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Sample records for chilean nothofagus forests

  1. Elevation and vegetation influences on soil properties in Chilean Nothofagus forests Influencia de la elevación y la vegetación sobre las propiedades del suelo de los bosques chilenos de Nothofagus

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    KELLY L.M DECKER

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available We measured net nitrogen mineralization, net nitrification, proportional nitrification, and total inorganic nitrogen, available phosphorus, and soil organic carbon in five Andean forested stands in an attempt to resolve the relative influence of elevation and forest canopy composition on soil organic matter and nutrient dynamics in this ecosystem type. Our five forested study sites were within a contiguous Nothofagus forest that ranged from 1,280 to 1,700 m elevation in the central Chilean Andes. The five sites consisted of three single species stands, one each of the low elevation deciduous N. obliqua, the evergreen N. dombeyi, or the high elevation deciduous N. pumilio, as well as two mixed evergreen-deciduous stands. There was no statistically significant relationship of nitrogen mineralization or phosphorus with elevation. In contrast, there were statistically significant, though weak, negative relationships between elevation and net nitrification, proportional nitrification, soil pH and organic carbon. In general, soils from the N. obliqua stand had higher levels/rates of nitrification, soil organic carbon content, soil pH, and plant available phosphorus than soils form the other single species stands. In contrast, the N. dombeyi and N. pumilio stands had lower rates of nitrification and soil pH than did the N. obliqua stand. The evergreen-deciduous mixed stands tended to be intermediate in soil properties. These results demonstrate that vegetation, particularly the balance of evergreen and deciduous species, exerts stronger control over soil chemical and biochemical properties than the climate variations induced by 350 m in elevation, even where the evergreen and deciduous species are closely-related angiosperms.Medimos la mineralización neta de nitrógeno, la nitrificación, el total de nitrógeno disponible, el fósforo disponible y el carbono orgánico del suelo en cinco rodales forestales andinos con el propósito de separar la

  2. Tree-ring growth patterns and temperature reconstruction from Nothofagus pumilio (Fagaceae forests at the upper tree line of southern Chilean Patagonia Patrones de crecimiento arbóreo y reconstrucción de la temperatura en bosques de Nothofagus pumilio (Fagaceae en el límite arbóreo superior de la Patagonia austral de Chile

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    JUAN C. ARAVENA

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Nothofagus pumilio (Poepp. et Endl. Krasser is a deciduous species that dominates the upper tree line of the Chilean and Argentinean Andes between 35º 36' and 55º 31' S. In this study we describe the development of 21 tree-ring width chronologies of N. pumilio across its southernmost range of distribution (51-55º S in Chile, and analyze the relationship between N. pumilio tree-growth and climate. Ten of the tree-ring chronologies in our study, show an increasing trend and/or above average tree-ring growth since ca. 1960 to 1996, which coincides with the increase in temperatures shown by instrumental records from southern Patagonia. Another dominant pattern in tree-growth is a remarkable ca. 7-year cycle present in three of the study sites from Isla Navarino, the southernmost of our study areas (ca. 55º S. These two dominant tree-growth patterns, represent the main modes of variation of the N. pumilio tree-ring records in the southern Chilean Patagonia, accounting for 14 and 28 % of its total variance, respectively. Based on the positive correlation between tree growth and temperature in several of the study sites analyzed in this work, we developed a reconstruction of the Punta Arenas minimum annual temperatures from the seven tree-ring records with the highest correlation with temperature, covering the 1829-1996 period. The reconstruction shows that during most of the 19th century, minimum annual temperatures remained below-average and increased to values fluctuating around the mean during the 1900-1960 period, followed by a clear trend with above-average values after 1963Nothofagus pumilio (Poepp. et Endl. Krasser es una especie caducifolia que domina el límite arbóreo superior de los Andes de Chile y Argentina entre los 35º 36' y 55º 31' S. En este trabajo describimos el desarrollo de 21 cronologías de ancho de anillos de N. pumilio para su rango más austral de distribución (51-55º S en Chile, así como el análisis de su relaci

  3. The subantartic Nothofagus forests of Tierra del Fuego: distribution, structure and production

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    Gutiérrez Merino, Emilia; Vallejo, V. Ramón; Romanyà i Socoró, Joan; Fons, J

    1991-01-01

    Evergreen Nothofagus betuloides and decidoues N. pumilo form the main forest types in Tierra del Fuego. These forest were sampled along two altitudinal gradients to study their structure and dynamics and assess the causes of their distribution.

  4. Site quality influence over understory plant diversity in old-growth and harvested Nothofagus pumilio forests

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    E. A. Gallo; Lencinas, M. V.; G. J. Martinez-Pastur

    2013-01-01

    Aim of study: The effects and interactions of shelterwood forest harvesting and site qualities over understory plant species diversity and composition were compared among primary and harvested Nothofagus pumilio forests.Area of study: Tierra del Fuego (Argentina), on three pure conditions (one and six year-old harvested, and primary without previous harvesting forests) and three site qualities (high, medium and low).Material and Methods: Understory richness and cover (%) were registered in fi...

  5. Differential hypogeous sporocarp production from Nothofagus dombeyi and N. pumilio forests in southern Argentina.

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    Nouhra, Eduardo R; Urcelay, Carlos; Longo, M Silvana; Fontenla, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Mycorrhizal fungi that form hypogeous sporocarps are an important component of the temperate forest soil community. In many regions, such as the Nothofagus forest in the Patagonian Andes, this group of fungi has been poorly studied. Here we examined the spring and autumn community composition of "sequestrate fungi", based on sporocarp production in pure forests of Nothofagus dombeyi (evergreen) and N. pumilio (deciduous). We investigated the possible relationships between these communities and environmental factors over 2 y. The rarefaction curves and the minimal richness estimates converged at nearly the same level for each forest type, and the asymptotes suggested that the sampling effort was sufficient to capture most of the hypogeous sporocarp richness in these forest stands. In total 27 species were recovered. Basidiomycota, Ascomycota and Glomeromycota respectively accounted for nine, two and one genera. Species richness of hypogeous sporocarps varied in relation to forest type but not to season (fall and spring), whereas sporocarp biomass varied according to an interaction between season and forest type. Species richness and sporocarp biomass were positively correlated with rainfall and negatively correlated with altitude. In addition sporocarp species richness was positively related to number of trees per transect. We found that two different forest stands, each dominated by different species of Nothofagus, exhibited different hypogeous sporocarp communities. PMID:21914828

  6. Effectiveness of fencing and hunting to control Lama guanicoe browsing damage: Implications for Nothofagus pumilio regeneration in harvested forests.

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    Martínez Pastur, Guillermo; Soler, Rosina; Ivancich, Horacio; Lencinas, María V; Bahamonde, Héctor; Peri, Pablo L

    2016-03-01

    Browsing damage by native ungulates is often to be considered one of the reasons of regeneration failure in Nothofagus pumilio silvicultural systems. Fencing and hunting in forests at regeneration phase have been proposed to mitigate browsing effects. This study aims to determine effectiveness of these control methods in harvested forests, evaluating browsing damage over regeneration, as well as climate-related constraints (freezing or desiccation). Forest structure and regeneration plots were established in two exclosures against native ungulates (Lama guanicoe) by wire fences in the Chilean portion of Tierra del Fuego island, where tree regeneration density, growth, abiotic damage and quality (multi-stems and base/stem deformation) were assessed. Exclosures did not influence regeneration density (at the initial stage with 1.3 m high). However, sapling height at 10-years old was significantly lower outside (40-50 cm high) than inside exclosures (80-100 cm), and also increased their annual height growth, probably as a hunting effect. Likewise, quality was better inside exclosures. Alongside browsing, abiotic conditions negatively influenced sapling quality in the regeneration phase (20%-28% of all seedlings), but greatly to taller plants (as those from inside exclosure). This highlights the importance of considering climatic factors when analysing browsing effects. For best results, control of guanaco in recently harvested areas by fencing should be applied in combination with a reduction of guanaco density through continuous hunting. The benefits of mitigation actions (fencing and hunting) on regeneration growth may shorten the regeneration phase period in shelterwood cutting forests (30-50% less time), but incremental costs must be analysed in the framework of management planning by means of long-term studies. PMID:26708647

  7. Site quality influence over understory plant diversity in old-growth and harvested Nothofagus pumilio forests

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    E. A. Gallo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The effects and interactions of shelterwood forest harvesting and site qualities over understory plant species diversity and composition were compared among primary and harvested Nothofagus pumilio forests.Area of study: Tierra del Fuego (Argentina, on three pure conditions (one and six year-old harvested, and primary without previous harvesting forests and three site qualities (high, medium and low.Material and Methods: Understory richness and cover (% were registered in five replicates of 1 hectare each per treatment. Taxonomic species were classified in categories (groups, origin and life forms. Two-way ANOVAs and multivariate analyses were conducted.Main results: Shelterwood harvesting and site quality significantly influenced understory cover and richness, which allow the introduction of native and exotic species and increasing of dicot and monocot covers. In dicots, monocots, exotics and total groups, higher richness and covers were related to time. Meanwhile, cover reached similar high values in all site qualities on dicot, native and total groups. On the other hand, monocot and exotic richness and cover remain similar in primary and recently harvested forests, and greatly increased in old harvested forests. Mosses and ferns were among the most sensitive groups.Research highlights: Impacts of shelterwood cut depend on site quality of the stands and time since harvesting occurs. For this, different site quality stands should received differential attention in the development of conservation strategies, as well as variations in the shelterwood implementation (as irregularity and patchiness should be considered to better promote understory plant species conservation inside managed areas.Key words: plant species conservation; years after harvesting; forest management; Tierra del Fuego.

  8. Site quality influence over understory plant diversity in old-growth and harvested Nothofagus pumilio forests

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    Gallo, E. A.; Lencinas, M. V.; Martinez-Pastur, G. J.

    2013-05-01

    Aim of study: The effects and interactions of shelter wood forest harvesting and site qualities over understory plant species diversity and composition were compared among primary and harvested Nothofagus pumilio forests. Area of study: Tierra del Fuego (Argentina), on three pure conditions (one and six year-old harvested, and primary without previous harvesting forests) and three site qualities (high, medium and low). Material and Methods: Understory richness and cover (%) were registered in five replicates of 1 hectare each per treatment. Taxonomic species were classified in categories (groups, origin and life forms). Two-way ANOVAs and multivariate analyses were conducted. Main results: Shelterwood harvesting and site quality significantly influenced understory cover and richness, which allow the introduction of native and exotic species and increasing of dicot and monocot covers. In dicots, monocots, exotics and total groups, higher richness and covers were related to time. Meanwhile, cover reached similar high values in all site qualities on dicot, native and total groups. On the other hand, monocot and exotic richness and cover remain similar in primary and recently harvested forests, and greatly increased in old harvested forests. Mosses and ferns were among the most sensitive groups. Research highlights: Impacts of shelterwood cut depend on site quality of the stands and time since harvesting occurs. For this, different site quality stands should received differential attention in the development of conservation strategies, as well as variations in the shelterwood implementation (as irregularity and patchiness) should be considered to better promote understory plant species conservation inside managed areas. (Author) 45 refs.

  9. Ectomycorrhizas naturally established in Nothofagus nervosa seedlings under different cultivation practices in a forest nursery.

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    Fernández, Natalia V; Marchelli, Paula; Fontenla, Sonia B

    2013-10-01

    Mycorrhizas are mutualistic associations between soil fungi and plant roots which usually improve water and nutrient uptake, influencing plant fitness. Nothofagus nervosa (Raulí) is an ecologically and economically important species of South American temperate forests. Since this native tree species yields valuable timber, it was overexploited and its natural distribution area was critically reduced, so it is currently included in domestication and conservation programs. Among the factors that should be considered in these programs are the ectomycorrhizas (EcM), which would be important for the successful establishment and survival of outplanted seedlings. The aim of this work was to analyze the abundance and diversity of EcM in N. nervosa nursery-cultivated seedlings assessed by morphotyping, fungal isolation, and DNA sequencing. Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) occurrence was also studied. A 2-year trial was conducted following the cultivation conditions used for domestication programs. Seedlings were cultivated under two different cultivation practices (greenhouse and nursery soil) without artificial inoculation of mycorrhizal fungi. Seedlings' roots were examined at different times. It was observed that they developed EcM between 6 and 12 months after germination and AMs were not detected in any plant. The most abundant ectomycorrhizal fungi present in seedlings' roots were Tomentella ellisii (Basidiomycota) and an unidentified fungus named Ascomicetous EcM sp. 1. Abundance and diversity of EcM varied between the two cultivation techniques analyzed in this study, since seedlings that continued growing in the greenhouse had higher colonization values, but those transplanted to the nursery soil were colonized by a higher diversity of fungal taxa. PMID:23636582

  10. Seed production and recruitment in primary and harvested Nothofagus pumilio forests: Influence of regional climate and years after cuttings

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    Ana D. Torres

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Harvesting proposals (e.g. variable retention for Nothofagus pumilio forests are based on canopy opening, to increase recruitment and enhance seedling growth, by modifying light and soil moisture. Seed production and seedling recruitment will define the success of harvesting, where remnant forest structure are the main influence factors, as well as biotic and abiotic factors. The objective was to analyse seed production, seedling recruitment and recruitment efficiency in primary and harvested forests through variable retention along the first 10 years after harvesting, as well as the influence of regional climate. Area of study: The study were conducted in a pure Nothofagus pumilio forest located in central Tierra del Fuego (54°18’ S, 67°49’ W, where harvested stands with variable retention and unmanaged forests were sampled in long-term permanent plots. Material and methods: Data of forest regeneration plots were used (n = 72 (2007 a 2014, and forest structure and seed production (2006 a 2013 were also measured. Regional climate was characterised for these years from satellite images (Sea Surface Temperature and climate re-analysis models (rainfall and temperature of land surface. Main results: Harvesting modified forest structure; however, aggregated retention maintained some characteristics of the primary unmanaged forests. These changes influenced seed production and recruitment. Seed production and recruitment were related to crown cover and the amount of seed production; however, recruitment efficiency was not affected by harvesting. The studied variables significantly changed along the years after harvesting. Seed production and recruitment were also related to regional climate factors, where it was possible to explain their variations through temperature (e.g. summer temperature and rainfall (e.g. winter rainfall for the different retention types in harvested forests and the primary forests. Research highlights

  11. Thinning schedules to reduce risk of windthrow in Nothofagus pumilio forests of Patagonia, Argentina Propuesta de aplicación de raleos fuertes para reducir los volteos de viento en bosques de Nothofagus pumilio de Patagonia, Argentina

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    PABLO PERI; GUILLERMO MARTINEZ PASTUR; RICARDO VUKASOVIC; BORIS DIAZ; MARIA VANESSA LENCINAS; JUAN MANUEL CELLINI

    2002-01-01

    A thinning method is proposed to reduce windthrow risk in a high quality site (SI60= 23.2 m) of lenga (Nothofagus pumilio) forests. Sixty seven-year-old (base age at 1.3 m) even-aged stands were thinned in 1996. The method involved thinning from above to maintain the stand stability and proposed a gradual reduction of crown density increasing the growth of selected trees (target trees). The system was carried out by five successive operations that incorporated the technique of girdling follow...

  12. The southernmost Andean Mountain soils: a toposequence from Nothofagus Forest to Sub Antarctic Tundra at Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego

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    Firme Sá, Mariana M.; Schaefer, Carlos E.; Loureiro, Diego C.; Simas, Felipe N.; Francelino, Marcio R.; Senra, Eduardo O.

    2015-04-01

    Located at the southern tip of the Fuegian Andes Cordilhera, the Martial glacier witnessed a rapid process of retreat in the last century. Up to now little is known about the development and genesis of soils of this region. A toposequence of six soils, ranging from 430-925 m a.s.l, was investigated, with emphasis on genesis, chemical and mineralogical properties. The highest, youngest soil is located just below the Martial Glacier Martial Sur sector, and the lowest soils occur on sloping moraines under Nothofagus pumilio forests. Based on chemical, physical and mineralogical characteristics, the soils were classified according to the Soil taxonomy, being keyed out as Inceptisols and Entisols. Soil parent material of the soil is basically moraines, in which the predominant lithic components dominated by metamorphic rocks, with allochthonous contributions of wind-blown materials (very small fragments of volcanic glass) observed by hand lens in all horizons, except the highest profile under Tundra. In Nothofagus Deciduous Forests at the lowest part of the toposequence, poorly developed Inceptisols occur with Folistic horizons, with mixed "andic" and "spodic" characters, but with a predominance of andosolization (Andic Drystrocryepts). Under Tundra vegetation, Inceptisols are formed under hydromorphism and andosolization processes (Oxiaquic Dystrocrepts and Typic Dystrocrepts). On highland periglacial environments, soils without B horizon with strong evidence of cryoturbation and cryogenesis occur, without present-day permafrost down to 2 meters (Typic Cryorthents and Lithic Haploturbels). The mountain soils of Martial glacier generalize young, stony and rich in organic matter, with the exception of barely vegetated Tundra soils at higher altitudes. The forest soils are more acidic and have higher Al3+activity. All soils are dystrophic, except for the highest profile of the local periglacial environment. The organic carbon amounts are higher in forest soils and

  13. Yeast communities associated with the bulk-soil, rhizosphere and ectomycorrhizosphere of a Nothofagus pumilio forest in northwestern Patagonia, Argentina.

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    Mestre, M Cecilia; Rosa, Carlos A; Safar, Silvana V B; Libkind, Diego; Fontenla, Sonia B

    2011-12-01

    Soil microorganisms play an important role in soil quality and they interact closely with vegetation. Little is known about yeast diversity and function in forest soil ecosystems and their interactions with other biotic soil components, particularly in the mycorrhizosphere. We studied the diversity of yeasts inhabiting the bulk-soil, rhizosphere and ectomycorrhizosphere of a Nothofagus pumilio forest in Nahuel Huapi National Park (Bariloche, Argentina). Ectomycorrhizal infection was observed in all N. pumilio trees studied. A total of 126 yeast isolates were obtained, including 18 known and three possibly new species. Basidiomycetous yeasts were predominant in all soil fractions, and the most frequently isolated species was Cryptococcus podzolicus. Diversity indices and multivariate analyses were used to study and compare yeast communities in the bulk-soil, rhizosphere and ectomycorrhizosphere. Yeasts able to ferment glucose were found associated with the rhizosphere. Many of the recovered yeast species were associated with lignocelluloses compound degradation, which suggest that yeast plays an important role as a decomposer in these forest soils. Each soil fraction has a distinct yeast assemblage related to their physiologic capacities and soil nutrient availability. PMID:22067034

  14. Plant effects on soil carbon storage and turnover in montane beech (Nothofagus) forest and adjacent tussock grassland in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land cover is a critical factor that influences, and is influenced by, atmospheric chemistry and potential climate changes. As considerable uncertainty exists about the effects of differences in land cover on below-ground carbon (C) storage, we have compared soil C contents and turnover at adjacent, unmanaged, indigenous forest (Nothofagus solandri var. cliffortiodes) and grassland (Chionochloa pallens) sites near the timberline in the same climo-edaphic environment in Craigieburn Forest Park, Canterbury, New Zealand. Total soil profile C was 13% higher in the grassland than in the forest ( 19.9 v. 16.7 kg/m2), and based on bomb 14C measurements, the differences mainly resulted from more recalcitrant soil C in the grassland (5.3 v. 3.0 kg/m2). Estimated annual net primary production was about 0.4 kg C/m2 for the forest and 0.5 kg C/m2 for the grassland; estimated annual root production was about 0.2 and 0.4 kg C/m2, respectively. In situ soil surface CO2-C production was similar in the grassland and the forest. The accumulation of recalcitrant soil C was unrelated to differences in mineral weathering or soil texture, but was apparently enhanced by greater soil water retention in the grassland ecosystem. Thus, contrary to model (ROTHC) predictions, this soil C fraction could be expected to respond to the effects of climate change on precipitation patterns. Overall, our results suggest that the different patterns of soil C accumulation in these ecosystems have resulted from differences in plant C inputs, soil aluminium, and soil physical characteristics, rather than from differences in soil mineral weathering or texture. Copyright (2000) CSIRO Australia

  15. Regeneración de un bosque mixto de Nothofagus (Nothofagaceae después de una corta selectiva Regeneration of a Nothofagus (Nothofagaceae mixed forest after selective cutting

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    ALEJANDRO DEZZOTTI

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de la ecología de la regeneración natural del bosque constituye una parte esencial de la silvicultura. El cerro Tren Tren (40°12' S, 71°26' O, 1.367 m, Reserva Mapuche Curruhuinca, Argentina está ocupado por un bosque cerrado compuesto por Nothofagus dombeyi, N. nervosa y N. obliqua. En 1994 se estimó la densidad de renovales (diámetro en la base del tallo Understanding forest regeneration is essential to develop sound, ecologically-based silvicultural practices. Mount Tren Tren (40°12' S, 71°26' W, 1,367 m, Reservation Mapuche Curruhuinca, Argentina is occupied by a closed stand of Nothofagus dombeyi, N. obliqua, and N. nervosa. In 1994, tree regeneration (root collar diameter < 10 cm was estimated to be 90 ind ha-1. After that, a group selection silvicultural system was implemented and the resulting 10 artificial gaps of between 1,587 and 4,322 m² were enclosed to prevent grazing by domestic livestock. Size and age structure of regeneration were analysed based on systematic and random samplings. All tree species became established simultaneously within the artificial gaps. However, the less light demanding N. nervosa exhibited a mean age slightly larger given its differential persistence as "advanced regeneration" previous to cutting treatment. Tree regeneration was estimated in 97,006 ind ha-1 (68 % of N. dombeyi, 20 % of N. obliqua, and 12 % of N. nervosa. Regeneration abundance and composition were unrelated to shape and size of regeneration gaps, nor to abundance of adult trees within the stand and along the gap boundaries. A significant positive effect of the enclosure on plant was observed. The 86 % of juvenile Nothofagus were present when understory height and cover were low to intermediate. The management plan is considered adequate if the abundance of regeneration is compared before and after its implementation, and encourages the use and conservation of this forest type under the current silvicultural system

  16. Caracterización de suelos bajo bosques de Nothofagus betuloides (Mirb Blume, en Tierra del Fuego, Chile Characterization of soils of Nothofagus betuloides (Mirb Blume forests, in Tierra del Fuego, Chile

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    VÍCTOR GERDING

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available En tres sectores de la parte occidental de Tierra del Fuego (54º45'-54º15' S, 68º40'-70º10' O se caracterizó morfológica, física y químicamente los suelos bajo bosques de coigüe de Magallanes (Nothofagus betuloides (Mirb Blume y sus especies asociadas lenga (Nothofagus pumilio (P. et E. Krasser y canelo (Drimys winteri Forst.. Se describieron 85 perfiles de suelo y aproximadamente 250 observaciones con bastón pedológico. Los suelos bajo coigüe de Magallanes eran jóvenes, muy influidos por la actividad volcánica, topografía y clima. Se observó la presencia de los órdenes Spodosol e Iceptisol, principalmente. En general los suelos eran delgados a muy delgados (mayoritariamente entre 10 y 40 cm, con un alto volumen de esqueleto, textura franca, estructura masiva a granular, capacidad de agua aprovechable baja y drenaje externo e interno moderado a lento. Además, presentan una alta acidez (pH 4-5,5, una baja oferta nutricional y muy altos niveles de saturación de aluminio (promedio > 60 %. El mantillo (Oe/Oa presentó condiciones adecuadas para el desarrollo radicular. Existe comúnmente un horizonte blanco (frecuentemente 10 YR 5/1-2 inmediatamente debajo del mantillo, con textura franco limosa y estructura masiva, con arraigamiento muy bajo. Se plantea como hipótesis que este horizonte se originó por depósitos de cenizas volcánicas y procesos de podzolización. Se concluye que la fertilidad de estos suelos es baja debido a limitantes físicas (dificultades de arraigamiento y químicas (acidez, toxicidad de aluminio, baja oferta de basesSoils under coigüe de Magallanes (Nothofagus betuloides (Mirb Blume forests, located in the oriental part of Tierra del Fuego (54º45'-54º15' S, 68º40'-70º10' W, were characterized morphologically, physically and chemically. Associated tree species were lenga (Nothofagus pumilio (P. et E. Krasser and canelo (Drimys winterii Forst.. A total of 85 soil profiles and approximately 250 soil

  17. Tree-ring stable isotopes reveal twentieth-century increases in water-use efficiency of Fagus sylvatica and Nothofagus spp. in Italian and Chilean mountains.

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    Tognetti, Roberto; Lombardi, Fabio; Lasserre, Bruno; Cherubini, Paolo; Marchetti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Changes in intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) were investigated in Fagus sylvatica and Nothofagus spp. over the last century. We combined dendrochronological methods with dual-isotope analysis to investigate whether atmospheric changes enhanced iWUE of Fagus and Nothofagus and tree growth (basal area increment, BAI) along latitudinal gradients in Italy and Chile. Post-maturation phases of the trees presented different patterns in δ13C, Δ13C, δ18O, Ci (internal CO2 concentration), iWUE, and BAI. A continuous enhancement in isotope-derived iWUE was observed throughout the twentieth century, which was common to all sites and related to changes in Ca (ambient CO2 concentration) and secondarily to increases in temperature. In contrast to other studies, we observed a general increasing trend of BAI, with the exception of F. sylvatica in Aspromonte. Both iWUE and BAI were uncoupled with the estimated drought index, which is in agreement with the absence of enduring decline in tree growth. In general, δ13C and δ18O showed a weak relationship, suggesting the major influence of photosynthetic rate on Ci and δ13C, and the minor contribution of the regulation of stomatal conductance to iWUE. The substantial warming observed during the twentieth century did not result in a clear pattern of increased drought stress along these latitudinal transects, because of the variability in temporal trends of precipitation and in specific responses of populations. PMID:25398040

  18. Aggregate structure and stability linked to carbon dynamics in a south Chilean Andisol

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    C. Oyarzún; Godoy, R.; O. Van Cleemput; P. Boeckx; Huygens, D.

    2005-01-01

    International audience The extreme vulnerability of soil organic carbon to climate and land use change emphasizes the need for further research in different terrestrial ecosystems. We have studied the aggregate stability and carbon dynamics in a chronosequence of three different land uses in a south Chilean Andisols: a second growth Nothofagus obliqua forest (SGFOR), a grassland (GRASS) and a Pinus radiata plantation (PINUS). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Al as soil ...

  19. Sapling growth and crown expansion in canopy gaps of Nothofagus pumilio (lenga) forests in Chubut, Patagonia, Argentina

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    Lopez Bernal, P. M.; Defosse, G. E.; Quinteros, C. P.; Bava, J. O.

    2012-07-01

    In the province of Chubut in Patagonia, Argentina, Nothofagus pumilio forests (locally known as lenga), are managed through selective cuts, which imply the opening of canopy gaps. This management scheme is carried out without taking into consideration the changes of sapling requirements through either a cutting cycle or the precipitation gradient in which these forests thrive. To analyze these changes, we inferred the facilitation-competition balance between the canopy and regeneration, studying the effects of precipitation levels, gap size and gap age on saplings growth in height on 45 canopy gaps artificially created between 1960 and 1993. Results showed that during the first 20 years since gap opening, growth of regeneration is determined by light availability in mesic sites and by water availability in xeric sites. However, differences due to precipitation levels gradually decrease over time. Moreover, in the period between 20 and 35 years after gap opening, in both mesic and xeric sites, growth is limited by light availability. This indicates that in xeric sites, sapling growth requirements shift from a water-dependent situation to a light-dependent situation. The average closing rate of gaps due to lateral growth of bordering trees is high enough so that within the proposed gap size range, gap healing can occur before regeneration reaches the upper stratum. Consequently, in mesic sites gap opening can be done by a single operation that generates gaps with diameters of approximately twice the average height of the canopy (D/H). While in xeric environments, lenga seedling establishment and initial growth require the cover of small gaps, but advanced regeneration requires bigger gaps to reach the canopy. For this reason, gaps should be opened in two stages: the first gaps should be opened with a D/H between 0.8 and 1, and after a cutting cycle of 35 years, these openings should be enlarged to a D/H between 1.5 and 2. The close relationship maintained between the

  20. Heterogeneidad estructural y espacial de un bosque mixto dominado por Nothofagus dombeyi después de un disturbio parcial Structural and spatial heterogeneity of a mixed Nothofagus donibeyi-dominate forest stand after a partial disturbance

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    DANIEL P SOTO

    2010-01-01

    ón forestal.The forests dominated by Nothofagus dombeyi are amongst the most abundant and productive forests in the South American temperate region. In the lowlands of Chile Nothofagus dombeyi-dominated secondary forests with their associated tree species are common. Their diameter distribution, spatial patterns and association between species have not been studied. In this work we quantify those patterns and test whether there is a spatial association between species in a structurally complex forest created after a partial disturbance. We established a 70 x 130 m plot (0.91 ha in the Llancahue property near the city of Valdivia (39°48' S, 73°11' W and 150 masl. We quantified the structure and the diameter asymmetry through the Weibull probability function and the asymmetry Índex, respectively. The spatial pattern (random, clustered and regular of the forest and of each species, and the spatial association (indifference, repulsion and attraction of N. dombeyi with the main species were evaluated with the uni-and bivariate Ripley functions. The spatial autocorrelation for the diameter at breast height d was evaluated by means of semivariograms. This paper reports that the size distribution is influenced by some species that either resisted the disturbance or were highly resilient due to their regeneration strategies, which is confirmed by the spatial pattern in aggregates, and a strong spatial autocorrelation for the species. We found that the spatial patterns are intraspecific, and do not affect the spatial association between dominant and subordinated trees species. Finally, we suggest that partial disturbances cause a rapid transformatíon from a simple to a complex structure along forest succession.

  1. Variabilidad topográfica y edáfica en bosques de Nothofagus betuloides (Mirb Blume, en el suroeste de Tierra del Fuego, Chile Edaphic and topographic variability in Nothofagus betuloides (Mirb Blume forests, in southwestern Tierra del Fuego, Chile

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    OSCAR THIERS

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó la variabilidad de las relaciones topográficas y edáficas en sitios con presencia de Nothofagus betuloides y especies arbóreas asociadas en el suroeste de Tierra del Fuego. Estas relaciones se analizaron con métodos estadísticos bivariados y multivariados. Las relaciones del suelo con la topografía estarían fuertemente ligadas a características climáticas (temperatura y humedad de los sitios. Los suelos más fértiles por su mayor profundidad y mejor drenaje, se ubicaron en terrenos de menor elevación (We examined the topographic and edaphic variability of sites dominated by Nothofagus betuloides and associated tree species in southwestern Tierra del Fuego. Edaphic and topographic characteristics were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate statistical methods. The relationships between soil and topography were strongly related to climatic characteristics (temperature and humidity of different sites. Soils with the highest degree of fertility, deep and well drained, were located at the lowest elevations (< 150-200 m and had gentle slopes (< 5 %. Pure forests of N. betuloides occurred in a wide topographic range with high soil variation. The different associations of N. betuloides, with the species N. pumilio, N. antárctica and Drimys winteri, occupy more specific site conditions. Nothofagus betuloides - N. pumilio occurred mostly in the most favorable sites with fertile soils. Nothofagus betuloides - N. antárctica occurred at higher elevations, and steeper slopes, characterized by very thin soils. Nothofagus betuloides - D. winteri occurred in coastal lowlands, with greater humidity and heavier rainfall, and deep soils with limited drainage

  2. Caracterización de suelos bajo bosques de Nothofagus betuloides (Mirb) Blume, en Tierra del Fuego, Chile Characterization of soils of Nothofagus betuloides (Mirb) Blume forests, in Tierra del Fuego, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    VÍCTOR GERDING; OSCAR THIERS

    2002-01-01

    En tres sectores de la parte occidental de Tierra del Fuego (54º45'-54º15' S, 68º40'-70º10' O) se caracterizó morfológica, física y químicamente los suelos bajo bosques de coigüe de Magallanes (Nothofagus betuloides (Mirb) Blume) y sus especies asociadas lenga (Nothofagus pumilio (P. et E.) Krasser) y canelo (Drimys winteri Forst.). Se describieron 85 perfiles de suelo y aproximadamente 250 observaciones con bastón pedológico. Los suelos bajo coigüe de Magallanes eran jóvenes, muy influidos p...

  3. Effect of wildfire on soil physical and chemical properties in a Nothofagus glauca forest, Chile Efecto del fuego en las propiedades físicas y químicas en un bosque de Nothofagus glauca en Chile

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    CREIGHTON M. LITTON

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of a wildfire on soil chemical and physical properties in a Nothofagus glauca (Phil. Krasser forest in the Coastal Mountain Range of south-central Chile were investigated. Response of the soil during the first two years following a wildfire was examined, where data from soil in a burned forest were compared to that in an adjacent, unburned stand. The effects that wildfire have on soil properties in this highly fragmented ecosystem are not well understood, but results from this study suggest similar responses to those found in other mediterranean forest systems. Both physical (bulk density, percent soil moisture, and soil organic matter content and chemical properties (exchangeable inorganic nitrogen, extractable phosphorus, exchangeable potassium, and soil pH were examined, and data presented here suggest that soil properties vary in their initial response to fire in this ecosystem. Soil organic matter content and soil moisture decreased following fire and remained lower than values from unburned plots for the duration of the study. Exchangeable potassium increased initially after burning, but values in burned plots decreased with time and by the end of two years were significantly lower than in unburned soil. In turn, extractable phosphorus and soil pH both increased immediately following wildfire and values in burned plots remained significantly higher than unburned plots for the entire measurement period. Exchangeable inorganic nitrogen reached higher levels in soil of burned plots for the autumn measurements (April 1997 and 1998 and lower values in burned plots for the spring measurements (November 1997 and 1998. Soil bulk density remained unchanged following fire. In general, changes in soil properties following fire were greatest at the 0-5 cm layer and more modest at the 5-10 cm sampling depth. These changes were related primarily to oxidation of the detrital layer during fire and concurrent changes in the soil environment

  4. Diferencias en la flora herbácea y arbustiva entre claros y áreas bajo dosel en un bosque de Nothofagus pumilio en Argentina Differences in the herb and shrub flora growing under canopy gaps and under closed canopies in a Nothofagus pumilio forest of Argentina

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    M. ANGÉLICA DAMASCOS

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Se comparó la distribución de las hierbas y arbustos bajo el dosel y en dos tamaños de claros del bosque deciduo de Nothofagus pumilio de Argentina. La riqueza total y promedio de especies por cuadrado fueron similares bajo el dosel y en los claros pequeños (diámetro mayor The distribution of herbs and shrubs under closed canopies and in two canopy gaps of different size was compared in a Nothofagus pumilio deciduous forest of Argentina. The total and the average species richness per plot were similar between the areas under the canopy and in small (maximum diameter < 5 m and medium size gaps (maximum diameter 5-10 m. Generalist species were the most numerous (46 %, while obligate and facultatively shade-tolerant (heliophobous and intolerant (heliophilous species accounted for 19 and 15 % of the species, respectively. The absence of differences in species richness may be attributed to: (1 high frequency of generalist species (2 low effect of gap formation on shade-tolerant species distribution, (3 persistence of facultatively shade-tolerant species in small gaps, (4 gap invasion by obligate shade-intolerant species. The heterogeneity of light environment beneath the canopy and the effects on gap microclimate of edge trees and gap shrubs are possible causes of these patterns. Although with variations between the different biological groups, forest species are probably tolerant to the low level of disturbance generated by the natural forest dynamics

  5. Regeneración de un bosque mixto de Nothofagus (Nothofagaceae) después de una corta selectiva Regeneration of a Nothofagus (Nothofagaceae) mixed forest after selective cutting

    OpenAIRE

    ALEJANDRO DEZZOTTI; RENATO SBRANCIA; MARCELO RODRÍGUEZ-ARIAS; DANIELA ROAT; ANDREA PARISI

    2003-01-01

    El estudio de la ecología de la regeneración natural del bosque constituye una parte esencial de la silvicultura. El cerro Tren Tren (40°12' S, 71°26' O, 1.367 m, Reserva Mapuche Curruhuinca, Argentina) está ocupado por un bosque cerrado compuesto por Nothofagus dombeyi, N. nervosa y N. obliqua. En 1994 se estimó la densidad de renovales (diámetro en la base del tallo < 10 cm) en 90 ind ha-1. Posteriormente, se implementaron cortas de selección en bosquetes y los 10 claros artificiales result...

  6. Impacto del castor (Castor canadensis, Rodentia) en bosques de lenga (Nothofagus pumilio) de Tierra del Fuego, Chile Impact of american beaver (Castor canadensis, Rodentia) in lenga (Nothofagus pumilio) forests of Tierra del Fuego, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Aida Baldini U; Juan Oltremari A; Mauricio Ramírez

    2008-01-01

    Castor canadensis es un roedor de Norteamérica introducido a la porción argentina de Tierra del Fuego en el año 1946, invadiendo territorios chilenos del mismo sector. En esta zona los castores construyen diques y se alimentan de material arbóreo extraído principalmente de Nothofagus pumilio. En el estudio se intentó probar que los castores provocan daño en la biomasa y volumen de los bosques de N. pumilio. Los objetivos del estudio fueron identificar los tipos de daños y cuantificar las pérd...

  7. Análisis de crecimiento de árboles maduros de lenga (Nothofagus pumilio) en bosques de la XII Región, Chile Growing analysis of old lenga trees (Nothofagus pumilio) in forests at XII Region, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Cruz Johnson; Pablo Honeyman Lucchini; Alejandra Pezo Correa; Carlos Schulze del Canto

    2007-01-01

    Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar el crecimiento de individuos maduros de lenga (Nothofagus pumilio), mediante análisis de tallo, utilizando el procesamiento de imágenes digitales para la medición de anillos de crecimiento. Se analizaron 28 individuos de lenga mediante rodelas cortadas a 30 centímetros, un metro y posteriormente cada dos metros hasta la altura de comienzo de copa. Las 210 rodelas fueron escaneadas e importadas al software Arcview. La obtención del radio de cada anillo ...

  8. Microclima en el interior de un bosque de Nothofagus pumilio y el efecto de una corta de regeneración Microclimate within a Nothofagus pumilio forest and the effects of a regeneration felling

    OpenAIRE

    Alvaro Promis; Juan Caldentey; Manuel Ibarra

    2010-01-01

    El microclima en un rodal virgen de Nothofagus pumilio (BV) y el efecto de una corta de regeneración (CR) y de un sector desarbolado (SD) fueron estudiados durante siete años. Tres estaciones microclimáticas registraron las variables: radiación solar global (RSG), temperaturas del aire (Ta) y del suelo a 15 (TS15) y 30 cm (TS30) de profundidad, humedad relativa (HRa) y velocidad del viento (V). Los resultados mostraron que las tendencias en las variables meteorológicas se ajustaron al comport...

  9. Environmental and climatic changes in Central Chilean Patagonia since the Late Glacial (Mallín El Embudo, 44° S

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    M. E. de Porras

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Multi-millennial environmental and climatic changes in Central Chilean Patagonia (44–49° S during the Last Glacial–Interglacial cycle have been of particular interest as changes in the position and strength of the Southern Westerlies are the major forcing factor conditioning the environmental dynamics. Recent attempts to reconstruct regional environmental and climatic signals from Central Chilean Patagonia reveal some discrepancies and unclear issues among the records. This paper presents the 13 ka pollen and charcoal records from Mallín El Embudo (44°40' S; 71°42' W located in the deciduous Nothofagus forest in the middle Río Cisnes valley. The paper aims to (1 establish the timing and magnitude of local vegetation changes and fire activity since the Late Glacial and (2 integrate these results at the regional scale in order to discuss the discrepancies and depict the Central Chilean Patagonia environmental and climatic dynamics since Late Glacial. Open landscapes dominated by grasses associated with scattered Nothofagus forest patches dominated middle Río Cisnes valley between 13–11.2 ka suggesting low effective moisture but also reflecting that landscape configuration after glacial retreat was still ongoing. At 11.2 ka, a sudden development of an open and quite dynamic Nothofagus forest probably associated to the synchronous high fire activity occurred suggesting a rise in effective moisture. Since 9.5 ka, the record reflects the presence of a closed Nothofagus forest related to higher/similar effective moisture conditions than before but under an unmarked precipitation seasonality. The forest experienced a slight canopy opening since 5.7 ka, probably due to slightly drier conditions than before followed by a sudden change around 4.2 ka associated with fire and volcanic disturbances. The recovery of an open Nothofagus forest related to slight wetter conditions (similar to present occurred around 2 ka and persisted under highly

  10. Impacts of nonstate, market-driven governance on Chilean forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmayr, Robert; Lambin, Eric F

    2016-03-15

    Global markets for agricultural products, timber, and minerals are critically important drivers of deforestation. The supply chains driving land use change may also provide opportunities to halt deforestation. Market campaigns, moratoria, and certification schemes have been promoted as powerful tools to achieve conservation goals. Despite their promise, there have been few opportunities to rigorously quantify the ability of these nonstate, market-driven (NSMD) governance regimes to deliver conservation outcomes. This study analyzes the impacts of three NSMD governance systems that sought to end the conversion of natural forests to plantations in Chile at the start of the 21st century. Using a multilevel, panel dataset of land use changes in Chile, we identify the impact of participation within each of the governance regimes by implementing a series of matched difference-in-differences analyses. Taking advantage of the mosaic of different NSMD regimes adopted in Chile, we explore the relative effectiveness of different policies. NSMD governance regimes reduced deforestation on participating properties by 2-23%. The NSMD governance regimes we studied included collaborative and confrontational strategies between environmental and industry stakeholders. We find that the more collaborative governance systems studied achieved better environmental performance than more confrontational approaches. Whereas many government conservation programs have targeted regions with little likelihood of conversion, we demonstrate that NSMD governance has the potential to alter behavior on high-deforestation properties. PMID:26929349

  11. Structural and functional changes in Nothofagus pumilio forests along an altitudinal gradient in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

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    Barrera, M.D.; Frangi, J.L.; Perdomo, M.H. [Univ. Nacional de La Plata (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales; Richter, L.L.; Pinedo, L.B. [CADIC, Ushuaia (Argentina)

    2000-04-01

    Structural (density, height, basal area, above-ground tree biomass, leaf area index) and functional (leaf phenology, growth rate, fine litter fall, leaf decomposition) traits were quantified in four mature forests of Notofagus pumilio (lenga) along an altitudinal sequence in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Three erect forest stands at 220, 440 and 540 m and a krummholz stand at 640 m a.s.l. were selected. Along the altitudinal sequence, stem density increased while DBH, height, biomass, leaf-size and growth period, mean growth rate and decay rate decreased. Dead stems increased and basal area and fine-litter fall decreased with an increase in elevation among erect forests, but these trends inverted at krummholz. We suggest that krummholz is not only a morphological response to the adverse climate but is also a life form with functional advantages.

  12. Turno de corta y posibilidad de los bosques de lenga (Nothofagus pumilio) en Tierra del Fuego (Argentina) Rotation length and sustainable use of lenga (Nothofagus pumilio) forests in Tierra del Fuego (Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Martinez Pastur; María Vanessa Lencinas; Ricardo Vukasovic; Pablo Peri; Boris Díaz; Juan Manuel Cellini

    2004-01-01

    La ordenación forestal regional es una herramienta indispensable para desarrollar políticas forestales que protejan los bosques naturales, en el marco del manejo sustentable y del uso múltiple. Para ello se debe contar con parámetros y modelos confiables que simulen alternativas de producción y de uso del suelo. El inventario forestal es la herramienta base, pero que sin cálculos precisos de turno forestal no puede brindar datos confiables de posibilidad. Por lo que el objetivo del presente t...

  13. Teledetección satelital cuantitativa para estimar el área basal del bosque de Nothofagus pumilio (Nothofagaceae: El rol del índice de área foliar como información auxiliar Quantitative remote sensing to estimate basal area in Nothofagus pumilio (Nothofagaceae forest: The role of leaf area index as ancillary information

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    GASTÓN M DÍAZ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Los bosques de lenga (Nothofagus pumilio son el recurso forestal más importante de la región andino patagónica argentina, sin embargo, para implementar planes de manejo en pos de prevenir o revertir su degradación es necesario disponer de mayor información sobre su estructura. Una alternativa para obtener esa información es relacionar datos satelitales con las características del bosque a través de modelos físicos y estadísticos. Pero, ¿cuál es el método más eficaz? El índice de área foliar (IAF se encuentra relacionado con la reflectividad del dosel vegetal a través del modelo de transferencia radiativa PROSAIL, lo que permite desarrollar técnicas de teledetección satelital para estimar el IAF con bases físicas, en vez de con modelos estadísticos. De ese modo se puede aprovechar la relación empírico-biológica existente entre el IAF y la estructura del bosque para estimar el área basal. El objetivo principal fue comparar la exactitud de tres métodos para estimar el área basal de la lenga con datos SPOT-5. Los métodos comparados fueron: estadístico directo (ED, estadístico de dos pasos (E2P y físico-estadístico de dos pasos (FE2P. La exactitud fue evaluada con 24 parcelas no involucradas en el ajuste o calibración de los modelos. No se hallaron diferencias significativas en la exactitud de la alternativa físico-estadística en comparación con las netamente estadísticas. Sin embargo, en base al análisis conjunto de los resultados y lo reportado por otros investigadores, se concluye que la ventaja de utilizar modelos físicos radica en la mayor robustez de la estimación y no en la mayor exactitud.Lenga forests (Nothofagus pumilio are the most important forest resource of the Argentinean Andean Patagonia, however, more information about their structure is needed to implement forest management policies and practices in order to prevent their degradation and revert it. One option to obtain this kind of information

  14. Monitoreo del estado de intervención y de la regeneración de Nothofagus pumilio en un plan de manejo forestal en el ecotono estepa-bosque de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina Monitoring of harvesting and regeneration state of a Nothofagus pumilio forestry management plan located near the forest-steppe border in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Collado; Sebastián Farina; Fabián Jaras; Héctor Vargas

    2008-01-01

    El estudio se realizó en el ecotono estepa-bosque de Tierra del Fuego (Argentina), en una superficie de 1.400 ha de bosquetes de Nothofagus pumilio (lenga), con aprovechamientos forestales en más de un 90% de la superficie, iniciados hace más de una década. El sistema silvicultural practicado mayoritariamente fue de "cortas de protección" y, en algunos lugares, de "retención agregada". El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el estado de regeneración del bosque postaprovechamiento y su significan...

  15. Die Bedeutung ektotropher Mykorrhiza fuer die Naehrstoffversorgung von Nothofagus obliqua. Untersuchungen unter Beruecksichtigung der Boden- und Naehrstoffbedingungen der Nothofagus-Waelder in Suedchile im Hinblick auf Wiederaufforstung und nachhaltige Forstwirtschaft

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Maricel

    2001-01-01

    Nothofagus species form the most important native constituents in the temperate humid forests of southern Chile. The presented work concentrates on the evaluation of the relevance of several specific and non-specific ectomycorrhiza for Nothofagus. First, a general survey of ectomycorrhiza found in association to N. obliqua and P. radiata near Valdivia (Chile) is presented. Further work concentrated on the mycorrhizal fungi Austropaxillus boletinoides, Boletus loyo, Austropaxillus statuum, Cen...

  16. Boletopsis nothofagi sp. nov. associated with Nothofagus in the Southern Hemisphere

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    Jerry Cooper

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Boletopsis nothofagi sp. nov., an ectomycorrhizal taxon is described from Nothofagus forests in New Zealand. A comparison of available molecular ITS sequences, and morphological data was carried out to confirm the novelty of the taxon. This is the first report of the genus in the Southern Hemisphere.

  17. Ectomycorrhizal fungi enhance nitrogen and phosphorus nutrition of Nothofagus dombeyi under drought conditions by regulating assimilative enzyme activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Maricel; Huygens, Dries; Olivares, Erick; Saavedra, Isabel; Alberdi, Miren; Valenzuela, Eduardo

    2009-08-01

    Drought stress conditions (DC) reduce plant growth and nutrition, restraining the sustainable reestablishment of Nothofagus dombeyi in temperate south Chilean forest ecosystems. Ectomycorrhizal symbioses have been documented to enhance plant nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) uptake under drought, but the regulation of involved assimilative enzymes remains unclear. We studied 1-year-old N. dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst. plants in association with the ectomycorrhizal fungi Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker & Couch. and Descolea antartica Sing. In greenhouse experiments, shoot and root dry weights, mycorrhizal colonization, foliar N and P concentrations, and root enzyme activities [glutamate synthase (glutamine oxoglutarate aminotransferase (GOGAT), EC 1.4.1.13-14), glutamine synthetase (GS, EC 6.3.1.2), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, EC 1.4.1.2-4), nitrate reductase (NR, EC 1.6.6.1), and acid phosphomonoesterase (PME, EC 3.1.3.1-2)] were determined as a function of soil-water content. Inoculation of N. dombeyi with P. tinctorius and D. antartica significantly stimulated plant growth and increased plant foliar N and P concentrations, especially under DC. Ectomycorrhizal inoculation increased the activity of all studied enzymes relative to non-mycorrhizal plants under drought. We speculate that GDH is a key enzyme involved in the enhancement of ectomycorrhizal carbon (C) availability by fuelling the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle under conditions of drought-induced carbon deficit. All studied assimilative enzymes of the ectomycorrhizal associations, involved in C, N, and P transfers, are closely interlinked and interdependent. The up-regulation of assimilative enzyme activities by ectomycorrhizal fungal root colonizers acts as a functional mechanism to increase seedling endurance to drought. We insist upon incorporating ectomycorrhizal inoculation in existing Chilean afforestation programs. PMID:19470091

  18. Estimación de volumen maderable en bosques de Lenga (Nothofagus pumilio) en la región patagónica de Argentina Net volume estimation of ‘Lenga’ (Nothofagus pumilio) forests in the Patagonian region of Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    FRANCISCO CARABELLI; JOSE BAVA; FABIAN MOMBERG; VICENTE CORDONE

    2004-01-01

    Se elaboró una ecuación para la estimación de volúmenes maderables en árboles con aptitud para aserrío (floreables) en inventarios de bosques de lenga (Nothofagus pumilio (Poepp. et Endl.) Krasser). Esta función resulta muy consistente y se basa en una gran cantidad de árboles muestra extraídos por floreo, de acuerdo con los criterios tradicionales de selección que emplean los motosierristas de la región. La ecuación ha sido empleada exitosamente para estimar el volumen maderable de la especi...

  19. Diferencias en la flora herbácea y arbustiva entre claros y áreas bajo dosel en un bosque de Nothofagus pumilio en Argentina Differences in the herb and shrub flora growing under canopy gaps and under closed canopies in a Nothofagus pumilio forest of Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    M. ANGÉLICA DAMASCOS; EDUARDO H. RAPOPORT

    2002-01-01

    Se comparó la distribución de las hierbas y arbustos bajo el dosel y en dos tamaños de claros del bosque deciduo de Nothofagus pumilio de Argentina. La riqueza total y promedio de especies por cuadrado fueron similares bajo el dosel y en los claros pequeños (diámetro mayor < 5 m) y medianos (diámetro mayor entre 5-10 m). Las especies generalistas fueron las más numerosas (46 %), mientras que el 19 % correspondió a especies heliófobas y el 15 % a heliófilas obligadas y facultativas. La ausenci...

  20. Litterfall, litter decomposition and nitrogen mineralization in old-growth evergreen and secondary deciduous Nothofagus forests in south-central Chile Aporte, descomposición de hojarasca y mineralización de nitrógeno en bosques siempreverdes de antiguo crecimiento y bosques secundarios deciduos, centro-sur de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    JEROEN STAELENS; NELE AMELOOT; LEONARDO ALMONACID; EVELYN PADILLA; PASCAL BOECKX; DRIES HUYGENS; KRIS VERHEYEN; CARLOS OYARZÚN; ROBERTO GODOY

    2011-01-01

    South Chilean forest ecosystems represent one of the largest areas of old-growth temperate rainforests remaining in the Southern hemisphere and have a high ecological value, but suffer from deforestation, invasion by exotic species, fragmentation, and increasing atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition. To support sustainable forest management, more knowledge is required on nutrient cycling of these ecosystems. Therefore, a descriptive study of nutrient dynamics was done in four Valdivian rainfore...

  1. Aggregate structure and stability linked to carbon dynamics in a south Chilean Andisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huygens, D.; Boeckx, P.; van Cleemput, O.; Godoy, R.; Oyarzún, C.

    2005-02-01

    The extreme vulnerability of soil organic carbon to climate and land use change emphasizes the need for further research in different terrestrial ecosystems. We have studied the aggregate stability and carbon dynamics in a chronosequence of three different land uses in a south Chilean Andisols: a second growth Nothofagus obliqua forest (SGFOR), a grassland (GRASS) and a Pinus radiata plantation (PINUS). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Al as soil organic matter stabilizing agent in this Andisol. In a case study, we linked differences in carbon dynamics between the three land use treatments to physical protection and recalcitrance of the soil organic matter (SOM). In this study, C aggregate stability and dynamics were studied using size and density fractionation experiments of the SOM, δ13C and total carbon analysis of the different SOM fractions, and mineralization measurements. The results showed that electrostatic attractions between and among Al-oxides and clay minerals are mainly responsible for the stabilization of soil aggregates and the physical protection of the enclosed soil organic carbon. Whole soil C mineralization rate constants were highest for SGFOR and PINUS, followed by GRASS. In contrast, incubation experiments of isolated macro organic matter fractions showed that the recalcitrance of the SOM decreased in another order: PINUS > SGFOR > GRASS. We concluded that physical protection of soil aggregates was the main process determining whole soil C mineralization. Land use changes affected soil organic carbon dynamics in this south Chilean Andisol by altering soil pH and consequently available Al.

  2. Fine-scale genetic structure of Nothofagus pumilio (lenga) at contrasting elevations of the altitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiasen, Paula; Premoli, Andrea C

    2013-03-01

    Montane forests provide the natural framework to test for various ecological settings at distinct elevations as they may affect population demography, which in turn will affect the spatial genetic structure (SGS). We analyzed the fine-scale SGS of Nothofagus pumilio, which dominates mountain areas of Patagonia, in three pairs of sites at contrasting elevations (low- vs. high-elevation). Within a total area of 1 ha fresh leaf tissue from 90 individuals was collected at each of the six studied stands following a spatially explicit sampling design. Population genetic diversity parameters were analyzed for all sampled individuals using five polymorphic isozyme loci, and a subset of 50 individuals per stand were also screened for five microsatellite loci. The SGS was assessed on 50 individuals/stand, using the combined datasets of isozymes and microsatellites. Most low-elevation stands consisted of older individuals with complex age structures and genetically diverse plots. In contrast, high-elevation stands and one post-fire low-elevation population yielded even-aged structures with evidence of growth suppression, and were genetically homogeneous. All stands yielded significant SGS. Similarly to mature stands of the non-sprouter congener Nothofagus dombeyi, multi-age low-altitude N. pumilio yielded significant SGS weakened by competing species of the understory and the formation of seedling banks. Alike the sprouter Nothofagus antarctica, high-altitude stands produced significant SGS as a consequence of occasional seedling establishment reinforced by vegetative spread. PMID:23456320

  3. Aggregate structure and stability linked to carbon dynamics in a south Chilean Andisol

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    C. Oyarzún

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The extreme vulnerability of soil organic carbon to climate and land use change emphasizes the need for further research in different terrestrial ecosystems. We have studied the aggregate stability and carbon dynamics in a chronosequence of three different land uses in a south Chilean Andisols: a second growth Nothofagus obliqua forest (SGFOR, a grassland (GRASS and a Pinus radiata plantation (PINUS. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Al as soil organic matter stabilizing agent in this Andisol. In a case study, we linked differences in carbon dynamics between the three land use treatments to physical protection and recalcitrance of the soil organic matter (SOM. In this study, C aggregate stability and dynamics were studied using size and density fractionation experiments of the SOM, δ13C and total carbon analysis of the different SOM fractions, and mineralization measurements. The results showed that electrostatic attractions between and among Al-oxides and clay minerals are mainly responsible for the stabilization of soil aggregates and the physical protection of the enclosed soil organic carbon. Whole soil C mineralization rate constants were highest for SGFOR and PINUS, followed by GRASS. In contrast, incubation experiments of isolated macro organic matter fractions showed that the recalcitrance of the SOM decreased in another order: PINUS > SGFOR > GRASS. We concluded that physical protection of soil aggregates was the main process determining whole soil C mineralization. Land use changes affected soil organic carbon dynamics in this south Chilean Andisol by altering soil pH and consequently available Al.

  4. Early Miocene Nothofagus in Antarctica based on fossil leaves from the Transantarctic Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobleski, S. A.; Ashworth, A. C.; Lewis, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    that the plants were shrubs and not trees, and that the landscape was tundra and not forest. Mean summer temperature was possibly 6-7⁰ C. By 14 Ma, immediately before the extinction of Nothofagus on the continent, diversity had declined to a single species. The research was supported by NSF grants 0739693 and 0948652.

  5. Regeneración en un bosque de lenga (Nothofagus pumilio (Poepp et Endl.) Krasser) sometido a un manejo de selección en grupos Natural regeneration in a lenga (Nothofagus pumilio (Poepp et Endl.) Krasser) forest under a group selection system

    OpenAIRE

    PABLO M LOPEZ BERNAL; JOSE O BAVA; SILVIO H ANTEQUERA

    2003-01-01

    Actualmente la administración forestal de la provincia de Chubut (Argentina) tiende a reemplazar el floreo por el método de cortas de selección en grupos, promoviendo el establecimiento de unidades de regeneración en claros. El objetivo de este trabajo fue aportar datos sobre el comportamiento de la regeneración en distintas etapas del manejo por cortas de selección en grupos en bosques de lenga. Para ello se realizó una evaluación de la instalación y supervivencia de la regeneración en un bo...

  6. Use of tree species by White-throated treerunner (Pygarrhichas albogularis King in a secondary native forest of southern Chile

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    Alberto Gantz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In forest ecosystems, numerous species of insectivorous birds use certain tree species as feeding and nesting substrates. Between 2009 and 2010, the use of different floristic components as feeding substrate by the Pygarrhichas albogularis King, 1831 was evaluated in a southern Chilean secondary native forest. From a total of 13 trees and bush species, six tree species were used by P. albogularis as a feeding substrate. Tree use was limited to intermediate heights (11-20 m and, mainly, to the trunk (40% of observations and secondary branches (26%. Pygarrhichas albogularis showed a disproportionated use of N. dombeyi and an important use of trees with a greater age structure (DBH 81-100 cm. Nothofagus dombeyi presented a significantly greater tree bark crevice depth than E. cordifolia. In turn, covariance between crevice depth and invertebrate supply in tree bark was positive and significant. We consider bark depth and invertebrate supply to be the proximate causes explaining P. albogularis disproportionated use of Nothofagus dombeyi.

  7. Seasonal changes in the photosynthetic performance of two evergreen Nothofagus species in south central Chile Cambios estacionales en el desempeño fotosintético de dos especies siempreverdes de Nothofagus en el centro sur de Chile

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    RAFAEL ZÚÑIGA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The evergreen Nothofagus dombeyi and Nothofagus nitida are important members of the temperate Chilean rainforest. They seldom grow together in nature. Nothofagus nitida is more susceptible to excess light and drought than N. dombeyi. We postulate that the different properties of the photosynthetic apparatus under common garden conditions of these species could explain their contrasting habitat preferences. The two species growing in a common garden in south central Chile were studied. The optimal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm of both species remained within normal values (»0.8 with the exception of a decrease in N. dombeyi at midday in summer, suggesting reversible reduction in photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII. During summer the effective photochemical efficiency (F PSII, photochemical quenching (qP, photosynthesis (Amax, stomatal conductance (gs and transpiration rates (E in N. dombeyi were higher than in N. nitida. The highest increments in photoprotective pigments (zeaxanthin + antheraxanthin and lutein contents between predawn and midday were obtained in summer in N. dombeyi. In N. nitida a nocturnal retention of dissipative pigments, without a decrease in Fv/Fm, was found in winter. The results suggest that N. dombeyi showed a better photosynthetic performance than N. nitida under high light, high temperature, and drier conditions. These data support are consistent with the pioneer character of N. dombeyi and the semi-tolerant shade properties and more restricted distribution of N. nitida. These photosynthetic characteristics, along with their freezing and flooding resistance differences, may result from their habitat separationLas siempreverdes, Nothofagus dombeyi y Nothofagus nitida, representantes importantes de los bosques lluviosos templados de Chile, raramente crecen juntos en forma natural. Nothofagus nitida es más sensible al exceso de luz y déficit de agua que N. dombeyi. Se postula que diferentes propiedades

  8. Aggregate and soil organic carbon dynamics in South Chilean Andisols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huygens, D.; Boeckx, P.; Van Cleemput, O.; Oyarzún, C.; Godoy, R.

    2005-06-01

    Extreme sensitivity of soil organic carbon (SOC) to climate and land use change warrants further research in different terrestrial ecosystems. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between aggregate and SOC dynamics in a chronosequence of three different land uses of a south Chilean Andisol: a second growth Nothofagus obliqua forest (SGFOR), a grassland (GRASS) and a Pinus radiata plantation (PINUS). Total carbon content of the 0-10cm soil layer was higher for GRASS (6.7 kg C m-2) than for PINUS (4.3 kg C m-2, while TC content of SGFOR (5.8 kg C m-2) was not significantly different from either one. High extractable oxalate and pyrophosphate Al concentrations (varying from 20.3-24.4 g kg-1, and 3.9-11.1 g kg-1, respectively) were found in all sites. In this study, SOC and aggregate dynamics were studied using size and density fractionation experiments of the SOC, δ13C and total carbon analysis of the different SOC fractions, and C mineralization experiments. The results showed that electrostatic sorption between and among amorphous Al components and clay minerals is mainly responsible for the formation of metal-humus-clay complexes and the stabilization of soil aggregates. The process of ligand exchange between SOC and Al would be of minor importance resulting in the absence of aggregate hierarchy in this soil type. Whole soil C mineralization rate constants were highest for SGFOR and PINUS, followed by GRASS (respectively 0.495, 0.266 and 0.196 g CO2-Cm-2d-1 for the top soil layer). In contrast, incubation experiments of isolated macro organic matter fractions gave opposite results, showing that the recalcitrance of the SOC decreased in another order: PINUS>SGFOR>GRASS. We deduced that electrostatic sorption processes and physical protection of SOC in soil aggregates were the main processes determining SOC stabilization. As a result, high aggregate carbon concentrations, varying from 148 till 48 g kg-1, were encountered for all land use sites. Al

  9. Aggregate and soil organic carbon dynamics in South Chilean Andisols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Huygens

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme sensitivity of soil organic carbon (SOC to climate and land use change warrants further research in different terrestrial ecosystems. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between aggregate and SOC dynamics in a chronosequence of three different land uses of a south Chilean Andisol: a second growth Nothofagus obliqua forest (SGFOR, a grassland (GRASS and a Pinus radiata plantation (PINUS. Total carbon content of the 0-10cm soil layer was higher for GRASS (6.7 kg C m-2 than for PINUS (4.3 kg C m-2, while TC content of SGFOR (5.8 kg C m-2 was not significantly different from either one. High extractable oxalate and pyrophosphate Al concentrations (varying from 20.3-24.4 g kg-1, and 3.9-11.1 g kg-1, respectively were found in all sites. In this study, SOC and aggregate dynamics were studied using size and density fractionation experiments of the SOC, δ13C and total carbon analysis of the different SOC fractions, and C mineralization experiments. The results showed that electrostatic sorption between and among amorphous Al components and clay minerals is mainly responsible for the formation of metal-humus-clay complexes and the stabilization of soil aggregates. The process of ligand exchange between SOC and Al would be of minor importance resulting in the absence of aggregate hierarchy in this soil type. Whole soil C mineralization rate constants were highest for SGFOR and PINUS, followed by GRASS (respectively 0.495, 0.266 and 0.196 g CO2-Cm-2d-1 for the top soil layer. In contrast, incubation experiments of isolated macro organic matter fractions gave opposite results, showing that the recalcitrance of the SOC decreased in another order: PINUS>SGFOR>GRASS. We deduced that electrostatic sorption processes and physical protection of SOC in soil aggregates were the main processes determining SOC stabilization. As a result, high aggregate carbon concentrations, varying from 148 till 48 g kg-1, were encountered for all land use

  10. [Chilean nuclear policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobadilla, E

    1996-06-01

    This official document is statement of the President of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, Dr. Eduardo Bobadilla, about the nuclear policy of the Chilean State, Thanks to the international policy adopted by presidents Aylwin (1990-1994) and his successor Frei Ruiz Tagle (1994-), a nuclear development plan, protected by the Chilean entrance to the nuclear weapons non proliferation treaty and Tlatelolco Denuclearization treaty, has started. Chile will be able to develop without interference, an autonomous nuclear electrical system and other pacific uses of nuclear energy. Chile also supports a new international treaty to ban nuclear weapon tests. PMID:9041734

  11. Physiological responses to water stress and waterlogging in Nothofagus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, O J; Sweet, G B; Whitehead, D; Buchan, G D

    1995-10-01

    Gas exchange and water relations were investigated in Nothofagus solandri var. cliffortioides (Hook. f.) Poole (mountain beech) and Nothofagus menziesii (Hook. f.) Oerst (silver beech) seedlings in response to water stress and waterlogging. At soil matric potentials (Psi(soil)) above -0.005 MPa, N. solandri had significantly higher photosynthetic rates (A), and stomatal and residual conductances (g(sw) and g(rc)), and lower predawn xylem water potentials (Psi(predawn)) than N. menziesii. The relative tolerance of plants to water stress was defined in terms of critical soil matric potential (Psi(cri)) and lethal xylem water potential (Psi(lethal)). The estimated values of Psi(cri) and Psi(lethal) were -1.2 and -7 MPa, respectively, for N. solandri, and -0.7 and -4 MPa, respectively, for N. menziesii. Photosynthesis was sustained to a xylem water potential (Psi(xylem)) of -7 MPa in N. solandri compared with -4 MPa in N. menziesii. Following rewatering, both A and Psi(xylem) recovered quickly in N. solandri, whereas the two variables recovered more slowly in N. menziesii. During the development of water stress, nonstomatal inhibition significantly affected A in both N. solandri and N. menziesii. Nothofagus menziesii was more susceptible to inhibition of A by waterlogging than N. solandri. However, the tolerance of N. solandri to severe waterlogging was also limited as a result of a failure to form adventitious roots, suggesting a lack of adaptation to these conditions. The differences in tolerance to water stress and waterlogging between the two species are consistent with the distribution patterns of N. solandri and N. menziesii in New Zealand. PMID:14965996

  12. Forested habitat preferences by Chilean citizens: Implications for biodiversity conservation in Pinus radiata plantations Preferencia por hábitats forestales por ciudadanos chilenos: Implicancias para la conservación de biodiversidad en plantaciones de Pinus radiata

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    NICOLE PÜSCHEL-HOENEISEN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The need for conservation outside protected areas has prompted the modification of productive practices to allow the maintenance of wild biota in productive landscapes such as those associated to timber production. Forest plantations could cooperate in conserving biodiversity outside protected areas if they have a developed understory. However, the success of the production changes depends on the social support they receive. Therefore, we evaluate Chilean citizens' preference for five habitats of different types of forest management. In addition, we assessed perceptions regarding the relationship between pine plantations and native wildlife through surveys administered in Chillán, Santiago and six rural localities in the VII and VIII region. Despite there is not a unanimous opinion regarding pine plantations as a threat to biodiversity, people prefer pine plantations that serve as habitat for endangered fauna. In fact, they agree on paying more for forest products to contribute to conservation in forest plantations, and actually prefer plantations with a developed understory better than those without it. This would suggest that measures aimed at conservation in forest plantations could be supported by the Chilean society.La necesidad de la conservación fuera de áreas protegidas ha llevado a la modificación de las prácticas productivas para permitir el mantenimiento de la biota silvestre en paisajes productivos tales como los asociados a la producción de madera. Las plantaciones forestales podrían cooperar en la conservación de la biodiversidad fuera de áreas protegidas si tienen un sotobosque desarrollado. Sin embargo, el éxito de los cambios en la producción depende del apoyo social que estos reciben. Así, evaluamos la preferencia por cinco paisajes con diferentes tipos de manejo forestal. Además, se evaluó la percepción acerca de la relación entre las plantaciones de pino y la fauna nativa a través de encuestas realizadas en

  13. Litterfall, litter decomposition and nitrogen mineralization in old-growth evergreen and secondary deciduous Nothofagus forests in south-central Chile Aporte, descomposición de hojarasca y mineralización de nitrógeno en bosques siempreverdes de antiguo crecimiento y bosques secundarios deciduos, centro-sur de Chile

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    JEROEN STAELENS

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available South Chilean forest ecosystems represent one of the largest areas of old-growth temperate rainforests remaining in the Southern hemisphere and have a high ecological value, but suffer from deforestation, invasion by exotic species, fragmentation, and increasing atmospheric nitrogen (N deposition. To support sustainable forest management, more knowledge is required on nutrient cycling of these ecosystems. Therefore, a descriptive study of nutrient dynamics was done in four Valdivian rainforests in the lower Andes range of south Chile: old-growth and altered evergreen stands and unmanaged and managed secondary deciduous stands. Time series were measured for (i mass (four year and nutrient content (N, K, Ca, and Mg; one year of litterfall, (ii decomposition and nutrient dynamics (N, C, K, Ca, Mg, and P; one year of leaf litter and Saxegothaea conspicua bark litter, and (iii in situ topsoil net N mineralization (one year. Litterfall in the four stands ranged from 3.5 to 5.8 ton ha-1 yr-1, was temporarily lower in the managed than in the unmanaged deciduous stand and had a different seasonality in the evergreen stands than in the deciduous stands. Leaf litter decomposed faster (on average 32 % mass loss after one year than bark litter (8 % but without significant differences between leaf litter types. Net N in evergreen leaf litter decreased during decomposition but increased in deciduous leaf litter. Net soil N mineralization was fastest in the pristine evergreen stand, intermediate in the deciduous stands and slowest in the altered evergreen forest. Given the absence of replicated stands, the definite impact of forest type or management regime on the internal nutrient cycling cannot be demonstrated. Nevertheless, the results suggest that management can affect nutrient turnover by altering species composition and forest structure, while recent (five years selective logging in secondary deciduous forest did not affect litter decomposition or N

  14. Intraspecific trait variation and covariation in a widespread tree species (Nothofagus pumilio) in southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Alex; Piper, Frida I

    2011-01-01

    • The focus of the trait-based approach to study community ecology has mostly been on trait comparisons at the interspecific level. Here we quantified intraspecific variation and covariation of leaf mass per area (LMA) and wood density (WD) in monospecific forests of the widespread tree species Nothofagus pumilio to determine its magnitude and whether it is related to environmental conditions and ontogeny. We also discuss probable mechanisms controlling the trait variation found. • We collected leaf and stem woody tissues from 30-50 trees of different ages (ontogeny) from each of four populations at differing elevations (i.e. temperatures) and placed at each of three locations differing in soil moisture. • The total variation in LMA (coefficient of variation (CV) = 21.14%) was twice that of WD (CV = 10.52%). The total variation in traits was never less than 23% when compared with interspecific studies. Differences in elevation (temperature) for the most part explained variation in LMA, while differences in soil moisture and ontogeny explained the variation in WD. Traits covaried similarly in the altitudinal gradient only. • Functional traits of N. pumilio exhibited nonnegligible variation; LMA varied for the most part with temperature, while WD mostly varied with moisture and ontogeny. We demonstrate that environmental variation can cause important trait variation without species turnover. PMID:21039558

  15. Relaxed molecular clock provides evidence for long-distance dispersal of Nothofagus (southern beech).

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Knapp; Karen Stöckler; David Havell; Frédéric Delsuc; Federico Sebastiani; Lockhart, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    Nothofagus (southern beech), with an 80-million-year-old fossil record, has become iconic as a plant genus whose ancient Gondwanan relationships reach back into the Cretaceous era. Closely associated with Wegener's theory of “Kontinentaldrift”, Nothofagus has been regarded as the “key genus in plant biogeography”. This paradigm has the New Zealand species as passengers on a Moa's Ark that rafted away from other landmasses following the breakup of Gondwana. An alternative explanation for the c...

  16. Relaxed Molecular Clock Provides Evidence for Long-Distance Dispersal of Nothofagus (Southern Beech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knapp Michael

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Nothofagus (southern beech, with an 80-million-year-old fossil record, has become iconic as a plant genus whose ancient Gondwanan relationships reach back into the Cretaceous era. Closely associated with Wegener's theory of "Kontinentaldrift", Nothofagus has been regarded as the "key genus in plant biogeography". This paradigm has the New Zealand species as passengers on a Moa's Ark that rafted away from other landmasses following the breakup of Gondwana. An alternative explanation for the current transoceanic distribution of species seems almost inconceivable given that Nothofagus seeds are generally thought to be poorly suited for dispersal across large distances or oceans. Here we test the Moa's Ark hypothesis using relaxed molecular clock methods in the analysis of a 7.2-kb fragment of the chloroplast genome. Our analyses provide the first unequivocal molecular clock evidence that, whilst some Nothofagus transoceanic distributions are consistent with vicariance, trans-Tasman Sea distributions can only be explained by long-distance dispersal. Thus, our analyses support the interpretation of an absence of Lophozonia and Fuscospora pollen types in the New Zealand Cretaceous fossil record as evidence for Tertiary dispersals of Nothofagus to New Zealand. Our findings contradict those from recent cladistic analyses of biogeographic data that have concluded transoceanic Nothofagus distributions can only be explained by vicariance events and subsequent extinction. They indicate that the biogeographic history of Nothofagus is more complex than envisaged under opposing polarised views expressed in the ongoing controversy over the relevance of dispersal and vicariance for explaining plant biodiversity. They provide motivation and justification for developing more complex hypotheses that seek to explain the origins of Southern Hemisphere biota.

  17. Relaxed molecular clock provides evidence for long-distance dispersal of Nothofagus (southern beech.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Knapp

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Nothofagus (southern beech, with an 80-million-year-old fossil record, has become iconic as a plant genus whose ancient Gondwanan relationships reach back into the Cretaceous era. Closely associated with Wegener's theory of "Kontinentaldrift", Nothofagus has been regarded as the "key genus in plant biogeography". This paradigm has the New Zealand species as passengers on a Moa's Ark that rafted away from other landmasses following the breakup of Gondwana. An alternative explanation for the current transoceanic distribution of species seems almost inconceivable given that Nothofagus seeds are generally thought to be poorly suited for dispersal across large distances or oceans. Here we test the Moa's Ark hypothesis using relaxed molecular clock methods in the analysis of a 7.2-kb fragment of the chloroplast genome. Our analyses provide the first unequivocal molecular clock evidence that, whilst some Nothofagus transoceanic distributions are consistent with vicariance, trans-Tasman Sea distributions can only be explained by long-distance dispersal. Thus, our analyses support the interpretation of an absence of Lophozonia and Fuscospora pollen types in the New Zealand Cretaceous fossil record as evidence for Tertiary dispersals of Nothofagus to New Zealand. Our findings contradict those from recent cladistic analyses of biogeographic data that have concluded transoceanic Nothofagus distributions can only be explained by vicariance events and subsequent extinction. They indicate that the biogeographic history of Nothofagus is more complex than envisaged under opposing polarised views expressed in the ongoing controversy over the relevance of dispersal and vicariance for explaining plant biodiversity. They provide motivation and justification for developing more complex hypotheses that seek to explain the origins of Southern Hemisphere biota.

  18. Foliar anatomical and morphological variation in Nothofagus pumilio seedlings under controlled irradiance and soil moisture levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancich, Horacio S; Lencinas, María V; Pastur, Guillermo J Martínez; Esteban, Rosina M Soler; Hernández, Luis; Lindstrom, Ivone

    2012-05-01

    Foliar anatomy and morphology are strongly related to physiological performance; therefore, phenotypic plasticity in leaves to variations in environmental conditions, such as irradiance and soil moisture availability, can be related to growth rate and survivorship, mainly during critical growth phases, such as establishment. The aim of this work was to analyze changes in the foliar internal anatomy (tissue proportions and cell dimensions) and external morphology (leaf length, width and area) of Nothofagus pumilio (Poepp. et Endl.) Krasser seedlings growing in a greenhouse under controlled irradiance (three levels) and soil moisture (two levels) during one growing season (measured three times), and to relate them to physiological traits. Three irradiance levels (4, 26 and 64% of the natural incident light) and two soil moisture levels (40 and 80% soil capacity) were evaluated during November, January and March. Internal foliar anatomy of seedlings was analyzed using digital photographs of histological cuttings, while leaf gross morphology was measured using digital calipers and image analysis software. Most internal anatomical variables presented significant differences under different irradiance levels during the growing season, but differences were not detected between soil moisture levels. Palisade parenchyma was the tissue most sensitive to irradiance levels, and high irradiance levels (64% natural incident light) produced greater values in most of the internal anatomical variables than lower irradiance levels (4-24% natural incident light). Complementarily, larger leaves were observed in medium and low irradiance levels, as well as under low soil moisture levels (40% soil capacity). The relationship of main results with some eco-physiological traits was discussed. Foliar internal anatomical and external morphological plasticity allows quick acclimation of seedlings to environmental changes (e.g., during harvesting). These results can be used to propose new

  19. Selección de hongos antagonistas para el control biológico de Botrytis cinerea en viveros forestales en Chile Screening to antagonistic fungi for Botrytis cinerea biocontrol in Chilean forest nurseries

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    Gloria Molina Mercader

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis cinerea es uno de los patógenos más importante en viveros forestales en Chile. El control de la enfermedad se ha basado en el uso de fungicidas; sin embargo, bajo ciertas condiciones de presión de enfermedad esta medida no ha sido eficaz, sumado a problemas ambientales debido a su uso excesivo. El objetivo de este estudio fue seleccionar hongos antagonistas a B. cinerea, mediante ensayos in vitro y de invernadero, y determinar su capacidad como agentes biocontroladores de este hongo en viveros forestales. Los potenciales antagonistas fueron obtenidos a partir del filoplano de plantas, colectadas desde viveros forestales. Fueron ensayadas 71 cepas de hongos, evaluadas en su capacidad para reducir la colonización y esporulación del patógeno en ensayos in vitro, mediante bioensayos en discos de hojas de Eucalyptus globulus. Las cepas seleccionadas fueron ensayadas bajo condiciones de invernadero. Las plantas de Pinus radiata y E. globulus fueron pulverizadas con el patógeno (1x10(5 conidias/ml y después tratadas con los antagonistas (1x 10(7 conidias/ml, evaluándose la incidencia y severidad de la enfermedad. En los ensayos in vitro, cuatro cepas de Trichoderma, tres de Clonostachys, cuatro de Pencillium, una de Cladosporium y otras ocho cepas de hongos no identificados redujeron significativamente la colonización y esporulación del patógeno. En los ensayos en invernadero, la cepa Clonostachys (A-10 fue capaz de reducir, tanto en P. radiata como en E. globulus la incidencia y severidad de la enfermedad. Estos resultados permiten concluir el potencial de los antagonistas seleccionados en el control de B. cinerea.Botrytis cinerea is one of the most important pathogens in Chilean forest nurseries. The disease control has been based on the use of fungicides; nevertheless, under certain conditions of disease pressure this practice has not been effective, besides its environmental problems due to its excessive use. The objective of

  20. Using Genome-Wide SNP Discovery and Genotyping to Reveal the Main Source of Population Differentiation in Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst. in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Jorge; Fuentes, Glenda; Alarcón, Diego; Ruiz, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Within a woody plant species, environmental heterogeneity has the potential to influence the distribution of genetic variation among populations through several evolutionary processes. In some species, a relationship between environmental characteristics and the distribution of genotypes can be detected, showing the importance of natural selection as the main source of differentiation. Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst. (Nothofagaceae) is an endemic tree species occurring both in Chile and in Argentina temperate forests. Postglacial history has been studied with chloroplast DNA and evolutionary forces shaping genetic variation patterns have been analysed with isozymes but fine-scale genetic diversity studies are needed. The study of demographic and selection histories in Nothofagus dombeyi requires more informative markers such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Genotyping-by-Sequencing tools now allow studying thousands of SNP markers at reasonable prices in nonmodel species. We investigated more than 10 K SNP loci for signatures of local adaptation and showed that interrogation of genomic resources can identify shifts in genetic diversity and putative adaptive signals in this nonmodel woody species. PMID:27446942

  1. Effect of four levels of shade on survival, morphology and chlorophyll fluorescence of Nothofagus alessandrii container-grown seedlings

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    Santelices R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nothofagus alessandrii (ruil is a threatened, endemic tree of the Mediterranean zone of Chile. As a result of past anthropogenic activities, its current cover has been reduced to only 314 hectares across several fragmented and degraded areas. Although activities to conserve and recover such forests have been developed, little is known about their propagation and nursery cultivation, since the plant’s quality is one of the most important factors for restoration and reforestation plans, re-vegetation, or forest enrichment. The success of restoration programs in these areas will require improvements in plant production, being important to test the shade effects on seedling survival and growth. This paper reports the results of testing for survival, morphological and chlorophyll fluorescence differences in N. alessandrii seedlings grown for approximately 32 weeks in unshaded conditions and under three different levels of shading (18%, 50%, and 80% shade. Morphological traits (stem height, root collar diameter, specific leaf area, shoot and root biomass, and quality indexes and survival were measured. Chlorophyll fluorescence was also measured to analyze the shade tolerance of the species. Analysis showed significant differences for most traits as a consequence of the shade level. Seedlings exposed to 18% shade showed the highest total dry biomass, while those exposed to 80% shade showed the highest survival rate (92%. Chlorophyll fluorescence was high in the unshaded conditions and medium in the 18-50% shade. Morphological and chlorophyll fluorescence responses differed greatly among shade levels and corresponded with the degree of shade tolerance of the species.

  2. Descripción de posibles híbridos naturales entre Nothofagus pumilio y N. antarctica en Patagonia Sur (Argentina) Description of possible natural hybrids between Nothofagus pumilio and N. antarctica at South Patagonia (Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Lilian Burns; Juan Manuel Cellini; María Vanessa Lencinas; Guillermo José Martínez Pastur; Stella Maris Rivera

    2010-01-01

    El género Nothofagus comprende alrededor de 35 especies nativas del Hemisferio Sur. En la Patagonia se han citado numerosos ejemplos de híbridos naturales entre varias especies de Nothofagus. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue analizar y describir la evidencia de la existencia de posibles híbridos naturales entre Nothofagus pumilio y N. antarctica en Patagonia Sur, mediante el estudio de caracteres morfológicos foliares. Se trabajó con 20 posibles híbridos recolectados en una zona de transi...

  3. Variaciones Intra-Específicas en el crecimiento primario de Nothofagus dombeyi (Nothofagaceae) Intra-specific variations in the primary growth of Nothofagus dombeyi (Nothofagaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Puntieri

    2005-01-01

    Se evaluó el patrón de crecimiento bajo condiciones controladas de los ejes foliados de 16 plántulas de Nothofagus dombeyi. Los individuos fueron ubicados en una cámara de crecimiento y se evaluó el crecimiento del tronco en dos eventos de crecimiento sucesivos (julio 2002 - marzo 2004). Se identificaron tres patrones de crecimiento del primer brote medido: (1) crecimiento ininterrumpido por unos 8 meses, (2) crecimiento interrumpido por un período de reposo no menor de 7 semanas, con rebrote...

  4. Selection of Nothofagus host trees by the aphids Neuquenaphis staryi and Neuquenaphis edwardsi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Graeme B; Faundez, Eric H; Niemeyer, Hermann M

    2004-11-01

    Leaf volatiles were collected from three Nothofagus species growing in close proximity in Los Ruiles National Reserve, Chile. The volatile preparation from leaves of No. alessandrii were attractive to the specialist aphid, Neuquenaphis staryi, but not to the generalist aphid, Ne. edwardsi, while the volatile preparations of No. dombeyi and No. glauca were attractive to Ne. edwardsi, but not to Ne. staryi. This reflects the pattern of aphid/host-plant associations. Alpha-Agarofuran was found to occur in all leaf volatile preparations and was shown by electroantennography and olfactometry to be attractive for both Neuquenaphis spp., suggesting it may be the Nothofagus host-recognition factor for Neuquenaphis. The factor(s) mediating Ne. stayi's specialization on No. alessandrii remain to be identified. PMID:15672667

  5. Living on the edge: adaptive and plastic responses of the tree Nothofagus pumilio to a long-term transplant experiment predict rear-edge upward expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiasen, Paula; Premoli, Andrea C

    2016-06-01

    Current climate change affects the competitive ability and reproductive success of many species, leading to local extinctions, adjustment to novel local conditions by phenotypic plasticity or rapid adaptation, or tracking their optima through range shifts. However, many species have limited ability to expand to suitable areas. Altitudinal gradients, with abrupt changes in abiotic conditions over short distances, represent "natural experiments" for the evaluation of ecological and evolutionary responses under scenarios of climate change. Nothofagus pumilio is the tree species which dominates as pure stands the montane forests of Patagonia. We evaluated the adaptive value of variation in quantitative traits of N. pumilio under contrasting conditions of the altitudinal gradient with a long-term reciprocal transplant experimental design. While high-elevation plants show little response in plant, leaf, and phenological traits to the experimental trials, low-elevation ones show greater plasticity in their responses to changing environments, particularly at high elevation. Our results suggest a relatively reduced potential for evolutionary adaptation of high-elevation genotypes, and a greater evolutionary potential of low-elevation ones. Under global warming scenarios of forest upslope migration, high-elevation variants may be outperformed by low-elevation ones during this process, leading to the local extinction and/or replacement of these genotypes. These results challenge previous models and predictions expected under global warming for altitudinal gradients, on which the leading edge is considered to be the upper treeline forests. PMID:26868524

  6. Hypoxia in Chilean Patagonian Fjords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nelson; Vargas, Cristian A.

    2014-12-01

    Chilean Patagonia is one of the largest estuarine systems in the world. It is characterized by a complex geography of approximately 3300 islands, a total surface area of 240,000 km2, and 84,000 km of coast line, including islands, peninsulas, channels, fjords, and sounds. The Chilean Patagonia Interior Sea is filled with a mixture of sea, estuarine, and fresh waters, and is characterized by a two layer vertical general circulation. Dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions in these fjords were analyzed based on historic salinity, dissolved oxygen and nutrient data from 1200 oceanographic stations. Horizontal advection of adjacent well oxygenated Subantarctic Waters (5-6 mL L-1) was the mayor source of DO in the deep layers of the Interior Sea. Incoming DO was consumed by the respiration of autochthonous and allochthonous particulate organic matter, as ocean water flows towards the continental fjord heads, reaching near-hypoxic (2-3 mL L-1) or hypoxic levels (2 mL L-1) and four hypoxic (<2 mL L-1), but only at their heads. None were found to be anoxic (0 mL L-1). We found these DO conditions to be permanent features of the Chilean Patagonia Interior Sea.

  7. FENOLES SOLUBLES TOTALES Y SU RELACION CON LA INHIBICION DE LA RIZOGENESIS EN ESTACAS DE NOTHOFAGUS PUMILIO (POEPP. ET ENDL.) KRASSER TOTAL PHENOL CONTENT AND ITS RELATIONS WITH RHIZOGENESIS IN CUTTINGS OF NOTHOFAGUS PUMILIO (POEPP. ET ENDL.) KRASSER

    OpenAIRE

    Mirtha Latsague V.; Janina Lara G.

    2003-01-01

    Los compuestos fenólicos en concentraciones altas participan como inductores de la oxidación de auxinas, interfiriendo con la formación de raíces adventicias en estacas de tallo. Al no obtener enraizamiento en estacas de lenga (Nothofagus pumilio (Poepp. et Endl.) Krasser) en invierno y verano, se atribuyó que esto se debía a una alta cantidad de fenoles producidos en lenga, comparado con otros Nothofagus. En este estudio se procedió a cuantificar el contenido de fenoles solubles totales en e...

  8. Fraccionamiento y recuperación de proteínas solubles libres de fenoles en estacas de lenga (Nothofagus pumilio) Fractioning and soluble Protein free Phenols recovery from lenga (Nothofagus pumilio) cuttings

    OpenAIRE

    Mirtha Latsague Vidal; Patricia Sáez Delgado

    2006-01-01

    Para Nothofagus spp. no existe a la fecha información acerca del fraccionamiento y recuperación de proteínas a partir de extracto crudo de estacas, condición necesaria para demostrar in vitro actividad enzimática en presencia de cofactores. Además, esta información es crucial para determinar los niveles de expresión enzimática, lo que permitiría conocer aspectos fisiológicos de las estacas de lenga (Nothofagus pumilio) que podrían estar condicionando la baja respuesta obtenida en los tratamie...

  9. Descomposición de hojarasca en rodales de Nothofagus pumilio de la región de Magallanes Litter decomposition in Nothofagus pumilio stands in Magallanes Region

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Ibarra; Juan Caldentey; Álvaro Promis

    2011-01-01

    En dos rodales de un bosque lenga (Nothofagus pumilio) de la región de Magallanes, uno sin intervención (SI) y otro sometido a una corta de regeneración (CR), se determinaron las tasas de descomposición de los restos orgánicos (hojarasca) para un período de dos años. En la estimación de las pérdidas de peso y las constantes de descomposición se emplearon 36 bolsas de descomposición dispuestas sistemáticamente en cada rodal, las cuales fueron extraídas a los 2, 5, 9, 11, 12, 15, 21, 22 y 24 me...

  10. Halfway encounters: meeting points of colonization routes among the southern beeches Nothofagus pumilio and N. antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliani, Carolina; Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Bagnoli, Francesca; Gallo, Leonardo A; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Marchelli, Paula

    2015-04-01

    The Patagonian region is characterized by a complex biogeographic history, with evidence of deep phylogeographic breaks shared among species. Of particular interest to conservation is the nature of colonization and settlement patterns after the last glacial period, including the detection of secondary contact between different lineages and/or hybridization among related species around phylogeographic breaks. Here we studied population demography and past hybridization of two widespread tree species endemic to South America, Nothofagus pumilio and N. antarctica. Using 8 nuclear microsatellites we genotyped 41 populations of both species. Genetic variation and structure across the geographic region were evaluated within and among species and the past demographic history of hybridization between the two species was inferred using Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC). Northern and southern lineages were identified in each species, and Bayesian clustering revealed their convergence at mid latitudes (42°S). Spatial genetic structure (SGS) also indicated the existence of a genetic discontinuity at these latitudes, which is in agreement with previous data from maternal DNA markers. Several populations around 42-44°S presented high levels of genetic diversity with a decrease toward southern populations. Even though the species are clearly differentiated (G'ST=0.335), admixed gene pools were observed in both species. Two independent runs of ABC suggested that inter species admixture-like patterns occurred within the timescale of the Last Glacial Maximum (around 20,000 BP). We also provide evidences of recent and bi-directional hybridization/introgression between the two Nothofagus species and describe features of the populationś demography in the past. The settlement of a secondary contact zone in Nothofagus species around 42-44°S coincides with the phylogeographic breaks and hotspots of genetic diversity found in other plant and animal species in Patagonia

  11. Ecosystem process interactions between central Chilean habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Root-Bernstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding ecosystem processes is vital for developing dynamic adaptive management of human-dominated landscapes. We focus on conservation and management of the central Chilean silvopastoral savanna habitat called “espinal”, which often occurs near matorral, a shrub habitat. Although matorral, espinal and native sclerophyllous forest are linked successionally, they are not jointly managed and conserved. Management goals in “espinal” include increasing woody cover, particularly of the dominant tree Acacia caven, improving herbaceous forage quality, and increasing soil fertility. We asked whether adjacent matorral areas contribute to espinal ecosystem processes related to the three main espinal management goals. We examined input and outcome ecosystem processes related to these goals in matorral and espinal with and without shrub understory. We found that matorral had the largest sets of inputs to ecosystem processes, and espinal with shrub understory had the largest sets of outcomes. Moreover, we found that these outcomes were broadly in the directions preferred by management goals. This supports our prediction that matorral acts as an ecosystem process bank for espinal. We recommend that management plans for landscape resilience consider espinal and matorral as a single landscape cover class that should be maintained as a dynamic mosaic. Joint management of espinal and matorral could create new management and policy opportunities.

  12. Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The forest are subject to many direct and indirect influences, apart from atmospheric pollutants and the potential effects of climatic changes, timber production and hunting have a major impact in the Austrian forests. Ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, inorganic fluoride, chloride compounds, heavy metals (cadmium and lead), organic pollutants (chlorinated hydrocarbons, trichloroacetic acid and nitrophenols), acidifying compounds and eutrophying compounds are the main forest pollutants. As forests cover nearly 50 % of the Austrian territory, changes affecting them constitute a potentially significant parameter in the national greenhouse gas balance. Carbon stocks and the annual carbon balance were calculated and a estimation of the potential impact of climate change by means of dynamic computer simulation and risk assesment were performed. The results are illustrated in a cartographic chart. Other topics discussed in this chapter are forest management, forest damage (game, cattle, abiotic and biotic influences), changes in land use, biodiversity, crown condition and long-term monitoring to determine the impact of environmental stress. Figs. 2, Table 1. (nevyjel)

  13. Holocene forest fires in the upper Clutha district, Otago, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surveyors' maps and descriptions show that the extent of tall forest in the upper Clutha district was almost the same at the beginning of European settlement in the 1850s as it is today. Since the 1850s fires in non-forest vegetation have burnt up to forest boundaries, but in one locality where a large block of Nothofagus forest was burnt (about 1891), succession towards podocarp woodland is now advanced. Totara (Podocarpus hallii) logs were abundant on mountain sides down-valley from existing forests at the time of European settlement. Radiocarbon dates range between 730 and 1200 yr BP, with the younger dates likely to be closest to the time of destruction of the trees. Charcoal occurs on slopes where soil movement after fire has led to burial and preservation, and in alluvial fans and terraces. It is most frequent between altitudes of 300 and 1000 m, and depths of 20-40 cm. None was found where annual precipitation exceeds 3600 mm, very little where it is less than 450 mm, and none within existing forest except close to margins. Fragments were identified as angiosperm or podocarp. Nothofagus and six other angiosperm genera were confidently distinguished. Six species of podocarp were separated, though usually as probable rather than definitive identifications; most were identified as Phyllocladus alpinus, but Prumnopitys taxifolia, Halocarpus, and Podocarpus also occur. Podocarp charcoal is widely distributed through the district, usually dispersed through the subsoil, and ranges in age from 860 to 8490 years BP. Nothofagus charcoal is most abundant near surviving Nothofagus stands, often as substantial pockets. One sample was dated at 3830 years BP, whereas the remainder date at 1620 years BP or younger. Charcoal of Kunzea ericoides and/or Leptospermum scoparium, which usually grow as fire-induced stands, dated to as old as 3420 years. Charcoal and totara logs dated between 430 and 860 years BP, together with abundant undated material with similar stratigraphy

  14. Oceanography of the Chilean Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, Silvio; Luis Iriarte, José; Daneri, Giovanni

    2011-03-01

    Chilean Patagonia is one of the most extended fjord regions in the world that covers nearly 240,000 km 2 with an extremely complex coastline and topography in one of the least densely populated areas of the country (1-8 inhabitants every 10 km 2). In recent years, the area has been undergoing somewhat intense pressure since several commercial projects in hydroelectricity, tourism, and commercial salmon and mytilid cultures have been developed, or are in progress. Concomitantly, several large research programs have been devised to study the physical, chemical, and biological environment of Patagonia, such as the CIMAR FIORDO, and recently COPAS Sur-Austral based at Universidad de Concepcion, that attempts to close the bridge between oceanographic knowledge and its use by society. In this introductory article we summarize the collection of papers comprising this Special Issue of Continental Shelf Research. These papers deal with aspects of regional oceanography and geology, inorganic and organic geochemistry, ecology of pelagic and benthic organisms, and past changes in productivity.

  15. Regulatory factors in crustacean zooplankton assemblages in mountain lakes of northern Chilean Patagonia (38-41°S): a comparison with Bulgarian counterparts (42°N) Factores reguladores en ensambles de crustáceos zooplanctónicos en lagos de montaña del norte de la Patagonia chilena (38-41°S): una comparación con sus contrapartes de Bulgaria (42°N)

    OpenAIRE

    Patricio De los Ríos-Escalante; Enrique Hauenstein; Patricio Acevedo; Mario Romero-Miéres; Ivan Pandourski

    2012-01-01

    Chilean Patagonia has protected mountainous areas with evergreen native forests; in which the lakes and rivers, of volcanic or glacial origin, are oligotrophic. In Bulgaria, there are mountainous zones with native forests and associated lakes of volcanic origin. The aim of the present study is to carry out a preliminary comparison of zooplanktonic crustaceans in lake ecosystems associated with native forests of Chilean Patagonia and of Bulgarian mountains. The study revealed that the lakes st...

  16. Flower and fruit production and insect pollination of the endangered Chilean tree, Gomortega keule in native forest, exotic pine plantation and agricultural environments Producción de flores y frutas y polinización por insectos de Gomortega keule en bosque nativo y en terrenos agrícolas, un árbol chileno en peligro de extinción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TONYA A LANDER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to discover whether patterns of flower and fruit production for Gomortega keule, an endangered Chilean tree, differ between exotic pine plantation, agricultural and native forest environments. A pilot study was also undertaken to identify the primary pollinators of G. keule. Although similar proportions of G. keule trees flowered in the agricultural and native forest áreas, more trees in the agricultural sites produced fruit compared to trees in the native forest sites. Flowering and fruiting of G. keule was extremely rare in the exotic pine plantations. Our data show that G. keule flowers are predominantly visited by syrphid flies in March-April, and that syrphids carry a greater proportion of G. keule pollen than the other insects collected. Native forest and low intensity agricultural systems appear to provide habitat in which syrphids forage and G. keule is able to produce fruit successfully, but exotic pine plantation does not; suggesting that a landscape made up of a mosaic of different landuse types is not necessarily inimical to the continued reproduction of G. keule, but that the combination and types of landuses and intensity of management must be carefully considered.El presente estudio fue realizado con el objetivo de establecer si los patrones de producción de flores y frutos de Gomortega keule (Gomortegaceae, un árbol chileno en peligro de extinción, son diferentes entre áreas de plantaciones de pinos exóticos, terrenos agrícolas y áreas de bosque nativo. También fue llevado a cabo un estudio piloto para identificar los principales polinizadores de G. keule. A pesar de que en tierras agrícolas y en áreas de bosque nativo floreció una proporción similar de árboles de G. keule, en zonas agrícolas fructificó una mayor proporción en comparación con los árboles de áreas de bosque nativo. La floración y fructificación de G. keule fue extremadamente rara en las áreas de plantaciones de

  17. Continental and local climatic influences on hydrology of eucalypt-Nothofagus ecosystems revealed by δ2H, δ13C, and δ18O of ecosystem samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfautsch, Sebastian; Gessler, Arthur; Rennenberg, Heinz; Weston, Christopher J.; Adams, Mark A.

    2010-03-01

    Marrying knowledge of variation in large-scale climatic parameters such as rainfall and evaporation to physiological ecology has long been argued as a powerful approach to advancing understanding of hydrology of catchments. Widely used hydrological models for assessing water yield depend on key plant attributes such as whether or not plant water use is coupled to atmospheric and/or soil water status. We analyzed δ2H and δ18O signatures of long-term rainwater collections from coastal sites near Melbourne, Australia, and in northwest Tasmania and compared them with their counterparts in rainwater, stream water, soil water, and twig water data collected over a 2 year period from south facing Eucalyptus-Nothofagus forests in the Cement Creek catchment of Mt. Donna Buang, about 70 km east of the city of Melbourne. Within the catchment, progressive evaporative enrichment among rain, soil, and twig water accounted for observed δ2H and δ18O signatures. We observed a major shift in both δ2H and δ18O signatures of rain and stream water between 2001/2002 and 2003. The shift was likely due to changes in atmospheric conditions and especially relative contributions to rainwater from oceanic and continental sources. Our plant isotope data argue strongly that radiation, not water, is a primary limitation for Nothofagus on Mt. Donna Buang. The δ18O and δ13C signatures of foliage varied with season and with topography. For the wettest and driest years in the 1978-2000 record, strong and consistent altitudinal gradients in δ13C of tree rings had a slope of between 4‰ and 5‰ km-1 of altitude. Our data highlight the importance of background (e.g., rainfall and atmospheric CO2) isotope data to interpretation of plant isotope data. Taken together with the literature, our isotope data lead us to conclude that (1) in periods of close to average rainfall, the observed meteoric water line at Mt. Donna Buang and at other stations in southeast Australia departs strongly in slope

  18. Fostering Teaching Quality in Chilean Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman Cruzat, Jose Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to explain the strategies that have been carried out by three Chilean universities in order to advance the quality of their teaching. The studied institutions are the Universidad de los Andes, the Universidad de Talca and the Universidad Catolica de Chile. In each of these three cases the analysis included, both the policies…

  19. Effect of ectomycorrhizal colonization and drought on reactive oxygen species metabolism of Nothofagus dombeyi roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Maricel; Huygens, Dries; Fernandez, Carlos; Gacitúa, Yessy; Olivares, Erick; Saavedra, Isabel; Alberdi, Miren; Valenzuela, Eduardo

    2009-08-01

    Infection with ectomycorrhizal fungi can increase the ability of plants to resist drought stress through morphophysiological and biochemical mechanisms. However, the metabolism of antioxidative enzyme activities in the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis remains poorly understood. This study investigated biomass production, reactive oxygen metabolism (hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde concentration) and antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase) in pure cultures of the ectomycorrhizal fungi Descolea antartica Sing. and Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker & Couch, and non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal roots of Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) roots under well-watered conditions and drought conditions (DC). The studied ectomycorrhizal fungi regulated their antioxidative enzyme metabolism differentially in response to drought, resulting in cellular damage in D. antartica but not in P. tinctorius. Ectomycorrhizal inoculation and water treatment had a significant effect on all parameters studied, including relative water content of the plant. As such, N. dombeyi plants in symbiosis experienced a lower oxidative stress effect than non-mycorrhizal plants under DC. Additionally, ectomycorrhizal N. dombeyi roots showed a greater antioxidant enzyme activity relative to non-mycorrhizal roots, an effect which was further expressed under DC. The association between the non-specific P. tinctorius and N. dombeyi had a more effective reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism than the specific D. antartica-N. dombeyi symbiosis. We conclude that the combination of effective ROS prevention and ROS detoxification by ectomycorrhizal plants resulted in reduced cellular damage and increased plant growth relative to non-mycorrhizal plants under drought. PMID:19483186

  20. Surface-bound phosphatase activity in living hyphae of ectomycorrhizal fungi of Nothofagus obliqua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Maricel; Godoy, Roberto; Heyser, Wolfgang; Härtel, Steffen

    2004-01-01

    We determined the location and the activity of surface-bound phosphomonoesterase (SBP) of five ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi of Nothofagus oblique. EM fungal mycelium of Paxillus involutus, Austropaxillus boletinoides, Descolea antartica, Cenococcum geophilum and Pisolithus tinctorius was grown in media with varying concentrations of dissolved phosphorus. SBP activity was detected at different pH values (3-7) under each growth regimen. SBP activity was assessed using a colorimetric method based on the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) to p-nitrophenol phosphate (pNP) + P. A new technique involving confocal laser-scanning microscopy (LSM) was used to locate and quantify SBP activity on the hyphal surface. EM fungi showed two fundamentally different patterns of SBP activity in relation to varying environmental conditions (P-concentrations and pH). In the cases of D. antartica, A. boletinoides and C. geophilum, changes in SBP activity were induced primarily by changes in the number of SBP-active centers on the hyphae. In the cases of P. tinctorius and P. involutus, the number of SBP-active centers per μm hyphal length changed much less than the intensity of the SBP-active centers on the hyphae. Our findings not only contribute to the discussion about the role of SBP-active centers in EM fungi but also introduce LSM as a valuable method for studying EM fungi. PMID:21148871

  1. Patrones de dispersión de semillas y colonización de Misodendrum punctulatum (Misodendraceae en un matorral postfuego de Nothofagus antarctica (Nothofagaceae del noroeste de la Patagonia Misodendrum punctulatum (Misodendraceae seed dispersal and colonization patterns on a Nothofagus antarctica (Nothofagaceae post-fire shrubland from Northwestern Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NORLAN TERCERO-BUCARDO

    2010-01-01

    allow understand the patterns of spatial distribution and infection dynamics of Misodendrum punctulatum. In order to plan management strategies, understanding the infection dynamics is useful to perform successfully strategies to the control of hemiparasitic plants in forest to commercial use, and conservation or restoration strategies, e.g. to restorate this hemiparasitic specie in areas recently colonized by N. antárctica. These studied aspects in Misodendrum punctulatum contribute to the knowledge of this ecological interaction, which is frequent in Nothofagus forests from Argentina and Chile.

  2. Retracing the evolutionary history of Nothofagus in its geo-climatic context: new developments in the emerging field of phylogeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, M C; Mathiasen, P; Premoli, A C

    2014-11-01

    Phylogeographic studies have made a significant contribution to the interpretation of genetic lineage distribution in response to climate changes, such as during glaciation events of the Neogene. However, the effects of ancient landscapes associated with global sea level rises, tectonic processes, and climatology driving lineage evolution have been largely overlooked. These effects can be tested in widespread lineages of cold-tolerant species that have endured cooling, and thus, phylogeographic patterns may reflect large-scale processes that were not reset by the ice ages. We hereby combine geological evidence from marine sedimentary basins, Andean orogeny, and climatology with molecular dating and statistical phylogeography to infer how geological and climatic processes affected the distribution of lineages in cold-tolerant Nothofagus species during the Cenozoic. A total of 239 populations along the entire range of all species within the genus Nothofagus (N. antarctica, N. betuloides, N. dombeyi, N. nitida, and N. pumilio) were sampled and analyzed by sequencing three non-coding regions of the chloroplast. We found 30 chloroplast DNA haplotypes that were geographically structured. Molecular dating calibrated with fossils revealed that ancestral lineages appeared in Eocene/Oligocene, whereas most divergences took place during the Miocene; in turn, Bayesian skyline plots showed that population expansion occurred in the Early Pleistocene (1.5-1 million years ago). Lineage divergence from all wide-ranging Nothofagus was spatially and temporally concordant with episodic marine transgressions and warmer times in Patagonia during Eocene/Miocene Epochs. Long-lasting stable raised areas preserved haplotype diversity throughout Patagonia, from where cold-tolerant taxa expanded their ranges during pre-Quaternary times. The detailed study of such ancient divergences is novel and allows us to infer the effects of geological processes on distribution patterns of ancient

  3. Innovation Performance of Chilean SMEs: A Bivariate Probit Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rehman, Naqeeb Ur

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the innovation activities of Chilean firms’ by using micro level data. Previous studies showed research gap related to micro level analysis of the Chilean SMEs. For the first time, multiple proxies have been used as dependent variables (product/process innovations and patent application/spending), which is neglected by the past studies. A micro level data has been obtained from the World Bank, Enterprise Survey on 696 Chilean SMEs. Bivariate probit...

  4. Main musculoskeletal injuries associated with lameness in Chilean Rodeo horses

    OpenAIRE

    M Mora-Carreño; Briones, R.; JS Galecio; Parra, D.; Rosenfeld, C.; SCHMEISSER, A.; B Menarim

    2014-01-01

    Chilean Rodeo is the most popular equestrian discipline in Chile and it is estimated that musculoskeletal diseases of the equine participants are the leading cause of illness and poor performance, however no related reports have been published. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the main diseases associated with lameness in Chilean Rodeo horses. A retrospective study was performed considering the clinical attention records of horses participating in Chilean Rodeo which pre...

  5. Constructing Realities: Bullying Usages in Chilean Discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Bassaletti-Contreras

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article reports an exploratory research on the uses given in Chile to the Anglicism bullying. In order to do so, its evolution is reviewed from the early studies in the Nordic countries, to the treatment of the topic in the Chilean context. The focus of this work is based on socioconstructionism and in turn promotes the consideration of the characteristics of the socio-cultural and historical context of knowledge production with a postcolonial intention. To review the constructions on the subject, we selected Chilean videos at the YouTube virtual platform, using as methodology discourse analysis and dense description. In results can be observed two meanings of bullying: (i to refer to any kind of aggression and (ii as a homologous of abuse among schoolchildren. In response, it is realized the discrepancy with the proposed definitions from general academia and those used in the local environment in investigations, interventions, public policy and mass media in Chile.

  6. Mineralización del nitrógeno, carbono y actividad enzimática del suelo en un bosque de Nothofagus obliqua (Mirb Oerst y una plantación de Pinus radiata D. Don. del centro-sur de Chile Nitrogen and carbon mineralization and enzyme activity in soils of Nothofagus obliqua (Mirb Oerst stands and Pinus radiata D. Don plantation in south-central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YESSICA RIVAS

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available En Chile, el establecimiento de plantaciones comerciales de rápido crecimiento ha sido sostenido en las últimas décadas mediante la sustitución de bosques nativos y conversión de suelos agrícolas. Pinus radiata D. Don es la principal especie productiva, debido a su crecimiento acelerado y adaptabilidad al clima y los suelos. En el presente estudio se plantea que la actividad biológica del suelo es variable a través del año, en respuesta a variaciones de precipitación, temperatura y contenido de humedad de suelo y que el cambio de uso de suelo desde un bosque templado de Nothofagus obliqua (Mirb Oerst a una plantación con coniferas exóticas, modifica la química del suelo y consecuentemente los procesos de N-min, C-min y la actividad biológica del suelo. Esta hipótesis fue examinada en un bosque de N. obliqua y una plantación de P. radiata del centro-sur de Chile (40°07' S, 72° O. Se evaluó mensualmente la tasa mineralización de nitrógeno (N-min, cabono (C-min y la actividad enzimática potencial del suelo (ureasa, proteasa e hidrólisis de la fluoresceína diacetato entre septiembre 2003 y mayo 2005. Los resultados demuestran que los niveles de las variables de actividad biológica del suelo fueron significativamente diferentes entre las parcelas de bosque y plantación (Lambda de Wilk = 0,022; F 5,80 = 733; P In Chile, commercial forests plantations have increased during the last decades due in part to replacement of native forests and conversion of agricultural soils. Pinus radiata D. Don has been the main tree planted, due to its rapid growth and adaptability. In the present study we proposed that biological activity varies along the year due to changes of precipitation, temperature and soil water content and mainly because the conversion of native forest to exotic P. radiata plantations alters the soil chemistry, N and C mineralization and the potential enzymatic activity in these soils. This hypothesis was examined in a

  7. Organizational and territorial cultures in Chilean journalism

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Mellado; Claudia Lagos

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of survey responses of 570 journalists from 114 newspapers, radio, newswires, television, and internet news organizations, this paper describes the role conceptions, epistemological underpinning, and ethical values of the Chilean news media workers, comparing the differences that exist among media types and between the capital and the rest of the country. The findings show territorial cultures of journalism, with differences between the capital and provincial regions, mostly clas...

  8. Memorial 1997 - ENDESA (Chilean Electricity Company)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a comprehensive survey, in depth assessment of the activities overview of ENDESA, Chilean Electricity Company, highlighting economical information and including historical and technical aspects. Economics is its focal point, but other relevant data are shown, like technical data on hydroelectric and thermoelectric power plants. Main activities developed by ENDESA are described, such in Chile as in the foreign. Data on power generation, transmission and transport are also presented and an economical balance of each colligated company are done and analysed

  9. A BVAR Forecasting Model for the Chilean Economy A BVAR Forecasting Model for the Chilean Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Morandé

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available A BVAR Forecasting Model for the Chilean Economy Doan, Litterman, and Sims have described a method for estimaling Bayesian vector autoregressive (BVAR forecasting models. The method has been successfully applied to the U.S. macroeconomic dataset, which is relatively long and stable. Despite the brevity and volatily of the post-1976 Chilean macroeconomic dataset, this paper shows that a straightforward application of the DLS method to this datasef, with simple modification to allow for delays in the release of data, also appears to satisfy at least one criterion of relative forecasting accuracy suggested by Doan, Litterman, and Sims. However, the forecast errors of the Chilean BVARs are stil large in absolute term. Also, the model's coefficients change sharply in periods marked by policy shifts, such as the floating of the peso in 1982.

  10. Variación estacional y potencial enzimático de microhongos asociados con la descomposición de hojarasca de Nothofagus pumilio Seasonal variation and enzymatic potential of microfungi associated with the decomposition of Nothofagus pumilio leaf litter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO VALENZUELA

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la variación estacional y el potencial enzimático de microhongos aislados desde el follaje y hojarasca de Nothofagus pumilio sometida a degradación natural durante 1 año. La investigación se realizó en un bosque de N. pumilio ubicado en una microcuenca del Valle de Antillanca, Parque Nacional Puyehue (40° 47' S, 72° 12' O, 1.120 m de altitud. Hojas senescentes colectadas desde árboles de N. pumilio se depositaron en bolsas de malla de nylon ("litter bags" y se sometieron a degradación natural en el piso del bosque durante 1 año (marzo 1997-marzo 1998, realizando muestreos trimestrales. Para el aislamiento de microhongos desde las hojas se utilizó el método de las diluciones, con agar extracto de malta al 2 % como medio de cultivo. Para determinar los potenciales degradativos de los aislamientos, se analizaron in vitro las actividades de amilasa, celulasa, pectinasa, proteasa, lacasa, oxidasa extracelular, peroxidasa, citocromo oxidasa, fosfatasa, esterasa y tirosinasa. Las principales especies aisladas en las hojas senescentes fueron Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Epicoccum nigrum, Phialophora grupo hoffmannii y Rhodotorula aurantiaca. Las especies dominantes en la hojarasca fueron Hormonema prunorum, Mortierella ramanniana var. angulispora, Penicillium para-herquei y Trichoderma polysporum. El mayor potencial enzimático lo exhibieron Moniliales y micelios estériles, mientras el menor Sphaeropsidales y levaduras. Las especies más activas fueron Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Hormonema prunorum y Phialophora malorum. Las actividades de celulasa y amilasa fueron las más importantes. De las enzimas ligninolíticas, oxidasa extracelular y peroxidasa presentaron los más elevados potenciales enzimáticosThe seasonal variation and enzymatic potential of microfungi isolated from senescent leaves and leaf litter of Nothofagus pumilio was studied. The study was performed in a N

  11. Some Thoughts on the Evaluation of the Chilean Voucher System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapelli, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Many papers describe the Chilean voucher system as the "textbook" voucher case. But this is mistaken and has prevented research to undertake the key question of how the particular design of the Chilean voucher system determines the results obtained in Chile. This also prevents discussion of how a voucher system with a different design could lead…

  12. The CHilean Automatic Supernova sEarch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamuy, M.; Pignata, G.; Maza, J.;

    2012-01-01

    The CHilean Automatic Supernova sEarch (CHASE) project began in 2007 with the goal to discover young, nearby southern supernovae in order to (1) better understand the physics of exploding stars and their progenitors, and (2) refine the methods to derive extragalactic distances. During the first...... four years of operation, CHASE has produced more than 130 supernovae, being the most successful project of its type in the southern hemisphere. Here we describe the project and present illustrative examples of CHASE discoveries of particular relevance....

  13. Are Chileans exposed to dietary furan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, María S; Toledo, Carla; Hevia, Karen; Gomez, J Pablo; Fromberg, Arvid; Granby, Kit; Rosowski, Jaime; Castillo, Oscar; Pedreschi, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Chilean consumer preferences include foods that may contain considerable amounts of furan, a potential human carcinogen. However, there is no information regarding dietary exposure to furan in Chile. Thus, the objective of this work was to determine the Chilean exposure to dietary furan. To accomplish this objective, the furan concentration of 14 types of commercial foods processed at high temperature were analysed based on a modified headspace-GC/MS (HS-GC/MS) method in which the limits of detection for different food matrices ranged from 0.01 to 0.6 ng g(-1). In addition, a risk assessment was made with exposure estimates based on dietary data from national studies on different age groups (9-month-old babies, school children, adults and elderly people). Of the food items surveyed "American"-type coffee (espresso coffee plus hot water) obtained from automatic coffee machine (936 ng g(-1)) and low moisture starchy products like crisps and "soda"-type crackers showed the highest furan concentrations (259 and 91 ng g(-1), respectively). Furthermore, furan was also found in samples of breakfast cereals (approximately 20 ng g(-1)), jarred fruit baby foods (8.5 ng g(-1)) and orange juice (7.0 ng g(-1)). School children (aged 9-13 years) represented the highest intake of furan (about 500 ng kg(-1)(bw) day(-1)), with margins of exposure of 2479 and 2411, respectively, which points to a possible public health risk. PMID:23875686

  14. Simplicity of the Tax Systems: The Chilean Case. (in Spanish)

    OpenAIRE

    Barra, Patricio

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the concept of the simplicity in a tax system. The analysis approaches the different scopes in which the tax simplicity is observed. For this purpose, the main aspects of the Chilean tax system are analyzed, by using indicators that try to define the concept in a quantitative frame. The analysis of the Chilean case is used to infer some implications that could also be valid in other Latin American tax systems.

  15. Association between eating behavior scores and obesity in Chilean children

    OpenAIRE

    Amador Paola; Obregón Ana M; Cataldo Rodrigo; Domínguez-Vásquez Patricia; Smalley Susan V; González Andrea; Ho-Urriola Judith A; Santos José L; Weisstaub Gerardo; Hodgson M Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Inadequate eating behavior and physical inactivity contribute to the current epidemic of childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the association between eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chilean children. Design and methods We recruited 126 obese, 44 overweight and 124 normal-weight Chilean children (6-12 years-old; both genders) according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria. Eating behavior scores were calculated using the ...

  16. Influencias de las variaciones en el clima y en la concentración de C0(2 sobre el crecimiento de Nothofagus pumilio en la Patagonia Influences of climatic and C0(2 concentration changes on radial growth oí Nothofagus pumilio in Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA M SRUR

    2008-06-01

    variaciones de la disponibilidad hídrica en sitios mésicos.Influences of climate and C0(2 concentration variations during the last century on radial growth and water-use efficiency oí Nothofagus pumilio were evaluated along an altitudinal gradient in El Chaltén (49°22' S, Santa Cruz, Argentina. We used a combination of dendrochronological and isotopic techniques. Tree growth in the upper treeline shows a positive trend concurrent with increasing regional temperatures. In contrast, due to a gradual increase in water déficits, the rate of radial growth in the xeric forest-steppe ecotone has decreased in the past 100 years. Intermediate-elevation trees from mesic forests show a weak, non-significant negative trend in radial growth during the same interval. 6(13C reflects soil moisture variations with elevation and its differential influence on stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate processes. In sites with reduced to severe water déficits, the intrinsic water-use efficiency (IWUE appears to be influenced by the amount of water in the soil. However, the relationship between IWUE and climate is more obvious in sites with reduced water stress. In drier sites, the photosynthetic rate is severely limited by water déficits so that the reduction in radial growth is not compensated by the increase in IWUE. In contrast with the traditional assumption in dendrochronology indicating that the strong relationships between radial growth and climate are recorded at the forest ecotones, the variations in 6(13C better reflect water déficits at intermedíate mesic forests.

  17. Desarrollo foliar y caulinar de las unidades de alargamiento de Nothofagus dombeyi (Nothofagaceae en condiciones de alta y baja luminosidad Leaf and stem development in extension units of Nothofagus dombeyi (Nothofagaceae under high and low light conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Calabria

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron el tamaño del tallo y las hojas que componen las unidades de alargamiento (UA del tronco, las ramas principales y las ramas cortas de ejemplares juveniles de Nothofagus dombeyi desarrollados en comunidades de áreas abiertas (bordes de camino y de sotobosque de Patagonia. Se evaluaron el área y la forma (ancho/longitud de las hojas a lo largo de las UA, el área foliar específica (AFE y las relaciones área foliar/volumen del tallo, longitud del tallo/peso del tallo y volumen del tallo/peso del tallo. Para igual posición en la UA, las hojas del tronco son mayores que las de las ramas principales y éstas mayores que las de las ramas cortas. En las UA del tronco el desarrollo caulinar es proporcionalmente mayor al de las hojas en comparación con las UA de las ramas principales y, en especial, de las ramas cortas. La restricción en el desarrollo caulinar y el aumento del AFE en ejemplares de N. dombeyi creciendo a la sombra permitiría su supervivencia pero con limitado desarrollo en altura y, en consecuencia, baja probabilidad de alcanzar el dosel.The size of stem and leaves was studied for trunk, main branch and short branch extension units (EU of young Nothofagus dombeyi trees growing in open areas (road verges and understory communities in Patagonia. The surface area and outline (width/length ratio of single leaves along EU, the specific leaf area, and the ratios leaf area/stem volume, stem length/stem mass and stem volume/stem mass were assessed. Trunk leaves were larger than main-branch leaves and main-branch leaves larger than short-branch leaves in similar positions on the EU. Stem developed proportionally more than leaves in trunk EU than in main-branch EU and, especially, short-branch EUs. Restrictions in stem development and increases in specific leaf area would allow N. dombeyi trees to survive under shaded conditions though limiting their height growth and, consequently, their chances to reach the canopy.

  18. An ecophysiographic approach for Araucaria araucana regeneration management

    OpenAIRE

    Drake Aranda, Fernando; Molina, Juan Ramón; Herrera Machuca, Miguel Ángel

    2012-01-01

    Chilean temperate forests are dominated by Nothofagus and Araucaria araucana species. Despite A. araucana not being at imminent risk of extinction, its cultural value and the associated environmental services and landscape goods have an important role for the conservation of this native forest. In some areas, the future conservation of A. araucana is a cause of great concern given its management prohibition and regeneration limitation due to slow growth, canopy tree competit...

  19. Independence and regulatory effectiveness: The Chilean experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International binding documents state that Member States should provide an effectively independent Regulatory Body. There are no recommendations on how independent a Regulatory Body must be. As a result, many different regulatory structures are found worldwide. Economical development status of Member States can be easily correlated to their regulatory organizations; nuclear power programs are also decisory. Along the last fifty years, regulatory activities in Chile have gone through several changes: before 1974 radioactive facilities were controlled by the Ministry of Health. A Supreme Decree issued on June 1974, approved the 'Regulations on Licensing (of radioactive facilities)', conferring this faculty to the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission. The CNEC had, de facto, the same faculties regarding nuclear facilities. The Nuclear Safety Law, published in 1984 stated that the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEC) was the competent authority regarding nuclear facilities, while Regional Health Services belonging to the Ministry of Health, were competent over all radioactive facilities. In 1987 the Law No. 18.730 amended the Nuclear Safety Law, transferring the competence over 1st category radioactive facilities and associated matters to the CNEC. In 2004 the Ministry of Health went under a great reorganization: the Law No. 19.937 defined new competent authorities, providing an effective independence of the regulatory functions. In 2001, the Board of Directors of the CNEC delegated the faculty of granting authorizations to the Head of the Nuclear and Radiological Safety Department. In 2005, the Board also delegated the faculties of proposing regulations and standards and prosecuting regulation violators on the person of the Head of the Nuclear and Radiological Safety Department. Both, the Ministry of Health and the CNEC, have given decisory steps towards fulfilling the principle of regulatory independence: the first one by separating functions at the level of

  20. A Feminine Touch : Gender and Civil-Military Relations in the Chilean Armed Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Gundersrud, Synne Høie

    2015-01-01

    This analysis explores the extent to which gender equality exists within the Chilean military institutions. A clear political and legal space has been created for equality to grow in Chile, and many advances in Chilean politics demonstrate progress in terms of expanding the gender equality agenda in Chilean society. However, my analysis indicates that traditional and discriminatory ideas of gender, dominating the culture of the Chilean Armed Forces, are limiting the social process of integrat...

  1. Are the oxygen isotopic compositions of Fitzroya cupressoides and Nothofagus pumilio cellulose promising proxies for climate reconstructions in northern Patagonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavergne, Aliénor; Daux, Valérie; Villalba, Ricardo; Pierre, Monique; Stievenard, Michel; Vimeux, Françoise; Srur, Ana Marina

    2016-03-01

    Tree ring δ18O chronologies from two native species (Fitzroya cupressoides and Nothofagus pumilio) in northern Patagonia were developed to assess their potential for paleoclimate reconstructions. The five annually resolved cellulose δ18O chronologies (two for F. cupressoides and three for N. pumilio) are located on the Andes along the steep west-to-east precipitation gradient. Over the common 60 years long interval, the five site-δ18Ocell chronologies exhibit a strong common signal as indicated by the significant mean intercorrelation (r = 0.61, p < 0.05) and the high percentage (65%) of total variance explained by the first empirical orthogonal function. Although correlation analyses reveal that the two mean species-δ18Ocell chronologies are mainly modulated by December-May temperature, the N. pumilio chronology shows a greater sensitivity to record temperature variations (r = 0.57, p < 0.05). The δ18Ocell of N. pumilio contains a regional temperature signal representative of a large area in southern South America under the influence of the Southern Annular Mode. This study indicates that δ18Ocell in N. pumilio is a promising proxy to reconstruct past variations in temperature in South America south of 38°S.

  2. Results of Chilean water markets: Empirical research since 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Carl J.

    2004-09-01

    Chile's free-market Water Code turned 20 years old in October 2001. This anniversary was an important milestone for both Chilean and international debates about water policy because Chile has become the world's leading example of the free-market approach to water law and water resources management, the textbook case of treating water rights not merely as private property but also as a fully marketable commodity. The predominant view outside of Chile is that Chilean water markets and the Chilean model of water management have been a success, and this perception has encouraged other countries to follow Chile's lead in water law reform. Much of the debate about Chilean water markets, however, has been based more on theoretical or political beliefs than on empirical study. This paper reverses that emphasis by reviewing the evolution of empirical research about these markets since 1990, when Chile returned to democratic government after 16 years of military rule. During the period since 1990, understanding of how Chilean water markets have worked in practice has gradually improved. There have been two major trends in this research: first, a gradual shift from exaggerated claims of the markets' success toward more balanced assessments of mixed results and, second, a heavy emphasis on the economics of water rights trading with very little attention given to the Water Code's impacts on social equity, river basin management, environmental protection, or resolution of water conflicts. The analysis in this study is qualitative and interdisciplinary, combining law, economics, and institutions.

  3. Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission dosimetric information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis discusses the nuclear radiation that people who work with radioactive material is exposed to and its control by the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission. A full analysis of the System is presented with information about the Commission and the Department of Nuclear and Radiological Safety which runs the System. Ana analysis of the System is presented in order to obtain requirements. Management flow diagrams, the processes involved and current problems experienced by the users are described. A design logic is modeled producing Data Flow Diagrams (DFD). based on this physical design, or, Model of Physical Data, is prepared including tables, attributes, types of data, primary and foreign keys. A description is presented of how the System is implemented, the tools that are used and how the testing phase is carried out. The Dosimetry System meets the criteria for a Software Engineering project, where the basic cycle was used as a working methodology. The System developed supports the dosimetric control of people exposed to radioactive material. (author)

  4. A Quantitative Index of Forest Structural Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A. Cale

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Forest health is a complex concept including many ecosystem functions, interactions and values. We develop a quantitative system applicable to many forest types to assess tree mortality with respect to stable forest structure and composition. We quantify impacts of observed tree mortality on structure by comparison to baseline mortality, and then develop a system that distinguishes between structurally stable and unstable forests. An empirical multivariate index of structural sustainability and a threshold value (70.6 derived from 22 nontropical tree species’ datasets differentiated structurally sustainable from unsustainable diameter distributions. Twelve of 22 species populations were sustainable with a mean score of 33.2 (median = 27.6. Ten species populations were unsustainable with a mean score of 142.6 (median = 130.1. Among them, Fagus grandifolia, Pinus lambertiana, P. ponderosa, and Nothofagus solandri were attributable to known disturbances; whereas the unsustainability of Abies balsamea, Acer rubrum, Calocedrus decurrens, Picea engelmannii, P. rubens, and Prunus serotina populations were not. This approach provides the ecological framework for rational management decisions using routine inventory data to objectively: determine scope and direction of change in structure and composition, assess excessive or insufficient mortality, compare disturbance impacts in time and space, and prioritize management needs and allocation of scarce resources.

  5. Abundance and Morphological Effects of Large Woody Debris in Forested Basins of Southern Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, A.; Comiti, F.; Lenzi, M. A.

    2006-12-01

    The Southern Andes mountain range represents an ideal location for studying large woody debris (LWD) in streams draining forested basins thanks to the presence of both pristine and managed woodland, and to the general low level of human alteration of stream corridors. However, no published investigations have been performed so far in such a large region. The investigated sites of this research are three basins (9-13 km2 drainage area, third-order channels) covered by Nothofagus forests: two of them are located in the Southern Chilean Andes (the Tres Arroyos in the Malalcahuello National Reserve and the Rio Toro within the Malleco Natural Reserve) and one basin lies in the Argentinean Tierra del Fuego (the Buena Esperanza basin, near the city of Ushuaia). Measured LWD were all wood pieces larger than 10 cm in diameter and 1 m in length, both in the active channel and in the adjacent active floodplain. Pieces forming log jams were all measured and the geometrical dimensions of jams were taken. Jam type was defined based on Abbe and Montgomery (2003) classification. Sediment stored behind log-steps and valley jams was evaluated approximating the sediment accumulated to a solid wedge whose geometrical dimensions were measured. Additional information relative to each LWD piece were recorded during the field survey: type (log, rootwad, log with rootwads attached), orientation to flow, origin (floated, bank erosion, landslide, natural mortality, harvest residuals) and position (log-step, in-channel, channel-bridging, channel margins, bankfull edge). In the Tres Arroyos, the average LWD volume stored within the bankfull channel is 710 m3 ha-1. The average number of pieces is 1,004 per hectare of bankfull channel area. Log-steps represent about 22% of all steps, whereas the elevation loss due to LWD (log-steps and valley jams) results in 27% loss of the total stream potential energy. About 1,600 m3 of sediment (assuming a porosity of 20%) is stored in the main channel

  6. Why so many apparently rare beetles in Chilean temperate rainforests? ¿Por qué hay tantos coleópteros presuntamente raros en los bosques templados de Chile?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARRY J RICHARDSON

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Species abundance curves were calculated from data sets collected by fogging 52 trees in Nothofagus forest (~46000 specimens and 24 trees in Araucaria forest (~15000 specimens in Chile. Neither data set fitted the standard species abundance models. Like similar data sets collected from tropical forests, there were too many species represented by single specimens. The proposal that these were vagrants normally found on other tree species was not supported as, unlike tropical forests, Nothofagus forests are not diverse, often consisting of single species stands. Examination of three assumptions of the most parsimonious equilibrium models showed them to be false. Between them the observations of undersampling bias, community disequilibria and combining data from different feeding guilds with different species abundance curves are likely to be sufficient to explain the divergence of data for large speciose beetle communities from the predictions of any of the equilibrium models. Until these three factors can be fully accounted for and residual divergence detected, there is no necessity to propose further, more complex, mechanisms to explain such data sets. Estimated values of alpha and Simpson D were shown to be strongly sample size dependent, affecting their value as estimators of biological diversity.Se calcularon curvas de abundancia de especies a partir de datos obtenidos por medio de nebulización de 52 árboles en bosques de Nothofagus (aproximadamente 46000 ejemplares y 24 árboles en bosques de Araucaria araucana (aproximadamente 15000 ejemplares en Chile. Los datos obtenidos no se ajustan a los modelos estándares de abundancia de especies, al igual que los datos obtenidos de bosques tropicales, existen muchas especies representadas por ejemplares únicos. La hipótesis de que los mencionados ejemplares únicos son erráticos y que se encuentran normalmente en otros árboles no fue aceptada, contrario a los bosques tropicales, los bosques

  7. Forest Management Influence On Hydric Production in a Temperate Rain Forest: a Comparative Study of Small Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, C.; McPhee, J.

    2007-12-01

    In this work we compare hydric production between two micro-watersheds (surface area less than 10 hectares) covered with Nothofagus oblicua and Nothofagus alpina saplings. One of the watersheds was subject to management by thinning on 2002, and contains 23% less trees, which is equivalent to 33% less basal surface respect to the unmanaged control basin. It is expected that differences be solely related to land use differences given that both watersheds have similar geomorphology. Four years (April 2003 through Jun 2007) of hourly streamflow and precipitation data collected on each watershed are analyzed by separating base flow and direct runoff for specific storms selected to represent different conditions of initial soil moisture. Several hydrograph- separation algorithms are tested in order to increase the robustness of our conclusions. Variations in rainfall- runoff coefficients are analyzed in relation to differences in soil cover and antecedent moisture. Preliminary results show that managed watersheds produce more direct runoff, albeit subject to initial moisture conditions. On the other hand a greater fraction of precipitation becomes baseflow for natural forests. This has important implications for ecosystem hydrologic services valuation and management.

  8. Impacto del castor en la estructura de bosques ribereños de Nothofagus pumilio en Tierra del Fuego, Chile Impact of beavers on Nothofagus pumilio riparian forest structure in Tierra del Fuego, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Iván Arismendi; Paul Szejner; Antonio Lara; MAURO E GONZÁLEZ

    2008-01-01

    El castor es una especie exótica introducida en Tierra del Fuego en el año 1946. Sus represas construidas en los cursos de agua han modificado las zonas ribereñas existentes antes de su invasión. El presente estudio cuantificó el impacto del castor en la estructura del bosque ribereño de N. pumilio en lugares con y sin castores en dos sectores de la isla. En cada lugar se midieron la densidad, distribución diamétrica y área basal de árboles vivos y muertos. Los árboles muertos por el castor f...

  9. Variaciones en el tamaño y la composición de las yemas de Nothofagus pumilio y N. dombeyi (Fagaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Puntieri, Javier G.; Cecilia A. M. Brion; Daniel Barthélémy; María Sol Souza

    2001-01-01

    Se estudió la longitud y el diámetro de yemas de Nothofagus pumilio y N. dombeyi (Fagaceae) en brotes procedentes de diferentes tipos de ejes de árboles jóvenes desarrollados en condiciones naturales. Se evaluaron las variaciones de la longitud de las yemas según su posición sobre el brote portador y sobre el árbol. En ambas especies, los brotes con más de 20 nudos desarrollaron yemas con un amplio rango de longitudes y de número de nudos, mientras que los brotes más cortos desarr...

  10. Chilean and Southeast Pacific paleoclimate variations during the last glacial cycle: directly correlated pollen and δ18O records from ODP Site 1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusser, Linda; Heusser, Cal; Mix, Alan; McManus, Jerry

    2006-12-01

    Joint pollen and oxygen isotope data from Ocean Drilling Program Site 1234 in the southeast Pacific provide the first, continuous record of temperate South American vegetation and climate from the last 140 ka. Located at ˜36°S, ˜65 km offshore of Concepcion, Chile, Site 1234 monitors the climatic transition zone between northern semi-arid, summer dry-winter wet climate and southern year-round, rainy, cool temperate climate. Dominance of onshore winds suggests that pollen preserved here reflects transport to the ocean via rivers that drain the region and integrate conditions from the coastal mountains to the Andean foothills. Down-hole changes in diagnostic pollen assemblages from xeric lowland deciduous forest (characterized by grasses, herbs, ferns, and trees such as deciduous beech, Nothofagus obliqua), mesic Valdivian Evergreen Forest (including conifers such as the endangered Prumnopitys andina), and Subantarctic Evergreen Rainforest (comprised primarily of southern beech, N. dombeyi) reveal large rapid shifts that likely reflect latitudinal movements in atmospheric circulation and storm tracks associated with the southern westerly winds. During glacial intervals (MIS 2-4, and 6), rainforests and parkland dominated by Nothofagus moved northward into the region. At the MIS 6/5e transition, coeval with the rapid shift to lower isotopic values, rainforest vegetation was rapidly replaced by xeric plant communities associated with Mediterranean-type climate. An increased prominence of halophytic vegetation suggests that MIS 5e was more arid and possibly warmer than MIS 1. Although rainforest pollen rises again at the end of MIS 5e, lowland deciduous forest pollen persists through MIS 5d and 5c, into MIS 5b. Substantial millennial-scale variations occur in both interglacial and glacial regimes, attesting to the sensitivity of the southern westerly belt to climate change. Comparison of the cool, mesic N. dombeyi rainforest assemblage from Site 1234 with δ18O in

  11. Inquiring into the causes of depressed folivory in a fragmented temperate forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Claudia A.; Simonetti, Javier A.

    2009-05-01

    Folivory is lower in forest fragments of the Maulino forest than in continuous stands. We experimentally assessed whether depressed folivory is related to a reduction in foliar palatability caused by the more xeric microclimate of forest fragments. We compared leaf anatomy at fragments and continuous forest for four tree species ( Aristotelia chilensis, Cryptocarya alba, Nothofagus glauca and Gevuina avellana), and evaluated consumption of leaves of the two different habitats by insect species ( Sericoides viridis and Ormiscodes rufosignata). Anatomy of leaves of fragments differs from that from continuous forest in at least one of the traits, for all the plant species. However, not all species exhibit more sclerophyllous traits in forest fragments. A. chilensis exhibits the greatest number of changes, being more sclerophyllous in fragments. In palatability trials, there were no differences in the consumption of leaves of fragments versus leaves of continuous forest. Therefore, depressed folivory levels in forest remnants of the Maulino forest do not seem to be attributable to reduced foliar palatability, suggesting that changes in the insect assemblage, and not palatability, account for reduced herbivory in fragmented forests.

  12. A critical review of the Chilean civil nuclear liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews the Chilean civil nuclear liability regime. The Nuclear Security Act (Law 18.302), enacted in 1984, and the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, ratified ed by Chile in 1989, are the fundamental laws of the current regime. Although Chile has no nuclear power plants, it is still important to analyze how the Chilean legislation would protect citizens from nuclear damages. This paper does not consider the policy reasons for and against the promotion of atomic energy. Rather, it critically examines the current status of the Chilean nuclear regime. Undoubtedly, if in the future Chile chooses to include nuclear sources in its energy mix, it will not be enough to introduce some isolated legal amendments, but it will be necessary to build a new Chilean Energy Regime which includes nuclear energy. In that scenario, though, it will be useful to know and understand how the current nuclear liability regime works. From this point of view, the reforms this article proposes to the current nuclear liability regime might be helpful to academics and policy makers alike

  13. Association between eating behavior scores and obesity in Chilean children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amador Paola

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate eating behavior and physical inactivity contribute to the current epidemic of childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the association between eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chilean children. Design and methods We recruited 126 obese, 44 overweight and 124 normal-weight Chilean children (6-12 years-old; both genders according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF criteria. Eating behavior scores were calculated using the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ. Factorial analysis in the culturally-adapted questionnaire for Chilean population was used to confirm the original eight-factor structure of CEBQ. The Cronbach's alpha statistic (>0.7 in most subscales was used to assess internal consistency. Non-parametric methods were used to assess case-control associations. Results Eating behavior scores were strongly associated with childhood obesity in Chilean children. Childhood obesity was directly associated with high scores in the subscales "enjoyment of food" (P Conclusion Our study shows a strong and graded association between specific eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chile.

  14. Amino acid biogeo- and stereochemistry in coastal Chilean sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomstein, Bente Aagaard; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Schubert, Carsten J.;

    2006-01-01

    The spatial distribution of total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA) and amino acid enantiomers (D- and L-forms) was investigated in sediments underlying two contrasting Chilean upwelling regions,: at ~23°S off Antofagasta and at ~36°S off Concepcion. The contribution of amino acids to total organic...

  15. Prevalence and risk factors for bruises in Chilean bovine carcasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strappini, A.C.; Frankena, K.; Metz, J.H.M.; Kemp, B.

    2010-01-01

    Records of cattle slaughtered at two Chilean slaughterhouses (SLH1 and SLH2) were used to determine prevalence and risk factors for carcasses with bruises. Bruise prevalence amounted to 12.3% but differed between slaughterhouses (20.8% for SLH1 and 8.6% for SLH2 respectively). Bruise severity grade

  16. Origins of the Chilean Binominal Election System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pastor

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available strategic reaction by the military regime to the defeat of General Augusto Pinochet in the 1988 Plebiscite since the system was formally established during the period between the plebiscite and the first postauthoritarian elections in 1989. This theory, however, offers a mistaken account of the history and evolution of the binominal election system whose origins are considerably more complex than the conventional wisdom suggests. This article explores the internal political processes and the ideology that led the military government to adopt the binominal system. It argues that the election system was the capstone of the authoritarian institutional framework designed by the military government to protect the 1980 Constitution from efforts by the Concertación to reform it. Contrary to popular belief, the binominal system was proposed long before the 1988 Plebiscite by Arturo Marín Vicuña, then secretary of a government commission studying a new electoral law. This article maintains that, more than any other factor, the binominal system reflects and responds to an interpretation of Chilean political history between 1960 and 1973 that was widely shared among the Pinochet government's legal advisorsSe ha asumido que el presente sistema electoral chileno -el "binominal mayoritario"- fue una reacción ante la derrota del General Augusto Pinochet en el plebiscito de 1988, ya que fue lanzado en el intermedio después del plebiscito, pero antes que el régimen militar abandonara el poder. No obstante, esta hipótesis se equivoca en la historia de la evolución del sistema binominal que es más complejo. Este artículo explora la historia de los procesos políticos dentro del régimen militar y la ideología que llevó al sistema binominal. Argumenta que el sistema binominal fue la piedra arquitectónica de la institucionalidad autoritaria del régimen militar que protegía su Constitución de 1980 contra los esfuerzos de la Concertación para

  17. Main musculoskeletal injuries associated with lameness in Chilean Rodeo horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mora-Carreño

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chilean Rodeo is the most popular equestrian discipline in Chile and it is estimated that musculoskeletal diseases of the equine participants are the leading cause of illness and poor performance, however no related reports have been published. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the main diseases associated with lameness in Chilean Rodeo horses. A retrospective study was performed considering the clinical attention records of horses participating in Chilean Rodeo which presented lameness. Information was collected regarding 114 cases, including identification (name, age and gender and the clinical characteristics of each episode. The average age of the horses was 8 ± 3.4 years. Among the subjects, 98.3% of the episodes corresponded to spontaneous lameness, with 2/4 being the most frequent degree of lameness. Unilateral episodes corresponded to 72.8% (83/114 of the cases, affecting primarily the front limbs (51/83. The most frequent diagnoses were: suspensory ligament desmitis (14%, tarsal osteoarthritis (13.2%, navicular syndrome (8.8%, laminitis (7.9%, deep digital flexor tendonitis (7% and metacarpophalangeal osteoarthritis (6.1%. The high frequency of grade 2 lameness suggests that the majority of veterinary attentions seem to be mostly at obvious conditions. Joint, foot and soft tissue conditions seem to be the main cause of lameness in equines participating in Chilean Rodeo. These results suggest that education regarding the importance of early diagnosis and greater hoof care are primary measures that may favor the prevention of lameness in Chilean Rodeo horses.

  18. Rainfall interception by an evergreen beech forest, Nelson, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, L. K.

    1983-10-01

    Throughfall under a beech ( Nothofagus) forest canopy at Donald Creek, Nelson, averaged 69% of the rain falling on the canopy, i.e. 1060 mm of 1530 mm in a year of normal rainfall. Using an estimate for stemflow at 2% of gross rainfall, interception loss averaged 29% of the annual rainfall, or 440 mm yr. -1. Seasonal differences in interception loss were significant, ranging from 22% in winter to 35% in summer, and resulted from seasonal variation in evaporation rates from a wet canopy. Seasonal variation in rainfall rate was slight. Four models, storm linear regression, monthly linear regression, sine curve and Gash's analytical model, were tested by comparison of predicted and observed interception. All gave very satisfactory estimates (< 10% error) and tended to slightly underestimate the measured interception loss.

  19. Responses of two températe evergreen Nothofagus species to sudden and gradual waterlogging: relationships with distribution patterns Respuestas de dos especies siempreverdes de Nothofagus al anegamiento gradual y repentino: relaciones con patrones de distribución

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRIDA PIPER

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of gradual waterlogging on trees have been little studied. The températe evergreens Nothofagus nítida and N. dombeyi are differentially distributed on soil moisture gradients, only the former being common on poorly-drained sites. We compared the relative height growth rate (RGR H and foliage loss of seedlings subjected experimentally to normal drainage (soil at field capacity, sudden waterlogging and gradual waterlogging for two months to determine which waterlogging regime more accurately predicts interspecific differences in tolerance, as evident from natural distributions. RGR H was similar between species but differed between treatments (normal watering > gradual waterlogging = sudden waterlogging. Sudden waterlogging caused massive foliage loss in the two species, but gradual waterlogging caused much greater foliage loss in N. dombeyi than in N. nítida, indicating some degree of acclimation by the latter species. Linear regressions indicated that RGR H was negatively affected by foliage loss in both species, without differences between them. Since no difference in RGR H was found between species in the waterlogging treatments, but yet in foliage loss, other mechanisms may be in volved in the short term growth reduction of N. nítida. Effects of waterlogging on long-term performance in the field were evaluated by reciprocal transplants between a poorly-drained site naturally occupied by N. nítida, and a well drained site naturally occupied by N. dombeyi. After two growing seasons, N. dombeyi had significantly lower specific leaf área (SLA and RGR H, at the poorly drained site than at its original site. At the poorly drained site N. nítida achieved 100 % survival, compared with 73.5 % in N. dombeyi. Reduced growth and survival of N. dombeyi associated with the negative effects on carbón gain of extensive foliage loss and reduced SLA may thus exelude it from the wetter sites. We conclude that tolerance may be better

  20. Morfología y Anatomía del Ápice Caulinar de Nothofagus dombeyi (Nothofagaceae) a lo largo de un año Morfology and anatomy of the shoot apex of Nothofagus dombeyi (Nothofagaceae) along a year

    OpenAIRE

    Soledad García; Javier Puntieri; Gernot Vobis

    2006-01-01

    En el presente estudio se evaluó la posible variación anual de la morfología y la anatomía del ápice caulinar de coihue, Nothofagus dombeyi (Nothofagaceae). A partir de muestras tomadas a lo largo de un año calendario, se realizaron cortes longitudinales de las yemas terminales con micrótomo de congelación. Independientemente de la época del año, una yema terminal está conformada por un meristema apical y rudimentos de tallo y hojas. Los primordios foliares proximales tienen mayor tamaño y gr...

  1. Evidencia morfológica e isoenzimática de hibridación natural entre Nothofagus antarctica y N. pumilio en el noroeste patagónico Morphological and isozyme evidence of natural hybridization between Nothofagus antarctica and N. pumilio in northwestern Patagonia

    OpenAIRE

    PAULA QUIROGA; ROMINA VIDAL RUSSELL; ANDREA C PREMOLI

    2005-01-01

    En este trabajo se estudió la hibridación entre Nothofagus pumilio y N. antarctica mediante análisis de morfología foliar y de electroforesis isoenzimática en la población de altura de Laguna Negra en el noroeste de la Patagonia, Argentina. Muestras colectadas en esta población para análisis morfológicos y genéticos fueron comparadas con poblaciones puras de N. antarctica y N. pumilio. Las especies puras resultaron estadísticamente diferentes entre sí para las variables morfológicas, y el aná...

  2. Variación estacional y potencial enzimático de microhongos asociados con la descomposición de hojarasca de Nothofagus pumilio Seasonal variation and enzymatic potential of microfungi associated with the decomposition of Nothofagus pumilio leaf litter

    OpenAIRE

    EDUARDO VALENZUELA; SERGIO LEIVA; ROBERTO GODOY

    2001-01-01

    Se estudió la variación estacional y el potencial enzimático de microhongos aislados desde el follaje y hojarasca de Nothofagus pumilio sometida a degradación natural durante 1 año. La investigación se realizó en un bosque de N. pumilio ubicado en una microcuenca del Valle de Antillanca, Parque Nacional Puyehue (40° 47' S, 72° 12' O, 1.120 m de altitud). Hojas senescentes colectadas desde árboles de N. pumilio se depositaron en bolsas de malla de nylon ("litter bags") y se sometieron a degrad...

  3. Influencias de las variaciones en el clima y en la concentración de C0(2) sobre el crecimiento de Nothofagus pumilio en la Patagonia Influences of climatic and C0(2) concentration changes on radial growth oí Nothofagus pumilio in Patagonia

    OpenAIRE

    ANA M SRUR; RICARDO VILLALBA; PABLO E. VILLAGRA; DIETRICH HERTEL

    2008-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar las relaciones entre las variaciones en el clima y en la concentración de C0(2) durante el siglo XX con el crecimiento radial y la eficiencia en el uso del agua en los bosques de Nothofagus pumilio a lo largo de un gradiente altitudinal, en El Chaltén (49°22' S), Santa Cruz, Argentina. Se empleó una combinación de técnicas dendrocronológicas e isotópicas. Los patrones de crecimiento radial a lo largo del gradiente altitudinal reflejan las tendencias cli...

  4. EMPIRICAL REGULARITIES OF THE CHILEAN ECONOMY: 1986-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Enrique Restrepo L.; Claudio Soto G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper documents the main empirical regularities of the Chilean economy over the past twenty years, characterizing it in two dimensions. First, it describes the economy’s structure in terms of the sectors’ relative sizes in the long term and the importance of the various components of aggregate demand. Second, it documents the main features of business cycles in Chile. The volatility and persistence of several variables across the cycles is described, together with the correlations within...

  5. The social and cultural impact of advertising among Chilean youths

    OpenAIRE

    Maite Rodríguez Salineros; Enrique Vergara Leyton

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of advertising among Chilean youngsters of different socioeconomic background. We aim to identify the relationship that this group establishes with advertising and, in particular, the way they incorporate it in their socialization strategies. We do not address what advertising does to youngsters, but instead what youngsters do with advertising in their practices of appropriation and reception of it. The research design included focus groups of male and ...

  6. The social and cultural impact of advertising among chilean youths

    OpenAIRE

    Vergara-Leyton, Enrique; Rodríguez-Salineros, Maite

    2010-01-01

    This work analyzes the impact of advertising among Chilean youngsters of different socioeconomic background. We aim to identify the relationship that this group establishes with advertising and, in particular, the way they incorporate it in their socialization strategies. We do not address what advertising does to youngsters, but instead what youngsters do with advertising in their practices of appropriation and reception of it. The research design included focus groups of male and female you...

  7. Cooling and eutrophication of southern Chilean lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Jaime; Vergara, Pablo M; Cerda, Sergio; Briones, Daniela

    2016-01-15

    Understanding the impacts of global warming and human-disturbances on lakes is required for implementing management strategies aimed at mitigating the decline of the quality and availability of water for humans. We assessed temporal trends in water parameters, and the contribution of land use to the eutrophication of the largest lakes of central-southern Chile. The mean values of water parameters varied seasonally, with lakes Chapo and Caburgua exhibiting lower pH, temperature, and N/P ratio values. Over the assessed period (19 years), we found a temporal reduction in water conductivity and temperature of the lakes. The concentration of NO3(-)-N, PO4(3-)-P and dissolved oxygen increased in all the lakes, but pH increased in eight out of the ten lakes. The negative temporal trend in temperature was more pronounced as the depth level increased. Lakes whose basins had a higher percentage of forest plantation and urban areas had larger values of Chlorophyll a and pH, as well as, smaller values of dissolved oxygen. Lakes whose basins included larger percentages of native forest had smaller nutrient (NO3(-)-N, PO4(3-)-P) concentrations. Our findings suggest that decreased rainfall in central-southern Chile due to climate change may cause a decrease of particulate material that is carried by tributaries into the lakes. The observed temporal decrease in temperature, especially at the deeper levels, may be explained by the rapid melting of glaciers. Although the studied lakes are classified as oligotrophic, deforestation and expansion of urban areas around the lakes have led to increased nutrient input, thus accelerating their eutrophication. PMID:26437345

  8. Chilean Family Reminiscing about Emotions and Its Relation to Children's Self-Regulation Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, Diana; Nolivos, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined the relation between Chilean parents' narrative participatory styles (i.e., the way in which parents scaffold children's participation in conversations) and children's self-regulation skills. A total of 210 low-income Chilean parent-child dyads participated in the study. Dyads were videotaped talking about a…

  9. Holocene climate variability and environmental history at the Patagonian forest/steppe ecotone: Lago Mosquito (lat. 42.50°S, long. 71.40°W) and Laguna del Cóndor (lat. 42.20°S, long. 71.17°W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, V.; Whitlock, C. L.; Bianchi, M. M.

    2010-12-01

    Along the eastern Andes, a sharp ecotone separates steppe from North Patagonian forest dominated by Nothofagus spp. and Austrocedrus chilensis. The elevational position of the ecotone is determined by effective moisture, which in turn is governed by the strength and latitudinal position of the Southern Westerlies. As a result, past changes in ecotone position and composition, and fire activity provide an opportunity to examine past climate variations. Holocene environmental history at two sites in close proximity along a west-to-east moisture gradient is inferred from magnetic susceptibility, pollen and high-resolution charcoal data. Comparison of the two records enhanced the spatial resolution of the reconstruction. Pollen data suggest that, prior to 9 ka, vegetation resembled a modern steppe, in accordance with the widespread aridity characteristic of the period. Fires were infrequent, likely as a consequence of fuel discontinuity associated with low vegetation cover. At 9 ka, forest taxa expanded into the steppe. This change in community composition was reflected in the fire regime: fires became more frequent and biomass burning increased. This fire-vegetation linkage suggests that summers were arid enough to support fires but moisture was sufficient for Nothofagus forest to expand. Based on a westward displacement of the forest-steppe ecotone, drier-than-before conditions are inferred for the 5.5-3.7 ka period. A shift from crown to surface fires at the westernmost site, and lengthening fire return intervals towards the east accompanied this vegetation change. Between 3.7 and 2.4 ka, both sites registered an A. chilensis expansion, suggesting an increase in effective moisture. The last 2400 years are characterized by uninterrupted advances of Nothofagus forest. Ecotonal trees and shrubs, such as A. chilensis, Maytenus boaria and Rhamnaceae, have become less abundant, suggesting a recent trend towards cooler and/or wetter conditions.

  10. [The Chilean Health Care System: the task ahead].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goic, Alejandro

    2015-06-01

    The most important event in Chilean public health in the XXth Century was the creation of the National Health Service (NHS), in 1952. Systematic public policies for the promotion of health, disease prevention, medical care, and rehabilitation were implemented, while a number of more specific programs were introduced, such as those on infant malnutrition, complementary infant feeding, medical control of pregnant women and healthy infants, infant and adult vaccination, and essential sanitation services. In 1981, a parallel private health care system was introduced in the form of medical care financial institutions, which today cover 15% of the population, as contrasted with the public system, which covers about 80%. From 1952 to 2014, public health care policies made possible a remarkable improvement in Chile's health indexes: downward trends in infant mortality rate (from 117.8 to 7.2 x 1,000 live births), maternal mortality (from 276 to 18.5 x 100,000), undernourished children schooling, and years of primary school education, were significantly improved as well. Nevertheless, compared with OECD countries, Chile has a relatively low public investment in health (45.7% of total national investment), a deficit in the number of physicians (1.7 x 1,000 inhabitants) and nurses (4.8 x 1,000), in the number of hospital beds (2.1 x 1,000), and in the availability of generic drugs in the market (30%). Chile and the USA are the two OECD countries with the lowest public investment in health. A generalized dissatisfaction with the current Chilean health care model and the need of the vast majority of the population for timely access to acceptable quality medical care are powerful arguments which point to the need for a universal public health care system. The significant increase in public expenditure on health care which such a system would demand requires a sustainable growth of the Chilean economy. PMID:26230561

  11. Plant Level Evidence on Product Mix Changes in Chilean Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Navarro

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes changes in the product mix by Chilean manufacturing plants in the period 1996-2003. Three-quarters of the surviving plants changed the set of products produced and more than three-quarters of the exporting plants changed the mix of products they exported during the sample period. Plants that changed their product mix contributed 85% of the aggregate growth in real sales of surviving plants between 1996 and 2003. Finally and in contrast to the US evidence, there is a negati...

  12. Chilean Prosopis Mesocarp Flour: Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann; Cristina Quispe; Maria del Pilar C. Soriano; Cristina Theoduloz; Felipe Jiménez-Aspée; Maria Jorgelina Pérez; Ana Soledad Cuello; Maria Inés Isla

    2015-01-01

    In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82–2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest ant...

  13. Preliminary measurements of gamma radiation in Chilean Antarctic Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural and artificial gamma radiation, 1 m above the soil, is being investigated in 4 Chilean Antartic Stations. The measurements are performed with different types of TLD detectors. Preliminary results in the Tte. Marsh Station are reported and discussed. An average exposition of 3,5 μR/h was found during a 108 days period. This exposition corresponds to an annual dose of about 40 mrad, 8% of the annual dose limit for individual of the public. The presence of low energy artificial radioisotopes was not found. (Author)

  14. [The and beginnings of Chilean endocrinology in the 1920s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Delgado, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Rejuvenation was a chapter of critical importance for the worldwide development of endocrinology in the 1920s. This work explores the acceptance of these techniques in Chile. Starting in the late 19th century, the Chilean Medical Journal (Revista Médica de Chile) incorporated references to experiments with endocrine gland preparations that were being conducted in Europe at the time. An appropriation of the experiments by the Austrian Eugen Steinach began in 1920, with prominent figures such as the Italian professor Juan Noe Crevani and the young Chilean student Ottmar Wilhelm. Between 1922 and 1924, Wilhelm developed a series of experiments on dogs, bulls, pigs, rats and Welfare Board patients through the so-called Steinach operation, which consisted of the sectioning of the efferent channel in one of the testicles. Professor Noe's scientific patronage policy and Wilhelm's strategy of succession in the field led the latter to hold a chair in the new School of Medicine of Universidad de Concepci6n at the age of 25. From this position, the. figure of Wilhelm was fundamental for the development of a line of endocrinological research that was able to position Universidad de Concepci6n as a scientific development centre, which was strengthened by the arrival of another disciple of Steinach in Chile, the Latvian professor Alejandro Lipschütz. PMID:27363250

  15. Transpiration and water use efficiency in native chilean and exotic species, a usefull tool for catchment management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervé-Fernández, P.; Oyarzun, C. E.

    2012-04-01

    Land-use and forest cover change play important roles in socio-economic processes and have been linked with water supply and other ecosystem services in various regions of the world. Water yield from watersheds is a major ecosystem service for human activities but has been altered by landscape management superimposed on climatic variability and change. Sustaining ecosystem services important to humans, while providing a dependable water supply for agriculture and urban needs is a major challenge faced by managers of human-dominated or increased antropical effect over watersheds. Since water is mostly consumed by vegetation (i.e: transpiration), which strongly depends on trees physiological characteristics (i.e: foliar area, transpiration capacity) are very important. The quantity of water consumed by plantations is influenced mainly by forest characteristics (species physiology, age and management), catchment water retention capacity and meteorological characteristics. Eventhough in Chile, the forest sector accounts for 3.6% of the gross domestic product (GDP) and 12.5% of total exports (INFOR, 2003), afforestation with fast growing exotic species has ended up being socially and politically questionable because of the supposed impact on the environment and water resources. We present data of trees transpiration and water use efficiency from three headwater catchments: (a) second growth native evergreen forest (Aetoxicon punctatum, Drimys winterii, Gevuina avellana, Laureliopsis philippiana); (b) Eucalyptus globulus plantation, and (c) a mixed native deciduous (Nothofagus obliqua and some evergreen species) forest and Eucalyptus globulus and Acacia melanoxylon plantation located at the Coastal Mountain Range in southern Chile (40°S). Annual transpiration rates ranged from 1.24 ± 0.41 mol•m-2•s-1 (0.022 ± 0.009 L•m-2•s-1) for E. globulus, while the lowest observed was for L. philippiana 0.44 ± 0.31 mol•m-2•s-1 (0.008 ± 0.006 L•m-2•s-1). However

  16. Forest rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balooni, Kulbhushan; Lund, Jens Friis

    2014-01-01

    One of the proposed strategies for implementation of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plus (REDD+) is to incentivize conservation of forests managed by communities under decentralized forest management. Yet, we argue that this is a challenging road to REDD+ because of ...... conservation of forests under existing decentralized management arrangements toward a push for extending the coverage of forests under decentralized management, making forest rights the hard currency of REDD+....

  17. Strengthening early math skills in preschoolers, a Chilean study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Ortega

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the positive effect in an intervention programbased on number comprehension in early math skill levels that Chileanpreschoolers present in the relational and numerical skill areas evaluated with the Test of Early Mathematics Assessment Utrecht (TEMT-U, the Spanish version of the Utrecht Early Numeracy Test. The study reveals that there are significant differences in the early math skills levels among those groups subjected to thistype of program and those that in the same period of time were only influenced by the content and activities of the traditional curriculum sequence in the Chilean school population. There are positive effects in the program regardless of the educational level that children attend. There are also relational or skillsPiagetian that show higher achievement levels. The results prove that there are no differences in mathematical literacy levels between boys and girls, contrary to what is observed in later years.

  18. Chilean Prosopis Mesocarp Flour: Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82–2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.

  19. Chilean prosopis mesocarp flour: phenolic profiling and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria Del Pilar C; Theoduloz, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspée, Felipe; Pérez, Maria Jorgelina; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Isla, Maria Inés

    2015-01-01

    In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82-2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food. PMID:25898415

  20. Mealybug species from Chilean agricultural landscapes and main factors influencing the genetic structure of Pseudococcus viburni

    OpenAIRE

    Correa, Margarita C.G.; Eric Lombaert; Thibaut Malausa; Didier Crochard; Andrés Alvear; Tania Zaviezo; Ferran Palero

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to characterize the distribution of mealybug species along Chilean agro-ecosystems and to determine the relative impact of host plant, management strategy, geography and micro-environment on shaping the distribution and genetic structure of the obscure mealybug Pseudococcus viburni. An extensive survey was completed using DNA barcoding methods to identify Chilean mealybugs to the species level. Moreover, a fine-scale study of Ps. viburni genetic diversity and populatio...

  1. Content validity and reliability of test of gross motor development in Chilean children

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Cano-Cappellacci; Fernanda Aleitte Leyton; Joshua Durán Carreño

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To validate a Spanish version of the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2) for the Chilean population. METHODS Descriptive, transversal, non-experimental validity and reliability study. Four translators, three experts and 92 Chilean children, from five to 10 years, students from a primary school in Santiago, Chile, have participated. The Committee of Experts has carried out translation, back-translation and revision processes to determine the translinguistic equivalence ...

  2. The congressional Committee System of the Chilean Legislature, 1834-1924

    OpenAIRE

    Iván Mauricio Obando Camino

    2011-01-01

    This is a historical, institutional study about the congressional committee system of the Chilean legislature from 1834 through 1924. This study uses a longitudinal perspective to focus on committee origins, functions, processes, and authority. It shows that the Chilean legislature developed a committee system early by taking stock of previous, short-lived congressional experiences and trial-and-error. Congressional committees dealt with bill drafting, housekeeping matters, and bureaucratic o...

  3. HIV prevention and low-income Chilean women: machismo, marianismo and HIV misconceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; MCELMURRY, BEVERLY J.

    2008-01-01

    Socio-cultural factors and HIV-related misinformation contribute to the increasing number of Chilean women living with HIV. In spite of this, and to date, few culturally specific prevention activities have been developed for this population. The goal of the present study was to elicit the perspectives of low-income Chilean women regarding HIV and relevant socio-cultural factors, as a forerunner to the development of a culturally appropriate intervention. As part of a mixed-methods study, fift...

  4. Level of evidence and geographic origin of articles published in Chilean dental journals.

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Moraga

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to determine the geographic origin and level of evidence (LE) of articles published in Chilean dental journals during 2012. The target population for the bibliometric study was articles published in exclusively-scientific Chilean dental journals. These variables were analyzed: journal, area, language, country, region, design, scenario, and LE. A total of 120 articles were published in four journals: International Journal of Odontostomatology (IJOS=59), Revis...

  5. The politics of the Chilean right from the Popular Front to 1964

    OpenAIRE

    Correa, Sofía

    1994-01-01

    The right in Chile has been crucial to the democratic politics of the country ever since the development of the party system. In the period covered by this thesis (1939- 1964) the Chilean right faced the combined challenge of reformist governments and the emergence of mass political parties on the left. This thesis describes the Chilean right as being composed by political parties, entrepreneurial associations and a leading newspaper, El Mercurio. which represented an...

  6. BTX abatement using Chilean natural zeolite: the role of Brønsted acid sites

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro, S.; Valdés, Héctor; Manero, Marie-Hélène; Zaror, Claudio A.

    2012-01-01

    In wastewater treatment facilities, air quality is not only affected by conventional unpleasant odour compounds; toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are also found. In this study, the adsorptive capacity of Chilean natural zeolite toward VOC removal was evaluated. Moreover, the influence of zeolite chemical surface properties on VOC elimination was also investigated. Three modified zeolite samples were prepared from a natural Chilean zeolite (53% clinoptilolite, 40% mordenite and 7% quart...

  7. Effect of slaughter methods on the quality of Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) during refrigerated storage

    OpenAIRE

    Lyu, Fei; Huang, Rui-Ji; Liu, Lin; Zhou, Xuxia; Ding, Yu-Ting

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the influence of slaughter methods on the quality of Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) during refrigerated storage on board. Fishes were slaughtered by asphyxia in air (AA), asphyxia in ice water (AI) or stunning fish heads (SH), and the rigor mortis, pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), trimethylamine (TMA), 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and sensory properties for the fishes were analyzed. On day 0, Chilean jack...

  8. Creating stability in constant uncertainty : dealing with crisis in the Chilean aquaculture industry

    OpenAIRE

    Amundsen, Vilde Steiro

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is the result of a fieldwork conducted in Fish Inc., a Chilean branch of a Norwegian-owned company dealing with equipment for fish farming. The Chilean aquaculture industry has since the sanitary and financial crisis of 2007 experienced a constant unpredictability, with extreme fluctuation between incredible upswings and crashing downturns. The instability and uncertainty of the industry has generated the necessity of creating a sense of continuity for employees in dealing with th...

  9. Diversity and activity of denitrifiers of Chilean arid soil ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GescheBraker

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean sclerophyllous matorral is a Mediterranean semiarid ecosystem affected by erosion, with low soil fertility and limited by nitrogen. However, limitation of resources is even more severe for desert soils such as from the Atacama Desert, one of the most extreme arid deserts on Earth. Topsoil organic matter, nitrogen and moisture content were significantly higher in the semiarid soil compared to the desert soil. Although the most significant loss of biologically preferred nitrogen from terrestrial ecosystems occurs via denitrification, virtually nothing is known on the activity and composition of denitrifier communities thriving in arid soils. In this study, we explored denitrifier communities from two soils with profoundly distinct edaphic factors. While denitrification activity in the desert soil was below detection limit, the semiarid soil sustained denitrification activity. To elucidate the genetic potential of the soils to sustain denitrification processes we performed community analysis of denitrifiers based on nitrite reductase (nirK and nirS genes as functional marker genes for this physiological group. Presence of nirK-type denitrifiers in both soils was demonstrated but failure to amplify nirS from the desert soil suggests very low abundance of nirS-type denitrifiers shedding light on the lack of denitrification activity. Phylogenetic analysis showed a very low diversity of nirK with only three distinct genotypes in the desert soil which conditions presumably exert a high selection pressure. While nirK diversity was also limited to only few, albeit distinct genotypes, the semiarid matorral soil showed a surprisingly broad genetic variability of the nirS gene. The Chilean matorral is a shrub land plant community which form vegetational patches stabilizing the soil and increasing its nitrogen and carbon content. These islands of fertility may sustain the development and activity of the overall microbial community and of

  10. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastrointestinal symptoms on Chilean pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ferrer Poveda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the aim of this research was to determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection on Chilean pregnant women and its relationship with the appearance and severity of hyperemesis and dyspepsia. Methods: quantitative study of prevalence in a transversal cut with variable analysis. The sample was taken from 274 Chilean pregnant women from the Bío Bío province through vein puncture between June and December, 2005. Pregnant women were informed of this study, interviewed and signed an informed consent. The samples were processed using ImmunoComb II Helicobacter pylori IgG kit. Statistical analysis was performed by means of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Program. Results: out of the total number of pregnant women, 68.6% showed infection by Helicobacter pylori. 79.6% of the total sample had symptoms of dyspepsia, and 72.5% of this group presented Helicobacter pylori infection. 12.4% showed pregnancy hyperemesis; among them, 79.4% were infected with Helicobacter pylori. 73.4% of the pregnant women that showed gastric discomfort during the first three months had Helicobacter pylori infection. 53.7% of them continued with gastric discomfort after the first three months; of those, 95.8% were infected. Helicobacter pylori infection was present only in 1.5% of pregnant women without gastric discomfort. Conclusion: both, gastric discomfort of pregnant women and the continuity of severe symptoms of dyspepsia and hyperemesis after the first three months of gestation are significantly correlated with Helicobacter pylori infection.

  11. Indo-European and Asian origins for Chilean and Pacific chickens revealed by mtDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongora, Jaime; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Mobegi, Victor A; Jianlin, Han; Alcalde, Jose A; Matus, Jose T; Hanotte, Olivier; Moran, Chris; Austin, Jeremy J; Ulm, Sean; Anderson, Atholl J; Larson, Greger; Cooper, Alan

    2008-07-29

    European chickens were introduced into the American continents by the Spanish after their arrival in the 15th century. However, there is ongoing debate as to the presence of pre-Columbian chickens among Amerindians in South America, particularly in relation to Chilean breeds such as the Araucana and Passion Fowl. To understand the origin of these populations, we have generated partial mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from 41 native Chilean specimens and compared them with a previously generated database of approximately 1,000 domestic chicken sequences from across the world as well as published Chilean and Polynesian ancient DNA sequences. The modern Chilean sequences cluster closely with haplotypes predominantly distributed among European, Indian subcontinental, and Southeast Asian chickens, consistent with a European genetic origin. A published, apparently pre-Columbian, Chilean specimen and six pre-European Polynesian specimens also cluster with the same European/Indian subcontinental/Southeast Asian sequences, providing no support for a Polynesian introduction of chickens to South America. In contrast, sequences from two archaeological sites on Easter Island group with an uncommon haplogroup from Indonesia, Japan, and the Philippines [corrected] and may represent a genetic signature of an early Polynesian dispersal. Modeling of the potential marine carbon contribution to the Chilean archaeological specimen casts further doubt on claims for pre-Columbian chickens, and definitive proof will require further analyses of ancient DNA sequences and radiocarbon and stable isotope data from archaeological excavations within both Chile and Polynesia. PMID:18663216

  12. Extreme environments in the forests of Ushuaia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antoni, Hector; Rothschild, Lynn; Schultz, Cynthia; Burgess, Seth; Skiles, J. W.

    2007-11-01

    A survey over two mountain slopes (Glaciar Martial and Cerro Guanaco) in the vicinity of Ushuaia (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina) showed normal results for the region in terms of chlorophyll concentration in the leaves of the dominant tree species Nothofagus antarctica, N. pumilio and N. betuloides, and soil variables such as temperature, moisture, pH, and concentration of nitrogen, sodium and potassium. Solar radiation, on the other hand, showed high values of ultraviolet over the 200-400 nm range, suggesting that the environment is extreme in terms of incoming solar radiation. The forest canopy absorbs and/or reflects a significant amount of that radiation. In separate analyses we showed that these tree species contain UV-absorbing pigments (cyanidin, delphidin, and flavonol glycosides). We submit that the rippled and glossy surface of leaves serves as a reflection/backscattering mechanism that protects their inner structure and function. The presence of krummholz (= twisted, dwarf trees) in the upper end of the forest shows the effects of an extreme environment.

  13. Phyto climatic characterization and cartography of sub antarctic native forests in Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego (Patagonia, Argentina); Caracterizacion y cartografia fitoclimaticas del bosque nativo subantartico en la Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego (Patagonia, Argentina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allue, C.; Arranz, J. A.; Bava, J. O.; Beneitez, J. M.; Collado, L.; Garcia-Lopez, J. M.

    2010-07-01

    Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego is especially peculiar in phytoclimatic terms, situated as it is at an extreme southerly latitude, surrounded by large water masses and close to the great mass of Antarctic ice. Its main peculiarities in this sense are the coolness of its summers and a very narrow temperature range. As a result, the woodland landscapes in the parts with forest cover are dominated by microphyllous broadleaf physiognomies, both evergreen and deciduous, of the Nothofagus genus. This paper reports a more in-depth investigation of the hitherto little-known phytoclimatic conditions in that territory which included calibration and validation of a model of phytoclimatic suitability that addresses the principal plant physiognomic units and phytoclimatic mapping. It discusses the causes behind the presence of broadleaf formations in thermal conditions which in the northern hemisphere would allow only coniferous formations or no tree formations at all, and also the edaphic peculiarities that may explain the presence of a evergreen species like Nothofagus betuloides in subantarctic mixed forests. (Author) 111 refs.

  14. Out in the cold: genetic variation of Nothofagus pumilio (Nothofagaceae) provides evidence for latitudinally distinct evolutionary histories in austral South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiasen, Paula; Premoli, Andrea C

    2010-01-01

    Nothofagus pumilio is the dominant and almost ubiquitous tree species in mountainous environments of temperate South America. We used two types of molecular markers (cpDNA and isozymes) to evaluate the effects of the Paleogene paleogeography of Patagonia and more recent climatic oscillations of the Neogene on such cold-tolerant species' genetic makeup. Phylogeographic analysis on sequences of three cpDNA non-coding regions at 85 populations yielded two latitudinally disjunct monophyletic clades north and south of c. 42 degrees S containing 11 and three haplotypes, respectively. This indicates a long-lasting vicariant event due to the presence of an extended open paleobasin at mid latitudes of Patagonia. Also distribution patterns of cpDNA haplotypes suggest regional spread following stepping-stone models using pre-Cenozoic mountains as corridors. Comparable genetic diversity measured along 41 sampled populations using seven polymorphic isozyme loci provides evidence of local persistence and spread from multiple ice-free locations. In addition, significantly higher heterozygosity and allelic richness at high latitudes, i.e. in areas of larger glacial extent, suggest survival in large and isolated refugia. While, higher cpDNA diversity in lower latitudes reflects the complex orogeny that historically isolated northern populations, lower isozyme diversity and reduced F(ST) values provide evidence of local glacial survival in numerous small locales. Therefore, current genetic structure of N. pumilio is the result of regional processes which took place during the Tertiary that were enhanced by contemporary local effects of drift and isolation in response to Quaternary climatic cycles. PMID:20002584

  15. Chilean Teachers Begin Exchange Program Visit in Magdalena

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    . Kelly. The Chilean teachers are visiting Magdalena while they are on their Southern Hemisphere summer vacation, and Magdalena's schools are in session. Two Magdalena teachers, Joleen Welborn and Sandra Montoya, will visit San Pedro in June, while they are on summer vacation and the Chilean schools will be in session. Dr. Eduardo Hardy, the AUI/NRAO representative in Chile, will accompany the Chilean teachers on their visit, which has been coordinated by Harrison. "ALMA is a groundbreaking example of the type of international cooperation that marks the future of astronomy. We are especially pleased to sponsor a program that brings together two communities that both enjoy proximity to world-class astronomical research facilities," said Dr. Fred K.Y. Lo, NRAO Director. "While separated by many miles, San Pedro de Atacama and Magdalena have much in common. Both are small communities in high desert environments, and both are next to telescopes where the world's astronomers will be making many exciting discoveries in the coming decades. Bringing these two communities together will advance education and international understanding," Harrison said. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  16. Chemical metrology, strategic job for the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Standardization Institute's (INN) Metrology unit prepared a study in 1996 to evaluate the impact of metrological activity in Chile. This study was based on a survey of the supply and demand of metrological services and on studies of the behavior of the production system and technological services in Chile during the period 1990-1996. With the information obtained in this study the economic impact resulting from the lack of a national metrology system could be evaluated. This impact was estimated to be a 5% loss in gross national product equal to 125-500 million dollars because of direct product rejection in the mining, fisheries, agricultural and manufacturing sectors. Chemical measurements are responsible for 50% of these losses. In response to this need and coordinated by the INN, a metrological network of reference laboratories began to operate in 1997 for the principal physical magnitudes (mass, temperature, longitude and force) and a CORFO-FDI project began in 2001 that includes the chemical magnitudes. The Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, aware of the problem's importance and the amount of economic damage that the country may suffer, as a result of these deficiencies, has formed a Chemical Metrology Unit to provide technical support. It aims to raise the standards of local analytical laboratories by providing international recognition to the export sector. Nuclear analytical techniques are used as reference methods. This work describes the laboratories that are included in this Chemical Metrology Unit and the historical contribution to the development of local analytical chemistry. The national and international projects are described together with the publications they have generated. The quality assurance program applied to the laboratories is described as well, which has led to the accreditation of the analytical chemical assays. The procedures used for validation and calculation of uncertain nuclear methodologies are described together with

  17. Dental fluorosis in Chilean children: evaluation of risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, A E; Guerrero, S; Icaza, G; Villalobos, J; Anabalón, M

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this case-control study was to determine the association between very-mild-to-moderate enamel fluorosis and exposure during early childhood to fluoridated water, mainly through ingestion of powdered milk. Analysis was performed on 136 residents of the optimally fluoridated community of San Felipe in the Chilean Fifth Region, who were categorised into one of three groups according to their age when water fluoridation was introduced in 1986: Group I was born after 1986; Group II was 16-24 months old in 1986; and Group III was >24 months of age. The case and control subjects were selected on the basis of a clinical examination given in July 1996. Dean's scoring system was used to determine fluorosis status. Risk factor exposure was ascertained by a questionnaire used in interviews with mothers of participating children. Logistic regression analysis, after adjustment for confounding variables, revealed that very-mild-to-moderate enamel fluorosis of permanent central maxillary incisors (CMI) was strongly associated both with the age of the subjects when water fluoridation began and with breast-feeding duration for children belonging to Group I. Subjects in Group I were 20.44 times more likely (95% CI: 5.00-93.48) to develop CMI fluorosis than children who were older than 24 months (Group III) when fluoridation began. Subjects who were between 16 and 24 months old when water fluoridation began were 4.15 times more likely (95% CI: 1.05-16.43) to have CMI fluorosis than children older than 24 months. An inverse association was found with breastfeeding duration (OR=0.86, 95% CI: 0.75-0.98) among Group I subjects but not in Groups II and III. Results obtained suggest that the current fluoride concentration in drinking water may be contributing to fluorosis. Further studies will be necessary to determine the relative competing risks of dental fluorosis and dental caries in Chilean children in order to establish the most appropriate water fluoridation level in

  18. Morfología y Anatomía del Ápice Caulinar de Nothofagus dombeyi (Nothofagaceae a lo largo de un año Morfology and anatomy of the shoot apex of Nothofagus dombeyi (Nothofagaceae along a year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad García

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se evaluó la posible variación anual de la morfología y la anatomía del ápice caulinar de coihue, Nothofagus dombeyi (Nothofagaceae. A partir de muestras tomadas a lo largo de un año calendario, se realizaron cortes longitudinales de las yemas terminales con micrótomo de congelación. Independientemente de la época del año, una yema terminal está conformada por un meristema apical y rudimentos de tallo y hojas. Los primordios foliares proximales tienen mayor tamaño y grado de diferenciación que los distales. En la axila de cada estípula se destaca la presencia de coléteres. Cada coléter se comunica vascularmente con la estípula correspondiente. El número de primordios foliares por yema es constante entre abril y octubre y disminuye posteriormente al incrementarse el número de hojas expandidas, aunque sin llegar a cero. Al final de la estación de crecimiento se distinguen yemas de mayor y yemas de menor tamaño; estas últimas se secan y desprenden del tallo antes de la primavera siguiente. Dentro de una yema se evidencian, en un momento dado, distintos grados de diferenciación entre primordios foliares proximales y distales y entre la lámina y las estípulas de los primordios más proximales.The present study evaluates the possible annual variation in the morphology and anatomy of the shoot apex of Nothofagus dombeyi (Nothofagaceae. From samples taken over one year, longitudinal slices of terminal buds were cut with a freezing microtome. Irrespective of the time of the year, a terminal bud consists of an apical meristem and rudiments of stem and leaves. Proximal primordia are larger and have a higher degree of differentiation than distal primordia. Around the axil of each stipule colleters are present. Each colleter is connected with the corresponding stipule through a conducting strand. The number of leaf primordia per bud is constant between April and October and diminishes later on as leaf expansion

  19. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  20. Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Gómez-Campos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of waist circumference (WC is considered to be an important means to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The objectives of the study were to (a compare the WC measurements of Chilean students with the international CDC-2012 standard and other international standards, and (b propose a specific measurement value for the WC of Chilean students based on age and sex. A total of 3892 students (6 to 18 years old were assessed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI, and WC were measured. WC was compared with the CDC-2012 international standard. Percentiles were constructed based on the LMS method. Chilean males had a greater WC during infancy. Subsequently, in late adolescence, males showed values lower than those of the international standards. Chilean females demonstrated values similar to the standards until the age of 12. Subsequently, females showed lower values. The 85th and 95th percentiles were adopted as cutoff points for evaluating overweight and obesity based on age and sex. The WC of Chilean students differs from the CDC-2012 curves. The regional norms proposed are a means to identify children and adolescents with a high risk of suffering from overweight and obesity disorders.

  1. Revealing latitudinal patterns of mitochondrial DNA diversity in Chileans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Moreno, Fabián; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Martinón-Torres, Federico; García-Magariños, Manuel; Pantoja-Astudillo, Jaime A; Aguirre-Morales, Eugenia; Bustos, Patricio; Salas, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The territory of Chile is particularly long and narrow, which combined with its mountainous terrain, makes it a unique scenario for human genetic studies. We obtained 995 control region mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from Chileans representing populations living at different latitudes of the country from the North to the southernmost region. The majority of the mtDNA profiles are of Native American origin (∼88%). The remaining haplotypes are mostly of recent European origin (∼11%), and only a minor proportion is of recent African ancestry (∼1%). While these proportions are relatively uniform across the country, more structured patterns of diversity emerge when examining the variation from a phylogeographic perspective. For instance, haplogroup A2 reaches ∼9% in the North, and its frequency decreases gradually to ∼1% in the southernmost populations, while the frequency of haplogroup D (sub-haplogroups D1 and D4) follows the opposite pattern: 36% in the southernmost region, gradually decreasing to 21% in the North. Furthermore, there are remarkable signatures of founder effects in specific sub-clades of Native American (e.g. haplogroups D1j and D4p) and European (e.g. haplogroups T2b3 and K1a4a1a+195) ancestry. We conclude that the magnitude of the latitudinal differences observed in the patterns of mtDNA variation might be relevant in forensic casework. PMID:26517175

  2. Peer victimization: Intimidation and victmization in Chilean students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica López

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study about peer intimidation and victimization with 1167 school students from 6th, 7th, and 8th grade from the Valparaiso Region of Valparaíso, Chile. The instrument used was the Insebull Battery (Avilés & Elices, 2007. Results show that approximately 9% of students have been victim of peer victimization many times or almost every day during the school year. Psychological victimization was more frequent thanphysical aggression, particularly through virtual communication such as cell-phone messages and e-mails. Participants tend to be groups of male students. Although male students participate more in physical aggression, they also receive more physical and psychological aggression. The most frequent places were inside the classroom and the school yard, when the teacher is not present. Most students inform not knowing, or vaguely knowing, thereasons underlying these aggressions, and do not do anything to deal with them. These results coincide with international studies and allow a better understanding of the characteristics of peer victimization in specific educational contexts within the Chilean school system.

  3. Natural activity of 40K in some Chilean building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of the natural level of radioactivity is important to assess the influence of gamma radiation exposure in building materials. The main sources of external radiation exposure in buildings are members of the uranium and thorium decay chains and 40K occurring naturally in building materials, which emit gamma rays.The specific activity of building materials has been reported for many countries. However, for Chilean building materials no such data are available. A study of 40K speciactivity on building materials was carried out with gamma spectrometric system based on high-purity germanium detector. The 40K activity was measured directly by its own gamma-ray line at 1460.8 keV. Samples of gypsum, cement, brick and cement and gravel mixture, widely used in Chile, were used on this work. The samples were corrected by moisture content and the geometrical conditions has been normalized to avoid volumetric corrections. All preliminary results are below the world average of 500 Bq/kg for building materials reported by UNSCEAR

  4. The Usefulness of Edible and Medicinal Fabaceae in Argentine and Chilean Patagonia: Environmental Availability and Other Sources of Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Molares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fabaceae is of great ethnobotanical importance in indigenous and urban communities throughout the world. This work presents a revision of the use of Fabaceae as a food and/or medicinal resource in Argentine-Chilean Patagonia. It is based on a bibliographical analysis of 27 ethnobotanical sources and catalogues of regional flora. Approximately 234 wild species grow in Patagonia, mainly (60% in arid environments, whilst the remainder belong to Sub-Antarctic forest. It was found that 12.8% (30 species, mainly woody, conspicuous plants, are collected for food or medicines. Most of the species used grow in arid environments. Cultivation and purchase/barter enrich the Fabaceae offer, bringing it up to a total of 63 species. The richness of native and exotic species, and the existence of multiple strategies for obtaining these plants, indicates hybridization of knowledge and practices. Only 22% of the total species used are mentioned in bothcontexts of food and medicine, reflecting low-use complementation. This study suggests a significant ecological appearance and a high level of availability in shops and exchange networks in Patagonia, highlighting the need to consider the full set of environmental and socioeconomic factors in research related to the use and cultural importance of plants in regional contexts.

  5. Privatizing Water in the Chilean Andes: The Case of Las Vegas de Chiu-Chiu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Prieto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean water model has been described as a textbook example of a free-market water system. This article contributes to the critiques of this model by showing the effect of its implementation in the Atacameño community of Chiu-Chiu, located in the Atacama Desert in the south-central Andes. In this community, the privatization of water rights ignored local water management practices that had produced a high-altitude wetland (known as a vega. This led to the inhabitants’ dispossession of crucial water rights and to wetland degradation. This process belies statements that the Chilean model relies on an unregulated market and instead highlights the state’s role in marginalizing local irrigation practices by reducing the water consumption of the indigenous population while keeping the copper mining industry (the main source of Chilean income and related growing urban populations supplied with water.

  6. TRADE POLICY AND MAJOR TRENDS IN CHILEAN EXPORTS UNDER DEMOCRACY, 1990-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Llorca-Jaña

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with trade policy and the principal trends in Chilean exports after the return to democracy in 1990. During this period, both exports and imports expanded significantly in Chile. As far as exports are concerned, this boom is mainly due to an effective trade policy of additive regionalism, booming copper prices, export diversification and the economic dynamism of China, the principal beneficiary of Chilean exports. On the negative side, the country is still too dependant on copper and a few other primary products. In addition, nowadays, in relative terms Chile is exporting more copper minerals and less refined copper than it used to do in the 1990s, while Chilean exports remained highly concentrated in a few companies only, many of which belong to foreign nationals.

  7. Top-down and bottom-up processes in grassland and forested streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Per; McIntosh, Angus R; Winterbourn, Michael J

    2003-08-01

    The influence of predatory fish on the structure of stream food webs may be altered by the presence of forest canopy cover, and consequent differences in allochthonous inputs and primary production. Eight sites containing introduced brown trout ( Salmo trutta) and eight sites that did not were sampled in the Cass region, South Island, New Zealand. For each predator category, half the sites were located in southern beech (Nothofagus) forest patches (range of canopy cover, 65-90%) and the other half were in tussock grassland. Food resources used by two dominant herbivores-detritivores were assessed using stable isotopes. (13)C/(12)C ratios were obtained for coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM), fine particulate organic matter (FPOM), algal dominated biofilm from rocks, and larvae of Deleatidium (Ephemeroptera) and Olinga (Trichoptera). Total abundance and biomass of macroinvertebrates did not differ between streams with and without trout, but were significantly higher at grassland sites than forested sites. However, taxon richness and species composition differed substantially between trout and no-trout sites, irrespective of whether streams were located in forest or not. Trout streams typically contained more taxa, had low biomass of predatory invertebrates and large shredders, but a high proportion of consumers with cases or shells. The standing stock of CPOM was higher at forested sites, but there was less FPOM and more algae at sites with trout, regardless of the presence or absence of forest cover. The stable carbon isotope range for biofilm on rocks was broad and encompassed the narrow CPOM and FPOM ranges. At trout sites, carbon isotope ratios of Deleatidium, the most abundant invertebrate primary consumer, were closely related to biofilm values, but no relationship was found at no-trout sites where algal biomass was much lower. These results support a role for both bottom-up and top-down processes in controlling the structure of the stream communities

  8. Organic carbon in glacial fjords of Chilean Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, Silvio; Gutiérrez, Marcelo; Tapia, Fabián; Abarzúa, Leslie; Daneri, Giovanni; Reid, Brian; Díez, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    The Southern Ice Field in Chilean Patagonia is the largest (13,000 km2) temperate ice mass in the Southern hemisphere, yearly transporting ca. 40 km3 of freshwater to fjords. This volume of fresh and cold water likely affects adjacent marine ecosystems by changing circulation, productivity, food web dynamics, and the abundance and distribution of planktonic and benthic organisms. We hypothesize that freshwater-driven availability of inorganic nutrient and transport of organic and inorganic suspended matter, as well as microbes, become a controlling factor for productivity in the fjord associated with the Baker river and Jorge Montt glacier. Both appear to be sources of silicic acid, but not of nitrate and particulate organic carbon, especially during summer, when surface PAR and glacier thawing are maximal. In contrast to Baker River, the Jorge Montt glacier is also a source of dissolved organic carbon towards a proglacial fjord and the Baker Channel, indicating that a thorough chemical description of sources (tidewater glacier and glacial river) is needed. Nitrate in fiord waters reaches ca. 15 μM at 25 m depth with no evidence of mixing up during summer. Stable isotope composition of particulate organic nitrogen reaches values as low as 3 per mil in low-salinity waters near both glacier and river. Nitrogen fixation could be depleting δ15N in organic matter, as suggested by the detection at surface waters of nif H genes belonging to diazotrophs near the Montt glacier. As diazotrophs have also been detected in other cold marine waters (e.g. Baltic Sea, Arctic Ocean) as well as glaciers and polar terrestrial waters, there is certainly a potential for both marine and freshwater microbes to contribute and have a significant impact on the Patagonian N and C budgets. Assessing the impact of freshwater on C and N fluxes and the microbial community structure in Patagonian waters will allow understanding future scenarios of rapid glacier melting. This research was funded

  9. Planning Forest Opening with Forest Roads

    OpenAIRE

    Krč, Janez; Beguš, Jurij

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the model for determining inaccessible forest areas by density of forest roads. The model is based on the GIS analysis of the distances between the existing network of public and forest roads and inaccessible forest areas, sizes of excluded forest areas, and forest site potentials. In order to increase forest road density, the following must be done: (1) construct connecting roads to the inaccessible forest areas and (2) construct new forest roads with different density i...

  10. La infografía de 'El Mercurio' de Chile. Chilean El Mercurio's infographics Chilean El Mercurio's infographics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Colle

    Full Text Available Resumen: El diario chileno El Mercurio incluye algunas veces en sus artículos la mención «ver infografía» para invitar a los lectores a completar la lectura con la observación de un cuadro anexo. Este cuadro, sin embargo, no siempre incluye un elemento icónico: como lo demostramos aquí, este diario utiliza una definición extremadamente amplia del concepto de infografía. Además de presentar aquí las características de todos los infográficos publicados en enero y febrero de 2009, mostramos también que los casos en que aparece la mención «ver infografía» no son predecibles a partir de estos cuadros y que éstos no se distinguen, por sus características, del resto de los publicados.Abstract:The chilean newspaper El Mercurio sometimes include in their articles the words «see infographics» inviting readers to complete the reading with the observation of an annexed table. This table, however, does not always include an iconic: as we demonstrated here, this newspaper uses an extremely broad definition of the concept of infographics. Apart from presenting here the characteristics of all infographics published in January and February 2009, we also show that cases in which the words «see infographics» are not predictable from these graphics and they are not distinguished by their characteristics from the rest of them.

  11. Estudio comparativo del crecimiento y la ramificación de brotes anuales en dos especies de Nothofagus (Nothofagaceae y en híbridos inter-específicos Comparative study of annual shoot growth and branching in two species of Nothofagus (Nothofagaceae and inter-specific hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Torres

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Las ramas principales y secundarias se diferencian en mayor o menor medida según las especies, lo cual puede observarse en base al crecimiento primario de los brotes que las originan. En ejemplares de vivero juveniles-adultos de Nothofagus obliqua, N. nervosa e híbridos entre ambas especies, se compararon la dinámica de alargamiento, el tamaño y la morfología de dos brotes distales de ramas principales: uno que continúa el alargamiento de la rama principal y el otro que inicia una rama secundaria. En N. alpina y en híbridos, los dos brotes más distales se diferencian más que en N. obliqua. A pesar de la homogeneidad ambiental en el vivero y el origen geográfico común para los ejemplares de N. nervosa y los híbridos, hubieron diferencias fenológicas y morfológicas entre estas entidades. La duración y tasa de alargamiento y la longitud final de los brotes fueron altamente variables en cada entidad. Las variaciones entre entidades en la diferenciación de ejes podrían indicar diferencias en sus capacidades de uso del espacio circundante. La diferenciación entre ramas principales y secundarias se iniciaría en el estado de yema. La variación intra-específica fenológica y morfológica es útil para programas de selección artificial de individuos.Main and secondary branches are more or less differentiated according to the species and this could be observed during the primary growth of the shoots that produce them. In young-adult trees of Nothofagus obliqua, N. nervosa and hybrids between them growing in a common garden, growth dynamics, size and morphology were compared between two distal shoots produced by main branches: one of these shoots continued the extension of the main branch whereas the other initiated a secondary branch. The two distal shoots differed from each other more notably in N. nervosa and in the hybrids than in N. obliqua. Despite the environmental homogeneities at the nursery and the common geographic origin of

  12. Estimating enteric methane emissions from Chilean beef fattening systems using a mechanistic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arias, R.A.; Catrileo, A.; Larraín, R.; Vera, R.; Velásquez, A.; Toneatti, M.; France, J.; Dijkstra, J.; Kebreab, E.

    2015-01-01

    A mechanistic model (COWPOLL) was used to estimate enteric methane (CH4) emissions from beef production systems in Chile. The results expressed as a proportion of gross energy intake (GEI) were compared with enteric fermentation data reported in the last Chilean greenhouse gases inventory, which uti

  13. New English Cultures and Learner Autonomy for Intrinsic Motivation and Democratic Empowerment in the Chilean Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glas, Katharina; Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.

    2013-01-01

    Chilean youth are currently demanding access to better-quality education for all: greater democracy and curricula that respect the country's indigenous cultural roots form part of their petitions. This article puts forward a twofold pedagogical proposal for English Language Teaching intended to foster intrinsic motivation and democratic…

  14. Eating Disorders among a Community-Based Sample of Chilean Female Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granillo, M. Teresa; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders among a community-based sample of female Chilean adolescents. Data were collected through structured interviews with 420 female adolescents residing in Santiago, Chile. Approximately 4% of the sample reported ever being diagnosed with an eating disorder.…

  15. The Class and Culture-Based Exclusion of the Chilean Neoliberal Educational Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavieres, Eduardo A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I analyze the class- and cultural-based exclusion produced by the Chilean neoliberal educational reform, carried out during the period from 1990 to 2010. This educational reform follows the same neoliberal model applied to the economy of the country. Although some indicators improved in relation to coverage and public spending in…

  16. Uneven Distribution of Novice Teachers in the Chilean Primary School System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckes, Lorena; Bascope, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the allocation of novice primary teachers in Chilean schools, looking at their characteristics and at the attributes of the schools at which they are hired after having completed their initial teacher training. The study reveals that in Chile, more qualified novice teachers are more prone to get jobs in socio-economically…

  17. Educational Effectiveness in Chilean Secondary Education: Comparing Different "Value Added" Approaches to Evaluate Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Chereau, B.; Thomas, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports an original investigation into school performance measures and the multilevel nature of pupil achievement data in the Chilean school system using a sample of 177,461 students, nested within 7146 classrooms, 2283 secondary schools and 313 municipalities. The data-set comprised Year 10 students' 2006 SIMCE test's results in two…

  18. Home and Instruction Effects on Emergent Literacy in a Sample of Chilean Kindergarten Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Katherine; Lissi, Maria Rosa

    2009-01-01

    The study examines the home literacy experiences, emergent literacy skills, and instructional experiences of a sample of Chilean kindergarten children (n = 126) and kindergarten families (n = 188) nested in 12 kindergarten classrooms from different socioeconomic status groups and types of schools. Descriptive information is given showing the level…

  19. Morphology, anatomy and histology of Doto uva Marcus, 1955 (Opisthobranchia: Nudibranchia) from the Chilean coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, M.A.; Velde, van der G.; Roubos, E.W.

    2006-01-01

    Doto uva Marcus, 1955 is a nudibranch species recorded from the Brazilian and Chilean coast. In spite of its wide distribution, D. uva has been described only superficially, mainly as to the pattern of its coloration, external morphology, radular teeth and reproductive system. Here we substantially

  20. The Chilean miracle : patrimonialism in a modern free-market democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peppelenbos, L.P.C.

    2005-01-01

    International policy institutions claim that Chile's remarkable economic performance testifies to the merits of a neo-liberal development model. This book argues, however, that 'the Chilean miracle' did not result from the adoption ofneoliberalismitself, but from the persis

  1. Population genetics of the Chilean frog Batrachyla Leptopus (Leptodactylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Formas

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrophoretic variation of proteins encoded by 14 loci was analyzed in eight (five continental and three insular populations of the Chilean leptodactylid frog Batrachyla leptopus. The overall proportion of polymorphic loci was estimated to be 18.7% and the average number of alleles per locus, 1.2, while observed and expected heterozygosities were 1.7 and 5.1%, respectively. The estimated coefficient of genetic identity was 0.940; the corresponding figure for genetic distance was 0.063. F-statistics analysis showed a total inbreeding coefficient (Fit of 0.855 and high levels of genetic subdivision (Fst = 0.596 as well as of inbreeding within populations (Fis = 0.640. However, there was only a moderate level of genetic differentiation (Fst = 0.181 between the insular group of populations and the continental group.A variação eletroforética de proteínas codificadas por 14 loci foi analisada em oito populações (5 continentais e 3 insulares da rã leptodactilídea chilena Batrachyla leptopus. A proporção geral de loci polimórficos foi estimada como sendo de 18,7% e o número médio de alelos por loco, 1,2, enquanto que as heterozigosidades observada e esperada foram 1,7 e 5,1%, respectivamente. O coeficiente esperado de identidade genética foi 0,940; o número correspondente para a distância genética foi 0,063. A análise estatística F mostrou um coeficiente de endogamia total (Fit de 0,855 e altos níveis de subdivisão genética (Fst = 0,596, assim como de endogamia dentro das populações (Fis = 0,640. Contudo, houve apenas um nível moderado de diferenciação genética (Fst = 0,181 entre o grupo insular de populações e o grupo continental.

  2. Amino acid biogeo- and stereochemistry in coastal Chilean sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomstein, Bente Aa.; Jørgensen, Bo B.; Schubert, Carsten J.; Niggemann, Jutta

    2006-06-01

    The spatial distribution of total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA) and amino acid enantiomers ( D- and L-forms) was investigated in sediments underlying two contrasting Chilean upwelling regions: at ˜23 °S off Antofagasta and at ˜36 °S off Concepción. The contribution of amino acids to total organic carbon (%T AAC: 7-14%) and total nitrogen (%T AAN: 23-38%) in surface sediments decreased with increasing water depth (from 126 to 1350 m) indicating that organic matter becomes increasingly decomposed in surface sediments at greater water depth. Changes in the ratio between the protein amino acid aspartate and its non-protein degradation product β-alanine confirmed this observation. Furthermore, estimates of THAA mineralization showed that sedimentary amino acid reactivity decreased with both increasing water depth as well as progressive degradation status of the organic matter that was incorporated into the sediment. Reactivity of organic matter in the sediment was also assessed using the Degradation Index (DI) developed by [Dauwe, B., Middelburg, J.J., 1998. Amino acids and hexosamines as indicators of organic matter degradation state in North Sea sediments. Limnol. Oceanogr.43, pp. 782-798.]. Off Concepción, DI was successfully applied to examine the degradation status of sedimentary organic matter at different water depths. However, unexpected results were obtained at the Antofagasta stations as DI increased with sediment depth, suggesting more degraded organic matter at the surface than deeper in the cores. The contribution of peptidoglycan amino acids to THAA was estimated from the concentrations of D-aspartate, D-glutamic acid, D-serine, and D-alanine. Peptidoglycan amino acids accounted for >18% of THAA in all investigated samples. In surface sediments peptidoglycan amino acids accounted for a progressively larger fraction of THAA at increasing water depths (up to >26%). Further, the contribution of peptidoglycan amino acids to THAA increased with

  3. Prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian P Mundt

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High rates of mental disorders have been reported for prison populations worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. The present study aimed to establish prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisoners. METHOD: A nationwide random sample of 1008 prisoners was assessed in 7 penal institutions throughout Chile. Twelve-month prevalence rates were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI and compared to the prevalence rates previously published for the general population. RESULTS: Prevalence rates were 12.2% (95% CI, 10.2-14.1 for any substance use disorder, 8.3% (6.6-10.0 for anxiety disorders, 8.1% (6.5-9.8 for affective disorders, 5.7% (4.4-7.1 for intermittent explosive disorders, 2.2% (1.4-3.2 for ADHD of the adult, and 0.8% (0.3-1.3 for non-affective psychoses. Significantly higher prevalence rates among prisoners as compared to the general population in Chile were seen for major depression (6.1% vs. 3.7% males, Z=2.58, p<0.05 and illicit drug use (3.3% vs. 0.6% males with drug abuse, Z=2.04, p<0.05; 2.6% vs. 0.1% females with drug abuse, Z=5.36, p<0.001; 3.4% vs. 1.1% males with drug dependence, Z=3.70; p<0.001. Dysthymia (6.5% vs. 15.6%, Z=-2.39, p<0.05, simple (3.3% vs. 11.5%, Z=-3.13, p<0.001 and social phobias (3.9% vs. 9.7%, Z=2.38, p<0.05 were significantly less frequent in the female prison population than in the general population. One-year prevalence rates of alcohol abuse (2.3% vs. 3.9%; Z=-2.04; p<0.05 and dependence (2.7% vs. 8.2%; Z=-5.24; p<0.001 were less prevalent in the male prison population than in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Service provision for prison populations in Chile should acknowledge high rates of depression and illicit drug use. Overall prevalence rates are lower than reported in other LMICs. Previous research in prison populations in LMICs might have overestimated prevalence rates of mental disorders.

  4. Aplicación de relaciones de densidad-diámetro y de área potencial aprovechable en bosques de Nothofagus Dombeyi (mirb.) Oerst, como herramientas de planificación silvícola .

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz Johnson, Pablo Christian

    2013-01-01

    Uno de los objetivos de esta tesis de doctorado fue analizar la aplicación de relaciones de densidad ¿ diámetro en bosques de Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) oerst, para la localidad del Río Mirta en la XI Región de Chile, como herramientas de planificación silvícola. El método de análisis consistió en la generación de una muestra de densidad¿diámetro a partir de la que se determinó el índice de densidad máximo (IDmax) a partir del cual se estimaron las máximas densidades que la especie podría alc...

  5. International Trade and Sustainability of the Chilean Forestry Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Raúl O'Ryan; Gabriel Fierro

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the vulnerability of Chile's forestry trade to environmental threats is explored. The increasing concern for the environment by consumers, together with the life cycle approach to products has created a new context for forest exploitation. The new trend in consumer based voluntary instruments, requiring an increasing use of eco-labels and forestry certification schemes, that can be used as trade barriers, is discussed. In particular the uncertainty related to the definition of s...

  6. Restoring forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Douglass F.; Oliet, Juan A.; Aronson, James;

    2015-01-01

    of land requiring restoration implies the need for spatial prioritization of restoration efforts according to cost-benefit analyses that include ecological risks. To design resistant and resilient ecosystems that can adapt to emerging circumstances, an adaptive management approach is needed. Global...... scales. The capacity for new concepts and technologies to be adopted by managers and accepted by society will depend on effective technology transfer and a community-based approach to forest restoration. The many benefits human society gains from forests requires that forest restoration considers...

  7. Mealybug species from Chilean agricultural landscapes and main factors influencing the genetic structure of [i]Pseudococcus viburni[/i

    OpenAIRE

    Correa, Margarita C.G.; Lombaert, Eric; Malausa, Thibaut; Crochard, Didier; Alvear, Andrés; Zaviezo, Tania; Palero, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to characterize the distribution of mealybug species along Chilean agro-ecosystems and to determine the relative impact of host plant, management strategy, geography and micro-environment on shaping the distribution and genetic structure of the obscure mealybug Pseudococcus viburni. An extensive survey was completed using DNA barcoding methods to identify Chilean mealybugs to the species level. Moreover, a fine-scale study of Ps. viburni genetic diversity and populatio...

  8. Fishing the future. A snapshot of the Chilean TURFs through the lens of fishers and key stakeholders‟ perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Ueyonahara, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Overfishing is not an exclusive topic of big fishing industry. Overfishing by small-scale fishers is also happening. The Territorial Use of Rights – TURFs was implemented in Chile to protect the Chilean abalone from overfishing. Through the implementation of the TURFs Chilean abalone are no longer threatened by overfishing. The challenge to protect the resource thus seems to be solved. However, while some problems are solved others persist or new ones arise. The thesis explores the discourses...

  9. Comparing Sociodemographic Factors Associated with Disability between Immigrants and the Chilean-Born: Are There Different Stories to Tell?

    OpenAIRE

    Baltica Cabieses; Pickett, Kate E.; Helena Tunstall

    2012-01-01

    This study explored a range of sociodemographic factors associated with disability among international immigrants in Chile, and compared them to the Chilean-born. Secondary data analysis of the Chilean population-based survey CASEN-2006 was conducted (268,873 participants). Main health outcomes: any disability and six different types of disability: visual, hearing, learning, physical, psychiatric and speaking (binary outcomes). Sociodemographic variables: Demographic factors (age, sex, marita...

  10. A Forest Management Map of European Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel van den Wyngaert; Markus Didion; Gert-Jan Nabuurs; Hengeveld, Geerten M.; Clerkx, A. P. P. M. (Sandra); Mart-Jan Schelhaas

    2012-01-01

    Forest management to a large extent determines the possible services that the forest can provide. Different objectives in forest management determine the rotation length and valuation of different stages in forest succession. We present a method of mapping potential forest management at 1-km resolution to inform policy, land use modeling, and forest resource projections. The presented method calculates the suitability of a location to different forest management alternatives based on biotic, ...

  11. Boreal forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review patterns and processes important for biodiversity in the Fennoscandian boreal forest, describe man's past and present impact and outline a strategy for conservation. Natural disturbances, particularly forest fire and gap formation, create much of the structural and functional diversity in forest ecosystems. Several boreal plants and animals are adapted to fire regimes. In contrast, many organisms (epiphytic lichens, fungi, invertebrates) require stable conditions with long continuity in canopy cover. The highly mechanized and efficient Fennoscandian forest industry has developed during the last century. The result is that most natural forest has been lost and that several hundreds of species, mainly cryptograms and invertebrates, are threatened. The forestry is now in a transition from exploitation to sustainable production and has recently incorporated some measures to protect the environment. Programmes for maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest should include at least three parts. First, the system of forest reserves must be significantly improved through protection of large representative ecosystems and key biotopes that host threatened species. Second, we must restore ecosystem properties that have been lost or altered. Natural disturbance regimes must be allowed to operate or be imitated, for example by artificial fire management. Stand-level management should particularly increase the amount of coarse woody debris, the number of old deciduous trees and large, old conifers, by using partial cutting. Third, natural variation should also be mimicked at the landscape level, for example, by reducing fragmentation and increasing links between landscape elements. Long-term experiments are required to evaluate the success of different management methods in maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest. (au) 260 refs

  12. "One of the Most Uniform Races of the Entire World": Creole Eugenics and the Myth of Chilean Racial Homogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    This article illuminates why Nicolás Palacios's 1904 monograph, Raza chilena: Libro escrito por un Chileno i para los Chilenos [Chilean Race: A Book Written by a Chilean for Chileans], is central to the creation of a myth of Chilean racial homogeneity at the turn of the twentieth century. Placing Palacios in the context of Latin American eugenic discourse, it demonstrates how he selected a specific racial origin story in order to accommodate his belief in racial hierarchy while also depicting race mixing in a positive light. Specifically, the article highlights how the myth of Chilean racial homogeneity elided the difference between the term "mestizo," which was applied to people of mixed racial heritage, and "white." I contend that Palacios sought to differentiate Chileans from other Latin Americans by emphasizing their racial distinctiveness. The article therefore highlights that Latin American eugenics was concerned with the creation of national narratives that historicized particular racial mixtures in order to reify and affirm national differences. As such, it connects to literature regarding the history of eugenics, race, nation, and the creation of whiteness. PMID:25733067

  13. FS National Forest Dataset (US Forest Service Proclaimed Forests)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the boundaries encompassing the National Forest System (NFS) lands within the original proclaimed National Forests, along with...

  14. DATA PROTECTION AS BOUNDARY TO THE RIGHT TO ACCESS INFORMATION UNDER CHILEAN LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Camacho Cépeda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available On April 20, 2009, the Transparency Act entered into force in Chile, ensuring citizens the access to public information. Although the balance of this system is positive, it is important to analyse the heart of conflicts which arise when needing to reconcile legal interests and rights guarded by Chilean law, such as the protection of privacy and personal data. The paper analyses the status of the protection of personal data in the Chilean legal system. Firstly, it argues that the right to protection of personal data transcends the classical division between public and private scope, because in both fields it needs to be guarded. Secondly, the abstract seeks to contribute to the debate for the construction of performance standards for public organizations to enable reconciling transparency with the protection of personal data.

  15. Socioeconomic Status and Internalizing Symptoms in Chilean Children: Does Reserve Capacity Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Suzanna M; Castillo, Marcela; Lozoff, Betsy; Gahagan, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Informed by the reserve capacity model, we examined pathways between socioeconomic status (SES) and internalizing symptoms (IS) in 1119 Chilean 10-year-olds. Mediators included parental disciplinary style and reserve capacity resources (RCR), namely home environment, parent-child engagement, and self-esteem, and conduct problems. Using structural equation modeling, the model was stratified by gender. For boys, the SES-IS relationship was mediated by the home environment and parental disciplinary style. For girls, the SES-IS relationship was mediated by the home environment, parent-child engagement, self-esteem, and conduct problems. Findings suggest different RCR may protect against IS in a sample of Chilean children. PMID:27123471

  16. The reliability of morphometric discriminant functions in determining the sex of Chilean flamingos Phoenicopterus chilensis

    OpenAIRE

    Diego MONTALTI et al

    2012-01-01

    Monomorphic birds cannot be sexed visually and discriminant functions on the basis of external morphological variations are frequently used. Our objective was to evaluate the reliability of sex classification functions created from structural measurements of Chilean flamingos Phoenicopterus chilensis museum skins for the gender assignment of live birds. Five measurements were used to develop four discriminant functions: culmen, bill height and width, tarsus length and middle toe claw. The fun...

  17. Original footage of the Chilean miners with manganism published in Neurology in 1967.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marcelo; Bustamante, M Leonor; Mena, Francisco; Lees, Andrew

    2015-12-15

    Manganism has captured the imagination of neurologists for more than a century because of its similarities to Parkinson disease and its indirect but seminal role in the "l-dopa miracle." We present unpublished footage of the original case series reported in Neurology® in 1967 by Mena and Cotzias depicting the typical neurologic signs of manganism in 4 Chilean miners and their response to high doses of l-dopa. PMID:26668239

  18. Postnatal Growth Patterns in a Chilean Cohort: The Role of SES and Family Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Kang Sim, D. E.; S. Gahagan; Martinez, S.; Blanco, E.; Lozoff, B.; Cappiello, M; Castillo, M

    2012-01-01

    Objective. This study examined how family environmental characteristics served as mediators in the relationship between socioeconomic conditions and infant growth in a cohort of Chilean infants. Methods. We studied 999 infants, born between 1991 and 1996, from a longitudinal cohort which began as an iron deficiency anemia preventive trial. SES (Graffar Index), the Life Experiences Survey, and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) were assessed in infancy. Using path a...

  19. Chilean Native Fruit Extracts Inhibit Inflammation Linked to the Pathogenic Interaction Between Adipocytes and Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes-Farias, Marjorie; Vasquez, Karla; Ovalle-Marin, Angelica; Fuentes, Francisco; Parra, Claudia; Quitral, Vilma; Jimenez, Paula; Garcia-Diaz, Diego F.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by an increase in the infiltration of monocytes into the adipose tissue, causing an inflammatory condition associated with, for example, the development of insulin resistance. Thus, anti-inflammatory-based treatments could emerge as a novel and interesting approach. It has been reported that Chilean native fruits maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) and calafate (Berberis microphylla) present high contents of polyphenols, which are known for their antioxidant and anti-inflam...

  20. Democracy and Student Discontent: Chilean Student Protest in the Post-Pinochet Era

    OpenAIRE

    Peter M. M. Cummings; University of Notre Dame, Indiana

    2015-01-01

    Objective indicators suggest that economic and political conditions improved in Chile between the country’s democratization in 1990 and 2011. Average incomes increased, poverty rates decreased, and the number of positive reviews of Chilean democratic institutions rose. Despite this progress, massive student-led protest waves in 2006 and 2011 demonstrated high levels of subjective discontent in Chile. This paper proposes a three-part explanation for the paradoxical emergence and escalation of ...

  1. Democracy and Student Discontent: Chilean Student Protest in the Post-Pinochet Era

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, Peter M. M.

    2015-01-01

    "Objective indicators suggest that economic and political conditions improved in Chile between the country's democratization in 1990 and 2011. Average incomes increased, poverty rates decreased, and the number of positive reviews of Chilean democratic institutions rose. Despite this progress, massive student-led protest waves in 2006 and 2011 demonstrated high levels of subjective discontent in Chile. This paper proposes a three-part explanation for the paradoxical emergence and escalation of...

  2. Democracy and Student Discontent: Chilean Student Protest in the Post-Pinochet Era

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, Peter M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective indicators suggest that economic and political conditions improved in Chile between the country’s democratization in 1990 and 2011. Average incomes increased, poverty rates decreased, and the number of positive reviews of Chilean democratic institutions rose. Despite this progress, massive student-led protest waves in 2006 and 2011 demonstrated high levels of subjective discontent in Chile. This paper proposes a three-part explanation for the paradoxical emergence and escalation o...

  3. High genetic diversity in a small population: the case of Chilean blue whales

    OpenAIRE

    Torres-Florez, Juan P; Hucke-Gaete, Rodrigo; Rosenbaum, Howard; Christian C Figueroa

    2014-01-01

    It is generally assumed that species with low population sizes have lower genetic diversities than larger populations and vice versa. However, this would not be the case for long-lived species with long generation times, and which populations have declined due to anthropogenic effects, such as the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus). This species was intensively decimated globally to near extinction during the 20th century. Along the Chilean coast, it is estimated that at least 4288 blue whale...

  4. Corporate Social Responsibility in the Chilean Salmon Industry : Institutional Foundations and other Explanatory Factors

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present thesis is to achieve a better understanding of CSR in a cross country context. It bases itself on a qualitative case study of the Chilean salmon industry with emphasis on the Norwegian companies that operate herein. The main theoretical framework is taken from organization theory, and bases itself on the rational and the normative institutional organization perspectives. The main goal is to identify the explanatory factors for the CSR measures in this industry. A ...

  5. Pilot Testing an Internet-Based STI and HIV Prevention Intervention With Chilean Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Natalia; Santisteban, Daniel; Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Ambrosia, Todd; Peragallo, Nilda; Lara, Loreto

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is high among young Chilean women, and there are no STI or HIV prevention interventions available to them that incorporate technology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the preliminary efficacy of an Internet-based STI and HIV prevention intervention (I-STIPI) for Chilean young women on measures of STI- and HIV-related information, motivation, behavioral skills, and preventive behaviors. Design This is a pretest-posttest study. Forty young Chilean women between 18 and 24 years of age participated in an investigation of the I-STIPI’s preliminary efficacy on STI and HIV prevention-related outcomes between baseline and a postintervention assessment. The intervention consisted of four online modules. Data collection was conducted in Santiago, Chile. Paired-samples t test analysis was used to determine whether there were significant differences in each of the outcome variables. Findings After receiving I-STIPI, women reported a significant increase in levels of STI- and HIV-related knowledge, attitudes toward the use of condoms and perceived self-efficacy, and a reduction of risky sexual behaviors with uncommitted partners. Conclusions The I-STIPI showed promise as an Internet-based intervention that can reduce barriers to accessing preventive interventions and increase STI and HIV preventive behaviors in young Chilean women. Clinical Relevance The study provided important information about the ability of an Internet-based intervention to reduce young women’s risk factors and to provide positive preliminary efficacy on STI- and HIV-related outcomes. Internet-based interventions can eliminate many barriers to receiving prevention interventions and may prove to be cost effective. PMID:25410132

  6. The Chilean Labor Market: Job Creation, Quality, Inclusiveness, and Future Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Parro, Francisco; Reyes, Loreto

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes recent labor market developments in the Chilean economy. The evidence shows a booming labor market with strong job creation since 2010. Most of the jobs created during the past three years are quality jobs—that is, jobs with a written contract and whose employers have made the corresponding payments toward pensions, healthcare, and unemployment insurance. We show that a combination of economic growth and specific policies seems to be the driving force behind the strong cre...

  7. Crustacean zooplankton species richness in Chilean lakes and ponds (23°-51°S)

    OpenAIRE

    Patricio De los Ríos-Escalante

    2013-01-01

    Chilean inland-water ecosystems are characterized by their low species-level biodiversity. This study analyses available data on surface area, maximum depth, conductivity, chlorophyll-α concentration, and zooplankton crustacean species number in lakes and ponds between 23° and 51°S. The study uses multiple regression analysis to identify the potential factors affecting the species number. The partial correlation analysis indicated a direct significant correlation between chlorophyll-α concent...

  8. The dance of those left behind. Chilean high school students and the possibility of disagreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Depetris Chauvin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the high school students’ protest against the neoliberal conception of education during the first period of President Michelle Bachelet government. Specifically, I analyze how the new generation of young Chileans critically uses and produces pop culture — photoblogs, posters, and stencils — in order to express disagreement with the mercantilist approach to education and the very concept of neoliberal freedom and equality.

  9. Estimating enteric methane emissions from Chilean beef fattening systems using a mechanistic model

    OpenAIRE

    Arias, RA; Catrileo, A; Larraín, R; Vera, R; Velásquez, A.; Toneatti, M; France, J; Dijkstra, J.; Kebreab, E.

    2015-01-01

    Copyright © 2014 Cambridge University Press. A mechanistic model (COWPOLL) was used to estimate enteric methane (CH4) emissions from beef production systems in Chile. The results expressed as a proportion of gross energy intake (GEI) were compared with enteric fermentation data reported in the last Chilean greenhouse gases inventory, which utilized an earlier the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Tier 2 approach. The simulation analysis was based on information from feedstuffs, dry ma...

  10. The Epidemiology of Sleep Quality and Consumption of Stimulant Beverages among Patagonian Chilean College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Vélez; Aline Souza; Samantha Traslaviña; Clarita Barbosa; Adaeze Wosu; Asterio Andrade; Megan Frye; Annette L. Fitzpatrick; Bizu Gelaye; Williams, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives:. (1) To assess sleep patterns and parameters of sleep quality among Chilean college students and (2) to evaluate the extent to which stimulant beverage use and other lifestyle characteristics are associated with poor sleep quality. Methods:. A cross-sectional study was conducted among college students in Patagonia, Chile. Students were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire to provide information about lifestyle and demographic characteristics. The Pittsburgh Sleep Qu...

  11. Understanding Attitudes and Pro-Environmental Behaviors in a Chilean Community

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolás C. Bronfman; Pamela C. Cisternas; Esperanza López-Vázquez; Cristóbal de la Maza; Juan Carlos Oyanedel

    2015-01-01

    Environmental protection and restoration are some of the major challenges faced by our society. To address this problem, it is fundamental to understand pro-environmental behaviors in the population, as well as the factors that determine them. There are, however, very few studies conducted in Latin America that are focused in understanding the environmental behavior of its citizens. The main goal of this research was to study the environmental behaviors of a Chilean community and identify the...

  12. Breast bud detection: a validation study in the Chilean Growth Obesity Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Ana; Garmendia, María Luisa; González, Daniela; Kain, Juliana; Mericq, Verónica; Uauy, Ricardo; Corvalán, Camila

    2014-01-01

    Background Early puberty onset has been related to future chronic disease; however breast bud assessment in large scale population studies is difficult because it requires trained personnel. Thus our aim is to assess the validity of self and maternal breast bud detection, considering girl’s body mass index (BMI) and maternal education. Methods In 2010, 481 girls (mean age = 7.8) from the Growth and Obesity Chilean Cohort Study were evaluated by a nutritionist trained in breast bud detection. ...

  13. Profiles of emotional intelligence and learning strategies in a sample of Chilean students

    OpenAIRE

    García Fernández, José Manuel; Cándido J. Inglés; Suriá Martínez, Raquel; Lagos San Martín, Nelly; Gonzálvez Macià, Carolina; Aparisi Sierra, David; Martínez Monteagudo, María C.

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years, one of the lines of research of great interest in the field of emotional intelligence (EI) has been the analysis of the role of emotions in the educational context and, in particular, their influence on learning strategies. The aims of this study are to identify the existence of different EI profiles and to determine possible statistically significant differences in learning strategies between the obtained profiles. The study involved 1253 Chilean school students from 1...

  14. Ecology of Chilean dolphins and Peale's dolphins at Isla Chiloe, southern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrich, Sonja

    2006-01-01

    Information on the ecology of sympatric species provides important insights into how different animals interact with their environment, with each other, and how they differ in their susceptibility to threats to their survival. In this study habitat use and population ecology of Chilean dolphins (Cephalorhynchus eutropia) and sympatric Peale's dolphins (Lagenorhynchus australis) were investigated in the Chiloe Archipelago in southern Chile from 2001 to 2004. Distribution data collected during ...

  15. Intercultural journalism: Peruvian and Bolivian representation in the Chilean daily press news

    OpenAIRE

    Browne-Sartori, Rodrigo-Francisco; Baessolo-Stiven, Ricardo-Alberto; Silva-Echeto, Víctor-Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the processes through which the massive press generates and represents the cultural discourses of two of the most polemic migrant groups coexisting nowadays in Chile: Peruvians and Bolivians. The representation that the communication media carries out regarding the studied cultures strongly influences the imaginaries of the Chilean audiences. That calls for special concern so as to propose the necessary spaces for intercultural exchange as much in the media as in the soc...

  16. Revision of the Chilean species of Empididae (Diptera described by J. Macquart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Rafael

    Full Text Available Four Chilean species of Empididae (Diptera are revised: Aplomera pachymera (Macquart, 1838, A. gayi Macquart, 1838, Empis nudipes Macquart, 1838 and E. polita Macquart, 1838. Aplomera chilensis (Bezzi, 1909 was also studied and it is being considered junior synonym of A. pachymera. Empis nudipes Macquart, 1838 is confirmed to be a junior synonym of A. gayi Macquart, 1838. Lectotype is being designated for A. pachymera, A. chilensis and E. polita. Illustration of terminalia and photomicrographs of wings are also included.

  17. Morphology, anatomy and histology of Doto uva Marcus, 1955 (Opisthobranchia: Nudibranchia) from the Chilean Coast.

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, M. A.; Van der velde, G.; Roubos, E W

    2006-01-01

    Doto uva Marcus, 1955 is a nudibranch species recorded from the Brazilian and Chilean coast. In spite of its wide distribution, D. uva has been described only superficially, mainly as to the pattern of its coloration, external morphology, radular teeth and reproductive system. Here we substantially extend this description, paying special attention to the morphology, anatomy and histology of the digestive and reproductive system. Furthermore, new data on the morphology of the central nervous s...

  18. Paradoxes of participatory democracy: citizen participation, collective action and political influence in a Chilean environmental conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Spoerer, Matilde

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a critical analysis of the impacts of participatory democracy in public action and collective action. Based on the study of the Barrancones environmental conflict in Chile (2007-2010), the aim is to analyze how transformations and innovations in Chilean environmental law regarding citizen participation have had an ambivalent impact. On one hand, institutional citizen participation appears to be an instrument of economic and authoritarian logic to legitimize energy policy...

  19. Uncommon social trajectories: Chilean low-income adolescents with reading skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Ortiz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that students from low-income families are less successful at school, as indicated by theories of social reproduction. This article focuses on Chilean students that, in spite of their social background, have performed well in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA 2009. Using logistic regression analysis we identify factors associated with academic achievement in reading. Results show that student variables have a greater explanatory value than family and school variables.

  20. In the right place at the right time: habitat representation in protected areas of South American Nothofagus-dominated plants after a dispersal constrained climate change scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, Diego; Cavieres, Lohengrin A

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of climate change in temperate rainforest plants in southern South America in terms of habitat size, representation in protected areas, considering also if the expected impacts are similar for dominant trees and understory plant species, we used niche modeling constrained by species migration on 118 plant species, considering two groups of dominant trees and two groups of understory ferns. Representation in protected areas included Chilean national protected areas, private protected areas, and priority areas planned for future reserves, with two thresholds for minimum representation at the country level: 10% and 17%. With a 10% representation threshold, national protected areas currently represent only 50% of the assessed species. Private reserves are important since they increase up to 66% the species representation level. Besides, 97% of the evaluated species may achieve the minimum representation target only if the proposed priority areas were included. With the climate change scenario representation levels slightly increase to 53%, 69%, and 99%, respectively, to the categories previously mentioned. Thus, the current location of all the representation categories is useful for overcoming climate change by 2050. Climate change impacts on habitat size and representation of dominant trees in protected areas are not applicable to understory plants, highlighting the importance of assessing these effects with a larger number of species. Although climate change will modify the habitat size of plant species in South American temperate rainforests, it will have no significant impact in terms of the number of species adequately represented in Chile, where the implementation of the proposed reserves is vital to accomplish the present and future minimum representation. Our results also show the importance of using migration dispersal constraints to develop more realistic future habitat maps from climate change predictions. PMID:25786226

  1. Forested wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugo, A.E.; Brinson, M.; Brown, S. (eds.)

    1990-01-01

    Forested wetlands have important roles in global biogeochemical cycles, supporting freshwater and saltwater commercial fisheries, and in providing a place for wildlife of all kinds to flourish. Scientific attention towards these ecosystems has lagged with only a few comprehensive works on forested wetlands of the world. A major emphasis of this book is to develop unifying principles and data bases on the structure and function of forested wetlands, in order to stimulate scientific study of them. Wetlands are areas that are inundated or saturated by surface-water or ground-water, at such a frequency and duration that under natural conditions they support organisms adapted to poorly aerated and/or saturated soil. The strategy of classifying the conditions that control the structure and behavior of forested wetlands by assuming that the physiognomy and floristic composition of the system will reflect the total energy expenditure of the ecosystem; and the structural and functional characteristics of forested wetlands from different parts of the world are the major topics covered.

  2. Mealybug species from Chilean agricultural landscapes and main factors influencing the genetic structure of Pseudococcus viburni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Margarita C G; Lombaert, Eric; Malausa, Thibaut; Crochard, Didier; Alvear, Andrés; Zaviezo, Tania; Palero, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to characterize the distribution of mealybug species along Chilean agro-ecosystems and to determine the relative impact of host plant, management strategy, geography and micro-environment on shaping the distribution and genetic structure of the obscure mealybug Pseudococcus viburni. An extensive survey was completed using DNA barcoding methods to identify Chilean mealybugs to the species level. Moreover, a fine-scale study of Ps. viburni genetic diversity and population structure was carried out, genotyping 529 Ps. viburni individuals with 21 microsatellite markers. Samples from 16 localities were analyzed using Bayesian and spatially-explicit methods and the genetic dataset was confronted to host-plant, management and environmental data. Chilean crops were found to be infested by Ps. viburni, Pseudococcus meridionalis, Pseudococcus longispinus and Planococcus citri, with Ps. viburni and Ps. meridionalis showing contrasting distribution and host-plant preference patterns. Ps. viburni samples presented low genetic diversity levels but high genetic differentiation. While no significant genetic variance could be assigned to host-plant or management strategy, climate and geography were found to correlate significantly with genetic differentiation levels. The genetic characterization of Ps. viburni within Chile will contribute to future studies tracing back the origin and improving the management of this worldwide invader. PMID:26559636

  3. Strategic Evolution of Chilean Wine Firms: Vertical Integration and Upgrading in Chile’s Colchagua Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert N. Gwynne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the favourable export trajectories for Chilean wine to global markets in general and the UK market in particular are partly due to the nature of the insertion of wine producing firms into global value chains. Much of the data in this paper comes from a two-year British Academy research project (2005-07 which examined the impacts of globalization on export-oriented wine firms in Chile’s Colchagua Valley and the record of collaboration between these firms and key purchasing companies within the UK market. The paper examines the political economy of value chains in agro-industry, retail concentration in core economy markets and the relevance of convention theory to value chains in the wine sector. The paper then analyses how value chains give context to the nature of upgrading within the Chilean wine sector by focusing on: the strategic example of the lead firm; firm upgrading as a response to the demands of and knowledge flows from retailers; and firm upgrading through the flying winemaker model. The paper will conclude by assessing the relevance of the Chilean experience for other countries wishing to rapidly expand their wine exports, such as those in S. E. Europe.

  4. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition of Maternal Diet and Erythrocyte Phospholipid Status in Chilean Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla A. Bascuñán

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA, which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20–36 years old in the 3rd–6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA, with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA.

  5. HMGCR rs17671591 SNP Determines Lower Plasma LDL-C after Atorvastatin Therapy in Chilean Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Alejandro; Fernández, César; Ferrada, Luis; Zambrano, Tomás; Rosales, Alexy; Saavedra, Nicolás; Salazar, Luis A

    2016-04-01

    Lipid-lowering response to statin therapy shows large interindividual variability. At a genome-wide significance level, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PCSK9 and HMGCR have been implicated in this differential response. However, the influence of these variants is uncertain in the Chilean population. Hence, we aimed to evaluate the contribution of PCSK9 rs7552841 and HMGCR rs17671591 SNPs as genetic determinants of atorvastatin response in Chilean hypercholesterolaemic individuals. One hundred and one hypercholesterolaemic patients received atorvastatin 10 mg/day for 4 weeks. Plasma lipid profile (TC, HDL-C, LDL-C and TG) was determined before and after statin treatment, and SNPs were identified by allelic discrimination using TaqMan(®) SNP Genotyping Assays. Adjusted univariate and multivariate analyses' models were used for statistical analyses, and a p-value atorvastatin therapy for the PCSK9 variant. However, the HMGCR rs17671591 T allele contributed to basal HDL-C concentration variability along with a higher increase in this lipid fraction after statin medication. In addition, this allele determined greater plasma LDL-C reductions after therapy with atorvastatin. Our data suggest that the HMGCR rs17671591 polymorphism can constitute a genetic marker of lower plasma LDL-C and enhanced HDL-C concentration after atorvastatin therapy in the Chilean population. PMID:26408409

  6. [Position paper from the Department of Ethics of the Chilean College of Physicians about conscientious objection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Sofía P; Besio, Mauricio; Bórquez Estefó, Gladys; Salinas, Rodrigo A; Valenzuela, Carlos Y; Micolich, Constanza; Novoa Sotta, Fernando; Bernier Villarroel, Lioniel; Montt M, Julio; Misseroni Raddatz, Adelio

    2016-03-01

    The Chilean bill that regulates abortion for three cases (Bulletin Nº 9895-11) includes the possibility that health professionals may manifest their conscientious objection (CO) to perform this procedure. Due to the broad impact that the issue of C O had, the Ethics Department of the Chilean College of Physicians considered important to review this concept and its ethical and legal basis, especially in the field of sexual and reproductive health. In the present document, we define the practical limit s of CO, both for the proper fulfillment of the medical profession obligations, and for the due respect and non-discrimination that the professional objector deserves. We analyze the denial of some health institutions to perform abortions if it is legalize d, and we end with recommendations adjusted to the Chilean reality. Specifically, we recognize the right to conscientious objection that all physicians who directly participate in a professional act have. But we a lso recognize that physicians have ineludib le obligations towards their patients, including the obligation to inform about the existence of this service, how to access to it and -as set out in our code of ethics- to ensure that another colleague will continue attending the patient. PMID:27299826

  7. SOCIAL POLICY AGENDAS AND CONSTRUCTION OF DEMOCRACY IN THE CHILEAN TRANSITION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Delamaza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Social policies have been the greatest field of innovation in Chilean state action since 1990. These policies were conceived as a key factor to ensure governance in the political transition to democracy, to strengthen the economic model and to re-establish a link between State and society. This article examines some governmental political initiatives in different areas of social policy. It is important to know how these social programs and policies have shaped the relationship between the new State, which emerged from the negotiations in the late 1980s, and the Chilean society. For this purpose, the general approaches which underlie this policy are reviewed, and then the orientations within them are differentiated. There are five different patterns or tendencies in Chilean social policy, according to their orientation, institutional management and type of relationship with the social organizations. Two of them arose as a result of the implementation of innovative approaches during the 1990s, which also led to the creation of new agencies. A third one is related with the reorientation of policies in traditional areas. The last two of the analyzed trends refer to the interfaces between the social policy and civil society at the local sphere (decentralized entities and externalization - or outsourcing - of the relationship.

  8. Content validity and reliability of test of gross motor development in Chilean children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Cappellacci, Marcelo; Leyton, Fernanda Aleitte; Carreño, Joshua Durán

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To validate a Spanish version of the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2) for the Chilean population. METHODS Descriptive, transversal, non-experimental validity and reliability study. Four translators, three experts and 92 Chilean children, from five to 10 years, students from a primary school in Santiago, Chile, have participated. The Committee of Experts has carried out translation, back-translation and revision processes to determine the translinguistic equivalence and content validity of the test, using the content validity index in 2013. In addition, a pilot implementation was achieved to determine test reliability in Spanish, by using the intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman method. We evaluated whether the results presented significant differences by replacing the bat with a racket, using T-test. RESULTS We obtained a content validity index higher than 0.80 for language clarity and relevance of the TGMD-2 for children. There were significant differences in the object control subtest when comparing the results with bat and racket. The intraclass correlation coefficient for reliability inter-rater, intra-rater and test-retest reliability was greater than 0.80 in all cases. CONCLUSIONS The TGMD-2 has appropriate content validity to be applied in the Chilean population. The reliability of this test is within the appropriate parameters and its use could be recommended in this population after the establishment of normative data, setting a further precedent for the validation in other Latin American countries. PMID:26815160

  9. US Forest Service National Forest System Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting existing National Forest System Roads (NFSR) that are under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Forest Service. Each feature represents...

  10. Forest report 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This forest report of Lower Saxony (Germany) contains the following topics: weather and climate, forest protection, crown defoliation, infiltrated substances, environmental monitoring, insects and fungi, forest soil survey and forest site mapping, and nutritional status of beech on loess.

  11. Information Forests

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Zhao; Dewan, Maneesh; Zhan, Yiqiang

    2012-01-01

    We describe Information Forests, an approach to classification that generalizes Random Forests by replacing the splitting criterion of non-leaf nodes from a discriminative one -- based on the entropy of the label distribution -- to a generative one -- based on maximizing the information divergence between the class-conditional distributions in the resulting partitions. The basic idea consists of deferring classification until a measure of "classification confidence" is sufficiently high, and instead breaking down the data so as to maximize this measure. In an alternative interpretation, Information Forests attempt to partition the data into subsets that are "as informative as possible" for the purpose of the task, which is to classify the data. Classification confidence, or informative content of the subsets, is quantified by the Information Divergence. Our approach relates to active learning, semi-supervised learning, mixed generative/discriminative learning.

  12. Predation by Rattus norvegicus on a native small mammal in an Araucaria araucana forest of Neuquén, Argentina La depredación en pequeños mamíferos nativos por Rattus norvegicus en un bosque de Araucaria araucana en Neuquén, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOHN D SHEPHERD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Few previous studies document Rattus predation as a mechanism of impact on native small mammals. In a mixed Araucaria araucana (Molina Koch -Nothofagus forest in Parque Nacional Lanín in southwestern Neuquén Province, Argentina, we discovered the remains of long-clawed mice, Chelemys macronyx Thomas, cached in a burrow of Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout. We discuss this evidence of predation in light of Rattus biology and invasion ecology. Predation on native small mammals by invasive rats is easily underestimated or overlooked and deserves more careful attention.Pocos estudios anteriores documentan predación por Rattus como mecanismo de impacto sobre los mamíferos pequenos nativos. En un bosque mixto de Araucaria araucana (Molina Koch -Nothofagus de Parque Nacional Lanín al suroeste de la provincia del Neuquén, Argentina, encontramos los cadáveres del ratón topo grande, Chelemys macronyx Thomas, almacenados en una cueva de la rata noruega, Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout. Discutimos esta evidencia de la depredación a la luz de la biología de Rattus y la ecología de invasión. La depredación en pequenos mamíferos nativos por las ratas invasoras está fácilmente subestimada o pasada por alto. Este tema merece una atención más cuidadosa.

  13. Contemporary habitat discontinuity and historic glacial ice drive genetic divergence in Chilean kelp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Hamish G

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South America's western coastline, extending in a near-straight line across some 35 latitudinal degrees, presents an elegant setting for assessing both contemporary and historic influences on cladogenesis in the marine environment. Southern bull-kelp (Durvillaea antarctica has a broad distribution along much of the Chilean coast. This species represents an ideal model taxon for studies of coastal marine connectivity and of palaeoclimatic effects, as it grows only on exposed rocky coasts and is absent from beaches and ice-affected shores. We expected that, along the central Chilean coast, D. antarctica would show considerable phylogeographic structure as a consequence of the isolating effects of distance and habitat discontinuities. In contrast, we hypothesised that further south - throughout the region affected by the Patagonian Ice Sheet at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM - D. antarctica would show relatively little genetic structure, reflecting postglacial recolonisation. Results Mitochondrial (COI and chloroplast (rbcL DNA analyses of D. antarctica from 24 Chilean localities (164 individuals revealed two deeply divergent (4.5 - 6.1% for COI, 1.4% for rbcL clades from the centre and south of the country, with contrasting levels and patterns of genetic structure. Among populations from central Chile (32° - 44°S, substantial phylogeographic structure was evident across small spatial scales, and a significant isolation-by-distance effect was observed. Genetic disjunctions in this region appear to correspond to the presence of long beaches. In contrast to the genetic structure found among central Chilean populations, samples from the southern Chilean Patagonian region (49° - 56°S were genetically homogeneous and identical to a haplotype recently found throughout the subantarctic region. Conclusions Southern (Patagonian Chile has been recolonised by D. antarctica relatively recently, probably since the LGM. The inferred trans

  14. Adverse childhood experiences, mental health, and quality of life of Chilean girls placed in foster care: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Annina; Kohler, Stefanie; Ruf-Leuschner, Martina; Landolt, Markus A

    2016-03-01

    In Latin America, little research has been conducted regarding exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), mental health, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among foster children. This study examined the association between ACEs and mental health, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and HRQoL in Chilean foster girls relative to age-matched Chilean family girls. Data were obtained from 27 Chilean foster girls and 27 Chilean girls ages 6 to 17 years living in family homes. Standardized self- and proxy-report measures were used. Foster girls reported more ACEs than controls in terms of familial and nonfamilial sexual abuse and both emotional and physical neglect. Girls living in foster care had a significantly higher rate of PTSD, displayed greater behavioral and emotional problems, and reported a lower HRQoL. Analysis confirmed the well-known cumulative risk hypothesis by demonstrating a significant positive association between the number of ACEs and PTSD symptom severity and a significant negative association with HRQoL. Chilean foster girls endured more ACEs that impair mental health and HRQoL than age-matched peers living with their families. These findings have implications for out-of-home care services in Latin America, highlighting the need to implement not only appropriate trauma-focused treatments but also appropriate prevention strategies. PMID:25915644

  15. The Image of E-Learning: Perceptions about a Chilean University and the E-Learning System in the Context of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farcas, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine the image of a Chilean university, as perceived by those inside and outside of the institution, in contrast with the general image of the e-learning system in Chile. The internal perceptions are those of current students and graduates of this Chilean university, while the external perceptions are those…

  16. Forest fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book examines the many complex and sensitive issues relating to wildland fires. Beginning with an overview of the fires of 1980s, the book discusses the implications of continued drought and considers the behavior of wildland fires, from ignition and spread to spotting and firestorms. Topics include the effects of weather, forest fuels, fire ecology, and the effects of fire on plants and animals. In addition, the book examines firefighting methods and equipment, including new minimum impact techniques and compressed air foam; prescribed burning; and steps that can be taken to protect individuals and human structures. A history of forest fire policies in the U.S. and a discussion of solutions to fire problems around the world completes the coverage. With one percent of the earth's surface burning every year in the last decade, this is a penetrating book on a subject of undeniable importance

  17. Insulin resistance in Chileans of European and indigenous descent: evidence for an ethnicity x environment interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Celis-Morales

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Effects of urbanisation on diabetes risk appear to be greater in indigenous populations worldwide than in populations of European origin, but the reasons are unclear. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine whether the effects of environment (Rural vs. Urban, adiposity, fitness and lifestyle variables on insulin resistance differed between individuals of indigenous Mapuche origin compared to those of European origin in Chile. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 123 Rural Mapuche, 124 Urban Mapuche, 91 Rural European and 134 Urban European Chilean adults had blood taken for determination of HOMA-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA(IR and underwent assessment of physical activity/sedentary behaviour (using accelerometry, cardiorespiratory fitness, dietary intake and body composition. General linear models were used to determine interactions with ethnicity for key variables. There was a significant "ethnicity x environment" interaction for HOMA(IR (Mean±SD; Rural Mapuche: 1.65±2.03, Urban Mapuche: 4.90±3.05, Rural European: 0.82±0.61, Urban European: 1.55±1.34, p((interaction = 0.0003, such that the effect of urbanisation on HOMA(IR was greater in Mapuches than Europeans. In addition, there were significant interactions (all p<0.004 with ethnicity for effects of adiposity, sedentary time and physical activity on HOMA(IR, with greater effects seen in Mapuches compared to Europeans, an observation that persisted after adjustment for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Urbanisation, adiposity, physical activity and sedentary behaviour influence insulin resistance to a greater extent in Chilean Mapuches than Chileans of European descent. These findings have implications for the design and implementation of lifestyle strategies to reduce metabolic risk in different ethnic groups, and for understanding of the mechanisms underpinning human insulin resistance.

  18. Identification of High Frequency Pulses from Earthquake Asperities Along Chilean Subduction Zone Using Strong Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, S.; Kausel, E.; Campos, J.; Saragoni, G. R.; Madariaga, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Chilean subduction zone is one of the most active of the world with M = 8 or larger interplate thrust earthquakes occurring every 10 years or so on the average. The identification and characterization of pulses propagated from dominant asperities that control the rupture of these earthquakes is an important problem for seismology and especially for seismic hazard assessment since it can reduce the earthquake destructiveness potential. A number of studies of large Chilean earthquakes have revealed that the source time functions of these events are composed of a number of distinct energy arrivals. In this paper, we identify and characterize the high frequency pulses of dominant asperities using near source strong motion records. Two very well recorded interplate earthquakes, the 1985 Central Chile (Ms = 7.8) and the 2007 Tocopilla (Mw = 7.7), are considered. In particular, the 2007 Tocopilla earthquake was recorded by a network with absolute time and continuos recording. From the study of these strong motion data it is possible to identify the arrival of large pulses coming from different dominant asperities. The recognition of the key role of dominant asperities in seismic hazard assessment can reduce overestimations due to scattering of attenuation formulas that consider epicentral distance or shortest distance to the fault rather than the asperity distance. The location and number of dominant asperities, their shape, the amplitude and arrival time of pulses can be one of the principal factors influencing Chilean seismic hazard assessment and seismic design. The high frequency pulses identified in this paper have permitted us to extend the range of frequency in which the 1985 Central Chile and 2007 Tocopilla earthquakes were studied. This should allow in the future the introduction of this seismological result in the seismic design of earthquake engineering.

  19. Poetas mapuches en la literatura chilena Mapuche poets in Chilean literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Carrasco M

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudia el modo en que las tradiciones textuales etnoliterarias de los mapuches y literarias de los españoles, se han imbricado en la literatura chilena a través del tiempo, y los aportes que ha dejado la incorporación de poetas de cultura mapuche en la poesía chilena contemporánea. En particular, se establece que autores como Sebastián Queupul, Pedro Alonzo, Elicura Chihuailaf y Leonel Lienlaf han participado en la conformación de la poesía etnocultural, dentro de la cual han propuesto una visión intercultural que sobrepasa los límites de la etnoliteratura mapuche y la literatura chilena tradicional, y un conjunto de estrategias textuales compartidas con otros poetas (enunciación sincrética, intertextualidad transliteraria y codificación plural, en la cual han creado una variedad propia, el doble registro.This paper studies the way in which mapuche textual ethnoliterary traditions and Spanish literary traditions have mixed in the Chilean literature through time, and the contribution of Mapuche poets to contemporary Chilean poetry, particularly, authors such as Sebastián Queupul, Pedro Alonzo, Elicura Chihuailaf and Leonel Lienlaf, where they have created an intercultural view that goes beyond the limits of the mapuche ethnoliterature and Chilean traditional literature, together with a bunch of text strategies shared with others poets (syncretic enunciation, transliterary intertext and plural codification, where they have created their own variety, the double register.

  20. Dispersal of forest insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmanus, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    Dispersal flights of selected species of forest insects which are associated with periodic outbreaks of pests that occur over large contiguous forested areas are discussed. Gypsy moths, spruce budworms, and forest tent caterpillars were studied for their massive migrations in forested areas. Results indicate that large dispersals into forested areas are due to the females, except in the case of the gypsy moth.

  1. Tenure and forest income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagger, Pamela; Luckert, Martin K.; Duchelle, Amy E.;

    2014-01-01

    We explore the relationship between tenure and forest income in 271 villages throughout the tropics. We find that state-owned forests generate more forest income than private and community-owned forests both per household and per hectare. We explore whether forest income varies according to the e...

  2. Volatile profile characterisation of Chilean sparkling wines produced by traditional and Charmat methods via sequential stir bar sorptive extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda, C; Callejón, R M; Troncoso, A M; Peña-Neira, A; Morales, M L

    2016-09-15

    The volatile compositions of Charmat and traditional Chilean sparkling wines were studied for the first time. For this purpose, EG-Silicone and PDMS polymeric phases were compared and, afterwards, the most adequate was selected. The best extraction method turned out to be a sequential extraction in the headspace and by immersion using two PDMS twisters. A total of 130 compounds were determined. In traditional Chilean sparkling wines, ethyl esters were significantly higher, while acetic esters and ketones were predominant in the Charmat wines. PCA and LDA confirmed the differences in the volatile profiles between the production methods (traditional vs. Charmat). PMID:27080904

  3. TOWARD A HISTORY OF CHILEAN WRITTEN CULTURE. HAPPENINGS OF THE ALONSO DE ERCILLA’S BOOK, LA ARAUCANA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadna Biotti Silva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present the first questioning about a history of the circulation of the book La Araucana, printed for the first time in 1569 and subsequently reprinted in various opportunities. Its central question implies a definition: What kind of historiography we can build considering the continuance, the force and the authority of a work that is still respected as a founding inheritance, and backbone of Chilean society? The paradigmatic center of this investigation resides in realizing the questions that emerge from the first chilean edition of the text published in Santiago in the year 1888.

  4. Memory, Citizenship and the Public Sphere in the Development of the Recent Past in the Chilean Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Rubio

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The research gets into to the studies of historical memory by performing a hermeneutic analysis of the discourse of memory and history narratives that the Chilean public discussion has used to develop its dictatorial recent past in the period 1991-2004. Press sources, editorial inserts, interviews with the social and political actors and specially Truth and Reconciliation Reports were reviewed. We reflect on the current oligarchic long and short term frames made for the representation of the public sphere and the citizenship, emphasizing the impossibility of forgiveness as a restorative category of the political community.It consolidates the symbolic weakness of the recovered democracyin recent Chilean history.

  5. Results on the neutron energy distribution measurements at the RECH-1 Chilean nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, P.; Molina, F.; Romero-Barrientos, J.

    2016-07-01

    Neutron activations experiments has been perform at the RECH-1 Chilean Nuclear Reactor to measure its neutron flux energy distribution. Samples of pure elements was activated to obtain the saturation activities for each reaction. Using - ray spectroscopy we identify and measure the activity of the reaction product nuclei, obtaining the saturation activities of 20 reactions. GEANT4 and MCNP was used to compute the self shielding factor to correct the cross section for each element. With the Expectation-Maximization algorithm (EM) we were able to unfold the neutron flux energy distribution at dry tube position, near the RECH-1 core. In this work, we present the unfolding results using the EM algorithm.

  6. A chromosomal analysis of four species of Chilean Chrysomelinae (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Petitpierre

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Four species of Chilean leaf beetles in the subfamily Chrysomelinae have been cytogenetically analyzed, Blaptea elguetai Petitpierre, 2011, Henicotherus porteri Bréthes, 1929 and Jolivetia obscura (Philippi, 1864 show 2n = 28 chromosomes and a 13 + Xyp male meioformula, and Pataya nitida (Philippi, 1864 has the highest number of 2n = 38 chromosomes. The karyotype of H. porteri is made of mostly small meta/submetacentric chromosomes, and that of Jolivetia obscura displays striking procentric blocks of heterochromatin at pachytene autosomic bivalents using conventional staining. These findings are discussed in relation to previous cytogenetic data and current taxonomy of the subfamily.

  7. Anaerobic oxidation of methane and sulfate reduction along the Chilean continental margin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treude, T.; Niggemann, J.; Kallmeyer, J.;

    2005-01-01

    Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) and sulfate reduction (SR) were investigated in sediments of the Chilean upwelling region at three stations between 800 and 3000 In water depth. Major goals of this study were to quantify and evaluate rates of AOM and SR in a coastal marine upwelling system with...... peaks of 2 to 51 nmol cm(-3) d(-1), with highest rates at the shallowest station (800 m). The methane turnover was higher than in other diffusive systems of similar ocean depth. This higher turnover was most likely due to elevated organic matter input in this upwelling region offering significant...

  8. Strategic Evolution of Chilean Wine Firms: Vertical Integration and Upgrading in Chile’s Colchagua Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Robert N. Gwynne

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that the favourable export trajectories for Chilean wine to global markets in general and the UK market in particular are partly due to the nature of the insertion of wine producing firms into global value chains. Much of the data in this paper comes from a two-year British Academy research project (2005-07) which examined the impacts of globalization on export-oriented wine firms in Chile’s Colchagua Valley and the record of collaboration between these firms and key purchas...

  9. Level of evidence and geographic origin of articles published in Chilean dental journals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Moraga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to determine the geographic origin and level of evidence (LE of articles published in Chilean dental journals during 2012. The target population for the bibliometric study was articles published in exclusively-scientific Chilean dental journals. These variables were analyzed: journal, area, language, country, region, design, scenario, and LE. A total of 120 articles were published in four journals: International Journal of Odontostomatology (IJOS=59, Revista Clínica de Periodoncia, Implantología y Rehabilitación Oral (PIRO=28, Journal of Oral Research (JOR=18, and Revista Dental de Chile (RDC=15. From the total, 80.83% were published in Spanish and 70% had a Chilean affiliation. Most publications corresponded to areas of pathology (21 others (20 and prosthodontics (20. None of the articles was Level 1 Evidence, 6.49% was 2b, 14.29% was 2c, 63.64% was 4, and 15.58 % was 5. Chilean dental journals mainly publish articles of domestic origin and low LE. RESUMEN El objetivo de esta investigación es determinar el origen y nivel de evidencia (NE de los artículos publicados en las revistas odontológicas chilenas durante el año 2012. Estudio bibliométrico, la población objetivo fueron todos los artículos publicados en revistas dentales chilenas de orientación exclusivamente científica. Se analizaron variables: Revista, Área, Idioma, País, Región, Diseño, Escenario y NE. Se hallaron 120 artículos publicados en cuatro revistas: International Journal of Odontostomatology (IJOS = 59, Revista Clínica de Periodoncia, Implantología y Rehabilitación Oral (PIRO = 28, Journal of Oral Research (JOR = 18 y Revista Dental de Chile (RDC = 15. El 80.83% de los artículos fue publicado en español y el 70% corresponden a autores chilenos. La mayor cantidad de publicaciones correspondieron a las áreas de Patología (21, Otra (20 y Prostodoncia (20. No se hallaron artículos de NE 1, 6.49% fue 2b, 14.29% fue 2c, 63

  10. Extraction Techniques for Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity Determination of Chilean Papaya (Vasconcellea pubescens) Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Elsa Uribe; Alvaro Delgadillo; Claudia Giovagnoli-Vicuña; Issis Quispe-Fuentes; Liliana Zura-Bravo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess and compare different extraction methods by using high hydrostatic pressure (HHPE), ultrasound (UE), agitation (AE), and their combinations for the extraction of bioactive compounds of Chilean papaya. Extract antioxidant capacity was evaluated by three methods (i.e., DPPH, FRAP, and Voltammetry) and phenolic compounds and vitamin C were determined by HPLC. Papaya sample extraction was performed by HHPE at 500 MPa for 10 min and UE and AE for 30 min, respecti...

  11. The Impact of a Carbon Tax on the Chilean Electricity Generation Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Benavides; Luis Gonzales; Manuel Diaz; Rodrigo Fuentes; Gonzalo García; Rodrigo Palma-Behnke; Catalina Ravizza

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to analyse the economy-wide implications of a carbon tax applied on the Chilean electricity generation sector. In order to analyse the macroeconomic impacts, both an energy sectorial model and a Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium model have been used. During the year 2014 a carbon tax of 5 US$/tCO2e was approved in Chile. This tax and its increases (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 US$/tCO2e) are evaluated in this article. The results show that the effectiveness of this policy depend...

  12. Forests and Forest Cover - MDC_NaturalForestCommunity

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A point feature class of NFCs - Natural Forest Communities. Natural Forest Community shall mean all stands of trees (including their associated understory) which...

  13. Forests and Forest Cover - Ozark National Forest Service Compartments (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Ozark - St. Francis National Forests stand inventory data for vegetation, maintained in polygon format. Compartment is defined as a division of forest for purposes...

  14. Oligocene to Miocene terrestrial climate change and the demise of forests on Wilkes Land, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzmann, Ulrich; Strother, Stephanie; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Bijl, Peter; Pross, Joerg; Woodward, John; Escutia, Carlota; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2016-04-01

    The question whether Cenozoic climate was warm enough to support a substantial vegetation cover on the Antarctic continent is of great significance to the ongoing controversial debate on the dynamic behaviour of Antarctic land ice during the transition from a greenhouse to an icehouse world. Here we present palynological results from an Oligocene to Miocene sediment record provided by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 318 to the Wilkes Land margin (East Antarctica). The Oligocene assemblages (33.9-23 Ma) are dominated by pollen and spores from temperate forest and sub-Antarctic shrub vegetation inhabiting different altitudinal zones. These include a lowland cold temperate forest with Dacrydium and Lagarostrobos (both common in southern forests of New Zealand and Tasmania today) and a high altitude tundra shrubland comprising Microcachrys, Nothofagus (southern beech) and Podocarpaceae conifers. A decline in pollen percentages of Dacrydium and Lagarostrobos and absence of Proteaceae indicate climate cooling during the late Oligocene (~25-23 Ma). However, the continuous presence of Lagarostrobos suggests that the full transition to a tundra environment had not yet occurred and climate on Wilkes Land during the late Oligocene was still warm enough to support forest vegetation in sheltered areas. Temperature reconstructions derived from the fossil pollen assemblages using the Coexistence Approach suggest mean annual temperatures (MATs) between 6.7-13.7°C during the early Oligocene and a drop of minimum MATs to 5.8°C in the late Oligocene. Pollen of "unambiguous" forest indicators, such as Lagarostrobos, are absent in the Miocene sediment record (16.2 -12.5 Ma) but temperatures were still high enough (minimum MATs > 5°C) to sustain a woody sub-Antarctic vegetation under partially ice-free conditions. Wilkes Land provides a unique record of Antarctic vegetation change from a subtropical, highly diverse Eocene rainforest to an Oligocene cold temperate

  15. Antioxidant activity and phenolic profiles of the wild currant Ribes magellanicum from Chilean and Argentinean Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Thomas-Valdés, Samanta; Schulz, Ayla; Ladio, Ana; Theoduloz, Cristina; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2016-07-01

    The Patagonian currant Ribes magellanicum is highly valued due to its pleasant flavor and sweet taste. The aim of this study was to characterize its constituents and to assess their antioxidant and cytoprotective properties. For the fruit phenolic-enriched extract (PEE), total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF), and antioxidant activity (DPPH, Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant activity (TEAC)) were determined. Argentinean samples presented better activity in the DPPH and FRAP assays. Best cytoprotection against oxidative stress induced by H2O2 in AGS cells was found in one Argentinean sample at 500 μg mL(-1) (65.7%). HPLC MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of 59 constituents, including eight anthocyanins, 11 conjugates of caffeic-, ferulic-, and coumaric acid, and 38 flavonoids, most of them quercetin and kaempferol derivatives. Argentinean samples showed a more complex pattern of anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids (HCA), and flavonoids. Cyanidin rhamnoside hexoside and cyanidin hexoside were the main anthocyanins, accounting for 35 and 55% for the Argentinean and 60 and 27% for the ripe Chilean fruits. HCA content was about three times higher in Argentinean samples. The phenolic profiles of Chilean and Argentinean Ribes magellanicum show remarkable differences in chemical composition with higher HCA and flavonoid content in Argentinean samples. PMID:27386109

  16. IL28B polymorphisms associated with therapy response? ein inin Chilean chronic hepatitis C patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mauricio Venegas; Rodrigo A Villanueva; Katherine González; Javier Brahm

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the association of three IL28B single nucleotide polymorphisms with response to therapy in Chilean patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV).((HHCV))).. METHODS: We studied two groups of patients with chronic HHCV infection ((genotype 1)), under standard combined treatment with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin. One group consisted of 50 patients with sustained virological response, whereas the second group consisted of 49 null responders. In order to analyze the IL28B single nucleotide polymorphisms rs12979860, rs12980275 and rs8099917, samples were used for polymerase chain reaction amplification, and the genotyping was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. RESULTS: The IL28B rs12979860 CC, rs12980275 AA and rs8099917 TT genotypes were much more frequently found in patients with sustained virological response compared to null responders ((38%, 44% and 50% vs 2%, 8.2% and 8.2%, respectively)). These differences were highly significant in all three cases (P < 0.0001)). CONCLUSION: The three IL28B polymorphisms studied are strongly associated with sustained virological response to therapy in Chilean patients with chronic HHCV ((genotype 1)).

  17. Analysis of pavement serviceability for the Aashto Design Method: The Chilean Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serviceability is an indicator that represents the level of service a pavement provides to the users. This subjective opinion is closely related to objective aspects, which can be measured on the pavement's surface. This research aims specifically at relating serviceability results obtained by a 9-member evaluation panel, representing general public as closely as possible to parameters (particularly of roughness) measured within instruments on 30, 25 and 11 road sections of asphalt concrete, Portland cement concrete and asphalt overlay respectively. Results show that prediction of serviceability is quite accurate based on roughness evaluation, while also revealing that, by comparison to studies in more developed countries, Chileans are seemingly more tolerant, in that they assign a somewhat high rating to ride quality. Furthermore, visible distress does not have a significant influence on serviceability values for Chilean users. A ratio between International Roughness Index (IRI) and Serviceability, as defined by AASHTO, was developed and may be used in this design method. Results for the final pavement condition of urban pavements were obtained (IRI-asphalt final=5.9, IRI-concrete final=8.1). (author)

  18. Profiling Space Heating Behavior in Chilean Social Housing: Towards Personalization of Energy Efficiency Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Bunster

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Global increases in the demand for energy are imposing strong pressures over the environment while compromising the capacity of emerging economies to achieve sustainable development. In this context, implementation of effective strategies to reduce consumption in residential buildings has become a priority concern for policy makers as minor changes at the household scale can result in major energy savings. This study aims to contribute to ongoing research on energy consumer profiling by exploring the forecasting capabilities of discrete socio-economic factors that are accessible through social housing allocation systems. Accordingly, survey data gathered by the Chilean Ministry of Social Development was used identify key characteristics that may predict firewood usage for space heating purposes among potential beneficiaries of the Chilean social housing program. The analyzed data evidences strong correlations between general household characteristics and space heating behavior in certain climatic zones, suggesting that personalized delivery of energy efficiency measures can potentially increase the effectiveness of initiatives aimed towards the reduction of current patterns of consumption.

  19. APOE Polymorphisms Contribute to Reduced Atorvastatin Response in Chilean Amerindian Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Lagos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetic factors can determine the high variability observed in response to lipid-lowering therapy with statins. Nonetheless, the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and their impact can vary due to ethnicity. Because the Chilean population carries a strong Amerindian background, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of apolipoprotein E (APOE variants (rs429358, rs7412 and the 1959C>T SNP (rs5925 in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR in response to atorvastatin treatment in hypercholesterolemic individuals. A hundred and thirty nine subjects undergoing statin therapy were included. Identification of Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and PCR followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP, respectively. SNPs were determined by PCR-RFLP. Out of the 139 individuals studied, 84.4% had an Amerindian background, according to mtDNA analysis. In relation to APOE variants, carriers of the E3/4 genotype presented lower cholesterol reduction compared to genotype E3/3 (LDL-C: −18% vs. −29%, p ˂ 0.001. On the other hand, the LDLR rs5925 SNP was not related to atorvastatin response (p = 0.5760. Our results suggest that APOE SNPs are potential predictors to atorvastatin therapy in Amerindian Chilean subjects.

  20. The Epidemiology of Sleep Quality and Consumption of Stimulant Beverages among Patagonian Chilean College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Vélez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 To assess sleep patterns and parameters of sleep quality among Chilean college students and (2 to evaluate the extent to which stimulant beverage use and other lifestyle characteristics are associated with poor sleep quality. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among college students in Patagonia, Chile. Students were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire to provide information about lifestyle and demographic characteristics. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI was used to evaluate sleep quality. In addition, students underwent a physical examination to collect anthropometric measurements. Results. More than half of students (51.8% exhibited poor sleep quality. Approximately 45% of study participants reported sleeping six hours or less per night and 9.8% used medications for sleep. In multivariate analysis, current smokers had significantly greater daytime dysfunction due to sleepiness and were more likely to use sleep medicines. Students who reported consumption of any stimulant beverage were 1.81 times as likely to have poor sleep quality compared with those who did not consume stimulant beverages (OR:1.81, 95% CI:1.21–2.00. Conclusions. Poor sleep quality is prevalent among Chilean college students, and stimulant beverage consumption was associated with the increased odds of poor sleep quality in this sample.

  1. The Epidemiology of Sleep Quality and Consumption of Stimulant Beverages among Patagonian Chilean College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Juan Carlos; Souza, Aline; Traslaviña, Samantha; Barbosa, Clarita; Wosu, Adaeze; Andrade, Asterio; Frye, Megan; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. (1) To assess sleep patterns and parameters of sleep quality among Chilean college students and (2) to evaluate the extent to which stimulant beverage use and other lifestyle characteristics are associated with poor sleep quality. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among college students in Patagonia, Chile. Students were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire to provide information about lifestyle and demographic characteristics. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to evaluate sleep quality. In addition, students underwent a physical examination to collect anthropometric measurements. Results. More than half of students (51.8%) exhibited poor sleep quality. Approximately 45% of study participants reported sleeping six hours or less per night and 9.8% used medications for sleep. In multivariate analysis, current smokers had significantly greater daytime dysfunction due to sleepiness and were more likely to use sleep medicines. Students who reported consumption of any stimulant beverage were 1.81 times as likely to have poor sleep quality compared with those who did not consume stimulant beverages (OR:1.81, 95% CI:1.21-2.00). Conclusions. Poor sleep quality is prevalent among Chilean college students, and stimulant beverage consumption was associated with the increased odds of poor sleep quality in this sample. PMID:23766919

  2. [Which are the causes of death among Chileans today?. Long-term perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solimano C, Giorgio; Mazzei P, Marinella

    2007-07-01

    During the last decades, Chile experienced substantial socioeconomic, epidemiological and demographic changes. These resulted, among other consequences, in a deceleration of population growth, a notorious decrease in fertility rates, and one of the most rapid and deepest drop in general and infant mortality rates in the Latin American region. These changes resulted in a sustained increase of life expectancy and a substantial ageing of the Chilean population. This process is also changing the disease burden of the population. Infectious and perinatal diseases lost relevance as major causes of mortality, and have been replaced by chronic non transmissible diseases, specifically cardiovascular conditions and cancer, that are becoming the main causes of death. High blood pressure, cardiovascular risk, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, overweight and obesity, smoking, sedentary lifestyle and depression will have a great impact on health conditions during the XXI century. These factors and a persistent social inequity will hinder the efforts to reduce the impact and consequences of chronic non transmissible, diseases in the Chilean population. PMID:17914552

  3. Utilization of therapies for stress management in Chilean clinical dental students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Pérez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dental students suffer greater stress than the rest of the university population. In general, most health students seek little assistance to help them cope with stress. The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of therapies to manage stress in Chilean clinical dental students. A cross-sectional study was conducted nationwide; this report is a secondary data analysis. The study population was dental students in clinical years (4th and 5th of 5 Chilean dental schools: Antofagasta, Valparaíso, Viña del Mar, Concepción, and La Frontera. This paper reports the use of therapies for stress management during the past six months considering four options: medical/psychiatric, psychological, self-medication and alternative. Tabulation and analysis were done in STATA 10/SE. Three hundred thirty-seven students were surveyed, 54.01% were men and 64.99% were in fourth year, with an average age of 22.94 ±2.04. The 48.07% of students have used any of the four types of therapies; women and fourth-year students use more any form of therapy with 53.30% (p=.037 and 48.86% (p=.694, respectively, than men and fifth year students. About half of the students have used some form of therapy to manage stress in the last six months; of the students that received therapy, the percentage of women was significantly higher.

  4. Accuracy of Body Mass Index Cutoffs for Classifying Obesity in Chilean Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; David Langer, Raquel; de Fátima Guimarães, Roseane; Contiero San Martini, Mariana; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; de Arruda, Miguel; Guerra-Júnior, Gil; Moreira Gonçalves, Ezequiel

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the accuracy of two international Body Mass Index (BMI) cut-offs for classifying obesity compared to the percentage of fat mass (%FM) assessed by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) in a Chilean sample of children and adolescents; Material and Methods: The subjects studied included 280 children and adolescents (125 girls and 155 boys) aged 8 to 17 years. Weight and height were measured. The BMI was calculated. Two international references (IOFT and WHO) were used as cut-off points. The %FM was assessed by DXA. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to assess the performance of BMI in detecting obesity on the basis of %FM; Results: A high correlation was observed between the %FM measured by the DXA and the Z-scores of IOTF and WHO scores in the Chilean adolescents separated by sex (r = 0.78–0.80). Differences occurred in both references (IOFT and WHO) in relation to the criteria (p < 0.001). Both references demonstrated a good ability to predict sensitivity (between 84% and 93%) and specificity (between 83% and 88%) in both sexes of children and adolescents; Conclusions: A high correlation was observed between the Z-score of the BMI with the percentage of fat determined by the DXA. Despite this, the classifications using the different BMI cut-off points showed discrepancies. This suggests that the cut-off points selected to predict obesity in this sample should be viewed with caution. PMID:27164119

  5. Percent Forest Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCTFuture) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water....

  6. Percent Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCT) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water. More...

  7. Forest Opening in Multipurpose Private Forest - Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hribernik, Boštjan; Potočnik, Igor

    2013-01-01

    In the past, forest opening with forest roads was planned on the basis of forest wood production. By discovering the importance of other forest roles, gradual integration of individual role into planning processes of forest opening started. The modern approach to the planning of forest opening of multipurpose forests requires a simultaneous consideration of all forest roles. Economic justification for enlarging the existing forest road network is based on the density of forest roads, where th...

  8. US Forest Service National Forest System Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the world wide web that depicts National Forest Service trails that have been approved for publication. This service is used internally and...

  9. US Forest Service Administrative Forest Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting all the National Forest System lands administered by an unit. These areas encompasse private lands, other governmental agency...

  10. US Forest Service Healthy Forest Restoration Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas designated within National Forest System Lands, in 37 States, that are eligible for insect and disease treatments under...

  11. Mondrian Forests: Efficient Online Random Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshminarayanan, Balaji; Roy, Daniel M.; Teh, Yee Whye

    2014-01-01

    Ensembles of randomized decision trees, usually referred to as random forests, are widely used for classification and regression tasks in machine learning and statistics. Random forests achieve competitive predictive performance and are computationally efficient to train and test, making them excellent candidates for real-world prediction tasks. The most popular random forest variants (such as Breiman's random forest and extremely randomized trees) operate on batches of training data. Online ...

  12. How depositional conditions control input, composition, and degradation of organic matter in sediments from the Chilean coastal upwelling region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niggemann, Jutta; Ferdelman, Timothy G.; Lomstein, Bente Aagaard;

    2007-01-01

    Chilean coastal upwelling system and have an extended oxygen minimum zone in the water column. However, the northern site (23°S) borders the Atacama Desert, while the southern site (36°S) has a humid hinterland. Eight surface sediment cores (up to 30 cm long) from water depths of 126‑1350 m were...

  13. Filamentous bacteria inhabiting the sheaths of marine Thioploca spp. on the Chilean continental shelf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teske, Andreas; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Gallardo, Victor A.

    2009-01-01

    A new component of the benthic Thioploca mat microbial ecosystem on the Chilean continental shelf was detected by epifluorescence microscopy: filamentous, bacterial endobionts of 4-5-μm filament diameter and length sometimes exceeding 1 mm. These filaments were identified as growing within...

  14. Variation in implementation of corporate social responsibility practices in emerging economies' firms: A survey of Chilean fruit exporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerkx, L.W.A.; Villalobos, P.; Engler, A.

    2012-01-01

    As in many sectors in emerging economies, the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become important for exporting agri-food firms in view of their integration in global supply chains. The purpose of this research was to assess the implementation by Chilean fruit exporters of CSR prac

  15. Adolescent Temperament and Parental Control in the Development of the Adolescent Decision Making in a Chilean Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, J. Carola; Cumsille, Patricio

    2012-01-01

    The study analyzes the way in which adolescents' temperamental characteristics interact with parental control to shape adolescent decision making development. A sample of high-school Chilean adolescents (N = 391) answered a self-report questionnaire that included measures of behavioral autonomy (the extent to which adolescents make decisions in…

  16. THE MAKING OF AN UNLIKELY CHILEAN FASCIST: REFLECTIONS ON THE INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT AND POLITICAL WORK OF CARLOS KELLER RUEFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Klein

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the intellectual evolution and political activities of Carlos Keller Rueff between the early 1920s and the late 1930s. It discusses his development from a German nationalist to a Chilean fascist during the course of this eventful period. In the 1920s Keller, who started his career in the Deutsch-Chilenischer Bund, the umbrella organisation of the German-Chilean community, expressed German National positions. Only at the end of the decade he began to distance himself from his narrow, sectarian German sub-culture and took a broader, national view, a development that coincided with his move from Concepción to Santiago and the failure of his plan to revive the immigration of Germans to Chile. With the book La eterna crisis chilena, published in 1931, he finally emerged as a Chilean nationalist and gained the reputation of an intellectual. One year later, in April 1932, he was, together with Jorge González von Marées, one of the founding members of the Chilean Movimiento Nacional Socialista (MNS. Keller became the movement’s ideologue and its second most prominent leader. This career abruptly ended with the failed nacista coup of 5 September 1938 and the subsequent transformation of the MNS into the Vanguardia Popular Socialista

  17. Comparing Sociodemographic Factors Associated with Disability Between Immigrants and the Chilean-Born: Are There Different Stories to Tell?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltica Cabieses

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explored a range of sociodemographic factors associated with disability among international immigrants in Chile, and compared them to the Chilean-born. Secondary data analysis of the Chilean population-based survey CASEN-2006 was conducted (268,873 participants. Main health outcomes: any disability and six different types of disability: visual, hearing, learning, physical, psychiatric and speaking (binary outcomes. Sociodemographic variables: Demographic factors (age, sex, marital status, urban/rural, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES: income, education, employment status, and an integrated indicator combining the SES measures through cluster analysis for the immigrant population, material factors (overcrowding, sanitation, housing quality and migration related (country of origin and length of stay. Immigrants reported a significantly lower prevalence of any disability (3.55%, visual (1.00% and physical disability (0.38%. Factors associated with any disability among immigrants were age, low SES or over 20 years duration of residence in Chile; while a range of sociodemographic factors were associated with disability in the Chilean-born. Conditional regression models by age group varied between populations, but SES remained significantly associated with disability across immigrants and the Chilean-born. However, there are no similar patterns of factors associated to different types of disability between the populations under study. Factors associated with disability varied between populations under study, but SES showed a consistent association with any disability in immigrants and the Chilean-born. Types of disability showed different patterns of factors associated to them between populations, which suggest the great complexity of underlying mechanisms related to disability in Chile.

  18. Effect of Nearby Forest Fires on Ground Level Ozone Concentrations in Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. Rubio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On 4 and 8 January 2014, at the height of the austral summer, intense wildfires in forests and dry pastures occurred in the Melipilla sector, located about 70 km to the southwest of Santiago, the Chilean capital, affecting more than 6 million inhabitants. Low level winds transported the forest fire plume towards Santiago causing a striking decrease in visibility and a marked increase in the concentration of both primary (PM10 and CO and secondary (Ozone pollutants in the urban atmosphere. In particular, ozone maximum concentrations in the Santiago basin reached hourly averages well above 80 ppb, the national air quality standard. This ozone increase took place at the three sampling sites considered in the present study. These large values can be explained in terms of high NOx concentrations and NO2/NO ratios in biomass burning emissions.

  19. Forest Health Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Tara L.

    2014-01-01

    "Forest health" is an important concept often not covered in tree, forest, insect, or fungal ecology and biology. With minimal, inexpensive equipment, students can investigate and conduct their own forest health survey to assess the percentage of trees with natural or artificial wounds or stress. Insects and diseases in the forest are…

  20. Alternatives for Bulgarian forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Päivinen, R.; Nabuurs, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    The European Forest Information Scenario Model (EFISCEN) is an area-based forest matrix model, which is especially suitable for projections of forest resources of large areas under assumptions of total national felling. EFISCEN uses time steps of five years and national forest inventory data. The in

  1. Structuring of Forest Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Farber

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Structuring forest communities is considered as a pre-studying procedure. The paper defines the fundamental structuring terms and describes the theory behind it. Factors hampering forest typology development are discussed. The areas of forest typology promising regarding sustainable and multi-purposed forest management are outlined.

  2. Fatal Envenomation of a Chilean Flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis) From Eastern Yellow Jacket Wasps (Vespula maculifrons).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suedmeyer, Wm Kirk; Trupkiewicz, John G

    2014-12-01

    A 37-year-old, female Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis) presented with severe facial angioedema, bilateral corneal and palpebral edema, nictitating membrane paralysis, bradycardia, bradypnea, hypothermia, and numerous stingers and remnants of eastern yellow jacket wasps (Vespula maculifrons) attached to the feathers of the head, palpebrae, and conjunctiva. Evaluation of 2 complete blood cell counts and results of plasma chemical analysis and serum protein electrophoresis revealed severe increases in creatinine phosphokinase and aspartate aminotransferase activity, electrolyte disturbances, and moderate increases in levels of α1, α2, β1, and γ immunoglobulins when compared with reference interval values and conspecifics. Despite intensive treatment, the bird died 19 hours after presentation. Results of histologic evaluation of tissues were compatible with envenomation. Response to envenomation in avian species is not documented but should be considered in birds presenting with angioedema. PMID:25843472

  3. Factors affecting aggression in a captive flock of Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdue, Bonnie M; Gaalema, Diann E; Martin, Allison L; Dampier, Stephanie M; Maple, Terry L

    2011-01-01

    The influence of pair bond status, age and sex on aggression rates in a flock of 84 captive Chilean flamingos at Zoo Atlanta was examined. Analysis showed no difference between aggression rates of male and female flamingos, but adult flamingos had higher rates of aggression than juveniles. There were also significant differences in aggression depending on pair bond status (single, same-sex pair, male-female pair or group). Bonded birds were significantly more aggressive than single birds, which is consistent with the concept that unpaired birds are not breeding and do not need to protect pair bonds or eggs. Birds in typical pair bonds (male-female) and atypical pair bonds (same-sex pairs or groups) exhibited similar rates of aggression. These results contribute to the existing body of research on aggression in captive flamingos. PMID:20186725

  4. Trematodes indicate animal biodiversity in the chilean intertidal and Lake Tanganyika

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechinger, R.F.; Lafferty, K.D.; Kuris, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Trematode communities in populations of estuarine snails can reflect surrounding animal diversity, abundance, and trophic interactions. We know less about the potential for trematodes to serve as bioindicators in other habitats. Here, we reanalyze data from 2 published studies concerning trematodes, 1 in the Chilean rocky intertidal zone and the other from the East African rift lake, Lake Tanganyika. Our analyses indicate that trematodes are more common in protected areas and that in both habitats they are directly and positively related to surrounding host abundance. This further supports the notion that trematodes in first intermediate hosts can serve as bioindicators of the condition of free-living animal communities in diverse ecosystems. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2008.

  5. Bifactor Modeling of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in a Chilean Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Salas, Claudia Paz; Ramos, Carlos; Oliva, Karen; Ortega, Alonso

    2016-06-01

    The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions evaluates executive functioning through the observation of students' performance in real contexts. Most psychometric studies of the scale have only tested the first-order structure, despite the hierarchical configuration of its theoretical model. A bifactor model was conducted on a normative sample of 5- to 18-year-old Chileans (M age = 11.3 years, SD = 3.7) to test a hierarchical structure of three first-order factors and an independent second-order factor. Bifactor analyses showed best fit for the proposed hierarchical structure. Findings supported a method to evaluate executive functioning models that provides a general global factor score that may complement existing indices and thus help clinicians to make better inferences. PMID:27216945

  6. Preliminary Psychometric examination of the Davidson Trauma Scale: A study on chileans adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristobal Guerra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS measures the frequency and severity of the posttraumatic Stress Disorder pTSD. Since chile has limited data about validity and reliability of instruments to measure pTSD, this study evaluated psychometric properties of the scale in a sample of 130 adolescents between 13 and 18 years (M= 15,78; DT= 1,40. Some of them were traumatized patients and others were from general population. They answered the DTS, a depression and an anxiety scale. The scale obtained adequate internal consistency scores, showed convergent validity (DTS score was associated moderately, directly and significantly with depression and anxiety scores, and discriminated between clinical sample and general population. DTS seems to be a valid and reliable instrument in chilean adolescents.

  7. Free Trade Agreements and Firm-Product Markups in Chilean Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamorgese, A.R.; Linarello, A.; Warzynski, Frederic Michel Patrick

    In this paper, we use detailed information about firms' product portfolio to study how trade liberalization affects prices, markups and productivity. We document these effects using firm product level data in Chilean manufacturing following two major trade agreements with the EU and the US. The...... dataset provides information about the value and quantity of each good produced by the firm, as well as the amount of exports. One additional and unique characteristic of our dataset is that it provides a firm-product level measure of the unit average cost. We use this information to compute a firm......-product level measure of the profit margin that a firm can generate. We find that new products start being sold on foreign markets as export tariff fall. Moreover, for those products, we observe a fall in both prices and unit average costs. Those effects are mainly driven by an increase in productivity at the...

  8. Genetic diversity of Chilean and Brazilian alstroemeria species assessed by AFLP analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, T H; de Jeu, M; van Eck, H; Jacobsen, E

    2000-05-01

    One to three accessions of 22 Alstroemeria species, an interspecific hybrid (A. aurea x A. inodora), and single accessions of Bomarea salsilla and Leontochir ovallei were evaluated using the AFLP-marker technique to estimate the genetic diversity within the genus Alstroemeria. Three primer combinations generated 716 markers and discriminated all Alstroemeria species. The dendrogram inferred from the AFLP fingerprints supported the conjecture of the generic separation of the Chilean and Brazilian Alstroemeria species. The principal co-ordinate plot showed the separate allocation of the A. ligtu group and the allocation of A. aurea, which has a wide range of geographical distribution and genetic variation, in the middle of other Alstroemeria species. The genetic distances, based on AFLP markers, determined the genomic contribution of the parents to the interspecific hybrid. PMID:10849081

  9. Ultrasound application for MOE determination of some Chilean species of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baradit, Erik; Fuentealba, Cecillia; San Martin, Alex

    1999-02-01

    In this work a preliminary study of an ultrasound application, as a non destructive technique, for the evaluation of some chilean wood species is shown. By means of this technique the elasticity moduli (MOE) along the fibers for different positions of the samples with respect to the pith and different moisture contents are determined. At the same time the wood anisotropy properties are evaluated as the ratio between velocities along the main directions of the tree. In general, the obtained results show a high correlations between the MOE obtained by mechanic and ultrasound essays while the anisotropy values correspond mainly to the expected results. Finally, it is considered that the application of this technique as a complement to other non destructive techniques conform an excellent tool for evaluation and quality control of wood products.

  10. Chilean jagged lobster, Projasus bahamondei, in the southeastern Pacific Ocean: current state of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio M Arana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean jagged lobster (Projasus bahamondei is a deep-water crustacean (175-550 m occurring in certain areas of the southeastern Pacific Ocean, including the Nazca Ridge, Desventuradas Islands, the Juan Fernandez archipelago and ridge, and the continental slope off the central coast of Chile. This review describes the taxonomic status, geographical and bathymetric distribution, some biological aspects and habitat characteristics of this species. Additionally, both artisanal and industrial exploitation attempts made within the region are detailed, as well as fishing operation results, chemical composition, different elaboration procedures and the destination of the catch. The main objectives of this review are to contribute to the knowledge of P. bahamondei as a component of the deep-sea ecosystem and to highlight its importance as a potential fishery resource.

  11. Experience and new challenges in the Chilean generation and transmission sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chilean electrical sector was deregulated in 1982, where unbundling was applied, and generation competition and marginal costing were introduced. Description of the main features of the generation market and system operation is presented, followed by a synthesis of the main achievements and difficulties experienced in the practical application. The experience with the troubles faced in the reformed power sector after 18 years is used to look at the possible advantages of the second stage of deregulation. The challenges of a new legislation, where the system is expected to join the second generation of deregulation are discussed. Advantage and risks of opening the energy market with a bidding system separate from ancillary service market are analysed. The experience with the troubles faced in the reformed power sector after 18 years is used to look at the possible advantages of the second stage of deregulation. (author)

  12. Characterization of Baker Fjord region through its heavy metal content on sediments (Central Chilean Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Ahumada

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of heavy metals content (Ba, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sr and Zn in sediments of the Baker Fjord and surrounding channels in the central region of the Chilean fjords (47°45'S, 48°15'S is analyzed. The aim of the study was characterized the patterns of abundance and distribution of these metals in surface sediments. The area corresponds to a poorly studied zone with low human activity. Distribution patterns would be influenced by rainfall conditions (local erosion, fluvial (continental sediments carried by rivers, glacier (glacier flour and estuarine circulation. Cluster analysis allows differentiation among the sampled sites and group with similar characteristics. Finally, the concentrations found were contrasted with average values of metamorphic rocks and show with some certainty that the values found for calendar for this area and the greatest concentrations are the result of natural enrichment.

  13. Psychometric properties of the personal wellbeing index in Brazilian and Chilean adolescents including spirituality and religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Castellá Sarriera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the 7-item Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI with two other versions which include the domains "Spirituality" and "Religion", separately, in a sample of Brazilian (n = 1.047 and Chilean (n = 1.053 adolescents. A comparison of psychometric properties between the PWI versions was carried out through multigroup confirmatory factor analysis showing adequate adjustments (CFI > .95, RMSEA < .08, whereas the item spirituality presented better performance. For the analysis of the differential contribution of each domain to the notion of global satisfaction, a regression on the item Overall Life Satisfaction (OLS was applied using structural equations. It is recommended the inclusion of the item spirituality in the original scale, considering the importance of such domain in both cultures.

  14. The attitude of the Chilean newspaper "El Mercurio" towards the main economic policies of the Popular Unity government of Salvador Allende (1970 - 1973).

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Resumé of History major: “The attitude of the Chilean newspaper ‘El Mercurio’ towards the main economic policies of the Popular Unity government of Salvador Allende (1970-73)” By Paul Francis Llewellyn Department of History University of Oslo, Norway Autumn 2002 Introduction This investigation will show in what manner the conservative daily newspaper El Mercurio presented the main economic policies of the Chilean left-wing Popular Unity (UP) government during its ter...

  15. Free education! A 'live' report from the Chilean student movement, 2011-2014 - reform or revolution? [A political sociology for action

    OpenAIRE

    Simbuerger, Elisabeth; Neary, Mike

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a report on the Chilean student movement, 2011 – 2014, from the perspective of the students themselves, based on the research question: are the student protesters for reform or revolution? The research was done just before the November 2013 Chilean Presidential and Parliamentary elections using ‘live methods’ (Back and Puwar 2012). The live methods used here include an ethnographic report from a student protest march in downtown Santiago, Chile, illustrated with a Twitt...

  16. PRESENCE OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS IN ALPACAS (LAMA PACOS) INHABITING THE CHILEAN ALTIPLANO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Miguel; Sevilla, Iker; Rios, Carolina; Crossley, Jorge; Tejeda, Carlos; Manning, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of paratuberculosis. The organism causes disease in both domestically managed and wild ruminant species. South American camelids have a long, shared history with indigenous people in the Andes. Over the last few decades, increasing numbers of alpacas were exported to numerous countries outside South America. No paratuberculosis surveillance has been reported for these source herds. In this study, individual fecal samples from 85 adult alpacas were collected from six separate herds in the Chilean Altiplano. A ParaTB mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) liquid culture of each individual fecal sample, followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was used for confirmation. DNA extracts from a subset of confirmed MAP isolates were subjected to mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Fifteen alpaca were fecal culture test-positive. Five false-positive culture samples were negative on PCR analysis for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA), Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), and the 16 S rDNA gene. Three MAP isolates subset-tested belonged to the same MIRU-VNTR type, showing four repeats for TR292 (locus 1) in contrast to the three repeats typical of the MAP reference strain K10. The number of repeats found in the remaining loci was identical to that of the K10 strain. It is not known how nor when MAP was introduced into the alpaca population in the Chilean Altiplano. The most plausible hypothesis to explain the presence of MAP in these indigenous populations is transmission by contact with infected domestic small ruminant species that may on occasion share pastures or range with alpacas. Isolation of this mycobacterial pathogen from such a remote region suggests that MAP has found its way beyond the confines of intensively managed domestic agriculture premises. PMID:27010259

  17. Molecular characterization and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus species from gut microbiota of Chilean Altiplano camelids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katheryne Guerrero-Olmos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enterococcus is one of the major human pathogens able to acquire multiple antibiotic-resistant markers as well as virulence factors which also colonize remote ecosystems, including wild animals. In this work, we characterized the Enterococcus population colonizing the gut of Chilean Altiplano camelids without foreign human contact. Material and methods: Rectal swabs from 40 llamas and 10 alpacas were seeded in M-Enterococcus agar, and we selected a total of 57 isolates. Species identification was performed by biochemical classical tests, semi-automated WIDER system, mass spectrometry analysis by MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, and, finally, nucleotide sequence of internal fragments of the 16S rRNA, rpoB, pheS, and aac(6-I genes. Genetic diversity was measured by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE-SmaI, whereas the antibiotic susceptibility was determined by the WIDER system. Carriage of virulence factors was explored by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: Our results demonstrated that the most prevalent specie was Enterococcus hirae (82%, followed by other non–Enterococcus faecalis and non–Enterococcus faecium species. Some discrepancies were detected among the identification methods used, and the most reliable were the rpoB, pheS, and aac(6-I nucleotide sequencing. Selected isolates exhibited susceptibility to almost all studied antibiotics, and virulence factors were not detected by PCR. Finally, some predominant clones were characterized by PFGE into a diverse genetic background. Conclusion: Enterococcus species from the Chilean camelids’ gut microbiota were different from those adapted to humans, and they remained free of antibiotic resistance mechanisms as well as virulence factors.

  18. The congressional Committee System of the Chilean Legislature, 1834-1924

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Mauricio Obando Camino

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a historical, institutional study about the congressional committee system of the Chilean legislature from 1834 through 1924. This study uses a longitudinal perspective to focus on committee origins, functions, processes, and authority. It shows that the Chilean legislature developed a committee system early by taking stock of previous, short-lived congressional experiences and trial-and-error. Congressional committees dealt with bill drafting, housekeeping matters, and bureaucratic oversight therein with varying results. Congressional leaders presided over the committee appointment process by relying on majority support and persuasion. The impact of institutional design on committee performance, notwithstanding, the evidence shows that committees performed as specialized, authoritative agencies even before the emergence of modern political parties in the late 1850s.Este es un estudio histórico-institucional acerca del sistema de comisiones parlamentarias del Congreso chileno desde 1834 a 1924. Usando una perspectiva longitudinal para centrarse en los orígenes, funciones, procesos y autoridad de dichas comisiones, este artículo muestra que el Congreso chileno desarrolló un sistema de comisiones tempranamente, a partir de experiencias previas y de experimentación. En este sistema las comisiones redactaban leyes, se encargaban de asuntos internos y fiscalizaban la burocracia con resultados variados. Los líderes del Congreso tenían a su cargo la conformación de la comisiones, para lo cual se apoyaban en la mayoría parlamentaria y la persuasión. A pesar del impacto del diseño institucional sobre el desempeño de las comisiones, la evidencia muestra que estas se desempeñaron como agencias especializadas y autoritativas aun antes del surgimiento de los partidos políticos modernos, a fines de la década de 1850.

  19. Family and parenting characteristics associated with marijuana use by Chilean adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Grogan-Kaylor

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cristina B Bares1, Jorge Delva2, Andrew Grogan-Kaylor2, Fernando Andrade31Curtis Research and Training Center, School of Social Work, 2School of Social Work, 3School of Education, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USAObjective: Family involvement and several characteristics of parenting have been suggested to be protective factors for adolescent substance use. Some parenting behaviors may have stronger relationships with adolescent behavior while others may have associations with undesirable behavior among youth. Although it is generally acknowledged that families play an important role in the lives of Chilean adolescents, scant research exists on how different family and parenting factors may be associated with marijuana use and related problems in this population which has one of the highest rates of drug use in Latin America.Methods: Using logistic regression and negative binomial regression, we examined whether a large number of family and parenting variables were associated with the possibility of Chilean adolescents ever using marijuana, and with marijuana-related problems. Analyses controlled for a number of demographic and peer-related variables.Results: Controlling for other parenting and family variables, adolescent reports of parental marijuana use showed a significant and positive association with adolescent marijuana use. The multivariate models also revealed that harsh parenting by fathers was the only family variable associated with the number of marijuana-related problems youth experienced. Conclusion: Of all the family and parenting variables studied, perceptions of parental use of marijuana and harsh parenting by fathers were predictors for marijuana use, and the experience of marijuana-related problems. Prevention interventions need to continue emphasizing the critical socializing role that parental behavior plays in their children's development and potential use of marijuana.Keywords: parenting, families, adolescent

  20. Fat and carbohydrates in the diet: Its metabolic contribution to obesity in Chilean women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been found that children and adults in the Chilean population are getting obese in a rapidly raising proportion. There is a cohort of children less than six years old, which are regularly controlled by the Ministry of Health. From this information and studies carried out at INTA, it is known that the prevalence is raising continuously. Unfortunately, this can not be ascertained in adults where the nutritional situation is assessed only in small groups, which are not representative of the general population. The problem with adults is that the healthy population does not attend to the medical clinics unless they are already ill. The studies conducted in Chilean adults have found that >40% of low socio-economic status (SES) women are suffering from obesity. A intriguing aspect in our situation is that although sedentarism is frequent in adult women (as a possible cause of positive energy balance), their intake is based on a high proportion of carbohydrates (CHO) but not much fat (50-70 g on average). It may be suggested that the excess CHO can be converted into fat through denovo lipogenesis but this process is less important as cause of obesity in humans. A more plausible cause of this problem is likely to be related to the diet. The oxidation hierarchy of macronutrients shows that whenever CHO and fat are available, the former will be firstly oxidised. This way, fat can be spared even when eaten in small amounts, accumulating in the mid-long term. Another important dietary aspect is provided by its fatty acids composition that according to animal studies, seems to modulate fat oxidation. In addition to these, glycemic effects of CHO eaten in combination with the same meal can further potentiate fat storage. This proposal aims to test the dietary effects mentioned above by using indirect calorimetry in tandem with stable isotopes methodologies in a group of normal weight and obese women. (author)

  1. Dipterocarpaceae: forest fires and forest recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Priadjati, A.

    2002-01-01

    One of the serious problems Indonesia is facing today is deforestation. Forests have been playing a very important role in Indonesia as the main natural resources for the economic growth of the country. Large areas of tropical forests, worldwide considered to be among the richest in plant diversity, have been lost in recent years mainly due to inappropriate logging, illegal logging, shifting cultivation, and forest fires. The negative repercussions of these activities are felt from an economi...

  2. Forest inventory in Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest inventory in Myanmar started in 1850s. Up till 1975, Myanmar Forest Department conducted forest inventories covering approximately one forest division every year. The National Forest Survey and Inventory Project funded by UNDP and assisted by FAO commenced in 1981 and the National Forest Management and Inventory project followed in 1986. Up till end March 1993, pre-investment inventory has covered 26.7 million acres, reconnaissance inventory 5.4 million acres and management inventory has carried out in 12 townships

  3. Forest area assessment in the Slovenian forest inventory design

    OpenAIRE

    Hladnik, David; Žižek Kulovec, Laura

    2012-01-01

    In Slovenia, data on forest area are obtained within the framework of forest management planning and data of the actual agriculture and forest land use. The article shows the differences in the assessment methodology of forest cover and spatial structure of forests. In accordance with the concept of national forest inventories, the article suggests upgrading of the existing concept of forest inventories which, in the last decade, have been subordinate to forest management areas and difference...

  4. Uncertainty in forest simulators and forest planning systems

    OpenAIRE

    MÀkinen, Antti

    2010-01-01

    The forest simulator is a computerized model for predicting forest growth and future development as well as effects of forest harvests and treatments. The forest planning system is a decision support tool, usually including a forest simulator and an optimisation model, for finding the optimal forest management actions. The information produced by forest simulators and forest planning systems is used for various analytical purposes and in support of decision making. However, the quality a...

  5. Lycaenid caterpillars (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae eating flowers of Dalea pennellii var. chilensis (Fabaceae in the northern Chilean Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lycaenid caterpillars (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae eating flowers of Dalea pennellii var. chilensis (Fabaceae in the northern Chilean Andes. The shrub Dalea pennellii var. chilensis (Fabaceae is reported for the first time as a host plant for three Neotropical Polyommatini (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Polyommatinae: Hemiargus ramon (Dognin, 1887, Leptotes trigemmatus (Butler, 1881 and Nabokovia faga (Dognin, 1895, based on two collections performed in the western slopes of the northern Chilean Andes in two consecutive summers. The relative abundance was always above 90% for N. faga while it was always less than 5% for H. ramon and L. trigemmatus. Furthermore, N. faga was not found on inflorescences of other native Fabaceae examined in the study site. This pattern suggests a close relationship between N. faga and D. pennellii var. chilensis, at least at a local scale.

  6. Cadmium bioaccumulation and retention kinetics in the Chilean blue mussel Mytilus chilensis: Seawater and food exposure pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herve-Fernandez, Pedro [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Castilla 567, Valdivia (Chile); Houlbreque, Fanny, E-mail: F.Houlbreque@iaea.org [International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, 98000 Monaco (Monaco); Boisson, Florence [International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, 98000 Monaco (Monaco); Mulsow, Sandor [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Castilla 567, Valdivia (Chile); Teyssie, Jean-Louis; Oberhaensli, Francois; Azemard, Sabine; Jeffree, Ross [International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, 98000 Monaco (Monaco)

    2010-09-15

    The Chilean blue mussel (Mytilus chilensis, Hupe 1854) represents the most important bivalve exploited along the Chilean coast and is a major food source for the Chilean population. Unfortunately, local fish and shellfish farming face severe problems as a result of bioaccumulation of toxic trace metals into shellfishes. Blue mussels collected along the Chilean coasts contain levels of Cd above the regulatory limits for human consumption. In this study, we examined the bioaccumulation, depuration and organ distribution of Cd in the M. chilensis, from {sup 109}Cd-labelled bulk seawater and from feeding with {sup 109}Cd-labelled algae. The uptake of {sup 109}Cd via seawater displayed a simple exponential kinetic model suggesting that cadmium activity tends to reach an equilibrium value of 1.838 {+-} 0.175 ng g{sup -1} (mean {+-} asymptotic standard error, p < 0.001) after 78 {+-} 9 days. The depuration rate for {sup 109}Cd accumulated via seawater was slow, with only 21% of the total {sup 109}Cd accumulated in the whole mussel being eliminated after 52 days. Total elimination of Cd in mussels was adequately described by a double component kinetic model, in which the biological half-life for the long-lived component represents more than 6 months. In contrast, depuration after radiolabelled food uptake was fast, reaching only 20% of retention in 10 days. This knowledge of the long half-life of cadmium accumulated via seawater as well as the non-negligible level of cadmium accumulated into the shells is relevant to the management of Cd levels in this species and the refinement of detoxification processes in order to comply with authorized Cd levels.

  7. Values, animal symbolism, and human-animal relationships associated to two threatened felids in Mapuche and Chilean local narratives

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Thora M; Schüttler, Elke; Benavides, Pelayo; Gálvez, Nicolas; Söhn, Lisa; Palomo, Nadja

    2013-01-01

    Background The Chilean temperate rainforest has been subjected to dramatic fragmentation for agriculture and forestry exploitation. Carnivore species are particularly affected by fragmentation and the resulting resource use conflicts with humans. This study aimed at understanding values and human-animal relationships with negatively perceived threatened carnivores through the disclosure of local stories and Mapuche traditional folktales. Methods Our mixed approach comprised the qualitative an...

  8. Relationship of Adiposity and Insulin Resistance Mediated by Inflammation in a Group of Overweight and Obese Chilean Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Leiva Laura; Blanco Estela; Díaz Erik; Gahagan Sheila; Reyes Marcela; Lera Lydia; Burrows Raquel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The mild chronic inflammatory state associated with obesity may be an important link between adiposity and insulin resistance (IR). In a sample of 137 overweight and obese Chilean adolescents, we assessed associations between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), IR and adiposity; explored sex differences; and evaluated whether hs-CRP mediated the relationship between adiposity and IR. Positive relationships between hs-CRP, IR and 2 measures of adiposity were found. Hs-CRP wa...

  9. Small Scale Indigenous Molybdenum-99 Production Using LEU Fission at Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission [Country report: Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the results of the activities carried out in the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) under CRP Nº 13358 “Small Scale Indigenous Molybdenum-99 Production Using LEU Fission” started in October 2005 to November 2011. The object of the project was to develop the basic infrastructure and to establish the conditions to obtain fission molybdenum-99 (99Mo) by neutron irradiation of uranium-235 (235U) targets in RECH-1 reactor located in Santiago, Chile

  10. Effect of the 2010 Chilean Earthquake on Posttraumatic Stress Reducing Sensitivity to Unmeasured Bias Through Study Design

    OpenAIRE

    Zubizarreta, José R.; Cerdá, Magdalena; Rosenbaum, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, a magnitude 8.8 earthquake hit Chile, devastating parts of the country. Having just completed its national socioeconomic survey, the Chilean government reinterviewed a subsample of respondents, creating unusual longitudinal data about the same persons before and after a major disaster. The follow-up evaluated posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) using Davidson’s Trauma Scale. We use these data with two goals in mind. Most studies of PTSS after disasters rely on recall to characterize...

  11. Policy learning and policy change in a context of industry crisis: the case of Chilean salmon farming industry

    OpenAIRE

    Roa Petrasic, Veronica Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates the policy response to the 2007-2010 sanitary crisis in the Chilean salmon industry, the second largest producer and exporter of salmon in the world. This industry is an emblematic case of the possible consequences of employing an intensive natural resource model for development. The research draws upon the two literatures on policy learning and policy change, and crisis and disaster management, and upon the system failure to explain the causes and consequences ...

  12. Comparison of water availability effect on ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea in microcosms of a Chilean semiarid soil

    OpenAIRE

    JulietaOrlando

    2012-01-01

    Water availability is the main limiting factor in arid soils; however few studies have examined the effects of drying and rewetting on nitrifiers from these environments. The effect of water availability on the diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) from a semiarid soil of the Chilean sclerophyllous matorral was determined by microcosm assays. The addition of water every 14 days to reach 60% of the WHC significantly increased nitrate content in rewetted soil microcosm...

  13. Comparison of water availability effect on ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea in microcosms of a Chilean semiarid soil

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante, Mauricio; Verdejo, Valentina; Zúñiga, Catalina; Espinosa, Fernanda; Orlando, Julieta; Carú, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Water availability is the main limiting factor in arid soils; however, few studies have examined the effects of drying and rewetting on nitrifiers from these environments. The effect of water availability on the diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) from a semiarid soil of the Chilean sclerophyllous matorral was determined by microcosm assays. The addition of water every 14 days to reach 60% of the WHC significantly increased nitrate content in rewetted soil microcos...

  14. Cadmium bioaccumulation and retention kinetics in the Chilean blue mussel Mytilus chilensis: Seawater and food exposure pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chilean blue mussel (Mytilus chilensis, Hupe 1854) represents the most important bivalve exploited along the Chilean coast and is a major food source for the Chilean population. Unfortunately, local fish and shellfish farming face severe problems as a result of bioaccumulation of toxic trace metals into shellfishes. Blue mussels collected along the Chilean coasts contain levels of Cd above the regulatory limits for human consumption. In this study, we examined the bioaccumulation, depuration and organ distribution of Cd in the M. chilensis, from 109Cd-labelled bulk seawater and from feeding with 109Cd-labelled algae. The uptake of 109Cd via seawater displayed a simple exponential kinetic model suggesting that cadmium activity tends to reach an equilibrium value of 1.838 ± 0.175 ng g-1 (mean ± asymptotic standard error, p 109Cd accumulated via seawater was slow, with only 21% of the total 109Cd accumulated in the whole mussel being eliminated after 52 days. Total elimination of Cd in mussels was adequately described by a double component kinetic model, in which the biological half-life for the long-lived component represents more than 6 months. In contrast, depuration after radiolabelled food uptake was fast, reaching only 20% of retention in 10 days. This knowledge of the long half-life of cadmium accumulated via seawater as well as the non-negligible level of cadmium accumulated into the shells is relevant to the management of Cd levels in this species and the refinement of detoxification processes in order to comply with authorized Cd levels.

  15. Chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis and biological activity on cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus

    OpenAIRE

    Leticia Barrientos; Herrera, Christian L.; Gloria Montenegro; Ximena Ortega; Jorge Veloz; Marysol Alvear; Alejandro Cuevas; Nicolás Saavedra; Salazar, Luis A.

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is a non-toxic natural substance with multiple pharmacological properties including anti-cancer, antioxidant, fungicidal, antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory among others. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis samples and to evaluate their biological activity against the cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. Twenty propolis samples were obtained from beekeeping producers from t...

  16. Seco-Taondiol, an Unusual Meroterpenoid from the Chilean Seaweed Stypopodium flabelliforme and Its Gastroprotective Effect in Mouse Model

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Areche; Julio Benites; Alberto Cornejo; Ruiz, Lina M.; Olimpo García-Beltrán; Simirgiotis, Mario J.; Beatriz Sepúlveda

    2015-01-01

    Ten known meroterpenoids and the new meroterpenoid 7 were isolated from the Chilean seaweed Stypopodium flabelliforme as their acetylated derivatives. Furthermore, the known metabolite taondiol has been isolated for the first time from this species. The molecular structure of the new metabolite was determined by spectroscopic methods based on 1D- and 2D-NMR. Isolation of 7 represents a key step toward a better understanding of the biogenesis of this class of meroterpenoids. Among the merodite...

  17. Memory, Citizenship and the Public Sphere in the Development of the Recent Past in the Chilean Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Graciela Rubio

    2013-01-01

    The research gets into to the studies of historical memory by performing a hermeneutic analysis of the discourse of memory and history narratives that the Chilean public discussion has used to develop its dictatorial recent past in the period 1991-2004. Press sources, editorial inserts, interviews with the social and political actors and specially Truth and Reconciliation Reports were reviewed. We reflect on the current oligarchic long and short term frames made for the representation of t...

  18. Philodryas chamissonis (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) preys on the arboreal marsupial Dromiciops gliroides (Mammalia: Microbiotheria: Microbiotheriidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Leal, S; Ardiles, K; Figueroa, R A; González-Acuña, D

    2013-02-01

    Philodryas chamissonis, the Chilean long-tailed snake, is a diurnal predator mainly of Liolaemus lizards, but also of amphibians, birds, rodents and juvenile rabbits. Dromiciops gliroides (Colocolo opossum) is an arboreal marsupial endemic of temperate rainforest of southern South America. Little information is available about this marsupial's biology and ecology. Here we report the predation of one Colocolo opossum by an adult female P. chamissonis in a mixed Nothofagus forest, composed mainly by N. dombeyi, N. glauca and N. alpina trees, in the "Huemules de Niblinto" National Reserve, Nevados de Chillán, Chile. Since these two species have different activity and habitat use patterns, we discuss how this encounter may have occurred. Although it could just have been an opportunistic event, this finding provides insights into the different components of food chains in forest ecosystems of Chile. PMID:23644784

  19. National Forest Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme shows the USFS national forest boundaries in the state. This data was acquired from the GIS coordinators at both the Chippewa National Forest and the...

  20. Forest Stand Age

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Source data for forest stand age were obtained from the USDA Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) DataMart and were projected for future scenarios based on selected...

  1. European mixed forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bravo-Oviedo, Andres; Pretzsch, Hans; Ammer, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    Methods: Review of existent definitions of mixed forests based and literature review encompassing dynamics, management and economic valuation of mixed forests. Main results: A mixed forest is defined as a forest unit, excluding linear formations, where at least two tree species coexist at any...... for specific objectives. A variety of structures and patterns of mixtures can occur, and the interactions between the component species and their relative proportions may change over time. The research perspectives identified are (i) species interactions and responses to hazards, (ii) the concept of...... maximum density in mixed forests, (iii) conversion of monocultures to mixed-species forest and (iv) economic valuation of ecosystem services provided by mixed forests. Research highlights: The definition is considered a high-level one which encompasses previous attempts to define mixed forests. Current...

  2. 2 × 2 achievement goals profilEs in chilean CompetiTIve and recreational athletes: a first look

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lochbaum Marc R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: was to examine the 2 × 2 achievement goal profiles of Chilean young adults regularly participating in competitive and recreational sport. Materials: participants were 108 female and 132 males who were recruited from the Valparaiso and Viña del Mar areas of Chile. Participants completed a valid and reliable measure of the 2 × 2 achievement goals referenced to sport participation. Results: indicated that the entire sample significantly ( p < .05 and very meaningfully (Hedges’ g range 1.13 - 2.91 endorsed the mastery-approach goal more so than the other three achievement goals. Male participants significantly ( p < .05 endorsed both approach goals and the mastery goal contrast more so than the female participants. These differences approached medium in meaningfulness (Hedges’ g range .40 - .46. Significant differences did not exist between competitive and recreational athletes on any of the achievement goals or goal contrasts. Confirming the lack of significant differences were the computed small to negligible in magnitude effect sizes. Conclusions: the present data were a first look into profiling sport participants on the 2 × 2 achievement goals in Chile. Given this sample of Chilean participants endorsed the performance goals far less than found in the sport psychology 2 × 2 achievement goal literature, more research is needed before these results are generalized to Chilean sport participants. Future research must also examine the relationships of antecedents and consequences to the 2 × 2 achievement goals to advance sport psychology in Chile.

  3. Dipterocarpaceae: forest fires and forest recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priadjati, A.

    2002-01-01

    One of the serious problems Indonesia is facing today is deforestation. Forests have been playing a very important role in Indonesia as the main natural resources for the economic growth of the country. Large areas of tropical forests, worldwide considered to be among the richest in p

  4. Vital forest graphics

    OpenAIRE

    Achard, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of the global trends in forest cover. It looks specifically at the four largest forest ecosystems and analyzes the trends and challenges in their conservation and management. It examines some of the key drivers behind forest loss, including the increasing demand for commodities and energy. Finally, it reviews some of the best practices for sustainable management of forest, including regulatory regimes, participatory management and economic incentives.--Pu...

  5. Forest edge development

    OpenAIRE

    Wiström, Björn

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates design guidelines and management systems for the development of stationary forest edges with a graded profile in infrastructure and urban environments. The spatial restriction for the edge to move forward caused by human land use counteracts the natural dynamics and development patterns of graded forest edges. However graded forest edges with successively increasing height from the periphery to the interior of the forest edge are often seen as ideal as they supports ...

  6. Biochar and Forest Ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Charcoal is a common component temperate forest soils. It results from wildfire events that frequently disturb the structure and function of vegetation and soils. Recent interest in applying biochar (artificially produced charcoal) to forest ecosystems raises both opportunities and concerns. The greatest opportunity for biochar application to forest soils is through the utilization of continuously produced and overabundant forest biomass for the production of bioenergy. Biochar is a co...

  7. Forest report 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This forest condition report of Hessen (Germany) includes the following topics: forest condition survey for all tree species, weather and climate, the impact of spring drought on soil water balance and growth, drought stress risk of beech in Hessen, insects and fungi, Forestry Environment Monitoring, infiltrated substances, trends in the soil solution of forest ecosystems, soil chemistry and rooting in deeper soil layers.

  8. High genetic diversity in a small population: the case of Chilean blue whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Florez, Juan P; Hucke-Gaete, Rodrigo; Rosenbaum, Howard; Figueroa, Christian C

    2014-04-01

    It is generally assumed that species with low population sizes have lower genetic diversities than larger populations and vice versa. However, this would not be the case for long-lived species with long generation times, and which populations have declined due to anthropogenic effects, such as the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus). This species was intensively decimated globally to near extinction during the 20th century. Along the Chilean coast, it is estimated that at least 4288 blue whales were hunted from an apparently pre-exploitation population size (k) of a maximum of 6200 individuals (Southeastern Pacific). Thus, here, we describe the mtDNA (control region) and nDNA (microsatellites) diversities of the Chilean blue whale aggregation site in order to verify the expectation of low genetic diversity in small populations. We then compare our findings with other blue whale aggregations in the Southern Hemisphere. Interestingly, although the estimated population size is small compared with the pre-whaling era, there is still considerable genetic diversity, even after the population crash, both in mitochondrial (N = 46) and nuclear (N = 52) markers (Hd = 0.890 and Ho = 0.692, respectively). Our results suggest that this diversity could be a consequence of the long generation times and the relatively short period of time elapsed since the end of whaling, which has been observed in other heavily-exploited whale populations. The genetic variability of blue whales on their southern Chile feeding grounds was similar to that found in other Southern Hemisphere blue whale feeding grounds. Our phylogenetic analysis of mtDNA haplotypes does not show extensive differentiation of populations among Southern Hemisphere blue whale feeding grounds. The present study suggests that although levels of genetic diversity are frequently used as estimators of population health, these parameters depend on the biology of the species and should be taken into account in a

  9. February 27, 2010 Chilean Tsunami in Pacific and its Arrival to North East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytsev, Andrey; Pelinovsky, EfiM.; Yalciner, Ahmet C.; Ozer, Ceren; Chernov, Anton; Kostenko, Irina; Shevchenko, Georgy

    2010-05-01

    The outskirts of the fault plane broken by the strong earthquake on February 27, 2010 in Chili with a magnitude 8.8 at the 35km depth of 35.909°S, 72.733°W coordinates generated a moderate size tsunami. The initial amplitude of the tsunami source is not so high because of the major area of the plane was at land. The tsunami waves propagated far distances in South and North directions to East Asia and Wet America coasts. The waves are also recorded by several gauges in Pacific during its propagation and arrival to coastal areas. The recorded and observed amplitudes of tsunami waves are important for the potential effects with the threatening amplitudes. The event also showed that a moderate size tsunami can be effective even if it propagates far distances in any ocean or a marginal sea. The far east coasts of Russia at North East Asia (Sakhalin, Kuriles, Kamchatka) are one of the important source (i.e. November 15, 2006, Kuril Island Tsunami) and target (i.e. February, 27, 2010 Chilean tsunami) areas of the Pacific tsunamis. Many efforts have been spent for establishment of the monitoring system and assessment of tsunamis and development of the mitigation strategies against tsunamis and other hazards in the region. Development of the computer technologies provided the advances in data collection, transfer, and processing. Furthermore it also contributed new developments in computational tools and made the computer modeling to be an efficient tool in tsunami warning systems. In this study the tsunami numerical model NAMI DANCE Nested version is used. NAMI-DANCE solves Nonlinear form of Long Wave (Shallow water) equations (with or without dispersion) using finite difference model in nested grid domains from the source to target areas in multiprocessor hardware environment. It is applied to 2010 Chilean tsunami and its propagation and coastal behavior at far distances near Sakhalin, Kuril and Kamchatka coasts. The main tide gauge records used in this study are from

  10. Slow-slip events hiding in low-coupled areas of the Chilean subduction zone ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Métois, Marianne; Vigny, Christophe; Socquet, Anne

    2014-05-01

    The recent expansion of dense GPS networks over plate boundaries allows for remarkably precise mapping of interseismic coupling along active faults. The coupling coefficient is linked to the ratio between slipping velocity on the fault during the interseismic period and the long-term plates velocity. The coupling coefficient is a phenomenological parameter representing the kinematic state of the system, but a physical quantitative description of that parameter is needed for seismic hazard assessment. In other words, which amount of coupling or decoupling is needed to allow for earthquake to nucleate, propagate or stop, would be of great help to build rupture scenarios. Here, we investigate the link between coupling and present-day seismicity over the Chilean subduction zone. We combine recent GPS data acquired over the 2000 km long margin (38-18°S) with older data acquired at continental scale to get a nearly continuous picture of the interseismic coupling variations on the interface. We identify at least six zones where the coupling decreases dramatically, dividing individual highly coupled segments. These low-coupled areas often behave as barriers to past megathrust ruptures and experience high rates of seismicity during the interseismic period, including swarm-like sequences. We suggest that in these regions, the subduction interface is a patchwork of small velocity-weakening patches surrounded by velocity-strengthening material that would slide during the interseimic period. This relationship is consistent with observations over other subduction zones, notably in Ecuador where shallow aseismic transients have been observed near low coupled swarm-prone areas (Vallée et al. 2013). However for now, no transient event has been recorded yet all over the Chilean megathrust, preventing clear identification of creeping portions of the interface. Here, we test the hypothesis supposing that, similar to the Ecuador 2010 swarm episode, significant slow-slip events

  11. Adaptation of the spiders to the environment: the case of some Chilean species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canals, Mauricio; Veloso, Claudio; Solís, Rigoberto

    2015-01-01

    Spiders are small arthropods that have colonized terrestrial environments. These impose three main problems: (i) terrestrial habitats have large fluctuations in temperature and humidity; (ii) the internal concentration of water is higher than the external environment in spiders, which exposes them continually to water loss; and (iii) their small body size determines a large surface/volume ratio, affecting energy exchange and influencing the life strategy. In this review we focus on body design, energetic, thermal selection, and water balance characteristics of some spider species present in Chile and correlate our results with ecological and behavioral information. Preferred temperatures and critical temperatures of Chilean spiders vary among species and individuals and may be adjusted by phenotypic plasticity. For example in the mygalomorph high-altitude spider Paraphysa parvula the preferred temperature is similar to that of the lowland spider Grammostola rosea; but while P. parvula shows phenotypic plasticity, G. rosea does not. The araneomorph spiders Loxosceles laeta and Scytodes globula have greater daily variations in preferred temperatures at twilight and during the night, which are set to the nocturnal activity rhythms of these species. They also present acclimation of the minimum critical temperatures. Dysdera crocata has a low preferred temperature adjusted to its favorite prey, the woodlouse. Spider metabolic rate is low compared to other arthropods, which may be associated with its sit and wait predatory strategy particularly in primitive hunter and weavers. In mygalomorph spiders the respiratory system is highly optimized with high oxygen conductance, for example G. rosea needs only a difference of 0.12–0.16 kPa in the oxygen partial pressure across the air-hemolymph barrier to satisfy its resting oxygen consumption demands. Water loss is a significant stress for spiders. Paraphysa parvula shows an evaporative water loss 10 times more than usual

  12. Hyperspectral sensing of forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, David G.; Dyk, Andrew; Chen, Hao; Hobart, Geordie; Niemann, K. Olaf; Richardson, Ash

    2007-11-01

    Canada contains 10% of the world's forests covering an area of 418 million hectares. The sustainable management of these forest resources has become increasingly complex. Hyperspectral remote sensing can provide a wealth of new and improved information products to resource managers to make more informed decisions. Research in this area has demonstrated that hyperspectral remote sensing can be used to create more accurate products for forest inventory, forest health, foliar biochemistry, biomass, and aboveground carbon than are currently available. This paper surveys recent methods and results in hyperspectral sensing of forests and describes space initiatives for hyperspectral sensing.

  13. The forest Gribskov, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overballe-Petersen, Mette V; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Buttenschøn, Rita M.; Bradshaw, Richard H.W.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of forest history is crucial for understanding the processes, structures, functions and current status of forest ecosystems. An enhanced understanding of the long history of disturbance factors affecting forest development and thereby the present state of the forest is particularly...... valuable when working with forest management, conservation and restoration. Integrating the legacies of past disturbances-natural as well as anthropogenic-into conservation and management strategies is likely to favour natural values and ecosystem services. A case-study in Gribskov, Denmark, using...

  14. Modeling the forest transition: forest scarcity and ecosystem service hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Akiko; Rudel, Thomas K

    2007-10-01

    An historical generalization about forest cover change in which rapid deforestation gives way over time to forest restoration is called "the forest transition." Prior research on the forest transition leaves three important questions unanswered: (1) How does forest loss influence an individual landowner's incentives to reforest? (2) How does the forest recovery rate affect the likelihood of forest transition? (3) What happens after the forest transition occurs? The purpose of this paper is to develop a minimum model of the forest transition to answer these questions. We assume that deforestation caused by landowners' decisions and forest regeneration initiated by agricultural abandonment have aggregated effects that characterize entire landscapes. These effects include feedback mechanisms called the "forest scarcity" and "ecosystem service" hypotheses. In the forest scarcity hypothesis, forest losses make forest products scarcer, which increases the economic value of forests. In the ecosystem service hypothesis, the environmental degradation that accompanies the loss of forests causes the value of ecosystem services provided by forests to decline. We examined the impact of each mechanism on the likelihood of forest transition through an investigation of the equilibrium and stability of landscape dynamics. We found that the forest transition occurs only when landowners employ a low rate of future discounting. After the forest transition, regenerated forests are protected in a sustainable way if forests regenerate slowly. When forests regenerate rapidly, the forest scarcity hypothesis expects instability in which cycles of large-scale deforestation followed by forest regeneration repeatedly characterize the landscape. In contrast, the ecosystem service hypothesis predicts a catastrophic shift from a forested to an abandoned landscape when the amount of deforestation exceeds the critical level, which can lead to a resource degrading poverty trap. These findings imply

  15. Human-Forest Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Eva; Dauksta, D.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between human beings and forests has been important for the development of society. It is based on various productive, ecological, social and cultural functions of forests. The cultural functions, including the spiritual and symbolic role of forests, are often not addressed with...... the same attention as the other functions. The aim of this paper is to put a stronger emphasis on the fact that the acknowledgement of cultural bonds is needed in the discussion of sustainable development. Forest should not only be considered as a technical means to solve environmental and economic...... problems. To achieve a deeper understanding of the dependency of society on forests, it is necessary to recognise the role of forests in our consciousness of being human. Giving a historical overview about the cultural bonds between people and forests, the first part of the paper puts focus on non...

  16. Conceptualizing Forest Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazoul, Jaboury; Burivalova, Zuzana; Garcia-Ulloa, John; King, Lisa A

    2015-10-01

    Forest degradation is a global environmental issue, but its definition is problematic. Difficulties include choosing appropriate reference states, timescales, thresholds, and forest values. We dispense with many such ambiguities by interpreting forest degradation through the frame of ecological resilience, and with reference to forest dynamics. Specifically, we define forest degradation as a state of anthropogenically induced arrested succession, where ecological processes that underlie forest dynamics are diminished or severely constrained. Metrics of degradation might include those that reflect ecological processes shaping community dynamics, notably the regeneration of plant species. Arrested succession implies that management intervention is necessary to recover successional trajectories. Such a definition can be applied to any forest ecosystem, and can also be extended to other ecosystems. PMID:26411619

  17. The reliability of morphometric discriminant functions in determining the sex of Chilean flamingos Phoenicopterus chilensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego MONTALTI et al

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Monomorphic birds cannot be sexed visually and discriminant functions on the basis of external morphological variations are frequently used. Our objective was to evaluate the reliability of sex classification functions created from structural measurements of Chilean flamingos Phoenicopterus chilensis museum skins for the gender assignment of live birds. Five measurements were used to develop four discriminant functions: culmen, bill height and width, tarsus length and middle toe claw. The functions were tested on a sample of live flamingos from a zoo. The best classification for museum flamingos was given by a function using tarsus length, bill width and middle toe claw (97%. However, this function did not give the best classification for the zoo-based flamingos (81% which had the best sex assignment by a function including measurements of tarsus, culmen and bill height and width (85%. This shows that a function giving good results in the sample from which it originated may not be as good when applied to another group of animals. Our study emphasizes the need for assessing the accuracy of a function by testing it with other methods to ensure its suitability when being applied [Current Zoology 59 (6: 851–855, 2012].

  18. Chilenopeptins A and B, Peptaibols from the Chilean Sepedonium aff. chalcipori KSH 883.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Alexander; Laub, Annegret; Wendt, Lucile; Porzel, Andrea; Schmidt, Jürgen; Palfner, Götz; Becerra, José; Krüger, Dirk; Stadler, Marc; Wessjohann, Ludger; Westermann, Bernhard; Arnold, Norbert

    2016-04-22

    The Chilean Sepedonium aff. chalcipori strain KSH 883, isolated from the endemic Boletus loyo Philippi, was studied in a polythetic approach based on chemical, molecular, and biological data. A taxonomic study of the strain using molecular data of the ITS, EF1-α, and RPB2 barcoding genes confirmed the position of the isolated strain within the S. chalcipori clade, but also suggested the separation of this clade into three different species. Two new linear 15-residue peptaibols, named chilenopeptins A (1) and B (2), together with the known peptaibols tylopeptins A (3) and B (4) were isolated from the semisolid culture of strain KSH 883. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of HRESIMS(n) experiments in conjunction with comprehensive 1D and 2D NMR analysis. Thus, the sequence of chilenopeptin A (1) was identified as Ac-Aib(1)-Ser(2)-Trp(3)-Aib(4)-Pro(5)-Leu(6)-Aib(7)-Aib(8)-Gln(9)-Aib(10)-Aib(11)-Gln(12)-Aib(13)-Leu(14)-Pheol(15), while chilenopeptin B (2) differs from 1 by the replacement of Trp(3) by Phe(3). Additionally, the total synthesis of 1 and 2 was accomplished by a solid-phase approach, confirming the absolute configuration of all chiral amino acids as l. Both the chilenopeptins (1 and 2) and tylopeptins (3 and 4) were evaluated for their potential to inhibit the growth of phytopathogenic organisms. PMID:26953507

  19. Crustal and Slab Related Seismicity in the Northern Chilean Coastal Cordillera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, N. W.; Kummerow, J.; Wigger, P.; Shapiro, S. A.; Salazar, P.

    2012-04-01

    The focus of this study is the high- resolution localization of more than 800 earthquakes in the Northern Chilean Salar Grande region at about 21°S within the Andean Costal Cordillera. The events have been recorded by a temporary local network in 2010. We find, that seismicity is not only related to the Nazca slab but also occurs widely scattered within the overlying continental crust. Our highly resolved locations with typical uncertainties below 200 meters image two distinct seismogenic zones at the top and deeper within the mantle of the Nazca slab, as well as the prominent Atacama Fault Zone. The latter could eventually penetrate the entire crust, possibly joining the subduction interface at a depth of about 40 kilometers. In our further investigation, we have applied a waveform cross-correlation approach by which we were able to identify clusters of similar events with respect to location and source mechanism. Within these clusters we took advantage of waveform similarity to further decrease location uncertainties. Most of the crustal seismicity clusters locate on a subvertical planar structure beneath the surface traces of the Atacama Fault Zone, which extends from close to the surface down to the slab. This could indicate that seismicity in the forearc is not only caused by subduction- related deformation, but also by fluid processes. The irregular spatial distribution of the Nazca slab related clusters may be a consequence of topographic variations within the downgoing slab.

  20. Interactions Between the Chilean Recluse Spider (Araneae: Sicariidae) and an Araneophagic Spitting Spider (Araneae: Scytodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canals, Mauricio; Arriagada, Nicolás; Solís, Rigoberto

    2015-03-01

    In Chile, all necrotic arachnidism is attributed to the Chilean recluse spider, Loxosceles laeta Nicolet, a species that shares the microenvironmental habitats with the spitting spider Scytodes globula Nicolet. The latter species has been proposed as a potential predator of L. laeta. For this research, we studied the interaction between both species during individual encounters to assess the possibility of population regulation of L. laeta cohorts exposed to this potential predator. We found that in most encounters S. globula prevailed. Also, S. globula preys on spiderlings of L. laeta, with a population effect on cohorts of this species. These findings suggest that S. globula may be influencing L. laeta populations in central Chile. The population regulation of L. laeta by predation would be important because this species, in the absence of predators, has a high reproductive rate, and it can maintain populations of large size. However according to our results, although S. globula may aid in the reduction of both spiderling and adult L. laeta populations, and perhaps other Loxosceles species, it is insufficient for biological control of Loxosceles species. Its presence together with other control measures such as hygiene of the rooms can help to decrease loxoscelism incidence. PMID:26336293

  1. Postnatal Growth Patterns in a Chilean Cohort: The Role of SES and Family Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Kang Sim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study examined how family environmental characteristics served as mediators in the relationship between socioeconomic conditions and infant growth in a cohort of Chilean infants. Methods. We studied 999 infants, born between 1991 and 1996, from a longitudinal cohort which began as an iron deficiency anemia preventive trial. SES (Graffar Index, the Life Experiences Survey, and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME were assessed in infancy. Using path analysis, we assessed the relationships between the social factors, home environment, and infant growth. Results. During the first year, weight and length gain averaged 540 grams/month and 6.5 cm/month, respectively. In the path analysis model for weight gain, higher SES and a better physical environment were positively related to higher maternal warmth, which in turn was associated with higher average weight gain. Higher SES was directly related to higher average length gain. Conclusions. In our cohort, a direct relationship between SES and length gain developed during infancy. Higher SES was indirectly related to infant weight gain through the home environment and maternal warmth. As the fastest growing infants are at risk for later obesity, new strategies are needed to encourage optimal rather than maximal growth.

  2. Becoming Reflective and Inquiring Teachers: Collaborative Action Research for In-service Chilean Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Pellerin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the outcomes of a case study that engaged Chilean in-service teachers in systematic action research (AR as a means of improving their pedagogical practice and effecting changes in their educational context. The study involved six in-service teachers from a region of Chile and two university researchers. The findings show that knowledge of systematic AR provided the teachers with the necessary means to engage in a critical reflection and inquiry process regarding their own practice. The teacher participants also perceived the self-reflective spiral of reflection and action to be crucial in establishing new habits of inquiry and reflection about their own pedagogical actions. The findings support earlier studies (e.g., Price & Valli, 2005; Steven & Kitchen, 2005, 2011 concerning the necessity of including knowledge of systematic AR in teacher preparation programs in order to foster strong habits of inquiry and reflection among preservice teachers. Finally, the study suggests that participation in a systematic reflection and inquiry process contributes to empowering in-service teachers to become agents of pedagogical change through their own actions.

  3. Phylogeography in Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1848) along Two Biogeographical Provinces in the Chilean Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Wevar, Claudio A; Salinas, Pilar; Hüne, Mathias; Segovia, Nicolás I; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Astorga, Marcela; Cañete, Juan I; Poulin, Elie

    2015-01-01

    Major geologic and climatic changes during the Quaternary exerted a major role in shaping past and contemporary distribution of genetic diversity and structure of aquatic organisms in southern South America. In fact, the northern glacial limit along the Pacific coast, an area of major environmental changes in terms of topography, currents, and water salinity, represents a major biogeographic transition for marine and freshwater species. We used mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop) to investigate the consequences of Quaternary glacial cycles over the pattern of genetic diversity and structure of G. maculatus (Pisces: Galaxiidae) along two biogeographical provinces in the Chilean coast. Extreme levels of genetic diversity and strong phylogeographic structure characterize the species suggesting a low amount of influence of the last glacial cycle over its demography. However, we recognized contrasting patterns of genetic diversity and structure between main biogeographical areas here analyzed. Along the Intermediate Area (38°-41° S) each estuarine population constitutes a different unit. In contrast, Magellanic populations (43°-53° S) exhibited low levels of genetic differentiation. Contrasting patterns of genetic diversity and structure recorded in the species between the analyzed biogeographic areas are consistent with the marked differences in abiotic factors (i.e., different coastal configurations, Quaternary glacial histories, and oceanographic regimes) and to inherent characteristics of the species (i.e., salt-tolerance, physiology, and reproductive behavior). PMID:26161896

  4. Postnatal Growth Patterns in a Chilean Cohort: The Role of SES and Family Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang Sim, D E; Cappiello, M; Castillo, M; Lozoff, B; Martinez, S; Blanco, E; Gahagan, S

    2012-01-01

    Objective. This study examined how family environmental characteristics served as mediators in the relationship between socioeconomic conditions and infant growth in a cohort of Chilean infants. Methods. We studied 999 infants, born between 1991 and 1996, from a longitudinal cohort which began as an iron deficiency anemia preventive trial. SES (Graffar Index), the Life Experiences Survey, and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) were assessed in infancy. Using path analysis, we assessed the relationships between the social factors, home environment, and infant growth. Results. During the first year, weight and length gain averaged 540 grams/month and 6.5 cm/month, respectively. In the path analysis model for weight gain, higher SES and a better physical environment were positively related to higher maternal warmth, which in turn was associated with higher average weight gain. Higher SES was directly related to higher average length gain. Conclusions. In our cohort, a direct relationship between SES and length gain developed during infancy. Higher SES was indirectly related to infant weight gain through the home environment and maternal warmth. As the fastest growing infants are at risk for later obesity, new strategies are needed to encourage optimal rather than maximal growth. PMID:22666275

  5. The absence of stewardship in the Chilean health authority after the 2004 health reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Herrera

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Stewardship is the most important political function of a health system. It is a government responsibility carried out by the health authority. Among other dimensions, it is also a meta-function that includes conduction and regulation. The Health Authority and Management Act, which came about from the health reform of 2004, separated the functions of service provision and stewardship with the aim of strengthening the role of the health authority. However, the current structure of the health system contains overlapping functions between the different entities that leads to lack of coordination and inconsistencies, and a greater weight on individual health actions at the expense of collective ones. Consequently, a properly funded national health strategy to improve the health of the population is missing. Additionally, the components of citizen participation and governance are weak. It is necessary, therefore, to revisit the Chilean health structure in order to develop one that truly enables the exercise of the health authority’s stewardship role

  6. Polyphenols from Chilean Propolis and Pinocembrin Reduce MMP-9 Gene Expression and Activity in Activated Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Nicolás; Cuevas, Alejandro; Cavalcante, Marcela F; Dörr, Felipe A; Saavedra, Kathleen; Zambrano, Tomás; Abdalla, Dulcineia S P; Salazar, Luis A

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols from diverse sources have shown anti-inflammatory activity. In the context of atherosclerosis, macrophages play important roles including matrix metalloproteinases synthesis involved in degradation of matrix extracellular components affecting the atherosclerotic plaque stability. We prepared a propolis extract and pinocembrin in ethanol solution. Propolis extract was chemically characterized using LC-MS. The effect of treatments on gene expression and proteolytic activity was measured in vitro using murine macrophages activated with LPS. Cellular toxicity associated with both treatments and the vehicle was determined using MTT and apoptosis/necrosis detection assays. MMP-9 gene expression and proteolytic activity were measured using qPCR and zymography, respectively. Thirty-two compounds were identified in the propolis extract, including pinocembrin among its major components. Treatment with either ethanolic extract of propolis or pinocembrin inhibits MMP-9 gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, an inhibitory effect was observed in proteolytic activity. However, the effect showed by ethanolic extract of propolis was higher than the effect of pinocembrin, suggesting that MMP-9 inhibition results from a joint contribution between the components of the extract. These data suggest a potential role of polyphenols from Chilean propolis in the control of extracellular matrix degradation in atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:27119082

  7. Understanding Attitudes and Pro-Environmental Behaviors in a Chilean Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás C. Bronfman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection and restoration are some of the major challenges faced by our society. To address this problem, it is fundamental to understand pro-environmental behaviors in the population, as well as the factors that determine them. There are, however, very few studies conducted in Latin America that are focused in understanding the environmental behavior of its citizens. The main goal of this research was to study the environmental behaviors of a Chilean community and identify the factors that determine them. To that end, a diverse set of environmental behaviors (power and water conservation, environmentally-aware consumer behavior, biodiversity protection, rational automobile use and ecological waste management and sociodemographic and attitudinal factors—based on the VBN model—were evaluated. Survey data was obtained from a statistically representative sample (N = 1537 in Santiago, Chile. Our results suggest that several participants displayed tendencies that favor more responsible environmental behaviors, with high environmental concern, and demonstrating their ample awareness of the consequences of failing to protect the environment. Nevertheless, the highest average scores of environmental behavior were related to low cost behaviors and those that imposed the fewest behavioral restrictions. In global terms, we concluded that the youngest subjects in the lowest socioeconomic group obtained the lowest scores across the pro-environmental behavior spectrum.

  8. Cold tolerance evaluation in Chilean rice genotypes at the germination stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Donoso Ñanculao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Low temperature is the most important abiotic stress affecting rice (Oryza sativa L. yield in Chile. Rice in Chile is usually planted when the minimum air temperatures are below 12 °C. This temperature is lower than the optimum needed for normal rice germination. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate cold tolerance in 20 experimental lines from the Rice Breeding Program of the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, Chile, at the germination stage. Coleoptile length reduction (CRED, coleoptile length after cold treatment (CLEN, coleoptile length recovery (CREC, and coleoptile regrowth (CREG were evaluated at 13 °C for 4 d using 'Diamante-INIA' as the cold-tolerant control. To find genotypes with cold tolerance (low CRED value and high CLEN, CREC, and CREG values, genotypes were ranked, a biplot of principal components, and cluster analysis were performed. No differences were found among genotypes in the ranking based on CREC value so this trait was not considered. Analysis showed that only three experimental lines had cold tolerance similar to that of 'Diamante-INIA'; all other experimental lines exhibited intermediate to low cold tolerance. These results showed low cold tolerance of some Chilean genotypes at the germination stage, thus confirming the need to evaluate the rest of the germplasm from the Rice Breeding Program.

  9. The Impact of a Carbon Tax on the Chilean Electricity Generation Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Benavides

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse the economy-wide implications of a carbon tax applied on the Chilean electricity generation sector. In order to analyse the macroeconomic impacts, both an energy sectorial model and a Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium model have been used. During the year 2014 a carbon tax of 5 US$/tCO2e was approved in Chile. This tax and its increases (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 US$/tCO2e are evaluated in this article. The results show that the effectiveness of this policy depends on some variables which are not controlled by policy makers, for example, non-conventional renewable energy investment cost projections, natural gas prices, and the feasibility of exploiting hydroelectric resources. For a carbon tax of 20 US$/tCO2e, the average annual emission reduction would be between 1.1 and 9.1 million tCO2e. However, the price of the electricity would increase between 8.3 and 9.6 US$/MWh. This price shock would decrease the annual GDP growth rate by a maximum amount of 0.13%. This article compares this energy policy with others such as the introduction of non-conventional renewable energy sources and a sectorial cap. The results show that the same global greenhouse gas (GHG emission reduction can be obtained with these policies, but the impact on the electricity price and GDP are lower than that of the carbon tax.

  10. Strategic plan for human resource management at the Chilean Commission for Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to retirements and to a policy of no replacement of the retired workforce, the Chilean Commission for Nuclear Energy (CCNE) has had a gradual reduction of its personnel. The current average age of employees is about 45 years and is rapidly increasing. It is estimated that up to 80 CCNE employees (27%) will retire by 2015. In some specific areas of expertise, the retirement will be up to 55%. These conditions will adversely affect the execution of some institutional activities. Some interim actions to preserve or maintain knowledge have been developed and supported through a government programme in which a matrix map of institutional risk has been produced and a quality management system based on ISO 9001/2000 has been implemented. A future step is to develop a human resource management plan as a part of the CCNE Strategic Plan. This plan will provide for the implementation of the best practices and policies with regard to hiring, retention and retirement of essential personnel so as to maintain current CCNE capabilities and to implement a knowledge management system that would facilitate the identification, harvesting, preservation and transfer of knowledge produced at the CCNE. (author)

  11. Microbial Life in a Fjord: Metagenomic Analysis of a Microbial Mat in Chilean Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugalde, Juan A.; Gallardo, Maria J.; Belmar, Camila; Muñoz, Práxedes; Ruiz-Tagle, Nathaly; Ferrada-Fuentes, Sandra; Espinoza, Carola; Allen, Eric E.; Gallardo, Victor A.

    2013-01-01

    The current study describes the taxonomic and functional composition of metagenomic sequences obtained from a filamentous microbial mat isolated from the Comau fjord, located in the northernmost part of the Chilean Patagonia. The taxonomic composition of the microbial community showed a high proportion of members of the Gammaproteobacteria, including a high number of sequences that were recruited to the genomes of Moritella marina MP-1 and Colwelliapsycherythraea 34H, suggesting the presence of populations related to these two psychrophilic bacterial species. Functional analysis of the community indicated a high proportion of genes coding for the transport and metabolism of amino acids, as well as in energy production. Among the energy production functions, we found protein-coding genes for sulfate and nitrate reduction, both processes associated with Gammaproteobacteria-related sequences. This report provides the first examination of the taxonomic composition and genetic diversity associated with these conspicuous microbial mat communities and provides a framework for future microbial studies in the Comau fjord. PMID:24015199

  12. Phylogeography in Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1848) along Two Biogeographical Provinces in the Chilean Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Wevar, Claudio A.; Salinas, Pilar; Hüne, Mathias; Segovia, Nicolás I.; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Astorga, Marcela; Cañete, Juan I.; Poulin, Elie

    2015-01-01

    Major geologic and climatic changes during the Quaternary exerted a major role in shaping past and contemporary distribution of genetic diversity and structure of aquatic organisms in southern South America. In fact, the northern glacial limit along the Pacific coast, an area of major environmental changes in terms of topography, currents, and water salinity, represents a major biogeographic transition for marine and freshwater species. We used mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop) to investigate the consequences of Quaternary glacial cycles over the pattern of genetic diversity and structure of G. maculatus (Pisces: Galaxiidae) along two biogeographical provinces in the Chilean coast. Extreme levels of genetic diversity and strong phylogeographic structure characterize the species suggesting a low amount of influence of the last glacial cycle over its demography. However, we recognized contrasting patterns of genetic diversity and structure between main biogeographical areas here analyzed. Along the Intermediate Area (38°–41° S) each estuarine population constitutes a different unit. In contrast, Magellanic populations (43°–53° S) exhibited low levels of genetic differentiation. Contrasting patterns of genetic diversity and structure recorded in the species between the analyzed biogeographic areas are consistent with the marked differences in abiotic factors (i.e., different coastal configurations, Quaternary glacial histories, and oceanographic regimes) and to inherent characteristics of the species (i.e., salt-tolerance, physiology, and reproductive behavior). PMID:26161896

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome of Chilean sea urchin: Loxechinus albus (Camarodonta, Parechinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Gila; Lee, Youn-Ho

    2015-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Chilean sea urchin Loxechinus albus, the single species of the genus Loxechinus, is determined. The circular mitogenome is 15,709 bp in length containing 2 rRNA, 22 tRNA and 13 protein coding genes as well as the control region. The gene order is identical to those of described Camarodonta species. There are 24 bp gene overlaps at 6 locations and 124 bp intergenic spacers at 17 boundaries. The nucleotide composition of the genome is 31.2% A, 22.3% C, 29.7% T, and 16.8% G. The A+T bias (60.9%) is similar to that of P. lividus (60.3%) but slightly higher than those of strongylocentrotid species (58.8-59.8%). The mitogenome sequence of L. albus will provide valuable information on the phylogeny and evolution of the genus Loxechinus in relation to other Camarodonta sea urchins. PMID:24409862

  14. A case study of the elder care functions of a Chilean non-governmental organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Javier; Angel, Ronald J; Angel, Jacqueline L

    2007-05-01

    This paper examines the history and role of a faith-based Chilean nonprofit organization, Hogar de Cristo (Christ's Home), in providing elderly care in the context of recent economic and sociopolitical changes in the country. Chile has been at the forefront of market-based reforms in the delivery of social services and its experience provides insights into the intersecting roles of the state, the market, and the non-governmental sector in addressing basic human needs. Based on in-depth interviews, archival data, and field observations, we investigate the institutional, political, and social factors that account for the organization's success. These result from a number of factors including a capacity to adapt to changing client needs, the successful adoption of an entrepreneurial style of management and outreach, and the building of trust through effective public relations. Although conditions unique to the situation of this faith-based organization in a highly Catholic country may account for its success, the experience of Hogar de Cristo provides useful lessons for the future of elder care policy in the Americas. PMID:17376575

  15. Towards a cleaner production in developing countries: a case study in a Chilean tannery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivela, Beatriz; Méndez, Ranón; Bornhardt, Cristian; Vidal, Gladys

    2004-06-01

    A Chilean leather tanning industry (tannery) was studied in terms of input/output (I/O) analysis of beamhouse, tanyard and retanning processes. The physical-chemical characterization of 19 streams were investigated. Streams from the beamhouse process and some streams from the retanning process were found to have high organic contents ranging from 2.5 to 18.1 g COD L(-1). The pH ranged between 3.45 and 12.28. Sulphur was found in most of the streams whereas chromium was detected in two wastewaters from the tanyard and in seven streams from the retanning process. Pollution prevention opportunities were evaluated and an appropriate treatment strategy was proposed. The main emphasis was on determining waste reduction measures that can be easily implemented and are not particularly expensive. Measures for reduction at source were proposed to reduce water and chemicals consumption and wastewater pollution. A so-called S(index) strategy was used to evaluate proposals on segregation and specific treatment of the main chromium- and sulphur-containing wastewaters. It was suggested that some streams may be re-used, but it is necessary to apply anaerobic or aerobic treatment first, depending on their organic load. Solid wastes were also evaluated and a proposal for their reduction and disposal was made. PMID:15253496

  16. Phylogeography in Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1848 along Two Biogeographical Provinces in the Chilean Coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A González-Wevar

    Full Text Available Major geologic and climatic changes during the Quaternary exerted a major role in shaping past and contemporary distribution of genetic diversity and structure of aquatic organisms in southern South America. In fact, the northern glacial limit along the Pacific coast, an area of major environmental changes in terms of topography, currents, and water salinity, represents a major biogeographic transition for marine and freshwater species. We used mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop to investigate the consequences of Quaternary glacial cycles over the pattern of genetic diversity and structure of G. maculatus (Pisces: Galaxiidae along two biogeographical provinces in the Chilean coast. Extreme levels of genetic diversity and strong phylogeographic structure characterize the species suggesting a low amount of influence of the last glacial cycle over its demography. However, we recognized contrasting patterns of genetic diversity and structure between main biogeographical areas here analyzed. Along the Intermediate Area (38°-41° S each estuarine population constitutes a different unit. In contrast, Magellanic populations (43°-53° S exhibited low levels of genetic differentiation. Contrasting patterns of genetic diversity and structure recorded in the species between the analyzed biogeographic areas are consistent with the marked differences in abiotic factors (i.e., different coastal configurations, Quaternary glacial histories, and oceanographic regimes and to inherent characteristics of the species (i.e., salt-tolerance, physiology, and reproductive behavior.

  17. Evaluating a NoSQL Alternative for Chilean Virtual Observatory Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antognini, J.; Araya, M.; Solar, M.; Valenzuela, C.; Lira, F.

    2015-09-01

    Currently, the standards and protocols for data access in the Virtual Observatory architecture (DAL) are generally implemented with relational databases based on SQL. In particular, the Astronomical Data Query Language (ADQL), language used by IVOA to represent queries to VO services, was created to satisfy the different data access protocols, such as Simple Cone Search. ADQL is based in SQL92, and has extra functionality implemented using PgSphere. An emergent alternative to SQL are the so called NoSQL databases, which can be classified in several categories such as Column, Document, Key-Value, Graph, Object, etc.; each one recommended for different scenarios. Within their notable characteristics we can find: schema-free, easy replication support, simple API, Big Data, etc. The Chilean Virtual Observatory (ChiVO) is developing a functional prototype based on the IVOA architecture, with the following relevant factors: Performance, Scalability, Flexibility, Complexity, and Functionality. Currently, it's very difficult to compare these factors, due to a lack of alternatives. The objective of this paper is to compare NoSQL alternatives with SQL through the implementation of a Web API REST that satisfies ChiVO's needs: a SESAME-style name resolver for the data from ALMA. Therefore, we propose a test scenario by configuring a NoSQL database with data from different sources and evaluating the feasibility of creating a Simple Cone Search service and its performance. This comparison will allow to pave the way for the application of Big Data databases in the Virtual Observatory.

  18. The reliability of morphometric discriminant functions in determining the sex of Chilean flamingos Phoenicopterus chilensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diego MONTALTI; Maricel GRA(N)A GRILLI; René E.MARAGLIANO; Guillermo CASSINI

    2012-01-01

    Monomorphic birds cannot be sexed visually and discriminant functions on the basis of external morphological variations are frequently used.Our objective was to evaluate the reliability of sex classification functions created from structural measurements of Chilean flamingos Phoenicopterus chilensis museum skins for the gender assignment of live birds.Five measurements were used to develop four discriminant functions:culmen,bill height and width,tarsus length and middle toe claw.The functions were tested on a sample of live flamingos from a zoo.The best classification for museum flamingos was given by a function using tarsus length,bill width and middle toe claw (97%).However,this function did not give the best classification for the zoo-based flamingos (81%) which had the best sex assignment by a function including measurements of tarsus,culmen and bill height and width (85%).This shows that a function giving good results in the sample from which it originated may not be as good when applied to another group of animals.Our study emphasizes the need for assessing the accuracy of a function by testing it with other methods to ensure its suitability when being applied.

  19. Microbial Terroir in Chilean Valleys: Diversity of Non-conventional Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Carla; Laurie, V. Felipe; Mas, Albert; Romero, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the presence of non-conventional yeast associated with vineyards located between latitudes 30°S and 36°S was examined, including the valleys of Limarí, Casablanca, Maipo, Colchagua, Maule, and Itata. The microbial fingerprinting in each valley was examined based on the specific quantification of yeast of enological interest. Grape–berries were sampled to evaluate the presence and load of non-conventional yeast with enological potential, such as Metschnikowia, Hanseniaspora, Torulaspora, Debaryomyces, Meyerozyma, and Rhodotorula. These yeasts were present in all vineyards studied but with varying loads depending on the valley sampled. No identical fingerprints were observed; however, similarities and differences could be observed among the microbial profiles of each valley. A co-variation in the loads of Metschnikowia and Hanseniaspora with latitude was observed, showing high loads in the Casablanca and Itata valleys, which was coincident with the higher relative humidity or rainfall of those areas. Non-conventional yeasts were also isolated and identified after sequencing molecular markers. Potentially good aromatic properties were also screened among the isolates, resulting in the selection of mostly Metschnikowia and Hanseniaspora isolates. Finally, our results suggest that microbial terroir might be affected by climatic conditions such as relative humidity and rainfall, especially impacting the load of non-conventional yeast. In this study, the microbial fingerprint for yeast in Chilean vineyards is reported for the first time revealing an opportunity to study the contribution of this assembly of microorganisms to the final product. PMID:27242693

  20. Forest Resources of the Wasatch-Cache National Forest

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Renee A; Pope, Reese

    1997-01-01

    This summary of the forest resources of the Wasatch-Cache National Forest is based on a comprehensive inventory of all forested lands in Utah. The inventory was conducted in 1995 by the Interior West Resource Inventory, Monitoring, and Evaluation (IWRIME) Program of the U.S. Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, as part of its National Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) duties.

  1. 78 FR 13621 - Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Forest Service San Bernardino National Forest; California; Omya Sentinel and Butterfield Quarry Expansion Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact.... Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, San Bernardino National Forest (SBNF); and A Mining and...

  2. Forest, trees and agroforestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Foli, Samson; Al Pavel, Muha Abdullah;

    2015-01-01

    Scientific community is concerned to address contemporary issues of food production and conserve tropical forests that support the livelihoods of millions of people. A review of the literature on deforestation, forest utilization, and landscape management for ecosystem services was conducted to...... investigate the effect on peoples’ livelihoods and the sustainability of forests in Bangladesh as a case. Results reveal that the current rate of deforestation is at 0.3% per annum meaning that, with current trends, in two decades little or no forest cover will exist in Bangladesh making the livelihoods of...... millions of people who depend on forest resources extremely vulnerable. We ask; can better implementation of forest policies and landscape management contribute to curb the current level of deforestation? Agroforestry systems in particular are a promising strategy to sustainably deliver food, nutritional...

  3. Forests beyond income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena

    2013-01-01

    Since the last few decades, there is an increasing recognition of the contribution of forest and environmental resources to rural poverty. Using data from two rural villages in Mozambique, this study aimed to assess the contribution of forest and environmental resources to rural poverty incidence......, depth and severity on the one hand, and the dependency of rural poor and non-poor households on forest and environmental resources on the other. The three variants of the FGT poverty index, with and without forest and environmental income, and the relative shares of each livelihood activities to the......-poor sample households respectively. With regard to the contribution of forest and environmental resources to rural poverty, dramatic increase in the incidence, depth and severity of poverty were observed when forest and environmental income was excluded from sample households' total income accounting. These...

  4. Fe-O stable isotope pairs elucidate a high-temperature origin of Chilean iron oxide-apatite deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilenker, Laura D.; Simon, Adam C.; Reich, Martin; Lundstrom, Craig C.; Gajos, Norbert; Bindeman, Ilya; Barra, Fernando; Munizaga, Rodrigo

    2016-03-01

    Iron oxide-apatite (IOA) ore deposits occur globally and can host millions to billions of tons of Fe in addition to economic reserves of other metals such as rare earth elements, which are critical for the expected growth of technology and renewable energy resources. In this study, we pair the stable Fe and O isotope compositions of magnetite samples from several IOA deposits to constrain the source reservoir of these elements in IOAs. Since magnetite constitutes up to 90 modal% of many IOAs, identifying the source of Fe and O within the magnetite may elucidate high-temperature and/or lower-temperature processes responsible for their formation. Here, we focus on the world-class Los Colorados IOA in the Chilean iron belt (CIB), and present data for magnetite from other Fe oxide deposits in the CIB (El Laco, Mariela). We also report Fe and O isotopic values for other IOA deposits, including Mineville, New York (USA) and the type locale, Kiruna (Sweden). The ranges of Fe isotopic composition (δ56Fe, 56Fe/54Fe relative to IRMM-14) of magnetite from the Chilean deposits are: Los Colorados, δ56Fe (±2σ) = 0.08 ± 0.03‰ to 0.24 ± 0.08‰; El Laco, δ56Fe = 0.20 ± 0.03‰ to 0.53 ± 0.03‰; Mariela, δ56Fe = 0.13 ± 0.03‰. The O isotopic composition (δ18O, 18O/16O relative to VSMOW) of the same Chilean magnetite samples are: Los Colorados, δ18O (±2σ) = 1.92 ± 0.08‰ to 3.17 ± 0.03‰; El Laco, δ18O = 4.00 ± 0.10‰ to 4.34 ± 0.10‰; Mariela, δ18O = (1.48 ± 0.04‰). The δ18O and δ56Fe values for Kiruna magnetite yield an average of 1.76 ± 0.25‰ and 0.16 ± 0.07‰, respectively. The Fe and O isotope data from the Chilean IOAs fit unequivocally within the range of magnetite formed by high-temperature magmatic or magmatic-hydrothermal processes (i.e., δ56Fe 0.06-0.49‰ and δ18O = 1.0-4.5‰), consistent with a high-temperature origin for Chilean IOA deposits. Additionally, minimum formation temperatures calculated by using the measured Δ18O

  5. Biogeographic patterns of Chilean littoral fishes Patrones biogeográficos de los peces litorales de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. PATRICIO OJEDA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyzed the biogeographic patterns of the Chilean littoral fish fauna, including latitudinal trends in teleost and chondrichthyan fish species richness, their distribution range patterns, and their level of endemism, both to the Chilean coast and the Southeastern Pacific. We determined the number and percentage of fish taxa within four different groups based on their biogeographic affinities. This was done, both for teleost and chondrichthyan fishes, at the species, genus and family level. In order to recognise the existence of biogeographic regions, we applied cluster and ordination analyses to the distribution data, using objective bootstrapping techniques at the three taxonomic levels used. We found that littoral fish diversity remains fairly constant along the coast down to around 40º S, declining south of this latitude. We detected two biogeographic regions along the Chilean coast, with a break between them at 40º S. These results lend support to previously recognized biogeographic provinces or faunistic units. These two biogeographic regions are a reflection of the mixed origin of the Chilean littoral ichthyofauna, consisting of northern warm-temperate fishes of subtropical origin and southern cold-temperate fishes of subantarctic origin. While the percentage of fishes endemic to the Chilean coast is not high (18%, a large percentage of teleost species inhabiting Chilean littoral waters are endemic to the Southeastern Pacific (44%. Dispersal and evolutionary history, rather that other factors, seem to explain the observed patterns of distribution of this particular fish fauna. This study represents a necessary first step towards understanding the biogeography of Southeastern Pacific marine fishesEn este estudio, analizamos los patrones biogeográficos de los peces litorales chilenos, incluyendo las tendencias latitudinales en riqueza de especies de peces teleosteos y condrictios, sus rangos de distribución, y nivel de

  6. Ghana's high forests

    OpenAIRE

    Oduro, K.A.

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation and forest degradation in the tropics have been receiving both scientific and political attention in recent decades due to its impacts on the environment and on human livelihoods. In Ghana, the continuous decline of forest resources and the high demand for timber have raised stakeholders concerns about the future timber production prospects in the country. The principal drivers of deforestation and forest degradation in Ghana are agricultural expansion (50%), wood harvesting (35...

  7. Communicating forest sector sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Korhonen, E.; Toppinen, Anne; Lähtinen, K.; Ranacher, L.; Werner, Andrea; Stern, Tobias; Kutnar, Andreja

    2016-01-01

    Communication is an important tool in maintaining legitimacy and acceptability of forest sector operations and activities, and expectations by the general public on the forest sector conduct in Europe are in general very high. Despite this, there is scarce research in crossnational context on how forest sector sustainability is communicated to the general public, and what development areas can be identified in terms of communication content. This study applies a qualitative content analysis i...

  8. US Forest Service National Forest System Land Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting National Forest Service land units. An NFS Land Unit is nationally significant classification of Federally owned forest, range,...

  9. From National Forest Inventory to National Forest GHG Inventories

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, Ben; PANDEY Devendra; Achard, Frederic

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 3.3 presents two national case studies for forest inventories in tropical countries: the Indian and Mexican national forest inventories. These national forest inventories have been use to report GHG inventories to the UNFCC

  10. US Forest Service Original Proclaimed National Forests and National Grasslands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the boundaries encompassing the National Forest System (NFS) lands within the original proclaimed National Forests, along with...

  11. Forest Fires in a Random Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuenberger, Michael; Kanevski, Mikhaïl; Vega Orozco, Carmen D.

    2013-04-01

    Forest fires in Canton Ticino (Switzerland) are very complex phenomena. Meteorological data can explain some occurrences of fires in time, but not necessarily in space. Using anthropogenic and geographical feature data with the random forest algorithm, this study tries to highlight factors that most influence the fire-ignition and to identify areas under risk. The fundamental scientific problem considered in the present research deals with an application of random forest algorithms for the analysis and modeling of forest fires patterns in a high dimensional input feature space. This study is focused on the 2,224 anthropogenic forest fires among the 2,401 forest fire ignition points that have occurred in Canton Ticino from 1969 to 2008. Provided by the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), the database characterizes each fire by their location (x,y coordinates of the ignition point), start date, duration, burned area, and other information such as ignition cause and topographic features such as slope, aspect, altitude, etc. In addition, the database VECTOR25 from SwissTopo was used to extract information of the distances between fire ignition points and anthropogenic structures like buildings, road network, rail network, etc. Developed by L. Breiman and A. Cutler, the Random Forests (RF) algorithm provides an ensemble of classification and regression trees. By a pseudo-random variable selection for each split node, this method grows a variety of decision trees that do not return the same results, and thus by a committee system, returns a value that has a better accuracy than other machine learning methods. This algorithm incorporates directly measurement of importance variable which is used to display factors affecting forest fires. Dealing with this parameter, several models can be fit, and thus, a prediction can be made throughout the validity domain of Canton Ticino. Comprehensive RF analysis was carried out in order to 1

  12. Metáforas en Lengua de Señas Chilena Metaphors in Chilean Sign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Becerra

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio describe las características del lenguaje metafórico de personas sordas chilenas y su impacto en la comprensión lingüística. La relevancia de esta pregunta radica en la escasez de investigaciones realizadas, particularmente a nivel nacional. Se desarrolló un estudio cualitativo en base a análisis de videos de sujetos sordos en habla espontánea. Se confeccionó una lista de metáforas conceptuales y no conceptuales en Lengua de Señas Chilena. Posteriormente se evaluó su comprensión en un grupo de sujetos sordos, educados con modalidad comunicativa de lengua de señas. Los resultados obtenidos permiten observar la existencia de metáforas propias de la cultura sorda. Ellas serían coherentes con las particulares experiencias de los sujetos sordos y no necesariamente concuerdan con el lenguaje oral.The present study examined the characteristics of Chilean deaf people's metaphoric language and its relevance in linguistic comprehension. This key question is based in the scarcity of studies conducted in Chile. A qualitative study was developed, on the basis of analysis of videos of Chilean deaf people spontaneous sign language. A list of conceptual and no conceptual metaphors in Chilean sign language was developed. The comprehension of these metaphors was evaluated in a group of deaf subjets, educated using sign language communication. The results identify the existence of metaphors of the deaf culture. These methaphors would be coherent with the particular experiences of deaf subjets and do not necessarily agree with spoken language.

  13. Forest Road Assessment in Ulu Muda Forest Reserve, Kedah, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hasmadi I; Kamaruzaman J.; Muhamad Azizon J

    2009-01-01

    For the last few decades, forest road construction for forest harvesting in the tropical forest has been shown to cause considerable damage to the soil physical properties, forest environment and watershed areas. These effects can be minimized through implementation of proper harvesting procedure in the use of harvesting machines and forest road specification guideline. Forest road specification is important as technical guideline that must be comply by any loggers in order to construct fores...

  14. Chilean Strawberry Consumption Protects against LPS-Induced Liver Injury by Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Capability in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Molinett; Francisca Nuñez; María Alejandra Moya-León; Jessica Zúñiga-Hernández

    2015-01-01

    The Chilean strawberry fruit has high content of antioxidants and polyphenols. Previous studies evidenced antioxidant properties by in vitro methods. However, the antioxidant effect and its impact as functional food on animal health have not been evaluated. In this study, rats were fed with a Chilean strawberry aqueous extract (4 g/kg of animal per day) and then subjected to LPS-induced liver injury (5 mg/kg). Transaminases and histological studies revealed a reduction in liver injury in rats...

  15. Anglicismos y aculturación en la sociedad chilena (English loanwords: acculturation in chilean society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Gerding Salas

    2012-06-01

    American culture on Chilean society. Hence, the objectives of this study were to determine the presence of English loanwords in the press in order to describe them, determine their frequency of use and infer the causes of their adoption. To achieve these objectives, English borrowings collected from newspapers between January 2003 and December 2009 were classified both manually and semi-automatically. Then these Anglicisms were analyzed from the perspective of their formal characteristics, their frequency of use and the areas of knowledge to which they belonged. English loanwords were found to be adopted rather than adapted; it was also established that they have a strong presence in today’s journalistic writing, specifically in economics, computer science, sports and culture. Furthermore, their use is thought to be determined by four main factors: the lack of a counterpart in Spanish, social prestige, linguistic economy and user preference. Finally, it was concluded that the English language and American culture have a significant presence in the Chilean press.

  16. Phylogenetic characterization of a novel herpesvirus found in the liver and lungs of a Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coverdill, Christopher C; Barnes, Julie A; Garner, Michael M; Hinton, Kevin L; Childress, April L; Wellehan, James F X

    2016-05-01

    A novel herpesvirus was detected in a 17-day-old Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis) with pneumonia, hepatopathy, and severe anemia that was housed in California. Postmortem examination identified a pale, enlarged liver, mildly increased fluid in the lungs, and red foci in the spleen. Histologic examination revealed marked hepatic necrosis with syncytia, splenic necrosis, and interstitial pneumonia with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions within hepatocytes and in unidentified cells of the lung. Transmission electron microscopy identified virions consistent with a herpesvirus in the nucleus and cytoplasm of degenerative hepatocytes. Nested consensus PCR, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis identified a novel herpesvirus within the genus Iltovirus in the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. PMID:27026105

  17. Use of thermography and fluorescein angiography in the management of a Chilean flamingo with avascular necrosis of the wing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley-Sanders, Jennifer L; Bowman, Karl F; Wolfe, Barbara A; Nutter, Felicia B; Sladky, Kurt K; Stoskopf, Michael K

    2012-12-01

    A Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis) was presented to the veterinary clinic at the North Carolina Zoological Park for evaluation of acute weakness of the right wing. Results of a physical examination revealed a lack of a palpable pulse in the radial artery, which suggested occlusion or obstruction of the vessel. Radiography, thermography, and fluorescein angiography confirmed right wing injury and vascular compromise. Based on the poor prognosis for return to function associated with irreversible vascular damage, the wing was amputated. After a period of observation and treatment, the bird was returned to public exhibit. PMID:23409438

  18. Against God, religion and the church. Atheism, Antitheism and Anti-clericalism in the Chilean anarchist discourse (1899-1913)

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Alejandro Bonnassiolle Cortés

    2014-01-01

    The Chilean anarchist anti-clericalism, was a mix of anti-theism, atheism and critique everything about the Church and religion, was part and defined the political culture anarchist of period as it was the result of a way of understanding social reality supported by the complicity of the church with the power State, oligarchy and capitalism. This speech had a dual role as one hand denounce this complexity church-State-capital and other cultural practices attacked the clergy and everything aro...

  19. Against God, religion and the church. Atheism, Antitheism and Anti-clericalism in the Chilean anarchist discourse (1899-1913

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Alejandro Bonnassiolle Cortés

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean anarchist anti-clericalism, was a mix of anti-theism, atheism and critique everything about the Church and religion, was part and defined the political culture anarchist of period as it was the result of a way of understanding social reality supported by the complicity of the church with the power State, oligarchy and capitalism. This speech had a dual role as one hand denounce this complexity church-State-capital and other cultural practices attacked the clergy and everything around him. 

  20. Evidence of Sympatry of Clade A and Clade B Head Lice in a Pre-Columbian Chilean Mummy from Camarones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutellis, Amina; Drali, Rezak; Rivera, Mario A.; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Raoult, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Three different lineages of head lice are known to parasitize humans. Clade A, which is currently worldwide in distribution, was previously demonstrated to be present in the Americas before the time of Columbus. The two other types of head lice are geographically restricted to America and Australia for clade B and to Africa and Asia for clade C. In this study, we tested two operculated nits from a 4,000-year-old Chilean mummy of Camarones for the presence of the partial Cytb mitochondrial gene (270 bp). Our finding shows that clade B head lice were present in America before the arrival of the European colonists. PMID:24204678

  1. Cytogenetics of Chilean angiosperms: Advances and prospects Citogenética de angiospermas chilenas: Avances y proyecciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEDRO JARA-SEGUEL

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic data on Chilean angiosperms have been reported since at least eight decades ago; however, much of this information is disperse in diverse sources and is not readily available as a comprehensive document that allows having a general vision on advances and gaps in this matter. The goal of this paper is to summarize the advances and prospets on cytogenetic studies of the Chilean angiosperms based on compiled publications from 1929 to 2010. We found 78 publications supplied by four groups of Chilean researchers and some foreign specialists. Cytogenetic data have been reported for 139 Chilean angiosperm species (2.8 % of the total, which belong to 58 genera and 34 families. During 2001-2010 there was an increase in the number of publications, being available 40 reports including 95 additional species. Based on these data, we hope that such a trend can be maintained in the next decade if the current research groups and young specialists continue to be interested in the study of native plants.Los datos citogenéticos sobre angiospermas chilenas han sido reportados desde al menos ocho décadas atrás; sin embargo, mucha de esta información está dispersa en diversas fuentes y no está disponible como un documento completo que permita tener una visión general sobre los avances y vacíos en esta materia. El objetivo de este trabajo es resumir los avances y proyecciones sobre los estudios citogenéticos disponibles para angiospermas chilenas, basado en publicaciones recopiladas desde 1929 hasta el 2010. Nosotros encontramos 78 publicaciones aportadas por cuatro grupos de investigadores chilenos y por algunos especialistas extranjeros. Datos citogenéticos han sido reportados para 139 especies de angiospermas chilenas (2.8 % del total, las cuales pertenecen a 58 géneros y 34 familias. Durante los años 2001-2010, existió un incremento en el número de publicaciones estando disponibles 40 reportes que incluyen 95 especies adicionales. Basados

  2. A Management Tool for Assessing Aquaculture Environmental Impacts in Chilean Patagonian Fjords: Integrating Hydrodynamic and Pellets Dispersion Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tironi, Antonio; Marin, Víctor H.; Campuzano, Francisco J.

    2010-05-01

    This article introduces a management tool for salmon farming, with a scope in the local sustainability of salmon aquaculture of the Aysen Fjord, Chilean Patagonia. Based on Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) principles, the tool combines a large 3-level nested hydrodynamic model, a particle tracking module and a GIS application into an assessment tool for particulate waste dispersal of salmon farming activities. The model offers an open source alternative to particulate waste modeling and evaluation, contributing with valuable information for local decision makers in the process of locating new facilities and monitoring stations.

  3. Perception and production of English vowels by Chilean learners of English: effect of auditory and visual modalities on phonetic training

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira Reyes, Y. I.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine the perception of English vowels by L2 learners of English with Spanish as L1 (Chilean-Spanish), and more specifically the degree to which they are able to take advantage of visual cues to vowel distinctions. Two main studies were conducted for this thesis. In study 1, data was collected from L2 beginners, L2 advanced learners and native speakers of Southern British English (ENS). Participants were tested on their perception of 11 English vowels in audio ...

  4. Biogeografía histórica de la familia Curculionidae (Coleoptera en las subregiones Subantártica y Chilena Central Historical biogeography of family Curculionidae (Coleoptera on Subantarctic and Central Chilean subregions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Posadas

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de los patrones de distribución y la información filogenética de 71 especies de Curculionidae, distribuidas en las subregiones Subantártica y Chilena Central, aplicando los métodos biogeográficos de los árboles reconciliados y análisis de parsimonia de Brooks (BPA, resulta en un único cladograma general de áreas: ((Chile Central (Maule, Bosque Valdiviano (Islas Malvinas (Páramo Magallánico, Bosque Magallánico. La aplicación del análisis de dispersión-vicarianza (DIVA muestra que el evento vicariante más frecuente es el que separa las Islas Malvinas de las otras dos provincias subantárticas meridionales. Por otra parte, de acuerdo con los resultados del DIVA, se evidencia que las relaciones entre el Maule, Bosque Valdiviano y Chile Central no se deberían a eventos de vicarianza sino a eventos de dispersión, ya que el 61% del total de los eventos de dispersión implica a estas tres áreas. Aún más, los eventos de dispersión más frecuentes implican al Maule, ya sea en relación con Chile Central o con el Bosque Valdiviano, por lo que se deduce que la aparente complejidad de las relaciones biogeográficas del Maule podría estar relacionada con dichos eventos de dispersión.The application of the historical biogeographic techniques of reconciled trees and Brooks parsimony analysis (BPA to the distributional and phylogenetic information of 71 species of Curculionidae ranged in the Subantarctic and Central Chilean subregions results in a single general area cladogram: ((Central Chile (Maule, Valdivian Forest (Malvinas Islands (Magellanic Moorland, Magellanic Forest. The application of dispersal-vicariance analysis (DIVA to the same data set shows as the most frequent vicariant event the split of Islas Malvinas from the two southern Subantarctic provinces. In addition, DIVA results evidenced that the relationship among Maule, Valdivian Forest, and Central Chile did not arise from vicariance events (common history

  5. Drought increases the freezing resistance of high-elevation plants of the Central Chilean Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Almeida, Angela; Reyes-Bahamonde, Claudia; Cavieres, Lohengrin A

    2016-08-01

    Freezing temperatures and summer droughts shape plant life in Mediterranean high-elevation habitats. Thus, the impacts of climate change on plant survival for these species could be quite different to those from mesic mountains. We exposed 12 alpine species to experimental irrigation and warming in the Central Chilean Andes to assess whether irrigation decreases freezing resistance, irrigation influences freezing resistance when plants are exposed to warming, and to assess the relative importance of irrigation and temperature in controlling plant freezing resistance. Freezing resistance was determined as the freezing temperature that produced 50 % photoinactivation [lethal temperature (LT50)] and the freezing point (FP). In seven out of 12 high-Andean species, LT50 of drought-exposed plants was on average 3.5 K lower than that of irrigated plants. In contrast, most species did not show differences in FP. Warming changed the effect of irrigation on LT50. Depending on species, warming was found to have (1) no effect, (2) to increase, or (3) to decrease the irrigation effect on LT50. However, the effect size of irrigation on LT50 was greater than that of warming for almost all species. The effect of irrigation on FP was slightly changed by warming and was sometimes in disagreement with LT50 responses. Our data show that drought increases the freezing resistance of high-Andean plant species as a general plant response. Although freezing resistance increases depended on species-specific traits, our results show that warmer and moister growing seasons due to climate change will seriously threaten plant survival and persistence of these and other alpine species in dry mountains. PMID:27053321

  6. Unravel biophysical factors on river water quality response in Chilean Central-Southern watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yevenes, Mariela A; Arumí, José L; Farías, Laura

    2016-05-01

    Identifying the key anthropogenic (land uses) and natural (topography and climate) biophysical drivers affecting river water quality is essential for efficient management of water resources. We tested the hypothesis that water quality can be predicted by different biophysical factors. Multivariate statistics based on a geographical information system (GIS) were used to explore the influence of factors (i.e., precipitation, topography, and land uses) on water quality (i.e., nitrate (NO 3 (-) ), phosphate (PO 4 (3 -) ), silicate (Si(OH)4), dissolved oxygen (DO), suspended solids (TSS), biological oxygen demand (DO), temperature (T), conductivity (EC), and pH) for two consecutive years in the Itata and Biobío river watersheds, Central Chile (36° 00' and 38° 30'). The results showed that (NO 3 (-) ), (PO 4 (3 -) ), Si(OH)4, TSS, EC, and DO were higher during rainy season (austral fall, winter, and spring), whereas BOD and temperature were higher during dry season. The spatial variation of these parameters in both watersheds was related to land use, topography (e.g., soil moisture, soil hydrological group, and erodability), and precipitation. Soil hydrological group and soil moisture were the strongest explanatory predictors for PO 4 (3 -) , Si(OH)4 and EC in the river, followed by land use such as agriculture for NO 3 (-) and DO and silviculture for TSS and Si(OH)4. High-resolution water leaching and runoff maps allowed us to identify agriculture areas with major probability of water leaching and higher probability of runoff in silviculture areas. Moreover, redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that land uses (agriculture and silviculture) explained in 60 % the river water quality variation. Our finding highlights the vulnerability of Chilean river waters to different biophysical drivers, rather than climate conditions alone, which is amplified by human-induced degradation. PMID:27038616

  7. Mitochondrial phenotype of marsupial torpor: Fuel metabolic switch in the Chilean mouse-opossum Thylamys elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Pablo Andres; Bacigalupe, Leonardo Daniel; Mondaca, Fredy; Desrosiers, Véronique; Blier, Pierre U

    2016-01-01

    Torpor is a phenotype characterized by a controlled decline of metabolic rate and body temperature. During arousal from torpor, organs undergo rapid metabolic reactivation and rewarming to near normal levels. As torpor progress, animals show a preference for fatty acids over glucose as primary source of energy. Here, we analyzed for first time the changes in the maximal activity of key enzymes related to fatty acid (Carnitine palmitoyltransferase and β-Hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase) and carbohydrate (Pyruvate kinase, Phosphofructokinase and Lactate dehydrogenase) catabolism, as well as mitochondrial oxidative capacity (Citrate synthase), in six organs of torpid, arousing and euthermic Chilean mouse-opossums (Thylamys elegans). Our results showed that activity of enzymes related to fatty acid and carbohydrate catabolism were different among torpor phases and the pattern of variation differs among tissues. In terms of lipid utilization, maximal enzymatic activities differ in tissues with high oxidative capacity such as heart, kidney, and liver. In terms of carbohydrate use, lower enzymatic activities were observed during torpor in brain and liver. Interestingly, citrate synthase activity did not differ thought torpor-arousal cycle in any tissues analyzed, suggesting no modulation of mitochondrial content in T. elegans. Overall results provide an indication that modulation of enzymes associated with carbohydrate and fatty-acid pathways is mainly oriented to limit energy expensive processes and sustain energy metabolism during transition from torpor to euthermy. Future studies are required to elucidate if physiological events observed for T. elegans are unique from other marsupials, or represents a general response in marsupials. J. Exp. Zool. 325A:41-51, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26553608

  8. Chilean native fruit extracts inhibit inflammation linked to the pathogenic interaction between adipocytes and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Farias, Marjorie; Vasquez, Karla; Ovalle-Marin, Angelica; Fuentes, Francisco; Parra, Claudia; Quitral, Vilma; Jimenez, Paula; Garcia-Diaz, Diego F

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is characterized by an increase in the infiltration of monocytes into the adipose tissue, causing an inflammatory condition associated with, for example, the development of insulin resistance. Thus, anti-inflammatory-based treatments could emerge as a novel and interesting approach. It has been reported that Chilean native fruits maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) and calafate (Berberis microphylla) present high contents of polyphenols, which are known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of extracts of these fruits to block the pathogenic interaction between adipocytes and macrophages in vitro and to compare its effect with blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) extract treatment, which has been already described to possess several biomedical benefits. RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with 5 μg/mL lipopolysaccharides (LPS), with conditioned media (CM) from fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, or in a coculture (CC) with 3T3-L1 adipocytes, in the presence or absence of 100 μM [total polyphenolic content] of each extract for 24 h. The gene expression and secretion profile of several inflammatory markers were evaluated. Nitric oxide secretion induced by LPS, CM, and CC was reduced by the presence of maqui (-12.2%, -45.6%, and -14.7%, respectively) and calafate (-27.6%, -43.9%, and -11.8%, respectively) extracts. Gene expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and TNF-α was inhibited and of IL-10 was induced by maqui and calafate extract incubation. In conclusion, the extracts of these fruits present important inhibitory-like features over the inflammatory response of the interaction between adipocytes and macrophages, comprising a potential therapeutic tool against comorbidities associated with obesity development. PMID:25302660

  9. The biology and ecology of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (Cephalopoda in Chilean waters: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M Ibáñez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. The jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas is the most abundant cephalopod species in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, which supports the biggest cephalopod fishery in the world. Due to its growing economic importance, the population growth and distributional expansion of this squid is being increasingly studied. Nevertheless, some basic features of the biology of D. gigas are still unknown or have been poorly investigated. In this review we summarize the known information regarding the biology and ecology of this species in the southeastern Pacific Ocean; we focus on the Chilean region in order to propose hypotheses and research lines for a better understanding the life history of this organism. Available data on the size structure, reproduction and genetics of D. gigas allows us to propose hypotheses related to the squid's life history traits. Based on the current literature and publications of colleagues, we propose two hypotheses regarding the effect of spatial variation on the life history of D. gigas. Hypothesis 1: Squids mature at large sizes and spawn in oceanic waters with warm temperatures where paralarvae and juveniles develop. Immature squids migrate near shore to feed, grow and mature, and then return to the offshore sites to spawn. Hypothesis 2: Alternatively, juvenile D. gigas in the oceanic zone do not migrate to coastal waters and mature at small sizes compared to individuals living near the coast that mature at larger size and migrate to oceanic waters to spawn. We provide background information about the feeding behavior and parasitism of this species, suggesting that D. gigas is an important trophic link in the southeastern Pacific marine ecosystem. However, more studies on the feeding habits, reproduction and parasite load are needed not only to test hypotheses proposed in this study, but also to advance the overall knowledge of this species.

  10. Risk variants in BMP4 promoters for nonsyndromic cleft lip/palate in a Chilean population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suazo José

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone morphogenetic protein 4 gene (BMP4 plays a key role during maxillofacial development, since orofacial clefts are observed in animals when this gene is conditionally inactivated. We recently reported the existence of association between nonsyndromic cleft lip/palate (NSCLP and BMP4 polymorphisms by detecting transmission deviations for haplotypes that include a region containing a BMP4 promoter in case-parent trios. The aim of the present study was to search for possible causal mutations within BMP4 promoters (BMP4.1 and BMP4.2. Methods We analyzed the sequence of BMP4.1 and BMP4.2 in 167 Chilean NSCLP cases and 336 controls. Results We detected three novel variants in BMP4.1 (c.-5514G > A, c.-5365C > T and c.-5049C > T which could be considered as cleft risk factors due to their absence in controls. Additionally, rs2855530 G allele (BMP4.2 carriers showed an increased risk for NSCLP restricted to males (OR = 1.52; 95% C.I. = 1.07-2.15; p = 0.019. For this same SNP the dominant genotype model showed a higher frequency of G/G+G/C and a lower frequency of C/C in cases than controls in the total sample (p = 0.03 and in the male sample (p = 0.003. Bioinformatic prediction analysis showed that all the risk variants detected in this study could create new transcription factor binding motifs. Conclusions The sex-dependent association between rs2855530 and NSCLP could indirectly be related to the differential gene expression observed between sexes in animal models. We concluded that risk variants detected herein could potentially alter BMP4 promoter activity in NSCLP. Further functional and developmental studies are necessary to support this hypothesis.

  11. Salares versus coastal ecotypes of quinoa: Salinity responses in Chilean landraces from contrasting habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Karina B; Aloisi, Iris; Del Duca, Stefano; Canelo, Valentina; Torrigiani, Patrizia; Silva, Herman; Biondi, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a highly salt-tolerant species subdivided into five ecotypes and exhibiting broad intra-specific differences in tolerance levels. In a greenhouse study, Chilean landraces belonging either to the salares (R49) or coastal lowlands (VI-1, Villarrica) ecotype with contrasting agro-ecological origins were investigated for their responses to high salinity. The effects of two levels of salinity, 100 (T1) and 300 (T2) mM NaCl, on plant growth and on some physiological parameters were measured. Leaf and root Na(+) accumulation differed among landraces. T2 reduced growth and seed yield in all landraces with maximum inhibition relative to controls in R49. Salinity negatively affected chlorophyll and total polyphenol content (TPC) in VI-1 and Villarrica but not R49. Germination on saline or control media of seeds harvested from plants treated or not with NaCl was sometimes different; the best performing landrace was R49 insofar as 45-65% of seeds germinated on 500 mM NaCl-containing medium. In all landraces, average seedling root length declined strongly with increasing NaCl concentration, but roots of R49 were significantly longer than those of VI-1 and Villarrica up to 300 mM NaCl. Salt caused increases in seed TPC relative to controls, but radical scavenging capacity was higher only in seeds from T2 plants of R49. Total SDS-extractable seed proteins were resolved into distinct bands (10-70 kDa) with some evident differences between landraces. Salt-induced changes in protein patterns were landrace-specific. The responses to salinity of the salares landrace are discussed in relation to its better adaptation to an extreme environment. PMID:26841266

  12. Communicating about eating behaviors. A qualitative study of Chilean women and their health-care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Patricia; Valencia, Alejandra; Palomino, Ana M; Cataldo, Marjorie; Schwingel, Andiara

    2015-01-01

    Good communication between health care providers (HCPs) and patients is critical in achieving positive health outcomes. The purpose of this article was to compare the perceptions of Chilean woman and their HCPs with respect to determinants of eating behaviors. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with women (n=15) visiting a public health care center in Chile and with their HCPs (n=8) who were in charge of promoting healthy eating behaviors among women. Data from the interviews indicated similarities and inconsistencies in determinants of eating behaviors between the groups. Both mentioned many important factors that influence women's eating behaviors, including food preferences, dietary knowledge, self-control and self-efficacy, family, food cost, and food availability. HCPs appeared to be less aware of the role that personality traits and past experiences play as potential determinants which women mentioned. In contrast, women were less aware of the influence of anxiety and low self-esteem on eating choices, which HCPs noted as key factors. Although it was encouraging to see agreement between women and their HCPs in some areas, it is important to work on increasing understanding among the groups with respect to the important role psychological factors play in influencing eating behavior. We suggest that HCPs should focus on the importance of women's personality traits and past eating behaviors, as well as work on improving women's self-esteem and helping to decrease their anxiety levels. HCPs should be encouraged to develop good communication with each person in order to help them understand the roles that external and internal factors play in eating behaviors. PMID:25661846

  13. Intraplate and interplate earthquakes in Chilean subduction zone: A theoretical and observational comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyton, Felipe; Ruiz, Javier; Campos, Jaime; Kausel, Edgar

    2009-06-01

    During the last decade, efforts to improve our knowledge of great Chilean earthquakes have shown that not all of the major destructive events have occurred in the contact between the Nazca and south American plates (interplate earthquakes). Waveform analysis of records from the Ms = 8.0, 1950 Antofagasta and the Ms = 7.8, 1939 Chillán earthquakes have shown that these large events are tensional, rupturing along nearly vertical, intermediate depth, fault planes within the subducting slab (intraplate events). Previous studies found that other earthquakes in Chile, like Santiago 1945 (Ms = 7.1), La Ligua 1965 (Ms = 7.1), Tal-tal 1965 (Ms = 6.9), Tocopilla 1970 (Ms = 6.5), and Tarapacá 2005 (Mw = 7.8) were also of tensional type. In the present work, we analyze theoretical and observational evidence comparing interplate and intraplate earthquakes. We found clear differences in the source characteristics between these two kinds of events, with intermediate depth, intraplate earthquakes presenting larger corner frequencies and greater seismic energy release than interplate events (for a given seismic moment). This is also reflected in the higher averaged apparent stress drop for intraplate earthquakes ( σa ˜ 90 bar) compared to interplate events ( σa ˜ 30 bar). From theoretical computations, we found that the rupture velocity has a minor effect on the resulting displacements; while directivity and changes in the static stress drop produced notable (and similar) results. We believe that the differences found in the data might be due to changes in the static stress drop, the effect of directivity, or both. Regardless of the cause of the observed differences in the apparent stress drop, these results should be taken into consideration into the assessment of the Seismic Hazard in Chile.

  14. Late Holocene covariability of the southern westerlies and sea surface temperature in northern Chilean Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Sébastien; Hughen, Konrad; Sepúlveda, Julio; Pantoja, Silvio

    2014-12-01

    The climate of Chilean Patagonia is strongly influenced by the southern westerlies, which control the amount and latitudinal distribution of precipitation in the southern Andes. In austral summer, the Southern Westerly Wind Belt (SWWB) is restricted to the high latitudes. It expands northward in winter, which results in a strong precipitation seasonality between ˜35 and 45°S. Here, we present a new precipitation seasonality proxy record from Quitralco fjord (46°S), where relatively small latitudinal shifts of the SWWB result in large changes in precipitation seasonality. Our 1400 yr record is based on sedimentological and geochemical data obtained on a sediment core collected in front of a small river that drains the Patagonian Andes, which makes this site particularly sensitive to changes in river discharge. Our results indicate Fe/Al and Ti/Al values that are low between 600 and 1200 CE, increasing at 1200-1500 CE, and high between 1500 and 1950 CE. Increasing Fe/Al and Ti/Al values reflect a decrease in mean sediment grain-size from 30 to 20 μm, which is interpreted as a decrease in seasonal floods resulting from an equatorward shift of the SWWB. Our results suggest that, compared to present-day conditions, the SWWB was located in a more poleward position before 1200 CE. It gradually shifted towards the equator in 1200-1500 CE, where it remained in a sustained position until 1950 CE. This pattern is consistent with most precipitation records from central and southern Chile. The comparison of our record with published regional sea surface temperature (SST) reconstructions for the late Holocene shows that equatorward shifts of the SWWB are systematically coeval with decreasing SSTs and vice versa, which resembles fluctuations over glacial-interglacial timescales. We argue that the synchronicity between SST and SWWB changes during the last 1400 years represents the response of the SWWB to temperature changes in the Southern Hemisphere.

  15. Prokaryotic diversity pattern in high-altitude ecosystems of the Chilean Altiplano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demergasso, Cecilia; Dorador, Cristina; Meneses, Daniela; Blamey, Jenny; Cabrol, Nathalie; Escudero, Lorena; Chong, Guillermo

    2010-06-01

    The Chilean Altiplano is the westernmost part of a large volcanic-sedimentary plateau in the central Andes. High solar irradiance and rapid increase of temperature have contributed to make it a hot spot of global climatic change. In this study, we describe microbial diversity in the summit lake of the Simba volcano (5,870 m) and the evaporitic basins of Salar de Aguas Calientes (4,200 m) and Laguna Lejía (4,325 m) using both culture and culture-independent methods. The results obtained were analyzed together with available information from related environments to describe the traits of the microbial community driven by main environmental factors. Isolated cultures exhibit high resistance to all three types of UV radiation, further supporting the adaptation of microorganisms to the high altitude environment. The microbial community structures at Salar de Aguas Calientes and Laguna Lejía are similar to those from other saline systems and cold environments where Bacteroidetes is the major bacterial group. The abundance of sequences related to alphaproteobacteria and methanogenic populations likely reflects the importance of aerobic anoxigenic phothosynthesis and the cycling of one-carbon compounds in the high altitude lake ecosystems. Geochemistry and microbial communities at Simba as well as those reported in the Licancabur summit lake provide evidence for sulfur-rich environments but under different conditions. Those differences between neighboring mountain lake ecosystems highlight the effect of volcanic activity on microbial communities. The hypothetical ecosystem model described in this work provides a clue to follow the microbial community responses to geophysical environment coupled with rapid climate change.

  16. Spatio temporal population dynamics of the invasive diatom Didymosphenia geminata in central-southern Chilean rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecino, V; Molina, X; Bothwell, M; Muñoz, P; Carrevedo, M L; Salinas, F; Kumar, S; Castillo, M L; Bizama, G; Bustamante, R O

    2016-10-15

    We document the distribution of Didymosphenia geminata in central-southern Chilean rivers and identify the chemical and physical factors associated with its presence/absence (p/a). Repeated surveys in five successive years provided evidence that D. geminata could be nearing a biogeographic equilibrium in the region. D. geminata databases from extensive biological and environmental surveys in 187 rivers, within ten catchments, south of 38°S commenced in November 2010 and ran through May 2013. In addition, data from two other field surveys were used. The sites evenly distributed latitudinally were climatically characterized. The recent sampling program, following a published species distribution model, was designed to explore D. geminata distribution within thirteen catchments (34°S-48°S). An extensive river survey in 2014 (spring-summer) and in 2015 (autumn) included the p/a, and relative abundance of D. geminata cells in phytobenthos and in the drift. These p/a results showed that the probability of re-encountering D. geminata cells at sites where the species was previously found was significantly high while the probability of finding D. geminata cells at sites previously without the species was significantly low. This suggests that the distribution of D. geminata cells among suitable habitats was nearing completion. The relative abundance of D. geminata cells in the phytobenthos versus in the drift indicates seasonality with higher proportion of cells in the phytobenthos during the spring-summer than during the autumn. During the final surveys, principal component analysis of chemical and physical characteristics of rivers showed significant differences between rivers with and without D. geminata. Based on our observations of the distribution of D. geminata cells among rivers with suitable habitat conditions and the fluctuating rate of spread between rivers, we conclude that D. geminata is probably in the ending stage of its spatial demographic expansion in

  17. The origin of oriented lakes in the Andean foreland, Parque Nacional Torres del Paine (Chilean Patagonia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Joseph; Aydin, Atilla

    2008-05-01

    The Parque Nacional Torres Del Paine and surrounding area in the Magallanes foreland basin in Chilean Patagonia is the site for numerous lakes fed by glaciers and rivers in the Andean highlands to the west. The lakes are elongate and have conspicuously systematic orientations. We hypothesize that the origin of the oriented lakes lies in the fault system, composed of a right-lateral strike-slip fault set oriented 58° from north, a left-lateral strike-slip set oriented 87°, and a thrust fault set oriented 167°, that exists within the underlying rocks. To test this hypothesis quantitatively, we determined the shape and orientation of the lakes by fitting each lake with an ellipse of appropriate aspect ratio, and later with multiple ellipses consistent with the composite geometry of some lakes. We then examined the faults in the area in terms of their kinematics, orientation and distribution. The distribution of lake orientations showed three distinct groups which appear to correspond to the three main fault groups. For lakes fitted with multiple ellipses, the difference in means between the right-lateral, left-lateral, and thrust faults and their corresponding groups of lakes are 3.05°, 1.57°, and 5.17°. Using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) statistical test to compare the orientations of faults with respect to the lakes suggests that there is not a strongly significant difference between the fault orientations and the corresponding lake groups. These results indicate that the faults have a profound control on the orientation, shape, and distribution of the lakes. We attribute this to faults and their damage zones being weaker and therefore prone to a faster rate of erosion, and to stress perturbations associated with discontinuous faults resulting in localized high density fracturing and surface subsidence. These results have implications for lake and drainage system morphologies in other foreland basins along the Andes and other similar settings.

  18. Decadal trends in the pollinator assemblage of Eucryphia cordifolia in Chilean rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Ramírez, Cecilia; Ramos-Jiliberto, Rodrigo; Valdovinos, Fernanda S; Martínez, Paula; Castillo, Jessica A; Armesto, Juan J

    2014-09-01

    Long-term studies of plant-pollinator interactions are almost nonexistent in the scientific literature. The objective of the present study was to determine changes and trends in the pollinator assemblage of ulmo (Eucryphia cordifolia; Cunoniaceae), a canopy-emergent tree found in Chilean temperate rainforests. We assessed the temporal variability of the pollinator assemblage and identified possible modulators of the observed temporal shifts. We sampled insect visitors to the flowers of 16 individual trees of E. cordifolia during 10 consecutive flowering seasons (2000-2009), recording a total of 137 pollinator species with a mean number of species per year of 44. Only three pollinator species (2.2%) were recorded every year. Two bee species accounted for 50% of all insect visits to flowers. One bee species, Bombus dahlbomii (native), was dominant in one season, whereas Apis mellifera (exotic) dominated during the next season. These interannual shifts in population abundances presented first-order dynamics that were characterized by oscillations with a period of 2 years. Changes in the abundances of the dominant pollinators, as well as differences in temperature and precipitation during insect emergence and flowering, led to a nested temporal structure of pollinator composition. Furthermore, the abundances of less common pollinators were sensitive to the abundance of the dominant bee species and to monthly maximum temperatures and the average precipitation during spring and summer. Based on our results and those from other studies, we predict a decline in the numbers of Bombus dahlbomii and nondominant native pollinators in response to new exotic arrivals. PMID:25001339

  19. Sustained acclimatization in Chilean mine workers subjected to chronic intermittent hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Jorge G; Osorio, Jorge; Soto, Gustavo; Brito, Julio; Siques, Patricia; Reyes, Juan G

    2006-01-01

    Farias, Jorge G., Jorge Osorio, Gustavo Soto, Julio Brito, Patricia Siques, and Juan G. Reyes. Sustained acclimatization in Chilean mine workers subjected to chronic intermittent hypoxia. High Alt. Med. Biol. 7:302-306, 2006--We wanted to know if sea-level mine workers exposed previously to chronic intermittent hypoxia reached a steady acclimatization at 36 months under hypobaric hypoxia. An intermittently exposed group of mine workers (IE, n = 25) were subjected to submaximal exercise (100 W) at 4500 m. Their systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), and hemoglobin oxygen saturation (HbSatO(2)) were monitored. Two comparison groups of unacclimatized sea-level workers (n = 17) were studied. A nonexposed group (NE) performed 5 min of submaximal exercise at sea level. Some kind of exercise was performed both by an acutely exposed group (AE) and IE group at 4500 m. No statistical differences were found for HR, SBP, and DBP (p > 0.05) during exercise between IE and AE groups. Resting HbSatO(2) of IE (87 +/- 6%) was lower than NE (97 +/- 3%) (p < 0.05), but was higher than AE (82 +/- 4%) (p < 0.05). In the exercise condition, HbSatO(2) of IE (85 +/- 5%) was lower than NE (95 +/- 3%) (p < 0.05), but was higher than AE (76 +/- 2%) (p < 0.05). These responses were maintained through the 6 months of the study period. Thus, mine workers subjected to intermittent hypobaric condition for 3 years showed a good degree of acclimatization that was maintained through time. PMID:17173515

  20. Ghana's high forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oduro, K.A.

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation and forest degradation in the tropics have been receiving both scientific and political attention in recent decades due to its impacts on the environment and on human livelihoods. In Ghana, the continuous decline of forest resources and the high demand for timber have raised stakeholde

  1. Forest report 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This forest report of Lower Saxony (Germany) contains the following topics: Forestry Environment Monitoring, weather and climate, spring drought, insects and fungi, infiltrated substances, trends in soil solution of forest ecosystems, soil chemistry and root penetration in deeper layers of soil, climate change and sustainable land management in Northern German Plain.

  2. Securing tropical forest carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharlemann, Jörn P. W.; Kapos, Valerie; Campbell, Alison;

    2010-01-01

    protected sites in humid tropical forests could be valued at USD 6,200-7,400 million depending on the land use after clearance. This is >1.5 times the estimated spending on protected area management in these regions. Improving management of protected areas to retain forest cover better may be an important...

  3. Trading forest carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nature of carbon in forests is discussed from the perspective of carbon trading. Carbon inventories, specifically in the area of land use and forestry are reviewed for the Pacific Northwest. Carbon turnover in forests is discussed as it relates to carbon sequestration. Scient...

  4. Biogeochemistry in forest ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Saint-André, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Scientific objectives : - Analyse biogeochemical cycles (major and micro-nutrients; stocks and fluxes, processes and driving parameters) in forest ecosystems - Formalise this knowledge into concepts and models to predict ecosystem modifications to environmental changes. - Human and social issues - Propose management rules to ensure the sustainability of forest ecosystems in a changing environment.

  5. Investigación sobre manejo forestal a largo plazo en Patagonia Sur -Argentina: Lecciones del pasado, desafíos del presente Long-term forest management research in South Patagonia - Argentina: Lessons from the past, challenges from the present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUILLERMO J MARTÍNEZ-PASTUR

    2010-03-01

    ón de tratamientos intermedios, (iii determinar líneas base y definir los impactos de distintos sistemas silvícolas, (iv proponer metodologías de monitoreo de amplio espectro y establecer áreas demostrativas de manejo, y (v proveer áreas y conocimientos para entrenar profesionales en prácticas de manejo forestal y conservación de la biodiversidad. Las parcelas permanentes ya establecidas en los bosques de Nothofagus de Patagonia Sur y las bases de datos obtenidas podrían servir como punto de partida para definir un núcleo regional que pueda participar en el International Long Term Ecological Research para asegurar el uso sustentable de los bosques nativos.Argentina has based its economy in agriculture and cattle production seeing forests as one of the main obstacles for future development. Forest harvesting in South Patagonia has been an activity based on colonization and exploitation of new areas. Harvesting is mainly carried out in old-growth forests without silviculture management after the first cuts. Beyond this mismanagement, scientific research defined the basis to conserve, protect and improve the present forest management for the South Patagonia native forests. The first long-term study permanent plots (1965-1966 monitored only economic and forest structure parameters, and near twenty plots were established in public forested lands of Tierra del Fuego. Most of these plots were destroyed or discontinued due to a lack of land use planning, scarce social interest for long-term researches, absence of commitment of institutions, and few contributions of forest companies. After this, a second group of nine long-term study permanent plots were established in South Patagonia (1993-2004 based in the collaboration between private companies and national research institutions. The objectives included economic as well as ecological parameters. The new plots were established on private lands based on several agreements and joint venture projects between national

  6. Climate and forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of forests on climate change and the effects of climate change on forests are examined. In particular, the mechanisms whereby changing CO2 levels and global warming might affect forest growth and composition are examined. The economic cost required to establish plantation forests in temperate and tropical regions are estimated. In addition, the economic uses to which the newly established forest stock might be put are investigated. The possible effects of these higher stocking levels on world industrial wood markets and on investments in traditional industrial forestry activities are addressed, and the broad economic implications are examined. The question of the source of financing is addressed briefly and the possibility/necessity of foreign assistance is examined

  7. Fertilization in northern forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedwall, Per Ola; Gong, Peichen; Ingerslev, Morten;

    2014-01-01

    intensive fertilization regimens implying intensive fertilization starting in young forests may, on the other hand, considerably increase the biomass supply and value for the industry. The economic and environmental risks of this type of fertilization may, however, be larger and more research is needed on......Forests of northern ecosystems respond slowly to management activities and the possibilities to increase the growth in a short-term perspective and meet swift increases in society's demand for biomass are small. An exception among the silvicultural measures is fertilization which can be applied in...... combination with present management systems and, almost instantly, enhances forest productivity. There may, however, be both economic and environmental constraints to large-scale applications of fertilizers in forest. Here we review the literature concerning biomass production of forests under different...

  8. 78 FR 34035 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Forest Resource Coordinating Committee will meet via teleconference every month on... conference call will be posted to the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee Web site,...

  9. 78 FR 73819 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of...-18, 2013 meeting of the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee due to the Government partial shutdown... INFORMATION CONTACT: Maya Solomon, Forest Resource Coordinating Committee Program Coordinator; by phone...

  10. Forest Structure in Low-Diversity Tropical Forests: A Study of Hawaiian Wet and Dry Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Ostertag, Rebecca; Inman-Narahari, Faith; Cordell, Susan; Christian P. Giardina; Sack, Lawren

    2014-01-01

    The potential influence of diversity on ecosystem structure and function remains a topic of significant debate, especially for tropical forests where diversity can range widely. We used Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) methodology to establish forest dynamics plots in montane wet forest and lowland dry forest on Hawai‘i Island. We compared the species diversity, tree density, basal area, biomass, and size class distributions between the two forest types. We then examined these variab...

  11. Psychometric Properties of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCI-CV in Chilean Children and Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín E Martínez-González

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a considerable increase in the development of assessment tools for obsessive-compulsive symptomatology in children and adolescents. The Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCI-CV is a well-established assessment self-report, with special interest for the assessment of dimensions of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD. This instrument has shown to be useful for clinical and non-clinical populations in two languages (English and European Spanish. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the OCI-CV in a Chilean community sample. The sample consisted of 816 children and adolescents with a mean age of 14.54 years (SD = 2.21; range = 10-18 years. Factor structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent/divergent validity, and gender/age differences were examined. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a 6-factor structure (Doubting/Checking, Obsessing, Hoarding, Washing, Ordering, and Neutralizing with one second-order factor. Good estimates of reliability (including internal consistency and test-retest, evidence supporting the validity, and small age and gender differences (higher levels of OCD symptomatology among older participants and women, respectively are found. The OCI-CV is also an adequate scale for the assessment of obsessions and compulsions in a general population of Chilean children and adolescents.

  12. The Self-Regulation of Electronic Commerce: An Appraisal in Accordance to the Chilean Law of Unfair Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David López Jiménez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Electronic commerce or e-commerce constitutes a commercial activity on the rise. Although it has many advantages, there are several lingering factors that prevent its consolidation, such as the lack of trust of the potential consumer/user. In order to overcome that obstacle, instruments of self-regulation were created in the field of advertising. Firms that wish to distinguish themselves favorably against their competitors have the option of adopting those instruments, which play a praiseworthy role regarding the target audience and constitutes a considerable improvement of consumer rights. However, on occasions, problems arise in the market when those systems of self-regulation bind third parties that did not voluntarily enter into a contract. This paper tackles the question of if self-regulation of advertising in the net can be put in place should it affects the honor of the third party not committed with the fair-practices document. Methodology/approach/design – In this article, we will refer to the particularities that arise from a case concerning the Chilean Law no. 20,168, of 2007, on unfair competition and self-regulation of advertising in the Internet pertaining WOM, Movistar, Entel, Claro and Virgin. Findings – The Chilean Law no. 20,168, of 2007 contributes to the goal of discouraging conduct contrary to good faith or good practices in advertising in conjunction with codes of conduct that have been approved in the field related to the systems of self-regulation.

  13. Association of Anxiety-Related Polymorphisms with Sports Performance in Chilean Long Distance Triathletes: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Sanhueza, Tomás Zambrano, Carlos Bahamondes-Avila, Luis A. Salazar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Different factors affecting athletic performance are well established: intensity and type of training, anthropometric characteristics as well as an important psychological component. However, the contribution of the genetic background has been less investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of polymorphisms within genes associated with stress and anxiety (5HTT, CRH2R, ACE, NK1R, 5HT1AR and CRF-BP on the physical capability and sports performance in triathletes. One hundred and ninety two (192 unrelated Chilean triathletes who participated in the 2014 70.3 Pucón city triathlon were divided into opposite subgroups of sports performance according to their time results. We identified significant associations for five polymorphisms (5HTT 5-HTTLPR, ACE I/D, NK1R rs6715729, 5HT1AR -1019C>G and CRF-BP CRF-BPs11 with athletic performance. Our results indicate that these polymorphisms are associated with differential sports performance in Chilean triathletes, establishing an initial background for better understanding the relationship between physical performance, genetics and anxiety disorders.

  14. Psychometric Properties of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCI-CV) in Chilean Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Agustín E.; Rodríguez-Jiménez, Tíscar; Piqueras, José A.; Vera-Villarroel, Pablo; Godoy, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a considerable increase in the development of assessment tools for obsessive-compulsive symptomatology in children and adolescents. The Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCI-CV) is a well-established assessment self-report, with special interest for the assessment of dimensions of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). This instrument has shown to be useful for clinical and non-clinical populations in two languages (English and European Spanish). Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the OCI-CV in a Chilean community sample. The sample consisted of 816 children and adolescents with a mean age of 14.54 years (SD = 2.21; range = 10–18 years). Factor structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent/divergent validity, and gender/age differences were examined. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a 6-factor structure (Doubting/Checking, Obsessing, Hoarding, Washing, Ordering, and Neutralizing) with one second-order factor. Good estimates of reliability (including internal consistency and test-retest), evidence supporting the validity, and small age and gender differences (higher levels of OCD symptomatology among older participants and women, respectively) are found. The OCI-CV is also an adequate scale for the assessment of obsessions and compulsions in a general population of Chilean children and adolescents. PMID:26317404

  15. Twelve new Demospongiae (Porifera) from Chilean fjords, with remarks upon sponge-derived biogeographic compartments in the SE Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdu, Eduardo; Desqueyroux-Faúndez, Ruth; Carvalho, Mariana De Souza; Lôbo-Hajdu, Gisele; Willenz, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on 12 new species originating from the Chilean fjords region, namely Clathria (Microciona) mytilifila sp. nov., Haliclona (Reniera) caduca sp. nov., Latrunculia (L.) ciruela sp. nov., Latrunculia (L.) copihuensis sp. nov., Latrunculia (L.) verenae sp. nov., Latrunculia (L.) yepayek sp. nov., Myxilla (Burtonanchora) araucana sp. nov., Neopodospongia tupecomareni sp. nov., Oceanapia guaiteca sp. nov., Oceanapia spinisphaera sp. nov., Suberites cranium sp. nov. and Tethya melinka sp. nov. The material studied was collected between 5 and 30 m depth at latitudes comprised between 42º and 50ºS, and is part of a large collection of Chilean sponges gathered by an international team in a series of expeditions. Identification keys are provided for SE Pacific Suberites and Latrunculia, and the known species of Myxilla (Burtonanchora) and Neopodospongia. A trans-Pacific link to the New Zealand fauna was retrieved for the latter genus. Distribution ranges apparent from the materials studied here are judged too preliminary to allow any inference on biotic boundaries in the SE Pacific. A revision of earlier assertions about these biogeographic units and their boundaries concluded that very little support remains other than for existence of a Magellanic fauna. This is in part a consequence of revising the taxonomy of sponge species originally deemed to underpin these areas. Specifically, the former proposal of a Central to Southern Chile biogeographic unit (33-56ºS) has been markedly undone.  PMID:25113223

  16. Sex determination using the mesio-distal dimension of permanent maxillary incisors and canines in a modern Chilean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckmann, Tanya R; Logar, Ciara; Garrido-Varas, Claudia E; Meek, Susan; Pinto, Ximena Toledo

    2016-03-01

    The pelvis and skull have been shown to be the most accurate skeletal elements for the determination of sex. Incomplete or fragmentary bones are frequently found at forensic sites however teeth are often recovered in forensic cases due to their postmortem longevity. The goal of the present research was to investigate sexual dimorphism between the mesio-distal dimension of the permanent maxillary incisors and canines for the determination of sex in a contemporary Chilean population. Three hundred and three dental models (126 males and 177 females) from individuals ranging in age from 13 years to 37 years old were used from the School of Dentistry, University of Chile. The statistical analyses showed that only the central incisors and canines were sexually dimorphic. Discriminant function score equations were generated for use in sex determination. The average accuracy of sex classification ranged from 59.7% to 65.0% for the univariate analysis and 60.1% to 66.7% for the multivariate analysis. Comparisons to other populations were made. Overall, the accuracies ranged from 54.4% to 63.3% with males most often identified correctly and females most often misidentified. The determination of sex from the mesio-distal width of incisors and canines in Chilean populations does not adhere to the Mohan and Daubert criteria and therefore would not be presented as evidence in court. PMID:26976465

  17. Habitat selection of endemic birds in temperate forests in a biodiversity "Hotspot"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto A. Moreno-García

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Our objective was to find habitat associations at a microhabitat level for two endemic birds in a Chilean temperate forest (biodiversity “hotspots”, in order to integrate biodiversity into forest planning.Area of study: Nahuelbuta Range, Chile.Material and methods: The two birds studied were Scelorchilus rubecula (Chucao Tapaculo and Scytalopus magellanicus (Magellanic Tapaculo, both belonging to the Rhinocryptidae family. Presence or absence of the two species was sampled in 57 census spots. Habitat was categorized according to presence/absence results. We assessed the influence of abiotic variables (altitude, exposure, slope and vegetation structure (percentage of understory cover, number of strata using a statistical cluster analysis.Main results: The two bird species selected the habitat. Most frequent presence was detected at a range of 600-1100 masl, but Magellanic Tapaculo was associated to more protected sites in terms of vegetation structure (50-75% for understory cover and 2-3 strata. Slope was the most relevant abiotic variable in habitat selection due to its linkage to vegetation traits in this area.Research highlights: Our results can help managers to integrate biodiversity (endemic fauna species into forest planning by preserving certain traits of the vegetation as part of a habitat (at a microhabitat level selected by the fauna species. That planning should be implemented with both an adequate wood harvesting cuts system and specific silvicultural treatments.Key words: Chile; Nahuelbuta; rhinocryptidae; cluster analysis; rorest planning; vegetation structure.

  18. 10Be and 26Al dating of marine terraces to quantifying the uplift of Peruvian and Chilean coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Along most of the Southern Peru and Northern Chilean coasts, discontinuous uplifts are recorded by marine terraces and marine abrasion surfaces; they have thus preserved a record of eustatic sea level changes and the uplift history of the coastal area in the Andean forearc. One approach to study the tectonic history of the Andean forearc is to identify its effects in marine sedimentation or erosion patterns along the coastal area. To investigate these processes, the Neogene marine formations are studied in various coastal sections either in southern Peru or in Chile, in order to sample possibly different response of the continental plate to the subduction process. Differential GPS and cosmogenic datations (10Be and 26Al) are pursued to propose thorough ages on these sites and subtract the effects of eustatic sea-level changes from local curves, identifying tectonic uplifts. We chose this method in order to obtain absolute ages for each sampled terrace and because it is under application and calibration in the southern Peru on alluvial terraces. 10Be and 26Al samples analyzes in laboratory (with the collaboration of the UCSC and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA) are still under way but already gave determinant ages. Indeed, there are four observable terraces along the Chilean coast (+7 m, +40 m, +184 m et +370 m), all of which we have sampled. We obtained an average age for two of them: 231 Ka ± 14.9 for the +40 m terrace and 330 Ka ± 1.34 for the +184 m one. So the +40 m terrace corresponds to the 7th isotopic stage and the +184 m terrace corresponds to the 9th isotopic stage, which is younger than predicted by previous authors. We can thus expect that the 5th isotopic stage corresponds to the +7 m terrace and the 11th isotopic stage to the +370 m terrace. This hypothesis will be confirmed by the very next analyzes. The terrace of the 5th isotopic stage is lower and less developed than waited. The uplift rate is not constant: we

  19. Contenido de flavonoides y compuestos fenólicos de mieles chilenas e índice antioxidante Content of flavonoids and phenolic compounds in chilean honeys. Orac index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Muñoz

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of the phenolic content of several Chilean honeys showed great variations in flavonoid concentration among the samples analysed. Higher amounts of phenolics are found in honey from dry climates. The antioxidant effect of extracts, using ORAC analysis, did not correlate with the flavonoid content or with the total phenolic concentration.

  20. The origin of brines and salts in Chilean salars: a hydrochemical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risacher, François; Alonso, Hugo; Salazar, Carlos

    2003-11-01

    Northern Chile is characterized by a succession of north-south-trending ranges and basins occupied by numerous saline lakes and salt crusts, collectively called salars. Fossil salt crusts are found to the west in the extremely arid Central Valley, while active salars receiving permanent inflows fill many intravolcanic basins to the east in the semiarid Cordillera. Sea salts and desert dust are blown eastward over the Cordillera, where they constitute an appreciable fraction of the solute load of very dilute waters (salt contentsalars. Saline lakes and subsurface brines are under steady-state regime. The average residence time of conservative components ranges from a few years to some thousands years, which indicates a permanent leakage of the brines through bottom sediments. The infiltrating brines are recycled in the hydrologic system where they mix with dilute meteoric waters. High heat flow is the likely driving force that moves the deep waters in this magmatic arc region. Active Chilean salars cannot be considered as terminal lakes nor, strictly speaking, as closed basin lakes. Almost all incoming salts leave the basin and are transported elsewhere. Moreover, the dissolution of fossil salt crusts in some active salars also carries away important fluxes of components in percolating brines. Evaporative concentration of inflow waters leads to sulfate-rich or calcium-rich, near-neutral brines. Alkaline brines are almost completely lacking. The alkalinity/calcium ratio of inflow waters is lowered by the oxidation of native sulfur (reducing alkalinity) and the deposition of eolian gypsum (increasing Ca concentration). Theoretically, SO 4-rich inflow waters and their derived SO 4-rich brines should be found in the intravolcanic basins of the Cordillera because of the ubiquity of native sulfur, while Ca-rich brines should prevail in sedimentary basins where Ca-rich minerals are abundant. This relation is perfectly observed in the salar de Atacama, the largest in Chile

  1. Population structure, growth and production of a recent brachiopod from the Chilean fjord region

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgarten, Sebastian

    2013-12-04

    Magellania venosa, the largest recent brachiopod, occurs in clusters and banks in population densities of up to 416 ind m-2 in Comau Fjord, Northern Chilean fjord region. Below 15 m, it co-occurs with the mytilid Aulacomya atra and it dominates the benthic community below 20 m. To determine the question of why M. venosa is a successful competitor, the in situ growth rate of the brachiopod was studied and its overall growth performance compared with that of other brachiopods and mussels. The growth in length was measured between February 2011 and March 2012 after mechanical tagging and calcein staining. Settlement and juvenile growth were determined from recruitment tiles installed in 2009 and from subsequent photocensus. Growth of M. venosa is best described by the general von Bertalanffy growth function, with a maximum shell length (L∞) of 71.53 mm and a Brody growth constant (K) of 0.336 year-1. The overall growth performance (OGP index = 5.1) is the highest recorded for a rynchonelliform brachiopod and in the range of that for Mytilus chilensis (4.8-5.27), but lower than that of A. atra (5.74). The maximal individual production (PInd) is 0.29 g AFDM ind-1 year-1 at 42 mm shell length and annual production ranges from 1.28 to 89.25 g AFDM year-1 m-2 (1-57% of that of A. atra in the respective fjords). The high shell growth rate of M. venosa, together with its high overall growth performance may explain the locally high population density of this brachiopod in Comau Fjord. However, the production per biomass of the population (P/B--ratio) is low (0.535) and M. venosa may play only a minor role in the food chain. Settling dynamics indicates that M. venosa is a pioneer species with low juvenile mortality. The coexistence of the brachiopod and bivalve suggests that brachiopod survival is affected by neither the presence of potential brachiopod predators nor that of space competitors (i.e. mytilids).

  2. Chilean experience in production of 18F-FDG from 18F in a reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    18F-FDG (fluorine-deoxy-D-glucose) is an important and useful radiopharmaceutical for imaging and study of myocardial viability. Usually cyclotron-produced 18F is used to label 18F-FDG. The availability of a 5 MW Nuclear Reactor in Chile and the absence of a quality cyclotron to produce 18F required that we developed a method in order to obtain suitable 18F to label 18F-FDG using the facilities we have at the Nuclear Center of La Reina, Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission. The nuclear reactions involved are: 6Li(n,aα)3H and 16O(3H,n)18F. Enriched Li2CO3 (6Li = 95 %) was irradiated in a 5 MW swimming pool type nuclear reactor with a neutron flux of 5. 7 x 1013 n cm-2 s-1 for 4 hours. The irradiated Li2CO3 was dissolved in H2SO4 (1:1) and distilled as trimethylsilyl(18F)fluoride (18F-TMS). The labelling of the sugar was carried out using the method described by Hamacker. The 18F-TMS was trapped in a solution of acetonitrile, water, potassium carbonate, and kriptofix and hydrolysed to form 18F fluoride. The nucleophilic complex reacts with 1,3,4,6, tetra-O-acetyl- 2-O-trifluoromethanesulfonyl-bβ-D-mannopyranose. The acetylated carbohydrate by acid hydrolysis produces 18F-FDG. The final product was purified using an ion retarding resin (AG11-A8) and a system two Sep Pak Plus: Alumina and C-18 cartridge and sterilised by Millipore 0.22 μm filter. The 18F-FDG was obtained in an apyrogenic and sterile solution. The 18F radionuclide purity was higher than 99.9% and the radiochemical purity ofthe18F-FDG obtained was over than 99%. Residual 3H content was as low as 20 (Bq 3H/MBq 18F-FDG.). The yield of the process 18F-FDG was 13.2 %. (authors)

  3. Chromosomal characterization of cultured populations of Chilean coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kistuch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Colihueque V.

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal characterization of coho salmon samples from three fish farms in southern Chile (Polcura, Castro and Coyhaique was carried out in order to compare their chromosome constitutions. All populations had a 2n = 60; however, Polcura and Coyhaique had a different chromosome arm number (NF = 110; 40m + 10sm + 10st/t than Castro (NF = 108; 40m + 8sm + 12st/t. Variation in NF was due to chromosome pair 25, which was submetacentric in Coyhaique and Polcura, but subtelocentric in Castro. In all karyotypes, a large submetacentric chromosome pair exhibited an interstitial secondary constriction in the short arm. The observed variability in chromosome arm number agrees with previous reports for O. kisutch, and in this particular case it seemed to be caused by a pericentric inversion of pair 25. Cultured populations of Chilean coho salmon are, therefore, likely to be cytogenetically variable.A caracterização cromossômica de amostras de salmon tipo coho de três criações de peixes do sul do Chile (Polcura, Castro e Coyhaique foi feita com a intenção de comparar suas constituições cromossômicas. Todas as populações apresentaram 2n = 60; contudo, Polcura e Coyhaique tiveram um número de braços cromossômicos (NF = 110; 40m + 10sm + 10st/t diferente de Castro (NF = 108; 40m + 8sm + 12st/t. A variação no NF deveu-se ao par cromossômico 25, que era submetacêntrico em Coyhaique e Polcura e subtelocêntrico em Castro. Em todos os cariótipos, um grande par cromossômico submetacêntrico exibiu uma constrição secundária intersticial no braço curto. A variabilidade observada no número de braços cromossômicos concorda com relatos prévios para O. kisutch e, neste caso particular, parece ter sido causada por uma inversão pericêntrica no par 25. Portanto, populações cultivadas de salmão chileno do tipo coho provavelmente são citogeneticamente variáveis.

  4. Service quality and asymmetric information in the regulation of monopolies: The Chilean electricity distribution industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Oscar Alfredo

    This study is an enquiry about the role that service quality, asymmetric information, scope of regulation and regulator's preferences play in the regulation of monopolies, with an application to the case of the Chilean electricity distribution industry. In Chapter 1, I present the problem of regulating a monopolist and introduce the special conditions that the electricity sector has. Later I discuss the main characteristics of the electricity system that operates in Chile. The literature on regulation is reviewed in Chapter 2. A special emphasis is given to the problems of quality and information, and the lack of its proper joint treatment. In Chapter 3, I develop four theoretical models of regulation that explicitly consider the regulation of price and quality versus price-only regulation, and a symmetric versus asymmetric information structure where only the regulator knows its true costs. In these models, I also consider the effect of a regulator that may have a preference between consumers and the regulated monopolistic firms. I conclude that with symmetric information and independent of the scope of regulation, having a regulator that prefers consumers or producers does not affect the efficiency of the outcome. I also show that the regulator's inability to set quality, thus regulating only price, leads to an inefficient outcome, away from the first best solution that can be achieved by regulating both price and quality, even with asymmetric information, as long as the regulator does not have a "biased" preference for consumers or the monopolistic producers. If the regulator has a "bias," then the equilibrium will be inefficient with asymmetric information. But the effect on equilibrium price and quality depends on the direction of the effect of quality on the marginal effect of price in demand. More importantly, no closed-form solution can be derived unless drastic simplifications are made. To further investigate the outcome of the models, I use numerical

  5. Improving Water Quality Through Better Soil Management in Chilean Vineyard Plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty per cent of arable land in Chile is affected by erosion, the rate having increased by almost 50% during the past 30 years. In Central Chile, a shortage of flat land has increasingly compelled wine growers to plant vineyards on the hillsides. This has resulted in further soil erosion and degradation that already covers 20% of the region, equivalent to 90,500 ha. The sustainability of vineyard operations is further aggravated by the negative impact that this erosion has on downstream water quality, caused by herbicides and nutrients being carried down the hillsides by excess water runoff. The central region of Chile has therefore placed priority on the challenge to develop and implement appropriate land management practices designed to improve water quality and minimise soil erosion in vineyards. Through three consecutive IAEA technical cooperation projects, the Agriculture Section of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, in cooperation with the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences at the University of Chile and the Agriculture and Livestock Service, compared current soil management practices in vineyards in the Apalta valley 200 km south of Santiago de Chile. The fallout radionuclide, Beryllium-7 (7Be), was used as a tracer to estimate short-term (less than a month) soil erosion and deposition across agricultural landscapes. Herbicides labelled with the radioactive carbon-14 (14C) were used to determine the mobility of herbicides during erosion events and hence their influence on water quality. The projects compared planting on terraces with the traditional downslope rows, both with only scarce soil cover during the rainy season. Net annual rates of soil loss from the terraced site (76 t/ha) were only about 7% less than those from the downslope site (82 t/ha), indicating that soil losses were substantial on both terraces and downslopes. The lack of sufficient cover particularly during the first month of the rainy seasons could explain the severity of the observed

  6. Beliefs of Chilean University English Teachers: Uncovering Their Role in the Teaching and Learning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Larenas Claudio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Beliefs continue to be an important source to get to know teachers’ thinking processes and pedagogical decisions. Research in teachers’ beliefs has traditionally come from English-speaking contexts; however, a great deal of scientific work has been written lately in Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, and Argentina. This study elicits 30 Chilean university teachers’ beliefs about their own role in the teaching and learning of English in university environments. Through a qualitative research design, the data collected from interviews and journals were analyzed, triangulated, and categorized based on semantic content analysis. Results of the study indicate that university teachers reveal challenging and complex views about what it is like to teach English as a foreign language in a university context in Chile. The article concludes with a call to reflect on the importance of beliefs unravelling in teacher education programmes.Las creencias continúan siendo una fuente de importancia para conocer los procesos de pensamiento y los estilos pedagógicos de los docentes. Los estudios sobre las creencias docentes provienen en su mayoría de contextos angloparlantes; sin embargo, en los últimos años se ha escrito una gran cantidad de trabajos científicos en Brasil, México, Colombia y Argentina. Este estudio recoge las creencias de treinta docentes universitarios chilenos sobre su papel en la enseñanza y aprendizaje del inglés en ambientes universitarios. A partir de un diseño de investigación cualitativo, los datos recolectados por medio de entrevistas y diarios personales fueron analizados, triangulados y categorizados según el análisis de contenido semántico. Los resultados indicaron que los docentes de educación superior tienen visiones desafiantes y complejas sobre lo que significa enseñar inglés como lengua extranjera en un contexto universitario en Chile. El artículo concluye con una invitación a reflexionar sobre la importancia de

  7. Guanaco traces and hunting strategies at Alto Patache North Chilean fog oasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrain, H.; Cereceda, P.; Pérez, L.

    2010-07-01

    1. In foregoing Fog Conferences, some of us have made explicit the rich botanic and faunistic inventory to be found at this Chilean Fog site. This was specially apparent under strong ENSO conditions, as it happened in 1997/98 in the area. Among the mammal biggest species represented, the guanaco (Lama guanicoe Müller) merits special mention. Clear traces of their presence and eventual hunting and slaughtering by primitive populations have survived until present times. Among them, the myriads of guanaco trails still covering practically all the slopes along the foggy area, close to the sea, and their wollowing and defecating places are found. Also, although less studied, plant eating traces left behind by roaming camelids can be seen. 2. Guanaco hunting traces still visible at Alto Patache can be portrayed differently through : A) Analysis of lithic artifacts used as arms in hunting operations; B) Botanic response to animal attack; C) Examination of topographic traits used by primitive man in guanaco hunting strategies. A. Hundreds of lithic instruments made of stone, were abandoned by hunters in situ, some of them were intact, some fragmented, which would demonstrate a direct relationship with hunting and slaughtering, and also their elaboration in workshops at place. Lithic points, scrapers and knives were found at places specially apt for hunting or slaughtering activities. Total isolation of the mountain fog site previous to our arrival in 1996, favoured their conservation at place. B. Careful observation of some local plants showed clear traces of guanaco feeding habits. As a proof thereof, old cactus of the species Eulychnia iquiquensis show in their basal portions clear signals in the forms of scars, caused by the eating by guanacos. Guanaco faeces were found at the foot of Ephedra plants. Many dead Stipa ichu plants (Gramineae), in different areas of the oasis provide evidence of cutting close to their basis, caused by sharp guanaco tooth under severe food

  8. Chilean experience in production of 18F-FDG from 18F of reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    18F-FDG (fluorine-deoxy-D-glucose) is an important and useful radiopharmaceutical for imaging and study of miocardial viability. Usually cyclotron produced 18F is used to label 18F-FDG. Due to the availability of a 5MW Nuclear Reactor in Chile and the absence of a qualified Cyclotron to produce 18F we have developed a method in order to obtain suitable 18F to label 18F-FDG using the facilities we have at the Nuclear Center of La Reina, Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission. The nuclear reactions involved are: 6Li(n,alpha) 3H and 16O(3H,n)18F. Li-2CO-3, enrich (6Li =95%) was irradiated in a 5 MW swimming pool type Nuclear Reactor at a Neutron flux of 5.7x 1013 n cm-2sec-1during 4 hours. The irradiated Li-2CO-3 was dissolved in H-2SO-4(1:1) and distilled as trimethylsilyl (18F) fluoride (18F-TMS). The labelling of the sugar was carried out using the method described by Hamacker. The 18F-TMS was trapped in a solution of acetonitrile, water, potassium carbonate and kriptofix and hydrolysed to form 18F fluoride. The nucleofilic complex reacts with 1,3,4,6, tetra-O-acetyl-2-O-trifluormethanesulfonyl-beta-D-mannopyranose. The acetiled carbohydrate by acid hydrolysis produce 18FDG. The final product was purified using a ion retarding resin (AG11-A8) and a system a two Sep Pak Plus: Alumina and C-18 cartridge and sterilised by Millipore 0,22 um filter. The 18F-FDG was obtained in an apyrogenic and sterile solution. The 18F Radionucleidic Purity was higher than 99,9% and the Radiochemical Purity of the 18F-FDG obtained was over than 99%. Residual 3H content was as low as 20 (Bq3 H/MBq 18F-FDG). The yield of the process of 18F-FDG was 37 %. Studies in patient with recently myocardial disease have showed the successful of the 18F-FDG. The C.CH.E.N supports an active diagnostic nuclear cardiology program

  9. Prevalence and isotype distribution of antiphospholipid antibodies in unselected Chilean patients with venous and arterial thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, Iván; Pereira, Jaime; Alarcón, Marcelo; Vásquez, Marcela; Pinochet, Carmen; Vélez, María T; Sandoval, Jorge; Icaza, Gloria; Pierangeli, Silvia

    2004-04-01

    Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are a heterogeneous family of antibodies associated with thrombotic events and other complications. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of aPL in a group of Chilean patients with thrombosis. Two hundred and twenty-six patients with venous and arterial thrombosis and 95 healthy controls were studied. Anticardiolipin (aCL), anti-beta(2 )glycoprotein I (anti-beta(2)GPI), and antiprothrombin (aPT) antibodies were determined. Eighty-eight out of 226 (38.9%) patients with thrombosis had some type of aPL. Fifty-seven patients (25.2%) were positive for aCL, 31 (13.7%) for aPT, and 14 (6.2%) for anti-beta(2)GPI antibodies. Twelve patients (5.3%) were positive for more than one aPL. IgG, IgM and IgA isotypes were observed in aCL, anti-beta(2)GPI, and aPT antibodies. Twenty-six out of 92 (28.3%) patients with venous thrombosis and 31/134 (23.1%) patients with arterial thrombosis were positive for aCL antibodies. With regard to the control group (4/95=4.2%), the odd ratios (OR) were 5.2 (1.3-19.8; p0.01) and 5.7 (1.6-22.3; p0.01), respectively. Additionally, we observed statistically significant OR with aPT and anti-beta(2)GPI antibodies; in the first, with venous and arterial thrombosis, and in the second, only with arterial thrombosis. Our results show a significant prevalence of aPL, predominantly aCL and aPT antibodies, in patients with thrombosis. Additionally, aCL and aPT antibodies appear to be a risk factor for venous and arterial thrombosis, and anti-beta(2)GPI antibodies appear to be a risk factor for arterial thrombosis. PMID:15045627

  10. The Challenge of Forest Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinor Ostrom

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecologists and practitioners have conventionally used forest plots or transects for monitoring changes in attributes of forest condition over time. However, given the difficulty in collecting such data, conservation practitioners frequently rely on the judgment of foresters and forest users for evaluating changes. These methods are rarely compared. We use a dataset of 53 forests in five countries to compare assessments of forest change from forest plots, and forester and user evaluations of changes in forest density. We find that user assessments of changes in tree density are strongly and significantly related to assessments of change derived from statistical analyses of randomly distributed forest plots. User assessments of change in density at the shrub/sapling level also relate to assessments derived from statistical evaluations of vegetation plots, but this relationship is not as strong and only weakly significant. Evaluations of change by professional foresters are much more difficult to acquire, and less reliable, as foresters are often not familiar with changes in specific local areas. Forester evaluations can instead better provide valid single-time comparisons of a forest with other areas in a similar ecological zone. Thus, in forests where local forest users are present, their evaluations can be used to provide reliable assessments of changes in tree density in the areas they access. However, assessments of spatially heterogeneous patterns of human disturbance and regeneration at the shrub/sapling level are likely to require supplemental vegetation analysis.

  11. 78 FR 18307 - Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting; Correction. SUMMARY: The Forest Service published a document in the Federal Register of January.... Correction In the Federal Register of January 31, 2013, in FR Doc. 2013-02091, on page 6806, in the...

  12. Saving the Forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Under a trial program, some forestry workers can acquire the operating rights to the forest in which they work Jiang Yongbin, 34, an employee of the Wumahe Forestry Administration of Yichun City, Heilongjiang Province, became famous overnight when he paid 62,901 yuan to buy 9.3 hectares of state-owned forest on April 29, making him the first person to participate in the country's forest tenure reform. Authorized by the State Council. China's cabinet, the State Forestry Administration approved a

  13. Swedish forest policy since 1990

    OpenAIRE

    Nylund, Jan-Erik

    2010-01-01

    Similar to many other countries, particularly in Europe, Sweden has revised much of its legislation relating to forestry and environment since 1990. Of immediate relevance to the forest sector are the 1993 Forestry Act and consequent ordnances and regulations, and to forest property acquisition, forest income taxation, and the function of the Swedish Forest Agency. New environmental legislation has consequences for forest policy making, and voluntary certification was introduced The effects o...

  14. Comparison of Airborne LiDAR and Satellite Hyperspectral Remote Sensing to Estimate Vascular Plant Richness in Deciduous Mediterranean Forests of Central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ceballos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Andes foothills of central Chile are characterized by high levels of floristic diversity in a scenario, which offers little protection by public protected areas. Knowledge of the spatial distribution of this diversity must be gained in order to aid in conservation management. Heterogeneous environmental conditions involve an important number of niches closely related to species richness. Remote sensing information derived from satellite hyperspectral and airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR data can be used as proxies to generate a spatial prediction of vascular plant richness. This study aimed to estimate the spatial distribution of plant species richness using remote sensing in the Andes foothills of the Maule Region, Chile. This region has a secondary deciduous forest dominated by Nothofagus obliqua mixed with sclerophyll species. Floristic measurements were performed using a nested plot design with 60 plots of 225 m2 each. Multiple predictors were evaluated: 30 topographical and vegetation structure indexes from LiDAR data, and 32 spectral indexes and band transformations from the EO1-Hyperion sensor. A random forest algorithm was used to identify relevant variables in richness prediction, and these variables were used in turn to obtain a final multiple linear regression predictive model (Adjusted R2 = 0.651; RSE = 3.69. An independent validation survey was performed with significant results (Adjusted R2 = 0.571, RMSE = 5.05. Selected variables were statistically significant: catchment slope, altitude, standard deviation of slope, average slope, Multiresolution Ridge Top Flatness index (MrRTF and Digital Crown Height Model (DCM. The information provided by LiDAR delivered the best predictors, whereas hyperspectral data were discarded due to their low predictive power.

  15. Forest Fire Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucca, Carol; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents a model that integrates high school science with the needs of the local scientific community. Describes how a high school ecology class conducted scientific research in fire ecology that benefited the students and a state park forest ecologist. (MKR)

  16. Trading forest carbon - OSU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...

  17. Disturbing forest disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volney, W.J.A.; Hirsch, K.G. [Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-10-01

    This paper described the role that disturbances play in maintaining the ecological integrity of Canadian boreal forests. Potential adaptation options to address the challenges that these disturbances present were also examined. Many forest ecosystems need fire for regeneration, while other forests rely on a cool, wet disintegration process driven by insects and commensal fungi feeding on trees to effect renewal. While there are characteristic natural, temporal and spatial patterns to these disturbances, recent work has demonstrated that the disturbances are being perturbed by climatic change that has been compounded by anthropogenic disturbances in forests. Fire influences species composition and age structure, regulates forest insects and diseases, affects nutrient cycling and energy fluxes, and maintains the productivity of different habitats. Longer fire seasons as a result of climatic change will lead to higher intensity fires that may more easily evade initial attacks and become problematic. Fire regimes elevated beyond the range of natural variation will have a dramatic effect on the regional distribution and functioning of forest ecosystems and pose a threat to the safety and prosperity of people. While it was acknowledged that if insect outbreaks were to be controlled on the entire forest estate, the productivity represented by dead wood would be lost, it was suggested that insects such as the forest tent caterpillar and the spruce bud worm may also pose a greater threat as the climate gets warmer and drier. Together with fungal associates, saproxylic arthropods are active in nutrient cycling and ultimately determine the fertility of forest sites. It was suggested that the production of an age class structure and forest mosaic would render the forest landscape less vulnerable to the more negative aspects of climate change on vegetation response. It was concluded that novel management design paradigms are needed to successfully reduce the risk from threats

  18. Airborne forest fire research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, G. S.

    1974-01-01

    The research relating to airborne fire fighting systems is reviewed to provide NASA/Langley Research Center with current information on the use of aircraft in forest fire operations, and to identify research requirements for future operations. A literature survey, interview of forest fire service personnel, analysis and synthesis of data from research reports and independent conclusions, and recommendations for future NASA-LRC programs are included.

  19. Human-Forest Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Eva; Dauksta, Dainis

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between forests and people goes back to the early development of civilisation. However, parallel with technical innovations and an increasing urbanisation of the society, an alienation from nature has taken place......The relationship between forests and people goes back to the early development of civilisation. However, parallel with technical innovations and an increasing urbanisation of the society, an alienation from nature has taken place...

  20. Climate change and forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of the earth's present forms of vegetation show that the climate change to be expected from double the current greenhouse gas concentrations would have a fundamental impact on forest structures. This problem can be confronted in two ways: Either by adusting long-term silvicultural planning according to predictions derived from vegetation model calculations; or by managing forests in the manner of a flexible response strategy until changes actually occur. An evaluation of representative surveys of forests in Bavaria has shown that contrary to widerspread regions of Bavaria. This suggests that in the event of a warning by 1 to 2 C, assuming all other climate parameters to remain roughly constant, the beech could play a major role in the forest structure in large parts of Bavaria. The data material also shows that in defiance of all pessimistic forecasts the growth of beech has markedly improved over the past decade. To date the only explanations offered for this phenomenon are growth-stimulating changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere, specifically the rise in carbon dioxide; and the enhanced nitrogen deposition in the soil. This example shows that the immense number of unpredictable influences prohibit long-term forecasts on forest development. Now if the forest is made up of a large number of tree species whose most favoured climatic ranges are known, then it is possible to meet climate changes with early silvicultural interventions and so preclude forest destruction. Scientifically founded silviculature can thus become an important support for the stability of our forests. (orig.)

  1. On factorisation forests

    OpenAIRE

    Colcombet, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    27 pages The theorem of factorisation forests shows the existence of nested factorisations --- a la Ramsey --- for finite words. This theorem has important applications in semigroup theory, and beyond. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the importance of this approach in the context of automata over infinite words and trees. We extend the theorem of factorisation forest in two directions: we show that it is still valid for any word indexed by a linear ordering; and we show that it ...

  2. Acidification of Forest Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Kauppi, P.; Kaemaeri, J.; Posch, M; Kauppi, L.; Matzner, E.

    1986-01-01

    Acidification is considered to be an unfavourable process in forest soil. Timber logging, natural accumulation of biomass in the ecosystem, and acidic deposition are known sources of acidification. Acidification causes a risk of damage to plant roots and subsequent risk of a decline in ecosystem productivity. A dynamic model is introduced for describing the acidification of forest soils. In 1-year time steps the model calculates the soil pH as a function of the acid stress and the buff...

  3. Culturing the forest [Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Reviw of: The Social Lives of Forests Past, Present, and Future of Woodland Resurgence Susanna B. Hecht, Kathleen D. Morrison, and Christine Padoch, Eds. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 2014. 507 pp. $50, £35. ISBN 9780226322667.......Reviw of: The Social Lives of Forests Past, Present, and Future of Woodland Resurgence Susanna B. Hecht, Kathleen D. Morrison, and Christine Padoch, Eds. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 2014. 507 pp. $50, £35. ISBN 9780226322667....

  4. Discurso y Pensamiento en el Aula Matemática Chilena Discourse and Thought in the Chilean Mathematics Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Preiss

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tuvo por objetivo explorar la naturaleza de los procesos de pensamiento matemático presentes en el discurso de profesoras y profesores que enseñan en el segundo ciclo de educación básica de escuelas públicas en Chile. Se codificaron 77 videos de clases de profesores participantes en el Sistema de Evaluación Nacional Docente del Gobierno de Chile, en base a una rúbrica que distinguía 4 formas de pensamiento matemático: resolución mecánica de problemas, resolución razonada de problemas, presentación mecánica de la información y presentación razonada de la información. Se realizaron análisis descriptivos y análisis multivariados de varianza. Los resultados evidencian que el pensamiento matemático docente está focalizado en la presentación mecánica de información y la resolución mecánica de problemas. Los profesores que enseñan en 5° y 6° grado dedican significativamente menos tiempo a resolución de problemas que los profesores que enseñan en 7° y 8° grado. Los resultados son coherentes con evidencia proveniente de otros estudios que muestran la adherencia de los profesores chilenos a una pedagogía intuitiva externalista, centrada en la práctica repetida de procedimientos.The goal of this study was to explore the nature of the processes of mathematical thinking evidenced in the discourse of teachers working at Chilean middle-school level public schools. Seventy seven classroom videos filmed as a part of the Chilean Government National Teaching Assessment System were coded according to a rubric that distinguished 4 forms of mathematical thinking: mechanic problem solving, reasoned problem solving, mechanic information presentation, and reasoned information presentation. Descriptive analysis and multivariate analyses of variance were performed. The results evidence that teachers' mathematical thinking is focused on mechanic information presentation and mechanic problem solving. Teachers working in 5th

  5. Forests and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of forests to Canada, both in economic and environmental terms, is indisputable. A warmer global climate may well have profound effects on the Canadian boreal forest, and at least some of the effects will not be beneficial. With the state of the current knowledge of climate processes and climate change it is not possible to predict the extent or rate of projected changes of anthropogenic origin. Given these uncertainties, the appropriate course of action for the Canadian forest sector is to develop policies and strategies which will make good sense under the current climatic regime, and which will also be appropriate for actions in a warmer climate scenario. The business as usual approach is not acceptable in the context of pollution control as it has become clear that anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants must be substantially reduced, both to prevent (or at least slow the rate of) possible global warming, and to reduce impacts on the biophysical environment and human health. Effective mitigative actions must be introduced on both a national and global scale. Forest management policies more effectively geared to the sustainability of forests are needed. The programs that are developed out of such policies must be cognizant of the real possibility that climate in the present boreal forest regions may change in the near future. 13 refs

  6. Laser Scanning in Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkan Olsson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS to forests has been revolutionary during the last decade. This development was facilitated by combining earlier ranging lidar discoveries [1–5], with experience obtained from full-waveform ranging radar [6,7] to new airborne laser scanning systems which had components such as a GNSS receiver (Global Navigation Satellite System, IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit and a scanning mechanism. Since the first commercial ALS in 1994, new ALS-based forest inventory approaches have been reported feasible for operational activities [8–12]. ALS is currently operationally applied for stand level forest inventories, for example, in Nordic countries. In Finland alone, the adoption of ALS for forest data collection has led to an annual savings of around 20 M€/year, and the work is mainly done by companies instead of governmental organizations. In spite of the long implementation times and there being a limited tradition of making changes in the forest sector, laser scanning was commercially and operationally applied after about only one decade of research. When analyzing high-ranked journal papers from ISI Web of Science, the topic of laser scanning of forests has been the driving force for the whole laser scanning research society over the last decade. Thus, the topic “laser scanning in forests” has provided a significant industrial, societal and scientific impact. [...

  7. Subantarctic forest ecology : case study of a conifer-broadleaved stand in Patagonia, Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dezzotti, A.

    2000-01-01

    In the temperate rainforests of southern South America, the tree genus Nothofagus (Nothofagaceae) is the dominant in extension and abundance on zonal soils at different latitudes and altitudes, as well as on intrazonal (e.g., wetlands) and azonal soils (e.g., morrenic and fluvioglacial deposits). Al

  8. Computer model of running crown forest fire

    OpenAIRE

    Barovik, D. V.; Taranchuk, V. B.

    2010-01-01

    Adapted mathematical model of running crown forest fire propagation is considered. The results of computer modelling and the peculiarities of forest fire behavior in heterogeneous forests are discussed.

  9. Association between alleles of the transforming growth factor alpha locus and cleft lip and palate in the Chilean population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jara, L.; Blanco, R.; Chiffelle, I. [Univ. of Chile, Santiago (Chile)] [and others

    1995-07-17

    Two RFLPs at the TGFA locus were studied in 39 unrelated Chilean (Caucasoid-Mongoloid) patients with non-syndromic cleft lip/palate [CL(P)] and 51 control individuals. A highly significant association between BamHI A2 allele and CL(P) was detected ({chi}{sub 2} = 6.00; P = 0.014), while no association was found between TaqI RFLPs and clefting. No significant differences were found when comparing genotypes by type of cleft and a positive or negative family history of clefting. Our results seem to support rather definitively the association between TGFA and clefting but not support the hypothesis that TGFA is a major causal gene of CL(P). 29 refs., 5 tabs.

  10. Determination of reactions between free radicals and selected Chilean wines and transition metals by ESR and UV-vis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Mónica; Olea-Azar, Claudio; Speisky, Hernán; Rodríguez, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Four different types of Chilean wines (Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Carmenere and Syrah) were selected and examined in their free radical scavenging capacities by electron spin resonance (ESR) and spectrophotometric methods. The free radical scavenging properties were evaluated against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH rad ) radical, 2,6-di- tert-butyl-alpha-(3,5-di- tert-butyl-4-oxo-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-ylidene)- p-tolyloxy (Galvinoxyl) radical and hydroxyl radical (HO rad ). The possible effect on these scavenging properties of added transition metals to these wines was evaluated. Among the wines evaluated, Cabernet Sauvignon was the one with the highest activity against all radicals tested. The presence of added copper or iron to wines resulted in a reduced free radical scavenging capacity for all type of wines studied. The formation of redox inactive complexes between polyphenols of wine and transition metals is the possible cause of this reduction in antioxidant activity.

  11. Detection of Salmonella enterica in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) of Chilean Patagonia: evidences of inter-species transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougnac, C; Pardo, C; Meza, K; Arredondo, C; Blank, O; Abalos, P; Vidal, R; Fernandez, A; Fredes, F; Retamal, P

    2015-04-01

    Patagonia in southern South America is among the few world regions where direct human impact is still limited but progressively increasing, mainly represented by tourism, farming, fishing and mining activities. The sanitary condition of Patagonian wildlife is unknown, in spite of being critical for the assessment of anthropogenic effects there. The aim of this study was the characterization of Salmonella enterica strains isolated from wild colonies of Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) located in Magdalena Island and Otway Sound, in Chilean Patagonia. Eight isolates of Salmonella were found, belonging to Agona and Enteritidis serotypes, with an infection rate of 0·38%. Resistance to ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftiofur and tetracycline antimicrobials were detected, and some of these strains showed genotypic similarity with Salmonella strains isolated from humans and gulls, suggesting inter-species transmission cycles and strengthening the role of penguins as sanitary sentinels in the Patagonian ecosystem. PMID:25148565

  12. Rehabilitation of radioactive contaminated forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of radiation accidents and nuclear-weapon tests at the territory of the former USSR a part of the Forest Fund of 23 subjects of the Russian Federation has been contaminated by radionuclides. The contaminated forests, which are included in a structure of more than 130 forest management units (leskhozes) and more then 330 local forest management units, as a rule, are located in highly inhabited regions with traditionally intensive forestry management and high level of forest resources use. To provide radiologically safe forest management in the contaminated areas, the Federal Forest Service has developed and validated a special system of countermeasures. Use of this system makes it possible to diminish significantly the dose to personnel, to exclude the use of forest products with contamination exceeding radiological standards and to provide protection of the forest as a biogeochemical barrier to radionuclide migration from contaminated areas to human habitat. (author)

  13. Forest climate stations in Bavaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydrology division of the Forstliche Versuchs- und Forschungsanstalt of Bavaria is the responsible operator of forest climate stations, with which it fulfills the following basic tasks: - securing of climate data relevant to growth and vitality which are representative of all major Bavarian forest areas, - measurement of soil humidity in region-typical forest sites as a parameter of forest site prospection and for the application of forest-hydrological models, - establishment of the deposition of pollutants and nutrients to forest ecosystems, - verification of the quality of soil leachates under forest sites, - preparing of budgets of substance cycles in forest ecosystems, - monitoring of biological processes in forest ecosystems as an instrument of precautionary environmental care. Furthermore, these basic data are prepared for use in ecosystemal research approachers in cooperation with other scientific disciplines. (orig.)

  14. Testing Democracy’s Promise: Indigenous Mobilization and the Chilean State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Rodríguez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the early 1990s, Chile’s restored democratic government created a new legal architecture and a new institution, the CONADI (National Corporation for Indigenous Development, in order to improve the historically distant relationship between the state and indigenous groups. To the Mapuche Indians, newly institutionalized principles of constitutional rights, self-determination, and participatory co-governance promised not just more meaningful citizenship, but resolution to longstanding claims of injustice over ancestral land and natural resource claims. This project chronicles the dilution and betrayal of this commitment. In a series of tense conflicts over land, forestry, and hydroelectric power, state officials suppressed indigenous initiatives and implanted their own policy priorities within the new institutions. This experience has deepened the divisions among state actors, private actors, and indigenous communities. Still, important reform currents persist, and Mapuche activists continue to pressure and challenge the state in creative ways. This evolving relationship between the Mapuche and the state presents a vital test of the quality of Chilean democracy.Resumen: Poniendo a prueba la promesa de la democracia: movilizaciones indígenas y el estado chilenoA principios de los años noventa, el gobierno nuevamente democrático de Chile creó una nueva arquitectura jurídica y una nueva institución, la CONADI (Corporación Nacional de Desarrollo Indígena, para mejorar las relaciones históricamente distantes entre el estado y los pueblos indígenas. Para los mapuche, principios de derechos constitucionales institucionalizados recientemente, la autodeterminación, y el cogobierno prometían no solo una ciudadanía más completa, sino también la resolución de prolongados reclamos históricos por la injusticia en cuanto a su acceso a sus tierras ancestrales y recursos naturales. Este trabajo explica la disolución y la traición de esos

  15. Indicators of gender violence in romantic relationships. Case study in chilean adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cruz Sánchez Gómez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence of gender violence is increasing alarmingly in our society and has become one of our most serious social problems. The data indicate that the origin of much of this type of behaviour has its roots in early adolescent relationships, in which the presence and repetition of chauvinist patterns and models has been verified. In this paper we assume that this kind of conduct is related to socially accepted behaviours that form part of the normative patterns typical of socialization processes. To analyse this thesis, an interdisciplinary group of researchers from Spanish and Chilean universities    carried out a qualitative study on behaviours associated with gender violence in groups of adolescents and young people from different economic, geographic, social and ethnic contexts in order to gather evidence about the ways adolescents establish romantic or intimate relationships and to determine whether there are any indications of male chauvinist violence against adolescent women. The research design proposed takes as a reference the principles of Grounded Theory and employs the constant comparative method, that is, the information is collected, coded and analysed simultaneously, with theoretical sampling that involves selecting new cases as a function of their potential to help refine or expand the concepts and theories already developed. Thus, the coding of the discourse was carried out using open coding, axial coding and selective coding, and finally grouping the relevant categories or ideas into meta-categories to build the theoretical schema. Participating in the study were 156 adolescents (77 girls and 79 boys residing in the urban area of the Arica region in Chile, having been selected according to the variables “academic year” and “age”. Seventeen discussion groups were formed until data saturation was attained. The findings show that in these first adolescent dating relationships there is an important number of negative

  16. Near-surface temperature lapse rates in a mountainous catchment in the Chilean Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala; Schauwecker, S.; Pellicciotti, F.; McPhee, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    In mountainous areas, and in the Chilean Andes in particular, the irregular and sparse distribution of recording stations resolves insufficiently the variability of climatic factors such as precipitation, temperature and relative humidity. Assumptions about air temperature variability in space and time have a strong effect on the performance of hydrologic models that represent snow processes such as accumulation and ablation. These processes have large diurnal variations, and assumptions that average over longer time periods (days, weeks or months) may reduce the predictive capacity of these models under different climatic conditions from those for which they were calibrated. They also introduce large uncertainties when such models are used to predict processes with strong subdiurnal variability such as snowmelt dynamics. In many applications and modeling exercises, temperature is assumed to decrease linearly with elevation, using the free-air moist adiabatic lapse rate (MALR: 0.0065°C/m). Little evidence is provided for this assumption, however, and recent studies have shown that use of lapse rates that are uniform in space and constant in time is not appropriate. To explore the validity of this approach, near-surface (2 m) lapse rates were calculated and analyzed at different temporal resolution, based on a new data set of spatially distributed temperature sensors setup in a high elevation catchment of the dry Andes of Central Chile (approx. 33°S). Five minutes temperature data were collected between January 2011 and April 2011 in the Ojos de Agua catchment, using two Automatic Weather Stations (AWSs) and 13 T-loggers (Hobo H8 Pro Temp with external data logger), ranging in altitude from 2230 to 3590 m.s.l.. The entire catchment was snow free during our experiment. We use this unique data set to understand the main controls over temperature variability in time and space, and test whether lapse rates can be used to describe the spatial variations of air

  17. Choice of electronic v/s printed documents by southern Chilean dental students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Schulz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In recent decades, the use of digital texts has replaced printed documents. This has generated changes in the way texts are presented and diffused as well as the students’ choice and the way of reading materials related to medicine. While some reports have evaluated the use of digital compared to print formats, there is no evidence about dental students’ preferences. The objective of this study is to determine preferences among dental students from six universities in the south of Chile for using printed versus electronic documents. A descriptive study based on a survey which was conducted among dental students in May and June, 2013, was designed. The proposed survey was adapted for collecting general student data and preferences for using electronic or traditional printed documents. Six schools and a total of 1,022 students, with an average age of 21.4 years, participated. A 93.3% of them reported using both types of documents. However, a 59.7% preferred printed documents. Only a 9.3% read documents directly from an electronic device. Students overwhelmingly preferred using printed documents than the electronic type. It is imperative to investigate the impact of new learning technologies in Chilean dental education. RESUMEN El uso de textos en formato digital ha reemplazado en las últimas décadas el uso de documentos impresos, generando cambios en la disposición y difusión de éstos como también en la elección de los estudiantes y la forma de lectura de materias relacionadas con la medicina. Si bien existen reportes que valoran el uso de formato digital en comparación a textos impresos, no existe evidencia de las preferencias en estudiantes de Odontología. El objetivo de este estudio es determinar la preferencia de uso de documentos en formato impreso versus electrónico en estudiantes de odontología de seis universidades del sur de Chile. Se diseñó un estudio descriptivo basado en una encuesta aplicada a estudiantes de

  18. Preference shifts, structural breaks and the domestic demand for Chilean wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Troncoso-Valverde

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates possible changes in Chilean domestic consumer preferences for wine through the estimation of a demand function that allows for structural breaks and regime shifts in the cointegrating relationship. Our findings support both higher own-price elasticity and higher substitutability between wine and beer after 1982, when a shift in regime in the demand function is found. We believe our findings might be due to the introduction of an increasing number of wine varieties in Chile during the last two decades. We argue that more wine varieties affect domestic consumer preferences by altering the product diversity available in the domestic market.El presente artículo investiga posibles cambios en las preferencias de los consumidores chilenos de vino por medio de la estimación de una función de demanda que permite quiebres estructurales y cambios de régimen en el vector de cointegración de la misma. Nuestros resultados muestran una alta elasticidad - precio y una mayor sustitución entre vino y cerveza a partir de 1982, fecha en la cual un cambio de régimen en la función de demanda es detectado. Dichos resultados pueden ser atribuidos a la introducción de un creciente número de variedades de vino en Chile en las últimas dos décadas. Así, la introducción de un mayor número de variedades de vino afecta las preferencias de los consumidores chilenos al alterar la variedad de productos disponibles en el mercado chileno de vino.Este artigo investiga possíveis mudanças nas preferências dos consumidores de vinho por meio da estimação de uma função da demanda que permite a ruptura estrutural e a mudança do regime no vetor da co-integração do mesmo. Nossos resultados mostram uma elevada elasticidade - preço e uma maior substituição entre o vinho e a cerveja a partir de 1982, data na qual uma mudança do regime na função da demanda é detectada. Estes resultados podem ser atribuídos à introdução de um n

  19. Summer energy balance and ablation of high elevation glaciers in the central Chilean Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Benjamin; Rivera, Andres; Burger, Flavia; Bravo, Claudio

    2014-05-01

    Glaciers of the semi-arid central Chilean Andes are an important freshwater source for the populous Central Valley region of Chile, but have been shrinking in recent decades. The surface energy balance of these glaciers is of high scientific interest as summer ablation occurs through both sublimation and melt. During the 2012-13 Austral Summer a glacio-meteorological monitoring programme was established on Olivares Alfa (3.9 km2, 4130-4800 m elevation) and Beta (8.3 km2, 3620-4850 m elevation) Glaciers and their forelands in the Upper Olivares Valley, 33°00'-33°11' S, 70°05'-70°15' W, approximately 50 km north-east of Santiago. This included complete automatic weather stations (AWSs) with sonic rangers to record surface ablation on the ablation zones of the two glaciers, and one AWS in the proglacial area of Olivares Alfa Glacier including precipitation gauge. To complement these point data, daily images of the glaciers were captured with fixed cameras in order to calculate snow cover and albedo distributions. To calculate the surface energy balance and rates of melt and sublimation, a model was developed which uses direct AWS measurements of the radiative fluxes and calculates the turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat using the bulk aerodynamic approach. The model also calculates the subsurface heat flux and includes a simple scheme to estimate refreezing of melt water within surface snow or ice. Meteorological data and model results for the December to May period will be presented in this paper. Model calculations match closely the cumulative ablation curve of the sonic ranger at Olivares Alfa, with a slight overestimation, and overestimate cumulative ablation recorded by the sonic ranger at Olivares Beta, possibly due, at least in part, to uncertain snow density values. Modelled cumulative ablation in the December-April period is 2.2 m water equivalent (w.e.) at Olivares Alfa (0.10 m sublimation, 2.10 m melt) and 2.34 m w.e. at Olivares Beta (0.18 m

  20. Socio-demographic characteristics and career choices amongst Chilean dental students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Gambetta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the socio-demographic and career choice characteristics of dental students in two publicly funded universities in Chile. A total of 601 dental students participated in the study with a 53% response rate.The written survey covered age, gender, type of school attended, place of residence, parental occupation, level of education, tuition fees payment methods, along with motivations and preferences towards dentistry as a career. The respondents had an average age of 22 years old. Sixty one percent of respondents were female, and the majority had completed secondary education in private and subsidized schools with only 21.5% having finished in public schools. Most of the students covered their tuition fees with parental money (37.1%, followed by any type of loan (27.9%. The majority of students (63.8% had placed dentistry as their first career choice with self-motivation being the most important reason for their decision. This study provides a description of the socio-demographic and economic profile of Chilean dental students and provides insights about career decision issues. It also purposes areas for further research and management by academics for future program development. RESUMEN El presente estudio descriptivo de corte transversal explora el perfil socio-demográfico y los factores asociados a la elección de la carrera de los estudiantes de odontología pertenecientes a dos universidades estales chilenas. Un total de 601 estudiantes participaron de esta investigación con una tasa de respuesta del 53%.La encuesta escrita incluyó, edad, género, educación secundaria, lugar de residencia, nivel educacional y ocupación de los padres, método de pago junto con las motivaciones y proyecciones de los estudiantes hacia la carrera. Los participantes reportaron una edad promedio de 22 años. Sesenta y un por ciento de los participantes fueron mujeres, y la mayoría terminó la enseñanza media

  1. Contrasting Genetic Structure and Diversity of Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1848) Along the Chilean Coast: Stock Identification for Fishery Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Wevar, Claudio; Salinas, Pilar; Hüne, Mathias; Segovia, Nicolás; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Oda, Esteban; Poulin, Elie

    2015-01-01

    Galaxias maculatus (Pisces: Galaxiidae) commonly known as "puye" has a disjunct distribution along the Southern Hemisphere including landlocked and migratory populations at latitudes over 30°S in South America, Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand. Chilean artisanal fishery of G. maculatus has become less important as a resource due to multiple factors including overexploitation, pollution, introduction of predators, and competitors. At the same time, the current conservation status of the species in Chile is still uncertain. Here, we used mtDNA control region sequences (925bp) to investigate main patterns of genetic diversity and structure in populations from 2 biogeographic areas along the Chilean coast. Extremely high levels of genetic diversity characterize the species, suggesting a low amount of influence of the last glacial cycle over its demography compared with other studies in freshwater and marine South American fishes. However, we recognized contrasting genetic patterns between the Intermediate Area (between 30°S and 42°S) and the Magellanic Province (between 42°S and 56°S). On the one hand, over a narrow geographical range (<200 km) each Intermediate Area estuarine population constitutes a different genetic unit. On the other hand, the Magellanic populations of the species exhibited low levels of differentiation in an area extending for more than 500 km. Such differences may be a consequence of different coastal configurations, oceanographic regimes, and Quaternary glacial histories. Finally, our results support the existence of different stock units for G. maculatus and this information should be integrated in future management strategies and aquaculture programs for this species. PMID:26245779

  2. Multiplex PCR for the detection of Piscirickettsia salmonis, Vibrio anguillarum, Aeromonas salmonicida and Streptococcus phocae in Chilean marine farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Cammas, D; Yañez, A; Arancibia, G; Toranzo, A E; Avendaño-Herrera, R

    2011-12-01

    A multiplex (m-)PCR-based protocol was designed for the simultaneous detection of the main marine bacterial pathogens in Chilean salmon farms: Streptococcus phocae, Aeromonas salmonicida, Vibrio anguillarum and Piscirickettsia salmonis. Each of the 4 oligonucleotide primer pairs exclusively amplified the target gene of the specific bacterial pathogen. The detection limit of the m-PCR using purified total bacterial DNA was 50 pg microl(-1) for V anguillarum, 500 fg microl(-1) for P. salmonis, and 5 pg microl(-1) for S. phocae and A. salmonicida. This corresponded to average limits in the m-PCR sensitivity of 3.69 x 10(5) CFU ml(-1) of V anguillarum, 1.26 x 10(4) CFU m(-1) of S. phocae, and 5.33 x 10(4) CFU ml(-1) of A. salmonicida, while the detection limits for the spiked fish tissues, regardless of the sample (spleen, kidney, liver or muscle) were 2.64 +/- 0.54 x 10(7) CFU g(-1) for V. anguillarum, 9.03 +/- 1.84 x 10(5) CFU g(-1) for S. phocae, 3.8 +/- 0.78 x 10(3) CFU mg(-1) for A. salmonicida and 100 P. salmonis cells. However, high amounts of DNA from 3 bacterial species had a reduction of -1 log-unit on the amplification sensitivity of S. phocae or A. salmonicida when these were present in lower concentration in the multiplex reaction. The assay described in this study is a rapid, sensitive and efficient tool to detect the presence of S. phocae, A. salmonicida, V. anguillarum and P. salmonis simultaneously from pure cultures and tissues from clinically diseased fish. Therefore, it may be a useful alternative to culture-based methods for the diagnosis of infections in fish obtained from Chilean salmon farms. PMID:22303630

  3. The Chilean Health System: 20 Years of Reforms El sistema de salud chileno: 20 años de reformas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annick Manuel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean health care system has been intensively reformed in the past 20 years. Reforms under the Pinochet government (1973-1990 aimed mainly at the decentralization of the system and the development of a private sector. Decentralization involved both a deconcentration process and the devolution of primary health care to municipalities. The democratic governments after 1990 chose to preserve the core organization but introduced reforms intended to correct the system's failures and to increase both efficiency and equity. The present article briefly explains the current organization of the Chilean health care system. It also reviews the different reforms introduced in the past 20 years, from the Pinochet regime to the democratic governments. Finally, a brief discussion describes the strengths and weaknesses of the system, as well as the challenges it currently faces.El sistema de salud chileno ha sido intensamente reformado en los últimos 20 años. Las reformas bajo el gobierno de Pinochet (1973-1990 apuntaron principalmente a la descentralización del sistema y al desarrollo del sector privado. La descentralización involucró un proceso de desconcentración y la devolución de las unidades de atención primaria a las municipalidades. Los gobiernos democráticos posteriores a 1990 escogieron preservar el núcleo organizacional, pero las reformas introducidas buscaron corregir las fallas del sistema y aumentar la eficacia y la equidad. El presente artículo explica brevemente la organización actual del sistema de salud chileno y revisa las diferentes reformas introducidas en los últimos 20 años desde el régimen de Pinochet hasta los gobiernos democráticos. Finalmente, presenta una discusión breve para describir las fortalezas y debilidades del sistema, así como los desafíos que enfrenta actualmente.

  4. APOA5 Q97X Mutation Identified through homozygosity mapping causes severe hypertriglyceridemia in a Chilean consanguineous family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dussaillant Catalina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe hypertriglyceridemia (HTG has been linked to defects in LPL, APOC2, APOA5, LMF1 and GBIHBP1 genes. However, a number of severe HTG cases are probably caused by as yet unidentified mutations. Very high triglyceride plasma levels (>112 mmol/L at diagnosis were found in two sisters of a Chilean consanguineous family, which is strongly suggestive of a recessive highly penetrant mutation. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic locus responsible for the severe HTG in this family. Methods We carried out a genome-wide linkage study with nearly 300,000 biallelic markers (Illumina Human CytoSNP-12 panel. Using the homozygosity mapping strategy, we searched for chromosome regions with excess of homozygous genotypes in the affected cases compared to non-affected relatives. Results A large homozygous segment was found in the long arm of chromosome 11, with more than 2,500 consecutive homozygous SNP shared by the proband with her affected sister, and containing the APOA5/A4/C3/A1 cluster. Direct sequencing of the APOA5 gene revealed a known homozygous nonsense Q97X mutation (p.Gln97Ter found in both affected sisters but not in non-affected relatives nor in a sample of unrelated controls. Conclusion The Q97X mutation of the APOA5 gene in homozygous status is responsible for the severe hypertriglyceridemia in this family. We have shown that homozygosity mapping correctly pinpointed the genomic region containing the gene responsible for severe hypertriglyceridemia in this consanguineous Chilean family.

  5. Long-term tectonic segmentation along the Chilean marine forearc and its implications for the short-term deformation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksymowicz, Andrei

    2016-04-01

    The latitudinal variation of the parameters, derived by the use of the Non-Cohesive Coulomb wedge theory, reveals a long-term tectonic segmentation of the Chilean offshore subduction zone. At large scale, the results shows a general increase of the slope angle, a decrease of the effective basal friction coefficient, and an increase of the fluid pressure inside the continental wedge to the north of 33°S. This general behavior is interpreted as a result of a more pervasive fracturing at the base and within of the continental wedge in the zone where the Nazca-South America subduction zone is characterized by tectonic erosion. Analyzing the results on a smaller scale, it is possible to observe a sequence of segments with different basal effective friction coefficient and/or internal fluid pressure conditions, which are limited by the presence of bathymetric oceanic highs, fracture zones and peninsulas. This second order tectonic segmentation shows a spatial correlation with the distribution of the rupture areas of large historical earthquakes in the Chilean margin and, in the case of 2010 Maule and 1960 Valdivia mega-earthquakes, a relation between zones of high slip and segments of low basal friction coefficient. This correlation supports the concept that segments with different long-term evolution can have different stress states during the seismic cycle, affecting the complex sequence of seismic activation and also the location of inhomogeneities during large coseismic ruptures. The results motivate multiscale studies of the deformation processes and highlight the relevance of a detailed characterization of oceanic and continental crustal inhomogeneities around the interplate contact to a better understanding of the seimotectonic process.

  6. Molecular typing and genetic environment of the blaKPC gene in Chilean isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barría-Loaiza, Carla; Pincheira, Andrea; Quezada, Mario; Vera, Alejandra; Valenzuela, Pedro; Domínguez, Mariana; Lima, Celia A; Araya, Ingrid; Araya, Pamela; Prat, Soledad; Aguayo, Carolina; Fernández, Jorge; Hormazábal, Juan Carlos; Bello-Toledo, Helia; González-Rocha, Gerardo

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the genetic environment and transferability of blaKPC as well as the pulsotypes of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from clinical samples in Chilean hospitals. Seventeen strains, principally isolated in Santiago (the capital of Chile) during the years 2012 and 2013, were included. The genetic environment of blaKPC was elucidated by PCR mapping and sequencing. Molecular typing was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Curing and conjugation experiments were performed with six strains of different sequence types (STs) and pulsotypes. Thirteen pulsotypes and six STs, mainly belonging to clonal complex 258, were found. In addition, seven strains belonged to a new ST assigned ST1161. The blaKPC sequence indicated that 16 strains had the KPC-2 variant; in only one strain (UC331) an amino acid change (R6P) was detected, corresponding to a new KPC variant designated KPC-24. Molecular characterisation of the blaKPC genetic environment revealed two distinct platforms, namely variant 1a and the Tn4401a isoform, with the first being the most common (11/17 strains). Mating experiments failed to produce transconjugants; however, loss of blaKPC was achieved by plasmid curing in all assayed strains. In conclusion, in Chilean strains of K. pneumoniae, blaKPC is primarily found associated with the variant 1a and is located in non-transferable plasmids. In addition, this study highlights the description of the new ST1161 and the new KPC-24 variant. PMID:27436389

  7. Radionuclides in forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some regions within Austria were highly contaminated (> 50 kBq m-2) with radiocaesium by the deposition event following the Chernobyl reactor accident in 1986. Monitoring carried out by several Austrian institutions showed that in contrast to agricultural products radiocaesium levels in wild berries, mushrooms and game meat from forest ecosystems remained considerably higher over the years. To find reasons for this contrasting radioecological behavior and for the derivation of model input parameters, an extended study about the distribution of 137Cs within three Austrian forest stands was carried out between 1987 and 1997. Results of this and subsequent studies are summarized and include the following ecosystem compartments: forest soils, litter, trees, bilberry, mushrooms, mosses, ferns, lichen, other vegetation, insects, small mammals, game animals and surface water. Besides the investigation of radioecological behavior an estimation of pool sizes and transfer rates as well as radioecological residence half times for 137Cs in different forest species was used to compile a radiocaesium balance for the years 1988 and 1996. Soil proved to be an effective sink for radiocaesium contamination, but in long-term perspective it can act as a source for the contamination of vegetation and higher levels of the food-chain as well. Due to the high standing biomass trees represent the largest 'living' radiocaesium pool within the investigated forest stand. Dose estimations based on average consume habits gave no significant increase (less than 0.4 %) of the annual average population radiation dose due to the ingestion of forest products from the investigated forest stands. (author)

  8. 76 FR 70955 - Helena Nation Forest: Dalton Mountain Forest Restoration & Fuels Reduction Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... Executive Order 13352-Facilitation of Cooperative Conservation. Purpose and Need for Action Forest... Forest Service Helena Nation Forest: Dalton Mountain Forest Restoration & Fuels Reduction Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact statement. SUMMARY:...

  9. Forest Classification Based on Forest texture in Northwest Yunnan Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest texture is an intrinsic characteristic and an important visual feature of a forest ecological system. Full utilization of forest texture will be a great help in increasing the accuracy of forest classification based on remote sensed data. Taking Shangri-La as a study area, forest classification has been based on the texture. The results show that: (1) From the texture abundance, texture boundary, entropy as well as visual interpretation, the combination of Grayscale-gradient co-occurrence matrix and wavelet transformation is much better than either one of both ways of forest texture information extraction; (2) During the forest texture information extraction, the size of the texture-suitable window determined by the semi-variogram method depends on the forest type (evergreen broadleaf forest is 3×3, deciduous broadleaf forest is 5×5, etc.). (3)While classifying forest based on forest texture information, the texture factor assembly differs among forests: Variance Heterogeneity and Correlation should be selected when the window is between 3×3 and 5×5; Mean, Correlation, and Entropy should be used when the window in the range of 7×7 to 19×19; and Correlation, Second Moment, and Variance should be used when the range is larger than 21×21

  10. Forest Values and Forest Management Attitudes among Private Forest Owners in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Westin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused on how forests will be managed in the future in light of the increased emphasis being put by the public on the ecological and recreational values of forests, the trend towards an increased share of non-resident forest owners, and the increased female forest ownership. The value and belief basis of forest management attitudes was explored using a questionnaire sent to a sample of private forest owners ‘residing on’ (n = 995, return rate = 51.3% and ‘not residing on’ the forest property (n = 997, return rate = 50%. The results showed that a share of private forest owners strongly value both the view that the forest should predominately be used for timber production and the view that preservation is most important. The proposed hierarchical structure of influence, in which the forest management attitude was influenced by values and beliefs, was supported in the study. The ecological, recreational, and production forest values primarily influenced the most closely related forest management attitude, even if some cross-sectional effects and some effects of socio-demographics were found, showing that the view a private forest owner has on different forms of management styles is shaped by the perceived multiple values of the forest.

  11. Forests and Forest Cover, Published in unknown, Douglas County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Forests and Forest Cover dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Other (please...

  12. US Forest Service Forest Carbon Stocks Contiguous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — Through application of a nearest-neighbor imputation approach, mapped estimates of forest carbon density were developed for the contiguous United States using the...

  13. US Forest Service National Forest System Trails With Data Status

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the world wide web that depicts National Forest Service trails that have been approved for publication. It also depicts the availability of trails...

  14. US Forest Service Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www that depicts Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration (CFLR) and High Priority Restoration (HRP) project accomplishments. These are ten...

  15. Forests and Forest Cover, Published in unknown, Douglas County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Forests and Forest Cover dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Other...

  16. 78 FR 44519 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... Office of the Secretary Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; Re-establishment of the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee and call for nominations. SUMMARY: The Department of Agriculture re-established the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee...

  17. National forest inventories: contributions to forest biodiversity assessments (2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motta R

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available National Forest Inventories are the most complete source of information on forests, and are also a potential important tool for assess and monitoring status and trends in forest biodiversity, Nevertheless, according to Chirici et al., the current inventories have some limitations and should be improved mainly to increase the harmonisation of the field protocols and to enhance the collection of non-tree forest information that are important for the biodiversity assessment.

  18. Potential of the Russian forests and forest industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anttonen, T.; Petrov, A.P. [eds.

    1997-12-31

    The publication contains the proceedings of the seminar `Potential of the Russian Forests and Forest Industries` held in Moscow, May 14-16, 1997. The seminar was one step along the road to spread knowledge and become acquainted with forestry and forest industries in northern Europe and Russia. The seminar proceedings contain a lot of fresh information concerning forestry and forest industries in Russia. Both have undergone many changes and reforms during the last few years

  19. Current Forest Resources and Forest Decline in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Wylezinski, A.T.; Wiesik, J.

    1989-01-01

    Forests in Poland are very sensitive to stress factors. The total area of stands under different stress factors leading lo forest decline, as well as the number of these factors, increases every year. There are some forest areas where decline has reached the extent of ecological catastrophe. In the so-called "chain disease" of Polish forests, air pollution is the first and the most harmful factor. According to the latest estimates, visible symptoms of damage occur on 8% of the total fore...

  20. Development of forest inventory methods in multifunctional forest management

    OpenAIRE

    Borecki Tomasz; Brzeziecki Bogdan; Stępień Edward; Wójcik Roman

    2015-01-01

    The demand for wide range and precise information on forests promotes continuous development of forest inventory methods, owing to the fact that compilation of reliable data is prerequisite not only for improving forest management schedules but also planning land use and natural environment management. In the reality of contemporary forestry, a requirement to improve forest inventory methods stems from obligation to acquire information on broadly understood issues of forestry as well as the p...

  1. Development of forest inventory methods in multifunctional forest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borecki Tomasz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The demand for wide range and precise information on forests promotes continuous development of forest inventory methods, owing to the fact that compilation of reliable data is prerequisite not only for improving forest management schedules but also planning land use and natural environment management. In the reality of contemporary forestry, a requirement to improve forest inventory methods stems from obligation to acquire information on broadly understood issues of forestry as well as the protection of nature and environment.

  2. Management of contaminated forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the main radioecological issues, the consequence of which are the distribution of doses for critical group of populations living in the vicinity of contaminated forest after the Chernobyl accident and the effects on the forestry economy. The main problems that have to be tackled are to avert doses for the population and forest workers, mitigate the economical burden of the lost forestry production and comply with the permissible levels of radionuclides in forest products. Various options are examined with respect to their application, and their cost effectiveness in terms of dose reduction when such attribute appears to be relevant. It is found that the cost effectiveness of the various options is extremely dependant of the case in which it is intended to be applied. Little actions are available for decreasing the doses, but most of them can lead to an economical benefit

  3. The purpose of forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The writings and speeches in this book have been selected to illustrate Jack Westoby's contributions to international forestry over the last two decades and more, and to show something of the evolution of his thinking. The problems he addresses are ones central to international forest policy and to the proper social responsibilities of foresters. This paper covers the following topics: Part I is a selection of papers which Westoby wrote during the 1960s on forest industries and their part in propelling economic development. The papers of Part II explore the responsibilities and dilemmas of the forestry profession in deciding which, among conflicting interests, to serve. Part III develops and enlarges Westoby's ideas of what forestry should be about-which he earlier defined as making trees serve people

  4. [Ticks bite in foresters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livio, M; Mobilia, A; Abbate, S; Saffioti, G; Nicolosi, L; Isaia, S; Calabrese, C; Graceffa, C

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study is evalutation of the risk for ticks strings on foresters. The sample constituted by 325 foresters belong to Messina province as been submitted to medical examination venous tests. Whole sample had to answer to a questionnaire to consider. The prevalence of systemic and skin reactions and we have dose Immunoglobulines versus Brucella Melitensis, Rickettsie Conorii e Borrelia Burgdorferi. The results showed that the 19% has declared past stings of tick, and 4.9% reported symptoms probably deriving to a past infections determined by inquired microorganisms. The serum tests showed that 70% was positive for all microorganisms, instead only 31%. Was never infected by inquired microorganisms. In conclusion our study shows that zoonos is risk linked to stings of tick is relatively high in foresters. PMID:18409975

  5. Global Forest Area Trends Underestimate Threats from Forest Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest loss and fragmentation of the remainder threaten the ecological attributes and functions which depend upon forests1. Forest interior area is particularly valued because it is relatively remote from human influence2, 3, 4, 5. Recent global assessments report declines in t...

  6. Does participatory forest management promote sustainable forest utilisation in Tanzania?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treue, Thorsten; Ngaga, Y.M.; Meilby, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    -PFM). Extraction of products is intense in forests close to Dar es Salaam, regardless of management regime. Further from Dar es Salaam, harvesting levels in forests under PFM are, with one prominent exception, broadly sustainable. Using GIS data from 116 wards, it is shown that half of the PFM forests in Tanzania...

  7. Joint Forest Management or Community Based Forest Management program

    OpenAIRE

    Tanzanian government

    2007-01-01

    This project is being implemented as a way for local villagers to obtain rights of use and benefits from forests. This is done in one either as a Joint Forest Management or a Community Based Forest Management program. PES-1 (Payments for Environmental Services Associate Award)

  8. Perceptions about Forest Schools: Encouraging and Promoting Archimedes Forest Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Haq; Blackwell, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find out parents' and children's perception of outdoor learning programmes with specific reference to Archimedes Forest Schools, known as Forest Schools. A review of existing research showed that there had been no rigorous evaluation of perception of forest schools. The study was conducted in the UK and mixed…

  9. Review on Forest Policy Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Forest policy evolution was presented firstly in order to understand the background of forest policy development in China. The recent changes of forest policy were introduced in details, including forest policies on improving biodiversity conservation and securing national ecological safety, restoring key ecosystems, promoting sustainable forest management (SFM), clarifying forest land tenure and protecting farmer’s right on forest and forest land management, promoting healthy forestry industry development ...

  10. Systems Analysis in Forestry and Forest Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Kallio, M J; Andersson, A.E.; Seppaelae, R.; Morgan, A.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to present a variety of articles revealing the state of the art of applications of systems analysis techniques to problems of the forest sector. Such applications cover a vast range of issues in forestry and the forest industry. They include the dynamics of the forest ecosystem, optimal forest management, the roundwood market, forest industrial strategy, regional and national forest sector policy as well as international trade in forest products. Forest industrial ...

  11. US Forest Service Recreation Opportunities

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the recreation opportunity information that the Forest Service collects through the Recreation Portal and shares with the public...

  12. Interpreting Sustainability for Urban Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Ordóñez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Incisive interpretations of urban-forest sustainability are important in furthering our understanding of how to sustain the myriad values associated with urban forests. Our analysis of earlier interpretations reveals conceptual gaps. These interpretations are attached to restrictive definitions of a sustainable urban forest and limited to a rather mechanical view of maintaining the biophysical structure of trees. The probing of three conceptual domains (urban forest concepts, sustainable development, and sustainable forest management leads to a broader interpretation of urban-forest sustainability as the process of sustaining urban forest values through time and across space. We propose that values—and not services, benefits, functions or goods—is a superior concept to refer to what is to be sustained in and by an urban forest.

  13. Consistency of Online Random Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Denil, Misha; Matheson, David; De Freitas, Nando

    2013-01-01

    As a testament to their success, the theory of random forests has long been outpaced by their application in practice. In this paper, we take a step towards narrowing this gap by providing a consistency result for online random forests.

  14. Forest Pest Control. Manual 94.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in forest pest control. The text discusses disease problems, insects, and herbicide use in both established forests and nurseries. (CS)

  15. Forest Inventory and Analysis Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) research program has been in existence since mandated by Congress in 1928. FIA's primary objective is to determine the...

  16. Fighting Forest Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Firefly is an airborne system for imaging forest fires. It uses satellite-based navigation for greater positioning accuracy and offers timeliness in fire location data delivery with on board data processing and a direct aircraft-to-fire camp communications link. Developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the USFS, it has an infrared line scanner to identify fire boundaries and an infrared sensor system that can penetrate smoke to image the ground. Firefly is an outgrowth of a previous collaboration that produced FLAME, an airborne fire mapping instrument. Further refinements are anticipated by NASA and the United States Forest Service (USFS).

  17. Forest and Man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edition of this publication 'Forest and Man' was initiated by Lembit Muiste and the major part of the papers was collected by the end of 1994. These papers give a good review of problems of Estonian forestry and also the experiences in abroad. After his death, the edition was continued. Lembit Muiste was an outstanding forest researcher and teacher of the post-war generation and now this publication is dedicated to his 75. anniversary. In addition to his everyday work, he was socially active and participated in the work of different organizations connected with nature conservation. Commission for Nature Conservation remembers Lembit Muiste as an unforgettable colleague. (author)

  18. Fish Stock Endogeneity in a Harvest Function: ‘El Niño’ Effects on the Chilean Jack Mackerel Fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Vergara

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available There are several examples of pelagic fisheries that have experienced fishing collapse when facing downward abundance cycles. Improving understanding about pelagic catch’s stock dependence can help avoid new cases of fishing collapse. This paper analyses the possible endogeneity of the fish stock variable in a pelagic fishery harvest function. The harvest function is estimated using panel data and ‘El Niño’ episodes as instrumental variable for the Chilean jack mackerel biomass. This strategy produces consistent estimates of the fish biomass coefficient. The paper makes two contributions. First, it corrects for endogeneity of the fish stock variable, an issue often underestimated in empirical fishery economics. Secondly, it shows that ‘El Niño’ episodes have negative effects on the Chilean jack mackerel biomass.

  19. Communities and Participatory Forest Management

    OpenAIRE

    Kanowski, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Forest management which is more inclusive of the interests of local people has been one of the central foci of forestry globally for the past 25 years. Countries in which there is a strong dependency between people and forests, such as Nepal, have been at the forefront of this more participatory forest management, which is closely associated with devolution of State authority over forests. The participatory management paradigm recognises both the potential of local people and the limits of ce...

  20. Forest commons in boreal Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Holmgren, Eva

    2009-01-01

    This thesis examines the influences of Swedish forest commons on forest condition, management and the local economy. The approach is rationalistic, i.e. outcomes of forestry activities are assessed in relation to aims. According to the stated objectives, forest commons should serve as exemplars for improved forest management, focusing on increased and sustained timber production. They should provide sustainable economic support for farmers and the local economy, providing a sound basis for ta...