragón-Albarracín.

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Arlucea, Marta

    1987-01-01

    [ES] En los sistemas Pérmico y Triásico del sector Molina de Aragón- Albarracín (Cordillera Ibérica) se pueden diferenciar dieciséis unidades litoestratigráficas. La inferior no ha podido datarse en esta zona, pero por su posición estratigráfica y características litológicas puede ser equivalente a unidades descritas como "Autuniense" por autores previos, en áreas próximas. Por encima aparece una unidad terrígena correspondiente a las facies Saxoniense, que al SE es concorda...

  19. Recruitment Dynamics of the Relict Palm, Jubaea chilensis: Intricate and Pervasive Effects of Invasive Herbivores and Nurse Shrubs in Central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Marina; Marcelo, Wara; Vásquez, Rodrigo A; González, Luis Alberto; Bustamante, Ramiro O

    2015-01-01

    Shrubs can have a net positive effect on the recruitment of other species, especially relict species in dry-stressful conditions. We tested the effects of nurse shrubs and herbivory defoliation on performance (survival and growth) of nursery-grown seedlings of the largest living palm, the relict wine palm Jubaea chilensis. During an 18-month period, a total of more than 300 seedlings were exposed to of four possible scenarios produced by independently weakening the effects of nurse shrubs and browsers. The experiment followed a two-way fully factorial design. We found consistent differences in survival between protected and unprotected seedlings (27.5% and 0.7%, respectively), and herbivory had a dramatic and overwhelmingly negative effect on seedling survival. The invasive rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is clearly creating a critical bottleneck in the regeneration process and might, therefore, partially explain the general lack of natural regeneration of wine palms under natural conditions. Apparently biotic filters mediated by ecological interactions are more relevant in the early stages of recruitment than abiotic, at least in invaded sites of central Chile. Our data reveal that plant-plant facilitation relationship may be modulated by plant-animal interactions, specifically by herbivory, a common and widespread ecological interaction in arid and semi-arid environments whose role has been frequently neglected. Treatments that protect young wine palm seedlings are mandatory to enable the seedlings to attain a height at which shoots are no longer vulnerable to browsing. Such protection is an essential first step toward the conservation and reintroduction of this emblematic and threatened species. PMID:26218100

  20. Cruzamientos interpoblacionales en Mytilus chilensis, un bivalvo de importancia comercial y sus efectos sobre el crecimiento en longitud de la valva durante la etapa larval Inter-population breeding in Mytilus chilensis, an economically important bivalve, and its effects on the shell length during the larval stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JE Toro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dos poblaciones naturales de Mytilus chilensis aisladas geográficamente fueron utilizadas para realizar los cruzamientos experimentales en el presente trabajo. En todos los cruzamientos, utilizando un diseño factorial con réplicas, ocurrió fertilización de las ovas, no detectándose diferencias significativas entre los cruzamientos intra e interpoblacionales en cuanto al porcentaje de ovas que desarrollaron larvas al día 4 (P > 0,05. Sin embargo, el porcentaje de larvas anormales al día 4 fue significativamente mayor en los cruzamientos interpoblacionales (P Two geographically separated natural populations of Mytilus chilensis were utilized to carry out the experimental crosses on the present study. In every crossing, using the factorial design with replication, fertilization of eggs occurred without detection of significant differences among inter and intra-population crosses in relation to percentage of eggs developed into larvae at day 4 (P > 0.05. However, the percentage of abnormal larvae at day 4, was significantly higher among inter-population crosses (P < 0.05. The larvae from each cross were placed into a 200 l fiber-glass tank containing 1 µm filtered and U.V. treated fresh sea water, at a density of 100 larvae per ml. A high cell concentration of the micro algae Isochrysis galbana was used as food. Samples for analyzing larval growth were taken from the larval cultures at 4, 10 and 20 days after fertilization. Larval samples were videotyped from a plankton decantation chamber in an inverted microscope fitted with a Pulnex video camera. Selected images were captured for subsequent processing and measurement of each larva using a Scion Image 3.0b PC Software. Significantly differences (P < 0.05 were found in the size of the larvae among the experimental crosses. The sibs from inter-population crosses showed significantly (P < 0.05 higher sizes than those produced by the intra-population crosses. These higher values in the shell

  1. COMPARAÇÃO DA QUALIDADE SANITÁRIA ENTRE AMOSTRAS DE Peumus boldus Molina INDUSTRIALIZADAS E ARTESANAIS DO MUNICÍPIO DE CURRAIS NOVOS, RN.

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    Fabio Gonçalves Macêdo de Medeiros

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As plantas medicinais, embora constituam válida vertente da Medicina Tradicional, quando mal utilizadas representam risco potencial a saúde humana. O consumo de produtos contaminados pode gerar intoxicações diversas por subprodutos advindos de microrganismos patogênicos. O presente trabalho objetivou a avaliação da qualidade microbiológica de amostras de Peumus boldus Molina artesanais, comercializadas na feira popular, e compará-la com a qualidade microbiológica de amostras da mesma espécie industrializadas, comercializadas no comércio varejista local. Foram quantificados: aeróbios mesófilos (ágar Padrão de Contagem, 35±1°C/24h, coliformes totais/Escherichia coli (teste presuntivo: caldo LST, 35±0,5°C/24-48±2; CT: caldo VB, 35±0,5°C/24-48±2; E. coli: caldo EC, 44,5±0,2°C/24±2h; ágar L-EMB, 35±0,5°C/24±2h, bolores e leveduras (ágar Batata Dextrosado Acidificado, 25±1°C/5 dias e Staphylococcus aureus (ágar Baird-Parker, 35-37°C/24±2h. Para a confirmação de E. coli, colônias foram submetidas às provas bioquímicas da série IMViC. A E. coli estava presente em 10% das amostras, o S. aureus em 50%, bolores e leveduras em 80% e aeróbios mesófilos em 100% das amostras analisadas. O estudo revelou que a tanto amostras industrializadas quanto artesanais não estavam de acordo com as recomendações de padrões sanitários e microbiológicos adequados para o comércio, caracterizando-se como riscos potenciais à Saúde Pública.

  2. Análise da contaminação fúngica em amostras de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene e Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (boldo-do-Chile comercializadas na cidade de Campinas, Brasil Analysis of the fungal contamination in Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene and Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (boldo-do-Chile sold in Campinas, Brazil

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    Liliana de O. Rocha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A sociedade atual tem buscado a fitoterapia como um importante recurso terapêutico, sendo a avaliação da qualidade microbiológica destes produtos um requisito essencial, considerando a sua origem. Deste modo, o objetivo da pesquisa foi realizar a contagem e a identificação de fungos filamentosos em 20 amostras de folhas de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene e de Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (boldo-do-Chile comercializadas em farmácias de manipulação e mercados da cidade de Campinas, Brasil, usando as técnicas microbiológicas clássicas. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que 45% das amostras analisadas se situavam fora dos padrões estabelecidos pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas na análise quantitativa da contaminação fúngica entre amostras comercializadas em farmácias de manipulação e mercados, tanto para o boldo-do-Chile como para a sene. Os fungos identificados nestas amostras foram: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Phoma, Cladosporium, Trichoderma, Rhizopus, Mucor, Aureobasidium pullulans, Mycelia sterilia, Acremonium e Monilia sitophila. Estes resultados demonstraram o baixo nível de qualidade desses fitoterápicos, pois, além do elevado número de amostras contaminadas, foram identificados fungos de gêneros produtores de micotoxinas, como o Aspergillus e o Penicillium. Verifica-se a urgência na realização de adequado controle de qualidade microbiológico dos fitoterápicos e de implantação de fiscalização efetiva, para garantir a segurança e eficácia destes produtos.The consumption of medicinal plants has increased during the last years. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and identify fungi specimens present in samples of Cassia acutifolia Delile (20 (sene and Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (Boldo-do-Chile (20, that were purchased in drugstores and markets of Campinas, Brazil, by usual methods. The results showed that 45% of samples did not fit the minimum

  3. Los sueños tristes de este amor extraño : Molina encuentra a la Manuela con guión de Puig, Donoso, Ripstein y Sarduy

    OpenAIRE

    Corbatta, Jorgelina

    2015-01-01

    Mi artículo explora la imagen del homosexual travesti como el producto/proyecto final de una construcción cuyas partes están en la figura de Molina en El beso de la mujer araña (l976) de Manuel Puig, la Manuela en El lugar sin límites (l966) de José Donoso y su adaptación al cine por Arturo Ripstein en el film homónimo (l976), en diálogo con textos de Sarduy sobre ambos escritores y, en especial, «Escritura/Travestismo» (Escrito sobre un cuerpo, l969).Tenemos entonces que en el lapso de diez ...

  4. El método retrospectivo en la enseñanza de la Historia : Algunas reflexiones a partir del compromiso docente de Susana Simián de Molinas

    OpenAIRE

    Diburzi, Nélida; Scaraffia, Inés

    2006-01-01

    Susana Simián de Molinas es una docente de larga y destacada trayectoria en la educación dentro de la ciudad de Santa Fe, donde trabajó en instituciones que en la década del 60 y primeros años de los ’70, fueron notables como ámbitos de experimentación pedagógica y didáctica. En la Argentina de entonces corrían tiempos de búsqueda, de innovación, de creatividad en todos los ámbitos; también eran tiempos de indagación y criticidad frente al pasado nacional, al cual se veía como una clave para ...

  5. Caractérisation botanique et agronomique de trois espèces de cucurbites consommées en sauce en Afrique de l'Ouest : Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin et Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoro Bi I.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Botanical and agronomical characterisation of three species of cucurbit consumed as sauce in West Africa: Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin and Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. There are in Côte d'Ivoire at least five species of cucurbit incorrectly called ""pistaches"" in town and cultivated at small scale by women for their oleaginous seeds that are a great importance in the sociocultural live of several peoples. Nevertheless, few studies aimed at the improvement of these plants (related notably to taxonomy, genetic resources collecting missions, genetic characterisation, agronomic evaluation, and selection have been carried out. In order to set up a list of reliable traits that should be examined easily during and after collecting missions, we carry out in the present study, for three species (Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin and Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl a botanic description and an analysis of eleven agronomic traits: 100-seeds weight, germination rate, seedlings emergence time, matured fruit weight, matured fruit decomposition time, mean number of seeds per fruit, seeds shape, fruit diameter, fruit interior cavity diameter, flowering time, and fruiting time. Statistical analyses using nine of these traits showed that the three species can be completely distinguished with six traits whereas the three other traits allowed partial distinction. Low yields have been observed for the three species: 11.41 kg/ha of decorticated seeds for C. mannii, 18.51 kg/ha for Citrullus sp. and 75.14 kg/ha for L. siceraria. From the observed yield components, the possibilities to improve the production of these cucurbits are discussed.

  6. Composición y vida útil de carne cocida de cangrejo dorado (Chaceon chilensis proveniente del archipiélago de Juan Fernández, Chile Composition and shelf life of golden crab (Chaceon chilensis cooked meat from Juan Fernandez archipelago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cifuentes de la T.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la composición química, rendimiento de carne, las características sensoriales y la perecibilidad del crustáceo no explotado cangrejo dorado (Chaceon chilensis, del archipiélago de Juan Fernández. Se determinó el contenido proteico, lípidos, cenizas, humedad, bases volátiles totales (BVT, amoníaco e indol. Cangrejos dorados se sometieron a cocción en agua potable hirviendo y posteriormente se dividieron en 2 grupos: a carne separada en forma manual y almacenada a temperatura entre 4 a 6ºC, y b cangrejos enteros almacenados a la misma temperatura de 4 a 6ºC. La evaluación sensorial se realizó a través de un grupo de panelistas semi-entrenados los cuales evaluaron las características organolépticas: olor, textura, sabor y color. De acuerdo a los resultados, la especie posee una composición proximal similar a la de jaiba común (Homalaspis plana; su rendimiento en carne total alcanza al 25,1%, correspondiendo a las pinzas, en proporción, el mayor porcentaje. La vida útil de la carne cocida y almacenada a temperatura de refrigeración fue de 3-4 días. La carne extraída desde cangrejos enteros almacenados en las mismas condiciones de temperatura tuvo una duración de 5-6 días. En ambos casos, las BVT fueron el índice químico más representativo de la variación de calidad. En conformidad a la aceptabilidad sensorial, rendimientos y perecibilidad, la especie presenta perspectivas comerciales similares a las de la especie jaiba comúnChemical composition, meat yield, and shelf-life of under utilized crustacean "golden crab" (Chaceon chilensis from Juan Fernandez archipelago were determined. Proteins, lipids, ash, moisture content, total volatile bases (TVBN, ammonia and indol were determined. Golden crab was cooked in boiling water and then divided in two groups: a In sample 1, meat was removed by hand after boiling and then stored at 4-6ºC; b In sample 2 whole cooked crab was stored at the same temperature

  7. Factores que afectan la distribución circular del muérdago sin hojas Tristerix aphyllus (Loranthaceae sobre el cacto Echinopsis chilensis Factors affecting the circular distribution of the leafless mistletoe Tristerix aphyllus (Loranthaceae on the cactus Echinopsis chilensis

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    CAREZZA BOTTO-MAHAN

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Describimos el patrón de emergencia del muérdago holoparásito Tristerix aphyllus desde su cacto hospedador Echinopsis chilensis en un ecosistema semiárido de Chile. La distribución circular de las inflorescencias del parásito difirió significativamente de una distribución uniforme basada en un proceso aleatorio. Cuantificamos la distribución circular de las semillas defecadas sobre la superficie del cacto por el mímido Mimus thenca, el único ave responsable de la dispersión del muérdago. Nuestros datos no sostuvieron la idea de una deposición de semillas direccional por parte del ave. Para someter a prueba la hipótesis que la distribución circular observada es atribuible a una sobrevivencia diferencial de las semillas debido a variación térmica entre micrositios, infectamos cactos con semillas de T. aphyllus cada 30º y evaluamos la temperatura asociada a cada ángulo. Aun cuando las semillas ubicadas en ángulos con mayor exposición solar presentaron la menor formación de disco haustorial, esta variación en mortalidad no fue suficiente para dar cuenta de la polaridad angular observada. No obstante, las inflorescencias de T. aphyllus que emergieron 17 meses después de la infección experimental, revelaron estadígrafos circulares indistinguibles de aquellos observados en la situación natural. La inspección de la estructura anatómica en dos ángulos opuestos de la cactácea reveló diferencias en la constitución de la epidermis, observándose un espesor en promedio cuatro veces mayor en las muestras orientadas hacia el norte que en las orientadas hacia el sur debido a la formación de corteza altamente lignificada. Sugerimos que la formación de corteza es probablemente el factor más importante en determinar la distribución circular sesgada de T. aphyllusWe describe the pattern of emergence of the holoparasitic mistletoe Tristerix aphyllus from its cactus host Echinopsis chilensis in a semiarid Chilean ecosystem. The

  8. Importance and practices of Egusi crops (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin and Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. cv. 'Aklamkpa' in sociolinguistic areas in Benin

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    Coulibaly O.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance et culture de Egusi (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin et Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. cv ' Aklamkpa ' dans les régions sociolinguistiques du Bénin. Les légumes traditionnels africains sont considérés comme potentiellement utiles pour contribuer à la sécurité alimentaire et à la génération de revenu au niveau des communautés locales. Cependant, Egusi (Citrullus lanatus subsp. mucosospermus, Cucumeropsis mannii et Lagenaria siceraria cv. ' Aklamkpa ' a rarement fait l'objet de recherche et de promotion alors que sa culture persiste dans les systèmes de production de plusieurs pays de l'Afrique de l'Ouest. Cette étude met l'accent sur le rôle social des cultures de Egusi et leur importance dans le système de production des groupes sociolinguistiques au Bénin. En 2005, une investigation des systèmes de production et de culture de cinq régions socioculturelles prédominantes indique que la culture de Egusi est classée parmi les dix premières spéculations, selon la perception des ménages interrogés. Le rang attribué aux cultures de Egusi est relatif au genre mais pas à l'âge. Les agriculteurs allouent en moyenne 0,74 ha pour la production de Egusi, avec une différence significative d'une région sociolinguistique à une autre. Dans la communauté Mahi-Fon du centre Bénin, par exemple, nous avons observé des champs de production de Egusi allant jusqu'à 5 ha. L'espèce la plus cultivée est C. lanatus subsp. mucosospermus. Cependant, dans la communauté Adja du sud Bénin, la préférence des agriculteurs est pour L. siceraria cv. ' Aklamkpa '. Egusi se cultive au champ et en jardin de case, soit en association ou en monoculture. C. mannii est généralement cultivée en association et joue un rôle social très important dans les communautés Nagot-Yoruba. Bien que Egusi ne soit pas une culture réservée aux femmes, ces dernières réalisent la plupart des activit

  9. Avaliação da qualidade de amostras comerciais de boldo (Peumus boldus Molina, pata-de-vaca (Bauhinia spp. e ginco (Ginkgo biloba L. Control quality evaluation of commercial samples of boldo (Peumus boldus Molina, pata-de-vaca (Bauhinia spp. and ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.

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    J. G. de Melo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho procurou avaliar a qualidade de produtos comercializados à base de boldo, pata-de-vaca e ginco, através dos parâmetros contidos na Farmacopéia Brasileira e na literatura específica. Foram analisadas oito amostras de boldo, nove de pata-de-vaca e sete de ginco, adquiridas em farmácias na cidade do Recife. A metodologia consistiu em avaliar: os rótulos e bulas dos produtos verificando se estavam de acordo com a RDC n o 17 de 24/02/2000 e a portaria 110/97 da ANVISA; realizar análise sensorial; verificar a autenticidade das amostras e sua pureza. Todas as embalagens de boldo, pata-de-vaca e seis de ginco continham erros ou ausência de informações científicas, além da falta de bula. Na verificação de impurezas, todas as de boldo, cinco de pata-de-vaca, e uma amostra de ginco foram reprovadas. Todos os produtos analisados apresentaram alguma irregularidade segundo os códigos oficiais, sendo necessário uma maior intensificação na vigilância de produtos à base de plantas medicinais no Brasil.This study aimed to evaluate the quality of commercial products prepared with boldo (Peumus boldus Molina, pata-de-vaca (Bauhinia spp. and ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L. by using parameters from the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia and specific literature. Eight samples of "boldo", nine of "pata-de-vaca", and seven of ginkgo were analyzed, all bought from pharmacies in Recife (Pernambuco, Brazil. The methodology consisted in evaluating the products’ labels and instructions to verify their accordance to RDC n o 17 of 02/24/2000 and ANVISA (National Sanitary Surveillance Agency decree 110/97, undertaking a sensorial analysis, and verifying the authenticity and purity of the samples. All of the packages of "boldo" and "pata-de-vaca" and six of the packages of ginkgo contained mistakes or lacked scientific information; instructions were also missing. After analyzing for impurities, all samples of "boldo", five of "pata-de-vaca", and one of

  10. La dieta y la fauna de parásitos metazoos del torito Bovichthys chilensis Regan 1914 (Pisces: Bovichthydae en la costa de Chile centro-sur: variaciones geográficas y ontogenéticas Diet and metazoan parasite fauna of the thornfish Bovichthys chilensis Regan 1914 (Pisces: Bovichthydae on the coast of central-south Chile: geographical and ontogenetic variations

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    GABRIELA MUÑOZ

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Conocer qué, cuánto, cuándo y dónde comen y viven los hospedadores permitiría complementar los estudios parasitarios, ya que la transmisión de los endoparásitos está estrechamente ligada a la dieta, y la de los ectoparásitos al uso del hábitat. Por esto, se describen y comparan la composición y características cuantitativas de la dieta y de las infracomunidades de parásitos metazoos del torito Bovichthys chilensis con datos obtenidos de 108 ejemplares juveniles recolectados desde la zona intermareal de cuatro localidades de la costa de Chile (entre 33º y 40º S, y de 14 adultos recolectados desde el submareal somero de una quinta localidad (36º S, y se discute los resultados a la luz de los cambios ontogenéticos en el nicho de este huésped. Cerca del 70 % de los ejemplares tenía contenido alimentario, en el que se distinguieron 25 ítems presa, de los cuales sólo uno era compartido entre juveniles y adultos. La dieta de los toritos juveniles estuvo compuesta principalmente por anfípodos y la de los adultos por crustáceos decápodos. Cerca de un 40 % de los toritos albergaba un total de 624 parásitos en los que se reconocieron 16 taxa, y sólo cuatro eran compartidos entre juveniles y adultos. En los toritos juveniles muestreados en las cuatro localidades había baja y similar intensidad total, riqueza y diversidad parasitarias, y variaciones geográficas significativas en la prevalencia total, composición de la dieta y de las infracomunidades de parásitos. La falta de una relación clara entre la composición de la dieta y del parasitismo en los toritos juveniles puede deberse a que las parasitosis son necesariamente recientes, y a que pueden haber grandes diferencias en el tiempo de residencia de presas y parásitos en el tracto digestivo. En los toritos adultos hubo mayor prevalencia, intensidad y diversidad de parásitos que en los juveniles de una localidad cercana. Se requieren más estudios, en especial en la

  11. Efecto del Compost de Biosólidos en la producción de plantines de Austrocedrus Chilensis (ciprés de la cordillera Effect of Biosolids Compost on seedling production of Austrocedrus Chilensis (ciprés de la cordillera

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    Gustavo Basil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de compost de residuos urbanos como sustrato en contenedores es una alternativa interesante a nivel económico y ambiental, dado que reduciría el uso de turba y «tierra negra» en la producción de plantines, y la disposición de residuos en vertederos. En el presente trabajo se estudió el efecto de 0, 30 y 50% de compost de biosólidos en el crecimiento inicial (primer año de ciprés de la cordillera, y el efecto durante los dos años siguientes de un tratamiento único con 50% de compost en el crecimiento posterior y el estado nutricional de los plantines. Se determinó diámetro y altura a 18, 25 y 37 meses, biomasa aérea y radicular a 25 y 37 meses, y concentración foliar de C, N, P, K, Ca y Mg a 37 meses. A pesar de que los tres tratamientos iniciales fueron homogeneizados al año en un único tratamiento con 50% de compost, se encontraron diferencias significativas de diámetro, altura y biomasa aérea y radicular entre los tratamientos originales en todas las fechas analizadas, correspondiendo los mayores valores a los tratamientos con compost. Al finalizar el ensayo, las concentraciones foliares de nutrientes fueron muy similares en todos los plantines, excepto Mg que fue mayor en el tratamiento original con 50% de compost. Los resultados muestran la importancia de los primeros meses de crecimiento en el desarrollo posterior de los plantines de ciprés y el valor potencial de los compost de biosólidos como sustrato para la producción de esta especie en contenedores.Using composts of urban waste, including biosolids, as substrates for containerized plant production is a sound economic and environmental alternative, since it could reduce the use of peat- and «black earth»-based media, and the disposal of organic wastes in landfills. The objectives of this work were to study the effect of 0, 30 and 50% biosolids compost on the initial growth (first year of cypress (Austrocedrus chilensis D. Don, and the effect

  12. Community structure of the macroinfauna in the sediments below an intertidal mussel bed (Mytilus chilensis (Hupe of southern Chile Estructura comunitaria de la macroinfauna en los sedimentos bajo un banco intermareal de bivalvos (Mytilus chilensis (Hupe en el sur de Chile

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    CRISTIAN DUARTE

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The mytilid mussel Mytilus chilensis (Hupe can form dense beds in sedimentary areas of the inland coast of the Nord-Patagonic archipelagos of the Chilean coast (ca. 40-43° S. During the autumn of 2002, we collected replicated samples at five intertidal stations in Panitao (Golfo de Reloncaví ordered along a transect parallel to the low tide level and extended from the center of the bank (stations one and two with 100 and ca. 25 % of mussel cover, respectively to the bare sediments of the intertidal (stations 3, 4 and 5, without mussels. The macroinfauna was numerically dominated by Polychaeta, Oligochaeta and Crustacea Peracarida. The total number of species collected was 14, being the most abundant the polychaete Perinereis vallata, oligochaetes from the family Tubificidae and the crustacean amphipod Corophium insidiosum. The number of species, Shannon-Wiener diversity and total abundance of the macroinfauna did not differ significantly among stations. However, the percent contribution of polychaetes was significantly higher at the sediments sampled outside the mussel bed (stations three, four and five, while the percentual contribution of oligochaetes was significantly higher at the sediments sampled in the mussel bed (stations one and two. No significant differences were found between the percentual contribution of peracarid crustaceans between stations sampled in the mussel bed versus that sampled on the bare intertidal. The graphic results of NMMDS show that the macroinfaunal assemblage of the stations located inside the mussel bed differed from that of stations located outside the bed. Results of SIMPER and ANOSIM showed that the macroinfaunal composition of stations one and two was significantly dissimilar (61-54 % to that of the stations located outside the mussel bed, which had similar composition. The graphic results of a NMMDS based upon sedimentological characteristics show that most replicates of station one and some of station

  13. A polymorphic form of 4,4-dimethyl-8-methylene-3-azabicyclo[3.3.1]non-2-en-2-yl 3-indolyl ketone, an indole alkaloid extracted from Aristotelia chilensis (maqui).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Cristian; Becerra, José; Silva, Mario; Freire, Eleonora; Baggio, Ricardo

    2013-12-15

    The title compound [systematic name: (4,4-dimethyl-8-methylene-3-azabicyclo[3.3.1]non-2-en-2-yl)(1H-indol-3-yl)methanone], C20H22N2O, (II), was obtained from mother liquors extracted from Aristotelia chilensis (commonly known as maqui), a native Chilean tree. The compound is a polymorphic form of that obtained from the same source and reported by Watson, Nagl, Silva, Cespedes & Jakupovic [Acta Cryst. (1989), C45, 1322-1324], (Ia). The molecule consists of an indolyl ketone fragment and a nested three-ring system, with both groups linked by a C-C bridge. Comparison of both forms shows that they do not differ in their gross features but in the relative orientation of the two ring systems, due to different rotations around the bridge, as measured by the O=C-C=N torsion angle [130.0 (7)° in (Ia) and 161.6 (2)° in (II)]. The resulting slight conformational differences are reflected in a number of intramolecular contacts being observed in (II) but not in (Ia). Regarding intermolecular interactions, both forms share a similar N-H···O synthon but with differing hydrogen-bonding strength, leading in both cases to C(6) catemers with different chain motifs. There are marked differences between the two forms regarding colour and the (de)localization of a double bond, which allows speculation about the possible existence of different variants of this type of molecule. PMID:24311501

  14. PLAN DE ECOEFICIENCIA EN EL USO DEL AGUA POTABLE Y ANÁLISIS DE SU CALIDAD EN LAS ÁREAS ACADÉMICAS Y ADMINISTRATIVAS DE LA UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL AGRARIA LA MOLINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Advíncula Zeballos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de línea base para establecer un plan de Ecoeficiencia para el uso del Agua potable en las instalaciones de las áreas académicas y administrativas de la Universidad Nacional Agraria la Molina (UNALM, entre Se tiembre del 2011 y Agos to del año 2012, de acuerdo a la metodología propuesta por el Ministerio del Ambiente (MINAM en el 2009, como consecuencia de la promulgación de la Ley N° 29289 que determina que todas las instituciones del Estado deben adoptar medidas de ecoeficiencia. En este sentido, el presente estudio se elaboró con el objetivo de que la UNALM esté a la par con otras instituciones que ya cuentan con una línea base, la cual incluye un inventario de los equipos sanitarios, la identificación de prácticas inadecuadas y la evaluación del consumo de agua en las áreas administrativas y académicas. Durante la etapa de formulación del plan de ecoeficiencia se tomó las conclusiones de la línea base para identificar las medidas a adoptar en la minimización del consumo del agua. Se encontró que la UNALM posee equipos sanitarios antiguos con elevados consumos de agua y en mal estado; siendo el sector de los estudiantes el más crítico, con un 21% de equipos (inodoros y urinarios en mal estado. Mediante la división del consumo de agua y el promedio de personas en las instalaciones se obtuvo el consumo diario de agua promedio per cápita para los profesores fue de 14.38 litros/persona y para el personal administrativo de la Biblioteca Agrícola Nacional (BAN de 9.89 litros/persona, valores que estuvieron por debajo del valor establecido por el MINAM para instituciones públicas (82.1 litros/persona. Los análisis físico-químicos y microbiológicos realizados al agua utilizada en los servicios higiénicos de los alumnos, facultades y el Rectorado, han determinando que no cumplen con los parámetros exigidos en la Ley de Aguas para Consumo Humano. En base al diagnóstico realizado con la informaci

  15. Zooplankton characterisation of Pampean saline shallow lakes, habitat of the Andean flamingoes

    OpenAIRE

    Yamila S. Battauz; Susana B. José de Paggi; Juan C. Paggi; Marcelo Romano; Ignacio Barberis

    2013-01-01

    The lowland saline shallow lakes in the Pampa de las Lagunas (Argentina), constitute an important habitat for flamingoes Phoenicopterus chilensis Molina and Phoenicoparrus andinus (Philippii). Little is known about the zooplankton communities of these systems, and their relationships with the temporal and spatial distribution of flamingoes. Ten shallow lakes in the Pampean region were studied in 2009 and 2010 winters, and in 2010 summer in order to assess the abundance, size and biomass of zo...

  16. Fijacion primaria y variaciones morfologicas, durante la metamorfosis de algunos bivalvos chilenos

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Uribe Barichivith; Daniel López Stefoni

    1980-01-01

    The larval primary settlement and the changes originated during the metamorphosis of some species of Chilean bivalves, are comparatively studied, being described, the larval and post - larval stages from the veliconcha to late plantigrade. By observing in ropes "anchovetera" nets and plankton samples, in the mitiliculture of Codihué (41º 46'S; 73º 24'W), it was verified for Mytilus chilensis Hupé, 1854 and Aulacomya ater (Molina, 1782), primary settlement on the filamentous algae of genera En...

  17. 与瓠瓜品系'J083'白粉病抗性基因连锁的SCAR分子标记%SCAR marker linked to resistance gene of powdery mildew in bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.] breeding line J083

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲平; 吴晓花; 汪宝根; 徐沛; 李国景

    2011-01-01

    The genetic analysis of bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.] resistance to powdery mildew was evaluated with a highly resistant breeding line J083 and a highly susceptible breeding line J73 and their F1, F2 populations. The results showed that the resistance to powdery mildew in J083 was controlled by a single recessive gene. From 100 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) primer pair combinations, a pair of stable polymorphic AFLP markers (E-ATG/M-CTC), 105 bp in size was obtained. The AFLP fragment was then converted to a sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker, named as GPDSATG/CTC75. This SCAR marker could be used effectively for molecular markerassisted selection (MAS) in breeding programs to develop bottle gourd cultivars resistance to powdery mildew.%以瓠瓜抗白粉病品系'J083'和感病品系'J73'及它们的F1代和F2代分离群体为试验材料,经接种鉴定和抗性遗传规律分析表明:瓠瓜品系'J083'对白粉病的抗性受单隐性基因控制;从100对扩增片段长度多态性(AFLP)引物组合中获得稳定的多态性引物组合1对,即E-ATG/M-CTC;经回收、测序,特异片段全长为105 bp,并成功将其转化为序列特征性扩增区域(SCAR)标记;经连锁分析,该SCAR标记与白粉病抗性基因的连锁距离为9.6 cM,将其命名为GPDSATG/CTC75.此标记可用于瓠瓜抗白粉病品种的辅助选育.

  18. Fijacion primaria y variaciones morfologicas, durante la metamorfosis de algunos bivalvos chilenos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Uribe Barichivith

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available The larval primary settlement and the changes originated during the metamorphosis of some species of Chilean bivalves, are comparatively studied, being described, the larval and post - larval stages from the veliconcha to late plantigrade. By observing in ropes "anchovetera" nets and plankton samples, in the mitiliculture of Codihué (41º 46'S; 73º 24'W, it was verified for Mytilus chilensis Hupé, 1854 and Aulacomya ater (Molina, 1782, primary settlement on the filamentous algae of genera Enteromorpha with an average size of 33º µ high, minimum average of definitive settlement, byssus positional changes, etc. Information concerning average and number of larval and post - larval attachment to different deep and inmersión period and morphological characters of larval and post - larval of: Bankia martensi Stempell, 1898 (Teredinidae, Pholas chiloensis (Molina, 1782 (Pholadidae y Chlamys patriae Doello Jurado, 1918 (Pectinidae, are also given.

  19. SPECIES DIVERSITY OF LONG GOURD LAGENARIA SICERARIA (MOLINA STANDL

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    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of international spread of fruits of long gourd lagenaria and the introduction of it in culture are considered in the article. We have shown how to use it as a vegetable crop and considered varietal diversity of this species. The biological characteristics of lagenaria cultivation as vegetable plants, including peculiarities of the reproductive system have been marked. We have also considered the issues of cultivation and distribution of long gourd lagenaria (zycca for food

  20. Reestablecimiento de Choromytilus chorus (Molina, 1782 (Bivalvia: Mytilidae en el norte de Chile Reestablishment of Choromytilus chorus (Molina, 1782 (Bivalvia: Mytilidae in northern Chile

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    Miguel Avendaño

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Hasta fines del siglo pasado no existían registros de la presencia de Choromytilus chorus al norte de los 23°S, pese a antecedentes que señalaban su existencia en épocas pasadas. Ciertos cambios relacionados con las masas de agua costeras de esta zona, habrían generado la ausencia o escasez que presentaba el entorno costero actual. Sin embargo, hace una década atrás, su presencia en el norte de Chile, comienza a tener connotación pesquera. En el presente trabajo se confirma su reestablecimiento en las regiones de Antofagasta y Tarapacá, mediante prospecciones realizadas en seis lugares donde se registró su presencia, así como mediante la captación de semilla en colectores suspendidos. Se indica interacción con Aulacomya ater, a la cual ha desplazado a estratos más profundos, mientras que su reestablecimiento, iniciado en las regiones de Atacama y Antofagasta, y que se amplió posteriormente a la región de Tarapacá; permite postular la hipótesis que la dinámica de estos bancos, respondería a una estructura de metapoblación, dado el sistema de corrientes y vientos que predominan en la zona norte, permitiendo la advección larval de poblaciones existentes en la región de Coquimbo.Despite indications of its presence in past ages, until the end of the last century, no records showed Choromytilus chorus north of 23°S. Certain changes related to coastal water masses in the zone could be responsible for the present lack or scarcity of this species in the coastal area. However, a decade ago, this species appeared in northern Chile in the context of fisheries. This study confirms the re-establishment of C. chorus in the Antofagasta and Tarapaca regions through surveys at six sites where the species had been registered and spat collection using suspended collectors. This species has interacted with Aulacomya ater, displacing it towards deeper habitats. The re-establishment of C. chorus began in the Atacama and Antofagasta regions and later extended to the Tarapaca region. Thus, we hypothesize that the dynamics of these shoals correspond to a metapopulation structure that has allowed larval advection, given the current system and predominant winds in the northern zone, from populations existing in the Coquimbo region.

  1. The adhesive protein of Choromytilus chorus (Molina, 1782) and Aulacomya ater (Molina, 1782): a proline-rich and a glycine-rich polyphenolic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burzio, L A; Saéz, C; Pardo, J; Waite, J H; Burzio, L O

    2000-06-15

    The adhesive polyphenolic proteins from Aulacomya ater and Choromytilus chorus with apparent molecular masses of 135000 and 105000, respectively, were digested with trypsin and the peptides produced resolved by reversed phase liquid chromatography. About 5 and 12 major peptides were obtained from the protein of A. ater and C. chorus, respectively. The major peptides were purified by reverse-phase chromatography and the amino acid sequence indicates that both polyphenolic proteins consisted of repeated sequence motifs in their primary structure. The major peptides of A. ater contain seven amino acids corresponding to the consensus sequence AGYGGXK, whereas the tyrosine was always found as 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (Dopa), the X residue in position 6 was either valine, leucine or isoleucine, and the carboxy terminal was either lysine or hydroxylysine. On the other hand, the major peptides of C. chorus ranged in size from 6 to 21 amino acids and the majority correspond to the consensus sequence AKPSKYPTGYKPPVK. Both proteins differ markedly in the sequence of their tryptic peptides, but they share the common characteristics of other adhesive proteins in having a tandem sequence repeat in their primary structure. PMID:11004549

  2. Reestablecimiento de Choromytilus chorus (Molina, 1782) (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) en el norte de Chile Reestablishment of Choromytilus chorus (Molina, 1782) (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) in northern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Avendaño; Marcela Cantillánez

    2011-01-01

    Hasta fines del siglo pasado no existían registros de la presencia de Choromytilus chorus al norte de los 23°S, pese a antecedentes que señalaban su existencia en épocas pasadas. Ciertos cambios relacionados con las masas de agua costeras de esta zona, habrían generado la ausencia o escasez que presentaba el entorno costero actual. Sin embargo, hace una década atrás, su presencia en el norte de Chile, comienza a tener connotación pesquera. En el presente trabajo se confirma su reestablecimien...

  3. Branch whorls of juvenile Araucaria araucana (Molina Koch: are they formed annually? Los verticilos de juveniles de Araucaria araucana (Molina Koch: ¿son formados anualmente?

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    CHRISTOPHER H. LUSK

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth of Araucaria araucana, like that of many other conifers, is characterised by the production of a monopodial stem with branch whorls. However, the periodicity of whorl formation in this species has not been subjected to systematic study. We used growth ring counts to determine the frequency of whorl formation in sun- and shade-grown juvenile A. araucana in a montane forest in the Chilean coast range. Whorls were not annual in any of the 35 individuals studied, growth rings outnumbering whorls by a factor of 1.8 to 3.9. The mean interval between successive whorls was significantly shorter in sun-grown (2.1 yrs whorl -1 than in shade-grown trees (2.6 yrs whorl-1, suggesting a relationship with plant carbon balance. Mean distance between whorls was also sensitive to light environment. The overall result of this effect of light environment on both whorl spacing and production rate was that mean height growth rates were > 50% higher in sun-grown trees (169 mm yr-1 than in shade-grown individuals (111 mm yr-1. Despite the non-annual nature of whorls in the study population, whorl counts may have some potential as a non-invasive method of age estimation in juvenile A. araucana. In both shade- and sun-grown subpopulations, whorl number was a better predictor of stem age than were stem diameter or heightEl crecimiento de A. araucana, al igual que el de muchas otras coníferas, se caracteriza por la producción de un fuste monopódico y ramas en verticilos. Sin embargo, en esta especie, no se ha investigado sistemáticamente la periodicidad de la formación de los verticilos. Esta nota documenta el conteo de anillos de crecimiento para determinar la frecuencia de formación de verticilos, en árboles juveniles de A. araucana. Se muestrearon 17 árboles en ambientes soleados y otros 18 bajo sombra, en un bosque montano de la Cordillera de la Costa, Chile. Ninguno de los 35 individuos estudiados mostró evidencias de formación anual de verticilos, puesto que el número de anillos de crecimiento excedió al número de verticilos en 1,8 a 3,9 veces. El intervalo promedio entre la producción de verticilos sucesivos fue significativamente menor en individuos expuestos a pleno sol (2,1 años verticilo-1 que en aquellos que crecieron bajo sombra (2,6 años verticilo-1, sugiriendo cierta relación con el balance de carbono de la planta. La distancia promedio entre verticilos también se mostró sensible al ambiente lumínico. El resultado de este efecto del ambiente lumínico sobre tanto la tasa de producción de verticilos, como la distancia entre éstos, fue que la tasa promedio de crecimiento en altura de los individuos soleados (169 mm año-1 excedió en > 50% a la de los individuos sombreados (111 mm año-1. A pesar de la naturaleza no anual de los verticilos en la población estudiada, los recuentos de verticilos pueden tener potencial como un método no invasivo de estimación de edad para juveniles de A. araucana. Tanto dentro de las subpoblaciones soleadas como sombreadas, el número de verticilos fue mejor indicador de la edad que el diámetro o la altura del fuste

  4. Berries from South America: a comprehensive review on chemistry, health potential, and commercialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreckinger, Maria Elisa; Lotton, Jennifer; Lila, Mary Ann; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2010-04-01

    Dietary intake of berry fruits has been demonstrated to positively impact human health. Interest in exploring new and exotic types of berries has grown in recent years. This article provides botanical descriptions and reviews the chemistry, biological activities, and commercialization of berry-producing plants from South America, specifically Aristotelia chilensis, Euterpe oleracea, Malpighia emarginata, Ugni molinae, Fragaria chiloensis, Rubus glaucus, Rubus adenotrichus, and Vaccinium floribundum. These species possess a rich and diversified composition of bioactive compounds with health-promoting properties. The most significant health benefits have been attributed to phenolic compounds and vitamin C, potentially protective against cardiovascular disease and cancer. Although both traditional folk medicine and composition of these berries suggest significant health benefits, few studies to date have investigated these potentials. PMID:20170356

  5. Zooplankton characterisation of Pampean saline shallow lakes, habitat of the Andean flamingoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamila S. Battauz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The lowland saline shallow lakes in the Pampa de las Lagunas (Argentina, constitute an important habitat for flamingoes Phoenicopterus chilensis Molina and Phoenicoparrus andinus (Philippii. Little is known about the zooplankton communities of these systems, and their relationships with the temporal and spatial distribution of flamingoes. Ten shallow lakes in the Pampean region were studied in 2009 and 2010 winters, and in 2010 summer in order to assess the abundance, size and biomass of zooplankton and the density of flamingoes populations. Zooplankton was represented by 28 species. Copepods and cladocerans were dominant when salinity was lower (winter and summer of 2010. Seasonal changes were recorded in composition and mean abundance of zooplankton. Significant differences were  observed in mean size of zooplankton showing a negative relationship with the abundance of P. chilensis, which can be interpreted as a consequence of the selective flamingoes zooplanktophagy feeding upon the largest members of this community. Other community parameters, such as abundance, biomass, diversity and composition, did not show an apparent direct relationship with the presence or abundance of flamingoes.

  6. [Chemical characterization of integral flour from the prosopis spp. of Bolivia and Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, Abel González; Corrêa, Angelita Duarte; de Abreu, Celeste Maria Patto; Barcelos, Maria de Fatima Piccolo

    2008-09-01

    The mature fruits of three species of algarroba found in Bolivia (Prosopis chilensis (Molina) Stunz, P. alba Grisebach y P. nigra (Grisebach) Hieronymus) and of one of Brazil (P. juliflora (SW) DC) were analysed for some nutritional and antinutritional factors. P. nigra showed the highest levels of crude protein (11.33 g/100 g dry matter-DM) and ashes (4.12 g/100 g DM). P. juliflora presented the lowest levels of lipids (0.79 g/100 g DM), crude protein (8.84 g/100 g DM) and dietary fiber (40.15 g/100 g DM), and the highest levels of non reducing sugar (52.51 g/100 g DM) and in vitro protein digestibility (66.45%). Trypsin inhibitors concentration (0.29 to 9.32 UTI/mg DM) was inferior to that of raw soy; P. juliflora presented the higher values. Regarding saponin, hemagglutinin and poliphenol values, the levels found are considered low. As for nitrates, the levels found were higher than those reported for peas and beans, with P. chilensis presenting the highest value (2.92 g NO3(-)/kg DM). The levels of phytate varied from 1.31 a 1.53 g/100 g. PMID:19137996

  7. Chinchilla lanigera (Molina 1782 and C. chinchilla (Lichtenstein 1830: review of their distribution and new findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valladares, P.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Millions of Chinchilla chinchilla and C. lanigera were killed during the early twentieth century and they were nearly hunted to extinction. In order to establish the current range of distribution of these two wild species and to localize possible new colonies, we used the available scientific literature, technical reports, information from residents, and live trapping methods. Both species are ‘critically endangered’ since their current distribution is highly fragmented and all recognized colonies are small and isolated. We report a small new wild colony of C. lanigera in the Atacama region, Chile.

  8. Electrophoretic mobility as a tool to separate immune adjuvant saponins from Quillaja saponaria Molina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilabert-Oriol, Roger; Weng, Alexander; von Mallinckrodt, Benedicta; Stöshel, Anja; Nissi, Linda; Melzig, Matthias F; Fuchs, Hendrik; Thakur, Mayank

    2015-06-20

    Quillaja saponins are used as adjuvants in animal vaccines but their application in human vaccination is still under investigation. Isolation and characterization of adjuvant saponins is very tedious. Furthermore, standardization of Quillaja saponins is critical pertaining to its application in humans. In this study, a convenient method based on agarose gel electrophoresis was developed for the separation of Quillaja saponins. Six different commercial Quillaja saponins were segregated by size/charge into numerous fractions. Each of the fractions was characterized by ESI-TOF-MS spectroscopy and thin layer chromatography. Real-time impedance-based monitoring and red blood cell lysis assay were used to evaluate cytotoxicity and hemolytic activities respectively. Two specific regions in the agarose gel (delimited by specific relative electrophoretic mobility values) were identified and characterized by exclusive migration of acylated saponins known to possess immune adjuvant properties (0.18-0.58), and cytotoxic and hemolytic saponins (0.18-0.94). In vivo experiments in mice with the isolated fractions for evaluation of adjuvant activity also correlated with the relative electrophoretic mobility. In addition to the separation of specific Quillaja saponins with adjuvant effects as a pre-purification step to HPLC, agarose gel electrophoresis stands out as a new method for rapid screening, separation and quality control of saponins. PMID:25839418

  9. Tirso de Molina's comedy «Las Quinas de Portugal» and Salazar's censorship

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    António Apolinário Lourenço

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In March 1968, Portuguese censors stopped the broadcast on public television —which was the only television network at the time— of Tirso de Molina’s comedy Las quinas de Portugal. This play stages the most important creation myth for the Portuguese nation: on the eve of the battle of Ourique, a crucified Christ appeared and offered Count Afonso Henriques his five holy wounds as a symbol for the Portuguese coat of arms. In this article, I intend to understand the ethical and political reasoning of the censors who read this play, written by one of the most important playwrights of the Spanish Golden Age

  10. HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF LAGENARIA SICERARIA (MOLINA STANDLEY FRUITS AGAINST PARACETAMOL INDUCED HAPATOTOXICITY IN MICE

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    C.V. Panchal*, Jyotiram A. Sawale , B. N. Poul and K.R. Khandelwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objectives: Fruit juice of Lagenaria siceraria (LS belonging to Cucurbitaceae family, has been used traditionally to treat jaundice and to cure certain liver disorders. Antioxidants are well known for their hepatoprotective effect and in curing liver disorders. In this study, hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of fruits were investigated. Materials and Methods: The coarsely powdered plant material was extracted successively with petroleum ether (PE and ethanol (ETH using soxhlet. PE & ETH, were then evaluated for their hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity and different in vitro assays respectively. Hepatoprotective activity was evaluated at three oral dose levels of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg. Results: Both extracts, PE and ETH exhibited a significant hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity. The ETH (1000 mg/kg showed maximum hepato-protection. ETH also showed better antioxidant activity, in comparison to PE, in all the antioxidant assays. Conclusions: ETH has shown better hepatoprotective activity than PE, which could be due to its better antioxidant activity. Moreover, better activity can also be attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds as these were absent in the PE.

  11. Morfología del aparato reproductor del picoroco Austromegabalanus psittacus (Molina, 1782 (Cirripedia, Balanidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Contreras

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Descripción morfológica de las estructuras reproductivas de Austromegabalanus psittacus en dos periodos de maduración sexual. Se determinó que es un organismo hermafrodita que transfiere sus espermatozoides mediante un órgano intromitente o pene. El aparato reproductor masculino consta de testículos organizados en acinos que se distribuyen arboriformemente, dos conductos deferentes que se unen en la base del pene para formar el conducto eyaculador. El aparato reproductor femenino consiste principalmente en un ovario sacular que rodea al resto del cuerpo y se encuentra adherido a través de musculatura a la base de las placas operculares. Se organiza internamente en sacos acinares elongados que contienen ovogonias y ovocitos previtelogénicos adheridos a su pared y vitelogénicos y maduros libres dentro del lumen. Se observaron diferencias notorias en los ovarios entre los organismos recolectados en septiembre y octubre. En septiembre presentaron coloración amarillenta y en su interior se encontraron dos estructuras compactas denominadas lamelas ovígeras en cuyo interior se observaron ovocitos fecundados, embriones en diferentes estados de desarrollo y nauplius libres en la cavidad corporal; en octubre los ovarios son gruesos, blanquecinos y con gran cantidad de fluido lechoso en su interior.

  12. Murta leaves (Ugni molinae Turcz) as a source of antioxidant polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubilar, Mónica; Pinelo, Manuel; Ihl, Mónica; Scheuermann, Erik; Sineiro, Jorge; Nuñez, María José

    2006-01-11

    Extracts from Murta leaves are used by Chilean natives for their benefits on health and cosmetic properties, which are mainly due to the presence of polyphenolic compounds. Extraction of such compounds is strongly influenced by several variables, the effects of which are studied in this work; the antioxidant power of the resulting extracts was measured by two different methods [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)]. On the whole, maximum values of polyphenolic yields and antiradical power (DPPH method) were attained at 50 degrees C (from 25 to 50 degrees C) and a solvent-to-solid ratio (v/w) of 15:1 (15:1-25:1). The solvents assayed were ethanol, methanol, and water. The highest polyphenolic yield values (2.6% expressed as gallic acid) were reached with methanol, whereas maximum EC50 was attained by the ethanol extract (0.121 mol gallic acid/mol DPPH). Contact time was shown to have only a slight influence in alcoholic extraction, while in water a remarkable effect of increasing contact times (30-90 min) was observed. Just water was the solvent that offered the best result when the antioxidant power was measured by the TBARS method. High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of polyphenols, basically flavonols and flavanols, sometimes glycosilated; myricetin and quercetin glycosides were detected in all extracts, whereas epicatechin was present in alcoholic extracts and gallic acid was only present in water. PMID:16390178

  13. Recuerdo e imaginación en Beltenebros de Antonio Muñoz Molina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Lauge

    Nueva narrativa, novela, sujeto, búsqueda de identidad, den nye spanske roman, subjekt, identitet......Nueva narrativa, novela, sujeto, búsqueda de identidad, den nye spanske roman, subjekt, identitet...

  14. LAS CIENCIAS SOCIALES EN LA UCT EN 1971, POR VÍCTOR RAVIOLA MOLINA

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    Victor Raviola Molina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hasta el golpe de Estado, nuestro país se perfilaba como una «cosmópolis intelectual», exhibiendo condiciones como estabilidad política, modernización del sistema educacional universitario y gestión de redes internacionales tejidas desde algunas universidades. Esto propicia el florecimiento de centros académicos de investigación y formación, constituyendo un polo para intelectuales latinoamericanos, europeos y americanos que se insertan en estas instituciones con el objetivo de fortalecer dichas iniciativas, y analizar los procesos sociopolíticos que estaban teniendo lugar. En este contexto, y aun cuando en una condición periférica que implica sobre todo precariedad de recursos, las instituciones regionales buscaron afianzar su posición, se pensaron no sólo como instancias formativas, sino también de investigación, contribuyendo a través de la ciencia al desarrollo en el plano local.En la década de los setenta, la sede regional de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, hoy Universidad Católica de Temuco, abría un panorama auspicioso para el desarrollo de las ciencias sociales. Desde el Centro de Estudios de la Realidad Regional (CERER, y con el propósito de formar investigadores locales, se da apertura en 1971 a un programa de especialización denominado «Carrera de Investigadores en Ciencias Sociales», el que fue antesala de la fundación de la carrera de Licenciatura en Antropología en 1973, la tercera en el país y la segunda regional.Consideramos relevante este discurso pronunciado por el entonces director de Sede, don Víctor Raviola, en la inauguración anual de actividades académicas, en tanto deja testimonio de un estilo de universidad, a saber: regionalista, comprometida con la investigación científica aplicada, y vinculada con el medio local. Las palabras del profesor Raviola resultan señeras respecto del desarrollo de las ciencias sociales a nivel regional, proyecto que decae paulatinamente a partir de 1973 y que concluye con el cierre de la carrera de Antropología en 1978. En 1970 se da inicio a un proyecto que quedará inconcluso y que sólo volverá a cobrar fuerza en la década de los noventa con la apertura de las carreras de Antropología y Trabajo Social y la posterior creación de la Facultad de Ciencias Sociales en el primer decenio del siglo XXI.Agradecemos a Gloria Vergara Segura la transcripción de este texto (Héctor Mora Nawrath.

  15. NETSUKE AS A RESOURCE OF INFORMATION ABOUT SPECIES DIVERSITY OF LAGENARIA SICERARIA (MOLINA STANDL

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    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article, with a descriptive method and a method of analysis and synthesis, we have conducted a study of species diversity of Lagenaria on the basis of a miniature sculpture of netsuke. In Japan and China, in the period from the 17th to the 20th century, the most common was 9 species. The biological peculiarities of some rare species of lagenaria has been described

  16. Factors affecting aggression in a captive flock of Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdue, Bonnie M; Gaalema, Diann E; Martin, Allison L; Dampier, Stephanie M; Maple, Terry L

    2011-01-01

    The influence of pair bond status, age and sex on aggression rates in a flock of 84 captive Chilean flamingos at Zoo Atlanta was examined. Analysis showed no difference between aggression rates of male and female flamingos, but adult flamingos had higher rates of aggression than juveniles. There were also significant differences in aggression depending on pair bond status (single, same-sex pair, male-female pair or group). Bonded birds were significantly more aggressive than single birds, which is consistent with the concept that unpaired birds are not breeding and do not need to protect pair bonds or eggs. Birds in typical pair bonds (male-female) and atypical pair bonds (same-sex pairs or groups) exhibited similar rates of aggression. These results contribute to the existing body of research on aggression in captive flamingos. PMID:20186725

  17. Caracterización del aceite de coquito de palma chilena (Jubaea chilensis

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    Torija, M. Esperanza

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the seeds from Chilean palm and the detailed composition of its fat are studied starting from 4 lots of seeds from the two regions being the major producers of Chilean palm seeds. From the proximate composition of the seeds a high content of fats is deduced with a mean value of 67.3%. The contents of proteins, carbohydrates and fibre were in the range of 7-11%. A detailed analysis of the fat indicates a high content of saturated fatty acids being capric, caprilic, lauric and miristic acids the major fatty acids. For this reason the presence of a high percentage of medium-chain triglycerides are detected in the triglyceride analysis. As for tocopherols, the fat contains low amounts of α-, γ- y δ-tocopherol with a total average of 84 mg/kg. Concerning phytosterols, the total content was around 1000 mg/kg being β-sitosterol and Δ7-estigmastenol the two major sterolsSe analizan las características generales del coquito de palma chilena y se estudia con detalle la composición de su aceite. Con este objetivo, se analizan 4 lotes de coquitos procedentes de las dos regiones de Chile donde existe mayor producción. La composición proximal del coquito indica un contenido muy mayoritario de grasa, con un promedio de 67,3% mientras los contenidos de proteínas, hidratos de carbono y fibra se encuentran entre el 7 y el 11%. Un análisis detallado de la grasa muestra un contenido elevado de ácidos grasos saturados (alrededor del 85% siendo los ácidos cáprico, caprílico, láurico y mirístico los que se encuentran en mayor concentración, lo que origina un elevado porcentaje de triglicéridos de cadena media. Respecto a los tocoferoles, el aceite contiene cantidades limitadas de α-, γ- y δ-tocoferol con un valor promedio total de 84 mg/kg, no detectándose la presencia de tocotrienoles. Respecto a los fitoesteroles, el contenido total es del orden de 1000 mg/kg siendo los esteroles mayoritarios el β-sitosterol y el Δ7-estigmastenol.

  18. The glance of travellers and scientists of the 19th century about the moving "gea chilensis"

    OpenAIRE

    M Zenobio Saldivia

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the vision of Chilean nature and the impact of earthquakes on the physical body of Chile and in the national collective imagination, that were forged Chilean and foreign nineteenth-century scientists and travelers with some natural history studies as Mary Graham. And from such perceptions reflect on whether to take in to account this reality in the fields of public policy and education.

  19. Digital Native Chilensis: The Young people, of South of the Internet

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    Lic. Felipe Andres Nesbet Montecinos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is undeniable that the Internet has a capital importance in the contemporary society. In the new technological paradigm, known as the Information Age, the relevance of the network is equivalent to that of oil in the Industrial Age. Although we can dissent of the prediction done by Nicholas Negroponte in 1995, in its famous book “Being Digital”, with respect to which the digital divide would be translated in a subject, net, generational, expressed in the dichotomy: young person-rich versus old-poor men. However, this author (1995 guessed right in his theory of the greater facility of the young people towards the new technologies. For that reason, the Internet is dominated by young people. The appearance of Wena Naty, a video uploaded to the network (with the explicit consent of their protagonists in which a 14 year old girl practiced oral sex to a partner in a public square, is the most dramatic demonstration of the use and abuse that young Chileans make new technologies.The present article reviews data collected on the use of technologies in Chile (INJUV 2002, Godoy 2006 y PNUD 2006. As well as it analyzes collected own data from the investigations of Carcamo “Percepción del tiempo y de la motivación ante tareas de búsqueda de información y conferencias de texto (Chat mediadas por computador en estudiantes secundarios de Chile” and Nesbet (2007, “Usos de la mensajería instantánea en estudiantes secundarios de Valdivia.”

  20. OSTEOMETRÍA DE VICUGNA VICUGNA MOLINA, 1782 EN EL PLEISTOCENO FINAL DE PATAGONIA MERIDIONAL CHILENA: IMPLICANCIAS PALEOECOLÓGICAS Y BIOGEOGRÁFICAS / Osteometry of Vicugna vicugna Molina, 1782 in the late Pleistocene of southern chilean Patagonia

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Labarca Encina; Alfredo Prieto Iglesias

    2009-01-01

     Se presenta un análisis osteométrico uni y multivariado con los materiales fósiles -principalmente huesos cortos y falanges- de Vicugna sp. del yacimiento Cueva Lago Sofía 4 (13500 – 11000 AP), ubicado en la provincia de Última Esperanza (Región de Magallanes, Chile). Los resultados indican que los elementos analizados poseen un tamaño compatible con los registrados para Vicugna vicugna, no superando en ningún caso a los especímenes conocidos para Vicugna gracilis del Pleistoceno de la regió...

  1. OSTEOMETRÍA DE VICUGNA VICUGNA MOLINA, 1782 EN EL PLEISTOCENO FINAL DE PATAGONIA MERIDIONAL CHILENA: IMPLICANCIAS PALEOECOLÓGICAS Y BIOGEOGRÁFICAS / Osteometry of Vicugna vicugna Molina, 1782 in the late Pleistocene of southern chilean Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Labarca Encina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available  Se presenta un análisis osteométrico uni y multivariado con los materiales fósiles -principalmente huesos cortos y falanges- de Vicugna sp. del yacimiento Cueva Lago Sofía 4 (13500 – 11000 AP, ubicado en la provincia de Última Esperanza (Región de Magallanes, Chile. Los resultados indican que los elementos analizados poseen un tamaño compatible con los registrados para Vicugna vicugna, no superando en ningún caso a los especímenes conocidos para Vicugna gracilis del Pleistoceno de la región Pampeana. Esto confirma la información morfológica y de ADN antiguo que indicaba la presencia de Vicugna vicugna en la Patagonia meridional chilena. Se discuten los resultados en términos taxonómicos, biogeográficos y paleoecológicos sugiriendo que la presencia de este taxón fuera de su rango actual de distribución se debió a las condiciones ambientales compartidas entre la Puna y Patagonia austral durante la transición Pleistoceno-Holoceno. La extinción de V. vicugna se habría debido al impacto de los cambios climáticos ocurridos al inicio del Holoceno producto de su dieta pastadora y etología no migratoria y territorial, a lo que se habría sumado una caza por parte de depredadores humanos y no humanos.Palabras clave: género Vicugna, osteometría, Pleistoceno, Patagonia AbstractThis contribution presents the results of single and multi-variable osteometric analyses performed on a sample of short bones and phalanxes assigned to Vicugna sp. from Lago Sofía Cave 4 site (13500 – 11000 BP, Región de Magallanes, Chile. The elements analyzed show a similar size to the reference collections for Vicugna vicugna, and do not exceed the metrics for the pampean pleistocenic specimens of Vicugna gracilis. This confirms the morphological and ancient DNA data that indicated the presence of vicuña in southern Chilean Patagonia. The taxonomic, biogeographic and palaeoecologic discussion of these results, suggests that the presence of this species outside its current distribution range was due to shared environmental conditions between the Puna and Patagonia during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. The extinction of this form is, most likely, due to the impact of climatic change during the begining of the Holocene over its pasturing diet and its territorial and non migratory habits. It is added to this, a hunting pressure by human and non-human predators.Keywords: Vicugna genus, osteometry, Pleistocene, Patagonia 

  2. ANALYSIS OF TISSUE SPECIFIC DIGEST IVE AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES FROM CUCURBITA PEPO AND LANGENARIA SICERARIA ( MOLINA STANDL

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    Shubhangi D. Shirsat

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Digestive enzymes and antioxidants present in food ma terials act as a surplus for our digestive system. In present study, five digestive enzymes namely amylase, protease, lipase, pectinase and α -glucosidase and seven antioxidant assays for Catalase, Peroxidase, H 2 O 2 , Super Oxide Dismutase, Malondialdehyde, Carotenoid & radical scavenging were carried out from two members of cucurbitaceae family namely Cucurbita pepo (Pumpkin and Langenaria siceraria (bottle gourd. Amongst them amylase, lipa se and pectinase activity were found in C. pepo and L. siceraria. The enzyme kinetics studies revealed their maxi mum velocities to be 0.2631 and 0.33557 mM min -1 for Amylase and Lipase respectively. Our further studies report the presence of proteinase inhibitors and α -gluosidase inducers, while absence of amylase inhibitors and α -glucosidase inhibitors in pumpkin and bottle gourd. Present findings suggest the use of these fruits as an attractive materi al for further study leading to possible development of digestive syrup.

  3. Reproductive ecology of coypu (Myocastor coypus Molina, 1782) in the Middle Delta of the Paraná River, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtalon, P; Bó, R F; Spina, F; Jiménez, N; Cantil, L; Fernández, R; Porini, G

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate and compare some important reproductive parameters of Myocastor coypus over time (June 2006-May 2008), in wetlands of the Middle Delta of the Paraná River (MD) Entre Ríos province, R. Argentina. Within the original coypu distribution range, the MD is among the areas of highest habitat suitability for the species. Coypus were captured and the following reproductive parameters were estimated on a monthly, seasonal and annual basis: pregnancy rate (PR), litter size (LS), gross productivity (GP) and annual production (AP). Statistical non-parametric tests were used for comparisons. Additionally, the expected birth date of each embryo and fetus was estimated by assigning it to a developmental stage category and considering the gestation period of the species. All the parameters showed high values and PR and LS differed significantly between the dry (2006) and humid years (2007). Two peaks of birth were detected, one in spring and another one in mid-autumn. The implications of these results for ensuring the sustainable management of this rodent are discussed. PMID:25945618

  4. In vitro activity on human gut bacteria of murta leaf extracts (Ugni molinae turcz.), a native plant from Southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shene, Carolina; Canquil, Nelly; Jorquera, Milko; Pinelo, Manuel; Rubilar, Mónica; Acevedo, Francisca; Vergara, Carola; von Baer, Dietrich; Mardones, Claudia

    2012-06-01

    Despite the fact that murta infusions have been used to treat gut/urinary infections by native Chileans for centuries, the mechanisms promoting such effects still remain unclear. As a first attempt to unravel these mechanisms, human fecal samples were incubated in a medium containing water extract of murta leaves (ML) and the growth of different bacterial groups was evaluated. Control incubations were made in media containing fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and glucose as a carbon source. Phenolic compounds in the ML extract, likely promoters of bioactivity, were identified by HPLC-DAD-MS(n) . Concentrations (log₁₀ CFU/mL) of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in media containing the extract and FOS were 7.33 ± 0.05/4.95 ± 0.20 and 6.44 ± 0.22/6.05 ± 0.06, respectively. Clostridia, anaerobes and Enterobacteriaceae grew to a similar extent in media containing murta extract and FOS. In vitro tests (disk diffusion) showed that Gram-positive (Bacillus and Paenibacillaceae) and Gram-negative (Enterobacteriaceae) bacteria isolated from fecal samples were sensitive to both water and 50/50 ethanol/water extracts of ML (28.4 μg gallic acid equivalents). At this concentration, the antimicrobial activity of ML extracts was significantly (P 0.05). No evidence of dependency between the antimicrobial activity of ML extracts and the enzymatic capability of the sensitive strains was found. PMID:22583138

  5. ANALYSIS OF FRUIT POLYMORPHISM IN THE BOTTLE LAGENARIA SICERARIA (MOLINA STANDL. ON THE BASIS OF IMAGES OF ART WORKS

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    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issues of international spread the fruits of bottled gourd. Analysis of polymorphism of lagenaria fruits have been made on the basis of images of the paintings and sculpture, marked characteristic features of each country. Issues of selection on the basis of the trait of fruit form have considered

  6. Morphological and allozyme variation in a collection of Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. from Côte d'Ivoire

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    Koffi KK.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the intraspecific variation of 30 edible-seed Lagenaria siceraria germplasm accessions from the University of Abobo-Adjamé. These accessions were collected from three (Centre, East and South geographical zones of Côte d’Ivoire. Selection based on seed size by the farmers has resulted in subdividing the species into two cultivars: large-seeded and smallseeded. The morphological diversity study of the collection included 18 accessions and 24 traits. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA showed a significant difference between the two groups of cultivars. Principal component analysis on 13 traits pointed out variations among individuals, mainly on the basis of flower, fruit, and seed size. Dendrogram with UPGMA method allowed clustering of the cultivars. The genetic structure analysis among accessions using allozyme markers showed the following values: 18.95% for the proportion of polymorphic loci (P, 1.21 for the number of alleles (A and 0.053 for observed heterozygosity (Ho. The level of the within accessions genetic diversity (HS = 0.188 was higher than the genetic variation among accessions (DST = 0.082. The estimates of F-statistics indicated a low level of genetic differentiation between accessions (FST = 0.298. Such a value suggested that L. siceraria maintains about 30% of its genetic variation among accessions. Nei genetic distances between the two cultivars were also low (0.002, indicating that cultivars were genetically similar enough to belong to the same genetic group.

  7. First web-based database on total phenolics and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of fruits produced and consumed within the south Andes region of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speisky, Hernan; López-Alarcón, Camilo; Gómez, Maritza; Fuentes, Jocelyn; Sandoval-Acuña, Cristian

    2012-09-12

    This paper reports the first database on antioxidants contained in fruits produced and consumed within the south Andes region of South America. The database ( www.portalantioxidantes.com ) contains over 500 total phenolics (TP) and ORAC values for more than 120 species/varieties of fruits. All analyses were conducted by a single ISO/IEC 17025-certified laboratory. The characterization comprised native berries such as maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis ), murtilla ( Ugni molinae ), and calafate ( Barberis microphylla ), which largely outscored all other studied fruits. Major differences in TP and ORAC were observed as a function of the fruit variety in berries, avocado, cherries, and apples. In fruits such as pears, apples, apricots, and peaches, a significant part of the TP and ORAC was accounted for by the antioxidants present in the peel. These data should be useful to estimate the fruit-based intake of TP and, through the ORAC data, their antioxidant-related contribution to the diet of south Andes populations. PMID:22512599

  8. Polyphenols and antioxidant activity of calafate ( Berberis microphylla ) fruits and other native berries from Southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Antonieta; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Mardones, Claudia; Vergara, Carola; Herlitz, Erika; Vega, Mario; Dorau, Carolin; Winterhalter, Peter; von Baer, Dietrich

    2010-05-26

    Calafate ( Berberis microphylla ) is a native berry grown in the Patagonian area of Chile and Argentina. In the present study the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of its fruits were studied and also compared with data obtained for other berry fruits from southern Chile including maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis ) and murtilla ( Ugni molinae ). Polyphenolic compounds in calafate fruit were essentially present in glycosylated form, 3-glucoside conjugates being the most abundant anthocyanins. The anthocyanin content in calafate berries (17.81 +/- 0.98 micromol g(-1)) and flavonol level (0.16 +/- 0.01 micromol g(-1)) are comparable with those found in maqui (17.88 +/- 1.15 and 0.12 +/- 0.01 micromol g(-1), respectively); however, maqui shows lower flavan-3-ol concentration than calafate (0.11 +/- 0.01 and 0.24 +/- 0.03 micromol g(-1), respectively). Maqui and calafate show high antioxidant activity, which correlates highly with total polyphenol content and with anthocyanin concentration. PMID:20438111

  9. Chemical composition of the freshwater prawn Cryphiops caementarius (Molina, 1782) (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) in two populations in northern Chile: reproductive and environmental considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge E Moreno-Reyes; Carlos A Méndez-Ruiz; Gina X Díaz; Jaime A Meruane; Pedro H Toledo

    2015-01-01

    Reductions of its natural populations have led to recent efforts in small-scale aquaculture of the freshwater prawn Cryphiops caementarius, either for conservation or commercial purposes. However, the lack of knowledge about its nutritional requirements has been one of the major obstacles for its successful culture. Given its importance, this study determines and compares the chemical composition (moisture, ash, crude protein, total lipids and nitrogen free extract) of whole animals and main ...

  10. Integrated Use of Biomarkers (O : N Ratio and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition) on Aulacomya ater (Molina, 1782) (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) as a Criteria for Effects of Organophosphate Pesticide Exposition

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Führer; Anny Rudolph; Claudio Espinoza; Rodrigo Díaz; Marisol Gajardo; Nuria Camaño

    2012-01-01

    The effect of residual concentrations of organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 4E) on the activity of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme and oxygen : nitrogen ratio in the mussel Aulacomya ater was analyzed. Toxicity tests show a sensitivity to the pesticide in the bivalve estimated at 16 μg L-1 (LC50-96 hours). Concentrations between 0.2 and 1.61 μg L-1 were able to inhibit significantly the AChE activity, and concentrations between 0.8 and 1.61 μg L-1 stimulate ammonia excretion and ...

  11. Integrated Use of Biomarkers (O : N Ratio and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition) on Aulacomya ater (Molina, 1782) (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) as a Criteria for Effects of Organophosphate Pesticide Exposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Führer, Eduardo; Rudolph, Anny; Espinoza, Claudio; Díaz, Rodrigo; Gajardo, Marisol; Camaño, Nuria

    2012-01-01

    The effect of residual concentrations of organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 4E) on the activity of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme and oxygen : nitrogen ratio in the mussel Aulacomya ater was analyzed. Toxicity tests show a sensitivity to the pesticide in the bivalve estimated at 16 μg L(-1) (LC(50-96 hours)). Concentrations between 0.2 and 1.61 μg L(-1) were able to inhibit significantly the AChE activity, and concentrations between 0.8 and 1.61 μg L(-1) stimulate ammonia excretion and decrease oxygen : ammonia-N (O : N) ratio, with respect to the control group. A. ater proved to be a species sensitive to pesticide exposure and easy to handle in lab conditions. Thus, it is recommended as a bioindicator for use in programs of environmental alertness in the Eastern South Pacific coastal zone. PMID:22619673

  12. Integrated Use of Biomarkers (O : N Ratio and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition on Aulacomya ater (Molina, 1782 (Bivalvia: Mytilidae as a Criteria for Effects of Organophosphate Pesticide Exposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Führer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of residual concentrations of organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 4E on the activity of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme and oxygen : nitrogen ratio in the mussel Aulacomya ater was analyzed. Toxicity tests show a sensitivity to the pesticide in the bivalve estimated at 16 μg L-1 (LC50-96 hours. Concentrations between 0.2 and 1.61 μg L-1 were able to inhibit significantly the AChE activity, and concentrations between 0.8 and 1.61 μg L-1 stimulate ammonia excretion and decrease oxygen : ammonia-N (O : N ratio, with respect to the control group. A. ater proved to be a species sensitive to pesticide exposure and easy to handle in lab conditions. Thus, it is recommended as a bioindicator for use in programs of environmental alertness in the Eastern South Pacific coastal zone.

  13. LA VOZ NARRATIVA COMO COMPROMISO CON LA VERDAD ANÁLISIS DEL NARRADOR EN LA NOVELA LA NOCHE DE LOS TIEMPOS, DE MUÑOZ MOLINA

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Arroyas

    2012-01-01

    Resumen: Este artículo consiste en un análisis de la voz narrativa de la novela La noche de los tiempos, según un modelo comunicativo que abarca tanto aspectos sintácticos y semánticos como pragmáticos que permitan arrojar luz sobre el sentido del texto. Desde un enfoque pragmático se analiza la finalidad de la narración como acto comunicativo en la que se plantea la relación del discurso con su contexto y del enunciador con el enunciatario. La elección de la voz narrativa y su focalización e...

  14. The physical, chemical and functional characterization of starches from Andean tubers: oca (Oxalis tuberosa Molina, olluco (Ullucus tuberosus Caldas and mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruiz & Pavón

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    Beatriz Valcárcel-Yamani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The physical, chemical, and functional properties of starches isolated from the Andean tubers oca (Oxalis tuberosa M., olluco (Ullucus tuberosus C. and mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum R. & P. were studied. The tubers were obtained from a local grocery. The morphology of the starch granules (size and shape was studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM, which revealed ellipsoid, oval, conical, pear-shaped and prismatic forms: ellipsoids and oval granules with lengths up to 54.30 µm in oca; with lengths up to 32.09 µm for olluco starch granules; and with predominantly truncated spherical or oval forms and smaller dimensions (up to 16.29 um for mashua starch granules. Amylose contents were similar among the samples: 27.60% (oca, 26.49% (olluco and 27.44% (mashua. Olluco starch had less swelling power, forming opaque, less firm gels. All three starch gels showed the same stability on refrigeration and presented high syneresis under freezing temperatures, with a variation of 40.28 to 74.42% for olluco starch. The starches cooked easily, with high peak viscosity. The low gelatinization temperatures and high stability during cooling make these starches suitable feedstock for use in formulations that require milder processing temperatures and dispense freezing storage.

  15. The physical, chemical and functional characterization of starches from Andean tubers: oca (Oxalis tuberosa Molina), olluco (Ullucus tuberosus Caldas) and mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruiz & Pavón)

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Valcárcel-Yamani; Gerby Giovanna Rondán-Sanabria; Flavio Finardi-Filho

    2013-01-01

    The physical, chemical, and functional properties of starches isolated from the Andean tubers oca (Oxalis tuberosa M.), olluco (Ullucus tuberosus C.) and mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum R. & P.) were studied. The tubers were obtained from a local grocery. The morphology of the starch granules (size and shape) was studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which revealed ellipsoid, oval, conical, pear-shaped and prismatic forms: ellipsoids and oval granules with lengths up to 54.30 µm in oc...

  16. Sedimentología de las unidades carbonáticas del Triásico en el sector Molina de Aragón-Albarracín

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Arlucea, Marta

    1987-01-01

    [ES] cinco unidades litoestratigráficas bien diferenciadas, que se distribuyen en dos barras de litología carbonática, separadas por un tramo terrígeno-evaporítico. Estos grandes tramos se disponen en "onlap", presentando una mayor extensión areal, las unidades superiores respecto de las inferiores. El límite de la primera barra carbonática se encuentra dentro de la zona estudiada. Sin embargo el tramo lutíticoevaporítico y la barra superior ocupan toda esta región, acuñándo...

  17. In vitro activity on human gut bacteria of murta leaf extracts (Ugni molinae Turcz. ), a native plant from southern chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shene, C.; Canquil, N.; Jorquera, M.;

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that murta infusions have been used to treat gut/urinary infections by native Chileans for centuries, the mechanisms promoting such effects still remain unclear. As a first attempt to unravel these mechanisms, human fecal samples were incubated in a medium containing water extract...... extracts was significantly (P <0.05) lower than that of penicillin (10 U), whereas the difference between activity of ML extracts and gentamicin (10 μg) was not significant (P > 0.05). No evidence of dependency between the antimicrobial activity of ML extracts and the enzymatic capability of the sensitive...

  18. Reassessment of morphology and historical distribution as factors in conservation efforts for the Endangered Patagonian Huemul Deer Hippocamelus bisulcus (Molina 1782

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.T. Force

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available To assist with conservation of Endangered Patagonian Huemul Deer (Hippocamelus bisulcus, the Huemul Task Force (HTF reassessed information on appendicular morphology, paleobiogeography, and historical distribution as potential factors in recovery efforts. Traditional claims of being a mountain specialist of the Andes were refuted by empirical evidence showing huemul morphology to coincide with other cervids rather than the commonly implied homology to rock-climbing ungulates. It thus supports historical evidence of huemul in treeless habitat and reaching the Atlantic coast, which cannot be dismissed as past erroneous observations. Instead, pre- and post-Columbian anthropogenic impacts resulted in huemul displacement from productive sites and in survival mainly in remote and marginal refuge areas. The process of range contraction was facilitated by easy hunting of huemul, energetic incentives from seasonal fat cycles and huemul concentrations, the change from hunting-gathering to a mobile equestrian economy, and colonization with livestock. However, areas used presently by huemul, as supposed mountain specialists, are also used by wild and domestic ungulates that clearly are not considered mountain specialists, whereas the only other Hippocamelus successfully uses areas homologous to tree-less Patagonia. Rigid application of modern habitat usage to infer past habitat use and ignoring historic extra-Andean accounts is unwarranted; these conclusions reached by the HTF indicate new opportunities for recovery efforts by considering morphological and historical evidence. For instance, reintroductions to other portions of the landscape used formerly by huemul, which tend to be more productive sites than those currently occupied by many huemul groups, would present a promising avenue.

  19. Avaliação farmacognostica e da rotulagem das drogas vegetais boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina e camomila (Matricaria recutita L. comercializadas em Fortaleza, CE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P. SOARES

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus e camomila (Matricaria recutita são plantas empregadas na fitoterapia principalmente para o tratamento de desordens hepáticas e intestinais, atuando também como anti-inflamatório e antiespasmódico, respectivamente. Por isso, o presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a qualidade farmacognostica dessas drogas vegetais comercializadas em Fortaleza (CE, além das informações de suas rotulagens. Quarenta e duas amostras de boldo, e quarenta e cinco amostras de camomila, procedentes de farmácias, de lojas de produtos naturais e de bancas de raizeiros, foram analisadas quanto à autenticidade, à pureza e às informações contidas na rotulagem desses produtos conforme legislação vigente. Na verificação de impurezas, 35,7% das amostras de boldo e 57,7% das amostras de camomila excederam o teor máximo de matéria estranha; no teor de cinzas totais, 33,3% das amostras de boldo foram reprovadas; rotulagens das amostras de boldo (100% e de camomila (96,6% apresentaram erros ou ausência de informações. Os resultados das análises confirmam, portanto, a necessidade urgente de melhor fiscalização e intervenção na produção e venda dessas e de outras drogas vegetais para adequação às normas vigentes.

  20. A new gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the red cusk-eel Genypterus chilensis (Osteichthyes: Ophidiidae) off Chile

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Chávez, R. A.; Oliva, M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 1 (2011), s. 227-232. ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Philometra * Genypterus * Chile Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.149, year: 2011

  1. The intake of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) berry extract normalizes H2O2 and IL-6 concentrations in exhaled breath condensate from healthy smokers - an explorative study

    OpenAIRE

    VERGARA, DANIELA; Ávila, Daniela; Escobar, Elizabeth; Carrasco-Pozo, Catalina; Sánchez, Andrés; Gotteland, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background Respiratory diseases are associated with pulmonary oxidative stress and inflammatory processes. Though studies in animal models suggest that dietary polyphenols improve lung injury, no intervention studies were carried out in humans. The aim of this study was to determine whether the intake of an anthocyanin-rich maqui extract improved H2O2 and IL-6 concentrations in exhaled breath condensates (EBCs) from asymptomatic smokers. Findings 15 asymptomatic smokers with mild cigarette sm...

  2. Instructions and Manuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gigone, Fabio

    Kindergarten and Nursery (Giancarlo de Carlo associati) Inner city arts (Michael Maltzan Architecture) Colegio Gerardo Molina (Giancarlo Mazzanti arquitectos)......Kindergarten and Nursery (Giancarlo de Carlo associati) Inner city arts (Michael Maltzan Architecture) Colegio Gerardo Molina (Giancarlo Mazzanti arquitectos)...

  3. Problemas associados ao uso de plantas medicinais comercializadas no Mercadão de Madureira, município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Problems associated with the use of medicinal plants commercialized in "Mercadão de Madureira", Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bochner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de plantas medicinais pela população brasileira é prática tradicional, sendo muitas vezes o único recurso utilizado na atenção básica de saúde. O uso terapêutico dessas plantas envolve várias etapas da cadeia produtiva, sendo a procedência, coleta, secagem, armazenamento, comércio, modo de preparo pelo usuário e uso. O objetivo desse trabalho documental, de caráter exploratório, foi levantar a produção científica existente sobre os problemas associados a cada uma dessas etapas e discutir as questões relacionadas à carência de estudos para comprovar a eficácia farmacológica e a ausência de riscos toxicológicos, bem como a prática de autodiagnóstico. As vinte plantas mais comercializadas em grande mercado do município do Rio de Janeiro em agosto de 2007 serviram de base para o levantamento documental do presente estudo. Dessas, seis apresentaram propriedades tóxicas comprovadas dependendo do preparo e uso, a arnica (Solidago chilensis Meyen, aroeira (Shinus terebinthifolius Raddi., arruda (Ruta graveolens L., babosa (Aloe vera L., confrei (Symphytum officinale L. e poejo (Mentha pulegium Lam. & DC.. A Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária aponta contra indicações para boldo-do-Chile (Peumus boldus Molina, chapéu-de-couro (Echinodorus macrophyllus Micheli, erva-cidreira (Lippia alba N.E.Br., erva-de-bicho (Polygonum spp., espinheira-santa (Maytenus spp., picão (Bidens pilosa L., poejo (Mentha pulegium Lam. e tanchagem (Plantago major L.. O abajerú, arnica, boldo-do-Chile, confrei, erva-de-bicho e espinheira-santa tiveram relato de problemas de identificação na coleta e comercialização frente a outras morfologicamente semelhantes. Plantas cultivadas e silvestres apresentam variabilidade de princípios ativos influenciados por fatores ambientais e genéticos, como chapéu-de-couro (Echinodorus macrophyllus Micheli, erva-cidreira (Lippia alba N.E.Br. e erva-de-bicho (Polygonum spp.. A contaminação e

  4. Ontogenetic variation in light interception, self-shading and biomass distribution of seedlings of the conifer Araucaria araucana (Molina K. Koch Variación ontogenética en la intercepción lumínica, autosombramiento y distribución de biomasa en plántulas de la conífera Araucaria araucana (Molina K. Koch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTOPHER H LUSK

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the factors thought to contribute to ontogenetic declines in plant growth rates is diminishing light interception efficiency, as a result of the difficulties of avoiding self-shading among a growing number of leaves, and by stems. The effects of plant size on self-shading and light interception have rarely been quantified, however. We used a three-dimensional digitising system to construct virtual models of the architecture of Araucaria araucana seedlings 71 to 358 mm tall, and modelled their light interception in the forest understorey using the program YPLANT. We also analyzed seedling allometry, to determine the combined effects of biomass distribution and self-shading on total light interception. Average light interception efficiencies calculated for A. araucana (29 % were the lowest reported for rainforest tree seedlings, reflecting the limitations imposed by short leaves, lack of petioles and an inability to develop planar foliage geometry on branches. Total light interception was related to seedling leaf area by an exponent of 0.735, reflecting increasing self-shading as seedlings grew bigger. However, because leaf area was related to seedling mass by an exponent of 1.24, light interception scaled nearly isometrically (0.91 power with seedling mass. This resulted from taller plants having proportionally thinner stems, and a smaller fraction of their biomass in roots. Thus, an ontogenetic increase in self-shading in A. araucana is largely offset by allocation changes which increase leaf area ratio as seedlings grow bigger. These mechanisms conserving the relationship of light interception with plant mass seem likely to be restricted to species with long-lived leaves, growing in humid situations protected from wind stress. In open habitats, where wind and drought stress likely make such allocation patterns less feasible, the role of self-shading in ontogenetic declines in relative growth rate may be more evidentLa caída en la eficiencia de intercepción de la luz es considerada como uno de los factores responsables del declive ontogenético en las tasas de crecimiento relativo de las plantas, debido a la dificultad de evitar el autosombramiento entre un creciente número de hojas. Sin embargo, rara vez se ha cuantificado el efecto de tamaño de las plantas sobre el autosombramiento y la eficiencia en intercepción de la luz. Utilizamos un sistema de digitalización para construir modelos virtuales tridimensionales de la arquitectura de plántulas 71-358 mm de alto de la conífera Araucaria araucana, y modelamos su intercepción de la luz en el sotobosque mediante el programa YPLANT. Analizamos además la alometría de las plántulas para determinar los efectos combinados de la distribución de biomasa y el autosombramiento sobre la intercepción total de luz a nivel de la planta entera. La eficiencia promedio de intercepción de la luz de A. araucana (29 % fue la más baja documentada para plántulas de especies de bosques húmedos, reflejando las limitaciones impuestas por hojas cortas, carencia de pecíolos, y la incapacidad de desarrollar follaje plagiotrópico. La intercepción total de luz por las plántulas fue proporcional al área foliar0,735, producto de un aumento en el autosombramiento en función del tamaño. Sin embargo, debido a la relación del área foliar con la potencia 1,24 de la masa de las plántulas, la intercepción de luz se acercó a la proporcionalidad directa (exponente 0,91 con la masa. Este patrón fue producto de la relativa delgadez de los tallos de las plántulas grandes, y su baja proporción de biomasa radicular. Por tanto, el declive ontogenético en la eficiencia de intercepción de la luz fue en gran medida compensada por cambios de asignación que aumentaron la superficie foliar de las plántulas grandes. Estos mecanismos que conservaron la relación de la ganancia potencial de carbono con la masa de las plántulas probablemente serán vistos solamente en especies con hojas muy longevas, en hábitats húmedos con poco viento. En ambientes abiertos, donde los estrés por sequía y viento podrían seleccionar en contra tales patrones de asignación, es probable que se evidencie más claramente el rol del autosombramiento en los declives ontogenéticos en la tasa de crecimiento relativo

  5. Indicadores de condición larvaria aplicados al camarón de río del norte Cryphiops caementarius (Molina, 1782, en condiciones de cultivo controlado Larval condition indicators applied to the northern river shrimp Cryphiops caementarius (Molina, 1782, under condition of controlled cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C Morales

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia el desarrollo larvario del camarón de río del norte de Chile, Cryphiops caementarius, desde el estado de zoea 1 hasta el primer juvenil, caracterizando y analizando criterios que verificaron la aplicación de indicadores de tipo morfológico y de comportamiento para la evaluación de la condición larvaria de la especie, en condiciones de cultivo. Las larvas, se mantuvieron en cultivo, en un tanque de 250 L con agua a 20 psu y temperatura de 25 ± 1°C, controlada con termostato y con un recambio del 100% diariamente. La alimentación consistió en microalgas (Nannochloris sp. e Isochrysis sp., rotíferos (Brachionus plicatilis, nauplios de Artemia franciscana y alimento formulado. Se utilizaron cinco indicadores de carácter morfológico y de comportamiento aplicados a las larvas de C. caementarius: llenado intestinal, estado de la glándula digestiva, desarrollo branquial, comportamiento natatorio y respuesta fototáctica. Estos indicadores, permitieron determinar el estado de condición y calidad de las larvas de C. caementarius, logrando un efectivo seguimiento y asociación de cada uno de ellos, con cada estado de desarrollo larvario, estandarizando características deseables en las larvas y evidenciando resultados verificables, que permitan establecer un adecuado plan de seguimiento del cultivo, optimizar los protocolos de manejo y de alimentación de las larvas. Además de cada indicador, fue posible desglosar una amplia gama de potenciales estudios a realizar, basados en las relaciones que la morfología y el comportamiento larvario mantienen con las capacidades fisiológicas de las larvas en desarrollo.The larval development of the Chilean northern river shrimp Cryphiops caementarius was studied, from the condition of zoea 1 up to the condition of juvenile stage, analyzing and characterizing diverse criteria that allowed checking the application of morphological and behavioral indicators for the evaluation of the larval quality of the species, under conditions of culture. The larvae, were cultured, in a tank of 250 L with water at 20 psu, at a constant temperature (25° ± 1°C, controlled with a thermostat and with 100% refill every day. The diet consisted of microalgae (Nannochloris sp. and Isochrysis sp., rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis, nauplii of Artemia franciscana and formulated food. Five indicators were used, considering morphologic and behavior aspects: intestinal fill, midgut gland condition, gill development, swimming behavior and phototactic response. The indicators selected in the present work, were feasible of being used for the determination of the condition and quality of the larvae of C. caementarius, being able to make an effective follow-up and association with every condition of larval development, standardize desirable characteristics in the larvae and demonstrate verifiable results, using a protocol for culture and food supply. Moreover, it was possible to identify an extensive range of potential studies, based on the relationships that the morphology and the larval behavior support with the physiological capacities of the larvae in development.

  6. Podding of juvenile king crabs Lithodes santolla (Molina, 1782 (Crustacea in association with holdfasts of Macrocystis pyrifera (Linnaeus C. Agardh, 1980 Agregaciones de juveniles de centolla Lithodes santolla (Molina, 1782 (Crustacea en asociación con discos de fijación de Macrocystis pyrifera (Linnaeus C. Agardh, 1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A Cárdenas

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Underwater photographic records and sampling were carried out in Steamer Bay, Strait of Magellan, Chile, to study the spatial distribution patterns of juvenile king crabs Lithodes santolla during late winter and early spring in 2006. Observations were made on the relationship between these crabs and the holdfasts and stipes of the large kelp Macrocystis pyrifera. Dense aggregations, known as “pods”, of juvenile king crab (34-75 mm CL were observed and photographed for the first time in specific areas of the embayment in relation to Macrocystis; pod abundance varied between 2 and 70 ind·m-2. Maximum abundance was detected on plants having holdfasts > 15 cm in diameter and abundant stipes and sporophylls. The ratio between male and female abundance was nearly 1:1. This study attempts to bring attention to previously unknown ecological roles of the kelp M. pyrifera in relation to its associated benthic fauna in habitats near the southern tip of South America as background information on the ecological functions of this species prior to allowing its industrial-scale exploitationSe efectuaron registros fotográficos y colecta de muestras en bahía Steamer, estrecho de Magallanes, Chile, para estudiar los patrones de distribución espacial de juveniles de la centolla Lithodes santolla durante fines de invierno y comienzo de la primavera en 2006. Las observaciones fueron realizadas en relación a presencia de centollas juveniles en discos de fijación y estipes de la macroalga parda Macrocystis pyrifera. Se observaron y fotografiaron por primera vez, densas agregaciones de juveniles de centolla (34-75 mm LC, conocidas como “pods”, en áreas específicas de la bahía relacionadas con Macrocystis. La abundancia varió entre 2 y 70 ind·m-2. Las mayores abundancias se detectaron en plantas con disco de fijación con diámetros > 15 cm y con presencia de abundantes estipes y esporofilas. La proporción de abundancia entre machos y hembras fue cercana a 1:1. El presente estudio pretende llamar la atención de los roles ecológicos, previamente desconocidos, del alga M. pyrifera en relación a la fauna bentónica asociada a hábitats distribuidos en el extremo sur de Sudamérica básica para conocer las funciones ecológicas de esta macroalga antes de permitir su explotación a escala industrial

  7. Descripción histológica y caracterización de los estados de madurez gonadal de hembras de Cryphiops caementarius (Molina, 1782 (Decapoda: Palaemonidae Histological description and characterization of the ovarian cycle of Cryphiops caementarius (Molina, 1782 (Decapoda: Palaemonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E Moreno

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La extracción indiscriminada y alteraciones del medio natural, han puesto en peligro de extinción al único Palaemónido dulceacuícola de interés comercial, presente en aguas continentales chilenas. Aun cuando esta situación, ha despertado el interés en estudios que permitan su reproducción controlada en cautiverio, actualmente es escaso el conocimiento acerca de aspectos reproductivos básicos de esta especie. Dada su importancia, este trabajo describe y caracteriza el proceso completo de maduración gonadal en hembras de Cryphiops caementarius, en base a cambios en la morfología externa e interna del ovario. Hembras adultas extraídas del río Limarí, fueron disectadas y sus ovarios removidos y preparados para análisis histológicos. Tejido fibromuscular divide el tejido gonadal de cada lóbulo en sacos ováricos de forma semicónica (conos de maduración, al interior del los cuales se encuentran ovocitos en diferentes estados de desarrollo de acuerdo a observaciones microscópicas de tamano, morfología y tinción con H-E, las células reproductoras femeninas se clasificaron en seis tipos, ovogonias (Ov, ovocitos previtelogénicos tempranos (O1, ovocitos previtelogénicos tardíos (O2, ovocitos vitelogénicos tempranos (O3, ovocitos vitelogénicos tardíos (O4 y ovocitos Maduros (OM. El ciclo de madurez gonadal se dividió en cinco estados según la cantidad y tipo de ovocitos presentes. Los estados 0 y I, corresponden a desovado y previtelogénesis. Los estados II y III a vitelogénesis temprana y vitelogénesis intermedia, mientras el estado IV corresponde a madurez avanzada. La presencia de ovogonias y ovocitos previtelogénicos junto a ovocitos completamente maduros en el estado de madurez avanzada, refleja la capacidad de esta especie de realizar ciclos consecutivos de madurez en intervalos cortos de tiempo.Its indiscriminate extraction and alterations of its natural environment, has put in danger of extinction the only commercial freshwater Palemonid present in Chilean inland waters. Even though this situation has awakened interest in studies which allow its controlled reproduction in captivity, currently little is known regarding basic reproductive aspects of this species. Given its relevance, this work describes and characterizes the whole ovarian cycle of Cryphiops caementarius, based on changes in external and internal ovarian morphology. Adult C. caementarius females, obtained from Limarí River, were dissected and its ovaries removed and prepared for histological examinations. Fibromuscular tissue divides the ovarian tissue of each lobe into cone-shaped ovarian pouches (Maturation cones, each one containing various steps of oocytes according to the stages of ovarian development. Based on light microscopic observations of cells' sizes, morphology, and staining with H-E, the female germ cells could be classified into six different types, which include oogonia (Ov, early previtellogenic oocytes (O1, late previtellogenic oocytes (O2, early vitellogenic oocytes (O3, late vitellogenic oocytes (O4 and mature oocytes (OM. The ovarian cycle is divided into five stages based on the amount and types of oocytes present in each stage. Stage 0 and I are spawned and previtellogenesis stages. Stage II and III are early and intermediate vitellogenesis stages, while stage IV is maturity advanced stage. The presence of oogonia and previtellogenic oocytes among fully mature oocytes in stage IV reflect the capacity of the ovary of C. caementarius females to start a new full maturity cycle in a short time period.

  8. Efecto del Compost de Biosólidos en la producción de plantines de Austrocedrus Chilensis (ciprés de la cordillera) Effect of Biosolids Compost on seedling production of Austrocedrus Chilensis (ciprés de la cordillera)

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Basil; María Julia Mazzarino; Lucía Roselli; Federico Letourneau

    2009-01-01

    La utilización de compost de residuos urbanos como sustrato en contenedores es una alternativa interesante a nivel económico y ambiental, dado que reduciría el uso de turba y «tierra negra» en la producción de plantines, y la disposición de residuos en vertederos. En el presente trabajo se estudió el efecto de 0, 30 y 50% de compost de biosólidos en el crecimiento inicial (primer año) de ciprés de la cordillera, y el efecto durante los dos años siguientes de un tratamiento único con 50% de co...

  9. Developing Individual and Team Character in Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Stacey A.

    2012-01-01

    The idea that participation in sport builds character is a long-standing one. Advocates of sport participation believe that sport provides an appropriate context for the learning of social skills such as cooperation and the development of prosocial behavior (Weiss, Smith, & Stuntz, 2008). Research in sport regarding character development has…

  10. Biblioteca universitaria, CRAI y alfabetización informacional / Maria Pinto Molina, Dora Sales y P. Martínez Osorio : Reseña bibliográfica

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Hernández, José Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Obras como la de Pinto, Sales y Osorio ayudan a consolidar el rol bibliotecario de apoyo al aprendizaje permanente a través de la competencia informacional. A través de ello, además, las bibliotecas refuerzan su utilidad social y académica, y se legiti-man por su capacidad de cambio y adapta-ción a las demandas de la sociedad y las personas. De modo que sólo cabe felicitar-se de su aparición, y desear que su lectura anime todavía más a adoptar la alfabetiza-ción continua como una práctica pro...

  11. El Triásico de la región Nuevalos-Cubel (Zaragoza). Sedimentación en un sector del borde de cuenca del surco Molina-Valencia.

    OpenAIRE

    García Royo, J.F.C.; Arche, Alfredo

    1987-01-01

    El Triásico de la región Nuévalos-Cubel (Zaragoza) se depositó en el flanco SO del Umbral de Ateca, límite de la Cuenca Ibérica durante la mayor parte de este período. La sedimentación, controlada por falías de dirección NO-SE, comenzó al O por abanicos aluviales retrogradantes, seguidos de ríos meandriformes, diversos complejos costeros siliciclásticos y al comienzo de la sedimentación de las facies Muschelkalk> el Umbral queda totalmente cubierto por sedimentos. Se hace...

  12. El Triásico de la región Nuévalos - Cubel (Zaragoza). Sedimentación en un sector de cuenca del surco Molina-Valencia.

    OpenAIRE

    Arche, A.; García-Royo, J. F. C.

    1987-01-01

    [ES] El Triásico de la región Nuévalos-Cubel (Zaragoza) se depositó en el flanco SO del Umbral de Ateca, límite de la Cuenca Ibérica durante la mayor parte de este período. La sedimentación, controlada por falías de dirección NO-SE, comenzó al O por abanicos aluviales retrogradantes, seguidos de ríos meandriformes, diversos complejos costeros siliciclásticos y al comienzo de la sedimentación de las facies Muschelkalk> el Umbral queda totalmente cubierto por sedimentos. Se ...

  13. Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1995 "for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone" : Paul J Crutzen, Mario J Molina and F Sherwood Rowland

    CERN Multimedia

    1997-01-01

    Prof. Paul J Crutzen presents "The stratospheric ozone hole : a man-caused chemical instability".The discovery of the spring time stratospheric ozone hole by scientists of the British Antarctic Survey, led by Joe Farman, was one of the greatest surprises in the history of the atmospheric sciences and global change studies. After intensive research efforts by many international scientific teams it has clearly been demonstrated that the observed rapid ozone depletions are due to catalytic reactions involving CIO radicals, more than 80571130f which are produced by the photochemical breakdown of the industrial chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) gases. In this lecture I will present the course of events leading to the rapid ozone depletions. International agreements have been reached to forbid the production of the CFC gases. However, despite these measures, it will take almost 50 years before the ozone hole will have disappeared. I will also show that mankind has indeed been very lucky and that things could have been far w...

  14. José Luis Gutiérrez Molina, El Estado frente a la Anarquía. Los grandes procesos contra el anarquismo español (1883-1982)

    OpenAIRE

    Tavera, Susanna

    2010-01-01

    La confluencia entre conmemoraciones históricas e iniciativas editoriales que viene caracterizando nuestro mercado cultural hacía presagiar la aparición de buen número de títulos que, coincidiendo con el centenario de la Semana Trágica de 1909, se centraran en el estudio de esta revuelta popular. A la hora de la verdad no han sido más que dos los libros publicados ex-novo (los de Dolors Marín y Francisco Bergasa), otras dos las rediciones (de los textos clásicos ya de Josep Benet y Joan Conne...

  15. Toward the characteristics of the development of the seedlings and immature plants of Araucaria araucana (Molina K. Koch (Araucariaceae in its natural habitats (Neuquén Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.L. Kazakova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria forests were studied and their types were distinguished. Descriptive characteristics of defined forest types were established. Araucaria araucana regrowth rate and seed survival expressed as thousands per hectare were estimated in the natural habitats of araucaria. The anatomical features of needles of immature and generative plants were compared. A. araucana life cycle from the seedling to the immature developmental stage was described. Growth power classes of immature plants were defined according to the environmental conditions of A. araucana growth.

  16. New records and description of the microstructural patterns of guard hair in Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782 (Carnivora, Skunk for the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Bazilio

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show new records of Conepatus chinga for the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina, in southern Brazil, contributing to increase knowledge on its distribution, besides describing the microstructural patterns of its guard hair. Three run-over specimens were found in highway BR-280, two of them in the town of Palmas, in Paraná, and one in the town of Abelardo Luz, in Santa Catarina. For describing the cuticular and medullary pattern of guard hairs, sixty slides were made. Conepatus chinga has a cross-sectional and undulated cuticular pattern and an anisocytic medullary pattern. The description of microstructural patterns of C. chinga makes it easier to conduct studies related to its ecology, increasing the chances to identify hairs found in fecal samples from carnivores in mastofauna studies.

  17. Review of Cyrtomyia Bigot (Diptera, BomByliidae, Ecliminae) with a key to the Neotropical genera of Ecliminae and Cyrtomyia species

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos José Einicker Lamas; Paula Fernanda Motta Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    The Neotropical genus Cyrtomyia Bigot has a distribution restricted to the Andean region of South America, with records only in Argentina and Chile. The genus is composed by two species, which are reviewed and redescribed herein: C. chilensis Paramonov, 1931 and C. pictipennis (Bigot, 1857). The main characters of the external morphology of adults are photographed. Illustrations of the male and female terminalia of C. chilensis are also included. An identification key to species is presented,...

  18. Revision of the Chilean species of Empididae (Diptera described by J. Macquart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Rafael

    Full Text Available Four Chilean species of Empididae (Diptera are revised: Aplomera pachymera (Macquart, 1838, A. gayi Macquart, 1838, Empis nudipes Macquart, 1838 and E. polita Macquart, 1838. Aplomera chilensis (Bezzi, 1909 was also studied and it is being considered junior synonym of A. pachymera. Empis nudipes Macquart, 1838 is confirmed to be a junior synonym of A. gayi Macquart, 1838. Lectotype is being designated for A. pachymera, A. chilensis and E. polita. Illustration of terminalia and photomicrographs of wings are also included.

  19. Lisa maailmakirjanduse tõlkevaramule

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Uued teosed sarjast "Maailmakirjanduse tõlkevaramu": Tirso de Molina "Sevilla pilkaja ja kivist külaline" ja Pedro Calderon de la Barca "Suur Maailmateater" (Tartu : Tartu Ülikooli Kirjastus, 2006)

  20. Plaadid / Margus Kiis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiis, Margus

    2004-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Courtney Love "American Sweetheart", Haltya "Electric Help Elves", Beats and Styles "This Is... Beats and Styles", "Ennio Morricone Remixes vol. 2", Delta Goodrem "Innocent Eyes", Juana Molina "Segundo"

  1. 75 FR 8945 - Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... Sentillion, Inc. G Sentillion, Inc. 20100294 G George J. Pedersen. G Michael Gualario. G Sensor Technologies.... 20100362 G Molina Healthcare, Inc. G Unisys Corporation. G Unisys Corporation. 20100363 G...

  2. Fauna helmintológica peruana: Paryphostomum huaccaci sp. n. (Echinostomotidoe parásito de Cathartes aura jota Molino, 1782

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicanor Ibáñez H.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Es motivo de la presente nota, contribuir al conocimiento de un trematodo: Paryphostomum huaccaci sp. n. perteneciente o la Familia Echinostomatidae Poche, 1926 y que parásita a Cathartes aura jota Molina, 1782.

  3. Varela-Mato, V.; Cancela, J.M.; Ayan, C.; Molina, A.; Martín, V. Lifestyle and Health among Spanish University Students: Differences by Gender and Academic Discipline. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 2728–2741

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Martín

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors wish to make the following correction to this paper [1]. In the article it is mentioned that “the study obtained the approval of the university’s Students Vice-Chancellery and the government bodies of the involved academic centers and also by the Ethics Committee of the University of Vigo.” However, it should read: “The study obtained the approval of the university’s Students Vice-Chancellery and the government bodies of the involved academic centers” only.

  4. The species of membracids described by C. Berg and M. Spinola classified in Sundarion Kirkaldy (Hemiptera, Cicadomorpha, Membracidae As espécies de membracídeos descritas por C. Berg e M. Spinola classificadas em Sundarion Kirkaldy (Hemiptera, Cicadomorpha, Membracidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino M. Sakakibara

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Pyranthe acaciae Berg, 1883 and Hemiptycha chilensis Spinola, 1852 are reinstated in Sundarion Kirkaldy, 1904 (formerly in synonymy of Callicentrus bonasia (Fabricius, 1775 (Centrotinae, Nessorhinini. Pyranthe frustratoria Berg, 1883 (also formerly considered as synonym of Callicentrus bonasia becomes a new synonym of Sundarion flavomarginatum (Fairmaire, 1846.Pyranthe acaciae Berg, 1883 e Hemiptycha chilensis Spinola, 1852 são revalidadas em Sundarion Kirkaldy, 1904 (anteriormente colocadas em sinonímia de Callicentrus bonasia (Fabricius, 1775 (Centrotinae, Nessorhinini. Pyranthe frustratoria Berg, 1883 (também considerada anteriormente como sinônimo de Callicentrus bonasia torna-se um novo sinônimo de Sundarion flavomarginatum (Fairmaire, 1846.

  5. Review of Cyrtomyia Bigot (Diptera, BomByliidae, Ecliminae with a key to the Neotropical genera of Ecliminae and Cyrtomyia species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José Einicker Lamas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical genus Cyrtomyia Bigot has a distribution restricted to the Andean region of South America, with records only in Argentina and Chile. The genus is composed by two species, which are reviewed and redescribed herein: C. chilensis Paramonov, 1931 and C. pictipennis (Bigot, 1857. The main characters of the external morphology of adults are photographed. Illustrations of the male and female terminalia of C. chilensis are also included. An identification key to species is presented, and the species distribution is briefly discussed.

  6. Ophiuroidea das regiões antártica e subantártica: 1. sobre três espécies de Gorgonocephalidae e Ophiacanthidae Ophiuroidea from antarctic and subantarctic regions: 1. on three species of Gorgonocephalidae and Ophiacanthidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Gouveia Monteiro

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available É estudada a distribuição geográfica e a variação de caracteres morfológicos de três espécies de ofiuroides (OpiLacantha antartica, Astrotoma agassizzi e Gorgonecephalus chilensis das regiões Antártica e Subantãrtica. São também apresentadas observações sobre biologia reprodutiva.The geographical distribution and the variation of morphological characters of three (Gorgonecephalus chilensis, Astroma agassizii, Ophiacantha antartica from the Antarctic and Subantarctic regions are studied. Observations on reproductive biology are presented.

  7. ANALYSES OF IMAGES OF LAGENARIA (LAGENARIA SICERARIA (MOLINA STANDL. IN PAINTING AS A SOURCE OF INFORMATION FOR THE HISTORY OF INTRODUCTION AND CROP ARCHEOGENETIC Анализ изображения лагенарии (Lagenaria siceraria (molina standl. в живописи как источник информации для истории интродукции и археогенетики культуры

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Works of painters of past is the source of information of crop domestication, use in horticultural, species diversity. Lagenaria crop images in painting can also be a resource for determining the morphological changes of the crop in evolution

  8. Thematic Categorization and Analysis of Peer Reviewed Articles in the LISA Database, 2004-2005. A Review of: Gonzalez-Alcaide, Gregorio, Lourdes Castello-Cogolles, Carolina Navarro-Molina, et al. “Library and Information Science Research Areas: Analysis of Journal Articles in LISA.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59.1 (2008: 150-4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Perryman

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To provide an updated categorization of Library and Information Science (LIS publications and to identify trends in LIS research.Design – Bibliometric study.Setting – The Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA database via the CSA Illumina interface.Subjects – 11,273 item records published from 2004-2005 and indexed in LISA.Methods – First, a search was set up to retrieve all records from 2004-2005, limited to peer review items (called “arbitrated works” by the authors (150 and excluding book reviews. Second, thematic descriptor terms used for the records were identified. Frequency counts for descriptor term occurrence were compiled using Microsoft Access and Pajek software programs. From the results of this search, the top terms were analyzed using the Kamada-Kawai algorithm in order to eliminate descriptor term co-occurrence frequencies under 30. A cluster analysis was used to depict thematic foci for the remaining records, providing a co-word network that visually identified topic areas of most frequent publication. Conclusions were drawn from these findings, and recommendations for further research were provided.Main Results – The authors identified 18 “thematic research core fields” (152 clustered around three large categories, “World Wide Web”, “Education”, and “Libraries”, plus 12 additional peripheral categories, and provided a schematic of field interrelationships.Conclusion – Domains of greatest focus for research “continue to be of practical and applied nature,” (153 but include increased emphasis on the World Wide Web and communications technologies, as well as on user studies. A table of the most frequently occurring areas of research along with their top three descriptor terms is provided (Table1, 152 (e.g., “World Wide Web” as the top area of research, with “online information retrieval” (268 occurrences, “searching” (132 occurrences, and “web sites” (115 occurrences.

  9. Measurements of absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185- to 254-nm wavelength region and the temperature dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, K.; Esmond, J. R.; Freeman, D. E.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory measurements of the relative absorption cross sections of ozone at temperatures 195, 228, and 295 K have been made throughout the 185 to 254 nm wavelength region. The absolute absorption cross sections at the same temperatures have been measured at several discrete wavelengths in the 185 to 250 nm region. The absolute cross sections of ozone have been used to put the relative cross sections on a firm absolute basis throughout the 185 to 255 nm region. These recalibrated cross sections are slightly lower than those of Molina and Molina (1986), but the differences are within a few percent and would not be significant in atmospheric applications.

  10. Some hepatic neoplasms in non-domesticated birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, P F; Majeed, S K; Brancker, W M; Jones, D M

    1978-10-01

    A metastasising hepatocellular carcinoma in a Lesser flamingo (Phoeniconaias minor), a metastasising bile duct carcinoma in a Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber chilensis) and a liver cell adenoma in a Luzon hornbill (Buceros hydrocerox hydrocerox) are described. Hepatic neoplasia in birds is discussed. PMID:18770409

  11. Review of Cyrtomyia Bigot (Diptera, BomByliidae, Ecliminae with a key to the Neotropical genera of Ecliminae and Cyrtomyia species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José Einicker Lamas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical genus Cyrtomyia Bigot has a distribution restricted to the Andean region of South America, with records only in Argentina and Chile. The genus is composed by two species, which are reviewed and redescribed herein: C. chilensis Paramonov, 1931 and C. pictipennis (Bigot, 1857. The main characters of the external morphology of adults are photographed. Illustrations of the male and female terminalia of C. chilensis are also included. An identification key to species is presented, and the species distribution is briefly discussed.O gênero Neotropical Cyrtomyia Bigot tem uma distribuição restrita à região Andina da América do Sul, com registros assinalados apenas para a Argentina e Chile. O gênero é composto por duas espécies, que são aqui revisadas e redescritas: C. chilensis Paramonov, 1931 e C. pictipennis (Bigot, 1857. Os principais caracteres da morfologia externa dos adultos estão fotografados. Ilustrações das terminálias de machos e de fêmeas de C. chilensis também são incluídas. Uma chave de identificação para as espécies é apresentada e a distribuição das espécies é brevemente discutida.

  12. Disjoint geographical distribution of intertidal and nearshore benthic invertebrates in the Southern Hemisphere Distribuciones geográficas disyuntas de invertebrados bentónicos intermareales y del submareal somero en el Hemisferio Sur

    OpenAIRE

    Castilla, Juan C.; RICARDO GUIÑEZ

    2000-01-01

    Biogeographical explanations for the extant and paleo disjoint geographical distribution in the southern hemisphere of five species of nearshore marine benthic invertebrates: Gaimardia trapesina, Ostrea chilensis, Pyura stolonifera taxonomic complex, Aulacomya ater and Concholepas concholepas, showing distinctive reproductive strategies and early life history characteristics are reviewed and analyzed. Through the use of published and new information we contrasted the following hypotheses: a) ...

  13. Studies in Moraceae II. The genus Clarisia Ruiz et Pavon and its synonyms, with a discussion of the generic name

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanjouw, J.

    1936-01-01

    The Moraceous genus Clarisia was described by Ruiz et Pavon in 1794 in ”Florae Peruvianae, et Chilensis Prodromus” p. 128. This generic name must be rejected, if it is not placed on the list of Nomina Generica Conservanda, as in 1792 there had already been published a genus of this name by Pedro Aba

  14. Redescription of Oulactis concinnata (Drayton in Dana, 1846) (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniidae), an actiniid sea anemone from Chile and Perú with special fighting tentacles; with a preliminary revision of the genera with a “frond-like” marginal ruff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Häussermann, V.

    2003-01-01

    Two species of sea anemones with a conspicuous marginal ruff of frond-like structures encompassing the tentacular crown occur on the Chilean coast. Oulactis concinnata (= Isoulactis chilensis) (Drayton in Dana, 1846) is re-described in detail and further information is provided for Oulactis coliumen

  15. Interannual variability in the skate assemblage on the South Patagonian shelf and slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, A; Pompert, J; Arkhipkin, A; Brewin, P E

    2015-12-01

    Observer data from the commercial fishery on the Patagonian shelf and slope around the Falkland Islands (home to an assemblage of >16 skate species (Rajiformes), for which commercial catches have been recorded since 1987), as well as survey data from an area closed to skate target fishing after exploitation, were summarized by species to examine changes in the population status of individual skate species. Total skate catch per unit effort increased significantly in the target fishery since 1994, and four species have made up >85% of all skate catch. Bathyraja brachyurops and Zearaja chilensis increased significantly in catch proportions and abundance from 1994 to 2013. Bathyraja albomaculata and Bathyraja griseocauda decreased significantly before rebounding with trends of increasing abundance. Concurrently, B. brachyurops and Z. chilensis showed decreasing trends in size at 50% maturity in areas where skates continue to be targeted commercially. The increasing abundances and concomitant reductions in size at maturity of B. brachyurops and Z. chilensis suggest either plasticity in life-history traits or a density-dependent growth response to fishing pressure. Bathyraja griseocauda decreased in size at 50% maturity in the area that was closed to skate target fishing, where it was initially larger, but only decreased to the same average size as in the commercially targeted areas. Bathyraja albomaculata and Z. chilensis are IUCN-listed as vulnerable and B. griseocauda is listed as endangered, but their abundance trends since 1994 indicate that these populations are not declining in Falkland waters. PMID:26709216

  16. New synonyms and deletions for the moss floras of Colombia and Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Churchill, Steven P.

    2013-01-01

    Several new synonyms are recognized for Colombian taxa: Aongstroemia maculata = A. julacea, Callicostella acutifolia and C. plicatula = Thamniopsis diffusa, Dicranella mayorii and D. peruviana = D. hilariana, Glyphomitrium lobuliferum = Ptychomitrium lindigii, Trichostomum novo-granatense = T. brachydontium; and for Ecuadorean taxa: Grimmia cinerea = G. longirostris, Grimmia benoistii = G. trichophylla, Neckera benoistii = N. chilensis, Orthostichopsis incertus = Porotrichendron superbum, and...

  17. Identidad y distribución geográfica de Stemodia durantifolia (Plantaginaceae en la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de las Mercedes Sosa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stemodia durantifolia es una especie con dos variedades que crece desde California hasta Chile. La variedad típica se ha citado en trabajos previos para la Argentina y la otra variedad, chilensis fue mencionada hasta el momento para Chile. En este trabajo se descarta la presencia de la variedad típica en el país, se da a conocer su área de distribución y se cita por primera vez a la variedad chilensis para la Argentina. Se describen e ilustran las dos variedades, se incluye un mapa de distribución y una clave para separarla de las restantes especies que crecen en Argentina.Identity and geographical distribution of Stemodia durantifolia (Plantaginaceae in Argentina. The typical variety has been cited in previous studies for Argentina, and the other variety, chilensis, was mentioned so far in Chile. This work rules out the typical variety in the country, describes its geographical distribution and cites for the first time the var. chilensis for Argentina. A description, illustration and a map of distribution of the species with these two varieties are provided, as well as a key to distinguish the other Argentinean species.

  18. Agua malgastada y agua utilizada: observaciones sobre la modernización del regadío en el Oasis de Kuqar (Xinjiang, República Popular China)

    OpenAIRE

    Faggi, Pierpaolo

    1993-01-01

    Texto traducido por Gloria Navarro Albaladejo y revisado por Juan Antonio Marco Molina Esta investigación ha sido financiada al 60% por el Ministerio Universitario de Investigación Científica y Técnica y por el Centro Nacional de Investigación de Italia

  19. El aumento del sodio intracelular inducido por la eliminación de calcio externo regula la movilidad del espermatozoide humano /

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Flores, Víctor Manuel

    2011-01-01

     tesis que para obtener el grado de Doctor en Ciencias Biológicas, presenta Víctor Manuel Torres Flores ; asesor Alberto Darszon Israel, Luis Manuel Montaño Ramírez, Juan Arcadio Molina Guarneros. 79 páginas : ilustraciones. Doctorado en Ciencias Biológicas UNAM, Facultad de Ciencias, 2011

  20. Commensal Bacteria Control Cancer Response to Therapy by Modulating the Tumor Microenvironment | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriho Iida, Amiran Dzutsev, C. Andrew Stewart, Loretta Smith, Nicolas Bouladoux, Rebecca A. Weingarten, Daniel A. Molina, Rosalba Salcedo, Timothy Back, Sarah Cramer, Ren-Ming Dai, Hiu Kiu, Marco Cardone, Shruti Naik, Anil K. Patri, Ena Wang, Francesco M. Marincola, Karen M. Frank, Yasmine Belkaid, Giorgio Trinchieri, Romina S. Goldszmid Science 342(6161):967-970, 2013

  1. Robin Hoodist Oidipuseni / Pille-Riin Purje

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Purje, Pille-Riin, 1963-

    1996-01-01

    'Ugala' külalisetendused Tallinnas: David Neilsoni 'Robin Hood' (lav. Peeter Tammearu); Mihhail Bulgakovi 'Poolearuline Jourdain' (lav. Üllar Saaremäe); Tirso de Molina 'Kadunud sõrmus' (lav. Andres Noormets); Talvo Pabuti 'Oidipuse kompleks' (lav. Andres Lepik); Anton Tshehhovi 'Kirsiaed' (lav. Kaarin Raid)

  2. Historien er ikke slut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thurah, Thomas

    , Seamus Heaney, Stefan Heym, Peer Hultberg, Per Højholt, Imre Kertész, Jan Kjærstad, Ivan Klíma, Jaan Kross, Siegfried Lenz, Claudio Magris, Antonio Muñoz Molina, Cees Nooteboom, Ljudmila Petrusjevskaja, Christoph Ransmayr, Klaus Rifbjerg, Salman Rushdie, José Saramago, Peter Seeberg, Tage Skou...

  3. Nobel prize awarded to pioneers in ozone research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This article details the achievements of the three individuals who shared the 1995 Nobel Prize in Chemistry - Paul Crutzen, Mario Molina, and F. Sherwood Rowland - for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly the chemical processes that deplete the ozone layer. Background information about the ozone layer is presented as well as highlights of the ozone research done by the prize winners.

  4. Influencia de la despolarización atrial en la velocidad de conduccion y refractariedad en la unión atrioventricular /

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Fernández de Lara, Luis Gerardo

    2012-01-01

     tesis que para obtener el grado de Doctorado en Ciencias Medicas, presenta Luis Gerardo Molina Fernández de Lara ; asesor Ruy Pérez Tamayo, David Kershenobich Stalnikowitz, Juan Garduño Espinosa75 páginas : ilustracionesDoctorado en Ciencias Medicas UNAM, Facultad de Medicina, 2012

  5. Fisica y vida cotidiana

    CERN Multimedia

    Méndez, R

    2002-01-01

    "Estaba harto de escuchar lo dificil que es ensenar fisica, interesar a los alumnos en gases, tiros parabolicos y campos magneticos. Por eso el profesor de Fisica de la Universidad de Murcia Rafael Garcia Molina decidio hace cinco anos dejar sin argumentos a sus colegas. Comenzo la busqueda de juguetes, regalos y objetos cotidianos para explicar la fisica" (1 page).

  6. Libros

    OpenAIRE

    Alternativas. Cuadernos de Trabajo Social

    1995-01-01

    Contiene: Título: Las enseñanzas de Trabajo Social en España: 1932-1983. Estudio socio-educativo. Autora: Mª Victoria Molina Sánchez. Edita: Universidad Pontificia de Comillas. Madrid / por Mª Carmen Santos Aguado.

  7. A bi-weekly actual evapotranspiration dataset derived from NOAA-AVHRR images across the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic islands, 1981-2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.; Martin-Hernandez, Natalia; Tomas-Burguera, Miquel;

    -series. For an accurate quantification of daily ETa, cloud cover was removed applying the algorithm developed by Azorin-Molina et al. (2013), and the evaporative fraction estimated by means of the “triangle method”, using the spatial relationship between Ts and albedo for each daily image. The daily time...

  8. Sefarad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Lasse-Emil

    2014-01-01

    is at stake is really a change of form in the memory debate. Drawing on theories from Astrid Erll (2011) and Michael Rothberg (2009), the article aims to show how the novel Sefarad by the Spanish author Antonio Muñoz Molina could be read as a literary manifestation of a multidirectional memory, in which...

  9. "The great night of Europe is shot through with long, sinister trains"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Lasse-Emil

    2015-01-01

    of the millennium such a notion is constantly being challenged by global and transnational influences that affect and reshape the local memory discourse(s). The following article aims to show how the novel Sepharad by the Spanish author Antonio Muñoz Molina could be read as a literary manifestation...

  10. Programa de educación emocional y gestión del estrés en la Escuela Universitaria de Trabajo Social de Santiago de Compostela

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Piñeiro, Alba

    2013-01-01

    Màster en Educació Emocional i Benestar, Facultat de Pedagogia, Departament de Mètodes d’Investigació i Diagnòstic en Educació, Universitat de Barcelona, curs: 2012-2013, Tutor/Tutora: Mª Cruz Molina Garuz

  11. Ord der forandrer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    rolle som kritisk og historisk bevidsthed. Værker af så forskellige forfattere som Durif, Tabucchi, Houellebecq, Molinas, Mertens og Antunes tager Sartres grundlæggende spørgsmål om litteraturens samfundsmæssige funktion op igen og bliver analyseret i antologien, der tager forholdet mellem litteratur og...

  12. Genetic composition of Mytilus species in mussel populations from southern Chile Composición genética de especies de Mytilus en poblaciones de mejillón del sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angélica Larraín

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mussels are one of the most cultivated and commercialized bivalves worldwide and in southern Chile its culture represent an important economic activity. The species identification within the Mytilus genera, by morphological features, is unreliable, so we used a polymorphism RFLP in the gene encoding the polyphenolic adhesive protein as a species-specific genetic marker to describe Mytilus species diversity in southern Chile, and evaluate possible applications in traceability, food quality and safety. Using Me 15-16 marker most mussels were M. chilensis, finding no other pure individuals; however, putative hybrids of M. chilensis x M. trossulus and M. chilensis x M. galloprovincialis were detected. There was no evidence of M. edulis. The presence of the M. trossulus allele, faraway from its distribution area, demands further analysis with different genetic markers to allow a better understanding of its origin. In addition, the correspondence between markers that distinguishes northern from southern hemisphere M. galloprovincialis, with those who discriminates between M. chilensis and M. galloprovincialis would contribute to the taxonomic status of Chilean blue mussels. In Chile, the genetic composition of Mytilus indicates that geographical origin of mussels and its traceability cannot be established merely from the identification of the species. The use of other markers would be required.Los mejillones son una de las especies de bivalvos más cultivadas y comercializadas, en el sur de Chile donde su cultivo representa una actividad económica importante. La identificación de la especie dentro del género Mytilus, basada en las características morfológicas no es confiable por lo que se utilizó un polimorfismo RFLP en el gen que codifica la proteína adhesiva polifenólica como marcador genético específico de la especie para describir la diversidad de especies Mytilus en el sur de Chile, y evaluar posibles aplicaciones en trazabilidad

  13. Evaluación de la calidad del aceite de once semillas de leguminosas del desierto sonorense

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega-Nieblas, M.; Vlázquez-Moreno, L.; Robles-Burgueño, M. R.

    1996-01-01

    In order to generate information that lead to an efficient and diversifícate use of the natural resources that the Sonoran Desert offers, as it is the great variety of Leguminosae or Fabaceae plants, oils from seeds or Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis velutina (mezquite), Cercidium floridium (palo azul), Cercidium praecox (palo de brea), Acacia constricta (vinorama), Acacia cymbyspina (chirahui),

  14. Antimicrobial evaluation of Huilliche plant medicine used to treat wounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Per; Holler, Jes Gitz; Asar, Betül;

    2011-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevanceThe traditional use of 40 plant species used for treatment of wounds and associated infections by the Huilliche people of Chile was evaluated against bacterial and fungal human pathogens, especially including wound pathogens. Materials and methodsThe extracts were......). ResultsThirteen of the plant species have interesting antimicrobial activities, with that of Acaena argentea, Aristotelia chilensis, Blechnum chilense, Francoa appendiculta, Gevuina avellana and Laureliopsis philippiana being the most noteworthy. ConclusionsThe findings in the manuscript support the...

  15. Chilean Native Fruit Extracts Inhibit Inflammation Linked to the Pathogenic Interaction Between Adipocytes and Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes-Farias, Marjorie; Vasquez, Karla; Ovalle-Marin, Angelica; Fuentes, Francisco; Parra, Claudia; Quitral, Vilma; Jimenez, Paula; Garcia-Diaz, Diego F.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by an increase in the infiltration of monocytes into the adipose tissue, causing an inflammatory condition associated with, for example, the development of insulin resistance. Thus, anti-inflammatory-based treatments could emerge as a novel and interesting approach. It has been reported that Chilean native fruits maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) and calafate (Berberis microphylla) present high contents of polyphenols, which are known for their antioxidant and anti-inflam...

  16. Lectotypification of Ruiz and Pavón's names in Solanum (Solanaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Knapp, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Lectotypes or neotypes are confirmed or designated here for the 41 names coined by Hipólito Ruiz and José Pavón in the Flora peruviana et chilensis that were either described, or today recognised as, members of the large genus Solanum (Solanaceae): Solanum acuminatum, S. acutifolium, S. anceps, S. angulatum, S. angustifolium, S. asperolanatum, S. biformifolium, S. calygnaphalum, S. conicum, S. crispum, S. cymosum, S. dichotomum, S. diffusum, S. filiforme, S. foetidum, S. glandulosum, S. grand...

  17. Seasonal and vertical distribution of medusae in Aysén region, southern Chile Distribución estacional y vertical de medusas en la región de Aysén, sur de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Viviana Bravo; Sergio Palma; Nelson Silva

    2011-01-01

    Medusae collected in winter and spring 2007 were analyzed in a longitudinal transect made between the Boca de Guafo and Elefantes Fjord, southern Chile. A total of 30 species were identified, Hydromedusae (29) and Scyphozoa (1), where Bougainvillia macloviana, Hybocodon chilensis, Hydractinia tenuis, Laodicea pulcra, L. undulada, Modeeria rotunda and Chrysaora plocamia represent new records for the area. A significant increase in the jellyfish abundance was higher in spring than in winter (fo...

  18. BRIOFITAS SOBRE CARPOFOROS DE HONGOS BRYOPHYTES ON CARPOPHORES OF FUNGI

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Ardiles Huerta; Felipe Osorio-Zúñiga; Elizabeth Barrera Moscoso

    2009-01-01

    Se registra el desarrollo de briófitas sobre carpóforos de hongos de estructura coriácea, leñosa y perenne. Los resultados revelan la presencia de siete especies de hepáticas fo liosas: Bazzania peruviana, Heteroscyphus integrifolius, Leiomitria elegans, Lepidozia chordulifem, Plagiochila bispinosa, Porella chilensis, Telaranea blepharostoma y dos musgos: Dicranoloma robustum e Hypnum chrysogaster. Se propone que los hongos de estas características son un apropiado sustrato para el desarrollo...

  19. Reactividad inmunoquímica de sueros anti- Caiman yacare y Caiman latirostris frente a sueros de diferentes especies

    OpenAIRE

    de Roodt, Adolfo Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Se estudió la reactividad inmunoquímica entre los sueros de distintas especies de reptiles frente a sueros hiperinmunes experimentales anti-suero de Caiman yacare y anti-suero de Caiman latirostris. Los sueros que se probaron fueron los homólogos de Caiman yacare, Caiman latirostris y los heterólogos de Alligator missisipiensis, Tupinambis merinae, Tupinambis rufescens, Chelonoidis chilensis, Clelia rustica, Waglerophis merremii, Lystrophys dorbignyi, Phyton molurus, Boa constrictor occidenta...

  20. Reactividad inmunoquímica de sueros anti Caiman yacare y Caiman latirostris frente a sueros de diferentes especies

    OpenAIRE

    de Roodt, Adolfo Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Se estudió la reactividad inmunoquímica entre los sueros de distintas especies de reptiles frente a sueros hiperinmunes experimentales anti-suero de Caiman yacare y anti-suero de Caiman latirostris. Los sueros que se probaron fueron los homólogos de Caiman yacare, Caiman latirostris y los heterólogos de Alligator missisipiensis, Tupinambis merinae, Tupinambis rufescens, Chelonoidis chilensis, Clelia rustica, Waglerophis merremii, Lystrophys dorbignyi, Phyton molurus, Boa constrictor occidenta...

  1. Observations on the Biology and Anatomy of Myerslopiidae (Hemiptera, Membracoidea)

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Rakitov

    2015-01-01

    Adults and nymphs of Mapuchea chilensis (Nielson), from the poorly known family Myerslopiidae, were collected from the litter horizon of temperate forests and shrub bogs in southern Chile. The species apparently feeds on roots and creeping stems of angiosperms. Salivary sheaths of captive specimens terminated in vascular bundles. Indirect evidence suggests feeding on phloem sap. Both nymphs and adults are strong jumpers and both actively disperse, as evidenced by their capture in pan traps. T...

  2. First karyotype data on the family Myerslopiidae ( Hemiptera , Auchenorrhyncha , Cicadomorpha )

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Golub; Valentina Kuznetsova; Roman Rakitov

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the first cytogenetic study of the recently proposed family Myerslopiidae the male karyotype of Mapuchea chilensis (Nielson, 1996) was analyzed using conventional chromosome staining, AgNOR- and C-bandings, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S rDNA and (TTAGG) n telomeric probes. A karyotype of 2n = 16 + XY, NOR on a medium-sized pair of autosomes, subterminal location of C-heterochromatin, and presence of (TTAGG) n telomeric sequence were determined. Additionall...

  3. Mitogenomics of southern hemisphere blue mussels (Bivalvia: Pteriomorphia): Insights into the evolutionary characteristics of the Mytilus edulis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Quintero-Galvis, Julian F; Mesas, Andres; D'Elía, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Marine blue mussels (Mytilus spp.) are widespread species that exhibit an antitropical distribution with five species occurring in the Northern Hemisphere (M. trossulus, M. edulis, M. galloprovincialis, M. californianus and M. coruscus) and three in the Southern Hemisphere (M. galloprovincialis, M. chilensis and M. platensis). Species limits in this group remain controversial, in particular for those forms that live in South America. Here we investigated structural characteristics of marine mussels mitogenomes, based on published F mtDNA sequences of Northern Hemisphere species and two newly sequenced South American genomes, one from the Atlantic M. platensis and another from the Pacific M. chilensis. These mitogenomes exhibited similar architecture to those of other genomes of Mytilus, including the presence of the Atp8 gene, which is missing in most of the other bivalves. Our evolutionary analysis of mitochondrial genes indicates that purifying selection is the predominant force shaping the evolution of the coding genes. Results of our phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyly of Pteriomorphia and fully resolved the phylogenetic relationships among its five orders. Finally, the low genetic divergence of specimens assigned to M. chilensis and M. platensis suggests that these South American marine mussels represent conspecific variants rather than distinct species. PMID:27241855

  4. Susceptibilidad a Insecticidas y Actividad Enzimática de Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae Proveniente de Tres Huertos de la Región del Maule, Chile Insecticide Susceptibility and Enzymatic Activity of Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae from Three Apple Orchards of Maule Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Reyes

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Cydia pomonella L., la principal plaga de pomáceas y nogales en Chile, ha sido controlada casi exclusivamente con aplicaciones de insecticidas organofosforados. Sin embargo, durante las últimas temporadas se han observado crecientes niveles de frutos dañados a cosecha. Dado que esta plaga ha desarrollado resistencia a insecticidas en varios países, se evaluó la susceptibilidad a dosis diagnóstico de azinfos metil y tebufenozide de larvas diapausantes provenientes de tres huertos de manzano de la Región del Maule y una cepa susceptible de referencia (S; además de la actividad de enzimas detoxificadoras en adultos emergidos de las mismas Tanto la actividad de oxidasas de función múltiple (OFM como de glutation-S-transferasas (GST se evaluó a través de fluorimetría, mientras la de esterasas (EST se determinó por absorbancia. La mortalidad larvaria frente a azinfos metil fue significativamente menor para Molina y Teno (30 y 85,4%, respectivamente que para la cepa S (95,3%. Para tebufenozide la mortalidad larvaria fue significativamente menor en Molina (35,31% que en la cepa S (88,6%. La actividad de GST fue significativamente mayor en dos de los tres huertos analizados (Teno = 13.679 unidades de fluorescencia insecto-1 y Molina =13.096 unidades de fluorescencia insecto-1. Similarmente, la actividad de OFM fue significativamente mayor en los mismos huertos, con valores 25,08 y 17,95 picogramos (pg de 7OH insecto-1 min.-1 para Molina y Teno, respectivamente. La cepa S presentó una actividad de EST significativamente mayor que la de las otras poblaciones, la cual parece no estar relacionada con la menor susceptibilidad a los insecticidas evaluados.Cydia pomonella L., the major pest of pome fruits and walnuts in Chile, has been controlled almost exclusively with applications of organophosphates insecticides. However, during the last few seasons, increasing levels of fruit damage at harvest have been observed. Given that this insect has

  5. Reinventing Democracy in Bolivia and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ton Salman

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available – Citizenship in Latin America, by Joseph S. Tulchin and Meg Ruthenburg (eds. Boulder/London: Lynne Rienner, 2006. – Participación política, democracia y movimientos indígenas en los Andes, by Jorge León, et al. La Paz, Lima: PIEB / IFEA / Embajada de Francia en Bolivia, 2005. – El estado del Estado en Bolivia – Informe Nacional sobre Desarrollo Humano 2007, coordinación general George Gray Molina. UNDP / PNUD, Bolivia, 2007. – El Estado de la opinión: los bolivianos, la Constitución y la Constituyente – Encuestas para el Desarrollo Humano, coordinadores George Gray Molina, Alfonso Ferrufino and Antonio Araníbar. UNDP / PNUD, Bolivia, 2007. – Democracia de alta tensión – Conflictividad y cambio social en la Bolivia del siglo XXI, by César Rojas Ríos. La Paz: Plural Editores, 2007.

  6. Analysis of couplers between photonic nanowires and subwavelength grating waveguides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čtyroký, Jiří; Kwiecien, P.; Richter, I.; Cheben, P.

    Vol. 8781. BELLINGHAM: SPIE, 2013 - (Cheben, P.; Čtyroký, P.; MolinaFernandez, I.) ISBN 978-0-8194-9583-9. ISSN 0277-786X. [Conference on Integrated Optics - Physics and Simulations. Prague (CZ), 17.04.2013-18.04.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/10/0046 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Optical waveguide theory * numerical modeling * Bloch modes Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  7. Ethanol-mediated operant learning in the infant rat leads to increased ethanol intake during adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Ponce, Luciano Federico; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Norman E. Spear; Molina, Juan Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the infant rat has high affinity for ethanol ingestion and marked sensitivity to the drug’s reinforcing effects (Spear & Molina, 2005). A novel operant technique was developed to analyze reinforcing effects of ethanol delivery during the third postnatal week. The impact of this ethanol-reinforcement experience upon subsequent ethanol consumption during adolescence (postnatal weeks 5–6 was also examined. In Experiment 1, pups (postnatal days 14–17 were given an exp...

  8. Temporal evolution of adherents of the major religions in Mexico: Avrami model application-Kolgomorov solid training

    OpenAIRE

    Avilés, Mauricio González; Campuzano, Hermelinda Servín

    2013-01-01

    It applies a mathematical model of solid formation, the model of Avrami-Kolgomorov [Ausloos & Petroni, 2007] to model the time evolution of percentage of adherents of the major religions practiced in Mexico, adjusting the corresponding parameters with available records in the period from 1950 to 2000 [Molina-Hernandez, 2003; INEGI, 2005]. A comparison is made with the application of the model to global trends and concludes that Catholicism is in a marked disaggregation and trends of Christian...

  9. Phytochemical and pharmacological review of Lagenaria sicereria

    OpenAIRE

    Rakesh P Prajapati; Manisha Kalariya; Parmar, Sachin K.; Sheth, Navin R.

    2010-01-01

    Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) standley (LS) (Family: Cucurbitaceae) is an annual herbaceous climbing plant with a long history of traditional medicinal uses in many countries, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Since ancient times the climber has been known for its curative properties, and has been utilized for treatment of various ailments, including jaundice, diabetes, ulcer, piles, colitis, insanity, hypertension, congestive cardiac failure (CCF), and skin diseases. Its fruit p...

  10. Taller de capacitación en el manejo del gorgojo de Los Andes

    OpenAIRE

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Instituto de la Pequeña Producción Sustentable

    2008-01-01

    El presente documento contiene el desarrollo del taller de manejo del gorgojo de los Andes en la Comunidad Campesina de Santa María, trabajo fue realizado por el equipo del Instituto de la Pequeña Producción Sustentable (IPPS) de la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina - UNALM, en el marco del desarrollo del proyecto: Desarrollo de capacidades para la adaptación al cambio climático y de mercado en comunidades del Altiplano.

  11. La agricultura nahua en el siglo XVI

    OpenAIRE

    Jácome Alba González

    2001-01-01

    Alonso de Molinas Vocabulary is the main historical source followed by the author of this article in order to understand the Nahua agriculture at the end of the XVI century. There are also other historical sources utilized by Alba González to compare the information about types of soils, climate, vegetation, agricultural technicques and the technology associated with it and about irrigation. The article has a broad information about agricultural managements an...

  12. A Discrete/Continuous Choice Approach to Residential Water Demand under Block Rate Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Hewitt, Julie A.; W. Michael Hanemann

    1995-01-01

    A discrete/continuous choice model of the residential demand for water under block rate pricing is presented, estimated, and compared to results of regression models. The empirical analysis uses a dataset from a previously published study, Nieswiadomy and Molina (1989), of household level panel data from Denton, Texas, for summer months from 1981 to 1985 with an increasing block rate in effect. The striking result is that the discrete/ continuous choice model produces price elasticity estimat...

  13. Nuevas adiciones de bivalvos a la malacofauna marina peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Paredes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cuatro especies de moluscos bivalvos marinos, Nuculana (Jupiteria cuneata (Sowerby, 1833, Isognomon (Isognomón janus Carpenter, 1857, Ostrea conchaphila Carpenter, 1857 y Mysella (Rochefortia molinae Ramorino, 1968 se reportan por primera vez para el mar peruano. Se incluye datos sobre la distribución geográfica y el hábitat de cada una de las especies.

  14. Resonance effects in the optical antennas shaped as finite comb-like gratings of noble-metal nanostrips

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shapoval, O.V.; Nosich, A. I.; Čtyroký, Jiří

    Vol. 8781. BELLINGHAM : SPIE, 2013 - (Cheben, P.; Čtyroký, P.; MolinaFernandez, I.) ISBN 978-0-8194-9583-9. ISSN 0277-786X. [Conference on Integrated Optics - Physics and Simulations. Prague (CZ), 17.04.2013-18.04.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : noble-metal thin strips * nanoantennas * grating resonance s Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  15. [Reseñas Bibliográficas] Atlas de la flora vascular silvestre de Burgos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñaki Aizpuru

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Es una reseña bibliográfica de la obra, Atlas de la flora vascular silvestre de Burgos / Alejandre Sáenz, J.M. García-López, L. Marín Padellano, G. Mateo Sanz, E. Miguélez del coso, C. Molina Martín, G. Montamarta Prieto, S. Patino Sánchez, M.A. Pinto Cebrián 6 J. Valencia Janices.

  16. Overfishing population characteristics of razor clam, Ensis macha, from Independencia Bay, Peru, in 2004 year

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Tarazona; Jürgen Laudien

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative monthly samplings, in 2004, were carried out to estimate the density and biomass of Ensis macha (Molina 1782), from Morro Quemado area, Bay Independence, Pisco. The present study analyzes biometric relationships, growth parameters and somatic production using the ELEFAN I routine and the Crisp’s method. During the year 2004 the rate of exploitation (E= 0.69 y-1) was significantly bigger than the values of 2003 and the monthly landings (maximum of 335 t) and fishing effort (maximu...

  17. Cytogenetic characterization of Caesalpinia spinosafrom Tarma and Palca (Junín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto López

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Somatic chromosomes of Caesalpinia spinosa (Feuillée ex Molina Kuntze, “Tara”, wild populations of Huinco and Palca (Junín regions were studied. The specie were diploid (2n=24. Chromosomes were small. The karyotypes showed the same chromosome number, they found differences in morphological parameters of the same, with the karyotype formula for the town of Huinco: 6m + 6 sm and the town of Palca: 5m + 7 sm.

  18. STUDY OF SOIL AMPLIFICATION BASED ON MICROTREMOR AND SEISMIC RECORDS IN LIMA PERU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Diana; Sekiguchi, Toru; Nakai, Shoichi; Aguilar, Zenon; Lazares, Fernando

    The dynamic characteristics of the ground in Lima, capital of Peru, specifically the amplification are investigated. By using the small and large microtremor array measurements we estimated the soil velocity profiles with depths to the bedrock in many cases. These profiles were used to estimate the amplification factors. Important results are the large amplification factors at EMO, VSV, CAL and CMA (La Molina, Villa El Salvador, El Callao and Bellavista district, respectively).

  19. What would have happened to the ozone layer if chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) had not been regulated?

    OpenAIRE

    P. A. Newman; Oman, L.D.; A. R. Douglass; E. L. Fleming; Frith, S. M.; M. M. Hurwitz; Kawa, S. R.; C. H. Jackman; Krotkov, N.A.; Nash, E. R.; Nielsen, J E; S. Pawson; Stolarski, R. S.; Velders, G.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Ozone depletion by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) was first proposed by Molina and Rowland in their 1974 Nature paper. Since that time, the scientific connection between ozone losses and CFCs and other ozone depleting substances (ODSs) has been firmly established with laboratory measurements, atmospheric observations, and modeling studies. This science research led to the implementation of international agreements that largely stopped the production of ODSs. In this study we use...

  20. Global Governance and the MDGs: The story of an impossible love?

    OpenAIRE

    Núria Molina Gallart

    2005-01-01

    If current world trends do not change, the attainment of the millennium development goals (MDGs) will be seriously compromised. During the last decades, priority has been given to economic and commercial globalization, while little is done towards the vitally important issue of globalizing sustainable human development. Nuria Molina argues for institutional mechanisms to ensure greater global social justice, adjusting social imbalances worldwide and guaranteeing a more ethical functioning of ...

  1. Luces y sombras de la calidad de la democracia en América Latina

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Alcántara Sáez

    2008-01-01

    El artículo analiza el concepto de calidad de la democracia, contemplando la aplicación de distintos índices a la realidad política de los países de América Latina; a saber: Freedom House, IDD (Fundación Konrad Adenauer), The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) y el elaborado por Levine y Molina.

  2. What would have happened to the ozone layer if chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) had not been regulated?

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, P. A; L. D. Oman; A. R. Douglass; Fleming, E. L.; S. M. Frith; M. M. Hurwitz; Kawa, S.R.; Jackman, C. H.; N. A. Krotkov; Nash, E. R.; Nielsen, J. E.; S. Pawson; R. S. Stolarski; G. J. M. Velders

    2009-01-01

    Ozone depletion by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) was first proposed by Molina and Rowland in their 1974 Nature paper. Since that time, the scientific connection between ozone losses and CFCs and other ozone depleting substances (ODSs) has been firmly established with laboratory measurements, atmospheric observations, and modeling research. This science research led to the implementation of international agreements that largely stopped the production of ODSs. In this study we use a fully-c...

  3. Inhibitory action of some essential oils and phytochemicals on the growth of various moulds isolated from foods

    OpenAIRE

    Evandro Leite de Souza; Edeltrudes de Oliveira Lima; Kristerson Reinaldo de Luna Freire; Cristina Paiva de Sousa

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity profile of mould strains isolated from foods to some essential oils and phytochemicals. The assayed mould strains were: Fusarium spp., Rhizopus spp., Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and Penicillium spp. According to results, Lippia alba N.E. Brown, Peumus boldus Molina, Lippia microphylla Phil., Citrus limon Risso and Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. essential oil and the phytochemicals citral, eugenol and mircene showed prominent antimould activi...

  4. Simulations of waveguide Bragg grating filters based on subwavelength grating waveguide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čtyroký, Jiří; Kwiecien, P.; Wang, J.; Richter, I.; Glesk, I.; Chen, L.

    Vol. 9516. Bellingham: SPIE, 2015 - (Cheben, P.; Čtyroký, J.; Molina-Fernandez, I.), 95160M ISBN 978-1-62841-637-4. ISSN 0277-786X. [Conference on Integrated Optics - Physics and Simulations II. Prague (CZ), 13.04.2015-15.04.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-07908S Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Fourier modal method * finite difference time domain method * photonic nanowire Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  5. Ethnobotany of Hulu(Lagenaria siceraria)%葫芦的民族植物学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈重明

    2002-01-01

    @@ 葫芦(Lagenaria siceraria(Molina)Standl.)系葫芦科植物,在我国有着悠久的应用的历史,在古代人民的经济生活和医疗活动中均有重要的地位,而且在民俗文化方面更有丰富的内容,和宗教、植物崇拜有着密切的关系.

  6. Pyruvate Oxidoreductases Involved in Glycolytic Anaerobic Metabolism of Polychaetes from the Continental Shelf off Central-South Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, R. R.; Quiñones, R. A.

    2000-10-01

    The presence of low oxygen conditions in extensive areas of the continental shelf off central-south Chile has important effects on the biochemical adaptations of the organisms living in this ecosystem. Polychaetes assemblages cohabit on the shelf with an extensively distributed prokaryotic community made up of giant filamentous sulfur bacteria (mainly Thioploca sp.). The aim of this research was to characterize the pyruvate oxidoreductases enzymes involved in the biochemical adaptation of these benthic polychaetes. Nine polychaete species ( Paraprionospio pinnata, Nephtys ferruginea, Glycera americana, Haploscoloplos sp., Lumbrineris composita, Sigambra bassi, Aricidea pigmentata , Cossura chilensis, and Pectinaria chilensis) were assayed for lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), octopine dehydrogenase (OPDH), strombine dehydrogenase (STRDH) and alanopine dehydrogenase (ALPDH). Each species had a characteristic number of the pyruvate oxidoreductases assayed ranging from 4 in Paraprionospio pinnata to 1 in Pectinaria chilensis . The pyruvate saturation curves obtained for the enzymes from all species analysed, except L. composita, suggest that NADH can be oxidized at different rates depending on the amino acid used in the reaction with pyruvate. Our results indicate that organisms having more that one pyruvate oxidoreductase present a greater metabolic capacity to cope with functional and environmental hypoxia because these enzymes would better regulate the pyruvate consumption rate during the transition period. Thus, the dominance of Paraprionospio pinnata in the study area and its worldwide distribution is consistent with its higher number of pyruvate oxidoreductases with different pyruvate consumption rates involved in anaerobic metabolism. Finally, a positive allometric relationship was found between body size and the specific activity of ALPDH, STRDH, and maximum pyruvate oxidoreductase specific activity. This latter result suggests a positive scaling of the specific

  7. Las Pteridophyta y el paleoambiente de la parte media de la Formación La Ternera (Triásico Superior, en Quebrada La Cachivarita, III Región, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Herbst

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se describen e ilustran diez especies de Pteridophyta procedentes de estratos de la parte media de la Formación La Ternera (Triásico Superior, aflorantes en la quebrada La Cachivarita, afluente norte de la quebrada Paipote, Provincia de Copiapó, III Región, Chile. Se trata de Rienitsia ternerae, Todites chilensis, Todites sp., Neocalamites carrerei, Asterotheca rigbyana, Asterotheca fuchsi, Cladophlebis mendozaensis, Cladophlebis kurtzi, Gleichenites cachivaritensis y Dictyophyllum (D. tenuifolium, de las cuales las dos primeras son nuevas. El conjunto paleoflorístico confirma la edad triásica superior asignada con anterioridad a la Formación La Ternera. El estudio sedimentológico de la sección que incluye tales estratos permitió distinguir cinco facies diferentes que, en conjunto, son interpretadas como depósitos en un lago que progresivamente se torna más somero.ABSTRACT The Pteridophyta and the paleoenvironment of the middle part of the La Ternera Formation (Upper Triassic at Quebrada La Cachivarita, Atacama Region, Chile. Ten species of Pteridophyta from the middle part of the La Ternera Formation (Upper Triassic, in quebrada La Cachivarita, Copiapó Province, northern Chile, are described and figured. They include Rienitsia chilensis, Todites chilensis, Todites sp., Neocalamites carrerei, Asterotheca rigbyana, Asterotheca fuchsi, Cladophlebis mendozaensis, Cladophlebis kurtzi, Gleichenites cachivaritensis and Dictyophyllum (D. tenuifolium, being the first two, new ones. This assemblage agrees with an Upper Triassic age for the La Ternera Formation as formerly proposed. A sedimentological analysis of the section which includes the fossiliferous strata, recognizes five different facies which are interpreted as deposits in a lake becoming progressively shallower.

  8. Holocene climate variability and environmental history at the Patagonian forest/steppe ecotone: Lago Mosquito (lat. 42.50°S, long. 71.40°W) and Laguna del Cóndor (lat. 42.20°S, long. 71.17°W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, V.; Whitlock, C. L.; Bianchi, M. M.

    2010-12-01

    Along the eastern Andes, a sharp ecotone separates steppe from North Patagonian forest dominated by Nothofagus spp. and Austrocedrus chilensis. The elevational position of the ecotone is determined by effective moisture, which in turn is governed by the strength and latitudinal position of the Southern Westerlies. As a result, past changes in ecotone position and composition, and fire activity provide an opportunity to examine past climate variations. Holocene environmental history at two sites in close proximity along a west-to-east moisture gradient is inferred from magnetic susceptibility, pollen and high-resolution charcoal data. Comparison of the two records enhanced the spatial resolution of the reconstruction. Pollen data suggest that, prior to 9 ka, vegetation resembled a modern steppe, in accordance with the widespread aridity characteristic of the period. Fires were infrequent, likely as a consequence of fuel discontinuity associated with low vegetation cover. At 9 ka, forest taxa expanded into the steppe. This change in community composition was reflected in the fire regime: fires became more frequent and biomass burning increased. This fire-vegetation linkage suggests that summers were arid enough to support fires but moisture was sufficient for Nothofagus forest to expand. Based on a westward displacement of the forest-steppe ecotone, drier-than-before conditions are inferred for the 5.5-3.7 ka period. A shift from crown to surface fires at the westernmost site, and lengthening fire return intervals towards the east accompanied this vegetation change. Between 3.7 and 2.4 ka, both sites registered an A. chilensis expansion, suggesting an increase in effective moisture. The last 2400 years are characterized by uninterrupted advances of Nothofagus forest. Ecotonal trees and shrubs, such as A. chilensis, Maytenus boaria and Rhamnaceae, have become less abundant, suggesting a recent trend towards cooler and/or wetter conditions.

  9. Antibody response of five bird species after vaccination with a killed West Nile virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeson, Danelle M; Llizo, Shirley Yeo; Miller, Christine L; Glaser, Amy L

    2007-06-01

    West Nile virus has been associated with numerous bird mortalities in the United States since 1999. Five avian species at three zoological parks were selected to assess the antibody response to vaccination for West Nile virus: black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus), little blue penguins (Eudyptula minor), American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber), Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis), and Attwater's prairie chickens (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri). All birds were vaccinated intramuscularly at least twice with a commercially available inactivated whole virus vaccine (Innovator). Significant differences in antibody titer over time were detected for black-footed penguins and both flamingo species. PMID:17679507

  10. Sequence conservation of an avian centromeric repeated DNA component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, C S; Brooks, J E; de Kloet, E; de Kloet, S R

    1994-06-01

    The approximately 190-bp centromeric repeat monomers of the spur-winged lapwing (Vanellus spinosus, Charadriidae), the Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis, Phoenicopteridae), the sarus crane (Grus antigone, Gruidae), parrots (Psittacidae), waterfowl (Anatidae), and the merlin (Falco columbarius, Falconidae) contain elements that are interspecifically highly variable, as well as elements (trinucleotides and higher order oligonucleotides) that are highly conserved in sequence and relative location within the repeat. Such conservation suggests that the centromeric repeats of these avian species have evolved from a common ancestral sequence that may date from very early stages of avian radiation. PMID:8034177

  11. Use of thermography and fluorescein angiography in the management of a Chilean flamingo with avascular necrosis of the wing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley-Sanders, Jennifer L; Bowman, Karl F; Wolfe, Barbara A; Nutter, Felicia B; Sladky, Kurt K; Stoskopf, Michael K

    2012-12-01

    A Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis) was presented to the veterinary clinic at the North Carolina Zoological Park for evaluation of acute weakness of the right wing. Results of a physical examination revealed a lack of a palpable pulse in the radial artery, which suggested occlusion or obstruction of the vessel. Radiography, thermography, and fluorescein angiography confirmed right wing injury and vascular compromise. Based on the poor prognosis for return to function associated with irreversible vascular damage, the wing was amputated. After a period of observation and treatment, the bird was returned to public exhibit. PMID:23409438

  12. Paleoambientes litorales durante el inicio de la trasgresión marina holocena en bahía Lapataia, canal Beagle, parque nacional Tierra del Fuego Littoral paleoenvironments during the beginning of the Holocene marine transgression in Lapataia Bay, Beagle Channel, National Park of Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rabassa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Los sitios Aserradero Lapataia 1 y 2 presentan depósitos limo-arcillosos portadores de valvas de moluscos: Mulinia edulis, Mytilus chilensis, Aulacomya atra y Yoldia sp. Además predominan los quistes de dinoflagelados, revestimientos de foraminíferos bentónicos y huevos de copépodos. Valvas de Mulinia edulis fueron datadas radiocarbónicamente en 8.094 ± 43 (AA74047 y 8.167 ± 43 (AA74048 a A.P. En Arroyo Baliza depósitos limo-arcillosos son portadores de Venus antiqua, Aulacomya atra, Mytilus chilensis, entre otros. La microflora está dominada por dinoquistes protoperidinioideos, acritarcos y restos de copépodos. Se sugiere ambientes marino-marginales, con baja a moderada salinidad, y altas concentraciones de nutrientes en las aguas superficiales. La datación radiocarbónica sobre Venus antiqua en Arroyo Baliza indica 2.844 ± 34 a A.P. (AA74046. Aserradero Lapataia confirma las edades más antiguas conocidas para la fase estuárica de la transgresión holocena en el canal Beagle. Arroyo Baliza aporta nueva evidencia de la fase regresiva en este canal durante el Holoceno tardío.The Aserradero Lapataia 1 and 2 sites present clayey silty sediments including mollusk shell; Mulinia edulis, Mytilus chilensis, Aulacomya atra and Yoldia sp. Besides, dinoflagelate cysts, covers of benthonic foraminifera and copepod eggs are dominant. The microflora is represented by sporomorphs and fresh to salty water microplancton. Radiocarbon dates on Mulinia edulis shells yielded ages of 8094 ± 43 (AA74047 and 8167 ± 43 (AA74048 yr B.P. At Arroyo Baliza, clayey silts were found including Venus antiqua, Aulacomya atra, Mytilus chilensis, among others, accompanied by acritarchs and remnants of copepods. This association suggests marginal marine environments, with low to moderate salinity, and high nutrient concentration in the surface waters. Radiocarbon dating on Venus antiqua shells yielded 2844 ± 34 yr B.P. (AA74046. Marine deposits of the Aserradero

  13. Antarctic sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae of the South Shetland Islands and vicinity: part I. Spirophorida, Astrophorida, Hadromerida, Halichondrida and Haplosclerida Esponjas Antárticas (Porifera, Demospongiae das Ilhas Shetland do Sul e áreas próximas: parte I. Spirophorida, Astrophorida, Hadromerida, Halichondrida e Haplosclerida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Campos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to redescribe 11 species of sponges collected through the Brazilian Antarctic Program (PROANTAR, at the South Shetland Islands and vicinity. New information is provided on the Antarctic sponge fauna, in regard to species richness and the geographical and bathymetric distributions of identified species. The following species were identified and are here illustrated and fully described: Cinachyra antarctica (Carter, 1872, Cinachyra barbata Sollas, 1886, Craniella leptoderma (Sollas, 1886, Tethyopsis longispinum (Lendenfeld, 1907, Polymastia invaginata Kirkpatrick, 1907, Homaxinella balfourensis (Ridley & Dendy, 1886, Suberites montiniger Carter, 1880, Halichondria (Eumastia attenuata (Topsent, 1915, Haliclona (Soestella chilensis (Thiele, 1905, Hemigellius bidens (Topsent, 1901 and Calyx arcuarius (Topsent, 1913. Two new records are given for the Antarctic continent: Halichondria (Eumastia attenuata (Topsent, 1915 and Haliclona (Soestella chilensis (Thiele, 1905. Tethyopsis longispinum (Lendenfeld, 1907, Suberites montiniger Carter, 1880 and Hemigellius bidens (Topsent, 1901 represent the first records for this sector of the continent. Bathymetric data are extended for T. longispinum and H. attenuata.O objetivo deste trabalho é redescrever 11 espécies de esponjas coletadas através do Programa Antártico Brasileiro (PROANTAR, nas Is. Shetland do Sul e áreas próximas. Nnovas informações são fornecidas acerca do conhecimento da fauna de poríferos da Antártica, tanto para a riqueza específica como para os dados referentes às distribuições geográfica e batimétrica das espécies identificadas. As seguintes espécies foram identificadas e são aqui ilustradas e amplamente descritas: Cinachyra antarctica (Carter, 1872, Cinachyra barbata Sollas, 1886, Craniella leptoderma (Sollas, 1886, Tethyopsis longispinum (Lendenfeld, 1907, Polymastia invaginata Kirkpatrick, 1907, Homaxinella balfourensis (Ridley & Dendy, 1886

  14. Capacidad de alimentación y análisis endoscópico en bivalvos filtradores de la infauna y epifauna de la Bahía de Yaldad, Chiloé, Chile.

    OpenAIRE

    González Ovando, L.P.

    2003-01-01

    Mytilus chilensis, Venus antiqua, Mulinia edulis y Tagelus dombeii son moluscos bivalvos filtradores que habitan diferentes niveles de la planicie mareal de la bahía de Yaldad, Sur de Chile. El primero es un organismo de la epifauna mientras que las demás especies pertenecen a la infauna. Estas especies adoptan diferentes estrategias, como ser el desarrollo de sistemas de filtración y estructuras de selección de partículas, las que son usadas para aprovechar al máximo el alimento disponible e...

  15. Application of chemometric studies to metal concentrations in molluscs from the Strait of Magellan (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    España, M S Astorga; Rodríguez, E M Rodríguez; Romero, C Díaz

    2007-05-01

    Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Se, Ni, and Cd concentrations were determined in 126 mollusc samples belonging to five different species (Mytilus chilensis, n = 47; Nacella deaurata, n = 65; Aulacomya ater, n = 4; Fissurella picta, n = 4; Acanthina monodon, n = 6) collected from the coasts of the Strait of Magellan. The metals analysed presented significant differences between the mean concentrations for the mollusc species considered. Factor and discriminant analyses made possible the differentiation of the mollusc species. In addition, when discriminant analysis was used, good classifications were obtained according to sampling zone and weight-to-length ratio of the organisms. PMID:17375348

  16. In vitro polymerization of mussel polyphenolic proteins catalyzed by mushroom tyrosinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burzio, L A; Burzio, V A; Pardo, J; Burzio, L O

    2000-07-01

    The in vitro enzymatic polymerization of the polyphenolic protein purified from the mussels Aulacomya ater, Mytilus edulis chilensis and Choromytilus chorus was studied. Mushroom tyrosinase was used to oxidize the dopa residues present in these proteins, and polymerization was monitored by acid-urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The protein from A. ater polymerized at a faster rate than the other two. Amino acid analysis of the crosslinked protein showed a notable decrease in the content of dopa, but no significant change of other amino acids. This suggests that crosslink formation may be limited to the oxidized dopa derivatives of the protein molecules. PMID:11007180

  17. Aspectos generales de la pesca del bonito (Sarda sarda)en la Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Basic aspects of the fising of Bonito in Argentina such as: catch statistics, fleet and gears, season and fishing grounds, and catch per unit effort (CPUE)are analized. FAO World Catch Statistics show that none of the different populations of Sarda sarda or other species of the Genus may support a highly productive fishery Exceptions are Sarda chilensis and S.sarda from the Black Sea, which us exploited by Turkey. On the basis of available information it may be inferred that the Bonito of Arg...

  18. Producción local de cuentas de valva en el bosque del noroeste de Patagonia : Una aproximación desde la arqueología experimental

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardt, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    En numerosos sitios tardíos del noroeste de Patagonia es frecuente el registro de cuentas y restos de valvas, principalmente del molusco de agua dulce Diplodon chilensis. Estos últimos suelen interpretarse como resultado de su consumo alimenticio. En este trabajo se evalúa la posibilidad de que estos restos sean evidencia de la producción local de cuentas. A partir del desarrollo de un programa de arqueología experimental se define un patrón de desechos de manufactura esperables en contextos ...

  19. Chilean Prosopis Mesocarp Flour: Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann; Cristina Quispe; Maria del Pilar C. Soriano; Cristina Theoduloz; Felipe Jiménez-Aspée; Maria Jorgelina Pérez; Ana Soledad Cuello; Maria Inés Isla

    2015-01-01

    In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82–2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest ant...

  20. Desarrollo de una bebida de alto contenido proteico a partir de algarrobo, lupino y quinoa para la dieta de preescolares Development of a high content protein beverage from Chilean mesquite, lupine and quinoa for the diet of pre-schoolers

    OpenAIRE

    P. Cerezal Mezquita; E. Acosta Barrientos; G. Rojas Valdivia; N. Romero Palacios; R. Arcos Zavala

    2012-01-01

    En la presente investigación se desarrolló una bebida de alto contenido proteico a partir de la mezcla de los extractos líquidos de un pseudocereal, quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) y de dos plantas leguminosas: algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stunz) y lupino (Lupinus albus L.), provenientes del altiplano andino de la macrozona norte de Chile, saborizándose con pulpa de frambuesa, para contribuir en la alimentación de niños entre 2 y 5 años de estrato socio-económico bajo con deficienci...

  1. Contribución al conocimiento de los hemeróbidos de Patagonia y Tierra del Fuego (Insecta, Neuroptera, Hemerobiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Monserrat, Víctor J.

    2003-01-01

    New data on the biology and distribution of 10 species of brown-lacewings collected in 48 localities of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego are given. Larvae of Hemerobius bolivari Banks, 1910, Hemerobius chilensis Nakahara, 1965, Hemerobius stenopterus Monserrat, 1996, Sympherobius gayi Navás, 1910, Nomerobius cuspidatus Oswald, 1990 and Gayomyia falcata (Blanchard in Gay, 1851) are d...

  2. Interaction between Tephritidae (Insecta, Diptera and plants of the family Asteraceae: new host and distribution records for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcoandre Savaris

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty species of Tephritidae (Diptera are recorded in association with capitula of plants in the family Asteraceae. The Tephritidae genus Tetreuaresta is registered for Rio Grande do Sul for the first time. Five species of Tephritidae are newly recorded for Rio Grande do Sul, and new hosts are recorded for the following fly species: Dioxyna chilensis (Macquart, Plaumannimyia dolores (Hering, Plaumannimyia imitatrix (Hering, Plaumannimyia miseta (Hering, Plaumannimyia pallens Hering, Tomoplagia incompleta (Williston, Tomoplagia matzenbacheri Prado, Norrbom & Lewinsohn, Tomoplagia reimoseri Hendel, Xanthaciura biocellata (Thomson and Xanthaciura chrysura (Thomson.

  3. Comportamento silvicultural de especies de Prosopis, em Petrolina-PE, regiãosemi-arida brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Paulo Cesar Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Performance e produtividades madeireira e forrageira foram avaliadas em Prosopis alba, P. chilensis e P. tamarugo introduzidas do Chile; 1'. glandulosa e P. velutina dos Estados Unidos; P. pallida do Peru e P. juliflora do Nordeste do Brasil, até a idade de 96 meses. O experimento, conduzido em Petrolina (P2), foi avaliado sob os aspectos de sobrevivência, crescimento, fenologia, produtividades madeireira e forrageira e fitossanidade. Dados das medições aos 3, 13, 24, 39, 63, 75, 87 e 96 mese...

  4. First karyotype data on the family Myerslopiidae (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadomorpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Golub

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the first cytogenetic study of the recently proposed family Myerslopiidae the male karyotype of Mapuchea chilensis (Nielson, 1996 was analyzed using conventional chromosome staining, AgNOR- and C-bandings, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with 18S rDNA and (TTAGGn telomeric probes. A karyotype of 2n = 16 + XY, NOR on a medium-sized pair of autosomes, subterminal location of C-heterochromatin, and presence of (TTAGGn telomeric sequence were determined. Additionally, the male internal reproductive system was studied.

  5. In vivo transmission of 'candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi' by Amplicephalus curtulus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and its effect on ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum cv. tama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arismendi, N L; Riegel, R; Carrillo, R

    2014-02-01

    In Chile, phytoplasmas have been reported in sugar beet, grapevine, peony, and Chilean shrubs. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi' have been detected in plants of Ugni molinae Turczanínow (Myrtaceae) and the leafhopper Amplicephalus curtulus Linnavuori & DeLong. We evaluated the possibility of phytoplasma transmission from native plants to grasses by A. curtulus and the possible effect on the plant hosts. Newly emerged adults were placed in cages with phytoplasma-infected U. molinae for 72 h (acquisition access period). These plants were then replaced by healthy ryegrasses for 20 d (latent period). They were again replaced for other healthy ryegrasses and were place in cages for 14, 7, and 1 d (inoculation access period [IAP]). After IAP, these plants were moved into different insect-free cages for 30 d, after which polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses were carried out. Phytoplasma-free insects on ryegrasses were considered as control treatments. Furthermore, plant height and leaf area were recorded for all treatments. After PCR, 46, 60, and 13% of the plants exposed to infected A. curtulus by 14, 7, and 1 d of IAP, respectively, were infected with 'Ca. Phytoplasma ulmi'. Similarly, plants exposed to an IAP of 14, 7, and 1 d with phytoplasma-infected leafhoppers showed a reduction in plant height of 19, 39, and 28% and leaf area of 302, 169, and 55%, respectively, in comparison to those exposed to phytoplasma-free leafhoppers. We showed that A. curtulus has the ability to transmit phytoplasma from U. molinae to ryegrasses, affecting ryegrass plant height and leaf area PMID:24665688

  6. De la capa al agujero: los descuidos de la ciencia

    OpenAIRE

    Orozco-Martínez, Carlos E.

    1997-01-01

    Diez años después de la firma del Protocolo de Montreal para regular el uso de sustancias nocivas para la capa de ozono, firmado por 24 países en 1987, se reseñan algunos inventos tecnológicos que si bien hacen la vida cotidiana más cómoda, continúan ocasionando daños a la capa de ozono. Asimismo, se presentan las batallas libradas hasta entonces por los científicos Mario Molina y Sherwood Rowland para que se reconocieran los efectos dañinos de los clorofluorocarbonos. Se incluye la reproducc...

  7. Los humos del mercedario: el postre americano de 'La villana de Vallecas'

    OpenAIRE

    García-Santo-Tomás, E. (Enrique)

    2010-01-01

    El estudio de cómo se representan en las obras áureas algunos objetos de la vida cotidiana, como el tabaco, avanza la comprensión de las mismas, como es el caso de 'La villana de Vallecas', de Tirso de Molina. Utilizando la dicha comedia y fuentes tratadísticas de la época, este artículo muestra que el tabaco –como el chocolate– fue objeto de la fascinación del mercedario, que vio en él un ambiguo símbolo del Nuevo Mundo, del consumismo avant la lettre y de la sensualidad. The study ...

  8. Conocimiento y aplicación de los principios éticos y deontológicos por parte de los psicólogos forenses expertos en el ámbito de familia

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Bartumeus, Asunción

    2011-01-01

    [spa] Existe un aumento de requerimientos de intervención de los psicólogos forenses en procedimientos de familia y es reconocida la existencia de numerosas denuncias ante las comisiones deontológicas derivadas de dichas intervenciones (Del Río, 2000; Cayuela, Jarne y Molina, 2.005). No obstante, la investigación hasta el momento sobre la práctica profesional ética en este área concreta de la psicología es escasa. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo principal el análisis del nivel de conocim...

  9. Reseñas de Libros

    OpenAIRE

    José Francisco Tinao Martín-Peña; José Luis Gutiérrez Molina; David Molina Rabadán; Alejandro Román Antequera; Jesús Fernández García; Roberto Germán Fandiño Pérez; Rafael Gómez Sánchez; Julio Pérez Serrano; Leonardo Mazzei de Grazia; Joaquín Piñeiro Blanca

    2008-01-01

    Chomsky, Noam, Poder y Terror. Reflexiones posteriores al 11/09/2001. Barcelona, RBA, 2003, 155 pp.Páginas 133-135José Francisco Tinao Martín-PeñaCobo Romero, Francisco, Conflicto rural y violencia política. Jaén, Universidad de Jaén-Universidad de Granada, 1998, 381 pp.Páginas 135-137José Luis Gutiérrez MolinaColacrai, Miryam (ed.), Relaciones Internacionales. Viejos temas, nuevos debates. Rosario, Centro de Estudios en Relaciones Internacionales de Rosario, 2001, 203 pp.Páginas 137-141David...

  10. On creating mass/matter by extra dimensions in the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Petrov, A. N.

    2009-01-01

    Kaluza-Klein (KK) black hole solutions in the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet (EGB) gravity in $D$ dimensions obtained in the current series of the works by Maeda, Dadhich and Molina are examined. Interpreting their solutions, the authors claim that the mass/matter is created by the extra dimensions. To support this claim, one needs to show that such objects have classically defined masses. We calculate the mass and mass flux for 3D KK black holes in 6D EGB gravity whose properties are sufficiently phy...

  11. Experiences in WWTP of the effects of co-digestion of substrates on the biogas production; Experiencia en EDAR de la codigestion de sustratos sobre la produccion de biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morenilla, J. J.; Bernacer, I.; Martinez, F.; Jardin, C.; Simon, P.; Ruiz, L.; Pradas, P.; Pastor, L.

    2010-07-01

    The use of co-digestion in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) offers the possibility of treating sludge in conjunction with other substrates from different sources (agricultural or agroindustrial residues, etc.)to offset the balance of nutrients and moisture, increasing significantly biogas production of the process. Pobla de Farnals (Valencia) WWTP and Molina de Segura (Murcia) WWTP have introduced landfill leachate of municipal solid waste (MSW) in the anaerobic digestion, resulting in an increase of the biogas production. the additions started with punctual discharges of small amounts of leachate, and later, the frequency and volume of the discharges increased depending on the results. (Author) 17 refs.

  12. ¿Y por qué no quedarse en Laraos?

    OpenAIRE

    Brougère, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    El Instituto Francés de Estudios Andinos es un organismo de investigación cientifica en cooperación. Es asi que los resultados que nos presenta Anne- Marie Brougère se inscriben en el marco de un proyecto de investigación, conducido conjuntamente con la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina entre 1983 y 1986, sobre el estudio de las politicas agrarias de cuatro comunidades del valle del Río Cañete ubicadas en alturas diferentes, desde el nivel del mar hasta 3600 m. Este proyecto multidiscipl...

  13. Energía solar térmica y fotovoltaica aislada para pequeñas comunidades en Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Piriz Sagahon, Imanol Yalli Atahualpa

    2013-01-01

    El desarrollo de este proyecto se hizo gracias al apoyo económico del Centro de Cooperación al Desarrollo (CCD) y del Programa de Educación en Ciencia y Tecnología del Agua para la Población Infanto-juvenil de Perú PCIAECID (A1-035941-11). El apoyo en logística e instalaciones por parte del Departamento de Ordenamiento Territorial y Desarrollo Sostenible de la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. El presente trabajo final de master esta orientado al diseño y la implement...

  14. Enchancemnt of the optical power stimulated by impact ionization in GaSb-based heterostructures with deep quantum wells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikhailova, M.; Zegrya, G.; Danilov, L.; Ivanov, E.; Kalinina, K.; Stoyanov, N.; Salikhov, Kh.; Yakovlev, Yu.; Hulicius, Eduard; Hospodková, Alice; Pangrác, Jiří; Zíková, Markéta

    Vol. 8781. BELLINGHAM: SPIE, 2013 - (Cheben, P.; Čtyroký, P.; MolinaFernandez, I.), s. 1-9 ISBN 978-0-8194-9583-9. ISSN 0277-786X. [Conference on Integrated Optics - Physics and Simulations. Prague (CZ), 17.04.2013-18.04.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-15286S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : quantum wells * ionization * interfaces * lasers * LED * Mid-IR * quantum efficiency * MOVPE Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2017124

  15. Reseñas de Libros

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquín Piñeiro Blanca; Francisco de Paula Villatoro Sánchez; David Molina Rabadán; Daniel Alcalde Güelfo; Daniel Francisco Álvarez Espinosa; Mª del Rocío Piñeiro Álvarez; Manuel Baraja Escudero; José Joaquín Fernández Alles; Gema León Ravina

    2009-01-01

    Álvarez Rey, Leandro (Estudio preliminar, recopilación y edición), Diego Martínez Barrio. Palabra de republicano. Sevilla, Ayuntamiento de Sevilla-Instituto de la Cultura y las Artes, 2007, 1.046 pp.Páginas 177-179Joaquín Piñeiro BlancaBancalari Molina, Alejandro, Orbe romano e Imperio Global. La romanización desde Augusto a Caracalla. Santiago de Chile, Editorial Universitaria, 2007, 330 pp.Páginas 179-182Francisco de Paula Villatoro SánchezBernal-Meza, Raúl y Saha, Suranjit (comps.), Econom...

  16. El Surrealismo vergonzante (tres poetas peruanos)*

    OpenAIRE

    Cisneros, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    En el ámbito de América Latina el Perú tiene una poderosa poesía de vanguardia. Sin olvidar, por supuesto, a los mexicanos del grupo Contemporáneos o a su poeta precursor Tablada. (Ni al grupo veracruzano de los Estridentistas). Sin olvidar a los cubanos de Orígenes, quiero decir, sin olvidar a Lezama Lima. Ni a los argentinos Oliverio Girondo y Enrique Molina. Ni a las aves solitarias de Nicaragua, José Coronel Urtecho, o Vicente Huidobro de Chile. Ni a los extraordinarios modernistas brasil...

  17. Instalación del cultivo de papa en las parcelas experimentales, una a nivel comunal (aynokas) y otra a nivel individual

    OpenAIRE

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Instituto de la Pequeña Producción Sustentable

    2008-01-01

    El presente documento contiene el desarrollo DE LA INSTALACIÓN del cultivo de papa en en dos sistemas de manejo el primero esta en un manejo colectivo (aynokas) y el segundo esta en un manejo individual estos experimentos estan instaladas en la Comunidad Campesina de Santa María, trabajo trabajo que fue realizado por el equipo del Instituto de la Pequeña Producción Sustentable ¿ IPPS de la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina - UNALM, en el marco del desarrollo del proyecto: ¿Desarrollo de ...

  18. V Actas Congreso. Poder, poderes y empoderamiento… ¿Y el amor? ¡Ah, el amor!

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Gómez, Alicia; Escrig Gil, Gemma; Forcada Martínez, Águeda

    2009-01-01

    ÍNDICE: Presentación,BEATRIZ MOLINA GABRIEL Y GALÁN. I. CONFERENCIAS. ¿Es la explotación sólo algo malo o… qué tipo de poder es el poder del amor?,ANNA JÓNASDÓTTIR. Una experiencia en el poder ,SOLEDAD MURILLO DE LA VEGA. II. MESAS REDONDAS. MESA 1. Sentimientos, educación, amor y sexo Del mito del amor romántico a la construcción de relaciones amorosas entre iguales: una mirada feminista ,NIEVES SIMÓN RODRÍGUEZ. El cuerpo en la educación afectivo-sexual ,MATILDE FO...

  19. De El burlador de Tirso al Don Juan de Molière. Estudio Comparativo de Fuentes Textuales

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Rosado, Irene

    2014-01-01

    He querido reflejar en este trabajo las fuentes o influencias folklóricas, literarias y de ciertos personajes nobles de la sociedad de la época, tanto de El burlador de Tirso de Molina como de Don Juan de Molière, además de realizar un estudio comparativo de ambas obras para analizar los elementos de convergencia o de desunión en una y otra comedia. De forma exhaustiva, he querido mostrar prácticamente todo lo que han escrito sobre el tema de don Juan expertos como Menéndez Pidal, Márquez ...

  20. Re-Gendering the Lbertine; or, The Taming of the Rake: Lucy Vestris as Don Giovanni on the Early Nineteenth-Century London Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Cowgill, Rachel

    1998-01-01

    When Luigi Bassi entered the stage of the Prague National Theatre in 1787 to create the title role of Mozart and Da Ponte's Don Giovanni, he could have drawn inspiration from a rich tradition of theatrical, pantomimic and marionette representations of the legendary Don Juan, to which this new opera was the latest contribution. Previous incarnations had been shaped by the likes of Tirso de Molina, Molière, Shadwell, Purcell and Gluck; yet it is Mozart and Da Ponte's version that has for us bec...

  1. Canci??n espa??ola e identidad nacional en la Espa??a franquista: Manolo Escobar

    OpenAIRE

    Otaola Gonz??lez, Paloma

    2015-01-01

    Es bien conocido el gusto de Franco por la copla y la canci??n espa??ola que contribu??a a reforzar el sentimiento nacional espa??ol. Cada a??o, en la conmemoraci??n del 18 de Julio, las estrellas del momento como Conchita Piquer, Juanita Reina, Lola Flores, Antonio Amaya, Antonio Molina etc. eran invitadas a interpretar las canciones favoritas del General??simo. Entre los int??rpretes de la canci??n espa??ola, Manolo Escobar fue uno de los m??s populares en los a??os 60 y 7...

  2. Pioneers in ozone research receive Nobel Prize in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has awarded its 1995 Nobel Prize in chemistry to three AGU members for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone. Only one other Nobel prize has ever been awarded in the realm of atmospheric research. The honorees are professors Paul Crutzen of the Max-Planck Institute for Chemistry in Mainz, Germany; Mario Molina of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; and F. Sherwood Rowland of the University of California, Irvine. The Academy credits the three with contributing to “our salvation from a global environmental problem that could have catastrophic consequences.”

  3. Generación de banco de propagación de bambú- guadua en zonas áridas de la costa peruana regado con distintos tipos de agua

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Rodríguez, Juan Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo es un proyecto de investigación experimental que se ha realizado en la facultad de Ingeniería Agrícola de La Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima, Perú. Se basa en el aprovechamiento de diferentes tipos de agua, a las que se les aplican diversas tecnologías sostenibles de tratamientos de agua, tal como sistemas de humedales construidos de flujo horizontal y reservorios. El reúso de estos cuerpos de agua se utiliza para la generación de un banco de pr...

  4. Reinventing Democracy in Bolivia and Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    – Citizenship in Latin America, by Joseph S. Tulchin and Meg Ruthenburg (eds). Boulder/London: Lynne Rienner, 2006. – Participación política, democracia y movimientos indígenas en los Andes, by Jorge León, et al. La Paz, Lima: PIEB / IFEA / Embajada de Francia en Bolivia, 2005. – El estado del Estado en Bolivia – Informe Nacional sobre Desarrollo Humano 2007, coordinación general George Gray Molina. UNDP / PNUD, Bolivia, 2007. – El Estado de la opinión: los bolivianos, la Constitución y la Co...

  5. Informe de calidad y datos de producción científica (2003-2009)en Nanociencia y Nanotecnología, Nuevos Materiales y Nuevos Procesos Industriales

    OpenAIRE

    de Moya-Anegón, Félix; Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Zaida; Corera-Álvarez, Elena; González-Molina, Antonio; López-Illescas, Carmen; Vargas-Quesada, Benjamín

    2012-01-01

    Moya-Anegón, F. (dir.), Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Z. (coord.), Corera-Álvarez, E., González-Molina, A., López-Illescas, C., Vargas-Quesada, B. Informe de calidad y datos de producción científica (2003-2009)en Nanociencia y Nanotecnología, Nuevos Materiales y Nuevos Procesos Industriales. Madrid: Fundación Española para la Ciencia y la Tecnología, 2012. NIPO: 720-12-041-0

  6. Estratigrafía del Pérmico y Triásico en el sector central de la rama castellana de la Cordillera Ibérica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Arlucea, M.

    1985-08-01

    Full Text Available The main Permian and Triassic sequence in Molina de Aragón and South Albarracín is established. More than 45 sections have been studied, analysing the lateral changes and establishing 16 lithoestratigraphic Units. Part of these 1ithoestraigraphic Units were originally established by Ramos (1979 in the Molina de Aragon area, but this study prove that they can be followed to our arca. .
    The description, main characteristics, lateral changes and extension of each lithoestratigraphic Units are established here. .
    The paleogeography of this area with a large high located in the half north of Albarracín Sierra, is discussed here. That high was related with the tectonic movements contemporaneous to sedimentation during Upper Permian and Triassic.

    Se establece la sucesión estratigráfica tipo del Pérmico y Triásico de la región comprendida entre Molina de Aragón y el sur de Albarracín. Sobro la base do más de 45 columnas estratigráficas levantadas y del análisis de las variaciones que presentan los distintos tramos litológicos de que se compone la serie, se establecen 16 unidades litoestratigráficas, Aunque una parte de estas unidades fueron definidas originalmente en otros sectores de la Cordillera Ibérica, el estudio realizado demuestra que son también válidas en este área. Es el caso de las unidades definidas para parte del Pérmico y para las facies Buntsandstein por Ramos (1979, al oeste de Molina de Aragón.
    Se describen y analizan las principales características de cada una de las unidades litoestratigráficas establecidas. así como sus variaciones laterales y extensión superficial. .
    Por último, se discuten las implicaciones paleogeográficas que tuvo la existencia de un importante umbral situado en la mitad norte de la Sierra de Albarracín, Y se relaciona su presencia con la actividad tectónica contemporánea de la sedimentación del Pérmico superior y del Triásico.

  7. John Punch, Scotist Holy War, and the Irish Catholic Revolutionary Tradition in the Seventeenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ian W

    2016-07-01

    During the 1640s, the Irish Franciscan theologian John Punch taught his theology students in Rome that war against Protestants was made just by their religion alone. Jesuits like Luis de Molina identified the holy war tradition in which Punch stood as a Scotist one, and insisted that the Scotists had confused the natural and supernatural spheres. Among Irishmen, Punch was unusual. The main Irish Catholic revolutionary tradition employed Jesuit and Thomist theory. They argued that the Stuarts had lost the right to rule Ireland for natural reasons, not supernatural ones; because the Stuarts were tyrants, not because they were Protestants. PMID:27477343

  8. Temporal evolution of adherents of the major religions in Mexico: Avrami model application-Kolgomorov solid training

    CERN Document Server

    Avilés, Mauricio González

    2013-01-01

    It applies a mathematical model of solid formation, the model of Avrami-Kolgomorov [Ausloos & Petroni, 2007] to model the time evolution of percentage of adherents of the major religions practiced in Mexico, adjusting the corresponding parameters with available records in the period from 1950 to 2000 [Molina-Hernandez, 2003; INEGI, 2005]. A comparison is made with the application of the model to global trends and concludes that Catholicism is in a marked disaggregation and trends of Christianity in Mexico are similar to global.

  9. Diferencias en el perfil psicológico y en la conducta alimentaria de madres de mujeres con y sin trastornos alimentarios /

    OpenAIRE

    Vazquez Velazquez, Veronica

    2012-01-01

     tesis que para obtener el grado de Doctorado en Psicología, presenta Verónica Vázquez Velázquez ; tutores principales de tesis Lucy María Reidl Martínez, Gilda Libia Gómez Pérez Mitré, Juan Pablo Méndez Blanco, Martha Kaufer Horwitz, Teresita de Jesús Saucedo Molina177 páginas : ilustracionesDoctorado en Psicología Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 2012 Programa de Posgrado en Psicología

  10. Agresividad escolar y resolución de conflictos en los centros de Educación Secundaria en la Comunidad Autónoma de Murcia

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-López, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    La presente investigación tiene como propósito realizar una breve aproximación conceptual sobre la agresividad escolar en cinco centros educativos de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria de la Región de Murcia. Estos centros están ubicados en diferentes poblaciones: Abanilla, Bullas, Molina de Segura, Murcia capital y Yecla. Para ello, se ha analizado la frecuencia con que se presentan agresiones en estos centros, el sexo del agresor, el escenario y las formas de agresión más frecuentes y las ...

  11. Vertical zonality of fractionated granite plutons reflected in zircon chemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Breiter, Karel

    s. l : Universidad d Salamanca ; Escuela politécnica superior de Avila ; Universidad de Granada, 2011 - (Molina, J.; Scarrow, J.; Bea, F.; Montero, P.). s. 25-25 ISBN 978-84-694-5253-0. [Hutton Symposium on Granites and Related Rocks /7./. 04.07.2011-09.07.2011, Avila] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : zircon * granite geochemistry * granite zonality * Cínovec * Beauvoir Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.seventh-hutton.org/meeting/Abstracts,_posters,_Lithos_Special_Issue_files/abstracts_book_Hutton_ISBN.pdf

  12. De vuelta sobre la seducción en los libros de caballerías. Con especial atención a la figura masculina y el ‘donjuanismo’

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar Perdomo, María del Rosario

    2012-01-01

    Este artículo aborda el motivo del caballero seductor y mujeriego, antecedente del Don Juan de Tirso de Molina, que corresponde en el catálogo de Stith Thompson al motivo T10.4 (G), “Man continually falling in love”. Se hace una revisión de los herederos de Gauvain artúrico en los libros de caballerías castellanos, con especial atención a Galaor en el Amadís de Gaula, Rogel de Grecia del Florisel de Niquea y Floriano del Desierto del Palmerín de Inglaterra para descubrir los ra...

  13. El suelo, un sistema organizado que sustenta la vida terrestre, una propuesta de aula para ciclo I

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Mora, Yenny Patricia

    2012-01-01

    El siguiente trabajo tiene como objetivo diseñar una propuesta de aula donde se integren conceptualmente la estructura, y los procesos: físicos, químicos, biológicos y sociales, que inciden en el desarrollo y protección del suelo, con el fin de lograr un aprendizaje significativo, el desarrollo de habilidades de pensamiento y una conciencia del cuidado de éste en los estudiantes del ciclo I, del colegio Gerardo Molina Ramírez IED. Se realizó una prueba diagnóstica con el fin de identificar la...

  14. Understanding the crisis in Spain: An unhealthy political environment or a plain vanilla recession?

    OpenAIRE

    Winther, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The aim of my thesis is to examine the crisis in Spain and to consider whether an unhealthy political environment and the existence of an extractive political class can explain the crisis, or whether the situation in the country should be understood merely as a temporary economic crisis. To do so I investigate and discuss the causes to the crisis and test the assumptions and propositions in César Molinas’ theory of the political class in Spain. Molinas argues that the Spanish politicians do n...

  15. La traducción de culturemas en el ámbito del patrimonio cultural: análisis de folletos turísticos de la Región de Murcia

    OpenAIRE

    Soto Almela, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    La presencia de culturemas es una de las principales dificultades a las que ha de hacer frente el traductor de textos turísticos. Dichos elementos proceden de diversos ámbitos de una cultura y encuentran en el folleto turístico su nexo de unión. Uno de los ámbitos que ya desde Nida (1945) ha sido objeto de catalogaciones es el de la cultura material, también llamado ámbito del patrimonio cultural (Molina Martínez, 2001). Precisamente el objetivo de este trabajo consiste en...

  16. Aprendizaje comunitario en la Escuela TIC 2.0: nuevos modelos de organización del aula

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, Rosa; Rodríguez, Pilar; Segovia Aguilar, Blas

    2011-01-01

    La presente comunicación describe la experiencia que viene desarrollándose en el segundo ciclo de primaria del CEIP Tirso de Molina de Córdoba. Integra dos aspectos fundamentales en la educación mediática: el desarrollo de la competencia digital y de tratamiento de la información mediante el blog y las presentaciones, y la creación de nuevos contextos para el aprendizaje en los que participan familiares y voluntarios, junto con el profesorado en el aula para acelerar el aprendizaje de los esc...

  17. Effects of Different Common Cucurbitaceae Grafting Rootstock on Growth, Development and Quality of Melon(Cucumis melo L.)%常见葫芦科作物砧木嫁接甜瓜其品质差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王霞; 于高波; 盛云燕; 王洋洋; 廖佳宁

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]The aim was to analyze growth, development and quality of melon after grafting using common Cucurbitaceae grafting rootstock. [Method] The self-root seedling of Dongtian 02 was used as control. And pumpkin( Cucurbita moschata), big gourd[Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl. var. gourda Ser. ] , ground melon[Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl. var. clavata Ser. ], zucchini(Luffa cylin-drica) , and luffa[Benincasa hispida (Thunb. ) Cogn. var. chieh-qua How] were used for grafting to melon Dongtian 02. The experiment studied different rootstocks on the grafting survival rate, growth rate and fruit characteristics. [ Result] The results indicated that using luffa and zucchini as grafting rootstock were not suitable for the improvement of melon quality whereas gourd melon and pumpkin had the positive influence on performance. As grafting rootstock, big gourd has advantages and disadvantages. [ Conclusion] The study provides a theoretical basis for melon grafting cultivation development.%[目的]分析常见葫芦科作物砧木嫁接甜瓜(Cucumis melo L.)后甜瓜的生长发育及果实品质.[方法]以东甜02自根苗作为对照,进行以南瓜(Cucuita moschata)、大葫芦[Lagenaria siceraria(Molina)Standl.var.gourda Ser.]、瓠子[Lagenaria siceraria(Molina)Standl.var.clavata Ser.]、丝瓜(Luffa cylindrica)、节瓜[Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn.var.chieh-qua How]为砧木、东甜02为接穗的嫁接栽培比较试验,研究不同砧穗组合的嫁接成活率、植株生长速率和果实性状.[结果]以节瓜、丝瓜为砧木,不利于东甜02果实优良性状的表现,而以瓠子、南瓜为砧木,对东甜02有积极的影响,而以大葫芦为砧木,则利弊参半.[结论]该研究可为甜瓜嫁接栽培的发展提供理论依据.

  18. Sodium, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn concentrations in molluscs from the Magellan Strait (Chile): their contribution to dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    España, M S Astorga; Rodríguez, E M Rodríguez; Romero, C Díaz

    2005-08-01

    The concentrations of the essential metals Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn were determined in 126 specimens of molluscs belonging to five different species: Mytilus chilensis, n=47; Nacella deaurata, n=65; Aulacomya ater, n=4; Fissurella picta, n=4; Acanthina monodon, n=6, collected from the coastline of the Magellan Strait. Significant differences were obtained among the mean metal concentrations in the mollusc species considered. The contribution to the dietary daily intake of these metals for the consumption of one serving of these molluscs was high, especially the contribution to the Fe intake for the consumption of N. deaurata. Some significant differences were observed among the mean concentrations for the studied metals according to the zone of sampling. The influence of the zone of sampling on the mean concentration of metals in N. deaurata was higher than in M. chilensis. The application of lineal discriminant analysis (LDA) made it possible to differentiate statistically between specimens according to the mollusc species. Within the each mollusc species, the LDA helped to identify specimens according to the zone of sampling and weight/length ratio. PMID:16236595

  19. Herbivory and seedling performance in a fragmented temperate forest of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, Javier A.; Grez, Audrey A.; Celis-Diez, Juan L.; Bustamante, Ramiro O.

    2007-11-01

    Forest fragmentation alters plant-animal interactions, including herbivory. Relying manipulative experiments, we test if the reduction in insect herbivory associated with forest fragmentation translates into increased seedling growth and survival of three tree common species ( Aristotelia chilensis, Cryptocarya alba and Persea lingue) in forest fragments and continuous forests in coastal Maulino forest, central Chile. Furthermore, we test if after protecting seedlings from herbivorous insects, plant performance is increased regardless of forest fragmentation. Nursery grown seedlings were transplanted into four forest fragments and a continuous forest during 2002. Insects, important herbivores in this forest, were excluded from half the seedlings by repeated applications of insecticides. Compared to continuous forests, in forest fragments, herbivory was reduced in all three species, seedling growth was greater in A. chilensis and C. alba but not in P. lingue, and survivorship was unaffected by herbivory or fragmentation in all three species. Protecting seedlings from insects reduced herbivory in the continuous forest to similar levels attained in the forest fragments. No change in herbivory results from by protecting seedlings in forest fragments. These results confirm that insects are important herbivores in the Maulino forest and also support the hypothesis that fragmentation can have strong indirect effects on plant communities as mediated through trophic interactions.

  20. Inquiring into the causes of depressed folivory in a fragmented temperate forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Claudia A.; Simonetti, Javier A.

    2009-05-01

    Folivory is lower in forest fragments of the Maulino forest than in continuous stands. We experimentally assessed whether depressed folivory is related to a reduction in foliar palatability caused by the more xeric microclimate of forest fragments. We compared leaf anatomy at fragments and continuous forest for four tree species ( Aristotelia chilensis, Cryptocarya alba, Nothofagus glauca and Gevuina avellana), and evaluated consumption of leaves of the two different habitats by insect species ( Sericoides viridis and Ormiscodes rufosignata). Anatomy of leaves of fragments differs from that from continuous forest in at least one of the traits, for all the plant species. However, not all species exhibit more sclerophyllous traits in forest fragments. A. chilensis exhibits the greatest number of changes, being more sclerophyllous in fragments. In palatability trials, there were no differences in the consumption of leaves of fragments versus leaves of continuous forest. Therefore, depressed folivory levels in forest remnants of the Maulino forest do not seem to be attributable to reduced foliar palatability, suggesting that changes in the insect assemblage, and not palatability, account for reduced herbivory in fragmented forests.

  1. Pterygosomatid mites of a new species group ligare (Acariformes: Pterygosomatidae: Pterygosoma) parasitizing tree iguanas (Squamata: Liolaemidae: Liolaemus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajfer, Monika; González Acuña, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    A new species group, ligare, is established within the subgenus Pterygosoma (Acariformes: Pterygosomatidae: Pterygosoma) based on an analysis of female morphology. This group includes 6 newly described species--all from Liolaemus spp. (Squamata: Liolaemidae) from Chile: P. ligare sp. nov., P. formosus sp. nov., P. ovata sp. nov., and P. levissima sp. nov. from Liolaemuspictus; P chilensis sp. nov. from L. chilensis, and P. cyanogasteri sp. nov. from L. cyanogaster. The ligare species group differs from other mites of the subgenus Pterygosoma by the presence of the movable cheliceral digit without a basal spur, solenidion Ω of the palp tarsus, anterior mid-dorsal setae, large number of setae (about 200-300 pairs) on the lateral and the posterior parts of the idiosomal dorsum and the lateral parts of the idiosomal venter, by the idiosomal hypertrichy of ventro-median setae vm, setae 3a located outside of coxal fields II, the absence of setae 4b, the presence of paired setae tc and vs on tarsi III-IV, 5 setae on tibiae II-IV, 4 or 5 setae on genua I, II, 3 setae on genua III-IV, 5 setae on femur I, 5 or 4 setae on femur II and 3 setae on femur III. A key to females of the new species group is provided. Pterygosoma patagonica Dittmar de la Cruz, Morando and Avila, 2004 insufficiently described but showing most characterisitcs of ligare group is considered as nomen dubium. PMID:26185849

  2. Paleoambientes litorales durante el inicio de la trasgresión marina holocena en bahía Lapataia, canal Beagle, parque nacional Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rabassa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Los sitios Aserradero Lapataia 1 y 2 presentan depósitos limo-arcillosos portadores de valvas de moluscos: Mulinia edulis, Mytilus chilensis, Aulacomya atra y Yoldia sp. Además predominan los quistes de dinoflagelados, revestimientos de foraminíferos bentónicos y huevos de copépodos. Valvas de Mulinia edulis fueron datadas radiocarbónicamente en 8.094 ± 43 (AA74047 y 8.167 ± 43 (AA74048 a A.P. En Arroyo Baliza depósitos limo-arcillosos son portadores de Venus antiqua, Aulacomya atra, Mytilus chilensis, entre otros. La microflora está dominada por dinoquistes protoperidinioideos, acritarcos y restos de copépodos. Se sugiere ambientes marino-marginales, con baja a moderada salinidad, y altas concentraciones de nutrientes en las aguas superficiales. La datación radiocarbónica sobre Venus antiqua en Arroyo Baliza indica 2.844 ± 34 a A.P. (AA74046. Aserradero Lapataia confirma las edades más antiguas conocidas para la fase estuárica de la transgresión holocena en el canal Beagle. Arroyo Baliza aporta nueva evidencia de la fase regresiva en este canal durante el Holoceno tardío.

  3. Polen de las Mieles de la Patagonia Andina (Chubut-Argentina Pollen of honeys from the Andean Patagonia (Chubut-Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Forcone

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran mediante fotomicrografías tomadas con MO y MEB, 30 tipos polínicos, determinados en las mieles producidas en la región andina de Chubut (Patagonia Argentina. Los tipos morfológicos descriptos pertenecen a las siguientes familias: Alstroemeriaceae, Apiaceae, Buddlejaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Celastraceae, Clusiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Ericaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Fabaceae, Fagaceae, Lamiaceae, Papaveraceae, Polemoniaceae, Polygalaceae, Proteaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, Saxifragaceae, Solanaceae, Thymelaceae y Verbenaceae. La mayoría de los tipos polínicos descriptos fueron hallados en las mieles como polen de menor importancia o traza con excepción de Aristotelia chilensis y Escallonia sp., que alcanzaron la categoría de polen dominante, y de Lomatia hirsuta, hallada como polen secundario.Thirty pollen types identified in the honeys from the Andean region of Chubut are described and illustrated by means of LM and SEM photomicrographs. Pollen types belong to the following families: Alstroemeriaceae, Apiaceae, Buddlejaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Celastraceae, Clusiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Ericaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Fabaceae, Fagaceae, Lamiaceae, Papaveraceae, Polemoniaceae, Polygalaceae, Proteaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, Saxifragaceae, Solanaceae, Thymelaceae, and Verbenaceae. Most pollen types described were found in the honeys as minor important pollen or traces, except Aristotelia chilensis, Escallonia sp., which reached the category of dominant pollen, and Lomatia hirsuta, which was found as secondary pollen.

  4. Kings, Saints and Husbands: Portuguese Characters in the Golden Age Theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rosa Álvarez Sellers

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Portuguese reality is part of the thematic heritage of the Spanish Golden Age theatre which highlights from the Lusitanian their courage at war and their excess in passion. Literary interactions took place in two senses: the Lusitanian tradition was treated in Spanish pieces, and Portuguese playwrights wrote in Castilian following Lope de Vega in his Arte nuevo de hacer comedias en este tiempo (1609. Although history and hagiography will be the most exploited aspects due to the impact of their protagonists, on other occasions Portugal will be used as a setting to universal conflicts. Kings such as D. Afonso Henriques, D. João II and D. Sebastião star in works of Tirso de Molina, Lope de Vega or Cubillo de Aragón; and El príncipe constante by Calderón and Caer para levantar by Moreto, Matos Fragoso and Cáncer relate, respectively, the lives of two Portuguese saints, S. Fernando and S. Gil. We will analyse El príncipe constante and A secreto agravio, secreta venganza by Calderón and Las quinas de Portugal by Tirso de Molina, with the aim of discovering the degree of involvement between the dramaturgical approaches and historical context that includes or propitiates them, in order to try to reveal the elements that motivated the rise and the decline of Portuguese topics in the seventeenth century Spanish theatre.

  5. DO PENSAR HISTÓRICO Á NEGAÇÃO DO PÓS-TURISMO: Ensaio crítico sobre Pós-Turismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João dos Santos Filho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O presente ensaio propõe uma análise crítica do livro O Pós-Turismo, do mexicano Sergio Molina. Inicialmente, destacamos os métodos funcionalista, estruturalista e do materialismo histórico como instrumentos capazes de interpretar a realidade turística, mostrando seus avanços e limites, para, em seguida, discutir o conceito de pós-modernidade e o surgimento do sufixo “pós”. Assim, poderemos iniciar a discussão em torno do pós-turismo e explicitar o método utilizado por Molina para criar tal conceito e demonstrar como o mesmo contribui para o empobrecimento científico e acadêmico da teoria do Turismo, evidenciando que tal conceito aplica-se como uma construção voltada para o mercado e não para o saber turístico. Palavras-chave: Turismo. Teoria do Turismo. Pós-Turismo. Funcionalismo. Neoliberalismo. 

  6. Inhibitory action of some essential oils and phytochemicals on the growth of various moulds isolated from foods

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    Evandro Leite de Souza

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity profile of mould strains isolated from foods to some essential oils and phytochemicals. The assayed mould strains were: Fusarium spp., Rhizopus spp., Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and Penicillium spp. According to results, Lippia alba N.E. Brown, Peumus boldus Molina, Lippia microphylla Phil., Citrus limon Risso and Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. essential oil and the phytochemicals citral, eugenol and mircene showed prominent antimould activity. Among the products that evidenced antimould activity, citral and eugenol showed the lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations, which was 1% and 4%, respectively, for the most of the tested mould strains.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o perfil de sensibilidade de cepas de fungos filamentosos isolados de alimento a alguns óleos essenciais e fitoconstituintes. As cepas fúngicas utilizadas nos ensaios antimicrobianos foram: Fusarium spp., Rhizopus spp., Aspergillus flavus, A. niger e Penicillium spp. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, os óleos essenciais de L. Alba N.R. Brown, P. boldus Molina, L. microphylla Phill, C. limon Risso e C. citratus Stapf. e os fitoconstituintes citral, eugenol e mirceno mostraram destacada atividade antifúngica. Dentre os produtos que apresentaram atividade antifúngica, o citral e eugenol mostraram as menores CIM's, as quais foram 1% e 4%, respectivamente, para a maioria das cepas fúngicas testadas.

  7. Predation by Rattus norvegicus on a native small mammal in an Araucaria araucana forest of Neuquén, Argentina La depredación en pequeños mamíferos nativos por Rattus norvegicus en un bosque de Araucaria araucana en Neuquén, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOHN D SHEPHERD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Few previous studies document Rattus predation as a mechanism of impact on native small mammals. In a mixed Araucaria araucana (Molina Koch -Nothofagus forest in Parque Nacional Lanín in southwestern Neuquén Province, Argentina, we discovered the remains of long-clawed mice, Chelemys macronyx Thomas, cached in a burrow of Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout. We discuss this evidence of predation in light of Rattus biology and invasion ecology. Predation on native small mammals by invasive rats is easily underestimated or overlooked and deserves more careful attention.Pocos estudios anteriores documentan predación por Rattus como mecanismo de impacto sobre los mamíferos pequenos nativos. En un bosque mixto de Araucaria araucana (Molina Koch -Nothofagus de Parque Nacional Lanín al suroeste de la provincia del Neuquén, Argentina, encontramos los cadáveres del ratón topo grande, Chelemys macronyx Thomas, almacenados en una cueva de la rata noruega, Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout. Discutimos esta evidencia de la depredación a la luz de la biología de Rattus y la ecología de invasión. La depredación en pequenos mamíferos nativos por las ratas invasoras está fácilmente subestimada o pasada por alto. Este tema merece una atención más cuidadosa.

  8. 海南岛葫芦科蔬菜根结线虫种类鉴定%Species identification of the root-knot nematode on Cucurbitaceae vegetables in Hainan Is land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄伟明; 陈绵才; 肖彤斌; 王会芳

    2011-01-01

    The root knot nematodes on Cucurbitaceae vegetables collected from 4 cities in Hainan Island were identified by using morphological characters, isozymes and mtDNA-PCR.Meloidogyne enterolobii were found in 5 samples, and it was a new record species on Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl and Luffa cylindrica Roem.Its distribution in Wenchang and Lingshui was also reported.Miscegenation of M.enterolobii and M.incognita was observed on two samples.%运用比较形态学、同工酶和mtDNA-PCR对采自海南岛4个市县的葫芦科蔬菜根结线虫进行鉴定,结果发现5个种群均存在象耳豆根结线虫(Meloidogyne enterolobii).该种线虫是葫芦[Lagenaria siceraria(Molina)Standl]和丝瓜[Luffa cylindrica(Linn)Roem]上的新记录种,文昌和陵水属其首次被报道的分布地区.有2个样本表现为象耳豆根结线虫和南方根结线虫(M.incognita)的混合种群.

  9. The distal forelimb musculature in aquatic and terrestrial turtles: phylogeny or environmental constraints?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdala, Virginia; Manzano, Adriana S; Herrel, Anthony

    2008-08-01

    We compared the muscular anatomy of the distal front limb in terrestrial and aquatic chelonians to test whether observed differences between the two groups are associated with their divergent lifestyles and locomotor modes. Given the different use of the forelimb in the two environments (body support and propulsion on land vs. mainly propulsion in water) we expected that: (1) aquatic and terrestrial turtles would show differences in their muscular anatomy, with aquatic species having more individualized muscle bundlesto allow for the complex forearm movements observed during swimming, and (2) that terrestrial turtles would have more robust muscles to support their body weight against gravity. To address these questions, we examined the forelimb myology and associated tissues in six aquatic or semi-aquatic turtles (Phyrnops hilarii, Podocnemis unifilis, Trachemys scripta, Sacalia bealei, Cuora amboinensis and Mauremys caspica) and six terrestrial or semi-terrestrial turtles (Geochelone chilensis, Testudo graeca, Cuora galbinifrons, Glyptemys insculpta, Terrapene carolina and Rhinoclemmys pulcherrima). This paper describes the general structure of the forelimb musculature in all species, and quantifies muscle masses in those species with more than five specimens available (Ph. hilarii, Po. unifilis and Ge. chilensis). The general structure of the forelimb muscles in the strictly terrestrial species Ge. chilensis and Tes. graeca was found to be notably different from the pattern of the aquatic and semi-aquatic species examined, showing a distinct fusion of the different muscular bodies. Ter. carolina also show a distinctly terrestrial pattern, but a less extensive tendon development. R. pulcherrima and GI. insculpta were found to be morphologically intermediate; in the geoemydids the strictly terrestrial bauplan never appears. Quantitative differences in the robustness or mass of the distal forelimb muscles were also observed for the species investigated, supporting

  10. Evaluation of a Three-Dimensional Chemical Transport Model (PMCAMx) in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimpidi, A. P.; Karydis, V. A.; Zavala, M.; Lei, W.; Molina, L. T.; Pandis, S. N.

    2007-05-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have adverse effects on human health, contribute to the visibility reduction and influence the energy balance of the planet. A three-dimensional chemical transport model (PMCAMx) (Gaydos et al., 2007) is used to simulate the particular matter (PM) mass composition distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). PMCAMx uses the framework of CAMx (ENVIRON, 2002) modelling the processes of horizontal and vertical advection, horizontal and vertical dispersion, wet and dry deposition, and gas-phase chemistry. In addition to the above, PMCAMx includes three detailed aerosol modules: inorganic aerosol growth (Gaydos et al., 2003; Koo et al., 2003a), aqueous-phase chemistry (Fahey and Pandis, 2001), and secondary organic aerosol formation and growth (Koo et al., 2004). The aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA has been improved as it now simulates explicitly the chemistry of Ca, Mg, and K salts and is linked to PMCAMx. The hybrid approach (Koo et al., 2003b) for modelling aerosol dynamics is applied in order to accurately simulate the inorganic components in coarse mode. This approach assumes that the smallest particles are in equilibrium while the condensation/evaporation equation is solved for the larger ones. The new CMU organic aerosol model, which is based on the splitting of the organic aerosol volatility range in discrete bins, is also used. The model predictions are evaluated against the PM and vapour concentration measurements from the MCMA-2003 Campaign (Molina et al., 2007). References Gaydos, T., Pinder, R., Koo, B., Fahey, Κ., Yarwood, G., and Pandis, S. N., (2007). Development and application of a three-dimensional Chemical Transport Model, PMCAMx. Atmospheric Environment, in press. ENVIRON (2002). User's guide to the comprehensive air quality model with extensions (CAMx). Version 3.10. Report prepared by ENVIRON International corporation, Novato, CA Gaydos, T., Koo, B., and Pandis, S. N., (2003). Development and application of

  11. Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanciotti, R S; Roehrig, J T; Deubel, V; Smith, J; Parker, M; Steele, K; Crise, B; Volpe, K E; Crabtree, M B; Scherret, J H; Hall, R A; MacKenzie, J S; Cropp, C B; Panigrahy, B; Ostlund, E; Schmitt, B; Malkinson, M; Banet, C; Weissman, J; Komar, N; Savage, H M; Stone, W; McNamara, T; Gubler, D J

    1999-12-17

    In late summer 1999, an outbreak of human encephalitis occurred in the northeastern United States that was concurrent with extensive mortality in crows (Corvus species) as well as the deaths of several exotic birds at a zoological park in the same area. Complete genome sequencing of a flavivirus isolated from the brain of a dead Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis), together with partial sequence analysis of envelope glycoprotein (E-glycoprotein) genes amplified from several other species including mosquitoes and two fatal human cases, revealed that West Nile (WN) virus circulated in natural transmission cycles and was responsible for the human disease. Antigenic mapping with E-glycoprotein-specific monoclonal antibodies and E-glycoprotein phylogenetic analysis confirmed these viruses as WN. This North American WN virus was most closely related to a WN virus isolated from a dead goose in Israel in 1998. PMID:10600742

  12. Chilean Prosopis Mesocarp Flour: Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82–2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.

  13. Maqui berry vs Sloe berry--liquor-based beverage for new development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    "Pacharin" is an aniseed liquor-based beverage made with sloe berry (Prunus spinosa L.) that has been produced in northern Spain. On the other hand, maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) is a common edible berry from Chile, and currently under study because of its multiple beneficial effects on health. The aim of this work was to design a new aniseed liquor-based beverage with maqui berry, as an industrial alternative to a traditional alcoholic product with bioactive berries. The characterization of its composition, compared with the traditional "Pacharin", and its evolution during maceration (6 and 12 months) showed that the new maqui liquor had significantly-higher anthocyanin retention over time. More studies on the organoleptic properties and bioactivity are underway. PMID:25920225

  14. Fruit mineral contents of six wild species of the North Andean Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damascos, María A; Arribere, Maria; Svriz, Maya; Bran, Donaldo

    2008-10-01

    The fruit mineral contents (K, Ca, Ba, Br, Zn, Co, Cr, Fe, Na, Rb, Cs, and Sr) of four native and two exotic naturalized shrubs growing in different areas of the Andean Patagonian region of Argentina were investigated. Native species Berberis darwinii, Berberis microphylla (Berberidaceae), Aristotelia chilensis (Elaeocarpaceae) and Ribes magellanicum (Saxifragaceae) produce small berries while the fruits of the exotic species Rosa rubiginosa and Rosa canina (Rosaceae) are aggregates of aquenes. They are used to prepare jams, tea, liquors, and ice creams. Native shrub fruits had higher content of Br, Zn, Co, Cr, Fe, Mo, and Na than those of the exotic naturalized species. Rosa species showed the highest contents of Ca and Ba in their fruits (the mean content doubled those of the native plant fruits). The fruit nutrient content found in the studied species was similar or higher than other values reported for fruits of temperate and tropical species in the world. PMID:18512032

  15. Biomarkers and heavy metal bioaccumulation in mussels transplanted to coastal waters of the Beagle Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratano, Erica; Duarte, Claudia A; Amin, Oscar A

    2010-03-01

    Mussels coming from a mussel farm at Brown Bay (Beagle Channel) were transplanted to four sites inside Ushuaia Bay for 2 and 4 weeks. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of coastal waters of Ushuaia Bay by measuring catalase activity, lipid peroxidation, total lipid content, bioaccumulation of heavy metals and condition index in transplanted mussel Mytilus edulis chilensis. Biomarkers except condition index showed significant differences among exposure times as well as among tissues. Digestive gland presented the highest catalase activity, malondialdehyde level and total lipid content. Digestive gland also was the main target tissue of accumulation of iron and copper, while gill accumulated the highest levels of zinc. A principal component analyzes with the whole set of data allowed to separate stations based on physicochemical conditions and biochemical responses of each studied area. PMID:19913913

  16. Seasonal and pollution-induced variations in biomarkers of transplanted mussels within the Beagle Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratano, Erica; Gil, Mónica N; Malanga, Gabriela

    2011-06-01

    The occurrence of biomarker variations linked to environmental factors makes it difficult to distinguish the effect of pollution. In an attempt to evaluate spatial and seasonal effects of environmental parameters on biomarker responses, mussels Mytilus edulis chilensis coming from an aquaculture farm were transplanted to several points within Ushuaia Bay (Beagle Channel) for 6 weeks in summer and winter. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and levels of lipid peroxidation were measured in gills and digestive gland. Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd and Pb concentrations were also assessed. Results indicated a significant effect of seasons on biological responses as well as in metal bioaccumulation showing the influence of natural factors such as dissolved oxygen, temperature and food availability. The interdependence of those environmental factors is important for the homeostasis of thermoconformers, especially regarding their oxidative metabolism and should also be taken into consideration to distinguish natural from pollution-induced variations. PMID:21550069

  17. Antioxidant films based on cross-linked methyl cellulose and native Chilean berry for food packaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Dicastillo, Carol; Rodríguez, Francisco; Guarda, Abel; Galotto, Maria José

    2016-01-20

    Development of antioxidant and antimicrobial active food packaging materials based on biodegradable polymer and natural plant extracts has numerous advantages as reduction of synthetic additives into the food, reduction of plastic waste, and food protection against microorganisms and oxidation reactions. In this way, active films based on methylcellulose (MC) and maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) berry fruit extract, as a source of antioxidants agents, were studied. On the other hand, due to the high water affinity of MC, this polymer was firstly cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GA) at different concentrations. The results showed that the addition of GA decreased water solubility, swelling, water vapor permeability of MC films, and the release of antioxidant substances from the active materials increased with the concentration of GA. Natural extract and active cross-linked films were characterized in order to obtain the optimal formulation with the highest antioxidant activity and the best physical properties for latter active food packaging application. PMID:26572446

  18. Observations on the Biology and Anatomy of Myerslopiidae (Hemiptera, Membracoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Rakitov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adults and nymphs of Mapuchea chilensis (Nielson, from the poorly known family Myerslopiidae, were collected from the litter horizon of temperate forests and shrub bogs in southern Chile. The species apparently feeds on roots and creeping stems of angiosperms. Salivary sheaths of captive specimens terminated in vascular bundles. Indirect evidence suggests feeding on phloem sap. Both nymphs and adults are strong jumpers and both actively disperse, as evidenced by their capture in pan traps. The Malpighian tubules of this species produce no brochosomes and, unlike in most previously studied Membracoidea, comprise no specialized secretory segment. Each tubule comprises secretory cells scattered among excretory ones, a condition not previously known among Hemiptera.

  19. Nomenclatural changes in Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae and Delphacidae (Homoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, Dmitry A; McKamey, Stuart H

    2013-01-01

    New replacement names are proposed for seven species of the subfamily Typhlocybinae; one new synonym is recognized in the family Delphacidae. The following changes are proposed: Empoasca (Empoasca) angustata nom.nov. for Empoasca angusta Linnavuori & DeLong (not Dworakowska); Empoasca (Empoasca) chilensis nom.nov. for Empoasca diversa Linnavuori & DeLong (not Vilbaste); Austroasca verdensis nom.nov. for Empoasca artemisiae Lindberg (not Lethierry); Kropka vidanoi Dworakowska for Erythroneura unipunctata Dlabola (not Cerutti); Zyginella vietnamica nom. nov. for Zyginella melichari Dworakowska (not Kirkaldy); Eupteryx (Eupteryx) dlabolai nom. nov. for Eupteryx octonotata Dlabola (not Hardy); Baaora ahmedi nom. nov. for Baaora spinosa (Ahmed) (not Beamer); Paradelphacodes insolitus Dmitriev is synonymized with Paradelphacodes gvosdevi (Mitjaev), syn. nov. PMID:23794826

  20. Nomenclatural changes in Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae and Delphacidae (Homoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Dmitriev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available New replacement names are proposed for seven species of the subfamily Typhlocybinae; one new synonym is recognized in the family Delphacidae. The following changes are proposed: Empoasca (Empoasca angustata nom.nov. for Empoasca angusta Linnavuori & DeLong (not Dworakowska; Empoasca (Empoasca chilensis nom.nov. for Empoasca diversa Linnavuori & DeLong (not Vilbaste; Austroasca verdensis nom.nov. for Empoasca artemisiae Lindberg (not Lethierry; Kropka vidanoi Dworakowska for Erythroneura unipunctata Dlabola (not Cerutti; Zyginella vietnamica nom.nov. for Zyginella melichari Dworakowska (not Kirkaldy; Eupteryx (Eupteryx dlabolai nom.nov. for Eupteryx octonotata Dlabola (not Hardy; Baaora ahmedi nom.nov. for Baaora spinosa (Ahmed (not Beamer; Paradelphacodes insolitus Dmitriev is synonymized with Paradelphacodes gvosdevi (Mitjaev, syn.nov.

  1. Chilean prosopis mesocarp flour: phenolic profiling and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria Del Pilar C; Theoduloz, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspée, Felipe; Pérez, Maria Jorgelina; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Isla, Maria Inés

    2015-01-01

    In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82-2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food. PMID:25898415

  2. Survival, growth and vulnerability to drought in fire refuges: implications for the persistence of a fire-sensitive conifer in northern Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landesmann, Jennifer B; Gowda, Juan H; Garibaldi, Lucas A; Kitzberger, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Fire severity and extent are expected to increase in many regions worldwide due to climate change. Therefore, it is crucial to assess the relative importance of deterministic vs. stochastic factors producing remnant vegetation to understand their function in the persistence of fire-sensitive plants. Vegetation remnants (areas within the landscape that have not burned for a considerable amount of time) may occur stochastically or in more predictable locations (fire refuges) where physical conditions decrease fire severity. Our aim was to determine if remnant forests of the fire-sensitive conifer Austrocedrus chilensis are associated with biophysical attributes that allow persistence in a fire-prone Patagonian landscape. We conducted a multi-scale approach, determining attributes of forest remnants and their surroundings (matrices) through remote sensing and field-based biophysical and functional characteristics, and quantifying how tree survival probability relates to microsite conditions. Trees within remnants displayed abundant fire scars, were twofold older and had threefold larger growth rates than matrix trees. Remnants were associated with high rocky cover and elevated topographical positions. Tree survival increased in hilltops, eastern aspects, and with sparse vegetation. Trees within remnants experienced severe reductions in growth during droughts. Our results suggest that A. chilensis remnants are mainly the result of refuges, where environmental conditions increase fire survival, but also increase susceptibility to drought. A trade-off between fire survival and drought vulnerability may imply that under increasing drought and fire severity, locations that in the past have served as refuges may reduce their ability to allow the persistence of fire-sensitive taxa. PMID:26334864

  3. Disjoint geographical distribution of intertidal and nearshore benthic invertebrates in the Southern Hemisphere Distribuciones geográficas disyuntas de invertebrados bentónicos intermareales y del submareal somero en el Hemisferio Sur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN C CASTILLA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Biogeographical explanations for the extant and paleo disjoint geographical distribution in the southern hemisphere of five species of nearshore marine benthic invertebrates: Gaimardia trapesina, Ostrea chilensis, Pyura stolonifera taxonomic complex, Aulacomya ater and Concholepas concholepas, showing distinctive reproductive strategies and early life history characteristics are reviewed and analyzed. Through the use of published and new information we contrasted the following hypotheses: a vicariance-historical process, b epiplanktonic larval dispersal, c juvenile/adult dispersal through rafting and d planned or accidental anthropogenic dispersal mechanisms. The juvenile/adult transoceanic dispersal hypothesis by rafting was the only one impossible to be rejected for the species analyzed. The implication and future direction for research in this area are discussedSe revisa y analiza las posibles explicaciones para la distribución geográfica disyunta, presente y pasada, en el hemisferio sur de cinco especies de invertebrados bentónicos marinos litorales: Gaimardia trapesina, Ostrea chilensis, el complejo taxonómico Pyura stolonifera, Aulacomya ater y Concholepas concholepas, con estrategias reproductivas y características de historia de vida distintas. Se discute y pone a prueba, usando información original o publicada, las siguientes hipótesis: a procesos históricos de vicarianza, b dispersión de larvas epi-planctónicas, c dispersión de juveniles o adultos por transporte pasivo y d dispersión antropogénica planificada o accidental. La hipótesis de dispersión transoceánica de juveniles o adultos fue la única imposible de rechazar para las especies analizadas. Se discute las direcciones futuras de investigación en esta área

  4. Sobre la presencia de Paraptenodytes y Palaeospheniscus (Aves: Sphenisciformes en la Formación Bahía Inglesa, Chile On the precense of Paraptenodytes y Palaeospheniscus (Aves: Sphenisciformes on the Bahia Inglesa Formation, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTÍN F CHÁVEZ

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente comentario fue motivado por el artículo de Acosta-Hospitaleche & Canto (2005 y de la observación directa de algunos especímenes de Spheniscidae previamente reportados para la Formación Bahía Inglesa, en la región de Atacama, Chile. La falta de caracteres morfológicos que permitan la diferenciación con el género Spheniscus y de restos diagnósticos asociados, descartan la asignación de materiales craneales a Palaeospheniscus. Igualmente no es posible corroborar la asignación de especímenes a Paraptenodytes, sugiriéndose el uso de Spheniscidae indet. aff. Paraptenodytes para un tarsometatarso aislado. Se sugiere también el uso de Spheniscus spp. para los especímenes previamente referidos a S. cf. chilensis y S. aff. humboldti. De este modo, el número de pingüinos registrados en la formación se reduce de nueve a sieteThe present comment was motivated by the article by Acosta-Hospitaleche & Canto (2005, and from the direct observation of some specimens of Sphenicidae previously reported for the Bahia Inglesa Formation, in the Atacama region, Chile. The lack of morphological characters that they allow the differentiation with the genus Spheniscus and of associate diagnostic remains discard the assignment of cranial materials to Palaeospheniscus. Equally it is not possible to corroborate the assignment of specimens to Paraptenodytes, being suggested the use of Spheniscidae indet. aff. Paraptenodytes for an isolated tarsometatarsus. It is also suggested the use of Spheniscus spp. for the specimens previously referred to S. cf. chilensis and S. aff. humboldti. This way, the number of penguins registered in the formation decreases from nine to seven

  5. Heavy metals bio indication in northern Patagonia lakes, Argentina, using native mussel Diplodon sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Native mussels Diplodon chilensis were sampled from lakes comprised in Nahuel Huapi National Park, Northern Patagonia, Argentina, and surrounding areas, in order to evaluate heavy metal distribution in the region, and to assess the contribution that this compartment of the trophic web transfers to the circulation of these elements in the food chain. Filter feeding organisms such as the hard shell Diplodon chilensis are ideal subjects for the study of bioaccumulation of contaminants in view of their feeding habits which imply that they become key link elements in the transfer of energy in the form of phyto, zooplankton and organic particulate matter from the water column into the water bodies food webs. The concentration of potential pollutants or elements that could affect human health or wildlife, namely Sb, Ag, As, Cr, Hg, and Se were determined in pooled samples of 15 similar length individuals, by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Digestive glands were analysed separately from soft tissues. Geological tracers Sc, Ta, Th, U, and Rare Earth elements, were also determined in order to discriminate the elements associated to detritical particulate matter included in mussels bodies from those incorporated by the organisms. No relevant differences were observed between elemental concentration in digestive glands and whole soft tissues except for Hg contents, that ranged from 0.7 to 12 μg.g-1 dry weight in digestive glands, and from 0.2 to 0.9 μg.g-1 dry weight in whole soft tissues. There was no correlation between Hg contents in both types of samples. Whole soft tissues were selected for long-term bio indication since the time residence of Hg in digestive gland is shorter and could not represent steady state conditions. (author)

  6. Nuevas citas de Coleoptera para la Argentina (Carabidae, Lucanidae, Scarabaeidae y Tenebrionidae New records of Coleoptera for Argentina (Carabidae, Lucanidae, Scarabeidae and Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Roig-Juñent

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available En enero de 2003, se realizó un viaje de campaña con el fin de recolectar materiales en áreas poco prospectadas de la estepa patagónica de Mendoza y Neuquén, Argentina, así como en ambientes de bosques de Nothofagus en la provincia de Neuquén. Las recolecciones se realizaron en forma manual, usando trampas con cebo y trampas de luz de mercurio. El material recolectado permite citar por primera vez para la Argentina los géneros Nothobroscus Roig-Juñent & Ball y Mimophilorizus Mateu (Carabidae, Callyntra Solier y Homocyrtus Reitter (Tenebrionidae. Además, se citan por primera vez para la Argentina las especies Cnemalobus sulciferus Philippi (Carabidae, Allidiostoma landbecki (Philippi, Macrodactylus chilensis Solier y Brachysternus marginatus (Germain (Scarabeidae y Pycnosiphorus philippii (Westwood (Lucanidae. Se provee una breve descripción de los ambientes en donde estas especies fueron encontradas.A short expedition to northern Patagonia was made in January 2003. The main goal of the trip was to survey the diversity of some families of Coleoptera in the insufficient explored steppes in Mendoza and Neuquén provinces, Argentina and Nothofagus forests of Neuquén province. The techniques included manual collection and the use of different kinds of traps, such as with bite or artificial light of mercury. The study of the material revealed four new genera records and four new species records for the country: Nothobroscus Roig-Juñent & Ball and Mimophilorizus Mateu (Carabidae, Callyntra Solier and Homocyrtus Reitter (Tenebrionidae are the new genus records. Cnemalobus sulciferus Philippi (Carabidae, Allidiostoma landbecki (Philippi, Macrodactylus chilensis Solier, and Brachysternus marginatus (Germain (Scarabeidae, and Pycnosiphorus philippii (Westwood (Lucanidae are the new species records. A brief description of the habitats where the species were collected is provided.

  7. Negative impacts of a vertebrate predator on insect pollinator visitation and seed output in Chuquiraga oppositifolia, a high Andean shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Alejandro A; Arroyo, Mary T K

    2004-01-01

    Studies on plant-pollinator interactions have largely neglected the potential negative effects of the predators of pollinators on seed output, even though anti-predatory behaviour of pollinators may affect visitation patterns, pollen transfer, and therefore potentially, plant reproductive output. We tested the hypothesis that the presence of lizards and insectivorous birds, by reducing pollinator visitation, can have significant negative effects on seed output in the insect-pollinated, genetically self-incompatible lower alpine Andean shrub, Chuquiraga oppositifolia (Asteraceae). The lower alpine belt supports a high density of territorial Liolaemus (Tropiduridae) lizards and low shrubs interspersed among rocks of varying sizes, the latter inhabited by lizards and commonly used by flycatchers Muscisaxicola (Tyrannidae) as perching sites. In a 2x2 factorial predator-exclusion experiment, visitation rates of the most frequent pollinators of C. oppositifolia (the satyrid butterfly Cosmosatyrus chilensis and the syrphid fly Scaeva melanostoma), the duration of pollinator visits, and seed output, were 2-4 times greater when lizards were excluded, while birds had no effect. In a natural experiment, visits by S. melanostoma were 9 times shorter, and pollinator visitation rates of C. chilensis and S. melanostoma, and C. oppositifolia seed output were 2-3 times lower on shrubs growing adjacent to lizard-occupied rocks compared to those growing distant from rocks. Our results, verified for additional Andean sites, suggest that lizard predators can alter the behaviour of pollinators and elicit strong top-down indirect negative effects on seed output. Such effects may be especially important in high alpine plant communities, where pollinator activity can be low and erratic, and pollen limitation has been reported. PMID:14551828

  8. Diatomeas (Bacillariophyceae de Ambientes Acuáticos de Altura de la Provincia de Catamarca, Argentina II Diatoms (Bacillariophyceae from high altitude aquatic environments of Catamarca Province in Argentina. II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora I. Maidana

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available En esta contribución al conocimiento de las diatomeas de humedales de altura, se analizaron 14 muestras pertenecientes a distintos cuerpos de agua de la Provincia de Catamarca (Argentina, entre los 2420 y 4240 m s. n. m. Se identificaron 208 taxones infragenéricos de los cuales 90 son nuevas citas para la Provincia de Catamarca. Se mencionan por primera vez para Argentina los géneros: Frankophila y Microcostatus y las especies: Achnanthes thermalis var. rumrichorum Lange-Bertalot; Amphora mira Krasske; Brachysira atacamae Hustedt; Frankophila similioides Lange-Bertalot & Rumrich; Gomphonema punae Lange-Bertalot & Rumrich; Haloroundia speciosa Diaz & Maidana; Luticola mollis Lange-Bertalot& Rumrich; Mastogloia atacamae Hustedt; Microcostatus andinus Lange-Bertalot & Rumrich; Navicula atacamana Patrick; Navicula parinacota Rumrich & Lange-Bertalot; Planothidium chilense (Hustedt Lange-Bertalot; Staurosira pseudoconstruens (Marciniak Lange-Bertalot; Surirella chilensis var constricta Hustedt y Surirella wetzellii Hustedt. Además se propone una nueva combinación: Ulnaria ulna var. constricta.In this research focusing the diatoms of high topographic wetlands, 14 samples of different freshwater bodies (between 2,420 and 4,240 m a. s. l. were studied. Two hundred and eight infrageneric taxa were identified, 90 of them are new records for the Catamarca province. The genera: Frankophila and Microcostatus and the species Achnanthes thermalis var. rumrichorum Lange-Bertalot; Amphora mira Krasske; Brachysira atacamae Hustedt; Frankophila similioides Lange-Bertalot & Rumrich; Gomphonema punae Lange-Bertalot & Rumrich; Haloroundia speciosa Diaz & Maidana; Luticola mollis Lange-Bertalot & Rumrich; Mastogloia atacamae Hustedt; Microcostatus andinus Lange-Bertalot& Rumrich; Navicula atacamana Patrick; Navicula parinacota Rumrich & Lange-Bertalot; Planothidium chilense (Hustedt Lange-Bertalot; Staurosira pseudoconstruens (Marciniak Lange-Bertalot; Surirella

  9. Abiotic alterations caused by forest fragmentation affect tree regeneration: a shade and drought tolerance gradient in the remnants of Coastal Maulino Forest Alteraciones abióticas causadas por la fragmentación del bosque afectan la regeneración arbórea: un gradiente de tolerancia a la sombra y la sequía en los remanentes del Bosque Maulino Costero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO C GUERRERO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant regeneration is strongly determined by light and soil moisture differences between habitáis; both variables are modified by large-scale forest fragmentation. Several studies have indicated this alteration as the mechanism involved in tropical forest community change. The effects of fragmentation may be much more severe in Mediterranean and deciduous forests, because plant species in these forests show a stress tolerance tradeoff between shade and drought. Our study was performed in the deciduous fragmented Coastal Maulino Forest: Reserva Nacional Los Queules (RNLQ and surrounding small fragments. We hypothesised that Aristotelia chilensis (shade intolerant but drought tolerant should increase its regeneration in small patches as a consequence of the change in habitat suitability (i.e. luminous and drier, while Cryptocarya alba (shade tolerant but drought intolerant should have less regeneration in small fragments. We also expected that Nothofagus glauca and N. obliqua, which have shade and drought tolerances intermedíate between A. chilensis and C. alba, should respond less to forest fragmentation. We used two estimations of plant regeneration: (i seedling and sapling densities via field observations and (ii seed germination and seedling establishment via a field-based experiment. Natural regeneration patterns of C. alba indicated a depressed regeneration within small forest fragments compared to RNLQ, although experimental germination, establishment and recruitment proportions did not vary between habitáis. In contrast, A. chilensis regeneration was favored by forest fragmentation, with increased seedling and sapling densities and germination in small forest fragments. Both N. glauca and N. obliqua were less affected by forest fragmentation in their natural and experimental regeneration. This study highlights the relevance of studying changes in abiotic factors as a consequence of human activities, and considering safe sites (defined

  10. Consideraciones taxonómicas en especies de Senecio de Argentina Taxonomic considerations on Argentine species of Senecio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto D. Tortosa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se incluyen algunas especies de Senecio de Argentina, reconocidas hasta el presente como especies válidas, en la sinonimia de otras: S. francisci Phil. en S. polygaloides Phil.; S. gymnocaulos Phil. en S. kingii Hook. f.; S. molinae Phil. en S. glaber Less.; S. mustersii Speg. y su var. dentatus Cabrera en S. subumbellatus Phil. Senecio microcephalus Phil. y su var. angustifolius Cabrera son consideradas una variedad de S. subumbellatus y S. schreiteri Cabrera una variedad de S. leucostachys Baker. No se acepta la validez de las variedades Senecio gilliesii Hook. et Arn. var. dasycarpus Cabrera, S. glaber Less. var. pratensis (Phil. Cabrera, S. gnidioides Phil. var. gilvus (Phil. Cabrera, S. kingii Hook. f. var. paradoxus (Albov ex Kurtz Cabrera, S. leucomallus A. Gray var. incisus A. Gray, S. linariifolius Poepp. ex DC. var. heliophytoides (Phil. Reiche y var. subtomentosus Cabrera y de la forma S. perezii Cabrera fo. integerrimus Cabrera.

  11. Rastros digitais, discriminação e recrutamento em Alta Normandia : A situação das pessoas com limitação funcional psíquica

    OpenAIRE

    Sabaayon, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    1. Michel ARNAUD : Professeur en SIC à l’Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense, rapporteur.2. Joël COLLOC : Professeur en Informatique à l’Université du Havre.3. Béatrice GALINON-MÉLÉNEC : Professeur en SIC à l’Université du Havre, co-directrice de thèse.4. Hervé LE CROSNIER : Maître de Conférences, HDR en SIC à l’Université de Caen, rapporteur.5. Louise MERZEAU, Maître de Conférences, HDR en SIC à l’Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense, co-directrice de thèse.6. Michèle MOLINA : P...

  12. How do we see art: an eye-tracker study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Quian Quiroga

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe the pattern of fixations of subjects looking at figurative and abstract paintings from different artists (Molina, Mondrian, Rembrandt, della Francesca and at modified versions in which different aspects of these art pieces were altered with simple digital manipulations. We show that the fixations of the subjects followed some general common principles (e.g. being attracted to saliency regions but with a large variability for the figurative paintings, according to the subject’s personal appreciation and knowledge. In particular, we found different gazing patterns depending on whether the subject saw the original or the modified version of the painting first. We conclude that the study of gazing patterns obtained by using the eye-tracker technology give a useful approach to quantify how subjects observe art.

  13. Fluid injection induced seismicity reveals a NE dipping fault in the southeastern sector of the High Agri Valley (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, T. A.; Giocoli, A.; Perrone, A.; Piscitelli, S.; Lapenna, V.

    2014-08-01

    On 2 June 2006 the wastewater produced during the oil and gas field exploitation in High Agri Valley (southern Italy) started to be managed by disposal through pumping the fluids back into the subsurface at the Costa Molina 2 (CM2) injection well, located in the southeastern sector of the valley. The onset of microearthquakes (Ml ≤ 2) after 4 days at about 1.3 km SW of CM2 well suggests fluid injection induced seismicity by the diffusion of pore pressure. Moreover, the space-time evolution of 196 high-resolution relocated events reveals a previously unmapped NE dipping fault. We investigate the physical processes related to the fluid injection induced seismicity and delineate the previously unmapped fault by jointly analyzing seismicity data, geological observations, fluid injection data, the stratigraphic log of the CM2 well, and the electrical resistivity tomography survey carried out in the study area.

  14. Esquema de evaporación flexible para la producción integrada de azúcar y alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Yannery González Fundora

    2008-01-01

    La investigación responde a la necesidad de implementar un nuevo esquema de evaporación en la fábrica de azúcar de la Empresa Azucarera "Héctor Molina", con el objetivo de crear una industria flexible que se ajuste a las variaciones del flujo en proceso debido al desvío de jugo diluido a la destilería (entre el 20 y 70 %), con la menor inversión posible y utilizando los equipos existentes. Para el cálculo de los balances de masa y energía se utilizó la simulación con la herramienta DAFLEX (Di...

  15. Antimonumentos: trabalho de memória e de resistência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Seligmann-Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Este ensaio apresenta uma reflexão sobre o fenômeno dos "antimonumentos" que surgiram no final do século XX como uma forma de lidar, pelo viés das artes, com a violência de Estado, como nos casos do nazismo e das ditaduras latino-americanas. Este texto faz inicialmente uma retomada da mnemotécnica, ou seja, da antiga "arte da memória", que tem como seu pai mítico Simônides de Ceos, para em seguida apresentar a cena moderna da "arte da memória" sob a rubrica dos antimonumentos. O trabalho apresenta e discute obras de, entre outros artistas, Jochen Gerz, Horst Hoheisel, Andreas Knitz, Marcelo Brodsky e Fulvia Molina.

  16. Plant location and extraction procedure strongly alter the antimicrobial activity of murta extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shene, Carolina; Reyes, Agnes K.; Villarroel, Mario;

    2009-01-01

    extracting polyphenols, showing pure solvents-both water and ethanol-a lower extraction capacity. No correlation between antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content was found. Extracts from Murta leaves provoked a decrease in the growing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus......Leaves and fruits of Murta (Ugni Molinae Turcz.) growing in three locations of Chile with diverse climatic conditions were extracted by using ethanol/water mixtures at different ratios and the antimicrobial activity was assessed. Extracts containing the highest polyphenolic content were from murta...... plants grown nearer to the mountain (58 mg GAE/g murta), subjected to extreme summer/winter-day/night temperature changes and rainy regime. Extracts from leaves collected in the valley and coast contained 46 and 40 mg GAE/g murta, respectively. A mixture of 50% ethanol/water was the most efficient in...

  17. Preparation and characterisation of quillaja saponin with less heterogeneity than Quil-A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Søren; San Martin, R.; Doberti, A.;

    2000-01-01

    Immunisation against pathogens remains one of the most effective ways of preventing or reducing losses due to infectious diseases in animal husbandry. When inactivated vaccines are used, adjuvants are most often required to obtain satisfactory immune responses. One such type of adjuvant is saponin...... derived from the bark of Quillaja saponaria Molina, a tree of the rose family. A few different commercial sources exist, but due to the structural complexity and heterogeneity of these saponin preparations, it has been difficult to establish exactly which components are responsible for the adjuvant...... activity. By carefully selecting the bark source, live have succeeded in preparing a much less heterogeneous preparation of quillaja saponin. In this report we describe the preparation, in terms of structural complexity, hemolytic activity, adjuvant activity, and its ability to form ISCOM matrix. This new...

  18. Ingenieros españoles en la Ilustración (El Real Gabinete de Máquinas)

    OpenAIRE

    González, Ignacio

    2004-01-01

    La segunda mitad del siglo XVII fue una época fértil para el progreso de las diversas ramas de la tecnología y, de una manera m"DVpartiC..ldlar,para la ingeniería mecánica y la civil. Una de las innovaciones más notables de este período fue la creación del «Real Gabinete de Máquinas», en cuya génesis, organización y dirección tuvieron un papel destacado dos de los más grandes personajes de la Ilustración tardía, el ingeniero civil Agustín de Betancourt y Molina (Puerto de la Cr...

  19. Experimental study of periodic flow effects on spanwise vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Molina, Cruz Daniel; Lopez Sanchez, Erick Javier; Ruiz Chavarria, Gerardo; Medina Ovando, Abraham

    2014-11-01

    We present an experimental study about the spanwise vortex produced in a flow going out of a channel in shallow waters. This vortex travels in front of the dipole. The velocity field measurement was done using the PIV technique, and DPIVsoft (https://www.irphe.fr/ ~meunier/) was used for data processing. In this case the flow has a periodic forcing to simulate ocean tides. The experiment was conducted in a channel with variable width and the measurements were made using three different values of the aspect ratio width-depth. We present results of the position, circulation of this spanwise vortex and the flow inversion effect. The change of flow direction modify the intensity of the vortex, but it does not destroy it. The vertical components of the velocity field contributes particle transport. G. Ruiz Chavarria, E. J. Lopez Sanchez and C. D. Garcia Molina acknowledge DGAPA-UNAM by support under project IN 116312 (Vorticidad y ondas no lineales en fluidos).

  20. Web 2.0 usage among New Zealand learners: Findings on gender difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Wei

    Full Text Available In this paper, gender differences in Web 2.0 usage by postgraduate students in New Zealand are presented. 84 postgraduate students drawn from two different convenience samples were surveyed to discover the extent to which they used and were familiar with Web 2.0 applications. According to Cuadrado-García, Ruiz-Molina and Montoro-Pons (2010, p. 367, \\"men and women differ in their interaction with technology\\". In this study, gender differences in the use of different Web 2.0 applications and technologies have been considered. Whilst findings from this study are limited by the way in which the populations were sampled, the sample size and having a majority of international students with English as a second language, it is interesting to note that there were only minor differences between the ways in which male and female postgraduate students use Web 2.0 applications.

  1. El museo como espacio educativo

    OpenAIRE

    Rey Martín, Marta

    2013-01-01

    El Trabajo Fin de Grado titulado "El museo como espacio educativo" tutelado por D. Jesús Féliz Pascual Molina, trata sobre el estudio acerca de cómo se usan los museos como espacios lúdicos y como mediadores de enseñanza. Para su realización se ha tenido en cuenta la legislación vigente y sobre todo el Decreto 122/2007 de 27 de Diciembre, por el que se establece el currículo de Educación Infantil en Castilla y León. En él se hace mención a la evolución de los museos, los diferentes tipos exis...

  2. La comprensión lectora, la memoria de trabajo, los movimientos oculares y la discriminación auditiva

    OpenAIRE

    Barrachina-Mor, Laia

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: El presente estudio tiene como objetivo analizar la relación entre el rendimiento en comprensión lectora y la memoria de trabajo, los movimientos oculares y la discriminación auditiva. Método: La muestra seleccionada se compone de un total de 30 alumnos que cur-san tercer ciclo de Educación Primaria. El rendimiento en comprensión lectora fue valora-do a través de las pruebas ACL de evaluación de la comprensión lectora elaboradas por Català, Català, Molina y Monclús (2008). De...

  3. Raceways-based production of algal crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisti, Yusuf [Massey Univ., Palmerston North (New Zealand). School of Engineering

    2013-11-01

    Raceway ponds, or 'high-rate algal ponds', of various configurations have been used to treat wastewater since the 1950s. They are also known as Oswald ponds after their inventor W. J. Oswald. Large-scale outdoor culture of microalgae and cyanobacteria in raceways is well established (Terry and Raymond 1985; Oswald 1988; Borowitzka and Borowitzka 1989; Becker 1994; Lee 1997; Molina Grima 1999; Pulz 2001; Borowitzka 2005; Spolaore et al. 2006). Raceway culture is used commercially in the United States, Thailand, China, Israel and elsewhere, mostly to produce algae for relatively high-value applications. This chapter is focused on raceways typically used in the production of algal biomass and not in the treatment of wastewater. The engineering design, operation and performance characteristics of raceways are discussed. The biomass productivity of the raceways is assessed in relation to limits imposed by algal biology. The economics of algal oil production in raceways are discussed. (orig.)

  4. A new species of Phrixotrichus (Araneae, Theraphosidae from southwestern Argentina and new distributional data for P. vulpinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Ferretti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A new species of Phrixotrichus Simon, 1889, P. pucara sp. nov., is described and illustrated based on a male from Pucará river, Neuquén province, Argentina. Male can be distinguished from all other species of the genus by the presence of a long strong spine on inner face of prolateral branch of tibial apophysis; also, it differs from P. scrofa (Molina, 1788 and P. vulpinus (Karsch, 1880 by a serrated prolateral keel of the male palpal bulb. Male resembles P. jara Perafán & Pérez-Miles, 2014 but can be distinguished by the uniform color on dorsal cephalothorax and by the palpal organ morphology being wider on the bulb base and embolus shorter and thicker, with the tip of embolus not so directed retrolaterally and prolateral keel bearing a serrated edge with three teeth. Additionally, P. vulpinus is reported for the first time for Argentina along with new distributional data.

  5. La agricultura nahua en el siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jácome Alba González

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Alonso de Molina’s Vocabulary is the main historical source followed by the author of this article in order to understand the Nahua agriculture at the end of the XVI century. There are also other historical sources utilized by Alba González to compare the information about types of soils, climate, vegetation, agricultural technicques and the technology associated with it and about irrigation. The article has a broad information about agricultural managements and the uses of plants -mainly corn- utilized in the agricultural labour, which was basic in the life of the Nahuas in Central Mexico. It has several tables with the data obtained from the historical sources which permit to understand the richness of this economic activity. This article is important for agricultural, ecological and historical studies and the information it presents is valuable.

  6. Double shell stars as source of the Kerr metric in the CMMR approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuchi J E; Ruiz E [Dpto. Fisica Fundamental. Universidad de Salamanca (Spain); Molina A, E-mail: jecuchi@usal.es, E-mail: alfred.molina@ub.edu, E-mail: eruiz@usal.es [Dpto. de Fisica Fonamental. Universitat de Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-09-22

    The Cabezas, MartIn, Molina and Ruiz (CMMR) method allows us to build global analytic solutions of Einstein's equations for stationary isolated and rigidly rotating perfect fluid solutions. We start from a double approximation, postminkowskian and slow rotation, and end up getting a matched global solution from the inner and outer metrics. The metrics this way obtained have some uses. In particular, we will show the application of the scheme to the equation of state {mu} + (1 - n)p = {mu}{sub 0} and how it can be applied to a build a source with two concentric comoving shells of fluid with different {mu}{sub 0} We will also analyse the conditions under which this configuration can be a source of the Kerr metric.

  7. Impacto económico del sector cerámico en San José de Cúcuta (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Milena Mogrovejo Andrade

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tuvo como finalidad determinar el impacto económico de las empresas del sector cerámico en la ciudad de San José Cúcuta (Colombia en el periodo 2008-2011. Se utilizó como instrumento un cuestionario estructurado aplicado a los empresarios del sector. Igualmente, se efectuaron entrevistas a directivos de organizaciones gremiales. El impacto económico se analizó siguiendo la metodología propuesta por Soto y Bergoeing (1998, Arbeláez y Sandoval (2006 y Molina, Coronado y Rivera (2008. Se concluye que este sector, en el periodo estudiado, presentó gran impacto económico, en particular en lo relativo al nivel de empleo, el aporte en impuestos al municipio, el consumo intermedio y el valor agregado.

  8. 湖北部分瓠瓜种质资源初步研究及利用%Research and Utilization of Hubei L.siceraria Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李开银; 石伟平; 胡宇舟; 高道先

    2003-01-01

    @@ 瓠瓜[Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Stardl.]亦称夜开花、蒲瓜,为葫芦科一年生攀缘草本植物,依形状分为长瓠、短瓠、圆瓠(葫芦),依熟性分为早、中、晚熟.瓠瓜在湖北省栽培面积较大,种质资源丰富,仅三峡地区已收入国家种质资源库的瓠瓜地方品种就达11份[1],为选育瓠瓜一代杂种及为西瓜作砧木提供了广泛的遗传基因[2,3].

  9. Revolución y contrarrevolución en el Caribe: España, Trujillo y Fidel Castro en 1959

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Paz Sánchez, Manuel

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Soon after the Cuban Revolution it was found out that its own survival depended mostly on the dissemination of its message in the Caribbean area, and specially on the need to export its revolutionary experience to those territories which, as it was the case with the Dominican Republic, wished to get free from the last dictators in America, the most famous among the latter being Rafael Leónidas Trujillo Molina. Spain's external position was peculiar in this regard. Within the general framework of its Latin American policy, aiming at the maintenance of diplomatic links in the area, Madrid endeavoured to keep good relationships both with Trujillo 's Dominican Republic and with revolutionary Cuba.

    La Revolución Cubana no tardó en descubrir que una de las claves fundamentales para su propia supervivencia, que estaba ligada, asimismo, a su ideario de insurrección continental era la expansión de su mensaje en la propia zona del Caribe y, en concreto, la necesidad de exportar sus prácticas insurgentes hacia aquellos territorios que, como la República Dominicana, estaban deseando liberarse del yugo de los últimos dictadores de América, entre los que alcanzaba la cúspide de la impopularidad Rafael Leónidas Trujillo Molina. La posición exterior de España, en tales circunstancias, no dejaba de ser peculiar. En el contexto general de su política hacia América Latina que ansiaba mantener los vínculos diplomáticos, al margen de contingencias más o menos coyunturales, Madrid hizo todo lo posible por entenderse tanto con la República Dominicana del dictador Trujillo como con la Cuba revolucionaria del rebelde Castro.

  10. Desmitificar el mito de la Revolución mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-José Hanaï

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A partir de la posrevolución mexicana, varios discursos han emprendido una mitificación de la Revolución, pretendiendo unificar a la nación mediante imágenes, héroes y fórmulas, o intentando establecer los rasgos de la mexicanidad. En la segunda mitad del siglo XX, historiadores, antropólogos y escritores de ficción escogen la vía de la exploración y discusión del mito para reevaluar su peso y significación en la identidad mexicana y la cultura nacional. La representación de la Revolución en la novela participa de esa revisión e interrogación del mito. Proponemos considerar dos novelas publicadas en los años 80, Gringo viejo, de Carlos Fuentes, y La familia vino del norte, de Silvia Molina, para comparar las estrategias de discusión del mito revolucionario, entre la re-mitificación y la humanización.From the Mexican post-revolution, several speeches have undertaken a mythification of the Revolution, claiming to unify the nation by means of images, heroes and formulae, or trying to establish the features of the Mexican identity. In the second half of the 20th century, historians, anthropologists and fiction writers choose the route of the exploration and discussion of the myth to re-evaluate its importance and meaning in the Mexican identity and the national culture. The representation of the Revolution in the novel takes part of this review and interrogation of the myth. We propose to consider two novels published in the 80s, Gringo viejo, of Carlos Fuentes, and La familia vino del norte, of Silvia Molina, to compare the strategies of discussion of the revolutionary myth, between re-mythification and humanization.

  11. Base litoestratigráfica de las facies Buntsandstein y Muschelkalk en la rama aragonesa de la Cordillera Ibérica (zona norte

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    Arribas, J.

    1985-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to complete the information about the Triassic in the Iberian Range, a description of Buntsandstein and Muschelkalk facies lithostratigraphy of the aragonesa branch has been made. In this way we have informaly defined six lithostratigraphic units. The presence of two Triassic lithotypes (Iberian Triassic and Mediterranean Triassic in the study area allows us to analyse the lithologic relationships between both of them. Finally. a first attempt of correlation between the informal units mentioned above and the Ramos' (1979 units of the Molina de Aragón area has been made, This correlation permits us to relate the Triassic of both branches in the Iberian Range.

    En este trabajo se realiza una descripción de la litoestratigrafía de las facies Buntsandstein y Muschelkalk en la rama aragonesa de la Cordillera Ibérica, con el fin de cubrir un vacío bibliográfico de gran importancia en el contexto global del Trias de la Cordillera Ibérica. Se han definido informalmente cuatro unidades litoestratigráficas correspondientes a las facies Buntsandstein y dos a las facies Muschelkalk. La presencia de dos litotipos triásicos (mediterráneo e ibérico en la zona de estudio, permite analizar en detalle las relaciones litológicas entre ellos. Por último, se realiza un intento de correlación entre las unidades definidas informalmente en este trabajo con las definidas por Ramos (1979 en las proximidades de Molina de Aragón, con el fin de relacionar el Trías de las dos ramas de la Cordillera Ibérica.

  12. Mamíferos carnívoros e sua relação com a diversidade de hábitats no Parque Nacional dos Aparados da Serra, sul do Brasil Carnivore mammals and their relation with habitat diversity in Aparados da Serra National Park, southern Brazil

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    Maria de Fátima M. dos Santos

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey of carnivore mammals was accomplished in Aparados da Serra National Park from February 1998 to March 2000. The park has 10,250 ha and is considered a biodiversity core area of the Atlantic Forest Biosphere Reserve in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The landscape is characterized by relatively well preserved relicts of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze forest, grasslands and Atlantic Forest, which have contributed for the survival of endangered carnivore mammals. The National Park was divided in a grid of 16 km² cells using a 1:50,000 scale map. The animals were recorded using indirect methods, by identifying signs (scats, tracks and direct observation in 2.5 km long and 5 m wide transects, with 10 replicates in each grid cell. Interviews with local people were also used to confirm the animal presence. A total of 13 species was recorded: Procyon cancrivorus (Cuvier, 1798, Pseudalopex gymnocercus (G. Fischer, 1814, Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758 and Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 were the most frequent species registered. Nasua nasua (Linnaeus 1766, Herpailurus yaguarondi (Lacépède, 1809, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815, Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758, Leopardus sp., Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771, Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1892 and Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 showed lower frequencies. The Park presented areas with significant differences (Mantel Test, P< 0.05 in species richness and composition related to habitat classes. Areas with high habitat richness presented high species richness. The Araucaria forest was the habitat that presented the higher carnivore richness. The border areas of the Park are influenced by several environmental degradation factors that could be affecting the distribution of carnivores.

  13. La democracia en el Perú: una terca voluntad

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    Carolina ROMERO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La construcción de la democracia en el Perú es una vieja tarea que se realiza, aunque imperceptiblemente, lenta y tercamente tanto en la cultura política de los nuevos ciudadanos como en la organización política de la sociedad. El presente artículo es un ensayo sobre la aventura democrática en el primer lustro del siglo XXI yendo a las últimas décadas del siglo XX en el Perú, en las que la institucionalidad democrática adquiere nueva legitimidad, para entender las dificultades que los actores políticos encuentran y que se deben tomar en cuenta para hablar de la calidad de la democracia, en la línea que el artículo de Levine y Molina (2007 nos propone.ABSTRACT: The construction of democracy in Peru is a long standing challenge that has advanced slowly and stubbornly, if imperceptibly at time, in both the political culture of the citizens and the political organization of society. This article analyzes the «democratic adventure» in Peru in the first years of the 21st century in the context of the last two decades of the 20th, when democratic institutionalization achieved a new level of legitimacy, to identify the challenges to democracy that political actors have confronted. These elements will help analyze the quality of democracy along the lines proposed in the work of Levine and Molina (2007.

  14. Comparación de métodos analíticos para la determinación de materia orgánica en suelos de la región Andino-Patagónica: efectos de la vegetación y el tipo de suelo Comparison of analytical methods for determining soil organic matter in Patagonian Andean Region: effects of vegetation and soil types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila La Manna

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La determinación de la materia orgánica (MO resulta fundamental para el conocimiento de la productividad agrícola y forestal de los suelos. En este estudio se evaluó la relación entre los contenidos de materia orgánica (MO determinados por pérdida por ignición (MO PI y combustión húmeda de Walkley-Black (MO CH en suelos de la Región Andino Patagónica. La relación se evaluó para suelos volcánicos con y sin aluminosilicatos amorfos y con distintos tipos de vegetación: plantaciones de Pinus ponderosa, bosques de Austrocedrus chilensis, arbustales, estepa arbustiva y estepa herbácea. Se seleccionaron 100 sitios de muestreo, donde se tomaron muestras compuestas del horizonte A para la determinación de MO CH y MO PI. Los datos fueron analizados mediante análisis de varianza y regresiones simples. MO CH fue siempre inferior a MO PI. Esto es esperable dado que MO PI incluye la MO total, mientras que MO CH discrimina las formas de carbono fuertemente condensadas. Si bien no se detectaron diferencias en la relación entre los métodos analíticos para suelos con y sin aluminosilicatos amorfos, sí existió una fuerte relación entre la presencia de estos y los contenidos absolutos de MO. La relación entre los métodos analíticos varió según el tipo de vegetación. Los suelos que sustentan vegetación de estepa herbácea y plantación de pino ponderosa presentaron las mayores diferencias entre los dos métodos analíticos. MO CH fue, en promedio, un 37% inferior a MO PI para estos tipos de vegetación, siendo significativamente superior a lo hallado en arbustales (26%. Los suelos con bosque denso de Austrocedrus chilensis y estepa arbustiva presentaron valores intermedios (30 y 35%, respectivamente. Las plantaciones de pino ponderosa (primera rotación, edad promedio 21 años fueron realizadas en áreas de estepa herbácea. Las similitudes encontradas entre ambos suelos podrían estar asociadas a características de la MO propias del

  15. Números cromosómicos en especies sudamericanas andinas de Lupinus (Leguminosae CHROMOSOME NUMBERS IN SOUTH AMERICAN ANDEAN SPECIES OF LUPINUS (LEGUMINOSAE

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    Maristela Fiess Camillo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Se determinó el número cromosómico en 22 poblaciones de 16 especies del género Lupinus
    L. de la región Andina. Todos presentaron 2n=48 cromosomas con excepción de L.
    bandelierae C. P. Smith (2n=36. Estos son los primeros recuentos cromosómicos para L.
    arvensis Benth., L. chilensis C. P. Smith, L. chlorolepsis C. P. Smith, L. chrysanthus Ulbr., L.
    lindleyanus Agardh, L. mantaroensis C. P. Smith, L. piurensis C. P. Smith, L. proculaustrinus
    C. P. Smith, L. prostratus Agardh, L. pulvinaris Ulbr., L. pycnostachys C. P. Smith, L.
    smithianus Kunth y L. tominensis Wedd. Este trabajo también confirmó recuentos
    cromosómicos para L. mutabilis Sweet, L. semperflorens Benth. (2n=48 y L. bandelierae
    (2n=36. Los resultados claramente confirman que, citológicamente, la mayoría de los Lupinus
    andinos son más próximos de las especies norteamericanas qué a las del este de América del
    Sur
    Chromosome numbers were determined in 22 accessions of 16 Lupinus L. species from the
    Andean region. All had 2n=48 chromosomes, except L. bandelierae C. P. Smith (2n=36.
    These are the first chromosome countings for L. arvensis Benth., L. chilensis C. P. Smith, L.
    chlorolepsis C. P. Smith, L. chrysanthus Ulbr., L. lindleyanus Agardh, L. mantaroensis C. P.
    Smith, L. piurensis C. P. Smith, L. proculaustrinus C. P. Smith, L. prostratus Agardh, L.
    pulvinaris Ulbr., L. pycnostachys C. P. Smith, L. smithianus Kunth and L. tominensis Wedd.
    The present study also confirmed literature data on chromosome numbers of L. mutabilis
    Sweet, L. semperflorens Benth. (2n=48 and L. bandelierae (2n=36. The results clearly
    confirm that, cytologically, the vast majority of Andean species are closer to the North
    American than to the eastern South American taxa

  16. Aridity changes in the temperate-Mediterranean transition of the Andes since ad 1346 reconstructed from tree-rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christie, Duncan A.; Quesne, Carlos le [Universidad Austral de Chile, Laboratorio de Dendrocronologia, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Valdivia (Chile); Boninsegna, Jose A.; Morales, Mariano S.; Villalba, Ricardo [Instituto Argentino de Nivologia, Glaciologia y Ciencias Ambientales, IANIGLA, Departamento de Dendrocronologia e Historia Ambiental, Mendoza (Argentina); Cleaveland, Malcolm K.; Stahle, David W. [University of Arkansas Fayetteville, Tree-Ring Laboratory, Department of Geosciences, Fayetteville, AR (United States); Lara, Antonio [Universidad Austral de Chile, Laboratorio de Dendrocronologia, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Austral de Chile, Forest Ecosystem Services under Climatic Fluctuations (Forecos), Valdivia (Chile); Mudelsee, Manfred [Climate Risk Analysis, Hanover (Germany); Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    The Andes Cordillera acts as regional ''Water Towers'' for several countries and encompasses a wide range of ecosystems and climates. Several hydroclimatic changes have been described for portions of the Andes during recent years, including glacier retreat, negative precipitation trends, an elevation rise in the 0 isotherm, and changes in regional streamflow regimes. The Temperate-Mediterranean transition (TMT) zone of the Andes (35.5 -39.5 S) is particularly at risk to climate change because it is a biodiversity hotspot with heavy human population pressure on water resources. In this paper we utilize a new tree-ring network of Austrocedrus chilensis to reconstruct past variations in regional moisture in the TMT of the Andes by means of the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). The reconstruction covers the past 657 years and captures interannual to decadal scales of variability in late spring-early summer PDSI. These changes are related to the north-south oscillations in moisture conditions between the Mediterranean and Temperate climates of the Andes as a consequence of the latitudinal position of the storm tracks forced by large-scale circulation modes. Kernel estimation of occurrence rates reveals an unprecedented increment of severe and extreme drought events during the last century in the context of the previous six centuries. Moisture conditions in our study region are linked to tropical and high-latitude ocean-atmospheric forcing, with PDSI positively related to Nino-3.4 SST during spring and strongly negatively correlated with the Antarctic Oscillation (AAO) during summer. Geopotential anomaly maps at 500-hPa show that extreme dry years are tightly associated with negative height anomalies in the Ross-Amundsen Seas, in concordance with the strong negative relationship between PDSI and AAO. The twentieth century increase in extreme drought events in the TMT may not be related to ENSO but to the positive AAO trend during late-spring and

  17. Seasonal and vertical distribution of medusae in Aysén region, southern Chile Distribución estacional y vertical de medusas en la región de Aysén, sur de Chile

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    Viviana Bravo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Medusae collected in winter and spring 2007 were analyzed in a longitudinal transect made between the Boca de Guafo and Elefantes Fjord, southern Chile. A total of 30 species were identified, Hydromedusae (29 and Scyphozoa (1, where Bougainvillia macloviana, Hybocodon chilensis, Hydractinia tenuis, Laodicea pulcra, L. undulada, Modeeria rotunda and Chrysaora plocamia represent new records for the area. A significant increase in the jellyfish abundance was higher in spring than in winter (fourteen times higher, with 68% of common species in both seasons. The specific diversity was slightly higher in winter (3.4 bits than spring (3.2 bits, the species richness instead was higher in spring than in winter, with a mean of 5 and 12 species, respectively. The vertical distribution showed the presence of surface (H. borealis, deep (A. apicata, C. peregrina and R. velatum and wide bathymetric distribution (B. muscoides and B. muscus species. Results from the area were compared with previous results (2002-2003 thus proving that most species identified are common in southern Chilean fjords and channels.Se analizaron las medusas colectadas en invierno y primavera de 2007, en una transecta longitudinal efectuada entre la boca del Guafo y fiordo Elefantes, sur de Chile. Se identificó un total de 30 especies, Hydromedusae (29 y Scyphozoa (1, de las cuales Bougainvillia macloviana, Hybocodon chilensis, Hydractinia tenuis, Laodicea pulcra, L. undulada, Modeeria rotunda y Chrysaora plocamia constituyen nuevos registros para esta área. Se determinó un fuerte incremento en la abundancia de medusas en primavera respecto a invierno y (14 veces mayor, con un 68% de especies comunes en ambas estaciones. La diversidad específica fue levemente mayor en invierno (3.4 bits que primavera (3.2 bits, en cambio la riqueza de especies fue mayor en primavera que en invierno, con una media de 5 y 12 especies, respectivamente. La distribución vertical mostró en ambas

  18. Reactividad inmunoquímica de sueros anti- Caiman yacare y Caiman latirostris frente a sueros de diferentes especies

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    de Roodt, Adolfo Rafael

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la reactividad inmunoquímica entre los sueros de distintas especies de reptiles frente a sueros hiperinmunes experimentales anti-suero de Caiman yacare y anti-suero de Caiman latirostris. Los sueros que se probaron fueron los homólogos de Caiman yacare, Caiman latirostris y los heterólogos de Alligator missisipiensis, Tupinambis merinae, Tupinambis rufescens, Chelonoidis chilensis, Clelia rustica, Waglerophis merremii, Lystrophys dorbignyi, Phyton molurus, Boa constrictor occidentalis, Eunectes notaeus, Crotalus durissus terrificus, Bothrops alternatus, Bothrops diporus, Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops jararacussu, Bothrops moojeni, Pitangus sulphuratus y Gallus gallus. La reactividad inmunoquímica se determinó mediante las técnicas de doble inmunodifusión y ELISA, mostrándose importante entre los sueros de los crocodrílidos y baja entre estos y los de las otras especies de reptiles estudiadas. Se observó mayor reactividad entre los antisueros anti-Caiman respecto a los sueros de Caiman latirostris y Caiman yacare que frente al suero de Alligator missisipiensis. Además, se encontró una fuerte reactividad entre ambos sueros anti-Caiman y el de Gallus gallus poniendo en evidencia la fuerte reactividad entre los sueros de arcosaurios. In order to study the immunochemical reactivity among sera from different species of reptiles regarding sera from Caiman, the immunoreactivity of sera from reptiles against antisera to Caiman yacare or anti-Caiman latirostris sera was studied. These hiperimmune sera were tested against sera from Alligator missisipiensis, Tupinambis merinae, Tupinambis rufescens, Chelonoidis chilensis, Clelia rustica, Waglerophis merremii, Lystrophys dorbignyi, Phyton molurus, Boa constrictor occidentalis, Eunectes notaeus, Crotalus durissus terrificus, Bothrops alternatus, Bothrops neuwiedii, Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops jararacussu, Bothrops moojeni, Pitangus sulphuratus and Gallus gallus. The immunochemical

  19. Ticks on birds caught on the campus of the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Carrapatos em aves capturadas no campus da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ísis Daniele Alves Costa Santolin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of parasitic infections, particularly those caused by ectoparasites, may influence the biology and ecology of wild birds. The aim of this study was to investigate occurrences and identify the species of ticks collected from wild birds caught on the campus of the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro. The birds were caught using mist nets between October 2009 and December 2010. In total, 223 birds were caught, represented by 53 species and 19 families in nine orders. Nineteen birds (n = 7 species were parasitized by immature ticks (prevalence of 8.5%. Forty-four ticks were collected, of which 23 were nymphs and 21 were larvae. There were associations between parasitism by ticks and non-Passeriformes birds, and between parasitism and ground-dwelling birds, which was possibly due to the presence (or inclusion among the captured birds of Vanellus chilensis (Charadriiformes: Charadriidae. All the nymphs collected were identified as Amblyomma cajennense. In general terms, we must emphasize that wild birds in the study area may play the role of dispersers for the immature stages of A. cajennense, albeit non-preferentially.A prevalência das infecções parasitárias e em particular, aquelas causadas por ectoparasitos, pode influenciar na biologia e ecologia das aves silvestres. O objetivo do estudo foi investigar a ocorrência e identificar as espécies de carrapatos coletadas em aves silvestres capturadas no campus da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro. As aves foram coletadas em rede-de-neblina durante o período de outubro de 2009 a dezembro de 2010. No total foram capturadas 223 aves representadas por 53 espécies, 19 famílias em 9 ordens. Parasitismo por formas imaturas de carrapatos, foram encontradas em 19 aves (n = 7 espécies correspondendo a uma prevalência de 8,5%. Foram coletados 44 carrapatos onde 23 estavam em estágio de ninfa e 21 em estágio de larva. Houve associação entre o parasitismo por carrapatos

  20. Desarrollo de una bebida de alto contenido proteico a partir de algarrobo, lupino y quinoa para la dieta de preescolares Development of a high content protein beverage from Chilean mesquite, lupine and quinoa for the diet of pre-schoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cerezal Mezquita

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available En la presente investigación se desarrolló una bebida de alto contenido proteico a partir de la mezcla de los extractos líquidos de un pseudocereal, quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd y de dos plantas leguminosas: algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol. Stunz y lupino (Lupinus albus L., provenientes del altiplano andino de la macrozona norte de Chile, saborizándose con pulpa de frambuesa, para contribuir en la alimentación de niños entre 2 y 5 años de estrato socio-económico bajo con deficiencias nutricionales. La formulación se definió por Programación Lineal, se determinó su composición por análisis proximal y se realizaron pruebas físicas, microbiológicas y de aceptación sensorial. Al concluir los 90 días de almacenamiento la bebida obtuvo un contenido de proteínas de 1,36%, siendo el triptófano el aminoácido limitante; por su parte, las coordenadas de cromaticidad del espacio de color CIEL*a*b* no presentaron diferencias significativas (p This research was aimed at developing a high content protein beverage from the mixture of liquid extracts of a pseudocereal, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd and two legumes: mesquite (Prosopis chilensis (Mol. Stunz and lupine (Lupinus albus L., native from the Andean highlands of the Chilean northern macro-zone, flavored with raspberry pulp, to help in the feeding of children between 2 and 5 years of lower socioeconomic status with nutritional deficiencies. The formulation was defined by linear programming, its composition was determined by proximate analysis and physical, microbiological and sensory acceptance tests were performed. After 90 days of storage time, the beverage got a protein content of 1.36%, being tryptophan the limiting amino acid; for its part, the chromaticity coordinates of CIEL*a*b* color space showed no statistical significant differences (p < 0.05 maintaining the "dark pink" tonality, the viscosity and the sensory evaluation were acceptable for drinking.

  1. Reseñas de Libros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Oviedo Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Alvarado López, Guillermo, El poder desde el espíritu: la visión política del Pentecostalismo en el México contemporáneo. Buenos Aires, Libros de la Araucaria, 2006, 149 pp.Páginas 193-196David Oviedo SilvaCandela Sevila, Virgilio F., Del franquismo a la democracia. La formación de la UCD en la provincia de Alicante. Alicante, Instituto de Cultura Juan Gil-Albert, 2007, 336 pp.Páginas 196-198Mónica Fernández AmadorCardenal, Ernesto, Vida perdida: memorias 1. México, Fondo de Cultura Económico, 2003, 446 pp.Páginas 198-199Gonzalo Ruiz BidónChaput, Marie-Claude (ed., « De l’anarchisme aux courants alternatifs (XIX-XXIè siècles », monográfico de Regards, 9 (2007, Université de Paris X-Nanterre, 460 pp.Páginas 199-201Iván López CabelloDíaz Rangel, Eleazar, La prensa venezolana en el siglo XX. Caracas, Ediciones B, 2007, 218 pp.Páginas 201-203Carmen Rodríguez González“El nuevo orden mundial y el mundo islámico”, dossier de Ayer. Revista de Historia Contemporánea, 65 (2007, 313 pp.Páginas 203-205Antonio Javier Martín CastellanosLewis Gaddis, John, El paisaje de la historia. Cómo los historiadores representan el pasado. Barcelona, Anagrama, 2004, 244 pp.Páginas 205-207David Molina RabadánMalgat, Gérard, Max Aub y Francia o la esperanza traicionada. Sevilla, Renacimiento, 2007, 416 pp.Páginas 207-209José Luis Gutiérrez MolinaMearsheimer, John; Walt, Stephen, El lobby israelí. Madrid, Taurus, 2007, 616 pp.Páginas 209-211Javier Lión BustilloMoradiellos García, Enrique, 1936: Los mitos de la Guerra Civil. Barcelona, Península, 2004, 249 pp.Páginas 211-212David Molina RabadánPrieto Borrego, Lucía; Barranquero Texeira, Encarnación, Población y Guerra Civil en Málaga: Caída, éxodo y refugio. Málaga, Servicio de Publicaciones-Centro de Ediciones de la Diputación de Málaga, 2007, 348 pp.Páginas 212-214Joaquín Piñeiro BlancaQuirosa-Cheyrouze y Muñoz, Rafael (coord., Historia de la Transición en

  2. Spatial variability of the active layer thickness at the Limnopolar Lake CALM-S site (Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, Antarctica) and the role of snow cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pablo, Miguel A.; Molina, Antonio; Ramos, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    research also required developing a qualitative grain-size analyses and geomorphological cartography of the ground at the CALM-S site. Here we show the first results of our analyses and how some factors correlate by the spatial evolution of the thaw depth in the Limnopolar Lake CALM-S site. de Pablo, M.A., Blanco, J.J., Molina, A., Ramos, M., Quesada, A., and Vieira, G. 2013. Interannual active layer variability at the Limnopolar Lake CALM site on Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, Antarctica. Antarctic Science, 25(2). 167-180. de Pablo, M.A., Ramos, M., and Molina, A. 2014. Thermal characterization of the active layer at the Limnopolar lake CALM site on Byers Peninsula (Livingston Island), Antarctica. Solid Earth, 5. 721-739. de Pablo, M.A., Ramos, M., and Molina, A. 2016. Snow cover evolution at the Limnopolar Lake CALM-S site on Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, Antarctica, 2009-2014. Catena. Submitted. Lewkowicz, A. G. 2008. Evaluation of miniature temperature-loggers to monitor snowpack evolution at mountain permafrost sites, northwestern Canada. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 19. 323-331.

  3. Reseñas de Libros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Piñeiro Blanca

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Álvarez Rey, Leandro (Estudio preliminar, recopilación y edición, Diego Martínez Barrio. Palabra de republicano. Sevilla, Ayuntamiento de Sevilla-Instituto de la Cultura y las Artes, 2007, 1.046 pp.Páginas 177-179Joaquín Piñeiro BlancaBancalari Molina, Alejandro, Orbe romano e Imperio Global. La romanización desde Augusto a Caracalla. Santiago de Chile, Editorial Universitaria, 2007, 330 pp.Páginas 179-182Francisco de Paula Villatoro SánchezBernal-Meza, Raúl y Saha, Suranjit (comps., Economía mundial y desarrollo regional. Buenos Aires, GEL, 2005, 403 pp.Páginas 182-184David Molina RabadánDavis, Mike, Planeta de Ciudades Miseria. Madrid, Foca Editorial, 2007, 283 pp.Páginas 184-185Daniel Alcalde GüelfoElguero Olavide, Ignacio, Los niños de los Chiripitifláuticos: retrato generacional de los nacidos en los 60. Madrid, La Esfera de los Libros, 2006, 672 pp.Páginas 185-189Daniel Francisco Álvarez EspinosaEstulin, Daniel, Los secretos del Club Bilderberg. Editorial Planeta, Barcelona, 2006, 304 pp.Páginas 190-191Mª del Rocío Piñeiro ÁlvarezFernández Bessa, Cristina et al., Frontera Sur. Nuevas políticas de gestión y externalización del control de la inmigración en Europa. Bilbao, Virus Editorial, 2008, 272 pp.Páginas 191-192Manuel Baraja EscuderoGonzález Clavero, Mariano; Pelaz Pérez, José Vidal; Pérez López, Pablo, Castilla y León en democracia. Partido, elecciones y personal político. 1977-2007. Salamanca, Junta de Castilla y León, 2007, 345 pp.Páginas 192-194Francisco de Paula Villatoro SánchezKhanna, Parag, El segundo mundo. Barcelona, Paidós, 2008, 570 pp.Páginas 194-196David Molina RabadánSanmartín Barros, Israel, Entre dos siglos. Globalización y pensamiento único. Madrid, Ediciones Akal, 2007, 334 pp.Páginas 196-198Joaquín Piñeiro BlancaToscano Gil, Francisco, Autonomía y potestad normativa local. Granada, Comares. 2007, 202 pp.Páginas 198-200José Joaquín Fernández AllesVV.AA., Ernesto

  4. Reseñas de Libros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Ruiz Gil

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Beck, Ulrich; Grande, Edgar, La Europa Cosmopolita. Sociedad y Política en la Segunda Modernidad. Barcelona, Paidós, 2006, 392 pp.Páginas 187-189José Antonio Ruiz GilCastells, Manuel (ed., La sociedad red: una visión global. Madrid, Alianza Editorial, 2006, 558 pp.Páginas 189-191David Molina RabadánCuenca Toribio, José Manuel, Nacionalismo, Franquismo y Nacionalcatolicismo. Madrid, Editorial Actas, 2008, 220 pp.Páginas 191-193Ricardo Martín de la GuardiaDiamond, Jared, Colapso, Por qué unas sociedades perduran y otras desaparecen. Madrid, Debate, 2006, 854 pp.Páginas 193-195Daniel Alcalde GüelfoFumaroli, Marc, El Estado cultural (ensayo sobre una religión moderna. Barcelona, Acantilado, 2007, 147 pp.Páginas 195-197José Antonio Ruiz GilGarí, Manuel; Pastor, Jaime y Romero, Miguel (eds., 1968. El mundo pudo cambiar de base. Madrid, Los Libros de la Catarata, 2008, 365 pp.Páginas 197-199Ana Domínguez RamaMann, James, Los Vulcanos. El gabinete de guerra de Bush: Cheney, Powell, Rumsfeld, Rice, Wolfowitz, Armitage. Granada, Almed, 2007, 498 pp.Páginas 199-201David Molina RabadánMartín Muñoz, Gema, Iraq. Un fracaso de Occidente (1920-2003. Barcelona, Tusquets, 2003, 323 pp.Páginas 201-202José María Torrente GisbertMuñoz Aunión, Antonio, La política común europea de derecho de asilo. Valencia, Tirant Lo Blanc. 2007, 268 pp.Páginas 202-205José Joaquín Fernández AllesRey Tristán, Eduardo (dir., Memorias de la violencia en Uruguay y Argentina. Golpes, dictaduras, exilios (1973-2006. Santiago de Compostela, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela-CIEAM, 2007, 382 pp.Páginas 205-206Silvina JensenShlaim, Avi, El Muro de Hierro. Israel y el mundo árabe. Granada, Almed, 2003, 778 pp.Páginas 207-208José María Torrente GisbertWallerstein, Immanuel, Utopística o las opciones históricas del siglo XXI. Madrid, Siglo XXI Editores, 1998, 91 pp.Páginas 208-209Manuel Pérez Salinas

  5. Reseñas de Libros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Vega Deloya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Arizpe, Lourdes, Culturas en movimiento: Interactividad cultural y procesos globales. México, Cámara de los diputados LIX Legislatura, UNAM, CRIM, Editorial Miguel Ángel Porrúa, 2006, 368 pp.Páginas 203-206Héctor Vega DeloyaCárcel Ortí, Vicente, La Iglesia y la transición española. Valencia, Edicep C. B., 2003, 342 pp.Páginas 206-207Gonzalo Ruiz BidónChaput, Marie-Claude (éd., De l´anarquisme aux courants alternatifs (XIX-XXIe siècles. Régards 9, París, Publidix, Université de Paris X-Nanterre, 2006, 460 pp.Páginas 208-210Francisco de Paula Villatoro SánchezChuse, Loren, Mujer y flamenco. Sevilla, Signatura Ediciones, 2007, 228 pp.Páginas 210-212Gema León RavinaCores Trasmonte, Baldomero; Luis Porteiro Garea, A Coruña, TresCtres, 2005, 260 pp.Páginas 212-213Israel Sanmartín BarrosDíez Torre, Alejandro R., Trabajan para la eternidad. Colectividades de Trabajo y Ayuda Mutua durante la Guerra Civil en Aragón. Madrid, La Malatesta Editorial, Prensas Universitarias de Zaragoza, 2009, 540 pp.Páginas 213-216José Luis Gutiérrez MolinaGonin, Jean Marc; Guez, Olivier, La caída del Muro de Berlín, Madrid, Alianza Editorial, 2009, 367 pp.Páginas 216-217Mª del Rocío Piñeiro ÁlvarezHardy, Jane, Poland´s new capitalism, London, Pluto Press, 2009, 258 pp.Páginas 217-218Daniel Alcalde GüelfoKaplan, Robert D., Por tierra, mar y aire. Las huellas globales del ejército americano. Barcelona, Ediciones B, 2008, 542 pp.Páginas 218-220David Molina RabadánMartínez, Jesús Manuel, Salvador Allende. Oviedo, Ediciones Nobel, 2009, 402 pp.Páginas 220-223Juan Gustavo Núñez OlguínTravaglio, Marco, La scomparsa dei fatti. Milano, Collana Pamphlet, Il Sagiatore, 2006, 316 pp.Páginas 223-225Flavia PascarielloZertal, Idith; Eldar, Akiva, Lords of the Land: The War for Israeli´s Settlements in The Occupied Territories, 1967-2007. Nueva York, Nation Books, 2009, 531 pp.Páginas 225-227Javier Lión Bustillo

  6. A novel process for fabricating membrane-electrode assemblies with low platinum loading for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Shahram

    A novel method based on pulse current electrodeposition (PCE) employing four different waveforms was developed and utilized for fabricating membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) with low platinum loading for use in low-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells. It was found that both peak deposition current density and duty cycle control the nucleation rate and the growth of platinum crystallites. Based on the combination of parameters used in this study, the optimum conditions for PCE were found to be a peak deposition current density of 400 mA cm-2, a duty cycle of 4%, and a pulse generated and delivered in the microsecond range utilizing a ramp-down waveform. MEAs prepared by PCE using the ramp-down waveform show performance comparable with commercial MEAs that employ ten times the loading of platinum catalyst. The thickness of the pulse electrodeposited catalyst layer is about 5-7 mum, which is ten times thinner than that of commercial state-of-the-art electrodes. MEAs prepared by PCE outperformed commercial MEAs when subjected to a series of steady-state and transient lifetime tests. In steady-state lifetime tests, the average cell voltage over a 3000-h period at a constant current density of 619 mA cm-2 for the in-house and the state-of-the-art MEAs were 564 mV and 505 mV, respectively. In addition, the influence of substrate and carbon powder type, hydrophobic polymer content in the gas diffusion layer, microporous layer loading, and the through-plane gas permeability of different gas diffusion layers on fuel cell performance were investigated and optimized. Finally, two mathematical models based on the microhardness model developed by Molina et al. [J. Molina, B. A. Hoyos, Electrochim. Acta, 54 (2009) 1784-1790] and Milchev [A. Milchev, "Electrocrystallization: Fundamentals of Nucleation And Growth" 2002, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 189-215] were refined and further developed, one based on pure diffusion control and another based on joint diffusion

  7. Reseñas de Libros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Oviedo Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aróstegui, Julio; Saborido, Jorge, El tiempo presente. Un mundo globalmente desordenado. Buenos Aires, Eudeba, 2005, 172 pp.Páginas 215-218David Oviedo SilvaDíaz, Lorenzo, 50 Años de TVE. Madrid, Alianza Editorial, 2006, 414 pp.Páginas 219-220Virginia Martín JiménezFernández Alles, José Joaquín, Las relaciones intergubernamentales en el Derecho Constitucional Español. Cádiz, Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Cádiz-Fundación Centro de Estudios Constitucionales 1812, 2007, 338 pp.Páginas 220-224Marcela Iglesias OnofrioHernández Sandoica, Elena; Baldó Lacomba, Marc y Ruiz Carnicer, Miguel Ángel, Estudiantes contra Franco (1939-1975. Oposición política y movilización juvenil. Madrid. La Esfera de los libros, 2007, 512 pp.Páginas 224-226Gonzalo Ruiz BidónJeffreys-Jones, Rhodri, Historia de los servicios secretos norteamericanos. Barcelona, Paidós, 392 pp.Páginas 226-228David Molina RabadánMartín Casares, Aurelia, Antropología del género. Culturas, mitos y estereotipos sexuales. Madrid, Ediciones Cátedra, 2006, 344 pp.Páginas 228-230Lucía Benítez EyzaguirreOrtega y Gasset, José, Historia como sistema. Obras Completas de José Ortega y Gasset. Madrid, Taurus, 2004-.Páginas 230-232Alfonso Pinilla GarcíaProcacci, Giuliano, Historia general del siglo XX. Barcelona, Crítica, 2005, 636 pp.Páginas 232-233Jesús María Ramos PérezReinert, Erik S., La globalización de la pobreza. Cómo se enriquecieron los países ricos… y por qué los países pobres siguen siendo pobres. Barcelona, Crítica, 2007, 370 pp.Páginas 233-235David Molina RabadánSaid, Edward W., Representaciones del intelectual. Barcelona, Editorial Debate, 2007, 142 pp.Páginas 235-237Joaquín Piñeiro BlancaSaviano, Roberto, Gomorra: un viaje al imperio económico y al sueño de poder de la Camorra. Madrid, Editorial Debate, 2007, 324 pp.Páginas 237-238Flavia Pascariello

  8. Reseñas de Libros

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    José Francisco Tinao Martín-Peña

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Chomsky, Noam, Poder y Terror. Reflexiones posteriores al 11/09/2001. Barcelona, RBA, 2003, 155 pp.Páginas 133-135José Francisco Tinao Martín-PeñaCobo Romero, Francisco, Conflicto rural y violencia política. Jaén, Universidad de Jaén-Universidad de Granada, 1998, 381 pp.Páginas 135-137José Luis Gutiérrez MolinaColacrai, Miryam (ed., Relaciones Internacionales. Viejos temas, nuevos debates. Rosario, Centro de Estudios en Relaciones Internacionales de Rosario, 2001, 203 pp.Páginas 137-141David Molina RabadánCuenca Toribio, José Manuel, Historia y actualidad. Clío en la posada. Madrid, Actas, 2002, 402 pp.Páginas 141-143Alejandro Román AntequeraHardt, Michael; Negri, Antonio, Imperio. Barcelona, Paidós, 2002, 432 pp.Páginas 143-145Jesús Fernández GarcíaHowson, Gerald, Armas para España. La historia no contada de la Guerra Civil Española. Barcelona, Península, 2000, 450 pp.Páginas 145-148Roberto Germán Fandiño PérezKaku, Michio, Visiones: cómo la ciencia revolucionará la materia, la vida y la mente en el siglo XXI. Madrid, Debate, 1998, 484 pp.Páginas 148-150Rafael Gómez SánchezLemus López, Encarnación, En Hamelin... la Transición española más allá de la frontera. Oviedo, Septem Ediciones, 2001, 158 pp.Páginas 150-153Julio Pérez SerranoSalazar Vergara, Gabriel, Labradores, peones y proletarios. Formación y crisis de la sociedad popular chilena del siglo XIX. Santiago de Chile, LOM Ediciones, 2000, 3ª ed., 334 pp.Páginas 153-155Leonardo Mazzei de GraziaSantacreu Soler, José Miguel, Peseta y política: Historia de la peseta, 1868-2001. Barcelona, Ariel Historia, 2002, 196 pp.Página 155Joaquín Piñeiro Blanca

  9. Análise de metais pesados em amostras de Peumus boldus Mol. (Monimiaceae Analysis of heavy metals in samples of Peumus boldus Mol. (Monimiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Schwanz

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Oito amostras, provenientes do Brasil, Chile e Argentina, de Peumus boldus Molina (Monimiaceae, espécie comum e abundante no Chile, cujas folhas são amplamente empregadas pela medicina tradicional para o tratamento de uma variedade de afecções do sistema digestivo e hepatobiliar, foram analisadas, após digestão nítrica, para a quantificação de ferro, manganês, cobre, chumbo, cromo, cobalto e níquel, por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. Chumbo, cromo e cobalto não foram detectados (limite de detecção de 5 µg/g em nenhuma das amostras. Todas as amostras apresentaram maior teor em ferro, que variou de 109,7 mg/kg a 315,7 mg/kg, seguido por manganês (65,5 mg/kg a 158,8 mg/kg, cobre (3,04 mg/kg a 9,16 mg/kg e níquel (0,77 mg/kg a 4,31 mg/kg.Eight samples, obtained from Brazil, Chile and Argentina, of Peumus boldus Molina (Monimiaceae, an abundant and widespread native tree in Chile, which leaves are widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of digestive and hepatobiliary disorders, were analyzed, after nitric digestion, for the content of iron, manganese, copper, lead, chromium, cobalt and nickel, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Lead, chromium and cobalt were not detected (detection limit of 5 µg/g in any sample. The samples showed a high level of iron, which ranged from 109.7 mg/kg to 315.7 mg/kg, followed by manganese (65.5 mg/kg to 158.8 mg/kg, copper (3.04 mg/kg to 9.16 mg/kg and nickel (0.77 mg/kg to 4.31 mg/kg.

  10. Proposição métodos analíticos para tinturas-mãe e misturas: avaliação estatística Proposition of analytical methods for tinctures and mixtures: statistical valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Rubens Biancalana

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetiuo de propor métodos analíticos de tinturas-mãe e misturas utilizadas em preparações homeopáticas estudou-se a sua aplicabilidade a uma mistura em partes iguais de 10 (dez tinturas-mãe, das seguintes plantas: Archangelica offcinalis L.; Drymis granatensis L.; Mentha piperita L.; Peumus boldus Molina; Cassia medica; Cassia augustifolia Bahl; Maytenus ilicifolia Martius; Artemisia absin­thium L. e Coriandrum sativum L. todas de usp terapêutico comprovado(6,7,8,9,10, e preparadas a partir de padões, em períodos distintos, durante cinco anos consecutivos. Os valores estatísticos calculados permitiram estabelecer os seguintes limites para os métodos propostos: a Resíduo alcalino clorofórmico: entre 0,203 e 0,387%; b Resíduo de ácido clorídrico adicionado ao extrato clorofórmico:entre 0,016 e 0,072%; c Determinacdo de pll: entre 6,39 e 6,80; d Determinação da acidez total: entre 0,048 a 0,112%.To propose a new analytical methodology applied to homeopathy, and its consequent statistical valuation, the autors studied its applicability to a mixture of ten tinctures in equal parts of the following plants: Archangelica officinalis L; Matricaria chamomile L; Drymis granatensis L; Mentha piperita L; Peumus boldus Molina; Cassia medica; Cassia augustifolia Vahl; Maytenus ilicifolia Martius; Artemisa absinthium L. and Coriandrum sativum L. all of them with therapeutic activity proved (6,7,8,9,10 and prepared from standards, in distinct periods, during five consecutive years. The calculated statistical values permitted to establish the following limits form proposed methods: a chloroform alkaline residue: form 0.203 to 0.387%; b hydrochloride acid residue added to the chloroform extract: from 0.016 to 0.072%; c pH: 6.39 to 6.80; d Total acidity: from 0.048 to 0.112%.

  11. Variación anual de las propiedades insecticidas de Peumus boldus sobre Sitophilus zeamais Annual variation of insecticide properties of Peumus boldus on Sitophilus zeamais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Pérez

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la variación anual en las propiedades insecticidas de Peumus boldus Molina, en el control de Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, bajo condiciones de laboratorio. El polvo de hojas de P. boldus se evaluó durante 12 meses, en concentraciones de 0,5, 1 y 2% (p/p. Se evaluaron 36 tratamientos con tres repeticiones, en un diseño experimental completamente al azar, con un arreglo factorial. Se determinó el porcentaje de mortalidad y emergencia de insectos adultos e inmaduros y pérdida de peso y germinación del grano. La mayor mortalidad se obtuvo en los meses de agosto y septiembre de 2003, para las tres concentraciones con un 100%, mientras que la menor fue en mayo de 2003, cuando solo la concentración de 2% fue próxima a 100% de mortalidad. La menor emergencia de insectos adultos y pérdida de peso se obtuvieron en los mismos tratamientos. El efecto sobre estados inmaduros fue menor que contra adultos, y la germinación de los granos de maíz fue afectada por los polvos de P. boldus. Las propiedades insecticidas del polvo de hojas de P. boldus no son estables durante el año, Mayo es el mes con la menor eficacia insecticida, y la germinación de las semillas se ve afectada por el polvo.The objective of this work was to determine the annual variation of Peumus boldus Molina insecticidal properties for the control of Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, under laboratory conditions. The powder of P. boldus leaves was evaluated, during 12 months, in 0.5, 1, and 2% (w/w concentrations. Thirty-six treatments, with three replications, were evaluated in a completely randomized experimental design, with a factorial arrangement. Evaluations were made for adult and immature insect percentage mortality and emergence, grain weight loss and seed germination. The greatest mortality was obtained in August and September 2003, in the three concentrations with 100%, and the lowest mortality was registered in May 2003

  12. Porosity characterization of fresh and altered stones by ultrasound velocity and mercury intrusion porosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrivano, Simona; Gaggero, Laura; Gisbert Aguilar, Josep

    2016-04-01

    Porosity is the main physical feature dealing with rocks durability and storage capacity. The analysis of this parameter is key factor in predicting rock performances (Molina et al., 2011). There are several techniques that can be applied to acquire the widest information range possible about pores (e.g. size, shape, distribution), leading to a better understanding of decay processes and trapping capacity. The coupling of a detailed minero-petrographic analysis with physical measures such as ultrasounds and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) proved to be a valid tool for understanding the porous network and its evolution during weathering processes. Both fresh and salt-weathered samples were analysed to investigate the modification triggered in the porous network by crystallization. The ageing process was induced using a Na2SO4 saturated saline solution with the partial continuous immersion method (Benavente et al., 2001). The study was addressed to four sedimentary lithotypes: 1) Arenaria Macigno, a greywacke made up of thickened clasts of quartz, plagioclase and K-feldspar cemented by micritic calcite and phyllosilicates; 2) Breccia Aurora, a calcareous breccia with nodules of compact limestone and micritic cement joints; 3) Rosso Verona, a biomicrite where the compact bio-micrite matrix is cut by clay minerals veins; and 4) Vicenza Stone, an organogenic limestone rich in micro- and macro foraminifera, algae, bryozoans and remains of echinoderms, with iron oxides. An appropriate description of the porous network variation and recognition of the origin of secondary porosity was attained. The study defined that the pore shape and distribution (anisotropy coefficient K) has a fluctuation up to the 50% after weathering treatments and pore-size distribution (defined in a range between 0,0025 - 75 μm), allowing modelling the mechanisms of water transport and evaluating decay susceptibility of these lithotypes. Molina E, Cultrone G, Sebastián E, Alonso FJ, Carrizo L

  13. Desarrollo de cronologías de ancho de anillos para alerce (Fitzroya cupressoides en Contao y Mirador, Chile Development of tree-ring chronologies for alerce (Fitzroya Cupressoides in Contao and Mirador, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO NEIRA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrollaron dos cronologías de ancho de anillos de crecimiento a partir de muestras de alerce (Fitzroya cupressoides (Molina Johnston, colectadas en dos sitios: Contao, Cordillera de los Andes (41º 33'S, 72º 38'W, y Mirador, en la Cordillera de la Costa (40º 10'S, 73º 42'W. En la elaboración de las cronologías se utilizó el programa COFECHA para verificar el cofechado y se desarrolló para cada sitio una cronología utilizando el programa computacional ARSTAN. Se compararon las cronologías Contao y Mirador, con otras existentes para alerce encontrándose una alta similitud de la cronología Contao con la desarrollada para Lenca (41º 33'S, 72º 36' W. Contao presentó los valores más altos en los estadígrafos analizados con relación a las demás cronologías. Se observaron diferencias entre las cronologías provenientes de la Cordillera de la Costa y de los Andes en los últimos 150 años, probablemente producto de explotaciones humanas e incendios ocurridos en la cordillera de la Costa. La correlación con variables climáticas fue similar en su tendencia a la de otros estudios previos, documentando una correlación negativa con las temperaturas y positiva con las precipitaciones del verano anterior al período de crecimientoTwo ring-width chronologies were developed using samples from alerce (Fitzroya cupressoides (Molina Johnston. These were collected from two different sites; Contao, in the Andean Range and Mirador, in the Coastal Range. The series from the each site were cross-dated and COFECHA program was used to verify this process. Once correctly cross-dated, ARSTAN program was used to build up a chronology for each site (Contao and Mirador. These chronologies were compared with other existing chronologies. Contao presented the best statistics when compared to the other chronologies. Differences between chronologies from the Coastal and Andes Ranges were detected mainly during the last 150 years. Before this period

  14. "La gentileza de los desconocidos": Postmodernidad, caos y diálogo de sistemas discursivos "La gentileza de los desconocidos": Postmodernity, chaos and dialog of discursive systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Barraza

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available "La gentileza de los desconocidos", de Antonio Muñoz Molina, es un cuento que en principio desarrolla una subversión del género detectivesco a través de una inversión de los roles de sus personajes; mediante un desplazamiento del eje narrativo y por un cierre definido como un "antifinal". En este trabajo se sugiere que categorías de la teoría del caos, como efecto mariposa o atractor extraño, permiten interpretar no sólo la resolución del delito en este cuento sino que también en otros de este tipo. Asimismo, el relato presenta una yuxtaposición entre géneros literarios relativos a lo policial y al melodrama. Además, como estrategia narrativa, el discurso se presenta como un diálogo entre el relato escrito y el audiovisual (es decir, el lenguaje cinematográfico. Lo interesante es que dicha técnica narrativa, se manifiesta tanto en un nivel temático de la obra como en la estructura sintáctica de la historia."La gentileza de los desconocidos", by Antonio Muñoz Molina, is a short story that initially presents a subversion of the detective genre through an inversion of the roles of the characters, by a displacement of the narrative axis, and with an ending defined as an "anti-ending". I suggest that some categories of the Chaos Theory, such as the butterfly or the strange attractor effects, will permit the interpretation of the crime in this story as well as the analysis in other works. Likewise, the narration presents a juxtaposition between literary genres with respect to the detective story and the melodrama. Finally, as a discursive strategy, the text presents itself as a dialogue between written and audiovisual narrative. That is, cinematographic language. This technical strategy manifests itself in a thematic level within the story. A interesting aspect of this narrative technique is that it is evident not only at a thematic level but also within the syntactic structure of the story.

  15. Venezuela: calidad de las elecciones y calidad de la democracia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam KORNBLITH

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Partiendo de la afirmación de Levine y Molina (2006, según la cual la calidad de la democracia depende del funcionamiento de los procesos mediante los cuales la población selecciona y controla sus gobernantes, en este trabajo se examina el caso venezolano, haciendo especial énfasis en el análisis de la dinámica electoral del período marcado por la presidencia de Chávez (1999-2006. Dicho examen nos lleva a concluir que el régimen sociopolítico venezolano actual puede ser caracterizado más adecuadamente como un «régimen autoritario electoral», más que como una democracia representativa convencional. Los rasgos autoritarios del gobierno venezolano actual explicarían la baja puntuación obtenida por Venezuela en los índices de Freedom House. Sin embargo, este examen también nos lleva a considerar la pertinencia de los supuestos de la calidad de la democracia en el contexto de un cambio de régimen que explícitamente se aleja de las aspiraciones e ideales que sustentan el concepto, dimensiones e indicadores de la calidad de la democracia propuestos.ABSTRACT: Taking off from the affirmation by Levine and Molina that «the quality of democracy depends on the operation of procedures whereby the population selects and controls its government», this article examines the dynamics of elections during the Presidency of Chávez, (1999-2006. This examination leads to the conclusion that the current regime is better characterized as «an autoritarian electoral regime» than as a conventional representative democracy. This re-definition explains the low scores obtained by Venezuela both in Freedom House. At the same time, this study throws light on the bases of democracy and of definitions of quality of democracy in a regime that explicitly rejects the very ideals and aspirations that underlie the definitions, dimensions and indicators of democracy itself.

  16. Cytotaxonomy of the Ciconiiformes (Aves), with karyotypes of eight species new to cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, L E; van Brink, J M

    1982-01-01

    Somatic karyotypes of 13 species of ciconiiform birds, Phoenicopterus ruber chilensis, Phoeniconaias minor, Cochlearius cochlearius, Geronticus eremita, Threskiornis molucca, T. spinicollis, Balaeniceps rex, Ciconia ciconia, C. nigra, Euxenura maguari, Xenorhynchus asiaticus, Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis, and Leptoptilos crumeniferus are presented. The chromosomes of eight of these species are described in detail for the first time. Of special interest are a case of structural heterozygosity in a male B. rex and remarkably low diploid numbers in C. nigra (2n = ca 52) and L. crumeniferus (2n = ca 52). The karyological relationships of the ciconiiform families are discussed. The karyotypes of the Phoenicopteridae are identical to karyotypes found in various other bird orders. All members of the Ardeidae hitherto studied are characterized by a submetacentric third pair of macrochromosomes (subtelocentric in all other Ciconiiformes). All Threskiornithidae share a pair of acrocentric chromosomes resulting from a reciprocal translocation between a pair of microchromosomes and pair No. 1. Both the Ciconiidae and the Balaenicipitidae show the original structure of Nos. 1, 2 and 3, also found in the Phoenicopteridae and many other birds. In contrast to the Phoenicopteridae, however, both families share a relatively high number of medium-sized to small biarmed chromosomes with the Ardeidae and the Threskiornithidae. Several characteristics in this group of chromosomes separate Balaenicipitidae from Ciconiidae. PMID:7151490

  17. Highly repeated DNA sequences in birds: the structure and evolution of an abundant, tandemly repeated 190-bp DNA fragment in parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, C S; de Kloet, D H; Brooks, J E; de Kloet, S R

    1992-10-01

    Up to 6.8% of the parrot (Psittaciformes) genome consists of a tandemly repeated, 190-bp sequence (P1) located in the centromere of many if not all chromosomes. Monomer repeats from 10 different psittacine species representing four subfamilies were isolated and cloned. The intraspecific sequence variation ranged from 1.5 to 7%. The interspecific sequence variation ranged from less than 3% between two species of cockatoos to approximately 45% between cockatoos and other parrots. The monomer sequences of all 10 parrot species contained several conserved (> 90%) sequence elements at identical locations within the repeat. A comparison with tandemly repeated DNA sequences in other avian species showed that several of these conserved elements were also present at similar locations within the 184-bp repeat of the Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis), suggesting a great antiquity of the repeat. One of the elements was also found in the tandemly repeated sequences of the crane (Gruidae) and falcon (Falconidae) families. The data were used for the construction of a partial most parsimonious relationship that supports a regional subdivision of the Psittaciformes. PMID:1339392

  18. Correction of angular limb deformity in two subspecies of flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) utilizing a transphyseal bridging technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollinger, Tawnia J; Backues, Kay A; Burgos-Rodriguez, Armando G

    2005-12-01

    Three hand-raised American flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber ruber) chicks and one hand-raised Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber chilensis) developed valgus angular limb deformities of the proximal tarsometatarsal bone. All flamingos underwent surgical correction to unequally retard the growth plate using transphyseal bridging. Positive profile pins were placed in the proximal epiphysis and distal to the growth plate in the metaphysis on the convex side of the affected tarsometatarsus. Various banding techniques were used in each flamingo to create tension. Three of the four flamingos responded in 7-14 days with correction or slight overcorrection of the valgus limb deformity. The fourth flamingo's leg deformity did not improve for reasons thought to be related to improper implant placement. Growth plate retardation by transphyseal bridging proved successful in correcting valgus limb deformity of the proximal tarsometatarsus. This technique may be considered as an option for correction of angular limb deformities of the proximal tarsometatarsus in flamingos less than 90-120 days of age. PMID:17312728

  19. (+-Podocarpic Acid as Chiral Template in the Synthesis of Aphidicolane, Stemodane and Stemarane Diterpenoids †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela La Bella

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this review the synthetic work in the field of aphidicolane, stemodane and stemarane diterpenoids, in which readily available (+-podocarpic acid (4 was used as chiral template for the construction of their polycyclic structures, is described as it developed along the years. In the frame of this work (+-podocarpic acid (4 was a very useful tool in a model study leading to the syntheses of tetracyclic ketones 7 and 8, models of key intermediates 5a and 6 in the syntheses of (+-aphidicolin (1 and (+-stemodin (2a, respectively. (+-Podocarpic acid (4 was also converted into (+-2-deoxystemodinone (2d, allowing confirmation of the stemodane diterpenoids absolute configuration, into (+-aphidicol-15-ene (36 and into Stemodia chilensis tetracyclic diterpenoid (+-19-acetoxystemodan-12-ol (2f, allowing confirmation of its structure. (+-Podocarpic acid (4 was then extensively used in the work which led to the synthesis of (+-stemar-13-ene (57 and (+-18-deoxystemarin (3b. Finally, (+-4 was converted into (+-2-deoxyoryzalexin S (66, which made it possible to demonstrate that the structure of (+-66 could not be attributed to a Chilean Calceolaria isolated diterpenoid to which this structure had been assigned.

  20. (+)-Podocarpic Acid as Chiral Template in the Synthesis of Aphidicolane, Stemodane and Stemarane Diterpenoids †.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Bella, Angela; Leonelli, Francesca; Migneco, Luisa Maria; Marini Bettolo, Rinaldo

    2016-01-01

    In this review the synthetic work in the field of aphidicolane, stemodane and stemarane diterpenoids, in which readily available (+)-podocarpic acid (4) was used as chiral template for the construction of their polycyclic structures, is described as it developed along the years. In the frame of this work (+)-podocarpic acid (4) was a very useful tool in a model study leading to the syntheses of tetracyclic ketones 7 and 8, models of key intermediates 5a and 6 in the syntheses of (+)-aphidicolin (1) and (+)-stemodin (2a), respectively. (+)-Podocarpic acid (4) was also converted into (+)-2-deoxystemodinone (2d), allowing confirmation of the stemodane diterpenoids absolute configuration, into (+)-aphidicol-15-ene (36) and into Stemodia chilensis tetracyclic diterpenoid (+)-19-acetoxystemodan-12-ol (2f), allowing confirmation of its structure. (+)-Podocarpic acid (4) was then extensively used in the work which led to the synthesis of (+)-stemar-13-ene (57) and (+)-18-deoxystemarin (3b). Finally, (+)-4 was converted into (+)-2-deoxyoryzalexin S (66), which made it possible to demonstrate that the structure of (+)-66 could not be attributed to a Chilean Calceolaria isolated diterpenoid to which this structure had been assigned. PMID:27617995

  1. Authentication of Punica granatum L.: Development of SCAR markers for the detection of 10 fruits potentially used in economically motivated adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marieschi, Matteo; Torelli, Anna; Beghé, Deborah; Bruni, Renato

    2016-07-01

    The large commercial success of pomegranate increase the likelihood of economically motivated adulteration (EMA), which has been gradually spotted with the undeclared addition of anthocyanin-rich plants or cheaper fruit juices used as bulking and diluting agents. A method based on Sequence-Characterized Amplified Regions (SCARs) was developed to detect the presence of Aristotelia chilensis, Aronia melanocarpa, Dioscorea alata, Euterpe oleracea, Malus×domestica, Morus nigra, Sambucus nigra, Vaccinium macrocarpon, Vaccinium myrtillus, Vitis vinifera as bulking agents in Punica granatum. The method enabled the unequivocal detection of up to 1% of each adulterant, allowing the preemptive rejection of suspect samples. The recourse to such method may reduce the number of samples to be subjected to further phytochemical analyses when multiple batches have to be evaluated in a short time. Vice versa, it allows the cross-check of suspect batches previously tested only for their anthocyanin profile. The dimension of the amplicons is suitable for the analysis of degraded DNA obtained from stored and processed commercial material. Proper SCAR markers may represent a fast, sensitive, reliable and low-cost screening method for the authentication of processed commercial pomegranate material. PMID:26920316

  2. Landscape Influences on Fisher Success: Adaptation Strategies in Closed and Open Access Fisheries in Southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Van Holt

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Determinants of fisher success in southern Chile's loco (Concholepas concholepas fishery are examined by comparing fisher success in exclusive access territories that vary in relationship to tree-plantation development, which can affect shellfish quality. The relative importance of fishers' experience and capture technology (traditional measures of fisher success are evaluated against environmental and geospatial characteristics. While knowledge and technology explained variation in catches, this did not translate into higher prices or profit. Fishers succeeded (gained higher prices for locos and had higher monthly incomes from their management areas when they harvested shellfish from closed (exclusive nearshore management areas where the environmental condition produced high quality locos regardless of their fishing experience, technology, and the geospatial features of management areas. Experienced fishers who worked in management areas near tree plantations that fail to produce resources of sufficient quality shifted to offshore fisheries where their experience counted. Offshore fishers working in the congrio (Genypterus chilensis fishery likely exposed themselves to more risk and benefited from their experience and available technology; environmental condition and geospatial factors played little role in their success (price. Closed management areas provided resources to harvest, but may reduce a fisher's ability to adapt to environmental change because success depends on environmental factors outside of a fisher's control. Fishers were not financially rewarded for their experience or their technology in the loco fishery.

  3. [Nutritive value of shellfish consumed in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, N; Vera, G; Araya, H

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the protein quality and digestibility of shellfish commonly consumed in Chile, and to estimate its contribution to the protein needs of the Chilean population. The shellfish studied were chorito (Mytilus edulis chilensis), macha (Mesodesma donacium), loco (Concholepas concholepas), cholga (Aulacomya ater), erizo (Loxechinus albus) and almeja (no specific variety). The NPU method was used to determine protein quality. The percentage of protein adequacy for adult rations was calculated according to FAO/WHO 1973. The contribution of shellfish to the protein availability according to the family income of the Santiago population, was also calculated. Most of the shellfish presented NPU values of about 70; the lowest values were found for loco (54.9) and macha (63.3). The apparent and true digestibility gave an average of 83.6 and 90.4, respectively. The percentage of protein adequacy of habitual rations ranged between 27% (erizo) and 58% (loco). The availability of shellfish protein in relation to total protein increased from 0.4 to 2.5% when income increased. It is concluded therefore, that shellfish protein is, in general, of good quality. Nevertheless, it might be considered of poor influence insofar as fulfilling the protein needs of the population studied, whatever its socioeconomic level. PMID:3834878

  4. Diplodon shells from Northwest Patagonia as continental proxy archives: Oxygen isotopic results and sclerochronological analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldati, A. L.; Beierlein, L.; Jacob, D. E.

    2009-04-01

    Freshwater mussels of the genus Diplodon (Bivalvia, Hyriidae) are the most abundant bivalve (today and in the past) in freshwater bodies at both sides of the South-Andean Cordillera. There are about 25 different Diplodon genera in Argentina and Chile that could be assigned almost completely to the species Diplodon chilensis (Gray, 1828) and two subspecies: D. ch. chilensis and D. ch. patagonicus; this latter species is found in Argentina between Mendoza (32˚ 52' S; 68˚ 51' W) and Chubut (45˚ 51' S; 67˚ 28' W), including the lakes and rivers of the target area, the Nahuel Huapi National Park (Castellanos, 1960). Despite their wide geographic distribution, Diplodon species have only rarely been used as climate archives in the southern hemisphere. Kaandorp et al. (2005) demonstrated for Diplodon longulus (Conrad 1874) collected from the Peruvian Amazonas that oxygen isotopic patterns in the shells could be used in order to reconstruct the precipitation regime and dry/wet seasonal of the monsoonal system in Amazonia. Although this study demonstrated the potential of Diplodon in climatological and ecological reconstructions in the southern hemisphere, as of yet, no systematic study of Diplodon as a multi-proxy archive has been undertaken for the Patagonian region. In this work we present sclerochronological analyses supported by ^18Oshell in recent mussel of Diplodon chilensis patagonicus (D'Orbigny, 1835) collected at Laguna El Trébol (42°S-71°W, Patagonia Argentina), one of the best studied water bodies in the region for paleoclimate analysis. Water temperature was measured every six hours for one year using a temperature sensor (Starmon mini®) placed at 5m depth in the lake, close to a mussel bank. Additionally, ^18Owater was measured monthly for the same time range.g^18Oshell values obtained by micro-milling at high spatial resolution in the growth increments of three Diplodon shells were compared to these records, and to air temperature and

  5. Novel maqui liquor using traditional pacharán processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Calín-Sánchez, Angel; Moreno, Diego A; Carbonell-Barrachina, Angel A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2015-04-15

    Pacharán is an aniseed liquor-based beverage made with sloe berry (Prunus spinosa L.), that has been historically produced in Navarra (Northern Spain). On the other hand, Chilean native maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) now under increasing study because of its potential health benefits, is not widely known. The aim of this work was to design a new aniseed liquor-based beverage with maqui berry (MBL), characterising its bioactive and volatile composition, antioxidant capacity, sensory quality, and compare it to traditional pacharán (SBP). The results showed that MBL had attractive colour, exhibited higher anthocyanin content and retention during maceration, higher antioxidant capacity, presented similar aroma profile and showed optimal sensory characteristics. Therefore, MBL can be an acceptable new liquor, with better quality characteristics and higher anthocyanin content and retention than pacharán, as well as with great scores in sensory analysis and consumer acceptance, offering a new and tasty beverage for future liquor manufacturing. PMID:25466148

  6. Herbivores modify selection on plant functional traits in a temperate rainforest understory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Luarte, Cristian; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2012-08-01

    There is limited evidence regarding the adaptive value of plant functional traits in contrasting light environments. It has been suggested that changes in these traits in response to light availability can increase herbivore susceptibility. We tested the adaptive value of plant functional traits linked with carbon gain in contrasting light environments and also evaluated whether herbivores can modify selection on these traits in each light environment. In a temperate rainforest, we examined phenotypic selection on functional traits in seedlings of the pioneer tree Aristotelia chilensis growing in sun (canopy gap) and shade (forest understory) and subjected to either natural herbivory or herbivore exclusion. We found differential selection on functional traits depending on light environment. In sun, there was positive directional selection on photosynthetic rate and relative growth rate (RGR), indicating that selection favors competitive ability in a high-resource environment. Seedlings with high specific leaf area (SLA) and intermediate RGR were selected in shade, suggesting that light capture and conservative resource use are favored in the understory. Herbivores reduced the strength of positive directional selection acting on SLA in shade. We provide the first demonstration that natural herbivory rates can change the strength of selection on plant ecophysiological traits, that is, attributes whose main function is resource uptake. Research addressing the evolution of shade tolerance should incorporate the selective role of herbivores. PMID:22766937

  7. Trace metal content in sediments and autochthonous intertidal organisms from two adjacent bays near Ushuaia, Beagle Channel (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Claudia Alejandra; Giarratano, Erica; Gil, Mónica N

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this work was to monitor levels of Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn and Fe in sediments, mussels (Mytilus edulis chilensis) and limpets (Nacella magellanica) from the Industrial zone (IZ); fuel dock (FD) and Ushuaia Peninsula (UP) on the Beagle Channel. In sediments, seasonal variations showed high values of Cu and Pb in spring and Zn in autumn. Comparing among sites, Cd concentration was superior in UP (2.07 μg/g); while Pb was maximum in FD (41.00 μg/g). In mussels, a higher bioaccumulation in winter was found. Mussels from UP showed the highest bioaccumulation of Cu (5.95 μg/g) and those from FD presented the highest of Zn (170.15 μg/g). A seasonal trend was not found for limpets, while differences among sites were observed for Cd being the highest at IZ (3.02 μg/g). Although pollution level found was low, anthropic activities at the studied sites could result in deterioration, further monitoring is recommended. PMID:22681905

  8. Polynuclear aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons in mussels from the coastal zone of Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Oscar A; Comoglio, Laura I; Sericano, José L

    2011-03-01

    Mussels (Mytilus edulis chilensis) were collected from 12 coastal locations in Ushuaia Bay, Argentina, and the surrounding area in October 1999 and again in October 2003. Concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and selected chlorinated pesticides were determined to assess the impact of a fast-growing population in the area. Total PAH concentrations ranged from 2.24 to an extremely high concentration of 2,420 µg/g lipid measured in mussels collected near an oil jetty used to discharge to shore storage tanks. The composition of PAHs in these samples indicates that the source of these compounds inside Ushuaia Bay is predominantly petrogenic, with some pyrogenic background, whereas mostly pyrogenic-related PAHs were evident in areas outside the bay. Total concentrations of PCBs ranged between 12.8 and 8,210 ng/g lipid, with the highest concentration, detected inside Ushuaia harbor, representing a 10-fold increase when compared with historical data. Chlorinated pesticides were detected at comparatively lower concentrations, with 4-4'- 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene being the most common. The aggressive increase in population and related activities observed in the city of Ushuaia over the last two decades might have affected the environmental quality of the local bay. Moreover, the oceanographic and atmospheric conditions existing in Ushuaia Bay and surrounding areas may favor the accumulation and long-term presence of these organic pollutants in all compartments of this fragile environment. PMID:21128271

  9. The shallow-water chitons (Mollusca, Polyplacophora of Caldera, Region of Atacama, northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Araya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Molluscan species of the northern littoral of Chile have been sparsely studied. This work reviews for the first time the diversity of polyplacophoran molluscs around the port of Caldera, in the Region of Atacama (26°45’49”S; 70°45’17”W to 27°20’23”S; 70°56’46”W, northern Chile. Eleven species were found in this study: Acanthopleura echinata (Barnes, 1824; Callistochiton pulchellus (Gray, 1828; Calloplax vivipara (Plate, 1899, Chaetopleura peruviana (Lamarck, 1819; Chiton cumingsii Frembly, 1827; Chiton granosus Frembly, 1827; Chiton magnificus Deshayes, 1827; Enoplochiton niger (Barnes, 1824, Radsia barnesii (Gray, 1828, Tonicia atrata (G. B. Sowerby II, 1840 and Tonicia chilensis (Frembly, 1827. All of the species occurring in the area have distributions in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, from Ecuador to central Chile, and three of them are species endemic to the Chilean coasts (Calloplax vivipara, Radsia barnesii, and Tonicia atrata. This diversity of species is comparable to that of better surveyed faunas of central and southern Chile or Patagonia. Of the eleven species recorded, the geographic distribution records for Callistochiton pulchellus, Radsia barnesii and Tonicia atrata are extended, and Calloplax vivipara is found alive again after 40 years, filling a gap in its known distribution. Illustrations of living specimens in their habitat, distribution records and a taxonomic key for all the studied taxa are also provided.

  10. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes cf. neuquenensis and Ixodes sigelos ticks from the Patagonian region of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Patrick S; Bottero, Maria Noelia Saracho; Carvalho, Luis; Mackenstedt, Ute; Lareschi, Marcela; Venzal, José M; Nava, Santiago

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to detect Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection in ixodid ticks from the Patagonia region in the south of Argentina. Therefore, ticks were collected on rodents in the provinces of Chubut, Río Negro and Santa Cruz. These ticks were identified as nymphs of Ixodes cf. neuquenensis and Ixodes sigelos. The B. burgdorferi s.l. infection was tested by a battery of PCR methods targeting the gene flagellin (fla) and the rrfA-rrlB intergenic spacer region (IGS). Three pools of I. sigelos nymphs from Chubut and Santa Cruz provinces as well as one pool of I. cf. neuquenensis nymphs from Río Negro province were tested positive in the fla-PCR. The samples of I. sigelos were also positive for the IGS-PCR. Phylogenetically, the haplotypes found in the positive ticks belong to the B. burgdorferi s.l. complex, and they were closely related to Borrelia chilensis, a genospecies isolated from Ixodes stilesi in Chile. The pathogenic relevance of the Borrelia genospecies detected in both I. neuquenensis and I. sigelos is unknown. PMID:27372197

  11. High quality RNA extraction from Maqui berry for its application in next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Carolina; Villacreses, Javier; Blanc, Noelle; Espinoza, Loreto; Martinez, Camila; Pastor, Gabriela; Manque, Patricio; Undurraga, Soledad F; Polanco, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) is a native Chilean species that produces berries that are exceptionally rich in anthocyanins and natural antioxidants. These natural compounds provide an array of health benefits for humans, making them very desirable in a fruit. At the same time, these substances also interfere with nucleic acid preparations, making RNA extraction from Maqui berry a major challenge. Our group established a method for RNA extraction of Maqui berry with a high quality RNA (good purity, good integrity and higher yield). This procedure is based on the adapted CTAB method using high concentrations of PVP (4 %) and β-mercaptoethanol (4 %) and spermidine in the extraction buffer. These reagents help to remove contaminants such as polysaccharides, proteins, phenols and also prevent the oxidation of phenolic compounds. The high quality of RNA isolated through this method allowed its uses with success in molecular applications for this endemic Chilean fruit, such as differential expression analysis of RNA-Seq data using next generation sequencing (NGS). Furthermore, we consider that our method could potentially be used for other plant species with extremely high levels of antioxidants and anthocyanins. PMID:27536526

  12. Análises morfométricas de quatro espécies de Scolelepis (Annelida: Spionidae no litoral do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo B. Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Características morfológicas de quatro espécies de Scolelepis De Blainville, 1828 foram analisadas utilizando-se análise morfométrica com o ojetivo foi avaliar se essas espécies podem ser discriminadas através da utilização de dados morfométricos. Além disso, foram fornecidos novos caracteres que possam ser utilizados para uma reavaliação da taxonomia do gênero. A análise baseada nas variáveis canônicas revelou que S. chilensis, S. goodbodyi e S. squamata são mais similares entre si, quanto a forma, do que com S. acuta. Os caracteres mais significativos para a discriminação das quatro espécies foram o comprimento da brânquia, o comprimento da base do palpo até o vigésimo setígero, o comprimento e a largura do prostômio e a largura e o comprimento do setígero 5 e 20. Destes, destacam-se o formato das brânquias e do prostômio, pois vem sendo utilizados como caracteres diagnósticos em estudos taxonômicos do gênero.

  13. RAPD and microsatellite transferability studies in selected species of Prosopis (section Algarobia) with emphasis on Prosopis juliflora and P. pallida

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Minu Sherry; Steve Smith; Ashok Patel; Phil Harris; Paul Hand; Liz Trenchard; Janey Henderson

    2011-08-01

    The genus Prosopis (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae), comprises 44 species widely distributed in arid and semi-arid zones. Prosopis pallida (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Kunth and P. juliflora (Sw.) DC. are the two species that are truly tropical apart from P. africana, which is native to tropical Africa (Pasiecznik et al. 2004), and they have been introduced widely beyond their native ranges. However, taxonomic confusion within the genus has hampered exploitation and better management of the species. The present study focusses primarily on evaluating the genetic relationship between Prosopis species from the section Algarobia, containing most species of economic importance, though P. tamarugo from section Strombocarpa is also included for comparison. In total, 12 Prosopis species and a putative P. pallida × P. chilensis hybrid were assessed for their genetic relationships based on RAPD markers and microsatellite transferability. The results show that P. pallida and P. juliflora are not closely related despite some morphological similarity. Evidence also agrees with previous studies which suggest that the grouping of series in section Algarobia is artificial.

  14. Diversidad de musgos en ambientes degradados sujetos a restauración en el Parque Nacional Lago Puelo (Chubut, Argentina Moss diversity in degraded environments under restoring in the Lago Puelo National Park (Chubut, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA E ROVERE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La restauración ecológica es una disciplina que intenta recuperar atributos perdidos en un ecosistema (diversidad de especies, estructura y función. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la diversidad de musgos y sus formas de vida en tres ambientes con diferentes niveles de degradación y los sustratos en los que estos se desarrollan. El área de estudio corresponde a un sector que se está restaurando dentro de la Reserva Nacional Lago Puelo. En ella se encuentran tres ambientes distintos: (1 área remanente de bosque maduro de Nothofagus dombeyi, (2 bosque secundario de Austrocedrus chilensis, y (3 matorral dominado por especies exóticas. Se recorrió cada uno de los ambientes, registrando los sustratos con musgos, formas de vida y géneros. Los resultados evidencian una reducción de los sustratos disponibles y de las especies presentes conforme avanza el grado de alteración, desde el área de bosque maduro de N. dombeyi (9 sustratos: 17 géneros: 7 formas de vida, al sector de bosque secundario de A. chilensis (6 sustratos: 8 géneros: 5 formas de vida, siendo menor en el matorral dominado por especies exóticas (1 sustrato: 4 géneros: 3 formas de vida. Los musgos desempeñan funciones importantes en los ecosistemas, son fundamentales en el balance hídrico, pioneros en suelos inestables controlando la erosión y colonizando sitios alterados, sirven como hábitat y alimento para invertebrados, y también constituyen sitios propicios para la germinación de plantas vasculares. Si bien algunas especies leñosas ven afectada su germinación por la presencia de musgos, estos facilitan la germinación de otras especies arbóreas de los bosques templados. Los resultados podrían ser utilizados en restauración, ya sea recreando los sustratos ausentes o realizando traslado de sustratos con musgos, a fin de favorecer la recuperación de áreas boscosas degradadas considerando la biodiversidad original.Ecological restoration is a discipline

  15. Nitrogen fixation in four dryland tree species in central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented from a 5-year experiment using 15N-enriched fertilizer to determine N2 fixation in four tree species on degraded soils in a Mediterranean-climate region of central Chile in which there are 5 months of drought. Species tested included three slow-growing but long-lived savannah trees native to southers South America, (acacia caven, Prosopic alba and P. chilensis; Mimosoideae), and Tagasaste (Chamaecytisus proliferus ssp. palmensis; Papilonoideae), a fast-growing but medium-lived tree from the Canary Islands. Tagasaste produced four- to twenty-fold more biomass than the other species, but showed declining N2 fixation and biomass accumulation during the 5th year, corresponding to the juvenile-to-adult developmental transition. Nitrogen content was significantly higher in Tagasaste and Acacia caven than in the other species. The data revealed inter-specific differences in resource allocation and phenology of N2 fixation rarely detailed for woody plants in dryland regions. (author)

  16. Taxonomic review of the species of Helina R.-D. (Diptera: Muscidae) from Andean-Patagonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Mariluis, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Helina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 is the second genus of Muscidae in terms of richness. This genus includes several species collected at high altitudes and high latitudes, and is poorly studied in the Neotropical region. Only 12 species of Helina have been recorded in the southern limit of South America in the Andean-Patagonian forests. In the present work, we studied all the species known from the Andean-Patagonian forests, with the exception of H. viola Malloch, 1934, present three new species, H. araucana sp. nov., H. dorada sp. nov., and H. ouina sp. nov., and provide the first description of the females of H. australis Carvalho & Pont, 1993 and H. rufoapicata Malloch, 1934. We also propose four new synonymies: H. nigrimana basilaris (Carvalho & Pont, 1993) and H. nigrimana grisea (Malloch, 1934) as new junior synonyms of H. nigrimana (Macquart, 1851); and H. fulvocalyptrata Malloch, 1934 and H. simplex Malloch, 1934 as new junior synonyms of H. chilensis Malloch, 1934. Finally, we provide a generic diagnosis and a new key for the Helina species of the Andean-Patagonian forests, as well as notes on the biology and distribution maps of each specimen, and discuss a preliminary contruction of groups of species. PMID:27515658

  17. Ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Acuña, Daniel; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2005-01-01

    The tick species recorded from Chile can be listed under the following headings: (1) endemic or established: Argas keiransi Estrada-Peña, Venzal and Gonzalez-Acuña, A. neghmei Kohls and Hoogstraal; Ornithodoros amblus Chamberlin; Otobius megnini (Dugès); Amblyomma parvitarsum Neumann; A. tigrinum Koch; Ixodes auritulus Neumann; I. chilensis Kohls; I. cornuae Arthur, I. sigelos Keirans, Clifford and Corwin; I. stilesi Neumann; I. uriae White; Rhipicephalus sanguineus Koch. (2) Probably established or endemic: Argas miniatus Koch; Ornithodoros spheniscus Hoogstraal, Wassef, Hays and Keirans; Ixodes abrocomae Lahille; I. neuquenensis Ringuelet; I. pararicinus Keirans and Clifford. (3) Doubtfully established: Argas reflexus Fabricius; Ornithodoros talaje (Guérin-Méneville). (4) Exotic: Amblyomma argentinae Neumann; A. latum Koch, Rhipicephalus (= Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini). (5) Erroneously identified as present in Chile: Amblyomma americanum (Linnaeus); A. maculatum Koch; A. varium Koch; Ixodes conepati Cooley and Kohls; I. frontalis (Panzer); I. ricinus (Linnaeus); Margaropus winthemi Karsch. (6) Nomina nuda: Argas reticulatus Gervais; Amblyomma inflatum Neumann; Ixodes lagotis Gervais. Hosts and localities (including new records) are presented. Argas neghmei, O. amblus, O. megnini, I. uriae and R. sanguineus may cause severe injury to their hosts, including humans. The Chilean Ixodes fauna is unique to the Neotropical Zoogeographic Region, and additional research is needed in order to understand the biological importance of these species. PMID:15777007

  18. Antimicrobial screening of ethnobotanically important stem bark of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The stem barks are the rich sources of tannins and other phenolic compounds. Tannins inhibited the growth of various fungi, yeast, bacteria and virus. Hence, ten stem barks of ethnomedicinally important plants were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities against human pathogenic strains. Methods: Air-dried and powdered stem bark of each plant was extracted with 50% aqueous ethanol, lyophilized and the dried crude extracts were used for the screening against 11 bacteria and 8 fungi. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were performed according to microdilution methods by NCCLS. Results: The plants Prosopis chilensis, Pithecellobium dulce, Mangifera indica showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities against Streptococcus pneumonia, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia and Candida albicans with MIC of 0.08mg/ml. Pithecellobium dulce bark also showed significant antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus. Conclusion: The bark of Pithecellobium dulce has more or less similar activity against the known antibiotic and may be considered as potent antimicrobial agent for various infectious diseases.

  19. Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Calvopiña

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy-makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme.

  20. Revision of the South American wasp genus Alophophion Cushman, 1947 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Ophioninae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Alvarado

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The species of the strictly Neotropical ophionine wasp genus Alophophion Cushman, 1947 are revised. New descriptions of all previously named species are provided, except Alophophion holosericeus (Taschenberg, 1875 for which the type series is lost and the name is herein considered a nomen dubium. The female of A. flavorufus (Brullé, 1846 is described for the first time. Four informal species groups are proposed based on the morphology of the mandibles, development of the malar space, and general proportions of the head (i.e., development of the face and gena. Whereas the genus previously included only seven named species, it is here expanded to include 49 species (not including the aforementioned nomen dubium, 43 of which are newly discovered and described and thereby increasing the diversity by over eight times. A key to the four species groups and their included taxa is provided. Alophophion is confined to cold and/or dry areas of subequatorial South America, with the exception of A. mancocapaci new species and A. pedroi new species which occur incloud forests around Cuzco, Peru. The genus is newly recorded from Bolivia and Ecuador, and more extensive and accurate distributions are summarized for A. chilensis, A. flavorufus, and A. politus. Alophophion flavorufus is newly recorded from Argentina.Traduce

  1. Maeda-Dadhich solutions as real black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeyev, S. O.; Petrov, A. N.; Latosh, B. N.

    2015-11-01

    Four-dimensional static Schwarzschild-like solutions obtained in [H. Maeda and N. Dadhich, Phys. Rev. D 74, 021501(R) (2006).H. Maeda and N. Dadhich, Phys. Rev. D 75, 044007 (2007).N. Dadhich and H. Maeda, Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 17, 513 (2008).A. Molina and N. Dadhich, Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 18, 599 (2009).] in the frames of the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity at the Kaluza-Klein split are analyzed. In such models matter is created by auxiliary dimensions. The main goal of our work is to check that these solutions are physically sensible, and to examine their characteristics, which could be observable. A noncontradictive definition of a total mass (energy) is given. Study of the perturbed equations demonstrates a possibility of their stability under linear perturbations. Depending on the combination of the parameters, black hole-like objects with one or two horizons or naked singularity are described in detail. Stable orbits of test particles around these black holes are presented. We show the exotic thermodynamical properties of the solution, in which the Hawking evaporation law has the behavior opposite to the usual one in general relativity. Unfortunately, current astronomical data do not allow one to distinguish special observable evidences, which we find for the solutions under consideration, from usual Schwarzschild ones.

  2. Ocorrência de Dioctophyma renale em Galictis cuja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marivone V. Zabott

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A dioctofimose é uma parasitose causada pelo Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1782 de ocorrência mundial e acomete animais domésticos e silvestres. Em março de 2010, um exemplar adulto (macho de Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782, encontrado morto por atropelamento no município de Guaíra, Paraná foi encaminhado ao laboratório de Patologia Veterinária de Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR, Campus Palotina, para a realização da necropsia. O cadáver apresentava bom estado nutricional e autólise moderada. Foram observados três exemplares de parasitos na cavidade abdominal, mas os rins encontravam-se preservados. Os parasitos foram fixados em formol acético e encaminhados ao laboratório de Parasitologia Veterinária da UFPR para identificação. Os exemplares coletados foram identificados como Dioctophyma renale, sendo duas fêmeas, uma com 39cm de comprimento por 4mm de largura e a outra com 16cm de comprimento por 4mm de largura e, um macho com 16cm de comprimento por 3mm de largura. O presente trabalho relata a ocorrência de parasitismo por D. renale em G. cuja na região oeste do estado do Paraná.

  3. PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL PROFILE OF LAGENARIA SICERARIA: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Tyagi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbitaceae family is major source of medicinal agents since ancient time. Various plants parts including fruits of this family have been established for their pharmacological potential. Lagenaria siceraria (Molina standley (family Cucurbitaceae commonly known as lauki (Hindi and bottle gourd (English is a medicinal plant. It is used as medicine in India, China, European countries, Brazil, Hawaiian island, etc. for its cardiotonic, general tonic and diuretic properties. Further the antihepatotoxic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory, hypolipidemic, antihyperglycemic, immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities of its fruit extract have been evaluated. It is used as vermifuge purgative diuretic and it is also recommended for increasing lactation for lactating women..Fruits are also used in treatment of cancer, pain, ulcer, fever, pectoral cough, asthma and other bronchial disorders. In many countries, this plant has been used traditionally as a single treatment for diabetes mellitus possess immunosuppressive, antitumour, antiviral, antiproliferative and anti-HIV activities. This study is an attempt to compile an up-to-date and comprehensive review of Lagenaria siceraria that covers its traditional and folk medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology profile.

  4. Low immunogenicity in non-small cell lung cancer; do new developments and novel treatments have a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, R E; Jahangeer, S; Forde, P; Ariffin, A B; Bird, B; Soden, D; Hinchion, J

    2015-03-01

    Approximately 1.6 million new cases of lung cancer are diagnosed annually (Jemal et al. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 61, 69-90, 2011) and it remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Despite decades of bench and clinical research to attempt to improve outcome for locally advanced, good performance status patients, the 5-year survival remains less than 15 % (Molina et al. 2008). Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICH) therapies have shown a significant promise in preclinical and clinical trails to date in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The idea of combining these systemic immune therapies with local ablative techniques is one that is gaining momentum. Electrochemotherapy (ECT) is a unique atraumatic local therapy that has had very promising objective response rates and a number of advantages including but not limited to its immunostimulatory effects. ECT in combination with ICHs offers a novel approach for dealing with this difficult disease process. PMID:25726003

  5. High Time Resolution Measurements of Methane Fluxes From Enteric Fermentation in Cattle Rumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floerchinger, C. R.; Herndon, S.; Fortner, E.; Roscioli, J. R.; Kolb, C. E.; Knighton, W. B.; Molina, L. T.; Zavala, M.; Castelán, O.; Ku Vera, J.; Castillo, E.

    2013-12-01

    Methane accounts for roughly 20% of the global radiative climate forcing in the last two and a half centuries. Methane emissions arise from a number of anthropogenic and biogenic sources. In some areas enteric fermentation in livestock produces over 90% of agricultural methane. In the spring of 2013, as a part of the Short Lived Climate Forcer-Mexico field campaign, the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory in partnership with the Molina Center for the Environment studied methane production associated with enteric fermentation in the rumen of cattle. A variety of different breeds and stocks being raised in two agricultural and veterinary research facilities located in different areas of Mexico were examined. Methane fluxes were quantified using two methods: 1) an atmospherically stable gaseous tracer release was collocated with small herds in a pasture, allowing tracer ratio flux measurements; 2) respiratory CO2 was measured in tandem with methane in the breath of individual animals allowing methane production to be related to metabolism. The use of an extensive suite of very high time response instruments allows for differentiation of individual methane producing rumination events and respiratory CO2 from possible background interferences. The results of these studies will be presented and compared to data from traditional chamber experiments.

  6. Exposure of tilapia pituitary cells to saponins: insight into their mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levavi-Sivan, Berta; Hedvat, Rachel; Kanias, Tamir; Francis, George; Becker, Klaus; Kerem, Zohar

    2005-01-01

    Cell permeation and durable effects of triterpenoidal saponin preparations from soybean (SbS), Quillaja saponaria Molina (QsS) and Gypsophila paniculata (GypS), were studied. A concentration-dependent change in hemolysis rates was observed when cells were incubated with QsS or GypS, but not with SbS. Dose dependence was also observed for the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; MW 142,000) and of Luteinizing Hormone (LH; MW 35,000) from tilapia pituitary dispersed cells. Exposure of pituitary fragments to a combination of GnRH and GypS or QsS, resulted in a significantly high release of LH. GypS were shown to be more potent in inducing hemolysis of human RBC's and LH release from tilapia pituitary fragments. Interestingly, tilapia pituitary fragments treated with QsS were able to secrete LH in a characteristic manner, in response to a second Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) pulse, while fragments exposed to GypS did not respond to the second hormone pulse. The rapid recovery of pituitary fragments after the removal of QsS, may suggest a rearrangement of membranes rather than pore formation as the mechanism of action of QsS. Understanding the structural features underlying the reversible rearrangement of membranes and the lack of hemolysing activity by specific saponins may lead to the development of novel bioactive drugs. PMID:15792626

  7. de caña CAMECO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Suárez Ponciano

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El aumento de la producción de caña en Cuba se ha vuelto más que un objetivo una necesidad, es por ello que se introducen nuevas máquinas que den respuesta a esta situación. Teniendo esto como premisa y considerando la importancia que el cultivo de la caña tiene para el país es que se ha escogido el Complejo Agroindustrial (CAI «Héctor Molina Riaño» por la influencia que tiene, en la provincia La Habana, en los resultados de este cultivo para analizar el producto de los medios que intervienen en la cosecha y transporte de la caña de azúcar, así como las condiciones de explotación en que se desarrollan, lo cual constituye el objetivo de este trabajo. Se desarrolló una base metodológica para el análisis de los resultados.

  8. Hibridación de métodos exactos y heurísticos para el problema multiobjetivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández-Díaz, Alfredo G.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo mostramos cómo el uso combinado de las buenas propiedades mostradas hasta ahora tanto por los métodos exactos de optimización, principalmente los basados en el uso del gradiente de las funciones objetivo, como por los algoritmos metaheurísticos dan lugar a algoritmos híbridos capaces de resolver problemas de optimización multiobjetivo con un número reducido de evaluaciones de la función objetivo. Para ello, reemplazamos los operadores de mejora propios del SSPMO (Molina et al., 2007 por búsquedas locales utilizando las direcciones de búsqueda que nos proporcionan el vector gradiente de cada uno de las funciones objetivo. El algoritmo propuesto es testado sobre un conjunto de funciones de prueba estándar de la literatura y las soluciones obtenidas son comparadas con las obtenidas por el SSPMO. Dichas pruebas muestran que el uso de la información dada por los gradientes permite reducir el número de puntos visitados acelerando la convergencia sin perder la capacidad exploratoria de los metaheurísticos.

  9. Soil moisture under contrasted atmospheric conditions in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azorin-Molina, César; Cerdà, Artemi; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.

    2014-05-01

    Soil moisture plays a key role on the recently abandoned agriculture land where determine the recovery and the erosion rates (Cerdà, 1995), on the soil water repellency degree (Bodí et al., 2011) and on the hydrological cycle (Cerdà, 1999), the plant development (García Fayos et al., 2000) and the seasonality of the geomorphological processes (Cerdà, 2002). Moreover, Soil moisture is a key factor on the semiarid land (Ziadat and Taimeh, 2013), on the productivity of the land (Qadir et al., 2013) and soils treated with amendments (Johnston et al., 2013) and on soil reclamation on drained saline-sodic soils (Ghafoor et al., 2012). In previous study (Azorin-Molina et al., 2013) we investigated the intraannual evolution of soil moisture in soils under different land managements in the Valencia region, Eastern Spain, and concluded that soil moisture recharges are much controlled by few heavy precipitation events; 23 recharge episodes during 2012. Most of the soil moisture recharge events occurred during the autumn season under Back-Door cold front situations. Additionally, sea breeze front episodes brought isolated precipitation and moisture to mountainous areas within summer (Azorin-Molina et al., 2009). We also evidenced that the intraanual evolution of soil moisture changes are positively and significatively correlated (at presearch projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE FP7 project 603498 supported this research. References: Azorin-Molina, C., Connell, B.H., Baena-Calatrava, R. 2009. Sea-breeze convergence zones from AVHRR over the Iberian Mediterranean Area and the Isle of Mallorca, Spain. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 48 (10), 2069-2085. Azorin-Molina, C., Vicente-Serrano, S. M., Cerdà, A. 2013. Soil moisture changes in two experimental sites in Eastern Spain. Irrigation versus rainfed orchards under organic farming. EGU, Geophysical Research Abstracts, EGU2013-13286. Bodí, M.B., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S.H. & Cerdà, A. 2011

  10. Crop improvement projects in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Only two percent of the territory of Peru consists of arable land. Sixteen million people depend on the production of about three million hectares of land, which means that on the average only 1800 square metres is available per person. It is clear that Peru is one of the poorest countries of the world as far as available arable land is concerned and consequently it will have to drastically increase its agricultural production per unit area or import large quantities of agricultural products to feed its rapidly growing population. Agricultural research on the efficient use of fertilizers is being carried out by the regional experiment station (CRIA), by the National University of Agriculture, La Molina, Lima, dealing with programmes on maize, potatoes, cereals and forage crops, by national universities in the country and by specialized research institutes for tropical agriculture on sugar-cane, cotton, coffee and tea. Isotope and radiation techniques are a particularly effective means of determining the best cultural practices for the efficient use of fertilizers and water, and the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture has been involved in the organization of field and greenhouse programmes at experiment stations and universities in Peru since 1963

  11. Evidence for absorption of kelp detritus by the ribbed mussel Aulacomya ater using a new /sup 51/Cr-labelled microsphere technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, V.; Field, J.G.; Newell, R.C.

    1983-09-15

    A modification of the /sup 51/Cr:/sup 14/C twin-labelling technique is described in which the food source is labelled with /sup 14/C but the /sup 51/Cr is enclosed in a polymeric resin membrane and presented as microspheres of a similar diameter to the food particles. This eliminates the major uptake of /sup 51/Cr which is transferred to the ctenidia and palps of the suspension-feeding mussel Aulacomya ater (Molina) from detritus labelled with /sup 51/Cr. The results suggest that although bacterial cultures based on isolates of kelp bacteria can be absorbed with an efficiency of 67 to 70%, the debris itself is also absorbed with an efficiency of approximately 50%. The kelp debris, which forms an important component of the particulate matter potentially available for consumers, may thus represent an important source of carbon for the filter feeding community adjacent to kelp beds. In contrast to the results obtained in other studies with artificial food sources, the data for kelp debris suggest that A. ater is able to maintain a positive scope for grwoth at the concentrations of suspended organic matter which occur under natural conditions in the kelp bed environment.

  12. Esquema de evaporación flexible para la producción integrada de azúcar y alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannery González Fundora

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación responde a la necesidad de implementar un nuevo esquema de evaporación en la fábrica de azúcar de la Empresa Azucarera "Héctor Molina", con el objetivo de crear una industria flexible que se ajuste a las variaciones del flujo en proceso debido al desvío de jugo diluido a la destilería (entre el 20 y 70 %, con la menor inversión posible y utilizando los equipos existentes. Para el cálculo de los balances de masa y energía se utilizó la simulación con la herramienta DAFLEX (Diversificación Azucarera Flexible y el programa SIMFAD 5.0 (Simulación de Fábricas de Azúcar y Derivados. En el estudio se plasman las habilidades, experiencias y herramientas utilizadas, incluyendo los indicadores operacionales para el análisis y selección de la variante más adecuada. Se concluye que la variante que en condiciones normales de operación cumple con las premisas establecidas es un esquema de evaporación a quíntuple efecto.

  13. FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS OF 90SR AND 137CS CONCENTRATIONS IN AN ECOSYSTEM OF THE 'RED FOREST' AREA IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.; Caldwell, E.

    2011-10-01

    In the most highly contaminated region of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone: the 'Red Forest' site, the accumulation of the major dose-affecting radionuclides ({sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs) within the components of an ecological system encompassing 3,000 m{sup 2} were characterized. The sampled components included soils (top 0-10 cm depth), Molina caerulea (blue moor grass), Camponotus vagus (carpenter ants) and Pelobates fuscus (spade-footed toad). In a comparison among the components of this ecosystem, the {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs concentrations measured in 40 separate grids exhibited significant differences, while the frequency distribution of the values were close to a logarithmically normal leptokurtic distribution with a significant right-side skew. While it is important to identify localized areas of high contamination or 'hot spots,' including these values in the arithmetic mean may overestimate the exposure risk. In component sample sets that exhibited logarithmically normal distribution, the geometrical mean more accurately characterizes a site. Ideally, risk assessment is most confidently achieved when the arithmetic and geometrical means are most similar, meaning the distribution approaches normal. Through bioaccumulation, the highest concentrations of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were measured in the blue moor grass and spade-footed toad. These components also possessed distribution parameters that shifted toward a normal distribution.

  14. El modelo criminológico de evaluación e intervención para menores en conflicto con la ley/The criminological model of assessment and intervention for children in conflict with the law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Alba Robles

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Los países occidentales han experimentado en las cuatro últimas décadas una inclinación hacia modelos de justicia más reactivos, punitivos o retribucionistas (Garland, 2005; Giménez y Alba, 2014. Ha sido especialmente dentro del ámbito anglosajón (Estados Unidos y Gran Bretaña donde esta nueva cultura del delito ha sido más destacable (Ashworth, 2005; Fernández-Molina, 2008. Europa, sin embargo, ha sabido resistirse a esta tendencia punitiva, intentando mantener un precario equilibrio entre los modelos propiamente retribucionistas y las políticas de bienestar. Por su parte, en Latinoamérica, en un intento por suavizar esta corriente punitiva, en la última década se ha evolucionado hacia un cambio desde la terminología jurídica hacia las terminologías propias de las ciencias sociales en la justicia juvenil: De menores infractores a adolescentes en conflicto con la ley. Sin embargo, este cambio de conceptos no implica una disminución de las populistas corrientes penalistas que invaden todo el continente americano, pero sí posee importantes implicaciones a nivel jurídico, político y legal (Villanueva, 2009. (Continua en introducción.

  15. Phytochemical and pharmacological review of Lagenaria sicereria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Rakesh P; Kalariya, Manisha; Parmar, Sachin K; Sheth, Navin R

    2010-10-01

    Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) standley (LS) (Family: Cucurbitaceae) is an annual herbaceous climbing plant with a long history of traditional medicinal uses in many countries, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Since ancient times the climber has been known for its curative properties, and has been utilized for treatment of various ailments, including jaundice, diabetes, ulcer, piles, colitis, insanity, hypertension, congestive cardiac failure (CCF), and skin diseases. Its fruit pulp is used both as an emetic and purgative, and for its cooling, diuretic, antibilious, and pectoral properties. Boiled in oil this pulp is used to treat rheumatism and insomnia. A wide range of chemical compounds including sterols, terpenoids, flavonoids, and saponins have been isolated from the species. Its extracts have been found to possess various pharmacological activities. Below, we give a comprehensive review of its ethnomedical uses, chemical constituents, and pharmacological profile as a medicinal plant. Particular attention is given to its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidemic, diuretic, hepatoprotective, anthelmintic, and antibacterial effects so that its potential uses in pharmaceutics can be better evaluated. PMID:21731373

  16. New species and records of mites of the superfamily Sarcoptoidea (Acariformes: Psoroptidia) from mammals in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkov, Andre V; Valim, Michel P

    2016-01-01

    Sixteen species of the superfamily Sarcoptoidea (Acariformes: Psoroptidia) belonging to 10 genera of the families Atopomelidae, Listrophoridae, Chirodiscidae, and Listropsoralgidae are recorded in Brazil. Among them, three species, Prolistrophorus hylaeamys sp. nov. from Hylaeamys laticeps (Lund, 1840) (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) from Minas Gerais, Lynxacarus serrafreirei sp. nov. from Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782) (Carnivora: Mustelidae) from Rio de Janeiro (Listrophoridae), and Didelphoecius micoureus sp. nov. (Atopomelidae) from Micoureus paraguayanus (Tate, 1931) (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from Minas Gerais are described as new for science. Three species of the family Listrophoridae, Prolistrophorus bidentatus Fain et Lukoschus, 1984 from Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887) (Rodentia: Cricetidae) (new host), Prolistrophorus ctenomys Fain, 1970 from Ctenomys torquatus Lichtenstein, 1830 (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae) (new host), and Leporacarus sylvilagi Fain, Whitaker et Lukoschus, 1981 from Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lagomorpha: Leporidae) (new host) -from Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul, and one species of the family Chirodiscidae, Parakosa tadarida McDaniel and Lawrence, 1962 from Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766) (Chiroptera: Molossidae) are recorded for the first time in Brazil. The previously unknown female of Didelphoecius validus Fain, Zanatta-Coutinho et Fonseca, 1996 (Atopomelidae) from Metachirus nudicaudatus (Geoffroy, 1803) (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from Minas Gerais is described. All data on host-parasite associations of sarcoptoids in Brazil are summarized. Totally, 61 sarcoptoid species of 8 families are recorded in Brazil. PMID:26751869

  17. First isolation of Leptospira interrogans from Lycalopex griseus (South American gray fox) in Argentina shows new MLVA genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scialfa, Exequiel; Brihuega, Bibiana; Venzano, Agustín; Morris, Winston Eduardo; Bolpe, Jorge; Schettino, Mateo

    2013-01-01

    To identify carriers of Leptospira spp. in Argentina, wild animals were trapped in Buenos Aires Province during three nights, capturing 12 Didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossum), six Chaetophractus villosus (big hairy armadillo), five Lycalopex griseus (South American gray fox), and two Conepatus chinga (Molina's hog-nosed skunk). All were tested by microscopic agglutination test, and five (two gray foxes, two armadillos, and one skunk) were positive for Leptospira interrogans serovars Canicola and Icterohaemorrhagiae, L. borgpetersenii serovar Castellonis, and L. kirschneri serovar Grippotyphosa, at titers of 1:50 and 1:100. Kidney tissue from all animals was cultured, and one isolate of L. interrogans from a gray fox was obtained. Hamsters inoculated with the isolate died after 6 days with no macroscopic lesions at necropsy. However, histologic examination revealed glomerulonephritis, interstitial nephritis, and pneumonia. The Leptospira strain from the South American gray fox was analyzed serologically and its pathogenicity was established. Genotyping through multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis showed that the strain was a new genotype related to the L. interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae. PMID:23307384

  18. XI Symposium on Probability and Stochastic Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Pardo, Juan; Rivero, Víctor; Bravo, Gerónimo

    2015-01-01

    This volume features lecture notes and a collection of contributed articles from the XI Symposium on Probability and Stochastic Processes, held at CIMAT Mexico in September 2013. Since the symposium was part of the activities organized in Mexico to celebrate the International Year of Statistics, the program included topics from the interface between statistics and stochastic processes. The book starts with notes from the mini-course given by Louigi Addario-Berry with an accessible description of some features of the multiplicative coalescent and its connection with random graphs and minimum spanning trees. It includes a number of exercises and a section on unanswered questions. Further contributions provide the reader with a broad perspective on the state-of-the art of active areas of research. Contributions by: Louigi Addario-Berry Octavio Arizmendi Fabrice Baudoin Jochen Blath Loïc Chaumont J. Armando Domínguez-Molina Bjarki Eldon Shui Feng Tulio Gaxiola Adrián González Casanova Evgueni Gordienko Daniel...

  19. Análisis de las redes de distribución de balón en fútbol: pases de juego y pases de adaptación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Maya Jariego

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The network of who passes the ball to whom describes the tactical configurations in the development of a soccer match (Bundio y Conde, 2007; Cotta, Mora, Merelo-Molina y Merelo, 2011. The team is analyzed as a network, with players as nodes and passes as directed edges. The patterns of interaction between players reveal emergent processes that transcend traditional individual statistics. Although the first applications of network analysis to soccer use the matrix of all the passes during the match, the differentiation of the relationships between players depending on the type of work carried out shows more clearly the tactical elements of the game (Maya Jariego y Bohórquez, 2011. To illustrate this we used data from Real Betis in the 2005 Copa del Rey final, as well as the match in the 2007 final. Both centrality measures and nonparametric tests showed a clear differentiation between the passing network and the adaptation network. The results allow interpreting the tactical development of the match. Finally we compare the network analysis of the match with a description based in individual players statistics.

  20. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 August 2011-30 September 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A'Hara, S W; Amouroux, P; Argo, Emily E; Avand-Faghih, A; Barat, Ashoktaru; Barbieri, Luiz; Bert, Theresa M; Blatrix, R; Blin, Aurélie; Bouktila, D; Broome, A; Burban, C; Capdevielle-Dulac, C; Casse, N; Chandra, Suresh; Cho, Kyung Jin; Cottrell, J E; Crawford, Charles R; Davis, Michelle C; Delatte, H; Desneux, Nicolas; Djieto-Lordon, C; Dubois, M P; El-Mergawy, R A A M; Gallardo-Escárate, C; Garcia, M; Gardiner, Mary M; Guillemaud, Thomas; Haye, P A; Hellemans, B; Hinrichsen, P; Jeon, Ji Hyun; Kerdelhué, C; Kharrat, I; Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Yong Yul; Kwan, Ye-Seul; Labbe, Ellen M; LaHood, Eric; Lee, Kyung Mi; Lee, Wan-Ok; Lee, Yat-Hung; Legoff, Isabelle; Li, H; Lin, Chung-Ping; Liu, S S; Liu, Y G; Long, D; Maes, G E; Magnoux, E; Mahanta, Prabin Chandra; Makni, H; Makni, M; Malausa, Thibaut; Matura, Rakesh; McKey, D; McMillen-Jackson, Anne L; Méndez, M A; Mezghani-Khemakhem, M; Michel, Andy P; Paul, Moran; Muriel-Cunha, Janice; Nibouche, S; Normand, F; Palkovacs, Eric P; Pande, Veena; Parmentier, K; Peccoud, J; Piatscheck, F; Puchulutegui, Cecilia; Ramos, R; Ravest, G; Richner, Heinz; Robbens, J; Rochat, D; Rousselet, J; Saladin, Verena; Sauve, M; Schlei, Ora; Schultz, Thomas F; Scobie, A R; Segovia, N I; Seyoum, Seifu; Silvain, J-F; Tabone, Elisabeth; Van Houdt, J K J; Vandamme, S G; Volckaert, F A M; Wenburg, John; Willis, Theodore V; Won, Yong-Jin; Ye, N H; Zhang, W; Zhang, Y X

    2012-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 299 microsatellite marker loci and nine pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) EPIC primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources (MER) Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alosa pseudoharengus, Alosa aestivalis, Aphis spiraecola, Argopecten purpuratus, Coreoleuciscus splendidus, Garra gotyla, Hippodamia convergens, Linnaea borealis, Menippe mercenaria, Menippe adina, Parus major, Pinus densiflora, Portunus trituberculatus, Procontarinia mangiferae, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, Schizothorax richardsonii, Scophthalmus rhombus, Tetraponera aethiops, Thaumetopoea pityocampa, Tuta absoluta and Ugni molinae. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Barilius bendelisis, Chiromantes haematocheir, Eriocheir sinensis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus cladocalix, Eucalyptus globulus, Garra litaninsis vishwanath, Garra para lissorhynchus, Guindilla trinervis, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, Luma chequen. Guayaba, Myrceugenia colchagüensis, Myrceugenia correifolia, Myrceugenia exsucca, Parasesarma plicatum, Parus major, Portunus pelagicus, Psidium guayaba, Schizothorax richardsonii, Scophthalmus maximus, Tetraponera latifrons, Thaumetopoea bonjeani, Thaumetopoea ispartensis, Thaumetopoea libanotica, Thaumetopoea pinivora, Thaumetopoea pityocampa ena clade, Thaumetopoea solitaria, Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni and Tor putitora. This article also documents the addition of nine EPIC primer pairs for Euphaea decorata, Euphaea formosa, Euphaea ornata and Euphaea yayeyamana. PMID:22136175