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Sample records for chilean rural practitioner

  1. Information-Seeking Activity of Rural Health Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Sandra; Donaldson, Joe F.

    The information-seeking activity (ISA) of 16 rural health practitioners (occupational, physical, and respiratory therapists; radiological technologists; speech/language pathologists; and nurses) was explored using qualitative methods of participant observation, document collection, and in-depth interviews. Field notes and documents were collected…

  2. Quality assessment of private practitioners in rural Wardha, Maharashtra

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    Ganguly Enakshi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the quality of care provided by private practitioners in rural areas of Wardha district. Methodology: The study was carried out in three primary health centres of Wardha district. 20% of the 44 registered private practitioners were selected randomly for the study. The data was collected using checklist through direct observation for the infrastructure. Assessment of quality of services delivered, 10 consecutive patients were observed and also the medical practitioner was interviewed. Supplies and logistics were assessed through observation. Results: All the facilities were sheltered from weather conditions and 90% had adequate waiting space. But, drinking water and adequate IEC material was available in only 20% facilities. Complete history taking and relevant physical examination was done in only 20% cases. Only 20% practitioners recorded blood pressure and 30% recorded temperature in cases with fever. Provisional diagnosis was not written in any of the case and only 20% explained prescription to the patients. Conclusion: There is considerable scope to improve the quality of services of private practitioners. To achieve this quality assurance programs may be initiated along with the training of private medical practitioners.

  3. Rural career choice issues as reported by first year medical students and rural general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, G T; Young, A E; Strasser, R

    2001-12-01

    Governments have recently instituted several programmes designed to attract medical students to rural practice. Questions may be raised as to whether interventions based around issues identified as important to practising rural general practitioners (GPs) are equally applicable to undergraduate medical students. The results of two studies on the importance of personal and practice issues as ascribed by Australian rural GPs and Victorian medical students are analysed. The effect of the students' gender, place of origin and intended location of practice is assessed. Findings suggest that practising GPs may have resolved many of the student issues and may be well placed to advise students on perceived hurdles to rural practice. Furthermore, students may be seeking a practice style similar to that sought by female GPs. The present paper concludes that while there are similarities between the groups, the differences identified support caution when basing student programmes on research performed on rural GPs.

  4. Outcomes associated with nurse practitioners in collaborative practice with general practitioners in rural settings in Canada: a mixed methods study

    OpenAIRE

    Roots, Alison; MacDonald, Marjorie

    2014-01-01

    Background The formalized nurse practitioner (NP) role in British Columbia is relatively new with most roles implemented in primary care. The majority of primary care is delivered by physicians using the fee-for-service model. There is a shortage of general practitioners associated with the difficulties of recruitment and retention, particularly in rural and remote locations. The uptake of the primary care NP role has been slow due to challenges in understanding the extent of its contribution...

  5. Nature of association between rural background and practice location: A comparison of general practitioners and specialists

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    Humphreys John S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural and remote areas are characterised by a shortage of medical practitioners. Rural background has been shown to be a significant factor associated with medical graduates' intentions and decisions to practise within a rural area, though most studies have only used simple definitions of rural background and not previously looked at specialists. This paper aims to investigate in detail the nature of the association between rural background and practice location of Australian general practitioners (GPs and specialists Methods Data for 3156 GPs and 2425 specialists were obtained from the Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL study. Data on the number of childhood years resident in a rural location and population size of their rural childhood location were matched against current practice location. Logistic regression modelling was used to calculate adjusted associations between doctors in rural practice and rural background, sex and age. Results GPs with at least 6 years of their childhood spent in a rural area were significantly more likely than those with 0-5 years in a rural area to be practising in a rural location (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.69-3.08, whilst only specialists with at least 11 years rural background were significantly more likely to be practising in a rural location (OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.77-2.91. However, for doctors with a rural background, the size of the community that they grew up in was not significantly associated with the size of the community in which they currently practise. Both female GPs and female specialists are similarly much less likely to be practising in a rural location compared with males (GPs: OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.45-0.62. Conclusions This study elucidates the association between rural background and rural practice for both GPs and specialists. It follows that increased take-up of rural practice by new graduates requires an increased selection of students with strong rural

  6. A study of rural preschool practitioners' views on young children's mathematical thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunting, Robert P.; Mousley, Judith A.; Perry, Bob

    2012-03-01

    The project Mathematical Thinking of Preschool Children in Rural and Regional Australia: Research and Practice aimed to investigate views of preschool practitioners about young children's mathematical thinking and development. Structured individual interviews were conducted with 64 preschool practitioners from rural areas of three Australian states. The questions focused on five broad themes: children's mathematics learning, support for mathematics teaching, technology and computers, attitudes and feelings, and assessment and record keeping. We review results from the interview data for each of these themes, discuss their importance, and outline recommendations related to teacher education as well as resource development and research.

  7. Quality Assurance and Continuing Education Needs of Rural and Remote General Practitioners: How Are They Changing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Barbara; Lawrance, Richard

    2001-01-01

    A survey examined the continuing education needs of 706 rural general practitioners (GPs) across Australia. An inability to generalize findings across location indicates that regional identification by local service providers would be more effective. However, a set of topics broader than the traditional continuing medical education topics for…

  8. Assessment of prescribing practices among urban and rural general practitioners in Tamil Nadu

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    Sekharan Gopalakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studying drug use pattern among medical practitioners is of vital importance in the present scenario where irrational drug use and development of drug resistance is becoming rampant. Objective: To assess, the pattern of prescribing practices among the general practitioners in a defined rural and urban area of Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: A community based descriptive study was conducted to collect 600 prescriptions from the catchment areas of rural and urban health training centers of a medical college using prescribing indicators as per the WHO "How to investigate drug use in health facilities" tool. Results: This prescription study revealed that multivitamins (19.5%, antibiotics (19.3%, drugs for gastro-intestinal tract (GIT (18%, analgesic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs/ (NSAID′s (15.1%, and antihistaminic (12.5% were prescribed frequently. Among the antibiotics, amoxicillin (49.2% was the most commonly prescribed followed by gentamicin (31.7%. Percentage of prescriptions with an antibiotic was 55% and nearly 62% of the practitioners prescribed drugs by their generic names. As a practice of poly-pharmacy, it was observed that the average number of drugs prescribed in urban and rural area was nearly 5 and 4, respectively. Nearly 80% of the urban and rural practitioners were prescribing at least one injection. Study of the quality of prescriptions revealed that there was poor legibility, high usage of abbreviations, inadequate details of the drugs, and absence of signature by practitioners in the prescriptions. Conclusion: This study clearly highlights the practice of poly-pharmacy, low usage of generic drugs, injudicious usage of antibiotics and injections and low usage of drugs prescribed from essential drugs list.

  9. AGRICULTURAL MARKETING IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT: A GUIDE FOR THE MARKETING PRACTITIONER INVOLVED IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ooijen, Rudy

    1985-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to develop a general framework for rural development in which marketing will play a major role. This framework could make the "learning by doing" process more efficient and effective. Specific goals of this paper are to provide the reader with: (1) a better overall understanding of the rural development and marketing development process, (2) an analysis of approaches used by rural development projects in their effort to improve rural marketing, and (3) a sy...

  10. Extended scope practitioners and clinical specialists: a place in rural health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruston, Sally A

    2008-06-01

    This review identifies two models of allied health advanced practitioner practice that are currently in place in the National Health Service in the United Kingdom (UK). A review of the background to advanced practitioner status is given for UK allied health professionals and comments made on the outcomes of the UK roles. Description of the work of Clinical Specialist and Extended Scope Practitioner is given. Alignment with senior physiotherapy staff roles in Australia is commented upon. Some barriers or impediments to implementation of such a system in Australia are discussed with respect to registration, funding and support. The feasibility of such advanced practice roles for physiotherapy is discussed while benefits and cautions are identified. The potential for such a model of health service to be used in Australia, particularly in rural and remote areas, is identified for debate.

  11. Trial of a centralized IgE allergy service to general practitioners in a rural area

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, J H; Moore, R. M. A.; Wilson, R. S. E.

    1981-01-01

    We describe a pilot study of a community IgE service which serves a large rural area and is centred on the biochemistry laboratory and allergy clinic of a district general hospital. The service has proved useful because in many cases it has made attendance at an outpatient department unnecessary. The results appear to be reliable and have provided the general practitioners with additional knowledge of their patients. Other benefits included the investigation of larger numbers of patients, the...

  12. Rural general practitioners' experience of the provision of out-of-hours care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, N J; Keane, A M; Murphy, A W

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Published research into the provision and utilisation of out-of-hours services shows long-term trends towards decreasing personal commitment among general practitioners (GPs). However, the on-call commitments of rural GPs remain especially onerous. There has been little research relating to either rural out-of-hours services or the implications of such services for the families of the providers. AIM: To explore and describe how rural GPs in Ireland perceive and experience out-of-hours care provision. DESIGN OF STUDY: A qualitative study was conducted with 10 rural GPs and their spouses in their homes or practices using one-to-one in-depth interviews. SETTING: Ten general practices in rural Ireland. METHOD: The interviews were guided by an interview schedule that was based on pertinent themes that had emerged from previous relevant literature. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and analysed for themes and issues. RESULTS: Results indicated that rural GPs experience a wide variety of satisfactions from work related to the provision of out-of-hours care. However, the large proportion of time committed to out-of-hours care greatly infringes on their social and family life. The key stressors identified related to organisational system difficulties, especially with regard to locum cover, and unrealistic patient expectations. The stressors were mainly expressed as lack of time off, restrictions on family life, and interruptions. CONCLUSION: System difficulties, such as difficulty with obtaining locums and rota extension, need to be addressed at an organisational level. Patient expectations of the role of the rural GP have significant implications for practitioners and their families. PMID:11458481

  13. Referrals to chiropractors and osteopaths: a survey of general practitioners in rural and regional New South Wales, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Wardle, Jon L; Sibbritt, Davi W; Adams, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Background Chiropractic and osteopathy form a significant part of the healthcare setting in rural and regional Australia, with national registration of practitioners, public subsidies for services and high utilisation by the Australian public. However, despite their significant role in rural and regional Australia, there has been little exploration of the interface between chiropractic and osteopathy and conventional primary health care practitioners in this area. The study aim was to examine...

  14. Business structures and sustainable regional legal practice: the use of incorporated legal practices by regional, rural and remote legal practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lydia Hart

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2007 the Legal Profession Act 2007 (Qld has offered legal practitioners a wider choice of business structure other than sole practitioner or partnership, to include incorporated legal practice ('ILP' or multidisciplinary partnership. In particular the use of ILPs offers legal practitioners a range of benefits in terms of operating a law firm consistent with business management practices. The status of ILP however comes at a cost of putting in place 'appropriate management systems'. This paper refers to the legislation and the literature on the range of business structures, before giving an insight into the actual choice of business structures used by Queensland regional, rural and remote legal practitioners. What is the awareness of the new business structures? And are there factors inhibiting RRR legal practitioners from their use? This paper draws on over 30 interviews with sole practitioners, partners and legal practitioner directors about their choice of business structure.

  15. Playing the Scales: Regional Transformations and the Differentiation of Rural Space in the Chilean Wine Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, John; Murray, Warwick E.

    2011-01-01

    Globalization and industrial restructuring transform rural places in complex and often contradictory ways. These involve both quantitative changes, increasing the size and scope of operation to achieve economies of scale, and qualitative shifts, sometimes leading to a shift up the quality/price scale, towards finer spatial resolution and…

  16. Exposure to organophosphate and cognitive performance in chilean rural school children: an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    María T. Muñoz Q; Verónica P. Iglesias Á; Boris A. Lucero M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate the presence of organophosphate metabolites (OP) in the urine of rural schoolchildren and estimate its association with their cognitive performance. Methodology: a cross-sectional exploratory study in which a total of 25 children were assessed. Cognitive functioning was measured using the WISC-III intelligence test. Additionally, the concentration of OP metabolites in their urine was tested. Results: 56% of the children had concentration levels above the detection limit...

  17. Strengthening Medicare: Will increasing the bulk-billing rate and supply of general practitioners increase access to Medicare-funded general practitioner services and does rurality matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Day, Susan E; Alford, Katrina; Dunt, David; Peacock, Stuart; Gurrin, Lyle; Voaklander, Don

    2005-01-01

    Background Recent increases in the bulk-billing rate have been taken as an indication that the Federal government's Strengthening Medicare initiative, and particularly the bulk-billing incentives, are 'working'. Given the enduring geographic differences in the supply of general practitioners (GPs) it is timely to reconsider the impact that this increase in the provision of 'free care' will have on access to Medicare-funded GP services in rural and urban areas of Australia. Utilisation has bee...

  18. Exposure to organophosphate and cognitive performance in chilean rural school children: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María T. Muñoz Q

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the presence of organophosphate metabolites (OP in the urine of rural schoolchildren and estimate its association with their cognitive performance. Methodology: a cross-sectional exploratory study in which a total of 25 children were assessed. Cognitive functioning was measured using the WISC-III intelligence test. Additionally, the concentration of OP metabolites in their urine was tested. Results: 56% of the children had concentration levels above the detection limit for dimethylphosphate (DMP and dimethyltiophosphate (DMTP. Moreover, 92% of them had the metabolite diethylphosphate (DEP values on this limit. Regarding the WISC-III, the intelligence quotient (IQ values below the average (IQ ˃ 90 correspond to: Total IQ = 60% performance IQ = 64%, verbal IQ = 52%, perceptual organization IQ = 60%, processing speed IQ = 95%, and freedom from distractibility IQ = 64%. An inverse association was found between the processing speed factor and DMTP (rs = -0.44, p = 0.014. Conclusions: results indicate that the rural schoolchildren whose urine was measured with OP metabolite biomarkers had been exposed to OP pesticides. A relationship was observed between the presence of OP metabolites and the cognitive performance factor of the WISC-III test. We believe it is appropriate to evaluate the effects of the presence of OP metabolites on cognitive functioning in a larger sample, while considering other exposure variables.

  19. With Health and Good Food, Great Life! Gender Differences and Happiness in Chilean Rural Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Germán, Lobos; Grunert, Klaus G; Bustamante, Miguel;

    2016-01-01

    of well-being, i.e. happiness in older adults, both women and men, living in rural areas in the Maule Region, Chile. A subjective happiness scale was applied across female (N = 241) and male (N = 144) older adults (age range 60–90). Statistical analysis included comparison of means for independent samples...... and multiple comparison tests. Ordered logit models were computed to examine the determinants of happiness. We find that satisfaction related to food, perception of health and functionality are significantly linked to individual happiness within both gender groups. An influential predictor of female......’s happiness is the frequency of having dinner with companion. An increased quantity of goods at home implied more happiness. A positive coefficient for age and a negative coefficient for age-squared seem to support the idea of an inverted U-shaped relationship between age and happiness in the female group...

  20. Factors influencing use of dental services in rural and urban communities: considerations for practitioners in underserved areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Lisa J; Smith, Timothy A; Raybould, Ted P

    2004-10-01

    Individuals' utilization of dental services depends upon an array of factors, including access to care, financial restrictions, attitudes toward dental care, and dental fear. These factors, in turn, may vary across geographic locations and demographic groups. The goals of this study were to assess the use of dental services in both rural and urban areas of Kentucky and to examine challenges facing practitioners in rural areas. Individuals sampled from a rural population and patients in rural and urban dental clinics completed questionnaires about use of dental services, self-rated dental health, and dental fear. While these variables were strongly interrelated, differences emerged across locations. Patients in the urban area reported having more dental insurance but not better dental health. Patients in more rural areas reported seeking more emergency dental treatment but not more dental fear. While these factors are important considerations across locations, dental practitioners in rural areas in particular should be aware of barriers to dental care facing individuals in these areas. They have unique opportunities to provide education to their patients regarding the importance of dental care and the role of oral health in overall physical health. PMID:15466058

  1. Why and how do general practitioners teach? An exploration of the motivations and experiences of rural Australian general practitioner supervisors

    OpenAIRE

    Ingham, Gerard; Fry, Jennifer; O’Meara, Peter; Tourle, Vianne

    2015-01-01

    Background In medical education, a learner-centred approach is recommended. There is also a trend towards workplace-based learning outside of the hospital setting. In Australia, this has resulted in an increased need for General Practitioner (GP) supervisors who are receptive to using adult learning principles in their teaching. Little is known about what motivates Australian GP supervisors and how they currently teach. Methods A qualitative study involving semi-structured interviews with 20 ...

  2. Knowledge, attitude and practice of private practitioners regarding tb-dots in a rural district of Sindh, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuberculosis is prevailing in both urban and rural areas of Pakistan. Knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of private practitioners (PPs) regarding tuberculosis management have been reported only in urban areas of Pakistan. This survey was conducted for the first time in a rural area of Sindh, Pakistan. This survey was conducted in January 2007 at Thatta, a rural district of Sindh, Pakistan. Study subjects were twenty-two allopathic qualified (MBBS) doctors of district Thatta, who were practicing in private setups for at least last one year. Before TB-DOTS training PPs had filled the KAP questionnaire regarding tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and management through DOTS. Survey data was analysed through SPSS version 11.05 software. On average, five TB suspects per month were seen by each PP. Only 14% of PPs advised sputum microscopy solely for pulmonary TB diagnosis, while 86% of PPs used different combination of tests (chest x-ray/sputum microscopy/ESR/tuberculin test) for TB diagnosis. Over 40% PPs did not prescribe TB treatment regimen according to TB-DOTS category. Majority PPs (85%) did not follow the treatment through sputum microscopy and instead relied on clinical improvement and x-ray clearance. Nearly 60% of TB patients at PPs clinic did not show compliance to the TB treatment and none of PPs were following the retrieval of default cases. A gross lack of PPs knowledge and right practice regarding TB diagnosis and management through DOTS was identified and needed to be addressed through providing DOTS training. (author)

  3. In the choice between health and money, health comes first: an analysis of happiness among rural Chilean elderly

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    German Lobos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We studied the relationship between happiness and individual socio-demographic context and health and dietary variables by interviewing 389 elderly individuals (age 60-90 years living in rural areas in the Maule Region of Central Chile. The Lyubomirsky & Lepper (1999 subjective happiness scale was used. Ordinal logistic regression models were estimated. The discrete dependent variable was level of happiness. The following variables were significantly associated with happiness: (1 individual socio-demographic variables like age and satisfaction with the economic situation; (2 health variables like independence in activities of daily living, common activities, and self-rated health; and (3 dietary variables such as life satisfaction related to food and the frequency with which the elders shared dinner with others. The study results suggest more efficient efforts at healthy eating for the elderly in rural areas.

  4. In the choice between health and money, health comes first: an analysis of happiness among rural Chilean elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobos, German; Lapo, Maria Del Carmen; Schnettler, Berta

    2016-01-01

    We studied the relationship between happiness and individual socio-demographic context and health and dietary variables by interviewing 389 elderly individuals (age 60-90 years) living in rural areas in the Maule Region of Central Chile. The Lyubomirsky & Lepper (1999) subjective happiness scale was used. Ordinal logistic regression models were estimated. The discrete dependent variable was level of happiness. The following variables were significantly associated with happiness: (1) individual socio-demographic variables like age and satisfaction with the economic situation; (2) health variables like independence in activities of daily living, common activities, and self-rated health; and (3) dietary variables such as life satisfaction related to food and the frequency with which the elders shared dinner with others. The study results suggest more efficient efforts at healthy eating for the elderly in rural areas. PMID:27192023

  5. In the choice between health and money, health comes first: an analysis of happiness among rural Chilean elderly

    OpenAIRE

    German Lobos; Maria del Carmen Lapo; Berta Schnettler

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: We studied the relationship between happiness and individual socio-demographic context and health and dietary variables by interviewing 389 elderly individuals (age 60-90 years) living in rural areas in the Maule Region of Central Chile. The Lyubomirsky & Lepper (1999) subjective happiness scale was used. Ordinal logistic regression models were estimated. The discrete dependent variable was level of happiness. The following variables were significantly associated with happiness: (1)...

  6. A Qualitative Analysis of the Retention and Recruitment of Rural General Practitioners in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Abhaya Kamalakanthan; Sukhan Jackson

    2008-01-01

    Australian estimates of the doctor-to-population ratios for the cities, regional and remote areas seem to exceed the 0.71:1,000 benchmark ratio of the Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing. However, statistics are misleading because they do not account for the time and distance involved to see a doctor in the less densely populated rural and remote areas. This is a qualitative study of the problem of retention and recruitment of rural doctors. In 2006-08, 13 in-depth structured intervi...

  7. Stressed and overworked? A cross-sectional study of the working situation of urban and rural general practitioners in Austria in the framework of the QUALICOPC project.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, K.; Wojczewski, S.; George, A.; Schäfer, W.; Maier, M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To assess the workload of general practitioners (GPs) in Austria, with a focus on identifying the differences between GPs working in urban and rural areas. Methods: Within the framework of the Quality and Costs of Primary Care in Europe (QUALICOPC) study, data were collected from a stratified s

  8. The economic effect of a physician assistant or nurse practitioner in rural America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilrich, Fred C

    2016-10-01

    Revenues generated by physician assistants (PAs) and NPs in clinics and hospitals create employment opportunities and wages, salaries, and benefits for staff, which in turn are circulated throughout the local economy. An input-output model was used to estimate the direct and secondary effects of a rural primary care PA or NP on the community and surrounding area. This type of model explains how input/output from one sector of industry can be the output/input for another sector. Given two example scenarios, a rural PA or NP can have an employment effect of 4.4 local jobs and labor income of $280,476 from the clinic. The total effect to a community with a hospital increases to 18.5 local jobs and $940,892 of labor income. PMID:27685514

  9. A study evaluating knowledge, attitude and practices of practitioners in the medicine department of tertiary care teaching rural hospital with respect to antihypertensives

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    Jatin Patel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practices of practitioners in the medicine department of tertiary care teaching rural hospital with respect to antihypertensives and find out the disparity between the recommended and actual practices for pharmacological management. Methods: It was survey type of study, carried out using feedback questionnaire related to use of antihypertensives. Total 25 consultants were included in the study. Results: It was found that in mild hypertension single drug and two drugs in combination were preferred by 15 and 10 practitioners respectively. In moderate hypertension single drug, two drugs in combination, and greater than two drugs were preferred by 3, 13, and 7 practitioners respectively. In severe hypertension two drugs in combination and greater than two drugs were preferred by 16 and 9 practitioners respectively; none preferred single drug. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors /angiotensin receptor blockers, beta blockers, Calcium channel blockers, diuretics were preferred as first line drug by 7, 4, 8, and 16 practitioners respectively. Most commonly preferred combination was Losartan and amlodipine by 16 practitioners. In pregnancy nifedipine was preferred as the first line drug while in elderly diuretics were preferred. In hypertensive patients with age less than 40 years all practitioners preferred ACEIs/ARBs. In diabetics ACEIs/ARBs was preferred by all practitioners. Each practitioner claimed to follow Joint National Committee (JNC 7 criteria. Cost of drug was an important consideration in all their prescribing patterns. Conclusion: The knowledge, attitudes and practices followed by the practitioners of Dhiraj hospital were satisfactory and guidelines oriented. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 715-717

  10. The clinical librarians and information professionals’ role in tele-medicine: assisting the general practitioners working in rural areas of Kerman Province in the treatment process

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    Fatemeh Motamedi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Over the last decade, the role of clinical librarians in assisting general practitioners to provide better health care has been proved. Rapid progress in telecommunication technology has emerged this question. Could clinical librarians be able to assist general practitioners working in rural and remote areas through Information and communication technologies? This project sought to evaluate whether clinical librarians are able to provide accurate and updated information to physicians. Method: Twenty general practitioners working in non rural working in remote areas of Kerman were requested to ask clinical librarians 5 questions through a phone line each over the period of two months whenever they felt they need to have more information on a matter related to their practice. Then all questions and answers were evaluated by expert medical specialists and pharmacists who were academic staff of Kerman University of Medical Sciences . Clinical librarians’ role was also evaluated by an electronic questionnaire sent to general practitioners. Results: Over 80 percents of the answers were evaluated as perfect and 10 percent as good. Only 10 percent of the answers were scored as wrong. Conclusion: Clinical librarians are able to provide reliable information to remote and rural physicians, The fact which has been also verified by the specialists. However, clinical librarians need to improve their English language and their knowledge about online search strategies and basic medication. Telecommunication infrastructure and suitable internet speed for online search by librarians are very important.

  11. [Chilean nuclear policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobadilla, E

    1996-06-01

    This official document is statement of the President of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, Dr. Eduardo Bobadilla, about the nuclear policy of the Chilean State, Thanks to the international policy adopted by presidents Aylwin (1990-1994) and his successor Frei Ruiz Tagle (1994-), a nuclear development plan, protected by the Chilean entrance to the nuclear weapons non proliferation treaty and Tlatelolco Denuclearization treaty, has started. Chile will be able to develop without interference, an autonomous nuclear electrical system and other pacific uses of nuclear energy. Chile also supports a new international treaty to ban nuclear weapon tests.

  12. [Chilean nuclear policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobadilla, E

    1996-06-01

    This official document is statement of the President of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, Dr. Eduardo Bobadilla, about the nuclear policy of the Chilean State, Thanks to the international policy adopted by presidents Aylwin (1990-1994) and his successor Frei Ruiz Tagle (1994-), a nuclear development plan, protected by the Chilean entrance to the nuclear weapons non proliferation treaty and Tlatelolco Denuclearization treaty, has started. Chile will be able to develop without interference, an autonomous nuclear electrical system and other pacific uses of nuclear energy. Chile also supports a new international treaty to ban nuclear weapon tests. PMID:9041734

  13. Worlds Apart: A Social Theoretical Exploration of Local Networks, Natural Actors, and Practitioners of Rural Development in Southern Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Brian J. Gareau

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the importance of incorporating the socioecological realities of alternative networks into analyses of rural development. Cultural theory is examined, which provides a base upon which rural development can identify difference in worldviews based on difference in sociological conditions and environmental phenomena. Actor-oriented theory problematizes the ideal types of cultural theory, providing a means of give-and-take between actors’ worldviews of different networks. Ac...

  14. The effects of initial participation motivations on learning engagement in transition training for future general practitioners in rural China: perceived deterrents as mediator

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    Guan-yu Cui

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: For the shortage of high-quality general practitioners (GPs in China's rural areas, Chinese government has taken steps to encourage rural specialists to participate in transition training for future GPs. Specialists’ initial participation motivations and their perceived deterrents during training may play important roles for their learning engagement in the transition training. This study aimed at revealing the relationships among the variables of initial participation motivations, perceived deterrents in training, and learning engagement. Methods: A questionnaire survey was used in this study. A total of 156 rural specialists who participated in transition training for future GPs filled out the questionnaire, which consisted of the measurements of initial participation motivations, perceived deterrents, and learning engagement in training. The data about specialists’ demographic variables were collected at the same time. Results: The variance of initial escape/stimulations motivation significantly predicted the variance of learning engagement through the full mediating role of perceived deterrents in training. In addition, initial educational preparation motivations predicted the variance of learning engagement directly. Conclusions: Specialists’ initial participation motivations and perceived deterrents in training played important roles for learning engagement in the transition training.

  15. Nutrition education in Chilean primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Sonia; Zacarías, Isabel; Andrade, Margarita; Kain, Juliana; Lera, Lydia; Vio, Fernando; Morón, Cecilio

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to incorporate nutrition education in Chilean primary schools. The baseline information included nutritional status, food consumption and physical activity of 1701 children from 3rd to 7th grade in ten urban and rural schools. Main results showed a high prevalence of obesity (15.4%) and overweight (19.6%), low consumption of vegetables, fruits, and dairy products, high intake of snacks and a low level of physical activity, especially in girls. Because the Ministry of Education does not allow the incorporation of new programs into the curriculum, the educational strategy was based on the development of a text book, a teacher's guide, five practical guides for students from third to eighth grade and a CD-Rom. These materials were validated by 36 teachers in six schools through an educational intervention. Teachers and students considered the educational materials useful, motivational and easy to understand. This program is being implemented in 57 schools.

  16. Improving the effectiveness of rural development policy in Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter Leal, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    In Chile, agriculture remains a key economic factor for rural development. Accordingly, the Chilean government, through the Agricultural Development Institute (INDAP), provides financial support for fostering entrepreneurship among small farmers to enable them to become more competitive in global ma

  17. 农村全科医生胜任力素质模型的理论构建与实证研究%A competency model of rural general practitioners:theory construction and empirical study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秀木; 齐玉龙; 申正付; 韩布新; 孟贝

    2015-01-01

    目的:理论建构和实证研究农村全科医生胜任力素质模型。方法通过文献研究、岗位分析、访谈和专家小组讨论,编制农村全科医生胜任力素质问卷,对中部六省1400名农村全科医生进行问卷调查。采用主成分法进行探索性因素分析提取公因素,并进行结构方程模型验证。采用回归方程分析胜任力特质对工作绩效的影响。结果问卷的Cronbach'sα系数为0.975,农村全科医生胜任力模型包含9项胜任特征,分别为基本公共卫生服务能力、临床基本能力、系统分析能力、信息管理能力、沟通与合作能力、职业道德能力、非医学专业知识、个人特质、心理适应性,对总方差的累积解释率为76.855%。模型拟合指数分别为:x2/df为1.88,GFI=0.94,NFI=0.96,NNFI=0.98,PNFI=0.91,RMSEA=0.068,CFI=0.97,IFI=0.97,RFI=0.96,模型拟合较理想。回归分析表明,胜任力素质特征对工作绩效有显著影响。结论构建的农村全科医生胜任力模型可以为乡村医生转岗培训、农村订单定向医学生培养、农村全科医生绩效管理等提供参考依据。%Objective To perform theory construction and empirical study of the competency model of rural general practitioners. Methods Through literature study, job analysis, interviews, and expert team discussion, the questionnaire of rural general practitioners competency was constructed. A total of 1458 rural general practitioners were surveyed by the questionnaire in 6 central provinces. The common factors were constructed using the principal component method of exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. The influence of the competency characteristics on the working performance was analyzed using regression equation analysis. Results The Cronbach 's alpha coefficient of the questionnaire was 0.974. The model consisted of 9 dimensions and 59 items. The 9 competency dimensions included

  18. Hypoxia in Chilean Patagonian Fjords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nelson; Vargas, Cristian A.

    2014-12-01

    Chilean Patagonia is one of the largest estuarine systems in the world. It is characterized by a complex geography of approximately 3300 islands, a total surface area of 240,000 km2, and 84,000 km of coast line, including islands, peninsulas, channels, fjords, and sounds. The Chilean Patagonia Interior Sea is filled with a mixture of sea, estuarine, and fresh waters, and is characterized by a two layer vertical general circulation. Dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions in these fjords were analyzed based on historic salinity, dissolved oxygen and nutrient data from 1200 oceanographic stations. Horizontal advection of adjacent well oxygenated Subantarctic Waters (5-6 mL L-1) was the mayor source of DO in the deep layers of the Interior Sea. Incoming DO was consumed by the respiration of autochthonous and allochthonous particulate organic matter, as ocean water flows towards the continental fjord heads, reaching near-hypoxic (2-3 mL L-1) or hypoxic levels (2 mL L-1) and four hypoxic (<2 mL L-1), but only at their heads. None were found to be anoxic (0 mL L-1). We found these DO conditions to be permanent features of the Chilean Patagonia Interior Sea.

  19. A study on the competency evaluation index system of the rural general practitioners%农村全科医生胜任力素质测评指标体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申正付; 黎丹丹; 齐玉龙; 杨秀木; 孟贝; 贺庆功

    2016-01-01

    目的::构建并开发农村全科医生胜任力素质测评指标体系。方法:运用关键事件访谈法,在安徽省蚌埠地区、滁州地区对30名全科医生、10名市/县卫生与计划生育委员会卫生行政管理者、10名乡镇卫生院院长进行结构式访谈。访谈内容运用NVivo8.0质性分析软件进行分析。选择30名专家进行2轮德尔菲法专家咨询。对安徽、河南、山西、湖南、湖北和江西中部6省1458名农村全科医生进行问卷调查。结果:根据质性分析提取题目的内涵以及专家的意见归纳为9个胜任力素质维度:个人特质、职业道德能力、心理适应性、基本公共卫生服务能力、临床基本能力、信息管理能力、系统分析能力、沟通与合作能力和非医学专业知识。德尔菲法专家咨询:专家的积极程度100%,权威程度Cr=0.89。探索性因素分析结果,取样适切性量数=0.976,P=0.000,提取9个公因子,累计解释方差75.128%,总问卷及各维度问卷的克朗巴哈系数为0.857~0.975;验证性因素分析结果,各项拟合指标分别为卡方自由度比=2.649,渐进残差均方和平方根=0.065,良适性适配指标=0.94,增值适配指数=0.98,非规准适配指数=0.98,比较适配指数0.98;农村全科医生绩效考核优秀者胜任力素质各维度评分均明显高于合格者(P<0.01)。结论:构建的农村全科医生胜任力测评体系可以作为测评农村全科医生胜任能力的依据。%Objective:To develop the competency evaluation index system of the rural general practitioners. Methods:Thirty general practitioners from Bengbu and Chuzhou,10 administrators from the health and Family Planning Commission in city/county and 10 presidents from township hospitals were interviewed using the critical incident interview method,the results of which were analyzed by NVivo8. 0. software. Thirty experts were consulted with Delphy expert consultation for two rounds. The 1

  20. Insulin resistance in Chileans of European and indigenous descent: evidence for an ethnicity x environment interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Celis-Morales

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Effects of urbanisation on diabetes risk appear to be greater in indigenous populations worldwide than in populations of European origin, but the reasons are unclear. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine whether the effects of environment (Rural vs. Urban, adiposity, fitness and lifestyle variables on insulin resistance differed between individuals of indigenous Mapuche origin compared to those of European origin in Chile. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 123 Rural Mapuche, 124 Urban Mapuche, 91 Rural European and 134 Urban European Chilean adults had blood taken for determination of HOMA-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA(IR and underwent assessment of physical activity/sedentary behaviour (using accelerometry, cardiorespiratory fitness, dietary intake and body composition. General linear models were used to determine interactions with ethnicity for key variables. There was a significant "ethnicity x environment" interaction for HOMA(IR (Mean±SD; Rural Mapuche: 1.65±2.03, Urban Mapuche: 4.90±3.05, Rural European: 0.82±0.61, Urban European: 1.55±1.34, p((interaction = 0.0003, such that the effect of urbanisation on HOMA(IR was greater in Mapuches than Europeans. In addition, there were significant interactions (all p<0.004 with ethnicity for effects of adiposity, sedentary time and physical activity on HOMA(IR, with greater effects seen in Mapuches compared to Europeans, an observation that persisted after adjustment for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Urbanisation, adiposity, physical activity and sedentary behaviour influence insulin resistance to a greater extent in Chilean Mapuches than Chileans of European descent. These findings have implications for the design and implementation of lifestyle strategies to reduce metabolic risk in different ethnic groups, and for understanding of the mechanisms underpinning human insulin resistance.

  1. 42 CFR 414.56 - Payment for nurse practitioners' and clinical nurse specialists' services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment for nurse practitioners' and clinical nurse... HEALTH SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.56 Payment for nurse practitioners' and clinical nurse specialists' services. (a) Rural areas. For services furnished beginning January 1, 1992...

  2. Fostering Teaching Quality in Chilean Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman Cruzat, Jose Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to explain the strategies that have been carried out by three Chilean universities in order to advance the quality of their teaching. The studied institutions are the Universidad de los Andes, the Universidad de Talca and the Universidad Catolica de Chile. In each of these three cases the analysis included, both the policies…

  3. The CHilean Automatic Supernova sEarch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamuy, M.; Pignata, G.; Maza, J.;

    2012-01-01

    The CHilean Automatic Supernova sEarch (CHASE) project began in 2007 with the goal to discover young, nearby southern supernovae in order to (1) better understand the physics of exploding stars and their progenitors, and (2) refine the methods to derive extragalactic distances. During the first...

  4. Examining Text Environments in Elementary Chilean Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana-Garcia, Pelusa; Sailors, Misty

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examine the social practices related to literacy in classrooms in Chile in order to examine school-based literacy practices. We also examined the constraints and affordances literacy learning offered Chilean students. Through our case study and cross-case analysis, we discovered that although the classrooms contained an…

  5. Improving the effectiveness of rural development policy in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Carter Leal, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    In Chile, agriculture remains a key economic factor for rural development. Accordingly, the Chilean government, through the Agricultural Development Institute (INDAP), provides financial support for fostering entrepreneurship among small farmers to enable them to become more competitive in global markets. Despite this support, a declining number of farmers and an aging population are observed in rural areas. Most rural development programs focus on increasing competitiveness, whereas the stay...

  6. Innovation Performance of Chilean SMEs: A Bivariate Probit Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rehman, Naqeeb Ur

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the innovation activities of Chilean firms’ by using micro level data. Previous studies showed research gap related to micro level analysis of the Chilean SMEs. For the first time, multiple proxies have been used as dependent variables (product/process innovations and patent application/spending), which is neglected by the past studies. A micro level data has been obtained from the World Bank, Enterprise Survey on 696 Chilean SMEs. Bivariate probit...

  7. Constructing Realities: Bullying Usages in Chilean Discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Bassaletti-Contreras

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article reports an exploratory research on the uses given in Chile to the Anglicism bullying. In order to do so, its evolution is reviewed from the early studies in the Nordic countries, to the treatment of the topic in the Chilean context. The focus of this work is based on socioconstructionism and in turn promotes the consideration of the characteristics of the socio-cultural and historical context of knowledge production with a postcolonial intention. To review the constructions on the subject, we selected Chilean videos at the YouTube virtual platform, using as methodology discourse analysis and dense description. In results can be observed two meanings of bullying: (i to refer to any kind of aggression and (ii as a homologous of abuse among schoolchildren. In response, it is realized the discrepancy with the proposed definitions from general academia and those used in the local environment in investigations, interventions, public policy and mass media in Chile.

  8. Organizational and territorial cultures in Chilean journalism

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Mellado; Claudia Lagos

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of survey responses of 570 journalists from 114 newspapers, radio, newswires, television, and internet news organizations, this paper describes the role conceptions, epistemological underpinning, and ethical values of the Chilean news media workers, comparing the differences that exist among media types and between the capital and the rest of the country. The findings show territorial cultures of journalism, with differences between the capital and provincial regions, mostly clas...

  9. Memorial 1997 - ENDESA (Chilean Electricity Company)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a comprehensive survey, in depth assessment of the activities overview of ENDESA, Chilean Electricity Company, highlighting economical information and including historical and technical aspects. Economics is its focal point, but other relevant data are shown, like technical data on hydroelectric and thermoelectric power plants. Main activities developed by ENDESA are described, such in Chile as in the foreign. Data on power generation, transmission and transport are also presented and an economical balance of each colligated company are done and analysed

  10. A BVAR Forecasting Model for the Chilean Economy A BVAR Forecasting Model for the Chilean Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Morandé

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available A BVAR Forecasting Model for the Chilean Economy Doan, Litterman, and Sims have described a method for estimaling Bayesian vector autoregressive (BVAR forecasting models. The method has been successfully applied to the U.S. macroeconomic dataset, which is relatively long and stable. Despite the brevity and volatily of the post-1976 Chilean macroeconomic dataset, this paper shows that a straightforward application of the DLS method to this datasef, with simple modification to allow for delays in the release of data, also appears to satisfy at least one criterion of relative forecasting accuracy suggested by Doan, Litterman, and Sims. However, the forecast errors of the Chilean BVARs are stil large in absolute term. Also, the model's coefficients change sharply in periods marked by policy shifts, such as the floating of the peso in 1982.

  11. Empowering Rural Women through Mobile Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, P.; Jiji, G. Wiselin

    2010-01-01

    This paper is intended as a gender issue to the rural finance practitioners. It highlights the questions that need to be asked and addressed to the gender mainstream. It will also be useful to gender experts to wish to increase their understanding on specific gender issues in rural finance through mobile services. It focuses on rural microfinance…

  12. Comparing Sociodemographic Factors Associated with Disability Between Immigrants and the Chilean-Born: Are There Different Stories to Tell?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltica Cabieses

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explored a range of sociodemographic factors associated with disability among international immigrants in Chile, and compared them to the Chilean-born. Secondary data analysis of the Chilean population-based survey CASEN-2006 was conducted (268,873 participants. Main health outcomes: any disability and six different types of disability: visual, hearing, learning, physical, psychiatric and speaking (binary outcomes. Sociodemographic variables: Demographic factors (age, sex, marital status, urban/rural, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES: income, education, employment status, and an integrated indicator combining the SES measures through cluster analysis for the immigrant population, material factors (overcrowding, sanitation, housing quality and migration related (country of origin and length of stay. Immigrants reported a significantly lower prevalence of any disability (3.55%, visual (1.00% and physical disability (0.38%. Factors associated with any disability among immigrants were age, low SES or over 20 years duration of residence in Chile; while a range of sociodemographic factors were associated with disability in the Chilean-born. Conditional regression models by age group varied between populations, but SES remained significantly associated with disability across immigrants and the Chilean-born. However, there are no similar patterns of factors associated to different types of disability between the populations under study. Factors associated with disability varied between populations under study, but SES showed a consistent association with any disability in immigrants and the Chilean-born. Types of disability showed different patterns of factors associated to them between populations, which suggest the great complexity of underlying mechanisms related to disability in Chile.

  13. Some Thoughts on the Evaluation of the Chilean Voucher System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapelli, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Many papers describe the Chilean voucher system as the "textbook" voucher case. But this is mistaken and has prevented research to undertake the key question of how the particular design of the Chilean voucher system determines the results obtained in Chile. This also prevents discussion of how a voucher system with a different design could lead…

  14. A Practitioner's Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey, Richard

    2010-01-01

    I have been delivering the flexible family work approaches outlined in this supplement at Aquarius for the past 8 years. Aquarius is an English Midlands-based addictions charity working with people who have problems with alcohol, drugs, or gambling and supporting their family members/concerned others. I have been a practitioner participating in…

  15. Reflective Practitioner Account

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    干青

    2009-01-01

    This article focus on the reflective account of an English teacher learning and teaching in higher education with the British post-graduate certificate program of the Yunnan Agdculture University.As n practitioner for smny years in English learning and teaching for many years,it reflects in four fields.

  16. Changing Rural Paradigms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2016-01-01

    In this article I will review the historical, cultural and social formation of rural development policies in Denmark and situate these in a Scandinavian context. The review is based on a reading of commission reports, law documents and texts produced by the planners and scholars involved...... in regional development, the latter often reflecting upon and justifying their work. This gives us a retrospect on how ethnologists have interacted with rural policies and rural areas in transition. In the latter part of this article, I will have a particular focus on examining the so-called “new rural...... paradigm” (OECD 2006) and its implications for ethnological scholars and practitioners of today. In the “new rural paradigm”, bottom-up processes, “place-bound” cultural and historical values are highlighted as essential to local development. This of course empowers the ethnologists, but also put us...

  17. Report on the 2010 Chilean earthquake and tsunami response

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2011-01-01

    disaster response strategies and operations of Chilean agencies, including perceived or actual failures in disaster preparation that impacted the medical disaster response; post-disaster health and medical interventions to save lives and limit suffering; and the lessons learned by public health and medical personnel as a result of their experiences. Despite devastating damage to the health care and civic infrastructure, the health care response to the Chilean earthquake appeared highly successful due to several factors. Like other first responders, the medical community had the ability and resourcefulness to respond without centralized control in the early response phase. The health care community maintained patient care under austere conditions, despite many obstacles that could have prevented such care. National and international resources were rapidly mobilized to support the medical response. The Emergency Services Team sought to collect information on all phases of emergency management (preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery) and determine what worked well and what could be improved upon. The Chileans reported being surprised that they were not as ready for this event as they thought they were. The use of mass care sheltering was limited, given the scope of the disaster, because of the resiliency of the population. The impacts of the earthquake and the tsunami were quite different, as were the needs of urban and rural dwellers, necessitating different response activities. The Volunteer Services Team examined the challenges faced in mobilizing a large number of volunteers to assist in the aftermath of a disaster of this scale. One of the greatest challenges expressed was difficulty in communication; the need for redundancy in communication mechanisms was cited. The flexibility and ability to work autonomously by the frontline volunteers was a significant factor in effective response. It was also important for volunteer leadership to know the emergency plans

  18. 昆明市城乡居民对全科医生需求的调查分析%Investigation on the Needs of Kunming Urban and Rural Residents for General Practitioners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丽萍; 李四真; 苏倩; 陈治; 杨鑫; 李海林

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解昆明地区社区医疗卫生情况,居民对全科医师的认识,群众对全科医生服务内容和工作方式的需求.为今后完善全科医生服务内容、方法提供依据,改进全科医生培养方法垫定基础.方法 采用调查问卷的方式,对昆明市520名不同年龄、性别、职业的人群进行随机抽样调查.结果 被调查者中,各文化层次的人对全科医生的认识比例为25.8% ~ 48.8%;71.7%更注重全科医生的人文素质,希望他们有较高的责任心、同情心和爱心;72.3%~92.5%认为需要加强全科医生对特殊人群(儿童、老年人、孕妇)的医疗保健;60.2%希望接受24 h开放服务的工作方式.结论 相当一部分群众对社区医院和全科医生缺乏认识,为了更好的开展社区医疗服务工作,应该对群众继续加强进行社区医疗服务工作和全科医生相关知识的宣传教育.%Objective To understand the situation of community health care in Kunming, residents' awareness of general practitioners, general practitioner services, the masses of the content and work, so as to provide the basis for the improvement of GP services requirements and training methods in future. Method The survey questionnaire was used to investigate 520 residents in Kunming with differente age, sex and occupation. RdSUttS Among the respondents, the percentage of awareness of diverse civilizational classes residents on general practitioner were from 25.8% to 48.8% ; 71.7% of residents paid more attention on the humanistic quality of general practitioners and hoped that they had a higher sense of responsibility, compassion and love. 72.3% ~ 92.5% of residents thought that general practitioners need to strengthen the heath care and treatment for special populations ( children, elderly, pregnant women) ; 60.2% wanted to receive 24 hour service work. Conclusions A great part of the residents know little about community hospital and general practitioners, in

  19. Are Chileans exposed to dietary furan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, María S; Toledo, Carla; Hevia, Karen; Gomez, J Pablo; Fromberg, Arvid; Granby, Kit; Rosowski, Jaime; Castillo, Oscar; Pedreschi, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Chilean consumer preferences include foods that may contain considerable amounts of furan, a potential human carcinogen. However, there is no information regarding dietary exposure to furan in Chile. Thus, the objective of this work was to determine the Chilean exposure to dietary furan. To accomplish this objective, the furan concentration of 14 types of commercial foods processed at high temperature were analysed based on a modified headspace-GC/MS (HS-GC/MS) method in which the limits of detection for different food matrices ranged from 0.01 to 0.6 ng g(-1). In addition, a risk assessment was made with exposure estimates based on dietary data from national studies on different age groups (9-month-old babies, school children, adults and elderly people). Of the food items surveyed "American"-type coffee (espresso coffee plus hot water) obtained from automatic coffee machine (936 ng g(-1)) and low moisture starchy products like crisps and "soda"-type crackers showed the highest furan concentrations (259 and 91 ng g(-1), respectively). Furthermore, furan was also found in samples of breakfast cereals (approximately 20 ng g(-1)), jarred fruit baby foods (8.5 ng g(-1)) and orange juice (7.0 ng g(-1)). School children (aged 9-13 years) represented the highest intake of furan (about 500 ng kg(-1)(bw) day(-1)), with margins of exposure of 2479 and 2411, respectively, which points to a possible public health risk. PMID:23875686

  20. Simplicity of the Tax Systems: The Chilean Case. (in Spanish)

    OpenAIRE

    Barra, Patricio

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the concept of the simplicity in a tax system. The analysis approaches the different scopes in which the tax simplicity is observed. For this purpose, the main aspects of the Chilean tax system are analyzed, by using indicators that try to define the concept in a quantitative frame. The analysis of the Chilean case is used to infer some implications that could also be valid in other Latin American tax systems.

  1. Today's students, tomorrow's practitioners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heape, Chris

    2015-01-01

    There is an inherent dilemma that some research indicates ways and means of doing design practice, in particular how practitioners bring what this paper identifies as informal resources into play, that are seldom reflected in how and what design students are taught or learn. The question is posed...... draw up an alternative understanding of collaborative design practice as participatory inquiry. The paper suggests that participatory inquiry, as it more fully takes into account the learning driven and relational nature of design practice, could help inform alternative design educational strategies....

  2. The informed Practitioner: Communication between social scientists and practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Hessler, Gudrun; Unzicker, Kai

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines interaction processes and knowledge exchange between social scientists and practitioners. We conducted semi-structured interviews with practitioners working in specified fields of practice who have been involved in sociological research projects - as subjects of investigation or as experts. These research projects focused on social integration and disintegration in different sectors of German society. The interviewed practitioners were working in sectors under scrutiny by ...

  3. Telepsychiatry for Treating Rural American Indian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin, Daniel; Garry, Mark T.; Zuccaro, Paula; Novins, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Of all of the medical specialties, child and adolescent psychiatry has the most severe shortage of practitioners. This shortage is even more pronounced in economically disadvantaged and rural areas. The American Indian population is younger, more economically disadvantaged, and more rural than the general U.S. population (United States Census…

  4. Development of the nurse practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, P

    1992-03-25

    In the first of two articles on the development of the emergency nurse practitioner, Peter Howie reports on a new scheme in Lincoln where all first-level nurses have been trained as nurse practitioners. The initiative was introduced following a study in the theoretical management of patients by experienced accident and emergency sisters. The author outlines the training course provided and the protocols within which nurse practitioners work. PMID:27236949

  5. Library service to dental practitioners.

    OpenAIRE

    Ashin, E R

    1983-01-01

    Dental school libraries offer resources of value to dental practitioners, but do not always consider practitioners to be primary clientele. A survey was conducted among the sixty U.S. dental school libraries to examine policies and attitudes toward service to practitioners. Although library use by dentists is estimated to be low, most libraries are willing to serve them as long as it does not reduce the libraries' ability to assist students and faculty. Of the respondents, 57% replied that th...

  6. Minimun Pension Insurance in the Chilean Pension System Minimun Pension Insurance in the Chilean Pension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Zurita

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the "social" features of the Chilean individual capitalization pension system is the minimum pension scheme. which guarantees its members a minimum pension irrespective of the funds they accumulate, with the only requirement of twenty years of social security tax payments. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the implicit fiscal subsidy, using an option-based approach. We capture the risk associated to the returns on the pension fund account of a worker by modeling its value as a diffusion process and show the correspondence between the minimum pension insurance and a financial put option. Our results are the present value of the minimum pension benefit, equivalent to 3 percent of Chilean GDP for current active and non-active affiliated workers. These estimates are notoriously higher than previous results based on deterministic models, and strongly suggest the importance of explicitly considering the risk associated to pension assets when estimating the cost to the government of the insurance implied by the minimum pension benefit. One of the "social" features of the Chilean individual capitalization pension system is the minimum pension scheme. which guarantees its members a minimum pension irrespective of the funds they accumulate, with the only requirement of twenty years of social security tax payments. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the implicit fiscal subsidy, using an option-based approach. We capture the risk associated to the returns on the pension fund account of a worker by modeling its value as a diffusion process and show the correspondence between the minimum pension insurance and a financial put option. Our results are the present value of the minimum pension benefit, equivalent to 3 percent of Chilean GDP for current active and non-active affiliated workers. These estimates are notoriously higher than previous results based on deterministic models, and strongly suggest the importance of explicitly considering

  7. Independence and regulatory effectiveness: The Chilean experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International binding documents state that Member States should provide an effectively independent Regulatory Body. There are no recommendations on how independent a Regulatory Body must be. As a result, many different regulatory structures are found worldwide. Economical development status of Member States can be easily correlated to their regulatory organizations; nuclear power programs are also decisory. Along the last fifty years, regulatory activities in Chile have gone through several changes: before 1974 radioactive facilities were controlled by the Ministry of Health. A Supreme Decree issued on June 1974, approved the 'Regulations on Licensing (of radioactive facilities)', conferring this faculty to the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission. The CNEC had, de facto, the same faculties regarding nuclear facilities. The Nuclear Safety Law, published in 1984 stated that the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEC) was the competent authority regarding nuclear facilities, while Regional Health Services belonging to the Ministry of Health, were competent over all radioactive facilities. In 1987 the Law No. 18.730 amended the Nuclear Safety Law, transferring the competence over 1st category radioactive facilities and associated matters to the CNEC. In 2004 the Ministry of Health went under a great reorganization: the Law No. 19.937 defined new competent authorities, providing an effective independence of the regulatory functions. In 2001, the Board of Directors of the CNEC delegated the faculty of granting authorizations to the Head of the Nuclear and Radiological Safety Department. In 2005, the Board also delegated the faculties of proposing regulations and standards and prosecuting regulation violators on the person of the Head of the Nuclear and Radiological Safety Department. Both, the Ministry of Health and the CNEC, have given decisory steps towards fulfilling the principle of regulatory independence: the first one by separating functions at the level of

  8. Results of Chilean water markets: Empirical research since 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Carl J.

    2004-09-01

    Chile's free-market Water Code turned 20 years old in October 2001. This anniversary was an important milestone for both Chilean and international debates about water policy because Chile has become the world's leading example of the free-market approach to water law and water resources management, the textbook case of treating water rights not merely as private property but also as a fully marketable commodity. The predominant view outside of Chile is that Chilean water markets and the Chilean model of water management have been a success, and this perception has encouraged other countries to follow Chile's lead in water law reform. Much of the debate about Chilean water markets, however, has been based more on theoretical or political beliefs than on empirical study. This paper reverses that emphasis by reviewing the evolution of empirical research about these markets since 1990, when Chile returned to democratic government after 16 years of military rule. During the period since 1990, understanding of how Chilean water markets have worked in practice has gradually improved. There have been two major trends in this research: first, a gradual shift from exaggerated claims of the markets' success toward more balanced assessments of mixed results and, second, a heavy emphasis on the economics of water rights trading with very little attention given to the Water Code's impacts on social equity, river basin management, environmental protection, or resolution of water conflicts. The analysis in this study is qualitative and interdisciplinary, combining law, economics, and institutions.

  9. Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission dosimetric information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis discusses the nuclear radiation that people who work with radioactive material is exposed to and its control by the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission. A full analysis of the System is presented with information about the Commission and the Department of Nuclear and Radiological Safety which runs the System. Ana analysis of the System is presented in order to obtain requirements. Management flow diagrams, the processes involved and current problems experienced by the users are described. A design logic is modeled producing Data Flow Diagrams (DFD). based on this physical design, or, Model of Physical Data, is prepared including tables, attributes, types of data, primary and foreign keys. A description is presented of how the System is implemented, the tools that are used and how the testing phase is carried out. The Dosimetry System meets the criteria for a Software Engineering project, where the basic cycle was used as a working methodology. The System developed supports the dosimetric control of people exposed to radioactive material. (author)

  10. Training and Exploration of Mental health Service Capacity of Rural General Practitioners%基层全科医生心理卫生服务能力的培训及探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱少娟(通讯作者); 李华

    2014-01-01

    Objective:Discuss the training path on the all -around doctor mental health service ability of teaching practice .Methods:On the base of general practitioners self -rating symptom scale (SCL-90 scale), chronic psychological guidance , psychological, mental health problems , clinical features , treatment and prevention and control principle of training .Results:Chronic psychological guidance , psychological , mental health problems , clinical characteristics , treatment and control principle of the project , the teacher evaluation and student evaluation results were 67.5%, 70.2%, self-rating symptom scale (SCL-90 scale) student self -assessment results for 25. 9%.Conclusion:(1)The all-around doctor mental health services and improve their ability;(2) The weak psychological measurement knowledge , strengthening medical psychology , psychological measurement knowledge training .%目的:探讨对基层全科医生心理卫生服务能力的教学实践培训路径。方法:对基层全科医生进行症状自评量表( SCL~90量表)、慢性病心理指导、常见心理、精神卫生问题临床特征、处理及防控原则的培训。结果:慢性病心理指导、常见心理、精神卫生问题临床特征、处理及防控原则项目,老师考核和学员自评结果分别为67.5%、70.2%,症状自评量表( SCL~90量表)学员自评结果为25.9%。结论:(1)基层全科医生心理卫生服务能力有所提高;(2)心理测量知识薄弱,应加强医学心理学、心理测量知识培训。

  11. Nursing: What's a Nurse Practitioner?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nurses, or APNs) have a master's degree in nursing (MS or MSN) and board certification in their ... Nurse Practitioners (NAPNAP) and through local hospitals or nursing schools. In addition, many doctors share office space ...

  12. Association between eating behavior scores and obesity in Chilean children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amador Paola

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate eating behavior and physical inactivity contribute to the current epidemic of childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the association between eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chilean children. Design and methods We recruited 126 obese, 44 overweight and 124 normal-weight Chilean children (6-12 years-old; both genders according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF criteria. Eating behavior scores were calculated using the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ. Factorial analysis in the culturally-adapted questionnaire for Chilean population was used to confirm the original eight-factor structure of CEBQ. The Cronbach's alpha statistic (>0.7 in most subscales was used to assess internal consistency. Non-parametric methods were used to assess case-control associations. Results Eating behavior scores were strongly associated with childhood obesity in Chilean children. Childhood obesity was directly associated with high scores in the subscales "enjoyment of food" (P Conclusion Our study shows a strong and graded association between specific eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chile.

  13. Prevalence and risk factors for bruises in Chilean bovine carcasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strappini, A.C.; Frankena, K.; Metz, J.H.M.; Kemp, B.

    2010-01-01

    Records of cattle slaughtered at two Chilean slaughterhouses (SLH1 and SLH2) were used to determine prevalence and risk factors for carcasses with bruises. Bruise prevalence amounted to 12.3% but differed between slaughterhouses (20.8% for SLH1 and 8.6% for SLH2 respectively). Bruise severity grade

  14. Amino acid biogeo- and stereochemistry in coastal Chilean sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomstein, Bente Aagaard; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Schubert, Carsten J.;

    2006-01-01

    The spatial distribution of total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA) and amino acid enantiomers (D- and L-forms) was investigated in sediments underlying two contrasting Chilean upwelling regions,: at ~23°S off Antofagasta and at ~36°S off Concepcion. The contribution of amino acids to total organic...

  15. Experiences with a small scale Solar/Wind pilot installation for basic electrification in the chilean altiplano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapiain, Raul; Ovalle, Ricardo; Torres, Ariel; Brockmeyer, Ricarda; Schmidt, Reinhold [Centro de Energias Renovables/Universidad de Tarapaca, Arica, (Chile); Meer, Andreas V. [Solar Institute, Juelich (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Basic rural electrification programmes are already carried out in the rural areas of northern Chile by local communities and local governments using photovoltaic systems. Solar Home Systems, 12 VDC are installed for individual households while systems for schools, public lighting etc. are realized with bigger systems, 220 VAC. Within a cooperation with the Solar Institute of the Fachhochschule Juelich, Germany, the Renewable Energy Center of the University of Tarapaca designed, installed and evaluated the first solar/wind hybrid installation for basic electrification in northern Chile, realized in Colpitas, a typical small village in the chilean altiplano. The following paper presents results and experiences of this first pilot installation. [Espanol] Ya se estan llevando a cabo programas de electrificacion rural basica en las areas rurales del Norte de Chile por las comunidades y los gobiernos locales, usando sistemas fotovoltaicos. Se instalan Sistemas Domesticos Solares de 12VDC para casas-habitacion individuales, mientras que los sistemas para escuelas, alumbrado publico, etc., se ejecutan con sistemas mas grandes de 220VAC. Con la coperacion del Instituto Solar de la Fachhochschule en Julich, Alemania, el Centro de Energia Renovable de la Universidad de Tarapaca, diseno, instalo y evaluo, la primera instalacion hibrida solar/viento para electrificacion basica en el Norte de Chile, realizado en Colpitas, un pueblo tipico pequeno del altiplano chileno. El siguiete articulo presenta los resultados y experiencias de esta primera instalacion piloto.

  16. Origins of the Chilean Binominal Election System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pastor

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available strategic reaction by the military regime to the defeat of General Augusto Pinochet in the 1988 Plebiscite since the system was formally established during the period between the plebiscite and the first postauthoritarian elections in 1989. This theory, however, offers a mistaken account of the history and evolution of the binominal election system whose origins are considerably more complex than the conventional wisdom suggests. This article explores the internal political processes and the ideology that led the military government to adopt the binominal system. It argues that the election system was the capstone of the authoritarian institutional framework designed by the military government to protect the 1980 Constitution from efforts by the Concertación to reform it. Contrary to popular belief, the binominal system was proposed long before the 1988 Plebiscite by Arturo Marín Vicuña, then secretary of a government commission studying a new electoral law. This article maintains that, more than any other factor, the binominal system reflects and responds to an interpretation of Chilean political history between 1960 and 1973 that was widely shared among the Pinochet government's legal advisorsSe ha asumido que el presente sistema electoral chileno -el "binominal mayoritario"- fue una reacción ante la derrota del General Augusto Pinochet en el plebiscito de 1988, ya que fue lanzado en el intermedio después del plebiscito, pero antes que el régimen militar abandonara el poder. No obstante, esta hipótesis se equivoca en la historia de la evolución del sistema binominal que es más complejo. Este artículo explora la historia de los procesos políticos dentro del régimen militar y la ideología que llevó al sistema binominal. Argumenta que el sistema binominal fue la piedra arquitectónica de la institucionalidad autoritaria del régimen militar que protegía su Constitución de 1980 contra los esfuerzos de la Concertación para

  17. Rural Active Living: A Call to Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umstattd Meyer, M Renée; Moore, Justin B; Abildso, Christiaan; Edwards, Michael B; Gamble, Abigail; Baskin, Monica L

    2016-01-01

    Rural residents are less physically active than their urban counterparts and disproportionately affected by chronic diseases and conditions associated with insufficient activity. While the ecological model has been successful in promoting and translating active living research in urban settings, relatively little research has been conducted in rural settings. The resulting research gap prohibits a comprehensive understanding and application of solutions for active living in rural America. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to assess the evidence base for an ecological model of active living for rural populations and outline key scientific gaps that inhibit the development and application of solutions. Specifically, we reexamined the 4 domains conceptualized by the model and suggest that there is a dearth of research specific to rural communities across all areas of the framework. Considering the limited rural-specific efforts, we propose areas that need addressing to mobilize rural active living researchers and practitioners into action. PMID:26327514

  18. Main musculoskeletal injuries associated with lameness in Chilean Rodeo horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mora-Carreño

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chilean Rodeo is the most popular equestrian discipline in Chile and it is estimated that musculoskeletal diseases of the equine participants are the leading cause of illness and poor performance, however no related reports have been published. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the main diseases associated with lameness in Chilean Rodeo horses. A retrospective study was performed considering the clinical attention records of horses participating in Chilean Rodeo which presented lameness. Information was collected regarding 114 cases, including identification (name, age and gender and the clinical characteristics of each episode. The average age of the horses was 8 ± 3.4 years. Among the subjects, 98.3% of the episodes corresponded to spontaneous lameness, with 2/4 being the most frequent degree of lameness. Unilateral episodes corresponded to 72.8% (83/114 of the cases, affecting primarily the front limbs (51/83. The most frequent diagnoses were: suspensory ligament desmitis (14%, tarsal osteoarthritis (13.2%, navicular syndrome (8.8%, laminitis (7.9%, deep digital flexor tendonitis (7% and metacarpophalangeal osteoarthritis (6.1%. The high frequency of grade 2 lameness suggests that the majority of veterinary attentions seem to be mostly at obvious conditions. Joint, foot and soft tissue conditions seem to be the main cause of lameness in equines participating in Chilean Rodeo. These results suggest that education regarding the importance of early diagnosis and greater hoof care are primary measures that may favor the prevention of lameness in Chilean Rodeo horses.

  19. Respiratory functions in Kalaripayattu practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, C Kesava; Nair, R Harikumaran; Shashidhar, S

    2004-04-01

    Kalaripayattu, an ancient traditional martial art form of Kerala, is considered as the basis for all martial arts viz. Karate, Kungfu, etc. physiological studies are more concentrated on Karate, Kungfu and other martial arts due to their global acceptance. Considering the limited knowledge available regarding the physiological profiles of Kalaripayattu practitioners, the present study was taken up for filling the lacunae in the field. Lung function tests were carried out in ten Kalari practitioners. Residual volume was measured by indirect method. Higher lung volumes and flow rates were achieved in Kalari practitioners compared to age and height-matched controls. Better mechanical factors and lower airway resistance influenced during Kalari practice might have benefited in improving hung volumes and flow rates.

  20. Biofilm models for the practitioner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgenroth, Eberhard Friedrich; van Loosdrecht, M. C. M.; Wanner, O.

    2000-01-01

    Even though mathematical biofilm models are extensively used in biofilm research, there has been very little application of these models in the engineering practice so far. However, practitioners would be interested in models that can be used as tools to control plant operation under dynamic...... conditions or to help them handle complex interactions between particle removal, carbon oxidation, nitrification, denitrification and biological phosphorus removal. But even though there is a whole range of biofilm models available, it is difficult for the practitioner to select the appropriate modeling...

  1. A Scholar-Practitioner Approach to International Mentoring through Collaborative Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Wesley D.; Gill, Peggy B.; Amonett, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    A new international partnership in southern Belize that provided ongoing mentoring, teacher development, and resource allocation in two rural schools was examined through interviews with key individuals. This research was implemented through a scholar-practitioner approach, which embraces the concept of researcher as change agent. The results…

  2. The Chilean Health System: 20 Years of Reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Annick

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean health care system has been intensively reformed in the past 20 years. Reforms under the Pinochet government (1973-1990 aimed mainly at the decentralization of the system and the development of a private sector. Decentralization involved both a deconcentration process and the devolution of primary health care to municipalities. The democratic governments after 1990 chose to preserve the core organization but introduced reforms intended to correct the system's failures and to increase both efficiency and equity. The present article briefly explains the current organization of the Chilean health care system. It also reviews the different reforms introduced in the past 20 years, from the Pinochet regime to the democratic governments. Finally, a brief discussion describes the strengths and weaknesses of the system, as well as the challenges it currently faces.

  3. CHALLENGES FACING THE ESP PRACTITIONER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMION MINODORA OTILIA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ESP teacher has to face certain challenges in his profession: One of the biggest challenges of the ESP teacher is the fact that he/she lacks the necessary knowledge of the subject to teach Business English, for instance, some researchers believing that such courses should be taught by subject teachers. The task of teaching ESP by ESL teachers is not an easy one. Dudley- Evans and St. John pointed out its complexity, identifying five key roles of the ESP practitioner: teacher, course designer and materials provider, collaborator, researcher and evaluator and this is probably the biggest challenge of the profession. The ESP practitioner has also to be aware of the fact that using a foreign language for workplace or study purposes requires not only linguistic proficiency and knowledge but also knowledge of work –related and disciplinary concepts.Last but not least, another challenge for the ESP practitioner is the use of technology in class, a valuable tool for helping with traditional forms of teaching and for creating new forms of communicating.Thus, the ESP practitioner has many things in common with the teacher of general English: he has to be familiar with linguistic development and teaching theories ,he has to be aware of contemporary ideas related to his position and role and he has to become familiar with the new technologies which can be used to improve his methodology.However,his role is more complex than that of a General English teacher.

  4. School Psychology in Rural Contexts: Ethical, Professional, and Legal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lynn M.; Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2014-01-01

    Delivering psychological services in rural communities presents a number of unique challenges for practitioners relative to their peers in urban and suburban communities. In this article, the authors describe the current context of rural schools and examine the ethical and legal issues school psychologists may face when practicing in rural…

  5. Women and changes in the Chilean economy: some questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiaroski, M S

    1996-10-01

    The author argues that a new development model that encourages greater participation of women in the work force in domestic piecework, temporary work, and subcontracting may further lead to the exploitation of women in Chile. The importance of women in economic development in Chile should be based on building skills, providing support child care services, reorienting women's education, and tax incentives. Chile over the past decade has achieved relatively stable economic growth and increased employment of women. During 1990-93 the growth of women in the work force increased at a rate of 16.8%, while men's presence increased by only 9.8%. The Chilean economy is based on a sophisticated modern sector and a labor-intensive informal sector. The Chilean model of development relies on cheap, flexible labor and a government approval of this model. Increased participation of women in the labor force is usually perceived as increased economic empowerment. A 1994 Oxfam study found that women were being forced into the labor market due to declines in family income and low wages. 46% of men and women received wages that did not cover basic necessities. The Chilean labor market is gender-stratified. Men are paid better than women for the same work. Men are in more permanent positions. Labor laws are either inadequate or violated, particularly for hours of work and overtime pay and conditions of employment and benefits. Traditional female jobs are those that rely on women's natural attributes. These unskilled attributes are rewarded with low wages. Little opportunity is provided for upgrading skills or acquiring new skills. Some women turn down advancement because of a lack of role models. Women have little opportunity to develop their self-image as workers. Poor self-images affect women's work attitudes and motivation. Some firms use competition between women to boost production. Chilean women remain in subordinate roles.

  6. [Minimum legal drinking age in the Chilean context].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Jorge; Heller, Nereida

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is harmful to minors. One of the most wide ly accepted measures for the prevention of harm associated with alcohol consumption for young people is to establish a minimum legal drinking age. This document presents the evidence available on this policy, offers a condensed analysis of its characteristics in the United States of America, describes current consumption patterns of Chilean youth, and proposes concrete solutions to be implemented. PMID:26998989

  7. EMPIRICAL REGULARITIES OF THE CHILEAN ECONOMY: 1986-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Enrique Restrepo L.; Claudio Soto G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper documents the main empirical regularities of the Chilean economy over the past twenty years, characterizing it in two dimensions. First, it describes the economy’s structure in terms of the sectors’ relative sizes in the long term and the importance of the various components of aggregate demand. Second, it documents the main features of business cycles in Chile. The volatility and persistence of several variables across the cycles is described, together with the correlations within...

  8. A New Liquidity Risk Measure for the Chilean Banking Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastián Becerra; Gregory Claeys; Juan Francisco Martínez

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work is to construct an appropriate measure of liquidity risk for Chilean banks. There are already several measures of liquidity risk in the literature. Most of these metrics are based on specific assumptions and expert opinion. In order to overcome the potential problems associated with discretionary assumptions, and to exploit the information available, similar to the work of Drehman and Nikolaou (2012), we propose a metric based on the behavior of banks in the procure...

  9. Bank Lending and Relationship Banking: Evidence from Chilean Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Repetto; Sergio Rodríguez; Valdés, Rodrigo O.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we empirically study bank-client relationships using a sample of manufacturing Chilean firms. We examine whether concentration and the duration of bank-firm relationships affect the terms of bank financing, evaluating both the volume of bank lending and bank loan costs. Our results indicate that lower concentration, measured by the number of banks a firm borrows from, is associated with lower costs of loans and with a large and positive non-lincar effect on borrowing. The length...

  10. The social and cultural impact of advertising among chilean youths

    OpenAIRE

    Vergara-Leyton, Enrique; Rodríguez-Salineros, Maite

    2010-01-01

    This work analyzes the impact of advertising among Chilean youngsters of different socioeconomic background. We aim to identify the relationship that this group establishes with advertising and, in particular, the way they incorporate it in their socialization strategies. We do not address what advertising does to youngsters, but instead what youngsters do with advertising in their practices of appropriation and reception of it. The research design included focus groups of male and female you...

  11. Substance Use, Criminal Activity, and Mental Health among Violent and Nonviolent Rural Probationers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, J. Matthew; Dickson, Megan F.; Saman, Daniel M.; Mateyoke-Scrivner, Allison; Oser, Carrie B.; Leukefeld, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Differences between violent and nonviolent probationers were examined in the growing, yet understudied, rural probation population. Violent rural probationers had higher rates of substance use, criminal activity, and mental health symptoms than did nonviolent rural probationers. Implications for practitioners are discussed. (Contains 3 tables.)

  12. "I Could Never Have Learned This in a Lecture": Transformative Learning in Rural Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prout, Sarah; Lin, Ivan; Nattabi, Barbara; Green, Charmaine

    2014-01-01

    Health indicators for rural populations in Australia continue to lag behind those of urban populations and particularly for Indigenous populations who make up a large proportion of people living in rural and remote Australia. Preparation of health practitioners who are adequately prepared to face the "messy swamps" of rural health…

  13. Complementary medicine and the general practitioner

    OpenAIRE

    Wharton, R; Lewith, G.

    1986-01-01

    The attitudes to complementary medicine of a random sample of general practitioners in Avon were assessed. A questionnaire was sent to 200 general practitioners, of whom 145 responded. The treatments studied were acupuncture, homoeopathy, herbal medicine, spinal manipulation, faith healing, and hypnosis. Of the 145 general practitioners, 55 (38%) had received some training in complementary medicine and 22 (15%) wished to arrange training. Overall, general practitioners knew little about the t...

  14. Statistical literacy for clinical practitioners

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, William H

    2014-01-01

    This textbook on statistics is written for students in medicine, epidemiology, and public health. It builds on the important role evidence-based medicine now plays in the clinical practice of physicians, physician assistants and allied health practitioners. By bringing research design and statistics to the fore, this book can integrate these skills into the curricula of professional programs. Students, particularly practitioners-in-training, will learn statistical skills that are required of today’s clinicians. Practice problems at the end of each chapter and downloadable data sets provided by the authors ensure readers get practical experience that they can then apply to their own work.  Topics covered include:   Functions of Statistics in Clinical Research Common Study Designs Describing Distributions of Categorical and Quantitative Variables Confidence Intervals and Hypothesis Testing Documenting Relationships in Categorical and Quantitative Data Assessing Screening and Diagnostic Tests Comparing Mean...

  15. Burnout contagion among general practitioners.

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, A. B.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Sixma, H.J.; Bosveld, W.

    2001-01-01

    This study used a representative sample of 507 general practitioners (GPs) to test the hypothesis that burnout is contagious. Following a two-dimensional conceptualization of burnout, it is assumed that burnout is comprised of emotional exhaustion and negative attitudes (i.e., depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment). We hypothesized that perceived burnout complaints among colleagues and susceptibility to emotional contagion would make an independent contribution to explaining v...

  16. Software engineering a practitioner's approach

    CERN Document Server

    Pressman, Roger S

    1997-01-01

    This indispensable guide to software engineering exploration enables practitioners to navigate the ins and outs of this rapidly changing field. Pressman's fully revised and updated Fourth Edition provides in-depth coverage of every important management and technical topic in software engineering. Moreover, readers will find the inclusion of the hottest developments in the field such as: formal methods and cleanroom software engineering, business process reengineering, and software reengineering.

  17. Rural Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rural Health > Topics & States > Topics View more Rural Aging The nation's population is aging, and with that change comes increased healthcare needs. ... Disease Control and Prevention report, The State of Aging and Health in America 2013 , the population 65 ...

  18. Nurse practitioner prescribing: an international perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fong J

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Jacqueline Fong,1,2 Thomas Buckley,2 Andrew Cashin3 1St George Hospital, Kogarah, 2Sydney Nursing School, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia; 3School of Health and Human Sciences, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW, Australia Background: Internationally, the delivery of care provided by nurses and midwives has undergone a significant change due to a variety of interrelated factors, including economic circumstances, a diminishing number of medical providers, the unavailability of adequate health care services in underserved and rural areas, and growing specialization among the professions. One solution to the challenges of care delivery has been the introduction of nurse practitioners (NPs and the authorization of NPs to prescribe medicines. Aim: The aim of this paper was to review the current international literature related to NP prescribing and compare the findings to the Australian context. The review focuses on literature from the United States, Canada, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. Methods: Databases were searched from January 2000 to January 2015. The following keywords: “nurse practitioner”, “advanced nurse”, “advanced practice nurse”, “prescri*”, “Australia”, “United States America”, “UK”, “New Zealand”, “Canada”, “Europe”, “drug prescri*”, “prescri* authority”, and “prescri* legislation” were used. Findings: NPs tend to prescribe in differing contexts of practice to provide care in underserved populations and require good systems literacy to practice across complex systems. The key themes identified internationally related to NP prescribing relate to barriers to prescribing, confidence in prescribing, and the unique role of NPs in prescribing medicines, eg, the high prevalence of prescribing pain medicines in several countries, including Australia. Conclusion: Across all countries reviewed, there appears a need for further research into the organizational and

  19. Plant Level Evidence on Product Mix Changes in Chilean Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Navarro

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes changes in the product mix by Chilean manufacturing plants in the period 1996-2003. Three-quarters of the surviving plants changed the set of products produced and more than three-quarters of the exporting plants changed the mix of products they exported during the sample period. Plants that changed their product mix contributed 85% of the aggregate growth in real sales of surviving plants between 1996 and 2003. Finally and in contrast to the US evidence, there is a negati...

  20. THE RESPONSE OF MONTEREY BAY TO THE 2010 CHILEAN EARTHQUAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence C. Breaker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary frequencies contained in the arrival sequence produced by the tsunami from the Chilean earthquake of 2010 in Monterey Bay were extracted to determine the seiche modes that were produced. Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA and Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD were employed to extract the primary frequencies of interest. The wave train from the Chilean tsunami lasted for at least four days due to multipath arrivals that may not have included reflections from outside the bay but most likely did include secondary undulations, and energy trapping in the form of edge waves, inside the bay. The SSA decomposition resolved oscillations with periods of 52-57, 34-35, 26-27, and 21-22 minutes, all frequencies that have been predicted and/or observed in previous studies. The EEMD decomposition detected oscillations with periods of 50-55 and 21-22 minutes. Periods in the range of 50-57 minutes varied due to measurement uncertainties but almost certainly correspond to the first longitudinal mode of oscillation for Monterey Bay, periods of 34-35 minutes correspond to the first transverse mode of oscillation that assumes a nodal line across the entrance of the bay, a period of 26- 27 minutes, although previously observed, may not represent a fundamental oscillation, and a period of 21-22 minutes has been predicted and observed previously. A period of ~37 minutes, close to the period of 34-35 minutes, was generated by the Great Alaskan Earthquake of 1964 in Monterey Bay and most likely represents the same mode of oscillation. The tsunamis associated with the Great Alaskan Earthquake and the Chilean Earthquake both entered Monterey Bay but initially arrived outside the bay from opposite directions. Unlike the Great Alaskan Earthquake, however, which excited only one resonant mode inside the bay, the Chilean Earthquake excited several modes suggesting that the asymmetric shape of the entrance to Monterey Bay was an important factor and that the

  1. Misconception p value among Chilean and Italian academic psychologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Badenes-Ribera

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The p value misconceptions are based on certain beliefs and attributions about the significance of the results. Thus, they affect the professionals’ decisions and jeopardize the quality of interventions and the accumulation of valid scientific knowledge. We conducted a survey on 164 academic psychologists (134 Italians, 30 Chileans, questioned on this topic. Our findings are consistent with original research and suggest that some participants do not know how to correctly interpret p values. The inverse probability fallacy presents the greatest comprehension problems, followed by the replication fallacy. These results highlight the importance of the statistical re-education of researchers. Recommendations for improving statistical cognition are proposed.

  2. Chilean Prosopis Mesocarp Flour: Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann; Cristina Quispe; Maria del Pilar C. Soriano; Cristina Theoduloz; Felipe Jiménez-Aspée; Maria Jorgelina Pérez; Ana Soledad Cuello; Maria Inés Isla

    2015-01-01

    In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82–2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest ant...

  3. [The and beginnings of Chilean endocrinology in the 1920s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Delgado, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Rejuvenation was a chapter of critical importance for the worldwide development of endocrinology in the 1920s. This work explores the acceptance of these techniques in Chile. Starting in the late 19th century, the Chilean Medical Journal (Revista Médica de Chile) incorporated references to experiments with endocrine gland preparations that were being conducted in Europe at the time. An appropriation of the experiments by the Austrian Eugen Steinach began in 1920, with prominent figures such as the Italian professor Juan Noe Crevani and the young Chilean student Ottmar Wilhelm. Between 1922 and 1924, Wilhelm developed a series of experiments on dogs, bulls, pigs, rats and Welfare Board patients through the so-called Steinach operation, which consisted of the sectioning of the efferent channel in one of the testicles. Professor Noe's scientific patronage policy and Wilhelm's strategy of succession in the field led the latter to hold a chair in the new School of Medicine of Universidad de Concepci6n at the age of 25. From this position, the. figure of Wilhelm was fundamental for the development of a line of endocrinological research that was able to position Universidad de Concepci6n as a scientific development centre, which was strengthened by the arrival of another disciple of Steinach in Chile, the Latvian professor Alejandro Lipschütz. PMID:27363250

  4. Positive discrimination in education: Its justification and a Chilean example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Huidobro, Juan Eduardo S.

    1994-05-01

    Educational policies in Latin America have centred on two main issues: raising the quality of education, and improving the equity of its distribution. Access to schooling was until recently at the heart of the debate, the degree of justice of the educational systems being measured by their capacity to enrol and retain the population. Attention is now concentrated on the strength of the cultural resources offered by schools and the effectiveness of provision. Learning is the priority of education policy. This article develops the theme of equity, examining the concept and describing a programme which focuses on improving the equity of the Chilean educational system. It is suggested that educational equity should no longer mean equality of access but equality of results. A just system therefore needs to concentrate on raising the quality of schools serving the poorest sectors of society. The Chilean "900 Schools Programme" is an example. Its aim was to raise levels of achievement by improving the learning of poor children from 1st to 4th grade in reading, writing and mathematics. To do so, it improved the school environment, textbooks and methodologies, and offered support to children outside school hours by the work of community monitors.

  5. Developing Teachers for Rural Education? Reflecting on the 2nd KwaZulu-Natal Department of Education Teacher Development Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikoko, Vitallis

    2008-01-01

    This article reflects on six key themes that emerged from a teacher development conference whose theme was "Developing Teachers for Rural Education". The six themes are the concept "rural" in the South African context; the notion of "rural education"; beyond access, towards success; the practitioner-academic dichotomy; partnership in teacher…

  6. Report on the 2010 Chilean earthquake and tsunami response

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2011-01-01

    In July 2010, in an effort to reduce future catastrophic natural disaster losses for California, the American Red Cross coordinated and sent a delegation of 20 multidisciplinary experts on earthquake response and recovery to Chile. The primary goal was to understand how the Chilean society and relevant organizations responded to the magnitude 8.8 Maule earthquake that struck the region on February 27, 2010, as well as how an application of these lessons could better prepare California communities, response partners and state emergency partners for a comparable situation. Similarities in building codes, socioeconomic conditions, and broad extent of the strong shaking make the Chilean earthquake a very close analog to the impact of future great earthquakes on California. To withstand and recover from natural and human-caused disasters, it is essential for citizens and communities to work together to anticipate threats, limit effects, and rapidly restore functionality after a crisis. The delegation was hosted by the Chilean Red Cross and received extensive briefings from both national and local Red Cross officials. During nine days in Chile, the delegation also met with officials at the national, regional, and local government levels. Technical briefings were received from the President’s Emergency Committee, emergency managers from ONEMI (comparable to FEMA), structural engineers, a seismologist, hospital administrators, firefighters, and the United Nations team in Chile. Cities visited include Santiago, Talca, Constitución, Concepción, Talcahuano, Tumbes, and Cauquenes. The American Red Cross Multidisciplinary Team consisted of subject matter experts, who carried out special investigations in five Teams on the (1) science and engineering findings, (2) medical services, (3) emergency services, (4) volunteer management, and (5) executive and management issues (see appendix A for a full list of participants and their titles and teams). While developing this

  7. General practitioners and occupational health services.

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, G.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Occupational physicians and general practitioners often appear to differ in their attitudes to the provision of health screening, health promotion and vaccination in the workplace. AIM: This study aimed to explore the attitudes of occupational physicians and general practitioners to particular aspects of workplace health services. METHOD: Anonymous piloted postal questionnaires were sent to 400 UK general practitioners and 300 occupational physicians. RESULTS: Questionnaires were ...

  8. The nurse practitioner in family planning services: law and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, R

    1977-06-01

    Before 1971, when Idaho became the 1st state to authorize expanded scope of functions for registered nurses, nearly all states made it illegal for any nurse to perform diagnosis or prescribe treatment, creating an ambiguity as more and more nurses were equipped by education and technology to perform new tasks. Today 30 states have liberalized the scope of nursing functions, making it possible for nurses and nurse-midwives to assume, among other tasks, family planning functions. A table gives the status of legislation and regulations governing nurse practitioners and nurse-midwives in each state. The area of greatest controversy is the prescription of oral contraceptives. In some states it is allowed under doctor's supervision or in rural areas or in areas where clear need exists for a nurse to dispense such medication. Usually this dispensing is limited to a single course of treatment. Nurse-midwives are rapidly being accepted as extensions of scarce medical facilities. Generally nurse-midwives are authorized to provide prenatal and postpartum care, to handle normal deliveries, and do family planning work including fitting diaphragms and inserting and removing IUDs. An innovation is the family planning nurse practitioner. Several courses for such practitioners have been set up across the U.S. Graduates may, with medical direction, perform bimanual pelvic examinations and breast examinations, take blood pressure, prescribe contraception, fit diaphragms, insert IUDs, examine vaginal secretions microscopically, and refer patients with problems to physicians. In a California program both registered and nonregistered nurses are being trained as women's health specialists who may make routine examinations in both pregnant and nonpregnant women and give family planning advice. Non-RN family planning specialists being trained include licensed vocational nurses, baccalaureate degree holders in nonnursing fields, and qualified persons with less formal education. The 24-week

  9. How experienced practitioners gain knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    An evolution in nursing in the United Kingdom in the 1970s from rule-bound toward holistic, autonomous practice engendered an examination of nursing's body of knowledge and how it is incorporated into practice. This article describes Barbara Carper's (1978) Fundamental Patterns of Knowing in Nursing (empiric, ethical, aesthetic, and personal knowledge), and links it to three major worldviews of the way in which knowledge is sought (positivism, naturalism, and critical social theory). Carper's model was used in the United Kingdom as the basis for a curriculum of structured reflective practice using workshops, journaling, and clinical supervision. An example from a practitioner's diary demonstrates how Carper's model informs reflection on an interaction with a patient with newly diagnosed cancer. PMID:24730190

  10. Medicare and Rural Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this facility type. Rural Referral Center (RRC) Rural tertiary hospitals that receive referrals from surrounding rural acute ... rural beneficiaries. Where can I get data and statistics regarding the Medicare program in rural America? MedPAC ...

  11. Twenty-five years of serving the health care needs of rural North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Franklin

    2015-01-01

    The Community Practitioner Program seeks to improve access to quality health care for North Carolina's most vulnerable people by providing educational loan repayment grants to primary care physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners in return for their service in rural and underserved communities.

  12. Knowledge of causes, clinical features and diagnosis of common zoonoses among medical practitioners in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mfinanga Godfrey S

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many factors have been mentioned as contributing to under-diagnosis and under-reporting of zoonotic diseases particularly in the sub-Sahara African region. These include poor disease surveillance coverage, poor diagnostic capacity, the geographical distribution of those most affected and lack of clear strategies to address the plight of zoonotic diseases. The current study investigates the knowledge of medical practitioners of zoonotic diseases as a potential contributing factor to their under-diagnosis and hence under-reporting. Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. Semi-structured open-ended questionnaire was administered to medical practitioners to establish the knowledge of anthrax, rabies, brucellosis, trypanosomiasis, echinococcosis and bovine tuberculosis in selected health facilities within urban and rural settings in Tanzania between April and May 2005. Frequency data were analyzed using likelihood ratio chi-square in Minitab version 14 to compare practitioners' knowledge of transmission, clinical features and diagnosis of the zoonoses in the two settings. For each analysis, likelihood ratio chi-square p-value of less than 0.05 was considered to be significant. Fisher's exact test was used where expected results were less than five. Results Medical practitioners in rural health facilities had poor knowledge of transmission of sleeping sickness and clinical features of anthrax and rabies in humans compared to their urban counterparts. In both areas the practitioners had poor knowledge of how echinococcosis is transmitted to humans, clinical features of echinococcosis in humans, and diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in humans. Conclusion Knowledge of medical practitioners of zoonotic diseases could be a contributing factor to their under-diagnosis and under-reporting in Tanzania. Refresher courses on zoonotic diseases should be conducted particularly to practitioners in rural areas. More emphasis

  13. Going Rural

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Foreign banks are beginning to invest in China's rural financial system, helping to meet a strong need for capital As Chinese commercial banks retreat from the rural market, foreign banks appear ready to jump into a sector with a strong thirst for capital. In July, Rabobank Group, the International Finance Corp. and the United

  14. Rural Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive survey and subsequent fieldwork, this chapter introduces the socio-economic characteristics and common livelihood strategies of rural households in Quang Nam, Central Vietnam. It demonstrates the basic premise of self-reliance in rural society and the decreasing economic...

  15. Roles of the general practitioner in different contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dormael, M

    1995-01-01

    The word ¿general practice¿ denotes different contents of work as we look at different contexts. General practitioners may provide first line care, function as secondary care providers at hospital level, take responsibility for the management of health care systems. These different roles can be seen as results from historical processes of division of work in the field of health care, which gave general practice its present shapes. During the first half of the 20th century, western general practitioners were gradually excluded from hospitals as well as from public health activities. When they started to react in order to increase their legitimacy they strived--with variable success--to gain recognition as curative first line care providers, as this had become the only place in the health care system they could claim for. They gradually defined their specificity in terms of polyvalence enabling them to deal with unselected problems, and in terms of global view allowing for adequate priority setting. In developing countries, the organisation of medical care was and remains influenced by western models. As in western countries, emphasis has been put on specialisation and hospital technology. General practice was not exported to developing countries: general practitioners appear rather as cheap substitutes for specialists. The most typical workplace for general practitioners in developing countries remains the rural hospital. But their role model refers to the hospital based specialist: they tend to focus on patient care for hospital users rather than on dynamising health care delivery to the whole community in the district. In urban areas, the recent expansion of (mostly private) first line medical care is also not specific to general practice and tends to be in favour of specialists. What is the common denominator to these different roles, if any? A possible answer lies in the primary health care approach. It allows to define the specificity of general practitioners

  16. The Critical Pragmatist as Scholar-Practitioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Nichole

    2010-01-01

    The intention of this article is to firmly build a case for the fit of a "new scholarship" known as scholar-practitioner as a leadership perspective grounded by the philosophical and theoretical tenets of critical pragmatism. Using post-formal thought as an approach to establish the fit of scholar-practitioner as a reform initiative and leadership…

  17. PR Educators and Practitioners Identify Professional Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallot, Lynne M.; Cameron, Glen; Weaver-Lariscy, Ruth-Ann

    1998-01-01

    Surveys public relations educators nationwide. Finds (1) little consensus about professional standards in public relations among educators and practitioners; and (2) both educators and practitioners held their peers in comparatively low esteem. Offers 10 recommendations to reorient and reemphasize the content of courses. (RS)

  18. Healthcare Practitioners' Personal and Professional Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Mpatisi; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity A.; Weller, Jennifer; Robb, Gillian; Shulruf, Boaz

    2016-01-01

    Personal and professional values of healthcare practitioners influence their clinical decisions. Understanding these values for individuals and across healthcare professions can help improve patient-centred decision-making by individual practitioners and interprofessional teams, respectively. We aimed to identify these values and integrate them…

  19. 77 FR 9137 - National Practitioner Data Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... implementing section 1921 were issued on January 28, 2010 (75 FR 4656). The NPDB began collecting and... Practitioner Data Bank; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77, No. 31 / Wednesday, February 15, 2012... National Practitioner Data Bank AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS....

  20. Roles of social impact assessment practitioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Cecilia H.M., E-mail: ceciliawonghm@gmail.com; Ho, Wing-chung, E-mail: wingcho@cityu.edu.hk

    2015-01-15

    The effectiveness of social impact assessment (SIA) hinges largely on the capabilities and ethics of the practitioners, yet few studies have dedicated to discuss the expectations for these professionals. Recognising this knowledge gap, we employed the systemic review approach to construct a framework of roles of SIA practitioners from literature. Our conceptual framework encompasses eleven roles, namely project manager of SIA, practitioner of SIA methodologies, social researcher, social strategy developer, social impact management consultant, community developer, visionary, public involvement specialist, coordinator, SIA researcher, and educator. Although these roles have been stratified into three overarching categories, the project, community and SIA development, they are indeed interrelated and should be examined together. The significance of this study is threefold. First, it pioneers the study of the roles of SIA practitioners in a focused and systematic manner. Second, it informs practitioners of the expectations of them thereby fostering professionalism. Third, it prepares the public for SIAs by elucidating the functions and values of the assessment. - Highlights: • We adopt systematic review to construct a framework of roles of social impact assessment (SIA) practitioners from literature. • We use three overarching categorises to stratify the eleven roles we proposed. • This work is a novel attempt to study the work as a SIA practitioner and build a foundation for further exploration. • The framework informs practitioners of the expectations on them thus reinforcing professionalism. • The framework also prepares the public for SIAs by elucidating the functions and values of the assessment.

  1. Practice Management Skills for the Nurse Practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sportsman, Susan; Hawley, Linda J.; Pollock, Susan; Varnell, Gayle

    2001-01-01

    An expert panel identified 20 business concepts important for a family nurse practitioner curriculum. A focus group of practitioners verified the concepts and clarified relevant information to be taught. The business concepts center on management and operations of a clinical practice. (SK)

  2. Meeting the Challenge of Preparing Reflective Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrivee, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Preparing teachers to be reflective practitioners is the goal embraced by most teacher education programs. Reflective practitioners infuse personal beliefs and values into a professional identity, resulting in the development of a deliberate code of conduct. They challenge assumptions and expectations that may limit their potential for tolerance…

  3. Roles of social impact assessment practitioners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of social impact assessment (SIA) hinges largely on the capabilities and ethics of the practitioners, yet few studies have dedicated to discuss the expectations for these professionals. Recognising this knowledge gap, we employed the systemic review approach to construct a framework of roles of SIA practitioners from literature. Our conceptual framework encompasses eleven roles, namely project manager of SIA, practitioner of SIA methodologies, social researcher, social strategy developer, social impact management consultant, community developer, visionary, public involvement specialist, coordinator, SIA researcher, and educator. Although these roles have been stratified into three overarching categories, the project, community and SIA development, they are indeed interrelated and should be examined together. The significance of this study is threefold. First, it pioneers the study of the roles of SIA practitioners in a focused and systematic manner. Second, it informs practitioners of the expectations of them thereby fostering professionalism. Third, it prepares the public for SIAs by elucidating the functions and values of the assessment. - Highlights: • We adopt systematic review to construct a framework of roles of social impact assessment (SIA) practitioners from literature. • We use three overarching categorises to stratify the eleven roles we proposed. • This work is a novel attempt to study the work as a SIA practitioner and build a foundation for further exploration. • The framework informs practitioners of the expectations on them thus reinforcing professionalism. • The framework also prepares the public for SIAs by elucidating the functions and values of the assessment

  4. Teaching Qualitative Research to Practitioner-Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Rebecca D.

    2012-01-01

    Practitioner-researchers are well-positioned to apply qualitative methods to the study of significant problems of educational practice. However, while learning the skills of qualitative inquiry, practitioners may be compelled by forces outside of qualitative research classrooms to think quantitatively. In this article, the author considers two…

  5. 21 CFR 1311.102 - Practitioner responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ELECTRONIC ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS (Eff. 6-1-10) Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.102 Practitioner... must notify the individuals designated under § 1311.125 or § 1311.130 within one business day of... the practitioner is notified by an intermediary or pharmacy that an electronic prescription was...

  6. Promoting the Priorities of Practitioner Research Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Hazel

    2010-01-01

    One of the aims of the Library and Information Science Research Coalition is to promote library and information science practitioner research. Successfully meeting this aim should result in greater use of the existing knowledge base and the creation of new knowledge on Library and Information Science (LIS) practice. LIS practitioner engagement in…

  7. Creating stability in constant uncertainty : dealing with crisis in the Chilean aquaculture industry

    OpenAIRE

    Amundsen, Vilde Steiro

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is the result of a fieldwork conducted in Fish Inc., a Chilean branch of a Norwegian-owned company dealing with equipment for fish farming. The Chilean aquaculture industry has since the sanitary and financial crisis of 2007 experienced a constant unpredictability, with extreme fluctuation between incredible upswings and crashing downturns. The instability and uncertainty of the industry has generated the necessity of creating a sense of continuity for employees in dealing with th...

  8. BTX abatement using Chilean natural zeolite: the role of Brønsted acid sites

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro, S.; Valdés, Héctor; Manero, Marie-Hélène; Zaror, Claudio A.

    2012-01-01

    In wastewater treatment facilities, air quality is not only affected by conventional unpleasant odour compounds; toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are also found. In this study, the adsorptive capacity of Chilean natural zeolite toward VOC removal was evaluated. Moreover, the influence of zeolite chemical surface properties on VOC elimination was also investigated. Three modified zeolite samples were prepared from a natural Chilean zeolite (53% clinoptilolite, 40% mordenite and 7% quart...

  9. Strengthening early math skills in preschoolers, a Chilean study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Ortega

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the positive effect in an intervention programbased on number comprehension in early math skill levels that Chileanpreschoolers present in the relational and numerical skill areas evaluated with the Test of Early Mathematics Assessment Utrecht (TEMT-U, the Spanish version of the Utrecht Early Numeracy Test. The study reveals that there are significant differences in the early math skills levels among those groups subjected to thistype of program and those that in the same period of time were only influenced by the content and activities of the traditional curriculum sequence in the Chilean school population. There are positive effects in the program regardless of the educational level that children attend. There are also relational or skillsPiagetian that show higher achievement levels. The results prove that there are no differences in mathematical literacy levels between boys and girls, contrary to what is observed in later years.

  10. Chilean prosopis mesocarp flour: phenolic profiling and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria Del Pilar C; Theoduloz, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspée, Felipe; Pérez, Maria Jorgelina; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Isla, Maria Inés

    2015-04-17

    In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82-2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.

  11. Chilean Prosopis Mesocarp Flour: Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82–2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.

  12. Justified Ilegality?: Controlled clientelism by the Chilean administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Moriconi Bezerra

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean civil service is considered one of the most efficient in Latin America. However, different studies describe the informal institutions that operate between the Legislative Power and the bureaucracy to fill positions in the public administration. Although some of these clientelistic practices are against the law, they have been accepted and defended in both the political and scientific spheres. Legality is not considered an important value if certain indexes have a positive development. In this context, it is important to study how corruption and clientelism have been ignored, or hidden, through political discourses and technical reports about the situation of bureaucracy. All of this allows a better understanding of why after 20 years of administrative reforms there are damaging practices which negatively affect democracy that have not been eradicated.

  13. Chilean prosopis mesocarp flour: phenolic profiling and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria Del Pilar C; Theoduloz, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspée, Felipe; Pérez, Maria Jorgelina; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Isla, Maria Inés

    2015-01-01

    In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82-2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food. PMID:25898415

  14. Nurse practitioner and physician roles: delineation and complementarity of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, R A; Lauver, D

    1984-03-01

    Because of differences in education and role preparation, nurse practitioners (NPs) and physicians (MDs) may assume either complementary or substitutive roles in patient care. To describe role complementarity and similarity, the role perceptions of 15 NPs and 15MDs in joint practice were assessed. Ten NP and MD respondent pairs were selected from a variety of ambulatory primary care settings (urban, rural, public, private, and health maintenance organizations), and five NP-MD pairs were chosen at random. A questionnaire of nine patient vignettes was created; respondents rated the appropriateness of their role in managing the clients described in each vignette using an 8-point scale. Significant differences existed between NP and MD perceived roles for six vignettes, p less than .05. NPs identified as highly role appropriate those vignettes necessitating psychosocial support and health education; MDs identified as highly role appropriate vignettes representing high risk physical conditions. The differences in NP and MD role perception were complementary. PMID:6565298

  15. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastrointestinal symptoms on Chilean pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ferrer Poveda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the aim of this research was to determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection on Chilean pregnant women and its relationship with the appearance and severity of hyperemesis and dyspepsia. Methods: quantitative study of prevalence in a transversal cut with variable analysis. The sample was taken from 274 Chilean pregnant women from the Bío Bío province through vein puncture between June and December, 2005. Pregnant women were informed of this study, interviewed and signed an informed consent. The samples were processed using ImmunoComb II Helicobacter pylori IgG kit. Statistical analysis was performed by means of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Program. Results: out of the total number of pregnant women, 68.6% showed infection by Helicobacter pylori. 79.6% of the total sample had symptoms of dyspepsia, and 72.5% of this group presented Helicobacter pylori infection. 12.4% showed pregnancy hyperemesis; among them, 79.4% were infected with Helicobacter pylori. 73.4% of the pregnant women that showed gastric discomfort during the first three months had Helicobacter pylori infection. 53.7% of them continued with gastric discomfort after the first three months; of those, 95.8% were infected. Helicobacter pylori infection was present only in 1.5% of pregnant women without gastric discomfort. Conclusion: both, gastric discomfort of pregnant women and the continuity of severe symptoms of dyspepsia and hyperemesis after the first three months of gestation are significantly correlated with Helicobacter pylori infection.

  16. VOCALS-CUpEx: the Chilean Upwelling Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garreaud, R. D.; Rutllant, J. A.; Muñoz, R. C.; Rahn, D. A.; Ramos, M.; Figueroa, D.

    2011-03-01

    The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) was a major field experiment conducted in spring of 2008 off southern Peru and northern Chile, aimed at better understanding the coupled climate systems of the southeast Pacific. Because of logistical constrains, the coastal area around 30° S was not sampled during VOCALS-REx. This area not only marks the poleward edge of the subtropical stratocumulus cloud regime (thus acting as a source of transient disturbances) but is also one of the most active upwelling centers and source of surface ocean kinetic energy along the Chilean coast. To fill such an observational gap, a small, brief, but highly focused field experiment was conducted in late spring 2009 in the near-shore region around 30° S. The Chilean Upwelling Experiment (CUpEx) was endorsed by VOCALS as a regional component. CUpEx included long-term monitoring, an intensive two-week field campaign and off-shore research flights. Our goal was to obtain an atmospheric/oceanic dataset with enough temporal and spatial coverage to be able to document (a) the mean diurnal cycles of the lower-troposphere and upper-ocean in a region of complex topography and coastline geometry, and (b) the ocean-atmosphere response to the rapid changes in coastal winds from strong, upwelling-favorable equatorward flow (southerly winds) to downwelling-favorable poleward flow (northerly winds). In this paper we describe the measurement platforms and sampling strategy, and provide an observational overview, highlighting some key mean-state and transient features.

  17. Indo-European and Asian origins for Chilean and Pacific chickens revealed by mtDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongora, Jaime; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Mobegi, Victor A; Jianlin, Han; Alcalde, Jose A; Matus, Jose T; Hanotte, Olivier; Moran, Chris; Austin, Jeremy J; Ulm, Sean; Anderson, Atholl J; Larson, Greger; Cooper, Alan

    2008-07-29

    European chickens were introduced into the American continents by the Spanish after their arrival in the 15th century. However, there is ongoing debate as to the presence of pre-Columbian chickens among Amerindians in South America, particularly in relation to Chilean breeds such as the Araucana and Passion Fowl. To understand the origin of these populations, we have generated partial mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from 41 native Chilean specimens and compared them with a previously generated database of approximately 1,000 domestic chicken sequences from across the world as well as published Chilean and Polynesian ancient DNA sequences. The modern Chilean sequences cluster closely with haplotypes predominantly distributed among European, Indian subcontinental, and Southeast Asian chickens, consistent with a European genetic origin. A published, apparently pre-Columbian, Chilean specimen and six pre-European Polynesian specimens also cluster with the same European/Indian subcontinental/Southeast Asian sequences, providing no support for a Polynesian introduction of chickens to South America. In contrast, sequences from two archaeological sites on Easter Island group with an uncommon haplogroup from Indonesia, Japan, and the Philippines [corrected] and may represent a genetic signature of an early Polynesian dispersal. Modeling of the potential marine carbon contribution to the Chilean archaeological specimen casts further doubt on claims for pre-Columbian chickens, and definitive proof will require further analyses of ancient DNA sequences and radiocarbon and stable isotope data from archaeological excavations within both Chile and Polynesia. PMID:18663216

  18. [The general practitioner and insomnia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambron, L; Bruwier, G; De Bock, I; Poirrier, R

    2006-01-01

    A complaint of insomnia has to be analysed, and differentiated from hypochondria and, overall, from hypersomnia. Once confirmed and assessed as acute or chronic, it is often considered a disorder of hyperarousal, that is an imbalance between a central nervous system activating and a central nervous system inhibiting system with subcontinuous overflow from the former. An acute insomnia is less than one month of duration. As a disease, insomnia has to be categorized as a secondary or a primary disorder. Thereafter, it remains to assess the extent of social, psychological and economical interactions. These factors intervene as consequences or perpetuating factors. The capacity to assess the whole situation is really the great strength of the general practitioner who, more than anybody else, is on home ground. Laboratory findings and specialist examination come only as supporting evidence for causal links. A polysomnography realized in a sleep disorder center provides data reinforcing or correcting the diagnosis. From a sound assessment of the disease, the treatment has to be deduced by following a rigorous reasoning, devoid of guilty feelings as they are suggested to patients by mass-media talking, as well as freed from fashionable non medical practices. Today, we know that chronic insomnia is a disease with potential severe consequences and that it does not heal spontaneously. PMID:16910275

  19. [General practitioner burnout: risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagrada, H; Verbanck, P; Kornreich, C

    2011-09-01

    This paper aims to review current knowledge on risk factors leading to burn-out of general practitioners, who are particularly concerned by burn-out, as 50% of them are being more or less affected. This article is based on bibliographic research covering literature between 1975 and 2010, using PUB MED software, medical books and articles. 44 articles were selected as dealing well with the aspects of the burn-out reviewed here. It seems established that stress precedes burnout symptoms. Theories investigating relationships between stress and work are presented. Exogenic stress (load and organization of work, emotional interaction with the patient, constraints, lack of recognition, conflicts between private and professional life) interacts with endogenous stress (idealism, (too much) acute feeling of responsibility, mood disorder, difficulty in collaborating, character, personality). Burn-out symptoms would appear preferentially when these two stresses coexist. Despite the wealth of publications, there is still a lack of knowledge of the causes of burn-out, requiring therefore increased research efforts, in order to improve the implementation of preventive measures, beneficial to the doctors as well as to their patients. PMID:22034773

  20. Developing core interprofessional competencies for community rehabilitation practitioners: findings from an Australian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, E; Muenchberger, H; Catalano, T; Amsters, D; Dorsett, P; Cox, R

    2011-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the core competencies that underpin the practice of community rehabilitation (CR) practitioners working in a single state in Australia. Using a recursive and consultative methodology designed to build consensus, CR professionals, trainers, educators, and researchers developed a preliminary set of core interprofessional competencies that were considered essential to their practice. Data were collected in four main stages that engaged practitioners and experts in the CR field in the process of identifying, defining, validating, and endorsing a set of competencies. The first stage involved focus groups with 50 senior practitioners in metropolitan, rural/remote, regional, and indigenous communities. The second and third stages involved expert panels consisting of 20 trainers/educators, senior leaders, and scholars who refined, defined and validated the competency areas and developed statements that reflected the data.These statements formed the basis of a survey that was distributed to all current CR practitioners based in this state for endorsement, 40 of whom responded. Ten competencies emerged from this process. Although there are limitations to the application of competencies, they will have significant implications for the future training of CR practitioners who can transcend professional boundaries.

  1. Trivial Injuries In A Rural Area Of Ambala

    OpenAIRE

    Singh A.J; Kaur A.

    1993-01-01

    Research question: What are the management practices of a rural community towards trivial injuries sustained by them. Objectives: To study 1. action taken by individuals in the management of trivial injuries, 2.factors related with trivial injuries. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Rural area of Haryana. Participants: individuals attending the outpatient department of Community Health Centres, Primary Health Centres, sub-centres, local registered medical practitioners (RMPs). Study var...

  2. Rural Priority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    As the Chinese economy soars ahead in the wake of the international financial crisis, more attention is being given to the country’s indus-trial, financial, investment and trade figures. But the Central Rural Work

  3. Infection prevention and control practitioners: improving engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Ann-Marie

    Every healthcare worker plays a vital part in minimising the risk of cross infection. Infection prevention and control (IPC) practitioners have the skills and competencies to assist organisations in improving engagement among staff and play a vital part in achieving this. IPC practitioners have skills in clinical practice, education, research and leadership, and these skills ensure high-quality care for patients and support strategies for engaging staff. This article highlights how IPC practitioners' skills and competencies are required for preventing infection and improving staff engagement. Engaged staff generate positive outcomes for both patients and staff, which is a welcome result for all healthcare organisations.

  4. Chilean Teachers Begin Exchange Program Visit in Magdalena

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    . Kelly. The Chilean teachers are visiting Magdalena while they are on their Southern Hemisphere summer vacation, and Magdalena's schools are in session. Two Magdalena teachers, Joleen Welborn and Sandra Montoya, will visit San Pedro in June, while they are on summer vacation and the Chilean schools will be in session. Dr. Eduardo Hardy, the AUI/NRAO representative in Chile, will accompany the Chilean teachers on their visit, which has been coordinated by Harrison. "ALMA is a groundbreaking example of the type of international cooperation that marks the future of astronomy. We are especially pleased to sponsor a program that brings together two communities that both enjoy proximity to world-class astronomical research facilities," said Dr. Fred K.Y. Lo, NRAO Director. "While separated by many miles, San Pedro de Atacama and Magdalena have much in common. Both are small communities in high desert environments, and both are next to telescopes where the world's astronomers will be making many exciting discoveries in the coming decades. Bringing these two communities together will advance education and international understanding," Harrison said. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  5. Training for rural practice in Australia 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickner, J M

    1991-01-21

    There is a shortage of general practitioners in rural Australia. Several recent State and federal government reports have highlighted the difficulties of rural practice. One of the reasons commonly cited for the shortage of country doctors is the lack of appropriate training in Australia's medical schools and the Family Medicine Programme. This survey of the heads of departments of community medicine/general practice of Australia's 10 medical schools and of the State directors of the Family Medicine Programme documents the present efforts to train doctors for rural general practice. A 100% response was achieved. The responses indicate much interest and effort from the Family Medicine Programme in developing rural training schemes. Though the community medicine/general practice departments demonstrate considerable interest and innovation, they are hampered by lack of resources and negative attitudes of some specialist colleagues. Overall, the main impediments are: lack of "affirmative action" admissions policies to recruit rural students; insufficient curricular time for teaching the principles of general practice; students' lack of confidence in the procedural aspects of rural practice; lack of appropriate training posts in anaesthetics; lack of appropriate general practice training posts at regional hospitals; and lack of financial resources. Some suggestions are given to improve training for rural practice in Australia. PMID:1986187

  6. Professional Orientation of Colorado PR Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattimore, Dan L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Findings indicate that a majority of public relations practitioners are highly educated, have professional media backgrounds as part of their professional experience, and are paid better than newspaper personnel in Colorado. (RB)

  7. Chemical metrology, strategic job for the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Standardization Institute's (INN) Metrology unit prepared a study in 1996 to evaluate the impact of metrological activity in Chile. This study was based on a survey of the supply and demand of metrological services and on studies of the behavior of the production system and technological services in Chile during the period 1990-1996. With the information obtained in this study the economic impact resulting from the lack of a national metrology system could be evaluated. This impact was estimated to be a 5% loss in gross national product equal to 125-500 million dollars because of direct product rejection in the mining, fisheries, agricultural and manufacturing sectors. Chemical measurements are responsible for 50% of these losses. In response to this need and coordinated by the INN, a metrological network of reference laboratories began to operate in 1997 for the principal physical magnitudes (mass, temperature, longitude and force) and a CORFO-FDI project began in 2001 that includes the chemical magnitudes. The Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, aware of the problem's importance and the amount of economic damage that the country may suffer, as a result of these deficiencies, has formed a Chemical Metrology Unit to provide technical support. It aims to raise the standards of local analytical laboratories by providing international recognition to the export sector. Nuclear analytical techniques are used as reference methods. This work describes the laboratories that are included in this Chemical Metrology Unit and the historical contribution to the development of local analytical chemistry. The national and international projects are described together with the publications they have generated. The quality assurance program applied to the laboratories is described as well, which has led to the accreditation of the analytical chemical assays. The procedures used for validation and calculation of uncertain nuclear methodologies are described together with

  8. Dental fluorosis in Chilean children: evaluation of risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, A E; Guerrero, S; Icaza, G; Villalobos, J; Anabalón, M

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this case-control study was to determine the association between very-mild-to-moderate enamel fluorosis and exposure during early childhood to fluoridated water, mainly through ingestion of powdered milk. Analysis was performed on 136 residents of the optimally fluoridated community of San Felipe in the Chilean Fifth Region, who were categorised into one of three groups according to their age when water fluoridation was introduced in 1986: Group I was born after 1986; Group II was 16-24 months old in 1986; and Group III was >24 months of age. The case and control subjects were selected on the basis of a clinical examination given in July 1996. Dean's scoring system was used to determine fluorosis status. Risk factor exposure was ascertained by a questionnaire used in interviews with mothers of participating children. Logistic regression analysis, after adjustment for confounding variables, revealed that very-mild-to-moderate enamel fluorosis of permanent central maxillary incisors (CMI) was strongly associated both with the age of the subjects when water fluoridation began and with breast-feeding duration for children belonging to Group I. Subjects in Group I were 20.44 times more likely (95% CI: 5.00-93.48) to develop CMI fluorosis than children who were older than 24 months (Group III) when fluoridation began. Subjects who were between 16 and 24 months old when water fluoridation began were 4.15 times more likely (95% CI: 1.05-16.43) to have CMI fluorosis than children older than 24 months. An inverse association was found with breastfeeding duration (OR=0.86, 95% CI: 0.75-0.98) among Group I subjects but not in Groups II and III. Results obtained suggest that the current fluoride concentration in drinking water may be contributing to fluorosis. Further studies will be necessary to determine the relative competing risks of dental fluorosis and dental caries in Chilean children in order to establish the most appropriate water fluoridation level in

  9. Identidades en movimiento: familias chilenas en la fruticultura del Alto Valle de Río Negro, Argentina Identities in movement: chilean families in the fruit production of the Alto Valle de Río Negro, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Trpin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo, basado en el trabajo de campo realizado en áreas rurales del Alto Valle de Río Negro, Argentina, desde el año 1999, tiene como propósito presentar las relaciones en las cuales se insertan hombres y mujeres chilenas que residen y trabajan en "chacras" destinadas a la producción frutícola. Las diferentes actividades en las chacras se organizan según el sexo y la edad, definiéndose una segmentación del mercado de trabajo en la que se ven involucrados los diferentes miembros de la familia. Como desarrollaré, ser trabajadores chilenos en la fruticultura del Alto Valle de Río Negro reproduce una identidad étnica y nacional en el seno de la cotidianeidad familiar y laboral.This article, based on field work conducted in rural areas of the Alto Valle de Río Negro, Argentina, from 1999 on, analyzes the relations in which Chilean men and women who reside and work in small farms destined to fruit production are inserted. The different activities in the small farms are organized according to sex and age, circumscribing a segment of the labor market in which different members of the family are involved. As I will demonstrate, to be a Chilean worker in the fruit growing region of the Alto Valle is to reproduce an ethnic and national identity through work routines mediated by family relations.

  10. Orthodontic First Aid for General Dental Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodipo, Ibukunoluwa; Birdsall, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    Orthodontic emergencies occasionally arise and although they can cause discomfort to the patient, they can usually be stabilized by a general dentist and then followed up by the orthodontist. CPD/Clinical Relevance: Patients undergoing orthodontic treatment may initially present to their general dental practitioner with an orthodontic emergency as opposed to their orthodontist. It is therefore important that general dental practitioners are aware of common orthodontic emergencies and their management. PMID:27529914

  11. Pharmacy beyond the dispensary: general practitioners' views.

    OpenAIRE

    Spencer, J A; Edwards, C

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To ascertain general practitioners' attitudes to an extended role for community pharmacists. DESIGN--Postal questionnaire to a 1 in 6 sample of general practitioners in the Northern, West Midlands, and Oxford regions (total sample size 1087). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Attitudes towards specific extended roles, pharmacist prescribing of particular drugs, the role of the pharmacist, and the relationship between the professions. RESULTS--744 questionnaires were returned in a usable form...

  12. Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Gómez-Campos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of waist circumference (WC is considered to be an important means to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The objectives of the study were to (a compare the WC measurements of Chilean students with the international CDC-2012 standard and other international standards, and (b propose a specific measurement value for the WC of Chilean students based on age and sex. A total of 3892 students (6 to 18 years old were assessed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI, and WC were measured. WC was compared with the CDC-2012 international standard. Percentiles were constructed based on the LMS method. Chilean males had a greater WC during infancy. Subsequently, in late adolescence, males showed values lower than those of the international standards. Chilean females demonstrated values similar to the standards until the age of 12. Subsequently, females showed lower values. The 85th and 95th percentiles were adopted as cutoff points for evaluating overweight and obesity based on age and sex. The WC of Chilean students differs from the CDC-2012 curves. The regional norms proposed are a means to identify children and adolescents with a high risk of suffering from overweight and obesity disorders.

  13. Rural Action: A Collection of Community Work Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Paul, Ed.; Francis, David, Ed.

    This book contains 10 case studies of rural community development in England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, and Catalonia, as seen from the perspective of community-work practitioners. Development projects encompassed such activities as promotion of tourism, establishment of community centers, vocational training for school dropouts, adult community…

  14. Paleomagnetism of Permian and Triassic rock, central Chilean Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Randall D.; Kent, Dennis V.; Mpodozis, Constantino; Davidson, John

    The first paleomagnetic data from Permian and Triassic formations west of the Andean divide are presented. Four formations of Permian or Triassic age in the central Chilean Andes have been investigated: two are located in the coastal ranges, and two are in the main cordillera. Of the formations in the main cordillera (Pastos Blancos and Matahuaico formations), only the Pastos Blancos Formation has yielded characteristic directions. While a fold test is absent, magnetizations are most likely secondary and yield pre-tilt corrected concordant inclinations, but yield declinations discordant 30° clockwise in comparison to the South American apparent polar wander path. Both formations from the coastal ranges (Cifuncho and Pichidangui formations) yielded stable directions. Postfolding magnetizations in the Cifuncho Formation also show declinations discordant 30° clockwise and concordant inclinations. The Pichidangui Formation has two stable components: one of postfolding age is concordant to apparent polar wander path data, and one of probable prefolding (Late Triassic) age is concordant in declination, but discordant in inclination. Further work is needed to better define the prefolding magnetizations in the Pichidangui Formation, but at present these preliminary results are the first paleomagnetic signs of displaced terranes along the Pacific margin of Chile. If correct, the results suggest that the Pichidangui Formation was some 15° of latitude farther south during the Late Triassic and had likely moved northward to its present latitudinal position with respect to cratonic South America by Middle to Late Jurassic.

  15. Peer victimization: Intimidation and victmization in Chilean students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica López

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study about peer intimidation and victimization with 1167 school students from 6th, 7th, and 8th grade from the Valparaiso Region of Valparaíso, Chile. The instrument used was the Insebull Battery (Avilés & Elices, 2007. Results show that approximately 9% of students have been victim of peer victimization many times or almost every day during the school year. Psychological victimization was more frequent thanphysical aggression, particularly through virtual communication such as cell-phone messages and e-mails. Participants tend to be groups of male students. Although male students participate more in physical aggression, they also receive more physical and psychological aggression. The most frequent places were inside the classroom and the school yard, when the teacher is not present. Most students inform not knowing, or vaguely knowing, thereasons underlying these aggressions, and do not do anything to deal with them. These results coincide with international studies and allow a better understanding of the characteristics of peer victimization in specific educational contexts within the Chilean school system.

  16. Banking reform and the financing of firm investment : An empirical analysis of the Chilean experience, 1983-92

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, N; Lensink, R

    1998-01-01

    This article investigates whether the Chilean banking reforms of the 1980s have contributed to reducing market imperfections in Chilean financial markets in the late 1980 and early 1990s. To analyse this issue, patterns of investment and its finance for different types of firms are studied, based on

  17. Healthcare practitioners' personal and professional values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Mpatisi; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity A; Weller, Jennifer; Robb, Gillian; Shulruf, Boaz

    2016-05-01

    Personal and professional values of healthcare practitioners influence their clinical decisions. Understanding these values for individuals and across healthcare professions can help improve patient-centred decision-making by individual practitioners and interprofessional teams, respectively. We aimed to identify these values and integrate them into a single framework using Schwartz's values model. We searched Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL and ERIC databases for articles on personal and professional values of healthcare practitioners and students. We extracted values from included papers and synthesized them into a single framework using Schwartz's values model. We summarised the framework within the context of healthcare practice. We identified 128 values from 50 included articles from doctors, nurses and allied health professionals. A new framework for the identified values established the following broad healthcare practitioner values, corresponding to Schwartz values (in parentheses): authority (power); capability (achievement); pleasure (hedonism); intellectual stimulation (stimulation); critical-thinking (self-direction); equality (universalism); altruism (benevolence); morality (tradition); professionalism (conformity); safety (security) and spirituality (spirituality). The most prominent values identified were altruism, equality and capability. This review identified a comprehensive set of personal and professional values of healthcare practitioners. We integrated these into a single framework derived from Schwartz's values model. This framework can be used to assess personal and professional values of healthcare practitioners across professional groups, and can help improve practitioners' awareness of their values so they can negotiate more patient-centred decisions. A common values framework across professional groups can support shared education strategies on values and help improve interprofessional teamwork and decision-making. PMID:26215664

  18. Building workforce capacity for ethical reflection in health promotion: a practitioner's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axford, Annabel; Carter, Drew

    2015-12-01

    Health promotion does not have a code of ethics, although attempts have been made to assist practitioners in their understanding and application of ethical concepts. This article describes and analyses one such attempt, sustained from 2006 to 2014 in rural South Australia. The attempt comprised capacity-building activities that were informed by principles of organisational change management, especially the principle of creating champions. The article also presents a framework (largely comprising ethical questions) that may help practitioners as a prompt and guide to ethical reflection. The framework was developed to be as accessible as possible in light of the diverse educational backgrounds found in rural settings. Finally, the article highlights some philosophical dimensions to the framework and defends its role, proposing that ethical reflection is integral to good practice and never simply the province of theorists. The article does all this with a view to stimulating discussion on how to increase the frequency and quality of ethical reflection undertaken by health promotion practitioners. PMID:26686061

  19. 45 CFR 60.1 - The National Practitioner Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The National Practitioner Data Bank. 60.1 Section... PRACTITIONER DATA BANK FOR ADVERSE INFORMATION ON PHYSICIANS AND OTHER HEALTH CARE PRACTITIONERS General Provisions § 60.1 The National Practitioner Data Bank. The Health Care Quality Improvement Act of 1986,...

  20. 42 CFR 440.166 - Nurse practitioner services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nurse practitioner services. 440.166 Section 440... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 440.166 Nurse practitioner services. (a) Definition of nurse practitioner services. Nurse practitioner services means services...

  1. 42 CFR 441.22 - Nurse practitioner services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nurse practitioner services. 441.22 Section 441.22... General Provisions § 441.22 Nurse practitioner services. With respect to nurse practitioner services that... State plan must meet the following requirements: (a) Provide that nurse practitioner services...

  2. TRADE POLICY AND MAJOR TRENDS IN CHILEAN EXPORTS UNDER DEMOCRACY, 1990-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Llorca-Jaña

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with trade policy and the principal trends in Chilean exports after the return to democracy in 1990. During this period, both exports and imports expanded significantly in Chile. As far as exports are concerned, this boom is mainly due to an effective trade policy of additive regionalism, booming copper prices, export diversification and the economic dynamism of China, the principal beneficiary of Chilean exports. On the negative side, the country is still too dependant on copper and a few other primary products. In addition, nowadays, in relative terms Chile is exporting more copper minerals and less refined copper than it used to do in the 1990s, while Chilean exports remained highly concentrated in a few companies only, many of which belong to foreign nationals.

  3. HIV prevention and low-income Chilean women: machismo, marianismo and HIV misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; McElmurry, Beverly J

    2008-04-01

    Socio-cultural factors and HIV-related misinformation contribute to the increasing number of Chilean women living with HIV. In spite of this, and to date, few culturally specific prevention activities have been developed for this population. The goal of the present study was to elicit the perspectives of low-income Chilean women regarding HIV and relevant socio-cultural factors, as a forerunner to the development of a culturally appropriate intervention. As part of a mixed-methods study, fifty low-income Chilean women participated in a survey and twenty were selected to participate in prevention, in-depth interviews. Results show evidence of widespread misinformation and misconceptions related to HIV/AIDS. Machismo and marianismo offer major barriers to prevention programme development. Future HIV prevention should stress partner communication, empowerment and improving the education of women vulnerable to HIV.

  4. Reporting quality of papers published in Chilean dental journals. Evaluation period: 2002-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio E Uribe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the reporting quality of papers published between 2002-2012 in Chilean dental journals. Methods: Bibliometric analysis of research papers published in indexed Chilean dental journals between 2002-2012. Three calibrated examinators (interoperator- Kappa=.83 assessed 205 papers: 150 case-reports, 37 observational studies and 18 clinical trials. Reporting quality was evaluated using CARE for case reports, STROBE for observational studies and CONSORT for clinical trials. Descriptive statistics were conducted. Results: Case-reports reported 35% of the required methodological items; epidemiological research reported 16% of required items for Materials and Methods and 10% for Results. Clinical research reported 29% of required Materials and Methods items and 20% of Results items. Conclusion: Case-report, epidemiological and clinician research papers in Chilean dental journals published during the 2002-2012 period are lacking explicit key methodological items, preventing a proper research replication or clinical application of the results.

  5. Privatizing Water in the Chilean Andes: The Case of Las Vegas de Chiu-Chiu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Prieto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean water model has been described as a textbook example of a free-market water system. This article contributes to the critiques of this model by showing the effect of its implementation in the Atacameño community of Chiu-Chiu, located in the Atacama Desert in the south-central Andes. In this community, the privatization of water rights ignored local water management practices that had produced a high-altitude wetland (known as a vega. This led to the inhabitants’ dispossession of crucial water rights and to wetland degradation. This process belies statements that the Chilean model relies on an unregulated market and instead highlights the state’s role in marginalizing local irrigation practices by reducing the water consumption of the indigenous population while keeping the copper mining industry (the main source of Chilean income and related growing urban populations supplied with water.

  6. Science of Tsunami Forecasting: 2010 Chilean Tsunami Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, Vasily; Bernard, Eddie; Tang, Rachel; Wei, Yong; Uslu, Burak; Eble, Marie

    2010-05-01

    Tsunami forecasting with real-time models and real-time data has always been one of the main goals of tsunami research. The February 27th, 2010 Chile tsunami provided the challenge and the opportunity to test the modern state of the science in tsunami forecasting. By contrast with the previous basin-wide tsunami generated by the third largest 2004 Sumatra earthquake, the fifth largest Chilean earthquake occurred at the time and in the area where a variety of real-time measurements and model forecast models have been available to assess the generated tsunami in real-time. The Chile tsunami was generated by a Mw 8.8 earthquake (35.846S, 72.719W ), at 06:34 UTC, 115 km (60 miles) NNE of Concepcion, Chile (according to the USGS). It has been recorded at coastal sea level gages around the Pacific Ocean, staring from the near-field record that caught the wave half an hour after generation at Valparaiso, to the coastal recordings of the wave arrived at Japan and Russian Far East almost a day later. In approximately 3 hours after the earthquake, the tsunami was first recorded at DART buoy 32412, providing real-time deep ocean signature of the propagating tsunami. All that measurements provided ample data for the real-time forecast analysis and for the model performance and forecast skills assessment throughout the Pacific basin. We present results of the performance of the NOAA forecast. The forecast method uses MOST model with the data assimilated from the earthquake and deep-ocean tsunami DART measurement. The comparison with tide gages and coastal impacts provide opportunity to assess the accuracy and efficiency of the forecast. The successes, lessons learned and future challengers for the tsunami forecast science are discussed.

  7. Organic carbon in glacial fjords of Chilean Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, Silvio; Gutiérrez, Marcelo; Tapia, Fabián; Abarzúa, Leslie; Daneri, Giovanni; Reid, Brian; Díez, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    The Southern Ice Field in Chilean Patagonia is the largest (13,000 km2) temperate ice mass in the Southern hemisphere, yearly transporting ca. 40 km3 of freshwater to fjords. This volume of fresh and cold water likely affects adjacent marine ecosystems by changing circulation, productivity, food web dynamics, and the abundance and distribution of planktonic and benthic organisms. We hypothesize that freshwater-driven availability of inorganic nutrient and transport of organic and inorganic suspended matter, as well as microbes, become a controlling factor for productivity in the fjord associated with the Baker river and Jorge Montt glacier. Both appear to be sources of silicic acid, but not of nitrate and particulate organic carbon, especially during summer, when surface PAR and glacier thawing are maximal. In contrast to Baker River, the Jorge Montt glacier is also a source of dissolved organic carbon towards a proglacial fjord and the Baker Channel, indicating that a thorough chemical description of sources (tidewater glacier and glacial river) is needed. Nitrate in fiord waters reaches ca. 15 μM at 25 m depth with no evidence of mixing up during summer. Stable isotope composition of particulate organic nitrogen reaches values as low as 3 per mil in low-salinity waters near both glacier and river. Nitrogen fixation could be depleting δ15N in organic matter, as suggested by the detection at surface waters of nif H genes belonging to diazotrophs near the Montt glacier. As diazotrophs have also been detected in other cold marine waters (e.g. Baltic Sea, Arctic Ocean) as well as glaciers and polar terrestrial waters, there is certainly a potential for both marine and freshwater microbes to contribute and have a significant impact on the Patagonian N and C budgets. Assessing the impact of freshwater on C and N fluxes and the microbial community structure in Patagonian waters will allow understanding future scenarios of rapid glacier melting. This research was funded

  8. Health care innovation: Working with General Practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyez Jiwa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of innovations for clinical practice warrants active engagement of clinicians in the research process. This requires attention to factors that serve as incentive to participate. The explanation for the success of factors that encourage practitioners to participate in research can be found in sources of satisfaction and dissatisfaction with clinical practice. It is also important to consider intrinsic incentives such as common and troublesome clinical presentations that are related to workload or unsatisfactory clinical encounters. This review will consider each of these factors and suggest ways in which clinicians, especially general practitioners, may be invited to assist on research projects.

  9. Advance directives: role of nurse practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenk, J S

    1997-07-01

    Advance directives are documents that guide end of life decisions. Although advance directives are a fairly recent phenomenon in health care, they are grounded in both legal and ethical principles. Studies show few people have completed advance directives. Persons do not tend to complete advance directives for various reasons. Lack of knowledge has been identified, as well as belief that physicians should initiate the discussion and that the topic is appropriate only for the elderly or those in poor health. Many nurse practitioners practice in primary care settings, which are ideal for discussions about advance directives. Nurse practitioners possess the opportunities and skills to discuss advance directives with their patients.

  10. Changes to a CA Programme - Practitioners' Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Wheeler

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the perceptions of practitioners of the new directions taken by NZICA with respect to its academic and professional programme requirements to obtain CA Institute membership. The “future viability of any professional body is dependent on continuously attracting new members, ideally the best and the brightest new tertiary graduates”, and this is “undoubtedly the case for New Zealand’s professional accounting body, the New Zealand Institute of Chartered Accountants (NZICA” (Malthus & Fowler 2009, p. 26. In this study, the concurrent triangulation approach to mixed methods described by Creswell (2009 was used to collect data. This approach enabled the results of the two quantitative and qualitative databases to be integrated and compared. It was found that accounting practitioners felt the changes made by NZICA may devalue the brand, while the reduction in liberal papers would result in a narrower degree. Overall, accounting practitioners agreed that three to four years of tertiary accounting education was adequate, a broader four-year course would result in a better-rounded graduates. The reduction in the length of the tertiary programme caused concern that future graduates would be less mature. Accounting practitioners also felt that the changes would harm the credibility of NZICA internationally. However, some accounting practitioners did welcome the fact that the NZICA membership requirements will be more aligned with Institute of Chartered Accountants Australia. Accounting practitioners felt that the new technical modules would offer more flexibility. They believed that the four technical modules should repeat the material taught at university, as long as a balance was maintained between technical and practical skills. They also believed that the changes would result in an increased onus on the employer. Additionally, accounting practitioners agreed that on-the-job training should not replace a tertiary

  11. 'I could never have learned this in a lecture': transformative learning in rural health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prout, Sarah; Lin, Ivan; Nattabi, Barbara; Green, Charmaine

    2014-05-01

    Health indicators for rural populations in Australia continue to lag behind those of urban populations and particularly for Indigenous populations who make up a large proportion of people living in rural and remote Australia. Preparation of health practitioners who are adequately prepared to face the 'messy swamps' of rural health practice is a growing challenge. This paper examines the process of learning among health science students from several health disciplines from five Western Australian universities during 'Country Week': a one-week intensive experiential interprofessional education program in rural Western Australia. The paper weaves together strands of transformative theory of learning with findings from staff and student reflections from Country Week to explore how facilitated learning in situ can work to produce practitioners better prepared for rural health practice.

  12. COMPARISON OF THE KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES OF ESSENTIAL MEDICINES AMONG MEDICAL PRACTITIONERS OF A MEDICAL COLLEGE VERSUS PRIVATE MEDICAL GENERAL PRACTITIONERS OF AN URBAN PLACE OF SOUTH INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Vidyarthi SurendraK, Nayak RoopaP, Gupta Sandeep K, Dandekar Rahul H

    2015-01-01

    Background: India is the third largest producer and exporter of medicinestomost of the countries. The World Medicine Situation Report 2011 states that 65% persons in India do not have access to essential medicines. While, huge unethical prescribing ofdrugs for monetary gains has been a second major cause of rural indebtedness. Aims and Objectives:The primary objective of the study was to compare the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Essential Medicines among Medical Practitioners of a Medi...

  13. Care for patients with severe mental illness: the general practitioner's role perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groenier Klaas H

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with severe mental illness (SMI experience distress and disabilities in several aspects of life, and they have a higher risk of somatic co-morbidity. Both patients and their family members need the support of an easily accessible primary care system. The willingness of general practitioners and the impeding factors for them to participate in providing care for patients with severe mental illness in the acute and the chronic or residual phase were explored. Methods A questionnaire survey of a sample of Dutch general practitioners spread over the Netherlands was carried out. This comprised 20 questions on the GP's 'Opinion and Task Perspective', 19 questions on 'Treatment and Experiences', and 27 questions on 'Characteristics of the General Practitioner and the Practice Organisation'. Results 186 general practitioners distributed over urban areas (49%, urbanised rural areas (38% and rural areas (15% of the Netherlands participated. The findings were as follows: GPs currently considered themselves as the first contact in the acute psychotic phase. In the chronic or residual phase GPs saw their core task as to diagnose and treat somatic co-morbidity. A majority would be willing to monitor the general health of these patients as well. It appeared that GP trainers and GPs with a smaller practice setting made follow-up appointments and were willing to monitor the self-care of patients with SMI more often than GPs with larger practices. GPs also saw their role as giving support and information to the patient's family. However, they felt a need for recognition of their competencies when working with mental health care specialists. Conclusion GPs were willing to participate in providing care for patients with SMI. They considered themselves responsible for psychotic emergency cases, for monitoring physical health in the chronic phase, and for supporting the relatives of psychotic patients.

  14. La infografía de 'El Mercurio' de Chile. Chilean El Mercurio's infographics Chilean El Mercurio's infographics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Colle

    Full Text Available Resumen: El diario chileno El Mercurio incluye algunas veces en sus artículos la mención «ver infografía» para invitar a los lectores a completar la lectura con la observación de un cuadro anexo. Este cuadro, sin embargo, no siempre incluye un elemento icónico: como lo demostramos aquí, este diario utiliza una definición extremadamente amplia del concepto de infografía. Además de presentar aquí las características de todos los infográficos publicados en enero y febrero de 2009, mostramos también que los casos en que aparece la mención «ver infografía» no son predecibles a partir de estos cuadros y que éstos no se distinguen, por sus características, del resto de los publicados.Abstract:The chilean newspaper El Mercurio sometimes include in their articles the words «see infographics» inviting readers to complete the reading with the observation of an annexed table. This table, however, does not always include an iconic: as we demonstrated here, this newspaper uses an extremely broad definition of the concept of infographics. Apart from presenting here the characteristics of all infographics published in January and February 2009, we also show that cases in which the words «see infographics» are not predictable from these graphics and they are not distinguished by their characteristics from the rest of them.

  15. General practitioner (family physician) workforce in Australia: comparing geographic data from surveys, a mailing list and medicare

    OpenAIRE

    Mazumdar, Soumya; Konings, Paul; Butler, Danielle; McRae, Ian Stewart

    2013-01-01

    Background Good quality spatial data on Family Physicians or General Practitioners (GPs) are key to accurately measuring geographic access to primary health care. The validity of computed associations between health outcomes and measures of GP access such as GP density is contingent on geographical data quality. This is especially true in rural and remote areas, where GPs are often small in number and geographically dispersed. However, there has been limited effort in assessing the quality of...

  16. Evaluating Effectiveness from the Practitioner Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elks, Martin A.; Kirkhart, Karen E.

    1993-01-01

    Conducted qualitative study of 17 social workers to develop understanding of how practitioners evaluate themselves in their day-to-day practice. Found acknowledged difficulty in really knowing one's effectiveness; perceived incompatibility between valuation and practice; and presence of implicit model of self-evaluation comprising five components…

  17. Turning Practitioners into Professors: Exploring Effective Mentoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Steven R.; Gustafson, Robert L.

    1997-01-01

    Presents results of focus interviews with 25 "practitioners turned professors" regarding their transition from industry to academia. Finds a general consensus that all advertising and public relations programs should implement a formal mentoring process to include teacher training and inservice, greater explanation of and assistance with promotion…

  18. Integrated Communications and Practitioners' Perceived Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Patricia B.; Miller, Debra A.

    1993-01-01

    Finds little or no difference in the interest of small market advertising and public relations practitioners in professional courses. Lends support to the idea of a common curriculum (an Integrated Marketing Communications program) to fulfill the educational needs of both groups. (SR)

  19. Nurse Practitioner Residency Programs: An Educational Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rys, Gregory P.

    2016-01-01

    Primary care is in a state of crisis due to the lack of clinicians and increasing numbers of insured patients. Encouraging more students to go directly through school for their doctor of nursing practice degree and nurse practitioner (NP) certifications is one proposal to alleviate this crisis. However, this approach would deliver graduates with…

  20. 78 FR 20473 - National Practitioner Data Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... implementing section 1921 were issued on January 28, 2010 (75 FR 4656). The NPDB began collecting and... dates. II. Summary of the Proposed Rule The proposed regulation published on February 15, 2012 (77 FR... HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Parts 60 and 61 RIN 0906-AA87 National Practitioner Data Bank AGENCY:...

  1. 78 FR 25858 - National Practitioner Data Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ...) 443-2300. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background In FR Doc. No. 2013-07521 of April 5, 2013 (78 FR... requirements. IV. Correction of Errors In FR Doc. No. 2013-07521 published April 5, 2013 (78 FR 20473), make... HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Parts 60 and 61 RIN 0906-AA87 National Practitioner Data Bank AGENCY:...

  2. Communication between medical practitioners and dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ruanne Y J; Krasnow, Donna; Thomas, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate patterns of communication between professional and pre-professional dancers and medical practitioners. One survey was developed and randomly conducted among family physicians, sports medicine physicians, chiropractors, physical therapists, and registered massage therapists. A second survey involved volunteer ballet and modern dancers in professional dance training programs, college and university dance programs, and independent dance artists. One hundred and ninety questionnaires were distributed to medical practitioners, and 50 were returned. Of 380 questionnaires given to dancers, 202 were returned. The dancers were 18 to 49 years old, with a majority between the ages of 18 and 20. They averaged more than 10 years of dance training. All of the questionnaires were distributed in a single large Canadian city. The data shows that medical practitioners rarely communicated with each other concerning a common (dance) patient. They also failed to communicate, in most cases, with the dancers' teachers, choreographers, and directors. This was not disconcerting to injured dancers, who tended to believe that such communication was not important to their recovery. Significantly, dancers did not fully understand the nature of their injuries when they sought medical advice, and they did not press the medical practitioners for additional information. Both groups generally believed that dancers would benefit by learning more about human anatomy. PMID:19618578

  3. Problems in Teaching Human Rights to Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rone, Jemera

    1994-01-01

    Teaching the rules of war to human rights practitioners calls for emphasis on not taking sides; applying existing law rather than inventing standards for the occasion; applying the Geneva Conventions; recognizing that ends do not justify means; determining legitimate military targets; and realizing that "good guys" should be held to the same…

  4. Adlerian Counseling: A Practitioner's Approach. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Thomas J.

    Written with the practitioner in mind, this overview of the theory and practice of Alfred Adler's Individual Psychology explains the dimensions and uses of natural and logical consequences--the twin bases of Adlerian/Individual Psychology. The text takes a practical approach to the topic, and covers a variety of settings (school, home, community,…

  5. Detection of psychologic complaints by general practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaak, P.F.M.

    1988-01-01

    Many complaints, which present as somatic illness at a medical visit, appear afterwards to be partly psychologic in origin. Not every general practitioner (GP), however, is equally sensitive to the psychologic aspects, and not every physician possesses the communication techniques required to detect

  6. General practitioners and learning by audit

    OpenAIRE

    Freeling, P.; Burton, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    The ways in which `medical audit' can be used in the continuing education of general practitioners are examined, and certain rules for the conduct of such education in small groups of peers are put forward. However, it proved impossible to evaluate the outcome of the educational exercise because those taking part refused to audit twice any single aspect of their daily work.

  7. Learning to Lead: A Practitioner Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Maddy

    2014-01-01

    This reflective essay presents a personal account of experiences and models that have shaped the development of the author as a leader in tertiary education. It is presented from the perspective of a practitioner whose career has led her through academic and administrative roles in Australian and UK institutions into her current position as…

  8. Bullying Prevention for Public Health Practitioners

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-19

    This podcast discusses bullying as a public health problem, and provides information and resources for public health practitioners.  Created: 1/19/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 1/19/2012.

  9. Home and Instruction Effects on Emergent Literacy in a Sample of Chilean Kindergarten Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Katherine; Lissi, Maria Rosa

    2009-01-01

    The study examines the home literacy experiences, emergent literacy skills, and instructional experiences of a sample of Chilean kindergarten children (n = 126) and kindergarten families (n = 188) nested in 12 kindergarten classrooms from different socioeconomic status groups and types of schools. Descriptive information is given showing the level…

  10. The Dad in the Che Guevara T-Shirt: Narratives of Chilean English Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard-Warwick, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Building on previous critical research regarding student resistance to English Language Teaching (ELT), this paper illustrates Chilean high-school English teachers' use of narrative to make sense of ideological challenges from students. While the government of Chile is promoting English in connection with the nation's export-oriented economic…

  11. Bruises in Chilean cattle: their characterization, occurrence and relation with pre-slaughter conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strappini, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    Bruises on cattle carcass affect the quality of the meat and are indicators of poor welfare conditions. According to the literature the occurrence of bruises is related to pre- slaughter conditions, however their contribution is not clear for Chilean cattle. The aim of this thesis was to provide a b

  12. Estimating enteric methane emissions from Chilean beef fattening systems using a mechanistic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arias, R.A.; Catrileo, A.; Larraín, R.; Vera, R.; Velásquez, A.; Toneatti, M.; France, J.; Dijkstra, J.; Kebreab, E.

    2015-01-01

    A mechanistic model (COWPOLL) was used to estimate enteric methane (CH4) emissions from beef production systems in Chile. The results expressed as a proportion of gross energy intake (GEI) were compared with enteric fermentation data reported in the last Chilean greenhouse gases inventory, which uti

  13. Chilean Adolescents' and Parents' Views on Autonomy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, M. Loreto; Pérez, J. Carola; Cumsille, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to understand Chilean parents' and adolescents' conceptions of autonomy and whether they hold different expectations for autonomous behaviors by generation and socioeconomic level. A qualitative approach to data collection was used through separate focus groups of parents and adolescents from different socioeconomic…

  14. New English Cultures and Learner Autonomy for Intrinsic Motivation and Democratic Empowerment in the Chilean Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glas, Katharina; Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.

    2013-01-01

    Chilean youth are currently demanding access to better-quality education for all: greater democracy and curricula that respect the country's indigenous cultural roots form part of their petitions. This article puts forward a twofold pedagogical proposal for English Language Teaching intended to foster intrinsic motivation and democratic…

  15. Morphology, anatomy and histology of Doto uva Marcus, 1955 (Opisthobranchia: Nudibranchia) from the Chilean coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, M.A.; Velde, van der G.; Roubos, E.W.

    2006-01-01

    Doto uva Marcus, 1955 is a nudibranch species recorded from the Brazilian and Chilean coast. In spite of its wide distribution, D. uva has been described only superficially, mainly as to the pattern of its coloration, external morphology, radular teeth and reproductive system. Here we substantially

  16. [Recommendations for Chilean travelers to the FIFA World Cup 2014 in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret, Cecilia; Weitzel, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    This article provides a checklist of precautions and vaccines for Chilean travelers attending the FIFA World Cup 2014 in Brazil. It aims to help physicians to prepare visitors of this mass gathering and summarizes useful hints to avoid infectious diseases considering the circumstances and availabilities in Chile.

  17. Eating Disorders among a Community-Based Sample of Chilean Female Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granillo, M. Teresa; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders among a community-based sample of female Chilean adolescents. Data were collected through structured interviews with 420 female adolescents residing in Santiago, Chile. Approximately 4% of the sample reported ever being diagnosed with an eating disorder.…

  18. Educational Effectiveness in Chilean Secondary Education: Comparing Different "Value Added" Approaches to Evaluate Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Chereau, B.; Thomas, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports an original investigation into school performance measures and the multilevel nature of pupil achievement data in the Chilean school system using a sample of 177,461 students, nested within 7146 classrooms, 2283 secondary schools and 313 municipalities. The data-set comprised Year 10 students' 2006 SIMCE test's results in two…

  19. Bringing the Schools Back in: The Stratification of Educational Achievement in the Chilean Voucher System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizala, Alejandra; Torche, Florencia

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the socioeconomic stratification of achievement in the Chilean voucher system using a census of 4th and 8th graders, a multilevel methodology, and accounting for unobserved selectivity into school sector. Findings indicate that the association between the school's aggregate family socioeconomic status (SES) and test scores is…

  20. The Chilean miracle : patrimonialism in a modern free-market democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peppelenbos, L.P.C.

    2005-01-01

    International policy institutions claim that Chile's remarkable economic performance testifies to the merits of a neo-liberal development model. This book argues, however, that 'the Chilean miracle' did not result from the adoption ofneoliberalismitself, but from the persis

  1. Social aspects of revitalization of rural areas. Implementation of the rural revival programme in lodzkie voivodeship. Assumptions for sociological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Jeziorska-Biel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Essential elements of the process of rural renovation programme are: stimulating activity of local communities, cooperation for development, while preserving social identity, cultural heritage and natural environment. Implementing a rural revival programme in Poland: Sectoral Operational Programme “The Restructuring and Modernisation of the Food Sector and the Development of Rural Areas in 2004-2006” (action 2.3 “Rural renovation and protection and preservation of cultural heritage” evokes criticism. A wide discussion is carried amongst researchers, politicians, social activists, and local government practitioners. The main question remains: “is rural renovation process in Poland conducted in accordance with the rules in European countries or it is only a new formula of rural modernisation with the use of European funds?” The authors are joining the discussion and in the second part of the article they are presenting the assumption of sociological research. The aim of the analysis is to grasp the essence of revitalization of rural areas located in Łódzkie voivodeship, and analyse the question of specificity of rural Revival Programmes. What is the scope and manner of use of local capital? If so, are the results obtained from implementing a rural revival programme in 2004-2006 within the scope of sustainable development? What activities are predominant in the process of project implementation? Is it rural modernisation, revitalization of the rural areas, barrier removal and change in Infrastructure, or creation of social capital and subjectivity of the local community? Has the process of rural renovation in Łódzkie voivodeship got the so called “social face” and if so, to what extent? The major assumption is that rural renovation programme in Łódzkie voivodeship relates more to revitalization material aspects than “spirituality”.

  2. Prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian P Mundt

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High rates of mental disorders have been reported for prison populations worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. The present study aimed to establish prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisoners. METHOD: A nationwide random sample of 1008 prisoners was assessed in 7 penal institutions throughout Chile. Twelve-month prevalence rates were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI and compared to the prevalence rates previously published for the general population. RESULTS: Prevalence rates were 12.2% (95% CI, 10.2-14.1 for any substance use disorder, 8.3% (6.6-10.0 for anxiety disorders, 8.1% (6.5-9.8 for affective disorders, 5.7% (4.4-7.1 for intermittent explosive disorders, 2.2% (1.4-3.2 for ADHD of the adult, and 0.8% (0.3-1.3 for non-affective psychoses. Significantly higher prevalence rates among prisoners as compared to the general population in Chile were seen for major depression (6.1% vs. 3.7% males, Z=2.58, p<0.05 and illicit drug use (3.3% vs. 0.6% males with drug abuse, Z=2.04, p<0.05; 2.6% vs. 0.1% females with drug abuse, Z=5.36, p<0.001; 3.4% vs. 1.1% males with drug dependence, Z=3.70; p<0.001. Dysthymia (6.5% vs. 15.6%, Z=-2.39, p<0.05, simple (3.3% vs. 11.5%, Z=-3.13, p<0.001 and social phobias (3.9% vs. 9.7%, Z=2.38, p<0.05 were significantly less frequent in the female prison population than in the general population. One-year prevalence rates of alcohol abuse (2.3% vs. 3.9%; Z=-2.04; p<0.05 and dependence (2.7% vs. 8.2%; Z=-5.24; p<0.001 were less prevalent in the male prison population than in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Service provision for prison populations in Chile should acknowledge high rates of depression and illicit drug use. Overall prevalence rates are lower than reported in other LMICs. Previous research in prison populations in LMICs might have overestimated prevalence rates of mental disorders.

  3. Population genetics of the Chilean frog Batrachyla Leptopus (Leptodactylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Formas

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrophoretic variation of proteins encoded by 14 loci was analyzed in eight (five continental and three insular populations of the Chilean leptodactylid frog Batrachyla leptopus. The overall proportion of polymorphic loci was estimated to be 18.7% and the average number of alleles per locus, 1.2, while observed and expected heterozygosities were 1.7 and 5.1%, respectively. The estimated coefficient of genetic identity was 0.940; the corresponding figure for genetic distance was 0.063. F-statistics analysis showed a total inbreeding coefficient (Fit of 0.855 and high levels of genetic subdivision (Fst = 0.596 as well as of inbreeding within populations (Fis = 0.640. However, there was only a moderate level of genetic differentiation (Fst = 0.181 between the insular group of populations and the continental group.A variação eletroforética de proteínas codificadas por 14 loci foi analisada em oito populações (5 continentais e 3 insulares da rã leptodactilídea chilena Batrachyla leptopus. A proporção geral de loci polimórficos foi estimada como sendo de 18,7% e o número médio de alelos por loco, 1,2, enquanto que as heterozigosidades observada e esperada foram 1,7 e 5,1%, respectivamente. O coeficiente esperado de identidade genética foi 0,940; o número correspondente para a distância genética foi 0,063. A análise estatística F mostrou um coeficiente de endogamia total (Fit de 0,855 e altos níveis de subdivisão genética (Fst = 0,596, assim como de endogamia dentro das populações (Fis = 0,640. Contudo, houve apenas um nível moderado de diferenciação genética (Fst = 0,181 entre o grupo insular de populações e o grupo continental.

  4. Amino acid biogeo- and stereochemistry in coastal Chilean sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomstein, Bente Aa.; Jørgensen, Bo B.; Schubert, Carsten J.; Niggemann, Jutta

    2006-06-01

    The spatial distribution of total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA) and amino acid enantiomers ( D- and L-forms) was investigated in sediments underlying two contrasting Chilean upwelling regions: at ˜23 °S off Antofagasta and at ˜36 °S off Concepción. The contribution of amino acids to total organic carbon (%T AAC: 7-14%) and total nitrogen (%T AAN: 23-38%) in surface sediments decreased with increasing water depth (from 126 to 1350 m) indicating that organic matter becomes increasingly decomposed in surface sediments at greater water depth. Changes in the ratio between the protein amino acid aspartate and its non-protein degradation product β-alanine confirmed this observation. Furthermore, estimates of THAA mineralization showed that sedimentary amino acid reactivity decreased with both increasing water depth as well as progressive degradation status of the organic matter that was incorporated into the sediment. Reactivity of organic matter in the sediment was also assessed using the Degradation Index (DI) developed by [Dauwe, B., Middelburg, J.J., 1998. Amino acids and hexosamines as indicators of organic matter degradation state in North Sea sediments. Limnol. Oceanogr.43, pp. 782-798.]. Off Concepción, DI was successfully applied to examine the degradation status of sedimentary organic matter at different water depths. However, unexpected results were obtained at the Antofagasta stations as DI increased with sediment depth, suggesting more degraded organic matter at the surface than deeper in the cores. The contribution of peptidoglycan amino acids to THAA was estimated from the concentrations of D-aspartate, D-glutamic acid, D-serine, and D-alanine. Peptidoglycan amino acids accounted for >18% of THAA in all investigated samples. In surface sediments peptidoglycan amino acids accounted for a progressively larger fraction of THAA at increasing water depths (up to >26%). Further, the contribution of peptidoglycan amino acids to THAA increased with

  5. Last millenium environmental changes in Lake Bertrand sediments, Chilean Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacré, V.; Fagel, N.; Schmidt, S.; Alvarez, D.; Araneda, A.; Urrutia, R.

    2012-04-01

    'W). The identification of the diatom assemblages and its temporal variability in both lake sediments will help to identify the origin of those silica-rich layers. In addition, further sedimentological analyses are in progress to better characterize the sediment deposition models. This research was funded by Chilean Fondecyt project number 1070508 and Belgian projects (FNRS proposal 1360 2007-2010, ULg CFRA 1060 2009-2010).

  6. Research and rural; EGPRN and EURIPA—finding common ground. October 2013, Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Richard G; Wynn-Jones, John

    2015-03-01

    The European General Practice Research Network (EGPRN) and the European Rural and Isolated Practitioner Association (EURIPA) convened a historic joint meeting in Malta in October 2013. Speakers reviewed the inadequacies of the current system and conduct of clinical science research and the use and misuse of the resulting findings. Rural communities offer extraordinary opportunities to conduct more holistic, integrative, and relevant research using new methods and data sources. Investigators presented exciting research findings on questions important to the health of those in rural areas. Participants discussed several strategies to enhance the capacity and stature of rural health research and practice. EGPRN and EURIPA pledged to work together to develop rural research courses, joint research projects, and a European Rural Research Agenda based on the most urgent priorities and the European definition of general practice research in rural health care.

  7. Vascular Neurology Nurse Practitioner Provision of Telemedicine Consultations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart M. Demaerschalk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective was to define and evaluate a role for the Vascular Neurology-Nurse Practitioner (VN-NP in the delivery of telemedicine consultations in partnership with a vascular neurologist. Methods. Prospective stroke alert patients at participating hospitals underwent a two-way audio video telemedicine consultation with a VN-NP at a remotely located stroke center in partnership with a vascular neurologist. Demographic information, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS scores, diagnoses, CT contraindications to thrombolysis, thrombolysis eligibility, and time interval data were collected. The inter-rater agreement between VN-NP and vascular neurologist assessments was calculated. Results. Ten patients were evaluated. Four were determined to have ischemic stroke, one had a transient ischemic attack, two had intracerebral hemorrhages, and three were stroke mimics. Overall, three patients received thrombolysis. The inter-rater agreement between VN-NP and vascular neurologist assessments were excellent, ranging from 0.9 to 1.0. The duration of VN-NP consultation was 53.2±9.0 minutes, which included the vascular neurologist supervisory evaluation time of 12.0±9.6 minutes. Conclusion. This study illustrated that a stroke center VN-NP, in partnership with a vascular neurologist, could deliver timely telemedicine consultations, accurate diagnoses, and correct treatments in acute stroke patients who presented to remotely located rural emergency departments within a hub and spoke network. VN-NPs may fulfill the role of a telestroke provider.

  8. General practitioners and their role in maternity care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegers, T A

    2003-10-01

    During the last century the perception of pregnancy and childbirth has changed from a normal, physiological life-event to a potentially dangerous condition. Maternity care has become more and more obstetrical care, focussed on pathology and complications. The involvement of general practitioners (GPs) in maternity care is strongly reduced and almost everywhere the same reasons are found: interference with lifestyle and interruption of office routine, fear of litigation and costs of malpractice insurance, insufficient training and insufficient numbers of cases to retain competency. In Canada, the USA, and to a lesser extent in Australia and New Zealand, GPs still providing intrapartum care are GP-obstetricians rather than maternity care providers. They provide low-risk as well as high-risk obstetrical care, especially in rural areas with few specialist obstetricians. In Europe, GPs do not provide high-risk obstetrical care. Instead they emphasize their role as generalist, and compete with midwives for a central role in maternity care for women with an uncomplicated pregnancy. The ongoing medicalisation of childbirth and the changing attitudes towards the demands of maternity care practice have diminished the role of GPs or family physicians. If they want to stay involved in maternity care in the future they need to cooperate with midwives, preferably in shared care programs. PMID:14499165

  9. Optometric practices and practitioners in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Mashige

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents findings of a survey of optometric practices and practitioners in the KwaZulu-Natal (KZN province. Questions on demographics of practitioners, equipment, clinical practice andbusiness profile were included in the questionnaire. Also, issues that have the potential to impact on optometric practices were contained in the questionnaire and these include medical aid, advertising, continuous professional development (CPD and emigration. Of the 117 completed questionnaires, 55% were from females and 45% were from male practitioners. The respondents included 55% Indians, 27% Whites, 17% Blacks and 1% Coloureds. The majority of practices were located in urban areas (90% and rural areas (10%, and were mostly independent (67% and franchises (33%. Only a minority of the practices had major diagnostic equipment such as visual field analysers (33% and corneal topographers (7%. A significant proportion of the practitioners reported not routinely performing non-contact tonometry (45% and slit lamp examination (41% respectively. The majority (95% rated patient’s needs as a very important factor in their decision to prescribe an optical device. A significant proportion (38% of the practices had annual patient bases of above 33 000, with 35% having an average of 51-100 new patients per month. A few (5% practices reported gross monthly turnovers of above R400 000, and 27% reported turnovers of less than R60 000. Many (89% derived 41% and above of their total revenue from spectacle lens sales and 11% derived 41% and above from contact lens sales. The majority (92% of practices were contracted to over 60% of the medical aid schemes. Many (68% reported that they were not negatively affected by medical aid fraud committed by their colleagues, however, a significant proportion (32% reported the converse. More than half (54% of the practitioners reported that they used the print media

  10. Teleconsultation service to improve healthcare in rural areas: acceptance, organizational impact and appropriateness

    OpenAIRE

    Borghi Gabriella; Bernocchi Palmira; Scalvini Simonetta; Zanaboni Paolo; Tridico Caterina; Masella Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Nowadays, new organisational strategies should be indentified to improve primary care and its link with secondary care in terms of efficacy and timeliness of interventions thus preventing unnecessary hospital accesses and costs saving for the health system. The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of the use of teleconsultation by general practitioners in rural areas. Methods General practitioners were provided with a teleconsultation service from 2006 to 2008 to...

  11. Practitioners conducting educational design research: Tales of tension and triumph

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan

    2014-01-01

    McKenney, S. (2013). Practitioners conducting educational design research: Tales of tension and triumph. Keynote address at the annual meeting of the European Association for Practitioner Research on Improving Learning. November 27-29, Biel/Bienne, Switzerland.

  12. 返乡青年职业转换与适应研究--以休闲农业经营者为例%A Study on Career Transition of Returned Rural Youth From Perspective of Multifunctional Agriculture---With Argitourism Practitioners in Fujian Province as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱生荣; 范水生; 陈文盛

    2015-01-01

    以休闲农业较发达的福建省为样本,选取从事该行业的返乡青年为研究对象,进行半结构式深度问卷访谈,访谈的内容包括职业转换的原因,从业经验获取的途径,从业资源支持系统和职业转换的调适。研究结果发现:从事休闲农业的返乡青年普遍向往农村生活,看好休闲农业新的市场机遇,追求回归童年田园记忆与维护家人亲情关系;从事休闲农业经营可以利用原先的从业经验、积累的社会资源和务农经营期间学习、交流所探索出的经验和创新理念;职业生涯转化历程中工作价值观的调整、个人资源有效利用、找寻自己的支持系统,可以减少职业转换的挫折,并有助于工作与生活上的适应。%Multifunctional agriculture theory provides a brand‐new way to develop tradition agricultural policy decisions .The thesis aims at exploring the causes of career change of the home‐coming rural youth who are en‐gaged in agritoursim and their attitude and adjustment towards life after their return .The study takes Fujian ,a province that features plenty of returned rural youth who run agritourism ,as sample space ,from which seven re‐search subjects are chosen for an in‐depth half‐structured questionnaires interview .The contents of the interview range from causes for their career transition ,their access to the experience of agritourism and career resource sus‐taining system to their adjustment to career transition .Through the interview ,the study reveals that the returned rural youth unanimously yearn for the life form of countryside that is reminiscent of their idyllic life in the child‐hood ,which keeps their relationship with their family alive .All of them have a positive attitude towards the new market prospect for agritoursim .Though the prior management experience combined with the accessible social re‐source facilitates their involvement with agritourism

  13. Unsupervised Tensor Mining for Big Data Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexakis, Evangelos E; Faloutsos, Christos

    2016-09-01

    Multiaspect data are ubiquitous in modern Big Data applications. For instance, different aspects of a social network are the different types of communication between people, the time stamp of each interaction, and the location associated to each individual. How can we jointly model all those aspects and leverage the additional information that they introduce to our analysis? Tensors, which are multidimensional extensions of matrices, are a principled and mathematically sound way of modeling such multiaspect data. In this article, our goal is to popularize tensors and tensor decompositions to Big Data practitioners by demonstrating their effectiveness, outlining challenges that pertain to their application in Big Data scenarios, and presenting our recent work that tackles those challenges. We view this work as a step toward a fully automated, unsupervised tensor mining tool that can be easily and broadly adopted by practitioners in academia and industry.

  14. Unsupervised Tensor Mining for Big Data Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexakis, Evangelos E; Faloutsos, Christos

    2016-09-01

    Multiaspect data are ubiquitous in modern Big Data applications. For instance, different aspects of a social network are the different types of communication between people, the time stamp of each interaction, and the location associated to each individual. How can we jointly model all those aspects and leverage the additional information that they introduce to our analysis? Tensors, which are multidimensional extensions of matrices, are a principled and mathematically sound way of modeling such multiaspect data. In this article, our goal is to popularize tensors and tensor decompositions to Big Data practitioners by demonstrating their effectiveness, outlining challenges that pertain to their application in Big Data scenarios, and presenting our recent work that tackles those challenges. We view this work as a step toward a fully automated, unsupervised tensor mining tool that can be easily and broadly adopted by practitioners in academia and industry. PMID:27642720

  15. Orthodontic Implants: Concepts for the Orthodontic Practitioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Nelson Elias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic implants have become a reliable method in orthodontic practice for providing temporary additional anchorage. These devices are useful to control skeletal anchorage in less compliant patients or in cases where absolute anchorage is necessary. There are a great number of advantages in this new approach which include easy insertion, decreased patient discomfort, low price, immediate loading, reduced diameter, versatility in the forces to be used, ease of cleaning, and ease of removal. However, a proper management of the screws by the practitioner is necessary in order to increase the success rate of the technique. The purpose of this paper is to update practitioners on the current concepts of orthodontic implants and orthodontic mechanics.

  16. An International Survey of Aquaponics Practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    David C. Love; Fry, Jillian P.; Laura Genello; Hill, Elizabeth S.; J Adam Frederick; Ximin Li; Ken Semmens

    2014-01-01

    Aquaponics, a combination of fish farming and soilless plant farming, is growing in popularity and gaining attention as an important and potentially more sustainable method of food production. The aim of this study was to document and analyze the production methods, experiences, motivations, and demographics of aquaponics practitioners in the United States (US) and internationally. The survey was distributed online using a chain sampling method that relied on referrals from initial respondent...

  17. Downsizings, Mergers, and Acquisitions: Perspectives of Human Resource Development Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, LaVerne; Roth, Gene

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to provide perspectives of HR practitioners based on their experiences with mergers, acquisitions, and/or downsizings. Design/methodology/approach: This qualitative study utilized interviews with 13 HR practitioners. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative method. Findings: HR practitioners were not involved in…

  18. 42 CFR 410.75 - Nurse practitioners' services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nurse practitioners' services. 410.75 Section 410... Nurse practitioners' services. (a) Definition. As used in this section, the term “physician” means a... Medicare Part B coverage of his or her services, a nurse practitioner must be a registered...

  19. Comparing Sociodemographic Factors Associated with Disability between Immigrants and the Chilean-Born: Are There Different Stories to Tell?

    OpenAIRE

    Baltica Cabieses; Pickett, Kate E.; Helena Tunstall

    2012-01-01

    This study explored a range of sociodemographic factors associated with disability among international immigrants in Chile, and compared them to the Chilean-born. Secondary data analysis of the Chilean population-based survey CASEN-2006 was conducted (268,873 participants). Main health outcomes: any disability and six different types of disability: visual, hearing, learning, physical, psychiatric and speaking (binary outcomes). Sociodemographic variables: Demographic factors (age, sex, marita...

  20. Fishing the future. A snapshot of the Chilean TURFs through the lens of fishers and key stakeholders‟ perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Ueyonahara, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Overfishing is not an exclusive topic of big fishing industry. Overfishing by small-scale fishers is also happening. The Territorial Use of Rights – TURFs was implemented in Chile to protect the Chilean abalone from overfishing. Through the implementation of the TURFs Chilean abalone are no longer threatened by overfishing. The challenge to protect the resource thus seems to be solved. However, while some problems are solved others persist or new ones arise. The thesis explores the discourses...

  1. "One of the Most Uniform Races of the Entire World": Creole Eugenics and the Myth of Chilean Racial Homogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    This article illuminates why Nicolás Palacios's 1904 monograph, Raza chilena: Libro escrito por un Chileno i para los Chilenos [Chilean Race: A Book Written by a Chilean for Chileans], is central to the creation of a myth of Chilean racial homogeneity at the turn of the twentieth century. Placing Palacios in the context of Latin American eugenic discourse, it demonstrates how he selected a specific racial origin story in order to accommodate his belief in racial hierarchy while also depicting race mixing in a positive light. Specifically, the article highlights how the myth of Chilean racial homogeneity elided the difference between the term "mestizo," which was applied to people of mixed racial heritage, and "white." I contend that Palacios sought to differentiate Chileans from other Latin Americans by emphasizing their racial distinctiveness. The article therefore highlights that Latin American eugenics was concerned with the creation of national narratives that historicized particular racial mixtures in order to reify and affirm national differences. As such, it connects to literature regarding the history of eugenics, race, nation, and the creation of whiteness. PMID:25733067

  2. "One of the Most Uniform Races of the Entire World": Creole Eugenics and the Myth of Chilean Racial Homogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    This article illuminates why Nicolás Palacios's 1904 monograph, Raza chilena: Libro escrito por un Chileno i para los Chilenos [Chilean Race: A Book Written by a Chilean for Chileans], is central to the creation of a myth of Chilean racial homogeneity at the turn of the twentieth century. Placing Palacios in the context of Latin American eugenic discourse, it demonstrates how he selected a specific racial origin story in order to accommodate his belief in racial hierarchy while also depicting race mixing in a positive light. Specifically, the article highlights how the myth of Chilean racial homogeneity elided the difference between the term "mestizo," which was applied to people of mixed racial heritage, and "white." I contend that Palacios sought to differentiate Chileans from other Latin Americans by emphasizing their racial distinctiveness. The article therefore highlights that Latin American eugenics was concerned with the creation of national narratives that historicized particular racial mixtures in order to reify and affirm national differences. As such, it connects to literature regarding the history of eugenics, race, nation, and the creation of whiteness.

  3. Human Systems Integration (HSI) Practitioner's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumbado, Jennifer Rochlis

    2015-01-01

    The NASA/SP-2015-3709, Human Systems Integration (HSI) Practitioner's Guide, also known as the "HSIPG," provides a tool for implementing HSI activities within the NASA systems engineering framework. The HSIPG is written to aid the HSI practitioner engaged in a program or project (P/P), and serves as a knowledge base to allow the practitioner to step into an HSI lead or team member role for NASA missions. Additionally, this HSIPG is written to address the role of HSI in the P/P management and systems engineering communities and aid their understanding of the value added by incorporating good HSI practices into their programs and projects. Through helping to build a community of knowledgeable HSI practitioners, this document also hopes to build advocacy across the Agency for establishing strong, consistent HSI policies and practices. Human Systems Integration (HSI) has been successfully adopted (and adapted) by several federal agencies-most notably the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-as a methodology for reducing system life cycle costs (LCCs). These cost savings manifest themselves due to reductions in required numbers of personnel, the practice of human-centered design, decreased reliance on specialized skills for operations, shortened training time, efficient logistics and maintenance, and fewer safety-related risks and mishaps due to unintended human/system interactions. The HSI process for NASA establishes how cost savings and mission success can be realized through systems engineering. Every program or project has unique attributes. This HSIPG is not intended to provide one-size-fits-all recommendations for HSI implementation. Rather, HSI processes should be tailored to the size, scope, and goals of individual situations. The instructions and processes identified here are best used as a starting point for implementing human-centered system concepts and designs across programs and projects of varying types, including

  4. What Is Rural? Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Many people have definitions for the term rural, but seldom are these rural definitions in agreement. For some, rural is a subjective state of mind. For others, rural is an objective quantitative measure. In this brief report the United States Department of Agriculture presents the following information along with helpful links for the reader: (1)…

  5. Dual job holding practitioners in Bangladesh: an exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Reinhold; Anwar, Raqibul; Begum, Tahmina; Killingsworth, James R; Normand, Charles

    2002-01-01

    propensity to give up private practice was found to be low. Financial incentives that aim to increase numbers of doctors in rural areas, such as a non-private-practice allowance, are more likely to be appreciated by doctors who are at the beginning of their career. Improved training and career opportunities also appear to be of high importance for job satisfaction. Policy changes to ensure a better resource allocation to the priority areas of the health sector have to reflect an understanding of the incentives generated by the organisational and financial context within which dual job holding practitioners operate. PMID:11824931

  6. Spanish and Chilean Standardizations of the Personality Assessment Inventory: the Influence of Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Tallo, Margarita; Cardenal, Violeta; Ferragut, Marta; Santamaría, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in the adaptation of psychological questionnaires in different countries, due to the need for cross-cultural research using the same tests adapted to diverse populations. This paper presents the standardization of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991, 2007) in Spain and Chile (both Spanish-speaking countries). The Spanish sample was made up of 940 people (461 men and 479 women), and the Chilean sample of 569 people (231 men and 338 women). Results revealed that the Chilean means were higher than those of the Spanish sample at confidence level 99.9%, although the associated effect sizes were generally small to moderate (partial eta-square between 0.008 and 0.187). Sex differences in the variables evaluated were commented on, and the importance of cross-cultural research and the influence of sex on personality and psychopathology variables were discussed.

  7. Socioeconomic Status and Internalizing Symptoms in Chilean Children: Does Reserve Capacity Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Suzanna M; Castillo, Marcela; Lozoff, Betsy; Gahagan, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Informed by the reserve capacity model, we examined pathways between socioeconomic status (SES) and internalizing symptoms (IS) in 1119 Chilean 10-year-olds. Mediators included parental disciplinary style and reserve capacity resources (RCR), namely home environment, parent-child engagement, and self-esteem, and conduct problems. Using structural equation modeling, the model was stratified by gender. For boys, the SES-IS relationship was mediated by the home environment and parental disciplinary style. For girls, the SES-IS relationship was mediated by the home environment, parent-child engagement, self-esteem, and conduct problems. Findings suggest different RCR may protect against IS in a sample of Chilean children. PMID:27123471

  8. Psychometric properties of the "Spanish Burnout Inventory" in Chilean professionals working to physical disabled people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Monte, Pedro R; Olivares Faúndez, Víctor E

    2011-05-01

    While the most commonly employed burnout measure has been the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), researchers have been troubled by some of the psychometric limitations of this instrument. The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the "Spanish Burnout Inventory" (SBI). The psychometric properties were analysed with data from a sample of 277 Chilean professionals working to physical disabled people. The psychometric properties of the SBI were examined through the following analyses: confirmatory factor analysis, reliability Cronbach's alpha, and concurrent validity with the MBI. The hypothesized four factor model obtained an adequate data fit for the sample (chi2(164) = 285.32, p burnout in the Chilean cultural context.

  9. Education and Training in Hemostasis: Perspectives of the Early Practitioner and Expert Practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Rebecca; Malloy, Kelly Michele

    2016-06-01

    Hemorrhagic emergencies in otolaryngology can present significant challenges to the early practitioner. The development of procedural skills, clinical decision making, effective communication strategies, and leadership remain critical to ensuring positive patient outcomes. Procedural task trainers and simulation-based complex scenarios provide safe and effective learning environments for young practitioners to build confidence and develop such skills. This article reviews the principles of managing epistaxis and postoperative neck hematoma geared toward early learners by providing a road map for educators to use in simulation-based curriculums. PMID:27267031

  10. Original footage of the Chilean miners with manganism published in Neurology in 1967.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marcelo; Bustamante, M Leonor; Mena, Francisco; Lees, Andrew

    2015-12-15

    Manganism has captured the imagination of neurologists for more than a century because of its similarities to Parkinson disease and its indirect but seminal role in the "l-dopa miracle." We present unpublished footage of the original case series reported in Neurology® in 1967 by Mena and Cotzias depicting the typical neurologic signs of manganism in 4 Chilean miners and their response to high doses of l-dopa. PMID:26668239

  11. Original footage of the Chilean miners with manganism published in Neurology in 1967.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marcelo; Bustamante, M Leonor; Mena, Francisco; Lees, Andrew

    2015-12-15

    Manganism has captured the imagination of neurologists for more than a century because of its similarities to Parkinson disease and its indirect but seminal role in the "l-dopa miracle." We present unpublished footage of the original case series reported in Neurology® in 1967 by Mena and Cotzias depicting the typical neurologic signs of manganism in 4 Chilean miners and their response to high doses of l-dopa.

  12. Breast bud detection: a validation study in the Chilean Growth Obesity Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Ana; Garmendia, María Luisa; González, Daniela; Kain, Juliana; Mericq, Verónica; Uauy, Ricardo; Corvalán, Camila

    2014-01-01

    Background Early puberty onset has been related to future chronic disease; however breast bud assessment in large scale population studies is difficult because it requires trained personnel. Thus our aim is to assess the validity of self and maternal breast bud detection, considering girl’s body mass index (BMI) and maternal education. Methods In 2010, 481 girls (mean age = 7.8) from the Growth and Obesity Chilean Cohort Study were evaluated by a nutritionist trained in breast bud detection. ...

  13. High genetic diversity in a small population: the case of Chilean blue whales

    OpenAIRE

    Torres-Florez, Juan P; Hucke-Gaete, Rodrigo; Rosenbaum, Howard; Christian C Figueroa

    2014-01-01

    It is generally assumed that species with low population sizes have lower genetic diversities than larger populations and vice versa. However, this would not be the case for long-lived species with long generation times, and which populations have declined due to anthropogenic effects, such as the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus). This species was intensively decimated globally to near extinction during the 20th century. Along the Chilean coast, it is estimated that at least 4288 blue whale...

  14. Paradoxes of participatory democracy: citizen participation, collective action and political influence in a Chilean environmental conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Spoerer, Matilde

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a critical analysis of the impacts of participatory democracy in public action and collective action. Based on the study of the Barrancones environmental conflict in Chile (2007-2010), the aim is to analyze how transformations and innovations in Chilean environmental law regarding citizen participation have had an ambivalent impact. On one hand, institutional citizen participation appears to be an instrument of economic and authoritarian logic to legitimize energy policy...

  15. Uncommon social trajectories: Chilean low-income adolescents with reading skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Ortiz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that students from low-income families are less successful at school, as indicated by theories of social reproduction. This article focuses on Chilean students that, in spite of their social background, have performed well in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA 2009. Using logistic regression analysis we identify factors associated with academic achievement in reading. Results show that student variables have a greater explanatory value than family and school variables.

  16. Chemotaxonomic Fingerprinting of Chilean Lichens Through Maldi and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Silva Santos; Maria del Pilar Camarantin Soriano; Yaneris Mirabal-Gallardo; Veronica Carrasco-Sanchez; Fabiane Manke Nachtigall; Iris Pereira; Eugenia Pereira

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study a fast, new, sensitive, and simple method for the chemotaxonomic classification of Chilean lichens (Teloschistes chrysophthalmus, Ramalina farinacea, Usnea pusilla, Ramalina chilensis and Stereocaulon ramulosum) using MALDI-TOF-MS and UPLC-ESI(-)-MS data. Lichens soluble proteins fingerprints were acquired by MALDI-TOF-MS and they were analyzed by chemometric (PCA). Lichens organic extracts fingerprints were obtained by UPLC-ESI(-)-MS. MALDI-TOF-MS associated...

  17. Intercultural journalism: Peruvian and Bolivian representation in the Chilean daily press news

    OpenAIRE

    Browne-Sartori, Rodrigo-Francisco; Baessolo-Stiven, Ricardo-Alberto; Silva-Echeto, Víctor-Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the processes through which the massive press generates and represents the cultural discourses of two of the most polemic migrant groups coexisting nowadays in Chile: Peruvians and Bolivians. The representation that the communication media carries out regarding the studied cultures strongly influences the imaginaries of the Chilean audiences. That calls for special concern so as to propose the necessary spaces for intercultural exchange as much in the media as in the soc...

  18. Democracy and Student Discontent: Chilean Student Protest in the Post-Pinochet Era

    OpenAIRE

    Peter M. M. Cummings; University of Notre Dame, Indiana

    2015-01-01

    Objective indicators suggest that economic and political conditions improved in Chile between the country’s democratization in 1990 and 2011. Average incomes increased, poverty rates decreased, and the number of positive reviews of Chilean democratic institutions rose. Despite this progress, massive student-led protest waves in 2006 and 2011 demonstrated high levels of subjective discontent in Chile. This paper proposes a three-part explanation for the paradoxical emergence and escalation of ...

  19. Democracy and Student Discontent: Chilean Student Protest in the Post-Pinochet Era

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, Peter M. M.

    2015-01-01

    "Objective indicators suggest that economic and political conditions improved in Chile between the country's democratization in 1990 and 2011. Average incomes increased, poverty rates decreased, and the number of positive reviews of Chilean democratic institutions rose. Despite this progress, massive student-led protest waves in 2006 and 2011 demonstrated high levels of subjective discontent in Chile. This paper proposes a three-part explanation for the paradoxical emergence and escalation of...

  20. Democracy and Student Discontent: Chilean Student Protest in the Post-Pinochet Era

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, Peter M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective indicators suggest that economic and political conditions improved in Chile between the country’s democratization in 1990 and 2011. Average incomes increased, poverty rates decreased, and the number of positive reviews of Chilean democratic institutions rose. Despite this progress, massive student-led protest waves in 2006 and 2011 demonstrated high levels of subjective discontent in Chile. This paper proposes a three-part explanation for the paradoxical emergence and escalation o...

  1. Chilean Native Fruit Extracts Inhibit Inflammation Linked to the Pathogenic Interaction Between Adipocytes and Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes-Farias, Marjorie; Vasquez, Karla; Ovalle-Marin, Angelica; Fuentes, Francisco; Parra, Claudia; Quitral, Vilma; Jimenez, Paula; Garcia-Diaz, Diego F.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by an increase in the infiltration of monocytes into the adipose tissue, causing an inflammatory condition associated with, for example, the development of insulin resistance. Thus, anti-inflammatory-based treatments could emerge as a novel and interesting approach. It has been reported that Chilean native fruits maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) and calafate (Berberis microphylla) present high contents of polyphenols, which are known for their antioxidant and anti-inflam...

  2. U.S. and Chilean College Students' Reading Practices: A Cross-Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Suhua; Orellana, Pelusa; Capps, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between the amounts of time that U.S. and Chilean students spend on conventional academic reading, extracurricular reading, and Facebook and also to report the types of materials they prefer to read. The study surveyed students in the United States (n = 1,265) and Chile (n = 2,076)…

  3. Profiles of emotional intelligence and learning strategies in a sample of Chilean students

    OpenAIRE

    García Fernández, José Manuel; Cándido J. Inglés; Suriá Martínez, Raquel; Lagos San Martín, Nelly; Gonzálvez Macià, Carolina; Aparisi Sierra, David; Martínez Monteagudo, María C.

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years, one of the lines of research of great interest in the field of emotional intelligence (EI) has been the analysis of the role of emotions in the educational context and, in particular, their influence on learning strategies. The aims of this study are to identify the existence of different EI profiles and to determine possible statistically significant differences in learning strategies between the obtained profiles. The study involved 1253 Chilean school students from 1...

  4. Ecology of Chilean dolphins and Peale's dolphins at Isla Chiloe, southern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrich, Sonja

    2006-01-01

    Information on the ecology of sympatric species provides important insights into how different animals interact with their environment, with each other, and how they differ in their susceptibility to threats to their survival. In this study habitat use and population ecology of Chilean dolphins (Cephalorhynchus eutropia) and sympatric Peale's dolphins (Lagenorhynchus australis) were investigated in the Chiloe Archipelago in southern Chile from 2001 to 2004. Distribution data collected during ...

  5. Aggregate structure and stability linked to carbon dynamics in a south Chilean Andisol

    OpenAIRE

    C. Oyarzún; Godoy, R.; O. Van Cleemput; P. Boeckx; Huygens, D.

    2005-01-01

    International audience The extreme vulnerability of soil organic carbon to climate and land use change emphasizes the need for further research in different terrestrial ecosystems. We have studied the aggregate stability and carbon dynamics in a chronosequence of three different land uses in a south Chilean Andisols: a second growth Nothofagus obliqua forest (SGFOR), a grassland (GRASS) and a Pinus radiata plantation (PINUS). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Al as soil ...

  6. Crustacean zooplankton species richness in Chilean lakes and ponds (23°-51°S)

    OpenAIRE

    Patricio De los Ríos-Escalante

    2013-01-01

    Chilean inland-water ecosystems are characterized by their low species-level biodiversity. This study analyses available data on surface area, maximum depth, conductivity, chlorophyll-α concentration, and zooplankton crustacean species number in lakes and ponds between 23° and 51°S. The study uses multiple regression analysis to identify the potential factors affecting the species number. The partial correlation analysis indicated a direct significant correlation between chlorophyll-α concent...

  7. Estimating enteric methane emissions from Chilean beef fattening systems using a mechanistic model

    OpenAIRE

    Arias, RA; Catrileo, A; Larraín, R; Vera, R; Velásquez, A.; Toneatti, M; France, J; Dijkstra, J.; Kebreab, E.

    2015-01-01

    Copyright © 2014 Cambridge University Press. A mechanistic model (COWPOLL) was used to estimate enteric methane (CH4) emissions from beef production systems in Chile. The results expressed as a proportion of gross energy intake (GEI) were compared with enteric fermentation data reported in the last Chilean greenhouse gases inventory, which utilized an earlier the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Tier 2 approach. The simulation analysis was based on information from feedstuffs, dry ma...

  8. The Epidemiology of Sleep Quality and Consumption of Stimulant Beverages among Patagonian Chilean College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Vélez; Aline Souza; Samantha Traslaviña; Clarita Barbosa; Adaeze Wosu; Asterio Andrade; Megan Frye; Annette L. Fitzpatrick; Bizu Gelaye; Williams, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives:. (1) To assess sleep patterns and parameters of sleep quality among Chilean college students and (2) to evaluate the extent to which stimulant beverage use and other lifestyle characteristics are associated with poor sleep quality. Methods:. A cross-sectional study was conducted among college students in Patagonia, Chile. Students were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire to provide information about lifestyle and demographic characteristics. The Pittsburgh Sleep Qu...

  9. The dance of those left behind. Chilean high school students and the possibility of disagreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Depetris Chauvin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the high school students’ protest against the neoliberal conception of education during the first period of President Michelle Bachelet government. Specifically, I analyze how the new generation of young Chileans critically uses and produces pop culture — photoblogs, posters, and stencils — in order to express disagreement with the mercantilist approach to education and the very concept of neoliberal freedom and equality.

  10. Effects of creatine supplementation in taekwondo practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Manjarrez-Montes de Oca

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Taekwondo (TKD is a combat sport, which has also been proposed as a fitness program, with a strong anaerobic component. Creatine (Cr supplementation is used to improve both anaerobic exercise performance and body composition. Therefore, Cr supplementation could be beneficial in TKD. Aims: To determine the effect of Cr supplementation (50 mg/kg body wt on body composition, anaerobic power and blood chemistry in young male TKD practitioners. Methods: Ten male TKD practitioners (age [20 ± 2 yr], height [1.69 ± 0.06 m], and mass [67 ± 9.8 kg] participated in a placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover study. Body composition (DEXA, anaerobic power (Wingate Test, blood lactate and blood chemistry were measured before and after supplementation. Differences between data before and after supplementation were calculated for each treatment (Cr and Placebo and were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: Fat mass (kg decreased after placebo (Mdn [IqR] = -0.75 [-1.44 to 0.03] and increased following Cr intake (0.17 [-0.77 to 1.13] kg (Z = 2.191, p < 0.028, r = 0.49. Serum triglyceride concentration (mg/mL increased after Cr (45.00 [-7.50 to 75.00] and decrease with placebo (-7.00 [-10.75 to 12.00] (Z = 2.090, p < 0.037, r = 0.47. No changes were found in others parameters. Conclusion: Cr supplementation may increase fat mass and serum triglycerides concentration in young male TKD practitioners without improvement in anaerobic power. Cr supplementation appears to be safe, but athletes should be careful when they want to loss fat.

  11. Developing a research agenda for cardiovascular disease prevention in high-risk rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Cathy L; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Pratt, Charlotte A; Nelson, Cheryl; Walker, Evelyn R; Ammerman, Alice; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Best, Lyle G; Cherrington, Andrea L; Economos, Christina D; Green, Lawrence W; Harman, Jane; Hooker, Steven P; Murray, David M; Perri, Michael G; Ricketts, Thomas C

    2013-06-01

    The National Institutes of Health convened a workshop to engage researchers and practitioners in dialogue on research issues viewed as either unique or of particular relevance to rural areas, key content areas needed to inform policy and practice in rural settings, and ways rural contexts may influence study design, implementation, assessment of outcomes, and dissemination. Our purpose was to develop a research agenda to address the disproportionate burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and related risk factors among populations living in rural areas. Complementary presentations used theoretical and methodological principles to describe research and practice examples from rural settings. Participants created a comprehensive CVD research agenda that identified themes and challenges, and provided 21 recommendations to guide research, practice, and programs in rural areas.

  12. Systems concepts in action a practitioner's toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Bob

    2010-01-01

    Systems Concepts in Action: A Practitioner's Toolkit explores the application of systems ideas to investigate, evaluate, and intervene in complex and messy situations. The text serves as a field guide, with each chapter representing a method for describing and analyzing; learning about; or changing and managing a challenge or set of problems.The book is the first to cover in detail such a wide range of methods from so many different parts of the systems field. The book's Introduction gives an overview of systems thinking, its origins, and its major subfields. In addition, the introductory text

  13. Antimicrobial Stewardship for the Infection Control Practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Jerod L; Kaye, Keith S; LaPlante, Kerry L; Pogue, Jason M

    2016-09-01

    Antibiotic misuse is a serious patient safety concern and a national public health priority. Years of indiscriminant antibiotic use has promoted selection for antibiotic resistant bacteria and Clostridium difficile This crisis has led to clinicians being faced with managing untreatable infections, often in the most vulnerable patient populations. This review summarizes the goals of antimicrobial stewardship programs, the essential members needed to initiate a program, various antimicrobial stewardship strategies, the role of the infection control practitioner in stewardship, barriers to its implementation and maintenance, approaches to measure the impact of a program, and the steps needed to initiate a program. PMID:27515147

  14. Determinants of General Practitioners' Wages in England

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Morris; Matt Sutton; Hugh Gravelle; Bob Elliott; Arne Hole; Ada Ma; Bonnie Sibbald; Diane Skatun

    2008-01-01

    We analyse the determinants of annual net income and wages (annual net income/hours) of general practitioners (GPs) using a unique, anonymised, non-disclosive dataset derived from tax returns for 21,657 GPs in England for the financial year 2002/3. The average GP had a gross income of £189,300, incurred expenses of £115,600, and earned an annual net income of £73,700. The mean wage was £35 per hour. Net income and wages depended on gender, experience, list size, partnership size, whether or n...

  15. The Philosophical Practitioner and the Curriculum Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne; Benckendorff, Pierre; Day, Michele;

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews contemporary debates about tourism and hospitality education to conceptualise a curriculum space framework that can be used to facilitate understanding and decision making. The chapter is conceptual and makes two key contributions: it draws together diverse discourses about...... the balance between higher order knowledge in liberal education and skills-based vocational education required by industry; and it builds upon the Philosophic Practitioner Education to conceptualise a curriculum space that is socially constructed, dynamic and flexible. The proposed framework incorporates...... the idea of phronesis and the need for students to develop practical wisdom but acknowledges that these opportunities are bounded by a forcefield of influences on higher education....

  16. Securing cloud and mobility a practitioner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Although virtualization is a widely accepted technology, there are few books dedicated to virtualization and security. Filling this need, Securing Cloud and Mobility: A Practitioner's Guide explains how to secure the multifaceted layers of private and public cloud deployments as well as mobility infrastructures. With comprehensive coverage that includes network, server, and endpoint security, it provides a strategic view of the security implications of virtualization and cloud computing. The book begins by deconstructing the terminology of cloud computing. It explains how to establish a secure

  17. Content validity and reliability of test of gross motor development in Chilean children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cano-Cappellacci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To validate a Spanish version of the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 for the Chilean population. METHODS Descriptive, transversal, non-experimental validity and reliability study. Four translators, three experts and 92 Chilean children, from five to 10 years, students from a primary school in Santiago, Chile, have participated. The Committee of Experts has carried out translation, back-translation and revision processes to determine the translinguistic equivalence and content validity of the test, using the content validity index in 2013. In addition, a pilot implementation was achieved to determine test reliability in Spanish, by using the intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman method. We evaluated whether the results presented significant differences by replacing the bat with a racket, using T-test. RESULTS We obtained a content validity index higher than 0.80 for language clarity and relevance of the TGMD-2 for children. There were significant differences in the object control subtest when comparing the results with bat and racket. The intraclass correlation coefficient for reliability inter-rater, intra-rater and test-retest reliability was greater than 0.80 in all cases. CONCLUSIONS The TGMD-2 has appropriate content validity to be applied in the Chilean population. The reliability of this test is within the appropriate parameters and its use could be recommended in this population after the establishment of normative data, setting a further precedent for the validation in other Latin American countries.

  18. [Position paper from the Department of Ethics of the Chilean College of Physicians about conscientious objection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Sofía P; Besio, Mauricio; Bórquez Estefó, Gladys; Salinas, Rodrigo A; Valenzuela, Carlos Y; Micolich, Constanza; Novoa Sotta, Fernando; Bernier Villarroel, Lioniel; Montt M, Julio; Misseroni Raddatz, Adelio

    2016-03-01

    The Chilean bill that regulates abortion for three cases (Bulletin Nº 9895-11) includes the possibility that health professionals may manifest their conscientious objection (CO) to perform this procedure. Due to the broad impact that the issue of C O had, the Ethics Department of the Chilean College of Physicians considered important to review this concept and its ethical and legal basis, especially in the field of sexual and reproductive health. In the present document, we define the practical limit s of CO, both for the proper fulfillment of the medical profession obligations, and for the due respect and non-discrimination that the professional objector deserves. We analyze the denial of some health institutions to perform abortions if it is legalize d, and we end with recommendations adjusted to the Chilean reality. Specifically, we recognize the right to conscientious objection that all physicians who directly participate in a professional act have. But we a lso recognize that physicians have ineludib le obligations towards their patients, including the obligation to inform about the existence of this service, how to access to it and -as set out in our code of ethics- to ensure that another colleague will continue attending the patient. PMID:27299826

  19. ICT in Chilean Schools: Students' and Teachers' Access and Use of ICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Enrique Hinostroza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the analysis of the data from a national survey of the Chilean educational ICT infrastructure and its use in schools implemented by the Centre for Technology and Education of the Chilean Ministry of Education in 2004. Results show that the context of ICT use in Chilean schools can be characterized as relatively good, insofar as there are no first-order barriers for implementing ICT pedagogy. In this context, students’ ICT use can be categorized based on four factors: communication, productivity, recreation, and communication with teachers. On the other hand, teachers’ ICT use can be categorized using three factors: communication, teaching, and technical. Based on these factors and considering the availability and use of ICT in schools, the question remains how to make this time most effective for improving students’ learning. Additionally, results show that students, on their own, spend a considerable amount of time developing activities described as communication. The question that arises from this finding is how to take advantage of these activities in order to meet teaching and learning aims. Regarding teachers, results open possibilities for redesigning professional development courses by taking advantage of what they already do with ICT.

  20. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition of Maternal Diet and Erythrocyte Phospholipid Status in Chilean Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla A. Bascuñán

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA, which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20–36 years old in the 3rd–6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA, with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA.

  1. Rhizobacterial Community Structures Associated with Native Plants Grown in Chilean Extreme Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorquera, Milko A; Maruyama, Fumito; Ogram, Andrew V; Navarrete, Oscar U; Lagos, Lorena M; Inostroza, Nitza G; Acuña, Jacquelinne J; Rilling, Joaquín I; de La Luz Mora, María

    2016-10-01

    Chile is topographically and climatically diverse, with a wide array of diverse undisturbed ecosystems that include native plants that are highly adapted to local conditions. However, our understanding of the diversity, activity, and role of rhizobacteria associated with natural vegetation in undisturbed Chilean extreme ecosystems is very poor. In the present study, the combination of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 454-pyrosequencing approaches was used to describe the rhizobacterial community structures of native plants grown in three representative Chilean extreme environments: Atacama Desert (ATA), Andes Mountains (AND), and Antarctic (ANT). Both molecular approaches revealed the presence of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria as the dominant phyla in the rhizospheres of native plants. Lower numbers of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were observed in rhizosphere soils from ATA compared with AND and ANT. Both approaches also showed differences in rhizobacterial community structures between extreme environments and between plant species. The differences among plant species grown in the same environment were attributed to the higher relative abundance of classes Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria. However, further studies are needed to determine which environmental factors regulate the structures of rhizobacterial communities, and how (or if) specific bacterial groups may contribute to the growth and survival of native plants in each Chilean extreme environments. PMID:27406732

  2. SOCIAL POLICY AGENDAS AND CONSTRUCTION OF DEMOCRACY IN THE CHILEAN TRANSITION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Delamaza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Social policies have been the greatest field of innovation in Chilean state action since 1990. These policies were conceived as a key factor to ensure governance in the political transition to democracy, to strengthen the economic model and to re-establish a link between State and society. This article examines some governmental political initiatives in different areas of social policy. It is important to know how these social programs and policies have shaped the relationship between the new State, which emerged from the negotiations in the late 1980s, and the Chilean society. For this purpose, the general approaches which underlie this policy are reviewed, and then the orientations within them are differentiated. There are five different patterns or tendencies in Chilean social policy, according to their orientation, institutional management and type of relationship with the social organizations. Two of them arose as a result of the implementation of innovative approaches during the 1990s, which also led to the creation of new agencies. A third one is related with the reorientation of policies in traditional areas. The last two of the analyzed trends refer to the interfaces between the social policy and civil society at the local sphere (decentralized entities and externalization - or outsourcing - of the relationship.

  3. Strategic Evolution of Chilean Wine Firms: Vertical Integration and Upgrading in Chile’s Colchagua Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert N. Gwynne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the favourable export trajectories for Chilean wine to global markets in general and the UK market in particular are partly due to the nature of the insertion of wine producing firms into global value chains. Much of the data in this paper comes from a two-year British Academy research project (2005-07 which examined the impacts of globalization on export-oriented wine firms in Chile’s Colchagua Valley and the record of collaboration between these firms and key purchasing companies within the UK market. The paper examines the political economy of value chains in agro-industry, retail concentration in core economy markets and the relevance of convention theory to value chains in the wine sector. The paper then analyses how value chains give context to the nature of upgrading within the Chilean wine sector by focusing on: the strategic example of the lead firm; firm upgrading as a response to the demands of and knowledge flows from retailers; and firm upgrading through the flying winemaker model. The paper will conclude by assessing the relevance of the Chilean experience for other countries wishing to rapidly expand their wine exports, such as those in S. E. Europe.

  4. Democracy and Student Discontent: Chilean Student Protest in the Post-Pinochet Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. M. Cummings

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective indicators suggest that economic and political conditions improved in Chile between the country’s democratization in 1990 and 2011. Average incomes increased, poverty rates decreased, and the number of positive reviews of Chilean democratic institutions rose. Despite this progress, massive student-led protest waves in 2006 and 2011 demonstrated high levels of subjective discontent in Chile. This paper proposes a three-part explanation for the paradoxical emergence and escalation of the post-Pinochet-era Chilean student protests, and, in so doing, contributes to the broader understanding of social movements and political action. The first two parts of the argument relate to generational change. Firstly, a gap between expectations and capabilities provoked discontent amongst a new generation of Chilean students. Secondly, the new generation’s collective identity as “la generación sin miedo” (the fearless generation motivated the students to turn discontent into political action. Thirdly, government and student actor agency influenced the variance in protest strength between 2005 and 2011.

  5. Appropriate training and retention of community doctors in rural areas: a case study from Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coulibaly Seydou

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While attraction of doctors to rural settings is increasing in Mali, there is concern for their retention. An orientation course for young practicing rural doctors was set up in 2003 by a professional association and a NGO. The underlying assumption was that rurally relevant training would strengthen doctors' competences and self-confidence, improve job satisfaction, and consequently contribute to retention. Methods Programme evaluation distinguished trainees' opinions, competences and behaviour. Data were collected through participant observation, group discussions, satisfaction questionnaires, a monitoring tool of learning progress, and follow up visits. Retention was assessed for all 65 trainees between 2003 and 2007. Results and discussion The programme consisted of four classroom modules – clinical skills, community health, practice management and communication skills – and a practicum supervised by an experienced rural doctor. Out of the 65 trained doctors between 2003 and 2007, 55 were still engaged in rural practice end of 2007, suggesting high retention for the Malian context. Participants viewed the training as crucial to face technical and social problems related to rural practice. Discussing professional experience with senior rural doctors contributed to socialisation to novel professional roles. Mechanisms underlying training effects on retention include increased self confidence, self esteem as rural doctor, and sense of belonging to a professional group sharing a common professional identity. Retention can however not be attributed solely to the training intervention, as rural doctors benefit from other incentives and support mechanisms (follow up visits, continuing training, mentoring... affecting job satisfaction. Conclusion Training increasing self confidence and self esteem of rural practitioners may contribute to retention of skilled professionals in rural areas. While reorientations of curricula in

  6. Recruitment of rural healthcare professionals for live continuing education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronnie Scott Holuby

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The availability of rural healthcare is a growing concern in the United States as fewer healthcare providers choose to work in rural areas. Accessing quality continuing education (CE for rural healthcare practitioners (HCPs remains a challenge and may pose a barrier to quality care. Methods: To maximize attendance at a live, in-person, free CE program focusing on geriatric medication and issues specifically targeted to HCPs in rural areas, two methods were implemented sequentially. The first method used formal advertising implemented by a professional marketing service to promote CE events. The second method enlisted local healthcare organizations and physician groups to promote the CE event to their employees. Cost per attendee was calculated for comparison. Results: Professional marketing services recruited 31 HCPs (March 2011 and resulted in a per-participant recruitment cost of US$428.62. Local healthcare organizations and physician groups’ marketing recruited 48 HCPs (July–August 2011 and resulted in a per-participant recruitment cost of US$55.19. Discussion: Providing free CE coordinated through local healthcare organizations and physician groups was the most cost-effective method of recruiting rural HCPs for CE. Formal advertising added cost without increasing the number of participants per event. Although this is the first study of the cost-effectiveness of recruitment methods targeting HCPs in rural areas, results are consistent with research on cost-effectiveness of outreach to rural lay community members.

  7. Academics and practitioners: nurses as intellectuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Colin A

    2002-06-01

    Academics and practitioners: nurses as intellectuals In the author's experience, nurse educators working in universities generally accept that they are 'academics', but dismiss suggestions that they are 'intellectuals' because they see it as a pretentious description referring to a small number of academics and aesthetes who inhabit a conceptual world beyond the imaginative capacity of most other people. This paper suggests that the concept of the 'intellectual', if not the word itself, be admitted into nursing discourse through the adoption of a non-élitist Gramscian understanding, similar to the more recently formulated conception of the reflective practitioner. According to the Italian Marxist scholar Antonio Gramsci, intellectuals are those people who develop ways in which to construct the conditions of their own existence, a possibility he believed was open to all. It is suggested that, from a Gramscian perspective, all nurses are intellectuals to varying degrees, and nurse educators should not only be nurturing their own intellectualism but also the potential for intellectualism as it exists within each individual. The ways in which this project are related to Habermasian critical theory are also briefly outlined. PMID:12071908

  8. The Willingness-to-Pay for General Practitioners in Contractual Service and Influencing Factors among Empty Nesters in Chongqing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2012, a pilot health policy of contractual service relations between general practitioners and patients was implemented in China. Due to the decline in body and cognitive function, as well as the lack of family care and narrow social support networks, the demand of health services among the elderly is much higher than that among the general population. This study aims to probe into the empty nesters’ willingness-to-pay for general practitioners using a contractual service policy, investigating empty nesters’ payment levels for the service, and analyze the main factors affecting the willingness of empty-nesters’ general practitioners using contractual service supply cost. Methods: This cross-sectional study adopted a multistage stratified sampling method to survey 865, city empty nesters (six communities in three districts of one city aged 60–85 years. A condition value method was used to infer the distribution of the willingness-to-pay; Cox’s proportional hazards regression model was used to analyze the influencing factors of willingness-to-pay. Results: More than seventy percent (76.6% of the empty nesters in this city were willing to pay general practitioners using contract service in Chongqing. The level of willingness-to-pay for the surveyed empty nesters was 34.1 yuan per year. The median value was 22.1 yuan per year, which was below the Chongqing urban and rural cooperative medical insurance individual funding level (60 yuan per year in 2013. Cox’s proportional hazards regression model analysis showed that the higher the education level was, the worse the self-reported health status would be, accompanied by higher family per capita income, higher satisfaction of community health service, and higher willingness-to-pay empty nesters using a contract service. Women had a higher willingness-to-pay than men. Conclusions: The willingness-to-pay for general practitioners by contractual service is high among city empty

  9. Rural Logistics System Based on Rural Informatization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Current status of rural informatization construction in China,including the relatively weak rural informatization,asymmetric market information,low level of information sharing,dispersedly allocated resources and no cross point among each other are analyzed.The importance of informatization in rural logistic system is introduced:firstly,decision making of logistics system plan is based on information.Secondly,improvement of the overall efficiency of logistics system is based on information.Thirdly,logistics transmission takes the Internet as the carrier.Necessity of rural logistics system is discussed from five aspects of increasing the employment of farmers,enhancing the income of farmers,reducing the blindness of agricultural production and circulation,sharing the risks of agricultural management,and promoting the rural economic restructuring.According to the above five steps,five countermeasures are posed in order to improve the rural logistics system.The countermeasures cover the aspects of deepening the information awareness of government,establishing a rural informatization system suited to the national condition of China,strengthening the information infrastructure in rural areas,promoting the integration of rural information resources and establishing the training system for agricultural information talents.

  10. Rural anaesthetic audit 2006 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, P D; Newbury, J

    2012-03-01

    In order to review anaesthetic morbidity in our remote rural hospital, a retrospective audit of all anaesthetic records was undertaken for a five-year period between 2006 and 2010. Eight hundred and eighty-nine anaesthetic records were reviewed. The patients were all American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status I to III. Ninety-eight percent of the anaesthetics were performed by general practitioner (non-specialist) anaesthetists. There were no anaesthetic deaths or serious adverse outcomes reported over this period. Sixteen intraoperative and seven postoperative problems were documented, but all were resolved uneventfully. The most common problems documented were difficult intubation (n=9) and respiratory depression (n=3). Within the limitations of this retrospective audit, these findings indicate that general practitioner anaesthetists provided safe anaesthesia in a remote rural hospital. It is our opinion that the case selection, prior experience of anaesthetic and theatre staff, stable nursing workforce and the use of protocols were important factors in determining the low rate of adverse events. However, we caution against over-interpretation of the data, given its retrospective nature, relatively small sample size, reliance on case records and the absence of agreed definitions for adverse events. We would also like to encourage all anaesthetic services, however remote, to audit their results as part of ongoing quality assurance. PMID:22417029

  11. Using evaluation to improve medical student rural experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffatt, Jennifer J; Wyatt, Janine E

    2016-04-01

    to the rotation and placements that provide a positive experience of the rural clinical placement for students. These interventions occurred within an ongoing evaluation program embedded in the rotation. What are the implications for practitioners? Through ongoing evaluation, interventions can be selected and implemented that succeed in contributing to students having a positive rural clinical placement experience. This paper demonstrates how an embedded continuous improvement program serves to provide direction for ongoing modifications. PMID:26254631

  12. Minimal changes and missed opportunities: a decade look at nurse practitioners in the lower Mississippi River Delta states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippenbrock, Thomas; Buron, Bill; Odell, Ellen; Narcisse, Marie-Rachelle

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. southern region has one of most socioeconomically deprived and poorest health care outcomes in the county. The aims of this study were to determine changes of nurse practitioners (NPs) and their practice in lower Mississippi River Delta over the past decade and to examine differences of NPs' employment in health professional storage areas (HPSAs) and rural areas. A nonexperimental quantitative survey technique was used in the years 2000 and 2010. Other data sources included Health Resources and Services Administration that identified HPSA and the U.S. Census Bureau used to distinguish urban and rural areas. NPs are younger, and more are graduates of master's and doctorate degrees, but they are not reflective of the race they serve. Approximately, 25% of NPs worked in HPSA, and 50% worked in the rural area both in 2000 and in 2010. This proportion has remained blatantly steady during the past decade. Employment in rural health centers and family practice as a specialty declined; however, self-employment was on the rise. Nursing schools and health care institutions should be collaborating to develop plans and implementation strategies to recruit and retain NPs in the Mississippi River Delta rural and HPSAs. PMID:24939337

  13. Accuracy of general practitioner unassisted detection of depression

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, Mariko; Jones, Kim; Meadows, Graham; Sanson-Fisher, Rob; D’Este, Catherine; Inder, Kerry; Yoong, Sze Lin; Russell, Grant

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Primary care is an important setting for the treatment of depression. The aim of the study was to describe the accuracy of unassisted general practitioner judgements of patients’ depression compared to a standardised depression-screening tool delivered via touch-screen computer. Method: English-speaking patients, aged 18 or older, completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) when presenting for care to one of 51 general practitioners in Australia. General practitioners were...

  14. Terminal care: the role of the general practitioner hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Lyon, A; Love, D R

    1984-01-01

    A survey of all deaths occurring over a two-year period in a group practice population was carried out to assess the contribution of the local general practitioner hospital to terminal care overall. With the availability of the hospital, the general practitioners were able to provide a higher proportion of terminal care for their patients than in areas where general practitioners did not have access to hospital beds. This was particularly so in terminal care for patients dying of cancer.

  15. Usability Work in Professional Website Design: Insights from Practitioners' Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Furniss, D.; Blandford, A.; Curzon, P

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study aims to gain insight into how usability practitioners work in professional web design. This is done through interviews and a grounded analysis. The description reported here refers to the wider influence of the commercial context on usability work. This brings to the fore such issues as: the client?s influence on work, negotiation between clients and practitioners, the adaptation and use of methods, practitioner expertise and the consideration of ?people? in the usabili...

  16. Should knowledge of classical dance be essential for medical practitioners?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shovana T Narayan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The medical field is constantly throwing challenges, leading to considerable stress for its practitioners. Medical practitioners are expected to be professional, have up-to-date knowledge and expertise, and the ability to withstand fatigue. Through it all they are expected to remain motivated, respectful and humane, patient and kind, and confident and sensitive. The author demonstrates how learning dance can stimulate creativity, increase motivation and bolster social intelligence in medical practitioners.

  17. Adverse childhood experiences, mental health, and quality of life of Chilean girls placed in foster care: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Annina; Kohler, Stefanie; Ruf-Leuschner, Martina; Landolt, Markus A

    2016-03-01

    In Latin America, little research has been conducted regarding exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), mental health, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among foster children. This study examined the association between ACEs and mental health, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and HRQoL in Chilean foster girls relative to age-matched Chilean family girls. Data were obtained from 27 Chilean foster girls and 27 Chilean girls ages 6 to 17 years living in family homes. Standardized self- and proxy-report measures were used. Foster girls reported more ACEs than controls in terms of familial and nonfamilial sexual abuse and both emotional and physical neglect. Girls living in foster care had a significantly higher rate of PTSD, displayed greater behavioral and emotional problems, and reported a lower HRQoL. Analysis confirmed the well-known cumulative risk hypothesis by demonstrating a significant positive association between the number of ACEs and PTSD symptom severity and a significant negative association with HRQoL. Chilean foster girls endured more ACEs that impair mental health and HRQoL than age-matched peers living with their families. These findings have implications for out-of-home care services in Latin America, highlighting the need to implement not only appropriate trauma-focused treatments but also appropriate prevention strategies. PMID:25915644

  18. The Internet and the medical radiation science practitioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The Internet is an important information source for health practitioners providing immediate access to the most current health and medical information. Factors limiting practitioner access to the Internet have been identified and the literature shows that access to the Internet varies across and within health professions. There is therefore a need for each health profession to investigate practitioner access to the Internet. There has been, however, no identified empirical research investigating medical radiation science (MRS) practitioner access to or use of the Internet. This research sought to establish the professional use of Internet-based tools by Australian MRS practitioners and issues affecting access to the Internet within MRS workplaces. Methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches were used in this research. These included interviews with 28 MRS practitioners from the four areas of specialisation, namely nuclear medicine, radiation therapy, radiography and sonography and a survey of MRS practitioners. In 2007 a 4-page postal survey was sent to a random sample of 1142 MRS practitioners with a response rate of 32.8%. Results: The Internet is an important information source widely used by MRS practitioners. MRS practitioners search the Internet (87%), access specific web pages (86%), use email (82%) and listservs (39.4%) to update their professional knowledge. It was evident that access to the Internet within the workplace varied within the MRS profession. Whilst the majority (96.4%) of MRS practitioners had some level of access to the Internet in their workplace, factors shown to affect practitioner access were workplace setting (p = 0.000), work environment (p = 0.000), and geographic location (p = 0.025). The majority of clinical workplaces (81%) did not provide practitioners with remote access to electronic resources available in the workplace such as e-journals and databases. Conclusions: This research provides baseline data to the MRS

  19. Rural People with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Rural Rental Housing Program, which provides direct mortgage loans for the development of congregate housing or ... Copyright@ 2002–2016 Rural Health Information Hub. All rights reserved. About RHIhub | Contact Us Accessibility | Disclaimer | Privacy ...

  20. National Rural Health Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... History of Rural Health Globalization Urban Bias Dependency Theory Political Economy History of Rural Health IV: '60s ... Data Grassroots Action Center Policy Documents Legislative and Regulatory Agenda Medicaid News Response to 2013 OIG CAH ...

  1. SUICIDE IN RURAL COMMUNITY

    OpenAIRE

    Hedge, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    SUMMARY 51 suicides in a rural community of Northern Karnataka were studied for incidence, age and sex distribution, methods adopted for suicides, and causes of suicides. Suicides in rural area did not show any difference from urban suicide pattern.

  2. Free Education! A "Live" Report on the Chilean Student Movement 2011-2014--Reform or Revolution? [A Political Sociology for Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simbuerger, Elisabeth; Neary, Mike

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a report on the Chilean student movement, 2011-2014, from the perspective of the students themselves, based on the main research question: are the student protests for reform or revolution? The research data was collected during October 2013 before the Chilean Presidential and Parliamentary elections using the methodology of…

  3. The Image of E-Learning: Perceptions about a Chilean University and the E-Learning System in the Context of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farcas, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine the image of a Chilean university, as perceived by those inside and outside of the institution, in contrast with the general image of the e-learning system in Chile. The internal perceptions are those of current students and graduates of this Chilean university, while the external perceptions are those…

  4. Child abuse: concerns for oral health practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayman, Salim; Dincer, Elvir; Almas, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect are prevalent issues that permeate all ethnic, cultural and socioeconomic segments of society. Parents of abused children frequently change physicians in order to prevent detection, but they are more likely to continue to visit the child's dentist. Most states recognize four major types of maltreatment: neglect; physical abuse; psychological maltreatment; and sexual abuse. The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry defines dental neglect as "the willful failure of parent or guardian to seek and follow through with treatment necessary to ensure a level of oral health essential for adequate function and freedom from pain and infection." The oral health practitioner must uphold his or her legal and ethical responsibility if there is suspicion, record and report the incidence. It may help save a child from further abuse. PMID:24027895

  5. Market conditions and general practitioners' referrals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Tor; Ma, Ching-to Albert

    2011-12-01

    We study how market conditions influence referrals of patients by general practitioners (GPs). We set up a model of GP referral for the Norwegian health care system, where a GP receives capitation payment based on the number of patients in his practice, as well as fee-for-service reimbursements. A GP may accept new patients or close the practice to new patients. We model GPs as partially altruistic, and compete for patients. We show that a GP operating in a more competitive market has a higher referral rate. To compete for patients and to retain them, a GP satisfies patients' requests for referrals. Furthermore, a GP who faces a patient shortage will refer more often than a GP who does not. Tests with Norwegian GP radiology referral data support our theory. PMID:22009482

  6. Nurse practitioners: leadership behaviors and organizational climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L C; Guberski, T D; Soeken, K L

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the relationships of individual nurse practitioners' perceptions of the leadership climate in their organizations and self-reported formal and informal leadership behaviors. The nine climate dimensions (Structure, Responsibility, Reward, Perceived Support of Risk Taking, Warmth, Support, Standard Setting, Conflict, and Identity) identified by Litwin and Stringer in 1968 were used to predict five leadership dimensions (Meeting Organizational Needs, Managing Resources, Leadership Competence, Task Accomplishment, and Communications). Demographic variables of age, educational level, and percent of time spent performing administrative functions were forced as a first step in each multiple regression analysis and used to explain a significant amount of variance in all but one analysis. All leadership dimensions were predicted by at least one organizational climate dimension: (1) Meeting Organizational Needs by Risk and Reward; (2) Managing Resources by Risk and Structure; (3) Leadership Competence by Risk and Standards; (4) Task Accomplishment by Structure, Risk, and Standards; and (5) Communication by Rewards. PMID:2254526

  7. Rural Education Issues: Rural Administrators Speak Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Julia; Nierengarten, Gerry

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the issues that most affect Minnesota's rural public school administrators as they attempt to fulfill the mandates required from state legislation and communities. A second purpose was to identify exemplary practices valued by individual Minnesota rural schools and districts. Electronic surveys were sent…

  8. America's Rural Information Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Caille John, Patricia

    The Rural Information Center (RIC), a project of two agencies of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, has served rural information needs since 1988. The targeted audience for the RIC is local officials and citizens, rather than scientists and federal officials, and the thrust of its information is rural development rather than production…

  9. Professional reading and the Medical Radiation Science Practitioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanahan, Madeleine, E-mail: mshanahan@rmit.edu.a [School of Medical Science, RMIT University, Bundoora, Victoria (Australia); Herrington, Anthony [Head, School of Regional, Remote and eLearning (RRE), Curtin University, Perth (Australia); Herrington, Jan [School of Education, Murdoch University, Perth (Australia)

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: Updating professional knowledge is a central tenet of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) and professional reading is a common method health practitioners use to update their professional knowledge. This paper reports the level of professional reading by Medical Radiation Science (MRS) practitioners in Australia and examines organisational support for professional reading. Materials and Methods: Survey design was used to collect data from MRS practitioners. A questionnaire was sent to 1142 Australian practitioners, which allowed self-report data to be collected on the length of time practitioners engage in professional reading and the time workplaces allocate to practitioners for professional reading. Results: Of the 362 MRS practitioners who returned the survey, 93.9% engaged in professional reading on a weekly basis. In contrast, only 28.9% of respondents reported that their workplace allocates time for professional reading to practitioners. MRS practitioners employed in universities engaged in higher levels of reading than their colleagues employed in clinical workplaces (p < 0.01) and more university workplaces allocated time for professional reading to their employees than clinical workplaces (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences for clinical practitioners in level of reading across geographic, organisational and professional demographic factors. Significant differences in workplace allocation of time for professional reading in clinical workplaces were evident for health sector (p < 0.01); work environment (p < 0.01); geographic location (p < 0.01) and area of specialisation (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The vast majority of respondent MRS practitioners engage in professional reading to update their professional knowledge. This demonstrates an ongoing commitment at the individual practitioner level for updating professional knowledge. Updating professional knowledge is an organisational as well as an individual practitioner issue. Whilst

  10. Urban AHECs: a comparison with rural AHECs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessert, C; Jones, C

    1986-01-01

    The first generation of projects in the Federal Area Health Education Center (AHEC) Program was funded in 1972. Those AHEC projects, located in predominantly rural areas, focused on problems that resulted from the geographic maldistribution of health professionals, especially primary care physicians. Education programs for health professionals, students, and practitioners were used to influence the geographic distribution of health professionals and to improve access to and quality of health care for underserved populations. In 1976, the Congress redrafted the law authorizing the expenditure of funds for AHECs and emphasized that improving access to health care in urban underserved areas also was to be addressed by the program. During the early years of urban AHEC development, it was not clear which lessons learned from rural AHEC experiences could be applied to urban communities and what would be the best focus for AHEC activities in the complex urban environment. Some said that urban areas were so different from rural areas--in economic, racial, and cultural terms and in the subtlety of barriers to health care--as to make the rural AHEC experience largely irrelevant. Others maintained that basic AHEC principles could be applied, regardless of setting, with changes only in tactics to address the problems of the urban inner city. Now that 18 of the total 53 AHECs nationally are urban, and a decade of experience in developing them has been accumulated, it is appropriate to compare the types of educational interventions supported by AHECs in urban and rural environments and the relative priorities of such programs. In this report we examine the experiences of the California AHEC System, which includes 17 urban and rural centers and the 9 medical schools with which they are affiliated. Although the AHEC Program concept was found to be equally applicable to both urban and rural settings, significant differences in implementation were noted. Those differences were

  11. Trivial Injuries In A Rural Area Of Ambala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh A.J

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What are the management practices of a rural community towards trivial injuries sustained by them. Objectives: To study 1. action taken by individuals in the management of trivial injuries, 2.factors related with trivial injuries. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Rural area of Haryana. Participants: individuals attending the outpatient department of Community Health Centres, Primary Health Centres, sub-centres, local registered medical practitioners (RMPs. Study variables: Trivial injuries. Outcome Variables: Management- home based or hospitals based. Results: Peripheral parts of the extremities- hands, finger, feet and toes were most commonly affected by trivial injuries. A variety of local applications like tobacco, salt, kerosene, oil, nail polish, turmeric, urine, were used for initial wound care. Conclusion: Rural people of Haryana use a variety of local applications, some not very hygienic, for the immediate management of injuries. Education is required to make them aware of hygienic practices where would care is concerned.

  12. Understanding differences in access and use of healthcare between international immigrants to Chile and the Chilean-born: a repeated cross-sectional population-based study in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabieses Baltica

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction International evidence indicates consistently lower rates of access and use of healthcare by international immigrants. Factors associated with this phenomenon vary significantly depending on the context. Some research into the health of immigrants has been conducted in Latin America, mostly from a qualitative perspective. This population-based study is the first quantitative study to explore healthcare provision entitlement and use of healthcare services by immigrants in Chile and compare them to the Chilean-born. Methods Data come from the nationally representative CASEN (Socioeconomic characterization of the population in Chile surveys, conducted in 2006 and 2009. Self-reported immigrants were compared to the Chilean-born, by demographic characteristics (age, sex, urban/rural, household composition, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES: education, household income, contractual status, healthcare provision entitlement (public, private, other, none, and use of primary services. Weighted descriptive, stratified and adjusted regression models were used to analyse factors associated with access to and use of healthcare. Results There was an increase in self-reported immigrant status and in household income inequality among immigrants between 2006 and 2009. Over time there was a decrease in the rate of immigrants reporting no healthcare provision and an increase in reporting of private healthcare provision entitlement. Compared to the Chilean-born, immigrants reported higher rates of use of antenatal and gynaecological care, lower use of well-baby care, and no difference in the use of Pap smears or the number of attentions received in the last three months. Immigrants in the bottom income quintile were four times more likely to report no healthcare provision than their equivalent Chilean-born group (with different health needs, i.e. vertical inequity. Disabled immigrants were more likely to have no healthcare provision compared

  13. Understanding differences in access and use of healthcare between international immigrants to Chile and the Chilean-born: a repeated cross-sectional population-based study in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction International evidence indicates consistently lower rates of access and use of healthcare by international immigrants. Factors associated with this phenomenon vary significantly depending on the context. Some research into the health of immigrants has been conducted in Latin America, mostly from a qualitative perspective. This population-based study is the first quantitative study to explore healthcare provision entitlement and use of healthcare services by immigrants in Chile and compare them to the Chilean-born. Methods Data come from the nationally representative CASEN (Socioeconomic characterization of the population in Chile) surveys, conducted in 2006 and 2009. Self-reported immigrants were compared to the Chilean-born, by demographic characteristics (age, sex, urban/rural, household composition, ethnicity), socioeconomic status (SES: education, household income, contractual status), healthcare provision entitlement (public, private, other, none), and use of primary services. Weighted descriptive, stratified and adjusted regression models were used to analyse factors associated with access to and use of healthcare. Results There was an increase in self-reported immigrant status and in household income inequality among immigrants between 2006 and 2009. Over time there was a decrease in the rate of immigrants reporting no healthcare provision and an increase in reporting of private healthcare provision entitlement. Compared to the Chilean-born, immigrants reported higher rates of use of antenatal and gynaecological care, lower use of well-baby care, and no difference in the use of Pap smears or the number of attentions received in the last three months. Immigrants in the bottom income quintile were four times more likely to report no healthcare provision than their equivalent Chilean-born group (with different health needs, i.e. vertical inequity). Disabled immigrants were more likely to have no healthcare provision compared to the disabled Chilean

  14. Breaking patient confidentiality: comparing Chilean and French viewpoints regarding the conditions of its acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Olivari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the conditions under which lay people and health professionals living in Chile find it acceptable for a physician to break confidentiality to protect the wife of a patient with a sexually transmitted disease (STD. One hundred sixty-nine lay persons, 10 physicians, 17 psychologists, and 11 paramedical professionals indicated the acceptability of breaking confidentiality in 48 scenarios. The scenarios were all possible combinations of five factors: disease severity (severe, lethal; time taken to discuss this with the patient (little time, much time; patient’s intent to inform his spouse about the disease (none, one of these days, immediately; patient’s intent to adopt protective behaviors (no intent, intent; and physician’s decision to consult an STD expert (yes, no, 2 x 2 x 3 x 2 x 2. The study also compared Chilean and French views, using data gathered previously in France. A cluster analysis conducted on the overall set of raw data revealed groups of participants that found breaking confidentiality “always acceptable” (9%, requiring “consultation with an expert” (5%, “depending on the many circumstances” (70%, and “never acceptable” (11%”. Despite clear differences in legislation and official codes of ethics between their two countries, Chilean and French lay people did not differ much in their personal convictions regarding the circumstances in which patient confidentiality can be broken or must not be broken. By contrast, Chilean physicians, in agreement with their code of ethics, were much less supportive than French physicians of complete respect of patient confidentiality in all cases

  15. Identification of High Frequency Pulses from Earthquake Asperities Along Chilean Subduction Zone Using Strong Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, S.; Kausel, E.; Campos, J.; Saragoni, G. R.; Madariaga, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Chilean subduction zone is one of the most active of the world with M = 8 or larger interplate thrust earthquakes occurring every 10 years or so on the average. The identification and characterization of pulses propagated from dominant asperities that control the rupture of these earthquakes is an important problem for seismology and especially for seismic hazard assessment since it can reduce the earthquake destructiveness potential. A number of studies of large Chilean earthquakes have revealed that the source time functions of these events are composed of a number of distinct energy arrivals. In this paper, we identify and characterize the high frequency pulses of dominant asperities using near source strong motion records. Two very well recorded interplate earthquakes, the 1985 Central Chile (Ms = 7.8) and the 2007 Tocopilla (Mw = 7.7), are considered. In particular, the 2007 Tocopilla earthquake was recorded by a network with absolute time and continuos recording. From the study of these strong motion data it is possible to identify the arrival of large pulses coming from different dominant asperities. The recognition of the key role of dominant asperities in seismic hazard assessment can reduce overestimations due to scattering of attenuation formulas that consider epicentral distance or shortest distance to the fault rather than the asperity distance. The location and number of dominant asperities, their shape, the amplitude and arrival time of pulses can be one of the principal factors influencing Chilean seismic hazard assessment and seismic design. The high frequency pulses identified in this paper have permitted us to extend the range of frequency in which the 1985 Central Chile and 2007 Tocopilla earthquakes were studied. This should allow in the future the introduction of this seismological result in the seismic design of earthquake engineering.

  16. Learning Style of Students and Practitioners in Five Health Professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Noomi; Heimann, Nanci

    1991-01-01

    An Israeli sample of 378 students and 251 practitioners in occupational therapy (OT), social work, nursing, physical therapy, and clinical psychology completed Kolb's Learning Style Inventory. Findings suggest greater variance in learning style among students. OT students were least abstract. Both OT students and practitioners were predominantly…

  17. Evidence Valued and Used by Health Promotion Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, V.; Carter, S. M.; Rychetnik, L.

    2015-01-01

    The use of evidence has become a foundational part of health promotion practice. Although there is a general consensus that adopting an evidence-based approach is necessary for practice, disagreement remains about what types of evidence practitioners should use to guide their work. An empirical understanding of how practitioners conceptualize and…

  18. The organizational and performance effects of nurse practitioner roles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Offenbeek, MAG; Knip, M

    2004-01-01

    Background. Most studies evaluating the roles of Nurse Practitioners have compared the care delivered by individual Nurse Practitioners with that provided by other professionals. These studies should be complemented by research focusing on a higher unit of analysis, namely the organization of the ca

  19. Professional Development of HR Practitioners--A Phenomenographic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Moira

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is an investigation into the experiences of professional development of human resource (HR) practitioners in the North of Scotland, and the use of non-formal learning in that development. Design/methodology/approach: In-depth semi-structured interviews from a purposively selected sample of HR practitioners were…

  20. Supporting Early Childhood Practitioners through Relationship-Based, Reflective Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Victor J.; Edwards, Renee C.

    2012-01-01

    Reflective supervision is a relationship-based practice that supports the professional development of early childhood practitioners. Reflective supervision helps practitioners cope with the intense feelings and stress that are generated when working with at-risk children and families. It allows them to focus on the purpose and goals of the program…

  1. Making "cents" of the business side of nurse practitioner practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luster-Tucker, AtNena

    2016-03-15

    Nurse practitioners produce excellent patient outcomes and should be allowed to practice to the full extent of their education and training. In addition to clinical skills, nurse practitioners need to understand the business side of practice in order to ensure fair and equitable compensation.

  2. Language Proficiency Testing and the Expatriate Medical Practitioner in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamwendo, Gregory H.

    2008-01-01

    According to the Medical Council of Malawi, one of the conditions for a licence to be granted to an individual who wants to practise medicine in Malawi is the practitioner's ability to speak and write English fluently. This means that the expatriate medical practitioner is not required by law to demonstrate fluency in Chichewa (the national…

  3. Supplementation prevalence and adverse effects in physical exercise practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Walkiria Valeriano da Silva; Maria Irene de Andrade Gomes Silva; Luciana Tavares Toscano; Klébya Hellen Dantas de Oliveira; Lavoisiana Mateus de Lacerda; Alexandre Sérgio Silva

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The use of nutritional supplements is prevalent among physical exercise practitioners and some adverse effects have been reported, however not sufficiently substantial, because they originate from isolated cases. Objectives: Investigate nutritional supplements consumption prevalence and adverse effects of the use of such products. Methods: An epidemiological, representative and transversal study, with 180 physical exercise practitioners in gyms, who answered questionnaires about...

  4. Evaluation of an interview training course for general practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bensing, J.M.; Sluijs, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    This article describes the evaluation of an experimental training in doctor-patient communication for general practitioners. The training was based on Rogerian theory and accommodated to the specific situation of the general practitioner. The main concept of this theory is the notion of 'uncondition

  5. Evaluation of an interview training course for general practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bensing, J.; Sluijs, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    This article describes the evaluation of an experimental training in doctor-patient communication for general practitioners. The training was based on Rogerian theory and accommodated to the specific situation of the general practitioner. The main concept of this theory is the notion of ‘uncondition

  6. Memory, Citizenship and the Public Sphere in the Development of the Recent Past in the Chilean Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Rubio

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The research gets into to the studies of historical memory by performing a hermeneutic analysis of the discourse of memory and history narratives that the Chilean public discussion has used to develop its dictatorial recent past in the period 1991-2004. Press sources, editorial inserts, interviews with the social and political actors and specially Truth and Reconciliation Reports were reviewed. We reflect on the current oligarchic long and short term frames made for the representation of the public sphere and the citizenship, emphasizing the impossibility of forgiveness as a restorative category of the political community.It consolidates the symbolic weakness of the recovered democracyin recent Chilean history.

  7. TOWARD A HISTORY OF CHILEAN WRITTEN CULTURE. HAPPENINGS OF THE ALONSO DE ERCILLA’S BOOK, LA ARAUCANA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadna Biotti Silva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present the first questioning about a history of the circulation of the book La Araucana, printed for the first time in 1569 and subsequently reprinted in various opportunities. Its central question implies a definition: What kind of historiography we can build considering the continuance, the force and the authority of a work that is still respected as a founding inheritance, and backbone of Chilean society? The paradigmatic center of this investigation resides in realizing the questions that emerge from the first chilean edition of the text published in Santiago in the year 1888.

  8. Border dimension of Chilean foreign policies: Immobility and urgency of new dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Ovando Santana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The following article draws the priorities of border public policy that define the Chilean foreign policy. Through a theoretical framework from the rational–reflective approach of International Relations, we argue that despite of the increasing openness, internationalization of the country, and the emergence of new actors and subnational initiatives; the views and options between the actors of this new area and the definitions of foreign policy not always match. We propose the need to establish mechanisms that settle the positions among regional social–political actors, intermediate agencies and the central level.

  9. Results on the neutron energy distribution measurements at the RECH-1 Chilean nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, P.; Molina, F.; Romero-Barrientos, J.

    2016-07-01

    Neutron activations experiments has been perform at the RECH-1 Chilean Nuclear Reactor to measure its neutron flux energy distribution. Samples of pure elements was activated to obtain the saturation activities for each reaction. Using - ray spectroscopy we identify and measure the activity of the reaction product nuclei, obtaining the saturation activities of 20 reactions. GEANT4 and MCNP was used to compute the self shielding factor to correct the cross section for each element. With the Expectation-Maximization algorithm (EM) we were able to unfold the neutron flux energy distribution at dry tube position, near the RECH-1 core. In this work, we present the unfolding results using the EM algorithm.

  10. Strategic Evolution of Chilean Wine Firms: Vertical Integration and Upgrading in Chile’s Colchagua Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Robert N. Gwynne

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that the favourable export trajectories for Chilean wine to global markets in general and the UK market in particular are partly due to the nature of the insertion of wine producing firms into global value chains. Much of the data in this paper comes from a two-year British Academy research project (2005-07) which examined the impacts of globalization on export-oriented wine firms in Chile’s Colchagua Valley and the record of collaboration between these firms and key purchas...

  11. International expansion of the chilean wine industry: ann empirical study concerning the factors and exportation level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammy Liberman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a set of variables which are decisive in the international expansion of the Chilean Wine Industry: i company size; ii quality management; iii communication and information technologies; iv international management planning; and finally, v implementation of the international marketing strategy. Results based on data between 2004 and 2007 allow to confirm six of the seven formulated hypotheses. The implications of these findings for theory and practice are discussed, as well as the main limitations. Finally, we offer some recommendations for further research.

  12. Misconceptions of the p-value among Chilean and Italian Academic Psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenes-Ribera, Laura; Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Iotti, Bryan; Bonilla-Campos, Amparo; Longobardi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Common misconceptions of p-values are based on certain beliefs and attributions about the significance of the results. Thus, they affect the professionals' decisions and jeopardize the quality of interventions and the accumulation of valid scientific knowledge. We conducted a survey on 164 academic psychologists (134 Italian, 30 Chilean) questioned on this topic. Our findings are consistent with previous research and suggest that some participants do not know how to correctly interpret p-values. The inverse probability fallacy presents the greatest comprehension problems, followed by the replication fallacy. These results highlight the importance of the statistical re-education of researchers. Recommendations for improving statistical cognition are proposed. PMID:27602007

  13. Mano a Mano-Mujer: an effective HIV prevention intervention for Chilean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Norr, Kathleen F; Miner, Sarah; Irarrazabal, Lisette; Bernales, Margarita; Peragallo, Nilda; Levy, Judith; Norr, James L; McElmurry, Beverly

    2012-01-01

    The impact of a professionally facilitated peer group intervention for HIV prevention among 400 low-income Chilean women was examined using a quasiexperimental design. At 3 months postintervention, the intervention group had higher HIV-related knowledge, more positive attitudes toward people living with HIV, fewer perceived condom use barriers, greater self- efficacy, higher HIV reduction behavioral intentions, more communication with partners about safer sex, and decreased depression symptoms. They did not, however, have increased condom use or self-esteem. More attention to gender barriers is needed. This intervention offers a model for reducing HIV for women in Chile and other Latin American countries.

  14. Misconceptions of the p-value among Chilean and Italian Academic Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenes-Ribera, Laura; Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Iotti, Bryan; Bonilla-Campos, Amparo; Longobardi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Common misconceptions of p-values are based on certain beliefs and attributions about the significance of the results. Thus, they affect the professionals' decisions and jeopardize the quality of interventions and the accumulation of valid scientific knowledge. We conducted a survey on 164 academic psychologists (134 Italian, 30 Chilean) questioned on this topic. Our findings are consistent with previous research and suggest that some participants do not know how to correctly interpret p-values. The inverse probability fallacy presents the greatest comprehension problems, followed by the replication fallacy. These results highlight the importance of the statistical re-education of researchers. Recommendations for improving statistical cognition are proposed. PMID:27602007

  15. Extraction Techniques for Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity Determination of Chilean Papaya (Vasconcellea pubescens) Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Elsa Uribe; Alvaro Delgadillo; Claudia Giovagnoli-Vicuña; Issis Quispe-Fuentes; Liliana Zura-Bravo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess and compare different extraction methods by using high hydrostatic pressure (HHPE), ultrasound (UE), agitation (AE), and their combinations for the extraction of bioactive compounds of Chilean papaya. Extract antioxidant capacity was evaluated by three methods (i.e., DPPH, FRAP, and Voltammetry) and phenolic compounds and vitamin C were determined by HPLC. Papaya sample extraction was performed by HHPE at 500 MPa for 10 min and UE and AE for 30 min, respecti...

  16. A chromosomal analysis of four species of Chilean Chrysomelinae (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Petitpierre

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Four species of Chilean leaf beetles in the subfamily Chrysomelinae have been cytogenetically analyzed, Blaptea elguetai Petitpierre, 2011, Henicotherus porteri Bréthes, 1929 and Jolivetia obscura (Philippi, 1864 show 2n = 28 chromosomes and a 13 + Xyp male meioformula, and Pataya nitida (Philippi, 1864 has the highest number of 2n = 38 chromosomes. The karyotype of H. porteri is made of mostly small meta/submetacentric chromosomes, and that of Jolivetia obscura displays striking procentric blocks of heterochromatin at pachytene autosomic bivalents using conventional staining. These findings are discussed in relation to previous cytogenetic data and current taxonomy of the subfamily.

  17. Level of evidence and geographic origin of articles published in Chilean dental journals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Moraga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to determine the geographic origin and level of evidence (LE of articles published in Chilean dental journals during 2012. The target population for the bibliometric study was articles published in exclusively-scientific Chilean dental journals. These variables were analyzed: journal, area, language, country, region, design, scenario, and LE. A total of 120 articles were published in four journals: International Journal of Odontostomatology (IJOS=59, Revista Clínica de Periodoncia, Implantología y Rehabilitación Oral (PIRO=28, Journal of Oral Research (JOR=18, and Revista Dental de Chile (RDC=15. From the total, 80.83% were published in Spanish and 70% had a Chilean affiliation. Most publications corresponded to areas of pathology (21 others (20 and prosthodontics (20. None of the articles was Level 1 Evidence, 6.49% was 2b, 14.29% was 2c, 63.64% was 4, and 15.58 % was 5. Chilean dental journals mainly publish articles of domestic origin and low LE. RESUMEN El objetivo de esta investigación es determinar el origen y nivel de evidencia (NE de los artículos publicados en las revistas odontológicas chilenas durante el año 2012. Estudio bibliométrico, la población objetivo fueron todos los artículos publicados en revistas dentales chilenas de orientación exclusivamente científica. Se analizaron variables: Revista, Área, Idioma, País, Región, Diseño, Escenario y NE. Se hallaron 120 artículos publicados en cuatro revistas: International Journal of Odontostomatology (IJOS = 59, Revista Clínica de Periodoncia, Implantología y Rehabilitación Oral (PIRO = 28, Journal of Oral Research (JOR = 18 y Revista Dental de Chile (RDC = 15. El 80.83% de los artículos fue publicado en español y el 70% corresponden a autores chilenos. La mayor cantidad de publicaciones correspondieron a las áreas de Patología (21, Otra (20 y Prostodoncia (20. No se hallaron artículos de NE 1, 6.49% fue 2b, 14.29% fue 2c, 63

  18. The multicompetent practitioner: a needs analysis in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, G; Weisbord, A

    1987-02-01

    This study examined the concept of the multicompetent practitioner - the health care worker trained in more than one specialty - as one way of meeting the changing needs of the health care system. Seventy-four hospital administrators, 74 directors of nursing, 14 directors of community health organizations, and 12 private physicians from the Philadelphia metropolitan area were surveyed to explore the feasibility of developing and using multicompetent practitioners at their participating institutions. The results indicated that multicompetent practitioners are already working in some institutions and that there is a willingness to hire this new type of health care worker. How the multicompetent practitioner fits into the institution, the level of education required beyond the original area of skill, and the question of salary were included in the survey. Findings also indicate positive support for the development of multicompetent practitioner training within allied health educational programs.

  19. Rural Entrepreneurship or Entrepreneurship in the Rural

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen; Müller, Sabine; Tanvig, Hanne Wittorff

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This article investigates how rural entrepreneurship engages with place and space. It explores the concept of “rural” in rural enterprise, and illustrates the importance of distinguishing between types of rural entrepreneurship. Design/methodology/approach: The constructs of “place” and ...... these processes are enabled and constrained by the immediate context or “place”. The paper weaves space and place in order to show the importance of context for entrepreneurship, which responds to the recent calls for contextualizing entrepreneurship research and theories....

  20. Collaboration of general practitioners and exercise providers in promotion of physical activity a written survey among general practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemrijse, C J; de Bakker, D H; Ooms, L; Veenhof, C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: General practitioners have an ideal position to motivate inactive patients to increase their physical activity. Most patients are able to exercise in regular local facilities outside the health care setting. The purpose of this study was to get insight into general practitioners percepti

  1. Collaboration of general practitioners and exercise providers in promotion of physical activity a written survey among general practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemrijse, C.J.; Bakker, D.H. de; Ooms, L.; Veenhof, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: General practitioners have an ideal position to motivate inactive patients to increase their physical activity. Most patients are able to exercise in regular local facilities outside the health care setting. The purpose of this study was to get insight into general practitioners percepti

  2. [Influence of clinical guidelines on medical practitioners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arii, Shigeki

    2007-09-01

    Evidenced-based clinical guidelines for diagnosing and treating hepatocellular carcinoma patients were published in 2005, which were edited by the executive members of the Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan (Chief Editor, Professor Masatosi Makuuchi, MD). This article presents the results of two surveys investigating the validity and usefulness of those guidelines. The author's opinions regarding the evaluation of the guidelines and guideline-based clinical practice are also presented. The surveys revealed that the guidelines are well known and thought to be useful by medical practitioners. The guidelines had changed the therapeutic strategy of 20% of experts in the field. However, 43% of experts and 30% of nonexperts believed that the guidelines restricted their medical discretion. Additionally, the percentage of physicians who felt that medical malpractice suits would increase exceeded those who did not. However, the guidelines do not provide clear recommendations in about 45% of diagnostic and therapeutic points because of a lack of evidence. The recommendations on these points in the guidelines require the commonsense discretion of physicians. The guidelines should be followed based on an understanding of biology and medicine, and not based on dogmatism. PMID:17907456

  3. Health care practitioners and dying patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Pentaris

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A full understanding of and a competent approach to dying patients may lead to a more qualitative service delivery, an enhanced quality of life paradigms, and the patients’ wellbeing, all of which remain the ultimate goal of health care practice. The modern world has developed in parallel with secularism and religious diversity. This paper aims to illustrate the secularization process in Britain (with indications of generalized meanings and juxtaposes it with a description of the needs of dying patients regarding the meanings of religion and nonreligion. Although this paper draws on and provides a review of selected theoretical literature, it also addresses a significant challenge: the lack of scientifi c research on the subject. Hence, this paper aims to give an overview of the issues, but not synthesise them. The arguments that are elaborated in the paper are also supported by the author’s current research project in the city of London. The approach here is client oriented, and concerns social and health care. Practitioners ought to become competent, and maintain their competence throughout their professional career. Religious competence seems to have not been at the centre of discussions, regardless of the historical pathway that religious discourse has drawn since the beginnings of humanity. The paper concludes with certain suggestions for future research and inclusive approaches regarding religious matters.

  4. Social capital and community development: practitioner emptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonte, R

    1999-08-01

    Social capital has become the latest 'flavour of the month'. There is considerable disagreement over what the term means, and calls for theorising and measurement of the construct. Health promoters, among others, are being challenged to re-construct their efforts around this still contested idea. Social capital doesn't exist, but is being created by those aspects of social relations particular theorists or researchers choose to study in its name. The choice of these relations is directed by ideology. To those aligned more with neoliberal, market-driven ideology, social capital is a means to the end of economic growth, something that can pick up the slack of privatised or reduced public services. To those aligned more with social justice and communitarian ideology, social capital is an end in itself, requiring the defence of strong, egalitarian state intervention into market practices that create inequalities. Community development is one of many state interventions used to buffer market-generated inequalities. Social capital may be a useful concept for practitioners, researchers and policy makers in bring the missing 'social' into economic and fiscal policy debates. But its use should be approached cautiously as a construct of potential strategic value. It should not confuse all of the previous 'good' work undertaken in the name of empowerment and community capacity. PMID:10462871

  5. Complementary therapies: the appeal to general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, H L

    2000-07-17

    Pragmatism--among consumers seeking a cure and among general practitioners seeking clinical results and more patients--is not a complete explanation for the burgeoning of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in Western societies. Instead, this growth is substantially a result of pervasive and rapid social change, alternatively termed 'globalisation' and 'postmodernisation'. Globalisation and postmodernisation are creating a new social reality, of which a prominent characteristic is the proliferation of consumer choice. GPs are enmeshed in this social change and subject to the trend to greater choice--both their patients' and their own. On the one hand, GPs are reacting to social change as "economic pragmatists", responding to consumers' increasing demand for CAM. On the other hand, GPs themselves are acting as agents of social change by acknowledging the limitations of orthodox biomedical treatments and promoting CAM as part of their service delivery. Lack of scientific validation of CAM has not prevented GPs' use of such therapies. The phrase "clinical legitimacy" can be seen as a trump card that overrides "scientific legitimacy". It is the shibboleth of a postmodern movement among GPs towards healing and the "art" of medicine, as opposed to the "science" of medicine per se. PMID:10937039

  6. General practitioner residency consultations: video feedback analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso M. Cavaco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyse longitudinally two decades of Portuguese general practi-tioner (GP residents' consultation features, such as consultation length- estimating its major determinants- as well as to compare with GP residents from other Western practices. Methods: This pilot study followed a retrospective and descriptive design, comprising of the analysis of videotaped consultations with real patients from GP residents (southern Portugal, between 1990 and 2008. Main studied variables were consultation length and purpose, participant demographics and residency site characteristics. Results: From 516 residents, 68.0were females, mainly between 26-35 years old (50.6. Female patients' proportion equalled doctors', with the most frequent age group being the 46-65 years old (41.3. The consultation took on average 22 minutes and 22 seconds, with no significant differences by year and residency location. Main consultation purposes were previous scheduling (31.6 and acute symptoms (30.0. Duration was consistently longer than practising GPs from other countries, keeping in mind the supervised practice. Significant and positive predictors of consultation length were number of attendants and patients' frequency at the residency site. Conclusions: South Portugal GP residency program consultations were lengthier in comparison to similar practice in Europe and other Western countries. Length correlated preferably with patient related variables than with professionals', while confirming the longitudinal homogeneity in the residency consultation format for the last two decades.

  7. Antioxidant activity and phenolic profiles of the wild currant Ribes magellanicum from Chilean and Argentinean Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Thomas-Valdés, Samanta; Schulz, Ayla; Ladio, Ana; Theoduloz, Cristina; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2016-07-01

    The Patagonian currant Ribes magellanicum is highly valued due to its pleasant flavor and sweet taste. The aim of this study was to characterize its constituents and to assess their antioxidant and cytoprotective properties. For the fruit phenolic-enriched extract (PEE), total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF), and antioxidant activity (DPPH, Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant activity (TEAC)) were determined. Argentinean samples presented better activity in the DPPH and FRAP assays. Best cytoprotection against oxidative stress induced by H2O2 in AGS cells was found in one Argentinean sample at 500 μg mL(-1) (65.7%). HPLC MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of 59 constituents, including eight anthocyanins, 11 conjugates of caffeic-, ferulic-, and coumaric acid, and 38 flavonoids, most of them quercetin and kaempferol derivatives. Argentinean samples showed a more complex pattern of anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids (HCA), and flavonoids. Cyanidin rhamnoside hexoside and cyanidin hexoside were the main anthocyanins, accounting for 35 and 55% for the Argentinean and 60 and 27% for the ripe Chilean fruits. HCA content was about three times higher in Argentinean samples. The phenolic profiles of Chilean and Argentinean Ribes magellanicum show remarkable differences in chemical composition with higher HCA and flavonoid content in Argentinean samples. PMID:27386109

  8. Profiling Space Heating Behavior in Chilean Social Housing: Towards Personalization of Energy Efficiency Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Bunster

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Global increases in the demand for energy are imposing strong pressures over the environment while compromising the capacity of emerging economies to achieve sustainable development. In this context, implementation of effective strategies to reduce consumption in residential buildings has become a priority concern for policy makers as minor changes at the household scale can result in major energy savings. This study aims to contribute to ongoing research on energy consumer profiling by exploring the forecasting capabilities of discrete socio-economic factors that are accessible through social housing allocation systems. Accordingly, survey data gathered by the Chilean Ministry of Social Development was used identify key characteristics that may predict firewood usage for space heating purposes among potential beneficiaries of the Chilean social housing program. The analyzed data evidences strong correlations between general household characteristics and space heating behavior in certain climatic zones, suggesting that personalized delivery of energy efficiency measures can potentially increase the effectiveness of initiatives aimed towards the reduction of current patterns of consumption.

  9. IL28B polymorphisms associated with therapy response? ein inin Chilean chronic hepatitis C patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mauricio Venegas; Rodrigo A Villanueva; Katherine González; Javier Brahm

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the association of three IL28B single nucleotide polymorphisms with response to therapy in Chilean patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV).((HHCV))).. METHODS: We studied two groups of patients with chronic HHCV infection ((genotype 1)), under standard combined treatment with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin. One group consisted of 50 patients with sustained virological response, whereas the second group consisted of 49 null responders. In order to analyze the IL28B single nucleotide polymorphisms rs12979860, rs12980275 and rs8099917, samples were used for polymerase chain reaction amplification, and the genotyping was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. RESULTS: The IL28B rs12979860 CC, rs12980275 AA and rs8099917 TT genotypes were much more frequently found in patients with sustained virological response compared to null responders ((38%, 44% and 50% vs 2%, 8.2% and 8.2%, respectively)). These differences were highly significant in all three cases (P < 0.0001)). CONCLUSION: The three IL28B polymorphisms studied are strongly associated with sustained virological response to therapy in Chilean patients with chronic HHCV ((genotype 1)).

  10. Associations between different components of fitness and fatness with academic performance in Chilean youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the associations between different components of fitness and fatness with academic performance, adjusting the analysis by sex, age, socio-economic status, region and school type in a Chilean sample. Methods Data of fitness, fatness and academic performance was obtained from the Chilean System for the Assessment of Educational Quality test for eighth grade in 2011 and includes a sample of 18,746 subjects (49% females). Partial correlations adjusted by confounders were done to explore association between fitness and fatness components, and between the academic scores. Three unadjusted and adjusted linear regression models were done in order to analyze the associations of variables. Results Fatness has a negative association with academic performance when Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist to Height Ratio (WHR) are assessed independently. When BMI and WHR are assessed jointly and adjusted by cofounders, WHR is more associated with academic performance than BMI, and only the association of WHR is positive. For fitness components, strength was the variable most associated with the academic performance. Cardiorespiratory capacity was not associated with academic performance if fatness and other fitness components are included in the model. Conclusions Fitness and fatness are associated with academic performance. WHR and strength are more related with academic performance than BMI and cardiorespiratory capacity. PMID:27761345

  11. APOE Polymorphisms Contribute to Reduced Atorvastatin Response in Chilean Amerindian Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Lagos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetic factors can determine the high variability observed in response to lipid-lowering therapy with statins. Nonetheless, the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and their impact can vary due to ethnicity. Because the Chilean population carries a strong Amerindian background, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of apolipoprotein E (APOE variants (rs429358, rs7412 and the 1959C>T SNP (rs5925 in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR in response to atorvastatin treatment in hypercholesterolemic individuals. A hundred and thirty nine subjects undergoing statin therapy were included. Identification of Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and PCR followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP, respectively. SNPs were determined by PCR-RFLP. Out of the 139 individuals studied, 84.4% had an Amerindian background, according to mtDNA analysis. In relation to APOE variants, carriers of the E3/4 genotype presented lower cholesterol reduction compared to genotype E3/3 (LDL-C: −18% vs. −29%, p ˂ 0.001. On the other hand, the LDLR rs5925 SNP was not related to atorvastatin response (p = 0.5760. Our results suggest that APOE SNPs are potential predictors to atorvastatin therapy in Amerindian Chilean subjects.

  12. The Epidemiology of Sleep Quality and Consumption of Stimulant Beverages among Patagonian Chilean College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Vélez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 To assess sleep patterns and parameters of sleep quality among Chilean college students and (2 to evaluate the extent to which stimulant beverage use and other lifestyle characteristics are associated with poor sleep quality. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among college students in Patagonia, Chile. Students were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire to provide information about lifestyle and demographic characteristics. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI was used to evaluate sleep quality. In addition, students underwent a physical examination to collect anthropometric measurements. Results. More than half of students (51.8% exhibited poor sleep quality. Approximately 45% of study participants reported sleeping six hours or less per night and 9.8% used medications for sleep. In multivariate analysis, current smokers had significantly greater daytime dysfunction due to sleepiness and were more likely to use sleep medicines. Students who reported consumption of any stimulant beverage were 1.81 times as likely to have poor sleep quality compared with those who did not consume stimulant beverages (OR:1.81, 95% CI:1.21–2.00. Conclusions. Poor sleep quality is prevalent among Chilean college students, and stimulant beverage consumption was associated with the increased odds of poor sleep quality in this sample.

  13. Utilization of therapies for stress management in Chilean clinical dental students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Pérez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dental students suffer greater stress than the rest of the university population. In general, most health students seek little assistance to help them cope with stress. The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of therapies to manage stress in Chilean clinical dental students. A cross-sectional study was conducted nationwide; this report is a secondary data analysis. The study population was dental students in clinical years (4th and 5th of 5 Chilean dental schools: Antofagasta, Valparaíso, Viña del Mar, Concepción, and La Frontera. This paper reports the use of therapies for stress management during the past six months considering four options: medical/psychiatric, psychological, self-medication and alternative. Tabulation and analysis were done in STATA 10/SE. Three hundred thirty-seven students were surveyed, 54.01% were men and 64.99% were in fourth year, with an average age of 22.94 ±2.04. The 48.07% of students have used any of the four types of therapies; women and fourth-year students use more any form of therapy with 53.30% (p=.037 and 48.86% (p=.694, respectively, than men and fifth year students. About half of the students have used some form of therapy to manage stress in the last six months; of the students that received therapy, the percentage of women was significantly higher.

  14. The Epidemiology of Sleep Quality and Consumption of Stimulant Beverages among Patagonian Chilean College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Juan Carlos; Souza, Aline; Traslaviña, Samantha; Barbosa, Clarita; Wosu, Adaeze; Andrade, Asterio; Frye, Megan; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. (1) To assess sleep patterns and parameters of sleep quality among Chilean college students and (2) to evaluate the extent to which stimulant beverage use and other lifestyle characteristics are associated with poor sleep quality. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among college students in Patagonia, Chile. Students were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire to provide information about lifestyle and demographic characteristics. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to evaluate sleep quality. In addition, students underwent a physical examination to collect anthropometric measurements. Results. More than half of students (51.8%) exhibited poor sleep quality. Approximately 45% of study participants reported sleeping six hours or less per night and 9.8% used medications for sleep. In multivariate analysis, current smokers had significantly greater daytime dysfunction due to sleepiness and were more likely to use sleep medicines. Students who reported consumption of any stimulant beverage were 1.81 times as likely to have poor sleep quality compared with those who did not consume stimulant beverages (OR:1.81, 95% CI:1.21-2.00). Conclusions. Poor sleep quality is prevalent among Chilean college students, and stimulant beverage consumption was associated with the increased odds of poor sleep quality in this sample. PMID:23766919

  15. Quality of life among caregivers of patients with schizophrenia: a cross-cultural comparison of Chilean and French families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyer Laurent

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To our knowledge, no study has examined quality of life (QoL among caregivers of individuals with schizophrenia between a developing and a developed country. The aim of this study was to assess QoL of the caregivers of individuals with schizophrenia in two countries characterized by different social, economic and cultural conditions, namely Chile and France. Methods Data were collected from public mental health outpatient services in Arica (Chile, and in Marseille (France. QoL was measured with the short-form health survey scale - 36 items (SF36. QoL of 41 Chilean caregivers was firstly compared with 245 French caregivers. Univariate and multivariate analyses using linear regression were then performed to determine variables potentially related to QoL scores. Results The caregivers were primarily mothers in the two groups, but Chilean caregivers were younger, and lived more frequently with the individual with schizophrenia than French caregivers. The SF36 scores were globally low in the two groups, especially on the mental QoL scores. Chilean caregivers reported lower physical SF36 scores than French caregivers. In the multivariate analysis, being mother and Chilean caregivers were the most regular features associating to a lower QoL. Conclusion Despite differences between Chile and France, especially in terms of quality and quantity of mental health services and economic supports, caregivers’ QoL levels remain particularly low for both countries. Future support programmes should address the specific needs of caregivers.

  16. Inter-subjectivity and Domestication in the Making of a Global Region: Territorialization of Salmon in the Chilean Patagonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco, Gustavo; Arce, A.M.G.; Fisher, E.F.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines transformations in the Chilean Patagonia, a region that has become a world leader in Salmon production for global markets. Employing ethnographic methods, this study examines the possibilities of considering inter-subjectivities in the processes of conforming important regions

  17. Increasing Students' Academic Involvement: Chilean Teacher Engagement with Learners in Blended English as a Foreign Language Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher P.

    2013-01-01

    Learning English as a foreign language (EFL), a highly valued skill in the Chilean marketplace, is an arduous and complex personal endeavor requiring high student motivation. Reflecting this challenge is the heightened anxiety among EFL students, whose work has been associated with historically meager results. Blended learning, the fusion of…

  18. Variation in implementation of corporate social responsibility practices in emerging economies' firms: A survey of Chilean fruit exporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerkx, L.W.A.; Villalobos, P.; Engler, A.

    2012-01-01

    As in many sectors in emerging economies, the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become important for exporting agri-food firms in view of their integration in global supply chains. The purpose of this research was to assess the implementation by Chilean fruit exporters of CSR prac

  19. Adolescent Temperament and Parental Control in the Development of the Adolescent Decision Making in a Chilean Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, J. Carola; Cumsille, Patricio

    2012-01-01

    The study analyzes the way in which adolescents' temperamental characteristics interact with parental control to shape adolescent decision making development. A sample of high-school Chilean adolescents (N = 391) answered a self-report questionnaire that included measures of behavioral autonomy (the extent to which adolescents make decisions in…

  20. Culture-Dependent and Independent Studies of Microbial Diversity in Highly Copper-Contaminated Chilean Marine Sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Besaury; F. Marty; S. Buquet; V. Mesnage; G. Muijzer; L. Quillet

    2013-01-01

    Cultivation and molecular-based approaches were used to study microbial diversity in two Chilean marine sediments contaminated with high (835 ppm) and very high concentrations of copper (1,533 ppm). The diversity of cultivable bacteria resistant to copper was studied at oxic and anoxic conditions, f

  1. THE MAKING OF AN UNLIKELY CHILEAN FASCIST: REFLECTIONS ON THE INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT AND POLITICAL WORK OF CARLOS KELLER RUEFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Klein

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the intellectual evolution and political activities of Carlos Keller Rueff between the early 1920s and the late 1930s. It discusses his development from a German nationalist to a Chilean fascist during the course of this eventful period. In the 1920s Keller, who started his career in the Deutsch-Chilenischer Bund, the umbrella organisation of the German-Chilean community, expressed German National positions. Only at the end of the decade he began to distance himself from his narrow, sectarian German sub-culture and took a broader, national view, a development that coincided with his move from Concepción to Santiago and the failure of his plan to revive the immigration of Germans to Chile. With the book La eterna crisis chilena, published in 1931, he finally emerged as a Chilean nationalist and gained the reputation of an intellectual. One year later, in April 1932, he was, together with Jorge González von Marées, one of the founding members of the Chilean Movimiento Nacional Socialista (MNS. Keller became the movement’s ideologue and its second most prominent leader. This career abruptly ended with the failed nacista coup of 5 September 1938 and the subsequent transformation of the MNS into the Vanguardia Popular Socialista

  2. An international survey of aquaponics practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, David C; Fry, Jillian P; Genello, Laura; Hill, Elizabeth S; Frederick, J Adam; Li, Ximin; Semmens, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Aquaponics, a combination of fish farming and soilless plant farming, is growing in popularity and gaining attention as an important and potentially more sustainable method of food production. The aim of this study was to document and analyze the production methods, experiences, motivations, and demographics of aquaponics practitioners in the United States (US) and internationally. The survey was distributed online using a chain sampling method that relied on referrals from initial respondents, with 809 respondents meeting the inclusion criteria. The majority of respondents were from the US (80%), male (78%), and had at least a high school degree (91%). The mean age of respondents was 47±13 years old. Most respondents (52%) had three years or less of aquaponics experience. Respondents typically raised tilapia or ornamental fish and a variety of leafy green vegetables, herbs, and fruiting crops. Respondents were most often motivated to become involved in aquaponics to grow their own food, for environmental sustainability reasons, and for personal health reasons. Many respondents employed more than one method to raise crops, and used alternative or environmentally sustainable sources of energy, water, and fish feed. In general, our findings suggest that aquaponics is a dynamic and rapidly growing field with participants who are actively experimenting with and adopting new technologies. Additional research and outreach is needed to evaluate and communicate best practices within the field. This survey is the first large-scale effort to track aquaponics in the US and provides information that can better inform policy, research, and education efforts regarding aquaponics as it matures and possibly evolves into a mainstream form of agriculture.

  3. An international survey of aquaponics practitioners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Love

    Full Text Available Aquaponics, a combination of fish farming and soilless plant farming, is growing in popularity and gaining attention as an important and potentially more sustainable method of food production. The aim of this study was to document and analyze the production methods, experiences, motivations, and demographics of aquaponics practitioners in the United States (US and internationally. The survey was distributed online using a chain sampling method that relied on referrals from initial respondents, with 809 respondents meeting the inclusion criteria. The majority of respondents were from the US (80%, male (78%, and had at least a high school degree (91%. The mean age of respondents was 47±13 years old. Most respondents (52% had three years or less of aquaponics experience. Respondents typically raised tilapia or ornamental fish and a variety of leafy green vegetables, herbs, and fruiting crops. Respondents were most often motivated to become involved in aquaponics to grow their own food, for environmental sustainability reasons, and for personal health reasons. Many respondents employed more than one method to raise crops, and used alternative or environmentally sustainable sources of energy, water, and fish feed. In general, our findings suggest that aquaponics is a dynamic and rapidly growing field with participants who are actively experimenting with and adopting new technologies. Additional research and outreach is needed to evaluate and communicate best practices within the field. This survey is the first large-scale effort to track aquaponics in the US and provides information that can better inform policy, research, and education efforts regarding aquaponics as it matures and possibly evolves into a mainstream form of agriculture.

  4. An international survey of aquaponics practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, David C; Fry, Jillian P; Genello, Laura; Hill, Elizabeth S; Frederick, J Adam; Li, Ximin; Semmens, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Aquaponics, a combination of fish farming and soilless plant farming, is growing in popularity and gaining attention as an important and potentially more sustainable method of food production. The aim of this study was to document and analyze the production methods, experiences, motivations, and demographics of aquaponics practitioners in the United States (US) and internationally. The survey was distributed online using a chain sampling method that relied on referrals from initial respondents, with 809 respondents meeting the inclusion criteria. The majority of respondents were from the US (80%), male (78%), and had at least a high school degree (91%). The mean age of respondents was 47±13 years old. Most respondents (52%) had three years or less of aquaponics experience. Respondents typically raised tilapia or ornamental fish and a variety of leafy green vegetables, herbs, and fruiting crops. Respondents were most often motivated to become involved in aquaponics to grow their own food, for environmental sustainability reasons, and for personal health reasons. Many respondents employed more than one method to raise crops, and used alternative or environmentally sustainable sources of energy, water, and fish feed. In general, our findings suggest that aquaponics is a dynamic and rapidly growing field with participants who are actively experimenting with and adopting new technologies. Additional research and outreach is needed to evaluate and communicate best practices within the field. This survey is the first large-scale effort to track aquaponics in the US and provides information that can better inform policy, research, and education efforts regarding aquaponics as it matures and possibly evolves into a mainstream form of agriculture. PMID:25029125

  5. Engaging social work practitioners in research: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitterman, Alex

    2014-10-01

    Contemporary emphasis on measuring and evaluating observable, behavioral outcomes reflects a major change in the profession toward greater empirical basis for social work practice. This intellectual and methodological shift has created a gap between practitioners and researchers. While social work practitioners definitely should be more knowledgeable and receptive to interventions that have proven to be effective in helping people, social work academics must pay more attention to the realities of social work practitioners who struggle daily with expanding caseloads, ever-increasing time pressures to help clients whose lives are embedded in poverty, unemployment, oppression, racism, homelessness, and violence.

  6. Rural Tourism, Rural Economy Diversification, and Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Štefan Bojnec

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of patterns in farm, agro and rural tourism development in a way of farm, agro and rural economy diversification to achieve economic and environmental sustainability. The importance of rural tourism in the rural economy is increasing by farm, agro and rural economy diversification addressing its multifunctional development. The European Union policies are targeting both, farm and agro diversification as well as rural economy diversification. Farm, agro and rura...

  7. Exploration of Rural Informatization and Urban-rural Information Fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Based on the status quo of rural informatization and information service,this article conducts analysis and discussion of problems in rural informatization and urban-rural information fusion,using statistics. And corresponding countermeasures are put forward as follows: building rural information platform; strengthening information literacy training in rural areas and cultivating new farmers; making information network serve production and operation to increase jobs and income for farmers; developing rural e-commerce; enhancing network information security and prevention.

  8. A modified framework for rural general practice: the importance of recruitment and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, J S; Rolley, F

    1998-04-01

    Whilst definitions of what constitutes general practice vary according to purpose, the pivotal role of general practitioners as key providers of health and medical services is acknowledged. Recent concerns to address both what general practitioners and their patients want and get from general practice stem from a recognized need to include stakeholder concerns about the adequacy of general practice alongside workforce issues such as recruitment and retention. Nowhere is this need so crucial as in rural areas where the range of health services is limited and major inequities exist in the availability of general practitioners. An extended framework for evaluating what general practitioners and their patients expect and receive from general practice, with particular reference to rural general practice in Australia is presented. Three inter-related dimensions of recruitment, retention and a whole patient/whole family approach to health care are suggested as underpinning this framework. The significance of each dimension to ensuring the provision of quality general practice care in rural communities, and the links between them, are outlined in the proposed framework. PMID:9579746

  9. Desired Chinese medicine practitioner capabilities and professional development needs: a survey of registered practitioners in Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radloff Alex

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The State of Victoria in Australia introduced Chinese medicine practitioner registration in 2000 and issued its education guidelines in late 2002 for introduction in 2005. This study obtained practitioners' views on desired capabilities for competent Chinese medicine practice and to identify professional development needs. Methods A questionnaire, consisting of 28 predefined capabilities in four categories with a rating scale of importance from one to five, was developed and sent to all registered Chinese medicine practitioners in the State of Victoria, Australia in October, 2005. Results Two hundreds and twenty eight completed questionnaires were returned which represented a response rate of 32.5%. Of the four categories of capabilities, technical capabilities were considered to be the most important for clinical practice. Specifically, the ability to perform acupuncture treatment and/or dispense an herbal prescription was ranked the highest. In contrast, research and information management capabilities were considered the least important. The educational background of practitioners appeared to be an important factor influencing their rating of capabilities. Significantly, nearly double the number of practitioners with Australian qualifications than practitioners trained overseas valued communication as an important capability. For continuing professional education, clinical skills courses were considered as a priority while research degree studies were not. Conclusion Registered Chinese medicine practitioners viewed skills training as important but did not support the need for research and information management training. This represents a significant hurdle to developing Chinese medicine as a form of evidence-based healthcare.

  10. Is Health Practitioner Regulation Keeping Pace with the Changing Practitioner and Health-Care Landscape? An Australian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, Jonathan Lee; Sibbritt, David; Broom, Alex; Steel, Amie; Adams, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Health-care delivery is undergoing significant evolution and change. Task substitution has resulted in some practitioner groups expanding their scope of practice by assuming more complex clinical roles, new practitioner groups have emerged, and consumer-driven demand has changed the way the public engage with health practitioners and the way many health-care services are delivered. Using Australia as a case study, this paper explores the issue of the hesitancy to include new professions in health professions regulation schemes. Despite the significant changes in the health-care delivery landscape, policy development in this area has remained relatively static, with active resistance to extending formal registration to new practitioner groups. Ignoring the issue of new practitioner groups in regulatory schemes is unacceptable from a public health perspective and runs against the key public protection objectives of health practitioner regulation. Development of pathways for the entry of new health practitioner groups into regulatory schemes must be developed as a matter of priority. PMID:27379222

  11. Oral Health in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rural Oral Health Toolkit identifies the resources and best practices to help implement a rural Mobile Dental Services ... Health Information Hub is supported by the Health Resources and ... Human Services (HHS) under Grant Number U56RH05539 (Rural Assistance ...

  12. The Know-Do Gap in Quality of Health Care for Childhood Diarrhea and Pneumonia in Rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanan, Manoj; Vera-Hernández, Marcos; Das, Veena; Giardili, Soledad; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.; Rabin, Tracy L.; Raj, Sunil S.; Schwartz, Jeremy I.; Seth, Aparna

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE In rural India, as in many developing countries, childhood mortality remains high and the quality of health care available is low. Improving care in such settings, where most health care practitioners do not have formal training, requires an assessment of the practitioners’ knowledge of appropriate care and the actual care delivered (the know-do gap). OBJECTIVE To assess the knowledge of local health care practitioners and the quality of care provided by them for childhood diarrhea and pneumonia in rural Bihar, India. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We conducted an observational, cross-sectional study of the knowledge and practice of 340 health care practitioners concerning the diagnosis and treatment of childhood diarrhea and pneumonia in Bihar, India, from June 29 through September 8, 2012. We used data from vignette interviews and unannounced standardized patients (SPs). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES For SPs and vignettes, practitioner performance was measured using the numbers of key diagnostic questions asked and examinations conducted. The know-do gap was calculated by comparing fractions of practitioners asking key diagnostic questions on each method. Multivariable regressions examined the relation among diagnostic performance, prescription of potentially harmful treatments, and the practitioners’ characteristics. We also examined correct treatment recommended by practitioners with both methods. RESULTS Practitioners asked a mean of 2.9 diagnostic questions and suggested a mean of 0.3 examinations in the diarrhea vignette; mean numbers were 1.4 and 0.8, respectively, for the pneumonia vignette. Although oral rehydration salts, the correct treatment for diarrhea, are commonly available, only 3.5% of practitioners offered them in the diarrhea vignette. With SPs, no practitioner offered the correct treatment for diarrhea, and 13.0% of practitioners offered the correct treatment for pneumonia. Diarrhea treatment has a large know-do gap

  13. 49 CFR 1103.20 - Practitioner's fees and related practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... charity case, should fees be entirely contingent upon success. (d) Division of fees. Fees for services... prevent injustice, imposition or fraud. (f) Acquiring interest in litigation. The practitioner shall...

  14. Secure software practices among Malaysian software practitioners: An exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Shafinah Farvin Packeer; Baharom, Fauziah; Deraman, Aziz; Yahya, Jamaiah; Mohd, Haslina

    2016-08-01

    Secure software practices is increasingly gaining much importance among software practitioners and researchers due to the rise of computer crimes in the software industry. It has become as one of the determinant factors for producing high quality software. Even though its importance has been revealed, its current practice in the software industry is still scarce, particularly in Malaysia. Thus, an exploratory study is conducted among software practitioners in Malaysia to study their experiences and practices in the real-world projects. This paper discusses the findings from the study, which involved 93 software practitioners. Structured questionnaire is utilized for data collection purpose whilst statistical methods such as frequency, mean, and cross tabulation are used for data analysis. Outcomes from this study reveal that software practitioners are becoming increasingly aware on the importance of secure software practices, however, they lack of appropriate implementation, which could affect the quality of produced software.

  15. [MODERN EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY MASTERING PRACTICAL SKILLS OF GENERAL PRACTITIONERS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, L I; Prokopchuk, Y V; Naydyonova, O V

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the experience of postgraduate training of general practitioners--family medicine. Identified current trends, forms and methods of pedagogical innovations that enhance the quality of learning and mastering the practical skills of primary professionals providing care.

  16. Dutch occupational physicians and general practitioners wish to improve cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, P.; Amstel, R. van; Dijk, F. van

    1999-01-01

    Objectives - To investigate cooperation between occupational physicians (OPs) and general practitioners (GPs). Methods - Literature review; structured interviews; questionnaires sent to randomised samples of OPs (n = 232) and GPs (n = 243). Results - Actual cooperation is poor. However, more than 80

  17. Review of Literature of the Rural Heritage Tourism Destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadi Alaa J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural heritage tourism destination management is an essential knowledge area that should be investigated to achieve sustainable destination, especially for an emerging destination. The goal of this process is to ensure that these elements are thoroughly inspected and rigidly organized due to the main concepts, theories, methods and approaches mentioning different perspectives to tackle these certain elements. In order to cope with the complexity of the relation between the destination elements and its characteristics and sequence of the maturity of the selected destination, all that needs in-depth knowledge to assist the researchers in developing and improving different types of approaches and tools, and in structuring and assessing the destination. We develop a neat backbone literature review concerning the all aspects of the sustainable rural heritage tourism destination. We review the existing methods, approaches and theories applied on the relative field, and further study the relevant challenges that have been the target of investigation in the academic literature. The paper is intended to be the newest and the most important existing study on the topic of rural heritage emerging tourism destination. The results are particularly relevant to practitioners seeking a better grasp on managing tourism destination as well as achieving sustainability in tourism destinations. As a major finding of the review, the results strongly suggest the need for more practitioner-oriented and industry-driven empirical studies in the area of flexible managerial framework to cope with special and dynamic characteristics of different tourism destinations.

  18. From sea to shining sea: making collaborative rural research work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, P M; Mordoch, E; Wells, C; Martin Misener, R; McDonagh, M K; Edge, D S

    2009-01-01

    Rural researchers collaborate on many levels to collect and analyze data, develop research reports and disseminate findings. While this collaboration is critical, there is a dearth of literature about research team collaboration within all stages of the research process. The purpose of this article is to discuss the research experience of 10 rural researchers scattered across Canada who participated in the study, Health Research: Accessible, Applicable and Useable for Rural Communities and Practitioners. Using focused ethnography, one aim of this study was to discover how research is utilized in rural and remote settings. The necessity of establishing networks to collect and manage data, and jointly analyze 72 qualitative transcripts from different geographical sites led to innovations and unexpected lessons learned. The research design provided significant opportunities to mentor undergraduate, masters and doctoral nursing students and to enhance the development of newly graduated doctoral nurses. These opportunities are crucial in the development of new researchers and in creating ongoing interest in rural health research. In this article, we discuss how the research process evolved, the mentoring process used, the barriers identified related to collaboration across vast distances, and the strategies employed to enhance the study's trustworthiness. We also consider the advantages and challenges of using Elluminate, a web application, as an interactive forum for this qualitative health research.

  19. Perspectives and experience of practitioners in kindergarten on team formation

    OpenAIRE

    Kostanjšek, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Curriculum for kindergarten, a national document, intended for practitioners in kindergarten, dictates qualitative education of preschool children, whose main condition is a consistent and to common goals oriented work of practitioners, especially a tandem, which consists of a childcare worker and her assistant. Considering the fact that the childcare worker and her assistant are directly involved in work with preschool children, their common route in implementation of the curriculum principl...

  20. Preventing burnout among general practitioners: is there a possible route?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena G.; Tulinius, C.

    2009-01-01

    Stress and burnout among general practitioners (GPs) is a serious problem. Some authors suggest supervision groups or Balint groups as a means of preventing burnout and others address how to treat the condition. This paper reports a case study of a supervision group for Danish GPs which, as well...... as training reflective practice, focuses specifically on the prevention of burnout. The concept of compassion fatigue is extended to cover the circumstances reported by some practitioners in supervision Udgivelsesdato: 2009/9...

  1. Emergence of Agile Methods: Perceptions from Software Practitioners in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Asnawi, Ani Liza; Gravell, Andrew; Wills, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Agile methods are an established process for developing software nowadays. There is, however, less evidence on its usage among software practitioners in Malaysia. While the methods have become mainstream in other regions, that is not the case in this country. This paper empirically investigates the perceptions of Agile methods usage from seven organisations involving 14 software practitioners in Malaysia. Our participants are using Scrum and have a maximum of five years experience. We categor...

  2. Oral Health Education for Pediatric Nurse Practitioner Students

    OpenAIRE

    Golinveaux, J; Gerbert, B.; Cheng, J.; Duderstadt, K; Alkon, A.; Mullen, S.; Lin, B; Miller, A.; Zhan, L.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether an interdisciplinary, multifaceted oral health education program delivered to pediatric nurse practitioner students at the University of California, San Francisco, would improve their knowledge, confidence, attitudes, and behaviors regarding the provision of oral health assessments, consultations, referrals, and services to young children during well-child visits. Thirty pediatric nurse practitioner students were included in the study. Participant...

  3. Evaluation of an interview training course for general practitioners.

    OpenAIRE

    BENSING, J; Sluijs, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    This article describes the evaluation of an experimental training in doctor-patient communication for general practitioners. The training was based on Rogerian theory and accommodated to the specific situation of the general practitioner. The main concept of this theory is the notion of ‘unconditional positive regard’. It was expected that doctors would change their communication behaviour and that as a result patients would talk more about their psychosocial problems. The training was restri...

  4. CAM practitioners in the Australian health workforce: an underutilized resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Sandra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CAM practitioners are a valuable but underutilizes resource in Australian health care. Despite increasing public support for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM little is known about the CAM workforce. Apart from the registered professions of chiropractic, osteopathy and Chinese medicine, accurate information about the number of CAM practitioners in the workforce has been difficult to obtain. It appears that many non-registered CAM practitioners, although highly qualified, are not working to their full capacity. Discussion Increasing public endorsement of CAM stands in contrast to the negative attitude toward the CAM workforce by some members of the medical and other health professions and by government policy makers. The marginalisation of the CAM workforce is evident in prejudicial attitudes held by some members of the medical and other health professions and its exclusion from government policy making. Inconsistent educational standards has meant that non-registered CAM practitioners, including highly qualified and competent ones, are frequently overlooked. Legitimising their contribution to the health workforce could alleviate workforce shortages and provide opportunities for redesigned job roles and new multidisciplinary teams. Priorities for better utilisation of the CAM workforce include establishing a guaranteed minimum education standard for more CAM occupation groups through national registration, providing interprofessional education that includes CAM practitioners, developing courses to upgrade CAM practitioners' professional skills in areas of indentified need, and increasing support for CAM research. Summary Marginalisation of the CAM workforce has disadvantaged those qualified and competent CAM practitioners who practise evidence-informed medicine on the basis of many years of university training. Legitimising and expanding the important contribution of CAM practitioners could alleviate projected health

  5. Flemish general dental practitioners' knowledge of dental radiology

    OpenAIRE

    Aps, Johan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess general dental practitioners' knowledge of dental radiography and radiation protection in order to alert the Belgian authorities and dental professional societies. Prior to attending a postgraduate course on intraoral radiology, general dental practitioners in Flanders, Belgium, were asked to fill in a questionnaire regarding the radiological equipment and the techniques they used for intraoral radiography. The availability and type of dental panoramic equi...

  6. Assisted or hastened death: the healthcare practitioner's dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Rod Duncan; Wilson, Donna M; Malpas, Phillipa

    2012-11-01

    Assisting or hastening death is a dilemma with many ethical as well as practical issues facing healthcare practitioners in many countries worldwide now. Various arguments for and against assisted dying have been made over time but the call from the public for legalisation of euthanasia or assisted suicide has never been stronger. While many studies have documented the reluctance of medical and other health professionals to be involved in the practice of assisted dying or euthanasia, there is still much open debate in the public domain. Those who have the most experience of palliative care are strongest in their opposition to assisted death or euthanasia. This paper explores salient practical and ethical considerations for healthcare practitioners associated with assisted death, with a focus on examining the concepts of autonomy for patients and healthcare practitioners. The role of the healthcare practitioner has clearly and undoubtedly changed over time with advances in healthcare practices but the duty of care has not changed. The dilemmas for healthcare practitioners thus who have competent patients requesting hastened death extends far beyond acting within a country's laws as they go to the very heart of the relationship between the practitioner and patient. PMID:23121745

  7. Space for action: How practitioners influence environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kågström, Mari, E-mail: mari.kagstrom@slu.se [Department of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Richardson, Tim, E-mail: tim.richardson@nmbu.no [Department of Landscape Architecture and Spatial Planning, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Frederik A Dahls vei 15, KA-bygningen, Ås (Norway)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The concept of ‘space for action’ offers an important new lens on EA practice. • Focuses on the relation between practitioner's understanding and their actions • Environmental assessment practice is decisively shaped by practitioners. • Practitioners may underestimate their potential to make a difference. • Contributes to understanding change in the environmental assessment field. This article contributes to understanding of how change occurs in the field of environmental assessment (EA). It argues that the integration of new issues in EA, such as human health, is significantly influenced by how practitioners' understandings shape their actions, and by what happens when those, possibly different, interpretations of appropriate action are acted out. The concept of space for action is developed as a means of investigating this relation between understanding and action. Frame theory is also used, to develop a sharper focus on how ‘potential spaces for action’ are created, what these imply for (individuals') preferred choices and actions in certain situations, and what happens in practice when these are acted out and ‘actual spaces for action’ are created. This novel approach is then applied in a Swedish case study of transport planning. The analysis reveals the important work done by practitioners, revealing just how EA practice is decisively shaped by practitioners. Analysis of practice using the lens of spaces for action offers an important new perspective in understanding how the field adapts to new challenges.

  8. Cooperative m-learning with nurse practitioner students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Tami H; Krauskopf, Patricia B; Gaylord, Nan M; Ward, Andrew; Huffstutler-Hawkins, Shelley; Goodwin, Linda

    2010-01-01

    New technologies give nurse academicians the opportunity to incorporate innovative teaching-learning strategies into the nursing curricula. Mobile technology for learning, or m-learning, has considerable potential for the nursing classroom but lacks sufficient empirical evidence to support its use. Based on Mayer's multimedia learning theory, the effect of using cooperative and interactive m-learning techniques in enhancing classroom and clinical learning was explored. The relationship between m-learning and students' learning styles was determined through a multimethod educational research study involving nurse practitioner students at two mid-Atlantic universities. During the 16-month period, nurse practitioner students and their faculty used personal digital assistants (PDAs) to participate in various m-learning activities. Findings from focus group and survey responses concluded that PDAs, specifically the Pocket PC, are useful reference tools in the clinical setting and that all students, regardless of learning style, benefited from using PDAs. It was also demonstrated that connecting students with classmates and other nurse practitioner students at distant universities created a cooperative learning community providing additional support and knowledge acquisition. The authors concluded that in order to successfully prepare nurse practitioner graduates with the skills necessary to function in the present and future health care system, nurse practitioner faculty must be creative and innovative, incorporating various revolutionary technologies into their nurse practitioner curricula.

  9. PERCEPTIONS ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PUBLIC RELATIONS PRACTITIONERS AND JOURNALISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halimahton Shaari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This research examines perceptions on the relationship between public relations practitioners and journalists based on four categories of relationship: Satisfaction with contributions made to each other, interdependence, trust and ethical practices. A survey of 48 public relations practitioners and 63 journalists was conducted regarding their perceptions on each other’s profession. Public relations practitioners polled for this survey were from the various government and corporate organisations while the journalists were from the print and electronic media organisations and publishing houses. Generally, the survey indicates some differences and similarities in the perceptions of the two groups with public relations practitioners holding stronger perceptions than the journalists on the various aspects of their relationship. The data suggests that public relations practitioners believe more strongly that the information they provide to the journalists enables the latter to perform more satisfactorily compared to the journalists who think less strongly of the contribution made by the former. The public relations practitioners also seem to think that there is more of a symbiotic relationship between the two groups than the journalists.

  10. Rural clinician scarcity and job preferences of doctors and nurses in India: a discrete choice experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna D Rao

    Full Text Available The scarcity of rural doctors has undermined the ability of health systems in low and middle-income countries like India to provide quality services to rural populations. This study examines job preferences of doctors and nurses to inform what works in terms of rural recruitment strategies. Job acceptance of different strategies was compared to identify policy options for increasing the availability of clinical providers in rural areas. In 2010 a Discrete Choice Experiment was conducted in India. The study sample included final year medical and nursing students, and in-service doctors and nurses serving at Primary Health Centers. Eight job attributes were identified and a D-efficient fractional factorial design was used to construct pairs of job choices. Respondent acceptance of job choices was analyzed using multi-level logistic regression. Location mattered; jobs in areas offering urban amenities had a high likelihood of being accepted. Higher salary had small effect on doctor, but large effect on nurse, acceptance of rural jobs. At five times current salary levels, 13% (31% of medical students (doctors were willing to accept rural jobs. At half this level, 61% (52% of nursing students (nurses accepted a rural job. The strategy of reserving seats for specialist training in exchange for rural service had a large effect on job acceptance among doctors, nurses and nursing students. For doctors and nurses, properly staffed and equipped health facilities, and housing had small effects on job acceptance. Rural upbringing was not associated with rural job acceptance. Incentivizing doctors for rural service is expensive. A broader strategy of substantial salary increases with improved living, working environment, and education incentives is necessary. For both doctors and nurses, the usual strategies of moderate salary increases, good facility infrastructure, and housing will not be effective. Non-physician clinicians like nurse-practitioners offer an

  11. Energy for rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, Frauke; Benders, René M.J.; Moll, Henri C.

    2009-01-01

    About 72 million households in rural India do not have access to electricity and rely primarily on traditional biofuels. This research investigates how rural electrification could be achieved in India using different energy sources and what the effects for climate change mitigation could be We use t

  12. The Rural Information Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Patricia La Caille

    1989-01-01

    Describes the events that led to the creation of the Rural Information Center (RIC), a joint venture between the Extension Service and the National Agricultural Library to provide information to government officials involved in rural development. The databases accessed by RIC are described, and plans for a gateway system and network of all…

  13. Funding Rural Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kim

    This paper provides first-time grant writers with suggestions on how to approach a private funding source. While intended for rural health care advocates, the remarks are equally applicable for educators and others. The rural crisis has produced many heart-rending stories about medically indigent people, but there is a lack of reliable statistics…

  14. Rural Credit in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in four provinces of Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders, but formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation. Interest rates fell from 1997...

  15. Developing Rural Business Incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Mark L.; Burnier, DeLysa

    1991-01-01

    Offers background on rural entrepreneurship and incubation in the United States, with particular focus on rural incubators at community colleges and regional incubation systems. Explains how incubators, which provide shared services and business/management assistance for tenant companies, differ from other entrepreneurial development strategies.…

  16. RURAL TOURISM IN DOBRUDGEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena, SIMA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The natural and anthropic tourism resources of a certain area generate specific tourism forms, which complete each other within the different destination categories.The rural area in Dobrudja has diversified tourism potential, provided by the contrast of natural environment factors, ranging from the oldest and to the youngest relief units, natural protected areas, spa resources and cultural, historical, religious sites, as well as multicultural local customs and traditions of the rural area. This potential can be used under various kinds in the rural area: cultural tourism, historical tourism, religious tourism, ecotourism, fishing tourism or bird-watching tourism, and other kinds of rural tourism. By linking these tourism resources and tourism forms, tourism routes can result, which together with the local customs, traditions and cuisine may contribute to the social and economic development of Dobrudja's rural area, through sustainable tourism as alternative to seasonal seashore tourism.

  17. Collaboration of general practitioners and exercise providers in promotion of physical activity a written survey among general practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Leemrijse, C. J.; de Bakker, D. H.; Ooms, L; Veenhof, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: General practitioners have an ideal position to motivate inactive patients to increase their physical activity. Most patients are able to exercise in regular local facilities outside the health care setting. The purpose of this study was to get insight into general practitioners perceptions and current practices regarding referral of patients to local exercise facilities. Furthermore, collaboration with exercise providers in the community was investigated, and motivators and barri...

  18. The attitude of the Chilean newspaper "El Mercurio" towards the main economic policies of the Popular Unity government of Salvador Allende (1970 - 1973).

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Resumé of History major: “The attitude of the Chilean newspaper ‘El Mercurio’ towards the main economic policies of the Popular Unity government of Salvador Allende (1970-73)” By Paul Francis Llewellyn Department of History University of Oslo, Norway Autumn 2002 Introduction This investigation will show in what manner the conservative daily newspaper El Mercurio presented the main economic policies of the Chilean left-wing Popular Unity (UP) government during its ter...

  19. Free education! A 'live' report from the Chilean student movement, 2011-2014 - reform or revolution? [A political sociology for action

    OpenAIRE

    Simbuerger, Elisabeth; Neary, Mike

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a report on the Chilean student movement, 2011 – 2014, from the perspective of the students themselves, based on the research question: are the student protesters for reform or revolution? The research was done just before the November 2013 Chilean Presidential and Parliamentary elections using ‘live methods’ (Back and Puwar 2012). The live methods used here include an ethnographic report from a student protest march in downtown Santiago, Chile, illustrated with a Twitt...

  20. Rurality Research and Rural Education: Exploratory and Explanatory Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents analysed data from the first year of the Rural Teacher Education Project (RTEP 2007-2009) with a view to illustrating how a generative theory of rurality as education research was developed, and for which ends it might be utilised. The article suggests that data from projects in rural communities, which take the rural as…

  1. Latin American electricity markets and renewable energy sources: The Argentinean and Chilean cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzowski, C. [Department of Economy, Universidad Nacional del Sur, 12 de Octubre y San Juan, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Recalde, M. [CONICET - Department of Economy, Universidad Nacional del Sur, 12 de Octubre y San Juan, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    From the mid eighties on, most of Latin American Countries reformed their energy systems. The impact of these reforms over electricity markets was different in each case. However, in the majority of these cases there was a shift to private participation, instead of State, and a convergence of electricity systems to hydro and thermal technologies. This is the case of Argentina and Chile. In this context, the aim of this paper is to discuss the current situation of renewable energies in Chilean and Argentinean electric markets and the potential to increase their share in total energy supply. To this purpose, we firstly study electricity deregulation process and its current situation. Secondly, we analyze renewable energy share in these electricity systems comparatively to worldwide situation. Finally, we briefly present the policy instruments used in each country. (author)

  2. [The absence of stewardship in the Chilean health authority after the 2004 health reform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Tania; Sánchez, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Stewardship is the most important political function of a health system. It is a government responsibility carried out by the health authority. Among other dimensions, it is also a meta-function that includes conduction and regulation. The Health Authority and Management Act, which came about from the health reform of 2004, separated the functions of service provision and stewardship with the aim of strengthening the role of the health authority. However, the current structure of the health system contains overlapping functions between the different entities that leads to lack of coordination and inconsistencies, and a greater weight on individual health actions at the expense of collective ones. Consequently, a properly funded national health strategy to improve the health of the population is missing. Additionally, the components of citizen participation and governance are weak. It is necessary, therefore, to revisit the Chilean health structure in order to develop one that truly enables the exercise of the health authority’s stewardship role.

  3. Preliminary Psychometric examination of the Davidson Trauma Scale: A study on chileans adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristobal Guerra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS measures the frequency and severity of the posttraumatic Stress Disorder pTSD. Since chile has limited data about validity and reliability of instruments to measure pTSD, this study evaluated psychometric properties of the scale in a sample of 130 adolescents between 13 and 18 years (M= 15,78; DT= 1,40. Some of them were traumatized patients and others were from general population. They answered the DTS, a depression and an anxiety scale. The scale obtained adequate internal consistency scores, showed convergent validity (DTS score was associated moderately, directly and significantly with depression and anxiety scores, and discriminated between clinical sample and general population. DTS seems to be a valid and reliable instrument in chilean adolescents.

  4. Crustacean zooplankton species richness in Chilean lakes and ponds (23°-51°S

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    Patricio De los Ríos-Escalante

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chilean inland-water ecosystems are characterized by their low species-level biodiversity. This study analyses available data on surface area, maximum depth, conductivity, chlorophyll-α concentration, and zooplankton crustacean species number in lakes and ponds between 23° and 51°S. The study uses multiple regression analysis to identify the potential factors affecting the species number. The partial correlation analysis indicated a direct significant correlation between chlorophyll-α concentration and species number, whereas the multiple regression analysis indicated a direct significant response of species number to latitude and chlorophyll-α concentration. These results agree with findings from comparable ecosystems in Argentina and New Zealand.

  5. My child and his siblings: women’s experience of first maternity in Chilean stepfamilies

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    J. Carola Pérez Ewert

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study shows the perception of a group of Chilean women aged between 29 and 39 years regarding their experience of having their first child when they are members of a simple stepfamily. Sixteen women, whose partners maintain active contact with their child(ren born in previous relationships were interviewed. Results confirm the existence of a process of “becoming a mother” and its course depends on stepchildren’s presence. In addition our more relevant findings show that the specific topics of fears and motivations of having a child depend on the particular stepfamilycontext, and women’s experiences is that this process vary according to the perceived quality of stepmother/stepchildren relationships.

  6. Ultrasound application for MOE determination of some Chilean species of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baradit, Erik; Fuentealba, Cecillia; San Martin, Alex

    1999-02-01

    In this work a preliminary study of an ultrasound application, as a non destructive technique, for the evaluation of some chilean wood species is shown. By means of this technique the elasticity moduli (MOE) along the fibers for different positions of the samples with respect to the pith and different moisture contents are determined. At the same time the wood anisotropy properties are evaluated as the ratio between velocities along the main directions of the tree. In general, the obtained results show a high correlations between the MOE obtained by mechanic and ultrasound essays while the anisotropy values correspond mainly to the expected results. Finally, it is considered that the application of this technique as a complement to other non destructive techniques conform an excellent tool for evaluation and quality control of wood products.

  7. Experience and new challenges in the Chilean generation and transmission sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chilean electrical sector was deregulated in 1982, where unbundling was applied, and generation competition and marginal costing were introduced. Description of the main features of the generation market and system operation is presented, followed by a synthesis of the main achievements and difficulties experienced in the practical application. The experience with the troubles faced in the reformed power sector after 18 years is used to look at the possible advantages of the second stage of deregulation. The challenges of a new legislation, where the system is expected to join the second generation of deregulation are discussed. Advantage and risks of opening the energy market with a bidding system separate from ancillary service market are analysed. The experience with the troubles faced in the reformed power sector after 18 years is used to look at the possible advantages of the second stage of deregulation. (author)

  8. [Quality control in Medicine. Position of the Chilean Academy of Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goic, A; Segovia, S

    2001-07-01

    In the last two decades, important changes in medical training and care have occurred in Chile. The number of medical schools has been doubled, exceeding the national availability of professors and qualified training fields. The quality assessment and accreditation of medical training and care is insufficient in Chile. A National Autonomous Corporation of Certification of Medical Specialties, has certified more than 4,000 physicians in 44 specialties. The Chilean Association of Faculties of Medicine has accredited training centers during the last four decades. The National Commission of Undergraduate Training Accreditation, has developed a voluntary system for medical school accreditation. The Academy supports these strategies and considers that accreditation does not threaten institutions or individuals. It is rather a mechanism that identifies strengths and weaknesses of institutions and programs. This will finally result in better quality in medical training and patient care.

  9. A new species of Heleobia (Caenogastropoda: Cochliopidae) from the Chilean Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Gonzalo A; Valladares, Moisés A; Méndez, Marco A

    2016-07-11

    Cochliopidae Tryon, 1866 is a diverse family of caenogastropods that lives in a wide variety of aquatic habitats primarily in the New World (Hershler &Thompson 1992). In Chile, the species of the group have been traditionally assigned to the genus Littoridina Souleyet, 1852 using conchological characters (Biese 1944, 1947; Stuardo, 1961; Valdovinos 2006) but according to anatomical studies and phylogenetic analysis the majority of them have been reassigned to the genus Heleobia Stimpson, 1865 (Hershler & Thompson 1992; Collado et al. 2011a; Kroll et al. 2012; Collado et al. 2013; Collado et al. 2016). Here we formally describe a new species of the genus Heleobia from Spring 1 in the Carcote saltpan, Chilean Altiplano, based on molecular and morphological characters. Snails from this locality were previously shown to be distinct based on DNA sequences (Collado et al. 2013; Collado et al. 2016).

  10. Chilean jagged lobster, Projasus bahamondei, in the southeastern Pacific Ocean: current state of knowledge

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    Patricio M Arana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean jagged lobster (Projasus bahamondei is a deep-water crustacean (175-550 m occurring in certain areas of the southeastern Pacific Ocean, including the Nazca Ridge, Desventuradas Islands, the Juan Fernandez archipelago and ridge, and the continental slope off the central coast of Chile. This review describes the taxonomic status, geographical and bathymetric distribution, some biological aspects and habitat characteristics of this species. Additionally, both artisanal and industrial exploitation attempts made within the region are detailed, as well as fishing operation results, chemical composition, different elaboration procedures and the destination of the catch. The main objectives of this review are to contribute to the knowledge of P. bahamondei as a component of the deep-sea ecosystem and to highlight its importance as a potential fishery resource.

  11. Genetic diversity of Chilean and Brazilian alstroemeria species assessed by AFLP analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, T H; de Jeu, M; van Eck, H; Jacobsen, E

    2000-05-01

    One to three accessions of 22 Alstroemeria species, an interspecific hybrid (A. aurea x A. inodora), and single accessions of Bomarea salsilla and Leontochir ovallei were evaluated using the AFLP-marker technique to estimate the genetic diversity within the genus Alstroemeria. Three primer combinations generated 716 markers and discriminated all Alstroemeria species. The dendrogram inferred from the AFLP fingerprints supported the conjecture of the generic separation of the Chilean and Brazilian Alstroemeria species. The principal co-ordinate plot showed the separate allocation of the A. ligtu group and the allocation of A. aurea, which has a wide range of geographical distribution and genetic variation, in the middle of other Alstroemeria species. The genetic distances, based on AFLP markers, determined the genomic contribution of the parents to the interspecific hybrid. PMID:10849081

  12. Trematodes indicate animal biodiversity in the chilean intertidal and Lake Tanganyika

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechinger, R.F.; Lafferty, K.D.; Kuris, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Trematode communities in populations of estuarine snails can reflect surrounding animal diversity, abundance, and trophic interactions. We know less about the potential for trematodes to serve as bioindicators in other habitats. Here, we reanalyze data from 2 published studies concerning trematodes, 1 in the Chilean rocky intertidal zone and the other from the East African rift lake, Lake Tanganyika. Our analyses indicate that trematodes are more common in protected areas and that in both habitats they are directly and positively related to surrounding host abundance. This further supports the notion that trematodes in first intermediate hosts can serve as bioindicators of the condition of free-living animal communities in diverse ecosystems. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2008.

  13. Policy Positions in the Chilean Senate: An Analysis of Coauthorship and Roll Call Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alemán

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the policy positions of Chilean senators. The empirical analysis focuses on two different legislative activities: voting and coauthoring bills. The roll call analysis evaluates the degree to which coalitions act as cohesive policy teams on the floor of Congress, whether parties’ positions match conventional ideological rankings, and the dimensionality of voting decisions. The coauthorship analysis provides alternative ideal points to examine similar questions. The findings of the voting analysis reveal a rather unidimensional world with two distinct clusters matching coalitional affiliation, while the analysis of coauthorship illuminates a more complex pattern of associations. Neither roll call votes nor coauthorship patterns, however, reveal substantive fissures within the governing coalition. In comparison, the opposition coalition appears more divided along partisan lines.

  14. Bifactor Modeling of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in a Chilean Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Salas, Claudia Paz; Ramos, Carlos; Oliva, Karen; Ortega, Alonso

    2016-06-01

    The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions evaluates executive functioning through the observation of students' performance in real contexts. Most psychometric studies of the scale have only tested the first-order structure, despite the hierarchical configuration of its theoretical model. A bifactor model was conducted on a normative sample of 5- to 18-year-old Chileans (M age = 11.3 years, SD = 3.7) to test a hierarchical structure of three first-order factors and an independent second-order factor. Bifactor analyses showed best fit for the proposed hierarchical structure. Findings supported a method to evaluate executive functioning models that provides a general global factor score that may complement existing indices and thus help clinicians to make better inferences. PMID:27216945

  15. Psychometric properties of the personal wellbeing index in Brazilian and Chilean adolescents including spirituality and religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Castellá Sarriera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the 7-item Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI with two other versions which include the domains "Spirituality" and "Religion", separately, in a sample of Brazilian (n = 1.047 and Chilean (n = 1.053 adolescents. A comparison of psychometric properties between the PWI versions was carried out through multigroup confirmatory factor analysis showing adequate adjustments (CFI > .95, RMSEA < .08, whereas the item spirituality presented better performance. For the analysis of the differential contribution of each domain to the notion of global satisfaction, a regression on the item Overall Life Satisfaction (OLS was applied using structural equations. It is recommended the inclusion of the item spirituality in the original scale, considering the importance of such domain in both cultures.

  16. Autoimmune pulmonary proteinosis in a Chilean teenager, a rare aetiology of interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickler, Alexis; Boza, Maria Lina; Koppmann, Andres; Gonzalez, Sergio

    2014-05-23

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is rare and encompasses a heterogeneous group of diseases, and is even rarer in children than in adults. ILDs compromise more than 100 different entities, including pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). There are many causes of PAP in children, including surfactant protein gene mutations (SFTPB, SFTPC, ABCA3, TTF-1), GMCSF receptor mutations and antigranulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor autoantibodies. We report a case of a 13-year-old Chilean girl who presented with an 8-month history of progressive exercise intolerance, fatigability and diminished school performance. Physical examination revealed resting tachypnoea, a few basal bilateral inspiratory crackles, and hypoxaemia on minimal exertion. Clinical suspicion and evaluation, including international collaboration, led to the diagnosis of autoimmune PAP and specific therapy for the condition.

  17. The HLA-A*68:23 allele in the Chilean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, E V; Dilioglou, S; Arnold, P Y; Palma, J; Rivera, G

    2014-12-01

    HLA-A*68:23, first described in 2002, has not been widely reported. The studies reported here were performed for support of a collaborative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation program at Luis Calvo Mackenna Hospital for which St. Jude Children's Research Hospital provided human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing. Family studies performed between 2000 and 2011 included 197 patients and their immediate family members. In a total of 559 individuals, A*68:23 was confirmed by DNA sequencing in eight individuals with no known relationship to each other. A*68:23 positive individuals included six patients, along with one of their parents, and two parents whose children did not inherit A*68:23. The frequency of A*68:23 in this Chilean population is >0.0125. This HLA-A allele appears to fit the description of a well-documented allele in this population studied in Santiago, Chile. PMID:25352173

  18. Is a practice-based rural research network feasible in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika; Kurpas, Donata; Tsiligianni, Ioanna; Petrazzuoli, Ferdinando; Jacquet, Jean-Pierre; Buono, Nicola; Lopez-Abuin, Jose; Lionis, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Research in family medicine is a well-established entity nationally and internationally, covering all aspects of primary care including remote and isolated practices. However, due to limited capacity and resources in rural family medicine, its potential is not fully exploited yet. An idea to foster European rural primary care research by establishing a practice-based research network has been recently put forward by several members of the European Rural and Isolated Practitioners Association (EURIPA) and the European General Practice Research Network (EGPRN). Two workshops on why, and how to design a practice-based research network among rural family practices in Europe were conducted at two international meetings. This paper revisits the definition of practice-based research in family medicine, reflects on the current situation in Europe regarding the research in rural family practice, and discusses a rationale for practice-based research in rural family medicine. A SWOT analysis was used as the main tool to analyse the current situation in Europe regarding the research in rural family practice at both meetings. The key messages gained from these meetings may be employed by the Wonca Working Party on research, the International Federation of Primary Care Research Network and the EGPRN that seek to introduce a practice-based research approach. The cooperation and collaboration between EURIPA and EGPRN creates a fertile ground to discuss further the prospect of a European practice-based rural family medicine research network, and to draw on the joint experience. PMID:26134091

  19. Is a practice-based rural research network feasible in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika; Kurpas, Donata; Tsiligianni, Ioanna; Petrazzuoli, Ferdinando; Jacquet, Jean-Pierre; Buono, Nicola; Lopez-Abuin, Jose; Lionis, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Research in family medicine is a well-established entity nationally and internationally, covering all aspects of primary care including remote and isolated practices. However, due to limited capacity and resources in rural family medicine, its potential is not fully exploited yet. An idea to foster European rural primary care research by establishing a practice-based research network has been recently put forward by several members of the European Rural and Isolated Practitioners Association (EURIPA) and the European General Practice Research Network (EGPRN). Two workshops on why, and how to design a practice-based research network among rural family practices in Europe were conducted at two international meetings. This paper revisits the definition of practice-based research in family medicine, reflects on the current situation in Europe regarding the research in rural family practice, and discusses a rationale for practice-based research in rural family medicine. A SWOT analysis was used as the main tool to analyse the current situation in Europe regarding the research in rural family practice at both meetings. The key messages gained from these meetings may be employed by the Wonca Working Party on research, the International Federation of Primary Care Research Network and the EGPRN that seek to introduce a practice-based research approach. The cooperation and collaboration between EURIPA and EGPRN creates a fertile ground to discuss further the prospect of a European practice-based rural family medicine research network, and to draw on the joint experience.

  20. Locking, mass flux and topographic response at convergent plate boundaries - the Chilean case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncken, Onno

    2016-04-01

    On the long term, convergent plate boundaries have been shown to be controlled by either accretion/underplating or by subduction erosion. Vertical surface motion is coupled to convergence rate - typically with an uplift rate of the coastal area ranging from 0 to +50% of convergence rate in accretive systems, and -20 to +30% in erosive systems. Vertical kinematics, however, are not necessarily linked to horizontal strain mode, i.e. upper plate shortening or extension, in a simple way. This range of kinematic behaviors - as well as their acceleration where forearcs collide with oceanic ridges/plateau - is well expressed along the Chilean plate margin. Towards the short end of the time scale, deformation appears to exhibit a close correlation with the frictional properties and geodetic locking at the plate interface. Corroborating analogue experiments of strain accumulation during multiple earthquake cycles, forearc deformation and uplift focus above the downdip and updip end of seismic coupling and slip and are each related to a particular stage of the seismic cycle, but with opposite trends for both domains. Similarly, barriers separating locked domains along strike appear to accumulate most upper plate faulting interseismically. Hence, locking patters are reflected in topography. From the long-term memory contained in the forearc topography the relief of the Chilean forearc seems to reflect long term stability of the observed heterogeneity of locking at the plate interface. This has fundamental implications for spatial and temporal distribution of seismic hazard. Finally, the nature of locking at the plate interface controlling the above kinematic behavior appears to be strongly controlled by the degree of fluid overpressuring at the plate interface suggesting that the hydraulic system at the interface takes a key role for the forearc response.

  1. PRESENCE OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS IN ALPACAS (LAMA PACOS) INHABITING THE CHILEAN ALTIPLANO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Miguel; Sevilla, Iker; Rios, Carolina; Crossley, Jorge; Tejeda, Carlos; Manning, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of paratuberculosis. The organism causes disease in both domestically managed and wild ruminant species. South American camelids have a long, shared history with indigenous people in the Andes. Over the last few decades, increasing numbers of alpacas were exported to numerous countries outside South America. No paratuberculosis surveillance has been reported for these source herds. In this study, individual fecal samples from 85 adult alpacas were collected from six separate herds in the Chilean Altiplano. A ParaTB mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) liquid culture of each individual fecal sample, followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was used for confirmation. DNA extracts from a subset of confirmed MAP isolates were subjected to mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Fifteen alpaca were fecal culture test-positive. Five false-positive culture samples were negative on PCR analysis for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA), Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), and the 16 S rDNA gene. Three MAP isolates subset-tested belonged to the same MIRU-VNTR type, showing four repeats for TR292 (locus 1) in contrast to the three repeats typical of the MAP reference strain K10. The number of repeats found in the remaining loci was identical to that of the K10 strain. It is not known how nor when MAP was introduced into the alpaca population in the Chilean Altiplano. The most plausible hypothesis to explain the presence of MAP in these indigenous populations is transmission by contact with infected domestic small ruminant species that may on occasion share pastures or range with alpacas. Isolation of this mycobacterial pathogen from such a remote region suggests that MAP has found its way beyond the confines of intensively managed domestic agriculture premises.

  2. Family and parenting characteristics associated with marijuana use by Chilean adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Grogan-Kaylor

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cristina B Bares1, Jorge Delva2, Andrew Grogan-Kaylor2, Fernando Andrade31Curtis Research and Training Center, School of Social Work, 2School of Social Work, 3School of Education, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USAObjective: Family involvement and several characteristics of parenting have been suggested to be protective factors for adolescent substance use. Some parenting behaviors may have stronger relationships with adolescent behavior while others may have associations with undesirable behavior among youth. Although it is generally acknowledged that families play an important role in the lives of Chilean adolescents, scant research exists on how different family and parenting factors may be associated with marijuana use and related problems in this population which has one of the highest rates of drug use in Latin America.Methods: Using logistic regression and negative binomial regression, we examined whether a large number of family and parenting variables were associated with the possibility of Chilean adolescents ever using marijuana, and with marijuana-related problems. Analyses controlled for a number of demographic and peer-related variables.Results: Controlling for other parenting and family variables, adolescent reports of parental marijuana use showed a significant and positive association with adolescent marijuana use. The multivariate models also revealed that harsh parenting by fathers was the only family variable associated with the number of marijuana-related problems youth experienced. Conclusion: Of all the family and parenting variables studied, perceptions of parental use of marijuana and harsh parenting by fathers were predictors for marijuana use, and the experience of marijuana-related problems. Prevention interventions need to continue emphasizing the critical socializing role that parental behavior plays in their children's development and potential use of marijuana.Keywords: parenting, families, adolescent

  3. Alcohol, binge drinking and associated mental health problems in young urban Chileans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J Mason-Jones

    Full Text Available To explore the link between alcohol use, binge drinking and mental health problems in a representative sample of adolescent and young adult Chileans.Age and sex-adjusted Odds Ratios (OR for four mental wellbeing measures were estimated with separate conditional logistic regression models for adolescents aged 15-20 years, and young adults aged 21-25 years, using population-based estimates of alcohol use prevalence rates from the Chilean National Health Survey 2010.Sixty five per cent of adolescents and 85% of young adults reported drinking alcohol in the last year and of those 83% per cent of adolescents and 86% of young adults reported binge drinking in the previous month. Adolescents who reported binging alcohol were also more likely, compared to young adults, to report being always or almost always depressed (OR 12.97 [95% CI, 1.86-19.54] or to feel very anxious in the last month (OR 9.37 [1.77-19.54]. Adolescent females were more likely to report poor life satisfaction in the previous year than adolescent males (OR 8.50 [1.61-15.78], feel always or almost always depressed (OR 3.41 [1.25-9.58]. Being female was also associated with a self-reported diagnosis of depression for both age groups (adolescents, OR 4.74 [1.49-15.08] and young adults, OR 4.08 [1.65-10.05].Young people in Chile self-report a high prevalence of alcohol use, binge drinking and associated mental health problems. The harms associated with alcohol consumption need to be highlighted through evidence-based prevention programs. Health and education systems need to be strengthened to screen and support young people. Focussing on policy initiatives to limit beverage companies targeting alcohol to young people will also be needed.

  4. Aggregate structure and stability linked to carbon dynamics in a south Chilean Andisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Oyarzún

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The extreme vulnerability of soil organic carbon to climate and land use change emphasizes the need for further research in different terrestrial ecosystems. We have studied the aggregate stability and carbon dynamics in a chronosequence of three different land uses in a south Chilean Andisols: a second growth Nothofagus obliqua forest (SGFOR, a grassland (GRASS and a Pinus radiata plantation (PINUS. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Al as soil organic matter stabilizing agent in this Andisol. In a case study, we linked differences in carbon dynamics between the three land use treatments to physical protection and recalcitrance of the soil organic matter (SOM. In this study, C aggregate stability and dynamics were studied using size and density fractionation experiments of the SOM, δ13C and total carbon analysis of the different SOM fractions, and mineralization measurements. The results showed that electrostatic attractions between and among Al-oxides and clay minerals are mainly responsible for the stabilization of soil aggregates and the physical protection of the enclosed soil organic carbon. Whole soil C mineralization rate constants were highest for SGFOR and PINUS, followed by GRASS. In contrast, incubation experiments of isolated macro organic matter fractions showed that the recalcitrance of the SOM decreased in another order: PINUS > SGFOR > GRASS. We concluded that physical protection of soil aggregates was the main process determining whole soil C mineralization. Land use changes affected soil organic carbon dynamics in this south Chilean Andisol by altering soil pH and consequently available Al.

  5. Fat and carbohydrates in the diet: Its metabolic contribution to obesity in Chilean women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been found that children and adults in the Chilean population are getting obese in a rapidly raising proportion. There is a cohort of children less than six years old, which are regularly controlled by the Ministry of Health. From this information and studies carried out at INTA, it is known that the prevalence is raising continuously. Unfortunately, this can not be ascertained in adults where the nutritional situation is assessed only in small groups, which are not representative of the general population. The problem with adults is that the healthy population does not attend to the medical clinics unless they are already ill. The studies conducted in Chilean adults have found that >40% of low socio-economic status (SES) women are suffering from obesity. A intriguing aspect in our situation is that although sedentarism is frequent in adult women (as a possible cause of positive energy balance), their intake is based on a high proportion of carbohydrates (CHO) but not much fat (50-70 g on average). It may be suggested that the excess CHO can be converted into fat through denovo lipogenesis but this process is less important as cause of obesity in humans. A more plausible cause of this problem is likely to be related to the diet. The oxidation hierarchy of macronutrients shows that whenever CHO and fat are available, the former will be firstly oxidised. This way, fat can be spared even when eaten in small amounts, accumulating in the mid-long term. Another important dietary aspect is provided by its fatty acids composition that according to animal studies, seems to modulate fat oxidation. In addition to these, glycemic effects of CHO eaten in combination with the same meal can further potentiate fat storage. This proposal aims to test the dietary effects mentioned above by using indirect calorimetry in tandem with stable isotopes methodologies in a group of normal weight and obese women. (author)

  6. The National Practitioner Data Bank: the first 4 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshel, R E; Croft, T; Rodak, J

    1995-01-01

    The National Practitioner Data Bank became operational September 1, 1990, as a flagging system to identify health care practitioners who may have been involved in incidents of medical incompetence. Query volumes have grown substantially over the Data Bank's first 4 years of operation. The greatest increase has come in the number of voluntary queries. By the end of 1994, the Data Bank had processed more than 4.5 million requests for information on practitioners, more than 1.5 million of which were received in 1994 alone. The proportion of queries for which the Data Bank contains information on the practitioner in question has grown as the Data Bank has come to contain more reports. During 1994, 7.9 percent of queries were matched. The Data Bank contained more than 97,500 reports at the end of 1994. More than 82 percent of the reports concerned malpractice payments. Licensure reports made up the bulk of the rest. Physicians predominate in reports, accounting for slightly more than 76 percent of the total. The remainder are related to dentists (16 percent) and all other types of practitioners (8 percent). Since reporting of adverse actions is mandatory only for physicians and dentists, the proportion of reports attributable to these types of practitioners is higher than it would be if adverse action reporting requirements were uniform for all practitioners. State malpractice payment rates and adverse action rates vary widely, but a State's rate in any given year is highly correlated with its rate in any other year. State malpractice rates are not strongly correlated with adverse action rates, neither are the rates for physicians strongly correlated with those for dentists. There is a weak tendency for States with smaller physician populations to have higher levels of licensure and privileging actions.

  7. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Among Dental Practitioners: Prevalence and Health Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar-Odeh, Najla; Alnazzawi, Ahmad; Shoqair, Noora; Al-Shayyab, Mohammad H.; Abu-Hammad, Osama

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence, practice, and the associated health perceptions among dental practitioners have not been previously reported. This study aims to determine the prevalence of waterpipe smoking among dental practitioners and to evaluate their awareness of health hazards of waterpipe smoking, particularly the adverse effects on oral health. METHODS This was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey among dental practitioners. Surveyed dental practitioners practiced dentistry in the holy city of Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, a city in the Central-Western Region of Saudi Arabia, and the study was conducted during March 2015. The questionnaire consisted of questions on demographic data, history and practices of tobacco use, and perceptions toward the health hazards of smoking. Dentists were approached at their work places and invited to participate. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sample’s demographic and smoking characteristics, while cross-tabulation and chi-square test were used to determine the statistical significance of association between the groups (P ≤ 0.05). RESULTS One hundred dental practitioners participated in the survey, with 55 males and 45 females. Twenty-six percent indicated that they were waterpipe smokers. Male gender and cigarette smoking were the only factors to be significantly associated with waterpipe smoking (P = 0.008 and P = 0.000, respectively). Most participants stated that waterpipe smoking is harmful to health, and the most commonly reported health hazard was respiratory disease, which was reported by 81% of participants. CONCLUSIONS Prevalence of waterpipe smoking among dental practitioners is comparable to adult populations but lower than younger populations of university students. Health awareness of dental practitioners regarding waterpipe smoking was judged to be insufficient.

  8. 42 CFR 405.2414 - Nurse practitioner and physician assistant services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nurse practitioner and physician assistant services... Clinic and Federally Qualified Health Center Services § 405.2414 Nurse practitioner and physician... nurse practitioner, physician assistant, nurse midwife, or specialized nurse practitioner who...

  9. Energy for rural India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 72 million households in rural India do not have access to electricity and rely primarily on traditional biofuels. This research investigates how rural electrification could be achieved in India using different energy sources and what the effects for climate change mitigation could be. We use the Regional Energy Model (REM) to develop scenarios for rural electrification for the period 2005-2030 and to assess the effects on greenhouse gas emissions, primary energy use and costs. We compare the business-as-usual scenario (BAU) with different electrification scenarios based on electricity from renewable energy, diesel and the grid. Our results indicate that diesel systems tend to have the highest CO2 emissions, followed by grid systems. Rural electrification with primarily renewable energy-based end-uses could save up to 99% of total CO2 emissions and 35% of primary energy use in 2030 compared to BAU. Our research indicates that electrification with decentralised diesel systems is likely to be the most expensive option. Rural electrification with renewable energy tends to be the most cost-effective option when end-uses are predominantly based on renewable energy, but turns out to be more costly than grid extensions when electric end-use devices are predominantly used. This research therefore elaborates whether renewable energy is a viable option for rural electrification and climate change mitigation in rural India and gives policy recommendations.

  10. A social media self-evaluation checklist for medical practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Benjamin J; Huiskes, Florian; Korevaar, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    Increasing numbers of medical practitioners and medical students are using online social and business-related networking websites such as Facebook, Doc2doc and LinkedIn. These rapidly evolving and growing social media have potential to promote public health by providing powerful instruments for communication and education. However, evidence is emerging from studies, legal cases, and media reports that the use of these new technologies is creating several ethical problems for medical practitioners as well as medical students. Improper online activities may harm not only individual reputations and careers, but also the medical profession as a whole, for example by breach of patient confidentiality, defamation of colleagues and employers, undisclosed conflict of interests that bias the medical practitioner's medical advice, posting of advice/information without an evidence base, and infringement of copyright. We developed a self-evaluation checklist for medical practitioners using social media. The checklist addresses three key elements in the use of social media: personal information and accessibility, connections, and postings. It contains questions specifically formulated to evaluate a medical practitioner's social media profile, to prevent unintended, improper online activities and to promote professional online behaviour. PMID:23099596

  11. Developing a global health practitioner: time to act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKimm, Judy; McLean, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Although many health issues transcend national boundaries and require international co-operation, global health is rarely an integral part of the medical curriculum. While medical schools have a social responsibility to train healthcare professionals to serve local communities, the internationalisation of medical education (e.g. international medical students, export of medical curricula or medical schools) makes it increasingly difficult to define it as 'local'. It is therefore necessary to produce practitioners who can practice medicine in an ever-changing and unpredictable world. These practitioners must be clinically and culturally competent as well as able to use their global knowledge and experience to improve health and well-being, irrespective of where they eventually practice medicine. Global health practitioners are tomorrow's leaders, change agents and members of effective multiprofessional teams and so need to be aware of the environmental, cultural, social and political factors that impact on health, serving as advocates of people's rights to access resources, education and healthcare. This article addresses some of the difficulties of developing global health practitioners, offering suggestions for a global health curriculum. It also acknowledges that creating a global health practitioner requires international collaboration and shared resources and practices and places the onus of social accountability on academic leaders. PMID:21774648

  12. Developing a global health practitioner: time to act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKimm, Judy; McLean, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Although many health issues transcend national boundaries and require international co-operation, global health is rarely an integral part of the medical curriculum. While medical schools have a social responsibility to train healthcare professionals to serve local communities, the internationalisation of medical education (e.g. international medical students, export of medical curricula or medical schools) makes it increasingly difficult to define it as 'local'. It is therefore necessary to produce practitioners who can practice medicine in an ever-changing and unpredictable world. These practitioners must be clinically and culturally competent as well as able to use their global knowledge and experience to improve health and well-being, irrespective of where they eventually practice medicine. Global health practitioners are tomorrow's leaders, change agents and members of effective multiprofessional teams and so need to be aware of the environmental, cultural, social and political factors that impact on health, serving as advocates of people's rights to access resources, education and healthcare. This article addresses some of the difficulties of developing global health practitioners, offering suggestions for a global health curriculum. It also acknowledges that creating a global health practitioner requires international collaboration and shared resources and practices and places the onus of social accountability on academic leaders.

  13. A social media self-evaluation checklist for medical practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Benjamin J; Huiskes, Florian; Korevaar, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    Increasing numbers of medical practitioners and medical students are using online social and business-related networking websites such as Facebook, Doc2doc and LinkedIn. These rapidly evolving and growing social media have potential to promote public health by providing powerful instruments for communication and education. However, evidence is emerging from studies, legal cases, and media reports that the use of these new technologies is creating several ethical problems for medical practitioners as well as medical students. Improper online activities may harm not only individual reputations and careers, but also the medical profession as a whole, for example by breach of patient confidentiality, defamation of colleagues and employers, undisclosed conflict of interests that bias the medical practitioner's medical advice, posting of advice/information without an evidence base, and infringement of copyright. We developed a self-evaluation checklist for medical practitioners using social media. The checklist addresses three key elements in the use of social media: personal information and accessibility, connections, and postings. It contains questions specifically formulated to evaluate a medical practitioner's social media profile, to prevent unintended, improper online activities and to promote professional online behaviour.

  14. Risk factors associated with musculoskeletal symptoms in Korean dental practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, KiHun; Cho, Hwi-Young; Han, Gyeong-Soon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between psychosocial stress, occupational stress, and musculoskeletal symptoms in Korean dental practitioners. [Subjects and Methods] Self-reported questionnaires were distributed to 401 dental practitioners in Korea. To assess the risk factors related to musculoskeletal disorders, the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, the Korean Occupational Stress Scale, and Psychosocial Well-Being Index Short Form were used. General and work-related characteristics of the subjects consisted of seven items, including age, career, height, weight, working days/week, working hours/day, and physical strain levels. [Results] In this study, 86.8% of the practitioners experienced musculoskeletal symptoms (shoulders, 72.8%; neck, 69.3%; waist, 68.3%; wrist, 58.4%; back, 44.1%; ankle, 38.7%; knee, 36.9%; hip, 20.4%; and elbows, 9.2%). Moreover, psychosocial and occupational stress can affect the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders. In particular, we found that psychosocial stress has significant influence on the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders. [Conclusion] To increase the quality of life and provide high-quality medical service for dental practitioners, risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders must be managed. Accordingly, dental practitioners must maintain good posture, get an appropriate amount of rest, and perform regular stretching exercise to reduce psychological stress and improve the work environment. PMID:26957728

  15. Management of neonatal jaundice varies by practitioner type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Patrocinio C.; Lee, Kyong-Soon; Barozzino, Matthew; Sgro, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To survey current practices among different types of medical practitioners in Ontario to assess if national guidelines for screening and management of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia were being followed. Design An anonymized, cross-sectional survey distributed by mail and e-mail. Setting Ontario. Participants From each group (general practitioners, family medicine practitioners, and pediatricians), 500 participants were randomly selected, and all 390 registered midwives were selected. Main outcome measures Compliance with national guidelines for screening, postdischarge follow-up, and management of newborns with hyperbilirubinemia. Results Of the 1890 potential respondents, 321 (17%) completed the survey. Only 41% of family physicians reported using national guidelines, compared with 75% and 69% of pediatricians and midwives, respectively (P Bilirubin was routinely measured for all newborns before discharge by 42% of family physicians, 63% of pediatricians, and 22% of midwives (P < .001). Newborn follow-up was completed within 72 hours after discharge by 60% of family physicians, 89% of pediatricians, and 100% of midwives. Management of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia differed significantly (P < .001), with 91% of family physicians, 99% of pediatricians, and 79% of midwives correctly managing a case scenario according to the guidelines. Conclusion The management of jaundice varied considerably among the different practitioner types, with pediatricians both most aware of the guidelines and most likely to follow them. Increased knowledge translation efforts are required to promote adherence to the jaundice management guidelines across all practitioner types, but particularly among family physicians. PMID:23946045

  16. Building consensus on key priorities for rural health care in South Africa using the Delphi technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marije Versteeg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa is currently undergoing major health system restructuring in an attempt to improve health outcomes and reduce inequities in access. Such inequities exist between private and public health care and within the public health system itself. Experience shows that rural health care can be disadvantaged in policy formulation despite good intentions. The objective of this study was to identify the major challenges and priority interventions for rural health care provision in South Africa thereby contributing to pro-rural health policy dialogue. Methods: The Delphi technique was used to develop consensus on a list of statements that was generated through interviews and literature review. A panel of rural health practitioners and other stakeholders was asked to indicate their level of agreement with these statements and to rank the top challenges in and interventions required for rural health care. Results: Response rates ranged from 83% in the first round (n=44 to 64% in the final round (n=34. The top five priorities were aligned to three of the WHO health system building blocks: human resources for health (HRH, governance, and finance. Specifically, the panel identified a need to focus on recruitment and support of rural health professionals, the employment of managers with sufficient and appropriate skills, a rural-friendly national HRH plan, and equitable funding formulae. Conclusion: Specific policies and strategies are required to address the greatest rural health care challenges and to ensure improved access to quality health care in rural South Africa. In addition, a change in organisational climate and a concerted effort to make a career in rural health appealing to health care workers and adequate funding for rural health care provision are essential.

  17. Environmental influences on physical activity in rural Midwestern adults: a qualitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisman, Matthew; Nothwehr, Faryle; Yang, Ginger; Oleson, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative research can be used to examine multiple factors associated with physical activity and help practitioners identify language used by the rural adult population when discussing this behavior. Three focus groups were conducted among 19 residents of multiple towns in a rural Midwestern county to examine the language and influences on rural physical activity. Focus group members were asked to define physical activity, exercise, community, and neighborhood. They were asked about the activities they engaged in and facilitators and barriers to those activities. A guidebook was developed to capture major themes and common patterns that emerged in the responses to the topics discussed. The data were reviewed for repeated statements and points that were agreed on by multiple participants. Important factors associated with physical activity include the importance of social support and modeling physical activity behavior. Also, the influence of pets and children was important for engaging these adults in physical activity. The focus group members engaged in walking and bicycling in their neighborhood streets and community trails, and desired to see community buildings be open to the public for exercise. This study revealed contextual issues and culturally relevant language for practitioners to use in tailoring physical activity measurement tools or designing interventions for a rural adult population. Social support (specifically, seeing others being active and using pets as motivators for being active) and policy attitudes may be targeted for interventions to increase physical activity in rural adults.

  18. Agritourism Rural Development Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria MORTAN

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available For Romania agritourism development represents the opportunity to differentiate between the rural and urban environment, as well as the best way for the preservation of traditions and customs in the rural areas, supplying a sustainable rural development. This work portrays agritourism as an element of rural development and critically analyzes the way in which the public administration should become involved in sustaining rural development in general and in sustaining agritourism development in particular.

  19. Institutional Theory as a Framework for Practitioners of Social Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrawal, Anirudh; Hockerts, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The chapter proposes institutional theory as a framework for reflecting on social entrepreneurship. We advocate institutional theory as a tool for practitioners to reflect upon the legitimacy, survivability and scalability of social enterprises because institutional theory frameworks can reduce r...... interested in social entrepreneurship from an institutional theory perspective.......The chapter proposes institutional theory as a framework for reflecting on social entrepreneurship. We advocate institutional theory as a tool for practitioners to reflect upon the legitimacy, survivability and scalability of social enterprises because institutional theory frameworks can reduce...... risks associated with emerging fields such as social entrepreneurship. In order to illustrate our claim, we present four cases of social entrepreneurship and reflect on them through different institutional theory frameworks. At the end of the chapter, we propose a future agenda for practitioners...

  20. Referrals from general practitioners to a social services department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, M G

    1983-01-01

    One year's referrals from general practitioners to a social services department were studied. There was a low referral rate and a bias towards women, the elderly and the less affluent. The referrals were predominantly made for practical help with problems of ill health. A high proportion of clients were allocated to non-social work staff, and the social service intervention, generally of short duration, showed a sympathetic response to the practical requests of general practitioners. The limited use of social workers by doctors is considered to be the result of ignorance or scepticism about psychodynamic social work skills. Closer liaison between general practitioners and social workers, and a clearer presentation by social workers of their professional skills, are suggested solutions to this problem.

  1. Managerial perceptions of mentor, lecturer practitioner and link tutor roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnwell, Ros; Baker, Sally-Ann; Bellis, Mike; Murray, Ruth

    2007-11-01

    Educating pre-registration nurses in clinical practice is a global issue. Within different countries problems exist in educating and supervising students in clinical practice and various models of clinical education are employed. In Wales, United Kingdom, this responsibility is divided between mentors, lecturer practitioners and link tutors. This paper reports on the third phase of a three-phase study in Wales to explore differences between mentors, lecturer practitioners and link tutors, and how they work together to assist students to integrate theory and practice. Four focus group interviews of National Health Service managers and Higher Education managers (n=22) were conducted. Qualitative content analysis revealed four themes: role characteristics and competencies, role differences, role conflict, and future options. The findings suggest a theory-practice continuum along which mentors, lecturer practitioners and link tutors occupy different positions. The article explores these different positions and offers suggestions for future role development.

  2. Rural-urban Migration, Rural Household Income and Sustainable Development in Rural Areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Qi; Yang Chunyue; Li Juan

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the rela-tionships among rural-urban migration, rural household income and sustainable development in rural areas of China. The typical case study is done and 288 questionnaires are collected from five villages in Hebei and Guangxi provinces, China. The migration and remittance status, household income and sustainable devel-opment of rural areas are analyzed on the basis of questionnaires. Rural-urban migration is becoming a part of routine life in rural areas. And remittance is an important component in rural house-hold income. Rural-urban migration increases the arable land area per labor, which releases the tight human-land relationship in villages. In total, the migration increases the rural household in-come and accelerates the sustainable development of rural areas.

  3. Relationship of Adiposity and Insulin Resistance Mediated by Inflammation in a Group of Overweight and Obese Chilean Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Leiva Laura; Blanco Estela; Díaz Erik; Gahagan Sheila; Reyes Marcela; Lera Lydia; Burrows Raquel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The mild chronic inflammatory state associated with obesity may be an important link between adiposity and insulin resistance (IR). In a sample of 137 overweight and obese Chilean adolescents, we assessed associations between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), IR and adiposity; explored sex differences; and evaluated whether hs-CRP mediated the relationship between adiposity and IR. Positive relationships between hs-CRP, IR and 2 measures of adiposity were found. Hs-CRP wa...

  4. Small Scale Indigenous Molybdenum-99 Production Using LEU Fission at Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission [Country report: Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the results of the activities carried out in the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) under CRP Nº 13358 “Small Scale Indigenous Molybdenum-99 Production Using LEU Fission” started in October 2005 to November 2011. The object of the project was to develop the basic infrastructure and to establish the conditions to obtain fission molybdenum-99 (99Mo) by neutron irradiation of uranium-235 (235U) targets in RECH-1 reactor located in Santiago, Chile

  5. Cadmium bioaccumulation and retention kinetics in the Chilean blue mussel Mytilus chilensis: Seawater and food exposure pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herve-Fernandez, Pedro [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Castilla 567, Valdivia (Chile); Houlbreque, Fanny, E-mail: F.Houlbreque@iaea.org [International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, 98000 Monaco (Monaco); Boisson, Florence [International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, 98000 Monaco (Monaco); Mulsow, Sandor [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Castilla 567, Valdivia (Chile); Teyssie, Jean-Louis; Oberhaensli, Francois; Azemard, Sabine; Jeffree, Ross [International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, 98000 Monaco (Monaco)

    2010-09-15

    The Chilean blue mussel (Mytilus chilensis, Hupe 1854) represents the most important bivalve exploited along the Chilean coast and is a major food source for the Chilean population. Unfortunately, local fish and shellfish farming face severe problems as a result of bioaccumulation of toxic trace metals into shellfishes. Blue mussels collected along the Chilean coasts contain levels of Cd above the regulatory limits for human consumption. In this study, we examined the bioaccumulation, depuration and organ distribution of Cd in the M. chilensis, from {sup 109}Cd-labelled bulk seawater and from feeding with {sup 109}Cd-labelled algae. The uptake of {sup 109}Cd via seawater displayed a simple exponential kinetic model suggesting that cadmium activity tends to reach an equilibrium value of 1.838 {+-} 0.175 ng g{sup -1} (mean {+-} asymptotic standard error, p < 0.001) after 78 {+-} 9 days. The depuration rate for {sup 109}Cd accumulated via seawater was slow, with only 21% of the total {sup 109}Cd accumulated in the whole mussel being eliminated after 52 days. Total elimination of Cd in mussels was adequately described by a double component kinetic model, in which the biological half-life for the long-lived component represents more than 6 months. In contrast, depuration after radiolabelled food uptake was fast, reaching only 20% of retention in 10 days. This knowledge of the long half-life of cadmium accumulated via seawater as well as the non-negligible level of cadmium accumulated into the shells is relevant to the management of Cd levels in this species and the refinement of detoxification processes in order to comply with authorized Cd levels.

  6. Policy learning and policy change in a context of industry crisis: the case of Chilean salmon farming industry

    OpenAIRE

    Roa Petrasic, Veronica Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates the policy response to the 2007-2010 sanitary crisis in the Chilean salmon industry, the second largest producer and exporter of salmon in the world. This industry is an emblematic case of the possible consequences of employing an intensive natural resource model for development. The research draws upon the two literatures on policy learning and policy change, and crisis and disaster management, and upon the system failure to explain the causes and consequences ...

  7. [Rotavirus Vaccine. Statement of the Consultive Committee of Immunizations on behalf of The Chilean Infectious Diseases Society. March 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz M, Alma; Abarca V, Katia; Luchsinger F, Vivian; Valenzuela B, M Teresa; Jiménez de la J, Jorge

    2006-06-01

    The article briefly reviews the epidemiology of rotavirus infection and the scientific information of the rotavirus vaccines: Rotashield, withdrawn from the market due to its association with intussusception, Rotateq currently in an advanced phase of development, and Rotarix, recently licensed in Chile. Considering the available information, the Consultive Committee of Immunizations of the Chilean Society of Infectious Diseases, summarizes its conclusions and makes recommendations for infants vaccination against rotavirus in our country.

  8. Comparison of water availability effect on ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea in microcosms of a Chilean semiarid soil

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante, Mauricio; Verdejo, Valentina; Zúñiga, Catalina; Espinosa, Fernanda; Orlando, Julieta; Carú, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Water availability is the main limiting factor in arid soils; however, few studies have examined the effects of drying and rewetting on nitrifiers from these environments. The effect of water availability on the diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) from a semiarid soil of the Chilean sclerophyllous matorral was determined by microcosm assays. The addition of water every 14 days to reach 60% of the WHC significantly increased nitrate content in rewetted soil microcos...

  9. Comparison of water availability effect on ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea in microcosms of a Chilean semiarid soil

    OpenAIRE

    JulietaOrlando

    2012-01-01

    Water availability is the main limiting factor in arid soils; however few studies have examined the effects of drying and rewetting on nitrifiers from these environments. The effect of water availability on the diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) from a semiarid soil of the Chilean sclerophyllous matorral was determined by microcosm assays. The addition of water every 14 days to reach 60% of the WHC significantly increased nitrate content in rewetted soil microcosm...

  10. Values, animal symbolism, and human-animal relationships associated to two threatened felids in Mapuche and Chilean local narratives

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Thora M; Schüttler, Elke; Benavides, Pelayo; Gálvez, Nicolas; Söhn, Lisa; Palomo, Nadja

    2013-01-01

    Background The Chilean temperate rainforest has been subjected to dramatic fragmentation for agriculture and forestry exploitation. Carnivore species are particularly affected by fragmentation and the resulting resource use conflicts with humans. This study aimed at understanding values and human-animal relationships with negatively perceived threatened carnivores through the disclosure of local stories and Mapuche traditional folktales. Methods Our mixed approach comprised the qualitative an...

  11. Chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis and biological activity on cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus

    OpenAIRE

    Leticia Barrientos; Herrera, Christian L.; Gloria Montenegro; Ximena Ortega; Jorge Veloz; Marysol Alvear; Alejandro Cuevas; Nicolás Saavedra; Salazar, Luis A.

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is a non-toxic natural substance with multiple pharmacological properties including anti-cancer, antioxidant, fungicidal, antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory among others. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis samples and to evaluate their biological activity against the cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. Twenty propolis samples were obtained from beekeeping producers from t...

  12. Cadmium bioaccumulation and retention kinetics in the Chilean blue mussel Mytilus chilensis: Seawater and food exposure pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chilean blue mussel (Mytilus chilensis, Hupe 1854) represents the most important bivalve exploited along the Chilean coast and is a major food source for the Chilean population. Unfortunately, local fish and shellfish farming face severe problems as a result of bioaccumulation of toxic trace metals into shellfishes. Blue mussels collected along the Chilean coasts contain levels of Cd above the regulatory limits for human consumption. In this study, we examined the bioaccumulation, depuration and organ distribution of Cd in the M. chilensis, from 109Cd-labelled bulk seawater and from feeding with 109Cd-labelled algae. The uptake of 109Cd via seawater displayed a simple exponential kinetic model suggesting that cadmium activity tends to reach an equilibrium value of 1.838 ± 0.175 ng g-1 (mean ± asymptotic standard error, p 109Cd accumulated via seawater was slow, with only 21% of the total 109Cd accumulated in the whole mussel being eliminated after 52 days. Total elimination of Cd in mussels was adequately described by a double component kinetic model, in which the biological half-life for the long-lived component represents more than 6 months. In contrast, depuration after radiolabelled food uptake was fast, reaching only 20% of retention in 10 days. This knowledge of the long half-life of cadmium accumulated via seawater as well as the non-negligible level of cadmium accumulated into the shells is relevant to the management of Cd levels in this species and the refinement of detoxification processes in order to comply with authorized Cd levels.

  13. Rural Veterans by State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This speadsheet contains data from the 2014 American Community Survey and shows the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of Veterans who live in rural and...

  14. What Is Rural?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has a high degree of social and economic integration with the core as measured by commuting ties. 3. U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Services Rural Classification Page: http://www.ers.usda.gov/ ...

  15. "Ruralizing" Presidential Job Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leist, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Rural community college presidential job advertisements that focus on geography, politics, and culture can improve the likelihood of a good fit between the senior leader and the institution. (Contains 2 figures.)

  16. Tourism in Rural Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAI IELENICZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism is now determined by limited economic opportunities, poor infrastructure, low motivation to possible offers, lack of proper service guarantees. Nearly 500 Romanian villages are already tourist locations, with certain characteristics determined by a heritage item, or complex ones when multiple components lead to various activities. This paper includes a typology of tourist villages in Romania according to the types of practiced tourist activities, insisting on the use of a more comprehensive terminology: tourism in rural environment, participative and creative tourism in rural areas. Tourism becomes a system accepted in the rural environment as a real opportunity for economic development with multiple social consequences. By multiplying tourism potential to meet tourists’ demands, many villages will get tourism valences with various activities in this filed, including environment protection.

  17. Innovating for Rural Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dorthe

    and management level, respectively. Rural development was chosen as the overall case for the contemporary agricultural challenges. Further, an interactive research approach was applied, comprising four different case studies, extensive qualitative case study evidence and hermeneutic interpretation...... as an analytical strategy. Paper 1 reports on, and critically examines, the entrance of consultants with rural development functions in Danish agricultural extension agencies. Paper 2 seeks to understand how multiple rural actor projects driven by Danish agricultural extension serve to generate new social...... interactions, by exploring the perspective of the participants; and the paper also seeks to understand possible constraining or supportive extension aspects at play. Paper 3 examines how the apparent change effort: ‘rural development service’ is reflected in the management strategies of individual agricultural...

  18. Medicaid and Rural Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... programs. How does Medicaid impact rural healthcare and the economy? In many ways, Medicaid plays a larger role ... supporting the social services infrastructure; and contributing to the economy through revenue and jobs it generates.” Findings in ...

  19. Rural Health Information Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be the best treatment. Exploring High Infant and Maternal Mortality Rates in the Rural U.S. with Dr. Ali ... reasons behind the United States’ high infant and maternal mortality rates. A Professor of Global Health at the ...

  20. Mozambique - Rural Water Supply

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — This report provides the results from (1) an impact evaluation of the MCA's Rural Water Point Implementation Program ('RWPIP') in Nampula and (2) an evaluation of...

  1. Organizing Rural Health Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunkenborg, Mikkel

    2012-01-01

    The liberalization of health care in the course of three decades of ‘reform and opening up’ has given people in rural China access to a diverse range of treatment options, but the health care system has also been marred by accusations of price hikes, fake pharmaceuticals, and medical malpractice....... This chapter offers an ethnographic description of health as an issue in a Hebei township and it focuses on a popular and a statist response to the perceived inadequacy of the rural health care system. The revival of religious practices in rural China is obviously motivated by many factors, but in the township...... roads to healing. The recent introduction of new rural cooperative medicine in the township represents an attempt to bring the state back in and address popular concern with the cost and quality of health care. While superficially reminiscent of the traditional socialist system, this new state attempt...

  2. RURAL TOURISM IN DOBRUDGEA

    OpenAIRE

    Elena, SIMA

    2014-01-01

    The natural and anthropic tourism resources of a certain area generate specific tourism forms, which complete each other within the different destination categories.The rural area in Dobrudja has diversified tourism potential, provided by the contrast of natural environment factors, ranging from the oldest and to the youngest relief units, natural protected areas, spa resources and cultural, historical, religious sites, as well as multicultural local customs and traditions of the rural area. ...

  3. Rural road maintenance management

    OpenAIRE

    Johannessen, B.

    1999-01-01

    This manual summarizes relevant Cambodian government policies regarding rural road maintenance. Chapter 2 defines the various components of road maintenance and describes an effective strategy and organization which addresses the maintenance requirements of rural roads in Cambodia. Chapter 3 is a brief description of the planning, implementation and reporting cycle required in an effective road maintenance management system. Chapter 4 summarizes the contracts management procedures, and finall...

  4. [To kill, let die and euthanasia in the bill of rights of patients and in the Chilean doctrine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa G, Rodolfo

    2011-05-01

    The Bill of Rights for Patients provides the patient with autonomy for disposing of his life, enabling him to reject those treatments that unnecessarily prolong his life. However, the bill does not allow an artificial acceleration of death. Therefore, the bill does not permit euthanasia (at least, certain form of it) nor assisted-suicide. However, according to the practice of medicine and also Chilean doctrine, it is permitted to inject morphine to a patient to relieve his pain, even though that could hasten his death. In consequence, it is allowed for the patient to dispose of his life and also to inject in him morphine for pain relief, endangering his life, but neither euthanasia nor assisted-suicide is allowed. Is this coherent? According to Chilean doctrine, it could be coherent under the condition of accepting the distinction between killing and letting die and also the double effect doctrine. The problem is that there is abundant English literature in the realm of moral philosophy to disregard both conditions. Therefore, it is possible to claim that the Bill is not coherent and that the Chilean doctrine is based upon a distinction and a doctrine that are not acceptable. PMID:22051718

  5. Impact of Mano a Mano-Mujer, an HIV prevention intervention, on depressive symptoms among Chilean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianelli, R; Lara, L; Villegas, N; Bernales, M; Ferrer, L; Kaelber, L; Peragallo, N

    2013-04-01

    Worldwide, and in Chile, the number of women living with HIV is increasing. Depression is considered a factor that interferes with HIV prevention. Depression may reach 41% among low-income Chilean women. Depressed people are less willing to participate in behaviours that protect them against HIV. The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of Mano a Mano-Mujer (MM-M), and HIV prevention intervention, on depressive symptoms among Chilean women. A quasi-experimental design was used for this study. The research was conducted in Santiago, Chile; a total of 400 women participated in the study (intervention group, n=182; control group, n=218). The intervention was guided by the social-cognitive model and the primary health care model. The intervention consists of six 2-h sessions delivered in small groups. Sessions covered: HIV prevention, depression, partner's communication, and substance abuse. Face-to-face interviews were conducted at baseline and at 3-month follow-up. Chilean women who participated in MM-M significantly decreased, at 3 months follow up, their reported depressive symptoms. MM-M provided significant benefits for women's depression symptoms. In this study nurses participated as leaders for the screening of depressive symptoms and as facilitators of community interventions.

  6. 2 × 2 achievement goals profilEs in chilean CompetiTIve and recreational athletes: a first look

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lochbaum Marc R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: was to examine the 2 × 2 achievement goal profiles of Chilean young adults regularly participating in competitive and recreational sport. Materials: participants were 108 female and 132 males who were recruited from the Valparaiso and Viña del Mar areas of Chile. Participants completed a valid and reliable measure of the 2 × 2 achievement goals referenced to sport participation. Results: indicated that the entire sample significantly ( p < .05 and very meaningfully (Hedges’ g range 1.13 - 2.91 endorsed the mastery-approach goal more so than the other three achievement goals. Male participants significantly ( p < .05 endorsed both approach goals and the mastery goal contrast more so than the female participants. These differences approached medium in meaningfulness (Hedges’ g range .40 - .46. Significant differences did not exist between competitive and recreational athletes on any of the achievement goals or goal contrasts. Confirming the lack of significant differences were the computed small to negligible in magnitude effect sizes. Conclusions: the present data were a first look into profiling sport participants on the 2 × 2 achievement goals in Chile. Given this sample of Chilean participants endorsed the performance goals far less than found in the sport psychology 2 × 2 achievement goal literature, more research is needed before these results are generalized to Chilean sport participants. Future research must also examine the relationships of antecedents and consequences to the 2 × 2 achievement goals to advance sport psychology in Chile.

  7. Ectodermal Dysplasia: A Clinical Overview for the Dental Practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halai, Tina; Stevens, Claire

    2015-10-01

    The term ectodermal dysplasia (ED) is used to describe a group of rare congenital disorders characterized by abnormalities of two or more ectodermal structures such as the skin, hair, nails, teeth and sweat glands. This paper will give an overview of the aetiology of ED and describe the manifestations and dental management of this condition. In particular, the important role of the dental practitioner in the identification and management of patients with ED will be highlighted. CPD/Clinical Relevance: Dental practitioners should be aware of the oral features of ectodermal dysplasia and be able to make timely referrals and provide appropriate continuing care for these patients. PMID:26685476

  8. Maximizing nurse practitioners' contributions to primary care through organizational changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poghosyan, Lusine; Aiken, Linda H

    2015-01-01

    The nurse practitioner (NP) workforce represents a considerable supply of primary care providers able to contribute to meeting a growing demand for care. However, organizational barriers hinder their optimal use. This article presents reports from 592 NPs on their roles, organizational support available to them, relationships between NPs and administration, their job satisfaction, and intentions of leaving their jobs. Nurse practitioners reported deficits in organizational context of care, problematic deployment of resources, and unfavorable working relationships with administrators. Addressing these challenges and creating work environments conducive to NP practice are necessary to fully exploit the capacity of the NP workforce. PMID:25748259

  9. Survey of general practitioners' advice for travellers to Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usherwood, V; Usherwood, T P

    1989-04-01

    Fifty general practitioners replied to a survey of the advice that they would offer to a tourist planning a package holiday in western Turkey. The range of prophylactic immunizations and other medication recommended by the respondents was wide, suggesting that some tourists travel without adequate protection, while some receive unnecessary injections. Most of the doctors would offer little other health advice to the traveller. General practitioners receive conflicting guidance on prophylactics for travellers, and it is suggested that the disagreements should be resolved. Wider availability of written advice for the traveller would also be valuable. PMID:2559989

  10. Expanding Women's Rural Medical Work in Early Modern Brittany: The Daughters of the Holy Spirit

    OpenAIRE

    McHugh, Tim

    2011-01-01

    During the eighteenth century, orders of nursing sisters took on an expanded role in the rural areas of Brittany. This article explores the impact of religious change on the medical activities of these women. While limits were placed on the medical practice of unlicensed individuals, areas of new opportunity for nuns as charitable practitioners were created by devout nobles throughout the eighteenth century. These nuns provided comprehensive care for the sick poor on their patrons' estates, a...

  11. Screening older patients for obstructive airways disease in a semi-rural practice

    OpenAIRE

    Dickinson, J.; Meaker, M; Searle, M.; Ratcliffe, G

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Obstructive airways disease in older patients is reported to be not only common, but frequently overlooked and untreated by general practitioners. This study examines the value of screening elderly patients in a large semi-rural general practice for potentially treatable asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
METHODS—A random sample of 353 patients aged 60-75 years attended a nurse run screening clinic for pulmonary function testing, serial pe...

  12. Continental-Mediterranean and rural-urban differences in cardiovascular risk factors in Croatian population

    OpenAIRE

    Bergman Marković, Biserka; Vrdoljak, Davorka; Kranjčević, Ksenija; Vučak, Jasna; KERN, JOSIPA; Bielen, Ivan; Ivezić Lalić, Dragica; Katić, Milica; Reiner, Željko

    2011-01-01

    Aim To compare the distribution of cardiovascular disease (CVD) factors between continental and Mediterranean areas and urban and rural areas of Croatia, as well as to investigate the differences in achieving treatment goals by the general practitioners (GP) in different settings. Methods A multicenter prospective study was performed on 2467 participants of both sexes ≥40 years old, who visited for any reason 59 general practices covering the whole area of Croatia (May...

  13. Multiple Relationships : Maintaining Professional Identity in Rural Social Work Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Brownlee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Working in a rural community locates the professional in a wider social network as community members often expect more from their professionals; not only as service providers, but also as engaged members of the community. This can result in the rural social worker being highly visible both personally and professionally and it can also lead to overlapping relationships. These higher expectations can place stress on the worker in terms of maintaining accepted professional roles and a sense of professional identity. This qualitative study explores the first-hand experiences of a cross-section of service providers in more than a dozen communities within northwestern Ontario and northern Manitoba, Canada. The responses of the participants provide some insight into how rural practitioners maintain their professional identity when working within the unique demands of the rural and remote context. Recurring themes from the interviews suggest that these professionals craft their own informal decision-making processes to address intersecting roles, community gossip, and personal isolation, even while, in some cases, practicing in their home community. The findings provide greater understanding of the pressures and realities of working in small remote towns and the challenges of responding to the expectations and realities of relationships including the expectation of working with friends and family members of friends or colleagues: issues that have not been adequately studied in the literature to date.

  14. Along-strike Variations of Subduction Parameters at the Chilean Plate Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann-Rothe, A.; Kukowski, N.; Oncken, O.

    2004-12-01

    Newly compiled data of the geometric, kinematic and mechanic properties and their variations along-strike the oblique Chilean subduction margin between 20° S and 46° S are used to weigh their competing influence on forearc deformation. Special emphasis lies on the formation of margin-parallel strike-slip systems. Among the parameters considered are the convergence rate and obliquity, the ocean floor age, the dip of the down-going and the slope of the overriding plate, the geodetic and seismic coupling depth, the interplate seismicity, the depth of the trench-fill and the mass transfer mode at the subduction front. Commonly discussed control factors for forearc deformation can be attributed to three major elements of a subduction system, namely (1) the plate kinematic boundary conditions, (2) the plate coupling properties that govern the effectiveness of force transmission from the subducting plate to the overriding plate, and (3) the upper plate heterogeneities affecting its rheology (e.g. elasticity, shear strength) or resistance to block motion (buttressing). An example is given for each of these elements: (1) Oblique convergence is a pre-requisite for the activation of margin-parallel strike-slip systems, but apparently not a sufficient condition. For example, strike-slip motion can presently be observed along the Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault Zone in southern Chile, while neither the Atacama Fault Zone nor the Precordilleran Fault System in northern Chile accommodate significant amounts of margin-parallel slip since the Pliocene. This difference can not be explained by variations of convergence rate or obliquity as the plate kinematic framework is almost constant along the Chilean trench. (2) The plate coupling force is a function of the frictionally coupled area on the plate interface and of the shear friction that needs to be overcome. Along the Chilean margin various factors affect coupling in opposing manner: The slab-dip is shallower in southern Chile compared to

  15. Spatial access disparities to primary health care in rural and remote Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrail, Matthew Richard; Humphreys, John Stirling

    2015-01-01

    Poor spatial access to health care remains a key issue for rural populations worldwide. Whilst geographic information systems (GIS) have enabled the development of more sophisticated access measures, they are yet to be adopted into health policy and workforce planning. This paper provides and tests a new national-level approach to measuring primary health care (PHC) access for rural Australia, suitable for use in macro-level health policy. The new index was constructed using a modified two-step floating catchment area method framework and the smallest available geographic unit. Primary health care spatial access was operationalised using three broad components: availability of PHC (general practitioner) services; proximity of populations to PHC services; and PHC needs of the population. Data used in its measurement were specifically chosen for accuracy, reliability and ongoing availability for small areas. The resultant index reveals spatial disparities of access to PHC across rural Australia. While generally more remote areas experienced poorer access than more populated rural areas, there were numerous exceptions to this generalisation, with some rural areas close to metropolitan areas having very poor access and some increasingly remote areas having relatively good access. This new index provides a geographically-sensitive measure of access, which is readily updateable and enables a fine granulation of access disparities. Such an index can underpin national rural health programmes and policies designed to improve rural workforce recruitment and retention, and, importantly, health service planning and resource allocation decisions designed to improve equity of PHC access.

  16. Spatial access disparities to primary health care in rural and remote Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Richard McGrail

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Poor spatial access to health care remains a key issue for rural populations worldwide. Whilst geographic information systems (GIS have enabled the development of more sophisticated access measures, they are yet to be adopted into health policy and workforce planning. This paper provides and tests a new national-level approach to measuring primary health care (PHC access for rural Australia, suitable for use in macro-level health policy. The new index was constructed using a modified two-step floating catchment area method framework and the smallest available geographic unit. Primary health care spatial access was operationalised using three broad components: availability of PHC (general practitioner services; proximity of populations to PHC services; and PHC needs of the population. Data used in its measurement were specifically chosen for accuracy, reliability and ongoing availability for small areas. The resultant index reveals spatial disparities of access to PHC across rural Australia. While generally more remote areas experienced poorer access than more populated rural areas, there were numerous exceptions to this generalisation, with some rural areas close to metropolitan areas having very poor access and some increasingly remote areas having relatively good access. This new index provides a geographically-sensitive measure of access, which is readily updateable and enables a fine granulation of access disparities. Such an index can underpin national rural health programmes and policies designed to improve rural workforce recruitment and retention, and, importantly, health service planning and resource allocation decisions designed to improve equity of PHC access.

  17. A permanent record of subduction zone earthquake cycle deformation in the northern Chilean forearc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, J. P.; Allmendinger, R. W.; Pritchard, M. E.; González, G.

    2006-12-01

    Patterns of faulting in the northern Chilean forearc are consistent with modeled stress fields resulting from the subduction zone earthquake cycle. We define positive Coulomb stress change as encouraging normal faulting motion on steeply-dipping planes striking approximately parallel to the plate boundary, as shown by fault kinematic data collected in the field. Simulations show that coastal regions experience positive Coulomb stress changes due to interseismic strain accumulation on the subduction interface. This is compatible with the structural character of the forearc, typified by 100 m-scale scarps constructed by normal faulting. Conversely, the best-constrained models of interplate slip associated with the 1995 Mw 8.0 Antofagasta earthquake indicate that near-surface coastal areas experienced either zero or negative coseismic stress change, implying that subduction zone earthquakes may be capable of driving reverse motion on these structures if the absolute stress level is sufficiently low. Field exposures show minor amounts of reverse reactivation of some normal faults, expressed both through bedrock exposure and scarp morphology. The consistency between deformation fields related to the seismic cycle and permanent strain demonstrated by observable structures argues for the long-term influence of the earthquake cycle on the structural evolution of the forearc. The distribution of normal and reverse faulting as well as open cracks can thus be used to gain insight into the plate boundary processes that drive the evolution of structures. The change in strike and eastward step of the Atacama Fault System around the latitude of the Mejillones Peninsula (23°S) coincides with a change in subduction zone locking depth from ~35 km south of the peninsula to ~50 km to the north as determined through analyses of teleseismic, local seismic, and GPS data. Dense arrays of open cracks in several forearc localities show mean strikes consistent with static extension axes

  18. High genetic diversity in a small population: the case of Chilean blue whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Florez, Juan P; Hucke-Gaete, Rodrigo; Rosenbaum, Howard; Figueroa, Christian C

    2014-04-01

    It is generally assumed that species with low population sizes have lower genetic diversities than larger populations and vice versa. However, this would not be the case for long-lived species with long generation times, and which populations have declined due to anthropogenic effects, such as the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus). This species was intensively decimated globally to near extinction during the 20th century. Along the Chilean coast, it is estimated that at least 4288 blue whales were hunted from an apparently pre-exploitation population size (k) of a maximum of 6200 individuals (Southeastern Pacific). Thus, here, we describe the mtDNA (control region) and nDNA (microsatellites) diversities of the Chilean blue whale aggregation site in order to verify the expectation of low genetic diversity in small populations. We then compare our findings with other blue whale aggregations in the Southern Hemisphere. Interestingly, although the estimated population size is small compared with the pre-whaling era, there is still considerable genetic diversity, even after the population crash, both in mitochondrial (N = 46) and nuclear (N = 52) markers (Hd = 0.890 and Ho = 0.692, respectively). Our results suggest that this diversity could be a consequence of the long generation times and the relatively short period of time elapsed since the end of whaling, which has been observed in other heavily-exploited whale populations. The genetic variability of blue whales on their southern Chile feeding grounds was similar to that found in other Southern Hemisphere blue whale feeding grounds. Our phylogenetic analysis of mtDNA haplotypes does not show extensive differentiation of populations among Southern Hemisphere blue whale feeding grounds. The present study suggests that although levels of genetic diversity are frequently used as estimators of population health, these parameters depend on the biology of the species and should be taken into account in a

  19. Adaptation of the spiders to the environment: the case of some Chilean species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canals, Mauricio; Veloso, Claudio; Solís, Rigoberto

    2015-01-01

    Spiders are small arthropods that have colonized terrestrial environments. These impose three main problems: (i) terrestrial habitats have large fluctuations in temperature and humidity; (ii) the internal concentration of water is higher than the external environment in spiders, which exposes them continually to water loss; and (iii) their small body size determines a large surface/volume ratio, affecting energy exchange and influencing the life strategy. In this review we focus on body design, energetic, thermal selection, and water balance characteristics of some spider species present in Chile and correlate our results with ecological and behavioral information. Preferred temperatures and critical temperatures of Chilean spiders vary among species and individuals and may be adjusted by phenotypic plasticity. For example in the mygalomorph high-altitude spider Paraphysa parvula the preferred temperature is similar to that of the lowland spider Grammostola rosea; but while P. parvula shows phenotypic plasticity, G. rosea does not. The araneomorph spiders Loxosceles laeta and Scytodes globula have greater daily variations in preferred temperatures at twilight and during the night, which are set to the nocturnal activity rhythms of these species. They also present acclimation of the minimum critical temperatures. Dysdera crocata has a low preferred temperature adjusted to its favorite prey, the woodlouse. Spider metabolic rate is low compared to other arthropods, which may be associated with its sit and wait predatory strategy particularly in primitive hunter and weavers. In mygalomorph spiders the respiratory system is highly optimized with high oxygen conductance, for example G. rosea needs only a difference of 0.12–0.16 kPa in the oxygen partial pressure across the air-hemolymph barrier to satisfy its resting oxygen consumption demands. Water loss is a significant stress for spiders. Paraphysa parvula shows an evaporative water loss 10 times more than usual

  20. February 27, 2010 Chilean Tsunami in Pacific and its Arrival to North East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytsev, Andrey; Pelinovsky, EfiM.; Yalciner, Ahmet C.; Ozer, Ceren; Chernov, Anton; Kostenko, Irina; Shevchenko, Georgy

    2010-05-01

    The outskirts of the fault plane broken by the strong earthquake on February 27, 2010 in Chili with a magnitude 8.8 at the 35km depth of 35.909°S, 72.733°W coordinates generated a moderate size tsunami. The initial amplitude of the tsunami source is not so high because of the major area of the plane was at land. The tsunami waves propagated far distances in South and North directions to East Asia and Wet America coasts. The waves are also recorded by several gauges in Pacific during its propagation and arrival to coastal areas. The recorded and observed amplitudes of tsunami waves are important for the potential effects with the threatening amplitudes. The event also showed that a moderate size tsunami can be effective even if it propagates far distances in any ocean or a marginal sea. The far east coasts of Russia at North East Asia (Sakhalin, Kuriles, Kamchatka) are one of the important source (i.e. November 15, 2006, Kuril Island Tsunami) and target (i.e. February, 27, 2010 Chilean tsunami) areas of the Pacific tsunamis. Many efforts have been spent for establishment of the monitoring system and assessment of tsunamis and development of the mitigation strategies against tsunamis and other hazards in the region. Development of the computer technologies provided the advances in data collection, transfer, and processing. Furthermore it also contributed new developments in computational tools and made the computer modeling to be an efficient tool in tsunami warning systems. In this study the tsunami numerical model NAMI DANCE Nested version is used. NAMI-DANCE solves Nonlinear form of Long Wave (Shallow water) equations (with or without dispersion) using finite difference model in nested grid domains from the source to target areas in multiprocessor hardware environment. It is applied to 2010 Chilean tsunami and its propagation and coastal behavior at far distances near Sakhalin, Kuril and Kamchatka coasts. The main tide gauge records used in this study are from

  1. Making conservation research more relevant for conservation practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurance, W.F.; Koster, H.; Grooten, M.; Anderson, A.B.; Zuidema, P.A.; Zwick, S.; Zagt, R.J.; Lynam, A.J.; Linkie, M.; Anten, N.P.R.

    2012-01-01

    Conservation scientists and practitioners share many of the same goals. Yet in a majority of cases, we argue, research conducted by academic conservation scientists actually makes surprisingly few direct contributions to environmental conservation. We illustrate how researchers can increase the util

  2. The Preparation of Practitioner Educational Psychologists in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Demographic characteristics of professional preparation programs for practitioner educational psychologists in England together with significant recent national and social influences upon this activity are discussed. The paper then provides an original case illustration of the orientation and structure of the preparation program at the University…

  3. Does general practitioner gatekeeping curb health care expenditure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delnoij, D.; Merode, G. van; Paulus, A.; Groenewegen, P.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: It is generally assumed that health care systems in which specialist and hospital care is only accessible after referral by a general practitioner (GP) have lower total health care costs. In this study, the following questions were addressed: do health care systems with GPs acting as gat

  4. The Arts Management Handbook: New Directions for Students and Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindle, Meg, Ed.; DeVereaux, Constance, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Whether the art form is theater, dance, music, festival, or the visual arts and galleries, the arts manager is the liaison between the artists and their audience. Bringing together the insights of educators and practitioners, this groundbreaker links the fields of management and organizational management with the ongoing evolution in arts…

  5. Weblogs as learning tools for aspirant reflective practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wopereis, Iwan; Sloep, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Wopereis, I., & Sloep, P. B. (2013, January-February). Weblogs as learning tools for aspirant reflective practitioners. Position paper presented at the Workshop on Technology support for reflecting on experiences and sharing them across learning contexts at the Alpine Rendez-Vous 2013, Villard-de-La

  6. "Dreadful Things Can Happen": Cautionary Tales for the Safe Practitioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ros; Carpenter, Vicki; Jones, Alison

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the repertoires teachers employ when talking about taking children outside of the classroom and keeping them safe. Research data were a series of individual and focus group interviews with primary school teachers. Three repertoires were identified: "safe practitioner," "adventurous risk-taker" and "fun, pleasure and…

  7. How do general practitioners in Denmark promote physical activity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tanja K; Nordentoft, Merete; Krogh, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to quantify the frequency of advice given on type, frequency, duration, and intensity of exercise during physical activity (PA) promoting sessions by general practitioners. Second, to find GP characteristics associated with high quality of PA counselling....

  8. COG - Special Features of Interest to Criticality Safety Practitioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, R M; Heinrichs, D P; Krass, A W; Lent, E M

    2010-01-14

    COG is a modern, general-purpose, high fidelity, multi-particle transport code developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory specifically for use in deep penetration (shielding) and criticality safety calculations. This paper describes some features in COG of special interest to criticality safety practitioners.

  9. Nurse Practitioners, Physician Assistants and Certified Nurse Midwives in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Univ., San Francisco. Center for California Health Workforce Studies.

    Surveys were mailed to all nurse practitioners (NPs), physician assistants (PAs) and certified nurse midwives (CNMs) registered in California, asking questions about education, labor force participation, specialty, and location and type of practice site, as well as the demographic characteristics of these professionals and their patients. Response…

  10. General practitioners and their role in maternity care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegers, T.A.

    2003-01-01

    During the last century the perception of pregnancy and childbirth has changed from a normal, physiological life-event to a potentially dangerous condition. Maternity care has become more and more obstetrical care, focussed on pathology and complications. The involvement of general practitioners (GP

  11. Preparedness of Lithuanian general practitioners to provide mental healthcare services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Sauliune, Skirmante; Jarusevicius, Gediminas;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A large unmet need for mental healthcare in Lithuania is partially attributable to a lack of primary care providers with skills in this area. The aim of this study was to assess general practitioners' (GPs) experience in mental healthcare and their perceptions about how to increase th...

  12. Culturing Reality: How Organic Chemistry Graduate Students Develop into Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Gautam; Bodner, George M.

    2014-01-01

    Although one of the presumed aims of graduate training programs is to help students develop into practitioners of their chosen fields, very little is known about how this transition occurs. In the course of studying how graduate students learn to solve organic synthesis problems, we were able to identify some of the key factors in the epistemic…

  13. Impact of Client Suicide on Practitioner Posttraumatic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Joseph Simon

    2009-01-01

    Our purpose was to examine posttraumatic growth in clinicians after the suicide death of a client. An experience such as a client suicide could be an opportunity for growth or a danger for the practitioner to become traumatized. Thus, the clinician who works with clients who complete suicide may either suffer or experience a positive change from…

  14. Practitioner Talk on Deaf Children's Reading Comprehension: Analysing Multiple Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanwick, Ruth A.; Kitchen, Ruth; Clarke, Paula J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined different perspectives of deaf education practitioners on deafness and reading comprehension. This involved a full deaf education support team comprising teachers of the deaf, communication support workers, and deaf instructors from a UK citywide service covering early years, primary and secondary settings. Using a focus group…

  15. Universe of Goals. Pediatric Nurse Practitioner/Associate Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taunton, Roma Lee; Soptick, John M.

    Goals for the Pediatric Nurse Practitioner Associate Programs (PNP/A) are provided for the following areas: health care delivery systems; role responsibility; legal base for PNP/A role; growth and development; family-cultural factors; common childhood problems/illnesses/accidents; communication; assessment; recording; evaluation/interpretation;…

  16. Validating competence: a new credential for clinical documentation improvement practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jessica; Patena, Karen; Judd, Wallace; Niederpruem, Mike

    2013-01-01

    As the health information management (HIM) profession continues to expand and become more specialized, there is an ever-increasing need to identify emerging HIM workforce roles that require a codified level of proficiency and professional standards. The Commission on Certification for Health Informatics and Information Management (CCHIIM) explored one such role-clinical documentation improvement (CDI) practitioner-to define the tasks and responsibilities of the job as well as the knowledge required to perform them effectively. Subject-matter experts (SMEs) defined the CDI specialty by following best practices for job analysis methodology. A random sample of 4,923 CDI-related professionals was surveyed regarding the tasks and knowledge required for the job. The survey data were used to create a weighted blueprint of the six major domains that make up the CDI practitioner role, which later formed the foundation for the clinical documentation improvement practitioner (CDIP) credential. As a result, healthcare organizations can be assured that their certified documentation improvement practitioners have demonstrated excellence in clinical care, treatment, coding guidelines, and reimbursement methodologies. PMID:23843769

  17. Operations Management Teaching: Establishing Content and Relevance to Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Desmond; Hill, Alex; Brown, Steve; Aktas, Emel; Kuula, Markku

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the relevance to industry's needs of operations management (OM) teaching in higher education, by researching the content of OM modules delivered by UK academics and comparing the results of this research with the views of business practitioners having had first-hand experience of OM teaching on MBA programmes. To determine…

  18. An Enforceable Code of Ethics: What Do Practitioners Think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollnitz, Lois

    1997-01-01

    As part of a larger project begun three years after the adoption of the Australian Early Childhood Association (AECA) Code of Ethics, this study sought practitioners' views about formal enforcement of a code of ethics for early childhood personnel. Questionnaires were sent to directors of 200 early childhood services in New South Wales; about 225…

  19. Examining Education Qualifications for Australian Vocational Education Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kim Marianne

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the practice of professional development within the vocational education and training (VET) arena. The study objective was to explore appropriate education qualifications for Australian VET practitioners in the tourism and hospitality sector required for effective teaching practice. The study was conducted utilising…

  20. Taking a Risk to Develop Reflective Skills in Business Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Margaret; Tymon, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Critical reflection can support alternative decision-making in business practice. This paper examines the effectiveness of a risk-based pedagogy to engage practitioners in reflective thinking. Educators adopting a radical pedagogy in professionally accredited programmes face multiple challenges: learners often resist the process of self-reflection…

  1. Bridging the Gap in Knowledge Transfer between Academia and Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gera, Rajat

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper intends to identify the causes or gaps in transfer of managerial knowledge between academia and practitioners and to develop a framework that overcomes the gaps through knowledge management, information technology and human resource practices. The paper aims to suggest a strategic approach based on the knowledge transfer cycle.…

  2. The Future of Marketing Education: A Practitioner's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, David; Nadeau, John; O'Reilly, Norm

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the marketing literature, as well as the views of both marketing educators and current marketers in Canada, a survey was conducted of marketing practitioners to determine their top priorities for improvement in marketing education, as well as the key challenges in need of attention. An importance-performance analysis was carried out on…

  3. 9 CFR 107.1 - Veterinary practitioners and animal owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Veterinary practitioners and animal owners. 107.1 Section 107.1 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS...

  4. Clinical Decision Making among Dental Students and General Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grembowski, David; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Senior dental students and family dental practitioners were surveyed concerning their choice of pairs of alternative treatments and the technical and patient factors influencing their decisions. Greater agreement in clinical decision-making was found among dentists than among students for all four pairs of alternative services. (MSE)

  5. Role of Danish general practitioners in AIDS prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandbæk, Annelli

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe Danish general practitioners' perception of their own role and to register their actual behaviour in the prevention of HIV/AIDS. DESIGN: Data collection was carried out by a) questionnaire and b) prospective registration of consultations dealing with HIV/AIDS in a two...... are taken to strengthen the GPs' role in AIDS prevention. Udgivelsesdato: 1995-Dec...

  6. Design researcher learning through and for collaboration with practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia

    2016-01-01

    Design research is a genre of inquiry in which the iterative development of solutions to problems in practice provides the setting for scientific inquiry. To conduct ecologically valid studies that also yield relevant and usable solutions, design research is carried out together with practitioners i

  7. Practitioner Meets Philosopher: Bakhtinian Musings on Learning with Paul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, Mary Chen

    2013-01-01

    The stars and the planets must have been in alignment when Paul Hager needed a doctoral student to work on his research grant at the same time that I had transitioned from 20 years as business practitioner to become an educator interested in workplace learning. This paper explores the Bakhtinian ways in which I learned about learning with Paul,…

  8. General Practitioners' Knowledge and Concern about Electromagnetic Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Larsen, Pia Veldt;

    2014-01-01

    Our aim is to explore general practitioners' (GPs') knowledge about EMF, and to assess whether different knowledge structures are related to the GPs' concern about EMF. Random samples were drawn from lists of GPs in Germany in 2008. Knowledge about EMF was assessed by seven items. A latent class ...

  9. Developing a European Practitioner Qualification: The TRAVORS2 Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Stan

    2013-01-01

    The TRAVORS projects, supported by the European Union's Lifelong Learning Programme, ran between 2008 and 2012. Their object was to develop training programmes for disability employment practitioners across nine countries based on proven approaches both to vocational rehabilitation and to skills training. The second of the two projects aimed…

  10. Building organizational supports for research-minded practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Michael J; Dal Santo, Teresa S; Lee, Chris

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges facing human service organizations is the proliferation of information from inside and outside the agency that needs to be managed if it is to be of use. The concepts of tacit and explicit knowledge can inform an approach to this challenge. Tacit knowledge is stored in the minds of practitioners (often called practice wisdom) and the explicit knowledge is often found in organizational procedure manuals and educational and training materials. Building on this perspective, this analysis provides a preliminary definition of research-minded practitioners by explicating the elements of curiosity, critical reflection, and critical thinking. The organizational implications of developing a cadre of research-minded practitioners include the commitment of top management to support "link officers", evidence request services, research and development units, and service standards. The challenges include the capacity to identify/support research-minded practitioners, promote an organizational culture of evidence-informed practice, redefine staff development and training, redefine job descriptions, and specify the nature of managerial leadership. PMID:22409621

  11. Child health and general practitioners' management, 1987 - 2001.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otters, H.; Schellevis, F.

    2006-01-01

    This contribution compares the presentation and management of childhood morbidity (0-17 years) in general practice in 2001 with that in 1987. In the Netherlands, childhood morbidity presented to the general practitioner (GP) has changed: (infectious) skin problems have become more important. In 2001

  12. Enhancing Fieldwork Learning with Technology: Practitioner's Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Katharine E.; Mauchline, Alice L.; Park, Julian R.; Whalley, W. Brian; France, Derek

    2013-01-01

    This research paper reports the findings from an international survey of fieldwork practitioners on their use of technology to enhance fieldwork teaching and learning. It was found that there was high information technology usage before and after time in the field, but some were also using portable devices such as smartphones and global…

  13. Understanding Diverse Families: What Practitioners Need To Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Barbara F.

    Synthesizing current literature with information obtained through interviews of adoptive, gay and lesbian, and multiracial families, this book is designed to help practitioners work with diverse families. An introduction explores the concept of a "normal family" and provides an overview of the book and a description of the interview process. The…

  14. Determinants of general practitioner use among women in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, A F; Dobson, A J; Byles, J E

    2001-12-01

    This study investigates the use of general practitioner services by women in Australia. Although there is a universal health insurance system (Medicare) in Australia, there are variations in access to services and out of pocket costs for services. Survey data from 2350 mid-age (45-50 years) and 2102 older (70-75 years) women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were linked with Medicare data to provide a range of individual and contextual variables hypothesised to explain general practitioner use. Structural equation modelling showed that physical health was the most powerful explanatory factor of general practitioner use. However, after adjusting for self-reported health, out of pocket cost per consultation was inversely associated with use of services. The out of pocket cost was generally lower for women with low socioeconomic status but cost was also directly related to geographical remoteness. Women living in more remote areas had higher out of pocket costs and poorer access to services. Women who reported better access to care were more likely to be satisfied with their most recent general practice consultation and less likely to be sceptical of the value of medical care. These results show the need for health policies that improve the equitable use of general practitioner services in Australia. PMID:11762890

  15. Description of the role of nonphysician practitioners in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: With changes in reimbursement and a decrease in the number of residents, there is a need to explore new ways of achieving high-quality patient care in radiation oncology. One mechanism is the implementation of nonphysician practitioner roles. The purpose of this paper is to describe the roles and responsibilities of clinical nurse specialists (CNSs), nurse practitioners (NPs), and physician assistants (PAs) currently working in the field of radiation oncology in the United States. Methods and Materials: A nationwide mailing was sent to elicit responses to an 8-page self-report questionnaire. Results: The final sample of 86 included 45 (52%) CNSs, 31 (36%) NPs, and 10 (12%) PAs. Two-thirds worked in private practice settings. Most of the nonphysician practitioners frequently obtained histories (57-90%) and ordered laboratory studies (52-68%). However, NPs and PAs were more likely than CNSs to frequently perform 'medical' services such as perform physical exams (42-80% vs. 19-36%), order radiologic studies (50% vs. 17%), and prescribe medication (60-84% vs. 26%). CNSs were more likely to provide 'supportive' services such as develop educational materials, participate in quality improvement initiatives, and develop policies and procedures. Conclusions: Nonphysician practitioners are not substituting for physicians, but rather are working in collaboration with them, performing designated tasks

  16. Anthelmintic prescribing patterns of a sample of general practitioners from selected areas in the Colombo district of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawardena GSA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available General Practitioners (GPs provide first contact care of children and pregnant mothers in the community. This study ascertained the prescribing pattern of anthelmintics to children and pregnant women by a sample of GPs from the district of Colombo. Two hundred medical practitioners engaged in full-time General Practice (100 urban and 100 rural, were selected randomly. A pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. A total of 183 GPs aged between 26 and 72 years (median 38 participated with 94 coming from urban areas. Seventy percent of the GPs were male. Almost 13% of GPs from urban areas had a Postgraduate degree in comparison to 4.5% from the rural areas ( P < 0.05. Over 50% of GPs had 6-20 years of service and over 30% treated 16-30 patients daily. Seventy-three percent of GPs from rural areas accessed health-related reading material either daily or weekly in contrast to only 40% from urban areas ( P < 0.001. All GPs prescribed anthelmintics to children. Pyrantel pamoate was the preferred anthelmintic used for children by both groups. Approximately 55% and 64% of GPs from urban and rural areas, respectively, prescribed anthelmintics during pregnancy. A majority of GPs prescribed drugs after the first trimester. However, 25% from urban areas gave drugs during any trimester ( P < 0.001. Regression analysis revealed that GPs with postgraduate qualifications, those having frequent access to health-related material and those seeing more than 30 patients daily, prescribed anthelmintics to pregnant women more often. Although routine de-worming of pregnant women and children should occur through government antenatal and well-baby clinics, and through the schools de-worming programme, it may not happen due to various reasons. Thus, GPs play a vital role in achieving good coverage of anthelmintics among children and pregnant women. Making available clear national guidelines on prescribing anthelmintics in Sri Lanka would

  17. Overview of Rural Tourism Development in China

    OpenAIRE

    XIE, Tianhui

    2015-01-01

    Rural tourism is a form of tourism relying on rural environment, with rural unique natural scene and cultural characteristics (production pattern, life style, folk customs, and rural culture) as object, and integrating sightseeing, vacation, recreation and shopping. Rural tourism provides recreation products for urban residents, promotes national and local economy, promotes rural employment, keeps traditional culture, improves rural ecological environment, and promotes urban and rural exchang...

  18. Formalized Curiosity: Reflecting on the Librarian Practitioner-Researcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Wilson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available There’s a well-documented gap between research and practice. A Google search for scholarly articles using the term “research practice gap” yields 2,530 hits as of this writing, while a search using the discovery layer at the University Library, University of Saskatchewan, for the same search termsyields 1,038 hits. There are a large number of articles which explore bridging the research/practice gap. So what will fill that gap in librarianship? Partnerships between LIS scholars and librarians have been suggested,and this can certainly help to mitigate the research/practice gap. Each group has things that the other group needs. Practitioners often have funding barriers, a real or perceived lack of research skills, and uneven access to the research literature. Scholars have less access to certain data that can only be obtained from practice situations, and a partnership with library practitioners can provide greater access to real life locations, users, and situations. As well, a partnership can help ensure that what the scholars are researching is relevant to the practitioners. However, scholar/practitioner partnerships sometimes are not practical, even in our age of social networking. In Canada, forexample, there is a dearth of library schools to cover our vast physical space. Physical proximity can play a role in whether or not a partnership is successful. Timeliness also is a factor. Practitioners sometimes need to “hit the ground running" and get their research done in order to inform practice. The logistics of a partnership can be time-consuming. As well, I am estimating that there are far more library and information professionals than there are university library scholars, so it’s really up to us to fill that gap ourselves in many cases.

  19. Role of rural tourism for development of rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Andrej Udovč; Anton Perpar

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyse the role of rural tourism for the development of rural areas, on the comparison of two regions with different types of rural tourism. One area is of highly diversifi ed rural tourism with wide range of tourist products (rafting, hiking, cycling, farm tourism, skiing …). The tourism offer in the second area is much more uniform (mainly farm tourism and some spa). The study analysed how the two different types of tourist product diversifi cations influence the development poss...

  20. COMPARISON OF THE KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES OF ESSENTIAL MEDICINES AMONG MEDICAL PRACTITIONERS OF A MEDICAL COLLEGE VERSUS PRIVATE MEDICAL GENERAL PRACTITIONERS OF AN URBAN PLACE OF SOUTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyarthi SurendraK, Nayak RoopaP, Gupta Sandeep K, Dandekar Rahul H

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is the third largest producer and exporter of medicinestomost of the countries. The World Medicine Situation Report 2011 states that 65% persons in India do not have access to essential medicines. While, huge unethical prescribing ofdrugs for monetary gains has been a second major cause of rural indebtedness. Aims and Objectives:The primary objective of the study was to compare the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Essential Medicines among Medical Practitioners of a Medical College and Private Medical General Practitioners of an urban place, e.g. Perambalur District of South India.Materials and Methods: After ethical approval, thestudy was started, in Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Medical College and Hospital (DSMCH, Siruvachur-621113, Perambalur, Tamil Nadu. It was a questionnaire based study. The faculties of the DSMCH and Medical Private Practitioner of Perambalur district included as participants in the study. We distributed knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP based 15multiple choice questionson National Essential Medicine List, 2011 (NEML to each healthcare professionals (HCPs to attempt within 15 minutes.Results:Overall, Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding NEML 2011 were 57.06%, 38.36%; 51.16%, 51.82%; 21.73%, 28.7% to HCP from DSMCH and HCP from Perambalur district, respectively. Whereas, 42.2 % HCPs from DSMCH and 44.7 % HCPs from Perambalur district wereprescribed branded and generic drugs both. Conclusion:The result’s data shows that regular awareness programmes should be conducted to update knowledge, change attitude and practices regarding essential medicines to serve the society as best as possible.