WorldWideScience

Sample records for chilean aquacultural exports

  1. TRADE POLICY AND MAJOR TRENDS IN CHILEAN EXPORTS UNDER DEMOCRACY, 1990-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Llorca-Jaña

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with trade policy and the principal trends in Chilean exports after the return to democracy in 1990. During this period, both exports and imports expanded significantly in Chile. As far as exports are concerned, this boom is mainly due to an effective trade policy of additive regionalism, booming copper prices, export diversification and the economic dynamism of China, the principal beneficiary of Chilean exports. On the negative side, the country is still too dependant on copper and a few other primary products. In addition, nowadays, in relative terms Chile is exporting more copper minerals and less refined copper than it used to do in the 1990s, while Chilean exports remained highly concentrated in a few companies only, many of which belong to foreign nationals.

  2. Variation in implementation of corporate social responsibility practices in emerging economies' firms: A survey of Chilean fruit exporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerkx, L.W.A.; Villalobos, P.; Engler, A.

    2012-01-01

    As in many sectors in emerging economies, the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become important for exporting agri-food firms in view of their integration in global supply chains. The purpose of this research was to assess the implementation by Chilean fruit exporters of CSR prac

  3. Genetic structure of Chilean populations of Seriola lalandi for the diversification of the national aquaculture in the north of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Fernández

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Seriola lalandi has been recognized as a potential aquaculture species in Chile, however, little is known about the genetic structure of local populations. This is important, as the current production system is based on an initial wild catching and ill management of these stocks can cause reduced genetic variability. To assess the genetic structure of local S. lalandi we evaluated 27 published microsatellite markers developed from genomic libraries of other species of the genera. However only 12 markers could be used to properly assess the populations, most of these markers showed deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with moderate inbreeding (F = 0.12. This species tends to show schooling behavior, so in all likelihood mating between relatives within small groups of fish is not unexpected. The population structure was assessed using Structure software, showing the presence of admixture with varying levels of individual ancestry. This was seen in both populations, without significant genetic differentiation. This may be explained by the migratory behavior, with mating between different populations likely to happen in small groups. Management of aquaculture resources is essential to secure a sustainable production system; this study is the first to provide estimates of genetic diversity of Chilean populations of S. lalandi.

  4. From import dependency to export orientation the case of the chilean dairy sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Rytkönen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La globalización ha provocado la transformación estructural del sector lácteo a nivel mundial. Esto incluye la transnacionalización y extrema concentración de empresas y haciendas, impulsada por crecientes niveles de competencia. El sector lácteo no estaba más regulado por políticas estatales sino que fue colocado dentro del contexto de una gobernancia dirigida por el mercado y dominada por las estrategias de empresas transnacionales. La globalización ha creado una nueva división internacional de trabajo, en la cual nuevos paises exportadores pueden emerger. La transformación del sector lácteo chileno ilustra to-dos estos cambios. Durante la década de 1970, el cambio de régimen de política económica, dentro del cual el estado interventor fue reemplazado por un proceso de alta liberalización, dio lugar a una ruptura con la dependencia de importaciones. Decisiones estratégicas de la industria resultaron a largo plazo en mejoramientos de poder competitivo y un cambio final hacia el sector exportador. Contrariamente a resultados anteriores, este artículo muestra que la globalización es la fuerza principal detrás de la reorientación del sector lácteo chileno, de dependencia de importaciones hacia una orientación exportadora. English: Globalization has triggered a structural transformation of the dairy sector world-wide. This includes transnationalization and extreme concentration of firms and farms, fueled by increased levels of competition. Dairying is no longer regulated by state politics but is placed within the context of a market-led global governance dominated by the strategies of trans-national companies. Moreover, the globalization of the sector has caused the emergence of a new global division of labour, where new exporting countries can emerge. The transformation of the Chilean dairy sector illustrates all these changes. During the 1970s, the shift of economic policy regime within which an intervening state was

  5. Export Behaviour in the Chilean Agribusiness and Food Processing Industry Comportamiento Exportador de las Empresas Chilenas, Agrocomerciales y Procesadoras de Alimentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Echeverría

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the export-behavior of Chilean agribusiness and food processing firms and the relative importance of firm-specific and geographic characteristics in this behavior. Using firm level data and regional geographic indicators, a dynamic model was used to study the export decisions and the export intensity of three industries: processing fish, processing fruits and vegetables, and wine production. Results showed that determinants of exporting behavior vary among the three industries, except the effect of sunk costs, which strongly impacts the export decisions of all analyzed industries. This implies that firms with prior export experience will have higher probability of exporting in the future. Foreign ownership positively impacts the export decision of the two processing industries. Thus, firms belonging to these industries that wish to increase the probability of being an exporter should be encouraged to have a partnership with a foreign company or investor. The export intensity is positively influenced by foreign ownership in the fruit and vegetables processing and wine industries. As in the case of the export decision of firms, foreign participation helps increase the scale of exports. In general, firm-specific characteristics significantly impact the export behavior in Chilean agribusiness and processed food industries, while the contribution of geography attributes appears mixed.Este artículo analiza el comportamiento exportador de las empresas chilenas agroindustriales y procesadoras de alimentos y la importancia relativa que las características geográficas y específicas de las empresas tienen en este comportamiento exportador. Con datos a nivel de empresas e indicadores geográficos regionales, se utilizó un modelo dinámico para estudiar la decisión y la intensidad exportadora de tres industrias: industria procesadora de pescados, industria procesadora de frutas y hortalizas, e industria productora de vinos. Los

  6. Fixed Export Costs and Export Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Luis; Li, Ben; Keith E. Maskus; Xie, Yiqing

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a direct test of how fixed export costs and productivity jointly determine firm-level export behavior. Using Chilean data, we construct indices of fixed export costs for each industry-region-year triplet and match them to domestic firms. Our empirical results show that firms facing higher fixed export costs are less likely to export, while those with higher productivity export more. These outcomes are the foundation of the widely-used sorting mechanism in the trade models ...

  7. Aquaculture Sector Review

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2015-01-01

    This aquaculture sector review (with supply chain mapping) has been implemented within the framework of the International Finance Corporation (IFC) Armenia investment climate reform project implemented by the World Bank Group trade and competitiveness global practice, in partnership with Austria’s federal ministry of finance and Hungarian partnership funding and Hungary Export Import (EXIM...

  8. Background paper on aquaculture research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenblad, Axel; Jokumsen, Alfred; Eskelinen, Unto

    80 million tonnes accounting for close to 50 % of all aquatic food destined for the global human consumption. The Swedish aquaculture production currently includes about 11,000 tonnes rainbow trout in FW and SW, 1,100 tonnes arctic char (FW), 90 tonnes eel (FW), 1,500 tonnes mussels (SW) and a few...... to include technologies and strategies to minimize the environmental impact, in particular to the Baltic Sea. Swedish aquaculture may develop to be an environmental service, which may be exported. The governmental policy on aquaculture should reflect the conclusions of the official report Det växande...... and powerful Swedish aquaculture to develop, strong and committing policy instruments should be coordinated and managed. This means that the strategy for aquaculture needs to be followed by a long term focused research policy on aquaculture and responsibility for putting it into force as well as availability...

  9. Antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial resistance genes in marine bacteria from salmon aquaculture and non-aquaculture sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Syed Q A; Cabello, Felipe C; L'abée-Lund, Trine M; Tomova, Alexandra; Godfrey, Henry P; Buschmann, Alejandro H; Sørum, Henning

    2014-05-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AR) detected by disc diffusion and antimicrobial resistance genes detected by DNA hybridization and polymerase chain reaction with amplicon sequencing were studied in 124 marine bacterial isolates from a Chilean salmon aquaculture site and 76 from a site without aquaculture 8 km distant. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was present in 81% of the isolates regardless of site. Resistance to tetracycline was most commonly encoded by tetA and tetG; to trimethoprim, by dfrA1, dfrA5 and dfrA12; to sulfamethizole, by sul1 and sul2; to amoxicillin, by blaTEM ; and to streptomycin, by strA-strB. Integron integrase intl1 was detected in 14 sul1-positive isolates, associated with aad9 gene cassettes in two from the aquaculture site. intl2 Integrase was only detected in three dfrA1-positive isolates from the aquaculture site and was not associated with gene cassettes in any. Of nine isolates tested for conjugation, two from the aquaculture site transferred AR determinants to Escherichia coli. High levels of AR in marine sediments from aquaculture and non-aquaculture sites suggest that dispersion of the large amounts of antimicrobials used in Chilean salmon aquaculture has created selective pressure in areas of the marine environment far removed from the initial site of use of these agents.

  10. Mercury content in Chilean fish and estimated intake levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Sandra; Fortt, Antonia

    2007-09-01

    The intake of fish products is a major public health concern due to possible methyl mercury exposure, which is especially toxic to the human nervous system. This pilot study (n = 46) was designed to determine mercury concentrations in fish products for national consumption (Chilean jack mackerel, hake, Chilean mussel, tuna) and for export (salmon, Patagonian toothfish, swordfish, southern hake), and to estimate the exposure of the general population. The fish products were collected from markets in Talcahuano, Puerto Montt and Santiago. Samples were analyzed at the National Environmental Center by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Mercury levels in swordfish and one canned tuna sample exceeded levels prescribed by national and international standards. The remaining two export products (Patagonian toothfish, also known as Chilean sea bass, and salmon) complied with international limits, which are more demanding than Chilean regulations. Theoretical estimates of mercury intake varied from 0.08 to 3.8 microg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for high fish consumers, exceeding the provisional tolerable intake for tuna, Chilean seabass, Chilean jack mackerel and swordfish. This group appears to be at the greatest risk from mercury contamination among the Chilean population.

  11. Aquaculture; Acquacoltura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Murtas, I.D. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1998-12-01

    This paper attempts an overview of the progress made in the field of aquaculture. Aquaculture is a system of techniques strongly influenced by natural environmental conditions. Aquaculture as a biological technique oriented towards the production of useful aquatic organisms, is reaching a stage of consolidation which will place it on an equal footing which agriculture and animal husbandry. Aquaculture provides important economic and nutritional benefits to many regions of developing world. In 1994, over 90 percent of total aquaculture production was in Asia, with China, India, Japan, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines and Republic of Korea as the seven leader producers. [Italiano] L`acquacoltura, vale a dire l`arte di riprodurre artificialmente pesci, alghe, molluschi e crostacei ed altri organismi acquatici utili all`uomo, si presenta oggi come un`attivita` di assoluto rilievo nell`insieme dei vari comparti di produzione alimentare. L`aumento della produzione e` costante anche se cinque paesi asiatici (Cina, India, Giappone, Filippine e Corea del Sud) contribuiscono per l`80% al volume della produzione mondiale. Nel presente lavoro vengono descritti lo stato dell`acquacoltura e della maricoltura nel mondo e le filiere di allevamento delle principali specie.

  12. Salmon aquaculture and antimicrobial resistance in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Alejandro H; Tomova, Alexandra; López, Alejandra; Maldonado, Miguel A; Henríquez, Luis A; Ivanova, Larisa; Moy, Fred; Godfrey, Henry P; Cabello, Felipe C

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobials used in salmon aquaculture pass into the marine environment. This could have negative impacts on marine environmental biodiversity, and on terrestrial animal and human health as a result of selection for bacteria containing antimicrobial resistance genes. We therefore measured the numbers of culturable bacteria and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments in the Calbuco Archipelago, Chile, over 12-month period at a salmon aquaculture site approximately 20 m from a salmon farm and at a control site 8 km distant without observable aquaculture activities. Three antimicrobials extensively used in Chilean salmon aquaculture (oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol) were studied. Although none of these antimicrobials was detected in sediments from either site, traces of flumequine, a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial also widely used in Chile, were present in sediments from both sites during this period. There were significant increases in bacterial numbers and antimicrobial-resistant fractions to oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol in sediments from the aquaculture site compared to those from the control site. Interestingly, there were similar numbers of presumably plasmid-mediated resistance genes for oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid and florfenicol in unselected marine bacteria isolated from both aquaculture and control sites. These preliminary findings in one location may suggest that the current use of large amounts of antimicrobials in Chilean aquaculture has the potential to select for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments.

  13. Cultivo de camarón de río Samastacus spinifrons: ¿una nueva alternativa para la diversificación de la acuicultura chilena? Culturing freshwater crayfish Samastacus spinifrons: a new alternative for diversifying Chilean aquaculture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Rudolph

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El camarón de río del sur Samastacus spinifrons, es una de las seis especies de la Familia Parastacidae (Crustácea, Decapoda, Astacidea que habita las aguas dulces de Chile desde el río Aconcagua hasta la península de Taitao, y actualmente, la única que es considerada atractiva para la acuicultura nacional. En este artículo se revisa su potencial para la acuicultura con fines comerciales o de repoblamiento. Para ello se analizan: a las ventajas y desventajas biológicas de esta especie ante eventuales actividades de cultivo en confinamiento; b las experiencias de cultivo que a la fecha se han efectuado en Chile haciendo énfasis en sus respectivos aportes; y, c las probables causas que han impedido que su cultivo se consolide en el país. Finalmente, de acuerdo a los análisis antes señalados se plantea una propuesta de cultivo que se considera la más adecuada para S. spinifrons.The freshwater crayfish Samastacus spinifrons, is one of six species of the Family Parastacidae (Crustácea, Decapoda, Astacidea inhabiting freshwaters in Chile from the Aconcagua River to the Taitao Península, and the only one that is currently considered attractive for national aquaculture. In this article, we review the potential of this species for aquaculture with commercial or restocking purposes. For this, we analyze: a the species' biological advantages and disadvantages in an eventual situation of confined culture; b previous culturing experiences carried out in Chile, with an emphasis on their respective contributions; and c the causes that were likely to have prevented the consolidation of culturing this species in Chile. Finally, the above analyses provided the basis for our proposal of the most appropriate way to culture S. spinifrons.

  14. Aquaculture Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K. [editors

    1998-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements.

  15. [Chilean nuclear policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobadilla, E

    1996-06-01

    This official document is statement of the President of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, Dr. Eduardo Bobadilla, about the nuclear policy of the Chilean State, Thanks to the international policy adopted by presidents Aylwin (1990-1994) and his successor Frei Ruiz Tagle (1994-), a nuclear development plan, protected by the Chilean entrance to the nuclear weapons non proliferation treaty and Tlatelolco Denuclearization treaty, has started. Chile will be able to develop without interference, an autonomous nuclear electrical system and other pacific uses of nuclear energy. Chile also supports a new international treaty to ban nuclear weapon tests.

  16. Diversification of Chilean aquaculture: the case of the giant barnacle Austromegabalanus psittacus (Molina, 1782 Diversificación de la acuicultura chilena: el caso del cirripedio gigante Austromegabalanus psittacus (Molina, 1782

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A López

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is presented supporting the technical and economic possibilities of giant barnacle Austromegabalanuspsittacus (Molina, 1782 culture, one of the main alternatives for diversifying aquaculture in Chile. Spat collection from the wild varied between different sites in the north and south of the country and according to type of artificial collector. Growth also varied between sites (greater in the north, technological systems (greater in tubular systems and depths (greater at 4 m. Average commercial size in the national market was reached over a period between 18 and 24 months. A long-line can produce between 7 to 10 gross ton during this period, therefore average annual fisheries production can be reached with only 10 to 30 long-lines, in an area of 1 to 3 ha. There is demand for this resource in the external market, particularly in the Japanese market, either as product similar to "fujit subo" (Balanus rostratus, or as a new resource; the relationship between production costs and price determines that giant barnacle culture has commercial potential. Economic indicators for cultured giant barnacle were as follows: net present value (NPV: US$ 490,000; internal rate of return (IRR: 32%; discounted payback period (DPBP: 4 years. Results obtained suggest the natural bank repopulation option, and the development of mass cultures. Giant barnacle culture is based on biological characteristics that differentiate it from other crustaceans species, as well as simple and economic production technologies and favourable economic projections on external markets.Se presentan evidencias de las posibilidades técnicas y económicas del cultivo del cirripedio gigante o "picoroco", Austromegabalanus psittacus (Molina, 1782. Esta especie es una de las principales alternativas para la diversificación de la acuicultura en Chile. La captación de semilla desde el ambiente varió entre distintos sitios del norte y sur del país y según el tipo de colector

  17. Aquaculture information package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.

    1998-08-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.

  18. All about Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Michael J.; Patterson, B. Patricia

    1992-01-01

    Describes a sequence of activities in which students set up a classroom aquarium to learn about aquaculture. Discusses the aquarium system, filtration and maintenance, adding organisms to the system, technological considerations, aquaculture economics, and political and social aspects of aquaculture. (MDH)

  19. Tracing dissolved organic matter (DOM) from land-based aquaculture systems in North Patagonian streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimptsch, Jorge; Woelfl, Stefan; Osorio, Sebastian; Valenzuela, Jose; Ebersbach, Paul; von Tuempling, Wolf; Palma, Rodrigo; Encina, Francisco; Figueroa, David; Kamjunke, Norbert; Graeber, Daniel

    2015-12-15

    Chile is the second largest producer of salmonids worldwide. The first step in the production of salmonids takes place in land-based aquacultures. However, the effects of the discharge from these aquacultures on stream dissolved organic matter (DOM) content, molecular composition and degradability are unknown. The aim of this study was thus to investigate the inputs of anthropogenic DOM from land-based aquaculture to the predominantly pristine river systems of North Patagonia. We hypothesized, that i) DOM exported from land-based aquaculture mainly consists of protein-like fluorescence (tyrosine and tryptophan) released from fish feces and food remains, and that ii) this DOM is highly degradable and therefore rapidly turned-over within the receiving streams. In the North Patagonian region we conducted a screening of ten land-based aquacultures and an intensive sampling campaign for one aquaculture. This was combined with longitudinal transects and a degradation experiment in order to couple the composition of DOM exported from land-based aquacultures to its degradability in streams. We measured dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration by high-temperature catalytic oxidation and DOM composition by fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis. In the effluent of the ten screened aquacultures and in the repeated sampling of one aquaculture, we consistently found an increase of DOC concentrations and a dominance of protein-like fluorescence. The protein-like fluorescence rapidly disappeared downstream of the aquacultures, and in the degradation experiment. 21% of the DOC export from the repeatedly sampled aquaculture resulted from food addition and 76% from fish production. We conclude that large amounts of degradable DOM are exported from land-based aquacultures. This probably has strong effects on the ecological structure and function of North Patagonian streams, and similarly affected streams worldwide.

  20. BIOFILTERS IN AQUACULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Recirculating aquaculture is one of the solutions to an environmentally sustainable and economically feasible aquaculture production, and can be established in either urban or rural communities. Controlled conditions enable optimal growth conditions suitable for the species in question during the whole growth process, as well as the shortening of the process itself, when compared to open uncontrolled systems. Recirculating systems are now one of the most researched fields of aquaculture, and ...

  1. Chemicals for worldwide aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnick, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    Regulations and therapeutants or other safe chemicals that are approved or acceptable for use in the aquaculture industry in the US, Canada, Europe and Japan are presented, discussing also compounds that are unacceptable for aquaculture. Chemical use practices that could affect public health are considered and details given regarding efforts to increase the number of registered and acceptable chemicals.

  2. The Dad in the Che Guevara T-Shirt: Narratives of Chilean English Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard-Warwick, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Building on previous critical research regarding student resistance to English Language Teaching (ELT), this paper illustrates Chilean high-school English teachers' use of narrative to make sense of ideological challenges from students. While the government of Chile is promoting English in connection with the nation's export-oriented economic…

  3. Use of Probiotics in Aquaculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Diseases of cultured animal and environmental pollution are very important problems in aquaculture.The use of probiotics in aquaculture has more adva ntages than the use of antibiotics and chemicals in aquaculture. This review int roduces the use and mechanisms of the probiotics in aquaculture.

  4. Aquaculture in mangrove environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.

    of prawns, bivalves and finfishes. General consensus based on the analysis of cost factor, pond management efficiency and annual production levels has indicated that the disadvantages of setting up of large-scale commercial aquaculture ventures in mangrove...

  5. BIOFILTERS IN AQUACULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Šarić

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Recirculating aquaculture is one of the solutions to an environmentally sustainable and economically feasible aquaculture production, and can be established in either urban or rural communities. Controlled conditions enable optimal growth conditions suitable for the species in question during the whole growth process, as well as the shortening of the process itself, when compared to open uncontrolled systems. Recirculating systems are now one of the most researched fields of aquaculture, and biofiltration as the reduction of the poisonous ammonia compounds generated by digestion of proteins, is one of its most important parts. The aim of this study was to stress the importance of biofiltration, and to describe different designs of biofilters. Many biofilters are being used in commercial and research aquaculture facilities with differences in choice of working organism, design, material, price and etc. For the proper choice of biofilter it is necessary to know characteristics of each recirculating aquaculture system, because there are still no strict criteria for categorizing and applying different biofilter designs.

  6. Aquaculture report 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D.K.; Watson, L.; Kent, J.C.; Johnson, D.W.

    1977-04-08

    Growth of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and Tilapia zillii in the Reft River Geothermal Area (RRGT) geothermal waters can equal or surpass that in a commercial aquaculture facility. Fish and prawn mortality over the course of the intermediate term preliminary study did not appear to be related to any inherent geothermal water chemistry conditions. Temperature control was a problem but does not appear to be beyond design control. The absence of temperature-related mortality in channel catfish, Tilapia zilli, and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) indicates increased survival and suggests reduced expenditures for disease control. It may also allow higher fish densities in commercial aquaculture operations using geothermal water. Results of this study indicate potential for commercial aquaculture development at the Raft River Geothermal Testing Site.

  7. Certify Sustainable Aquaculture?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bush, Simon; Belton, Ben; Hall, Derek;

    2013-01-01

    ) fisheries production stagnating, aquaculture may help close the forecast global deficit in fish protein by 2020 (2). This so-called “blue revolution” requires addressing a range of environmental and social problems, including water pollution, degradation of ecosystems, and violation of labor standards.......Aquaculture, the farming of aquatic organisms, provides close to 50% of the world's supply of seafood, with a value of U.S. $125 billion. It makes up 13% of the world's animal-source protein (excluding eggs and dairy) and employs an estimated 24 million people (1). With capture (i.e., wild...

  8. Biotechnological Innovations in Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangesh M. Bhosale

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture is gaining commendable importance to meet the required protein source for ever increasing human population. The aquaculture industry is currently facing problems on developing economically viable production systems by reducing the impact on environment. Sustainable and enhanced fish production from aquaculture may be better achieved through application of recent biotechnological innovations. Utilisation of transgenic technology has led to production of fishes with faster growth rate with disease resistance. The full advantage of this technology could not be achieved due to concern of acceptance for Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs. The biotechnological intervention in developing plant based feed ingredient in place of fish meal which contain high phosphorus is of prime area of attention for fish feed industry. The replacement of fish meal will also reduce fish feed cost to a greater extent. Year round fish seed production of carps through various biotechnological interventions is also need of the hour. This paper discusses technical, environmental and managerial considerations regarding the use of these biotechnological tools in aquaculture along with the advantages of research application and its commercialization.

  9. Aquaculture. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Susan S.

    This color-coded guide was developed to assist teachers in helping interested students plan, build, stock, and run aquaculture facilities of varied sizes. The guide contains 15 instructional units, each of which includes some or all of the following basic components: objective sheet, suggested activities for the teacher, instructor supplements,…

  10. Safety in Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durborow, Robert M.; Myers, Melvin L.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, occupational safety interventions for agriculture-related jobs, specifically in aquaculture, are reviewed. Maintaining quality of life and avoiding economic loss are two areas in which aquaculturists can benefit by incorporating safety protocols and interventions on their farms. The information in this article is based on farm…

  11. Confinement Aquaculture. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaplaine School District, AR.

    The Delaplaine Agriculture Department Confinement Project, begun in June 1988, conducted a confinement aquaculture program by comparing the growth of channel catfish raised in cages in a pond to channel catfish raised in cages in the Black River, Arkansas. The study developed technology that would decrease costs in the domestication of fish, using…

  12. Microalgae for aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, M.H.A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the project ‘Zeeuwse Tong’ (Zeeland Sole) was founded with support of the province of Zeeland, the Netherlands. The aim of the Zeeuwse Tong project was to establish an innovative land-based integrated multi-trophic aquaculture sector, which is producing sole, ragworms, algae, shellfish and

  13. Genetic considerations for mollusc production in aquaculture: current state of knowledge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela eAstorga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available IIn 2012, world mollusk production in aquaculture reached a volume of 15,171,000 tons, representing 23% of total aquaculture production and positioning mollusks as the second most important category of aquaculture products (fishes are the first. Clams and oysters are the mollusk species with the highest production levels, followed in descending order by mussels, scallops and abalones. In view of the increasing importance attached to genetic information on aquaculture, which can help with good maintenance and thus the sustainability of production, the present work offers a review of the state of knowledge on genetic and genomic information about mollusks produced in aquaculture. The analysis was applied to mollusks which are of importance for aquaculture, with emphasis on the 5 species with the highest production levels. According to FAO, these are: Japanese clam Ruditapes philippinarum; Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas; Chilean mussel Mytilus chilensis; Blood clam Anadara granosa and Chinese clam Sinonovacula constricta. To date, the genomes of 5 species of mollusks have been sequenced, only one of which, Crassostrea gigas, coincides with the species with the greatest production in aquaculture. Another important species whose genome has been sequenced is Mytilus galloprovincialis, which is the second most important mussel in aquaculture production, after M. chilensis. Few genetic improvement programs have been reported in comparison with the number reported in fish species. The most commonly investigated species are oysters, with at least 5 genetic improvement programs reported, followed by abalones with 2 programs and mussels with one. The results of this work will establish the current situation with respect to the genetics of mollusks which are of importance for aquaculture production, in order to assist future decisions to ensure the sustainability of these resources.

  14. Export spillovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choquette, Eliane; Meinen, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the importance of export spillovers in a firm's decision to enter specific export markets and extends the current state of the literature by assessing different mechanisms through which they may occur, namely (i) labour movement, (ii) intra-industry spillovers and (iii) inter......-industry linkages. We do so by exploiting a unique data set covering the universe of manufacturing firms in Denmark for the period 1995–2006 which combines transaction-level export data, firm accounting data, employer–employee linked data and information from yearly input–output tables. We corroborate...... the literature on export spillovers by presenting robust evidence of destination-specific export spillovers. The results suggest that labour mobility as well as intra- and inter-industry linkages (backward linkages) are important channels for export spillovers, while presenting heterogeneous effects across firms...

  15. Export strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thorbjørn; Koed Madsen, Tage

    2002-01-01

    It is argued here that traditional export strategy research (encompassing the study of internationalization processes and export performance) is characterized by weak theoretical foundations and could benefit from a reorientation towards a dynamic capabilities perspective (DCP). We seek to draw...... on insights from DCP in order to devise a theoretical basis that could enrich export strategy research. Although our development of DCP insights builds on previous work, it also adds a crucial distinction between knowledge stocks and informational architecture. Changes in architecture are of greater...... importance. Following this elaboration of the dynamic capabilities perspective, we outline some implications and guidelines for future export strategy research....

  16. Live feeds in aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Dhert, Ph.; Sorgeloos, P

    1995-01-01

    Over the past two decades intensive larviculture of several fish and shellfish species has expanded into a multimillion dollar industry. Although much progress has been made in identifying the dietary requirements of the larvae of various aquaculture species, the mass culture of their early larval stages still requires the use of live feeds. Selected either through trial and error approaches or because of their convenience in mass production and use, hatcheries are relying today on three grou...

  17. PROTEOMICS in aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, Pedro M.; Silva, Tomé S.; Dias, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    growth in production is still expected for decades to come. Aquaculture is, though, a very competitive market, and a global awareness regarding the use of scientific knowledge and emerging technologies to obtain a better farmed organism through a sustainable production has enhanced the importance...... nutritional, health or quality properties for functional foods and the integration of proteomics techniques in addressing this challenging issue. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Farm animal proteomics....

  18. Marketing netcoatings for aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Robert J

    2014-10-17

    Unsustainable harvesting of natural fish stocks is driving an ever growing marine aquaculture industry. Part of the aquaculture support industry is net suppliers who provide producers with nets used in confining fish while they are grown to market size. Biofouling must be addressed in marine environments to ensure maximum product growth by maintaining water flow and waste removal through the nets. Biofouling is managed with copper and organic biocide based net coatings. The aquaculture industry provides a case study for business issues related to entry of improved fouling management technology into the marketplace. Several major hurdles hinder entry of improved novel technologies into the market. The first hurdle is due to the structure of business relationships. Net suppliers can actually cut their business profits dramatically by introducing improved technologies. A second major hurdle is financial costs of registration and demonstration of efficacy and quality product with a new technology. Costs of registration are prohibitive if only the net coatings market is involved. Demonstration of quality product requires collaboration and a team approach between formulators, net suppliers and farmers. An alternative solution is a vertically integrated business model in which the support business and product production business are part of the same company.

  19. Microbial Diseases in Shrimp Aquaculture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karunasagar, Iddya; Karunasagar, Indrani; Umesha, R.K.

    Diseases in Shrimp Aquaculture Iddya Karunasagar, Indrani Karunasagar and R. K. Umesha Department of Fishery Microbiology, University of Agricultural Sciences, College of Fisheries, Mangalore-575 002, India Introduction Aquaculture is one of the fastest... growing food production sectors in the world (Subasinghe et al. 1998). According to FAO statistics, over 80% of fish produced by aquaculture comes from Asia, with the production valued at $ 38.855 billion (FAO, 1996). However, disease outbreaks have caused...

  20. Aquaculture. Second Edition. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Susan S.; Crummett, Dan

    This teacher and student guide for aquaculture contains 15 units of instruction that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to aquaculture; (2) the aquatic environment; (3) fundamental fish biology; (4) marketing; (5) site selection; (6) facility design and layout; (7) water quality management; (8) fish health management; (9) commercial…

  1. Direcciones futuras de la ecotoxicología en Chile: implicancias para la evaluación de riesgo ambiental de productos veterinarios utilizados en acuicultura Future directions of Chilean ecotoxicology: Implications for the environmental risk assessment of veterinary products used in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATÍAS H MEDINA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La relación bidireccional de influencia que la acuicultura establece con el ambiente en el cual se desarrolla determina límites al crecimiento de esta actividad económica en Chile. Esto se ha traducido tanto en restricciones técnicas, como en conflictos ambientales y sociales. La creciente demanda de nuevos productos quimioterapéuticos y su consecuente vertido en ambientes acuáticos es considerado uno de los principales problemas ambientales que enfrenta la industria del salmón en Chile. Sin embargo, poco se sabe acerca de los efectos que ejercen estas sustancias sobre especies no objetivo y, en general, sobre la estructura y función de los ecosistemas expuestos. Mediante la aplicación de teoría y métodos de ecología contemporánea, el trabajo aquí presentado busca contribuir oportunamente al desarrollo de una metodología que permita reducir el nivel de incertidumbre asociado a la evaluación de riesgo ambiental de productos veterinarios utilizados en acuicultura. Se revisa el estado actual de la evaluación de riesgo ambiental en Chile y se identifican aspectos críticos y factibles de corregir en el marco de los procedimientos utilizados. Finalmente, se entrega una propuesta metodológica general que contempla extender de un modo coherente las pruebas ecotoxicológicas estándar, combinando experimentación a niveles comunitario, poblacional e individual, junto a la modelización matemática de sistemas ecológicos.The bidirectional relationship that aquaculture has with the environment set limits to the growth this economic activity has in Chile. This condition has generated both technical constraints and environmental as well as social conflicts. The growing demand for new chemotherapeutic compounds and their reléase into aquatic environments is now considered one of the main problems being faced by the salmón industry in Chile. However, little is known about the effects these substances exert on non-target species and on the

  2. Aquaculture, Capture Fisheries, and Wild Fish Stocks

    OpenAIRE

    Shan Jiang

    2007-01-01

    In a general equilibrium model, this paper examines how the rise of aquaculture and the decline of wild fish stocks are related. Two factors, population growth and technological improvement in aquaculture, have been studied in an aquaculture restricted entry case and an aquaculture free entry case. Both factors raise aquaculture production, while changes in wild fish stocks hinge on entry conditions. In the restricted entry case, population growth reduces wild fish stocks, but technological p...

  3. DNA vaccines for aquacultured fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; LaPatra, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    of licensing and public acceptance of the technology. The potential benefits of DNA vaccines for farmed fish include improved animal welfare, reduced environmental impacts of aquaculture activities, increased food quality and quantity, and more sustainable production. Testing under commercial production...

  4. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF THE FISH AQUACULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    L. P. Buchatsky

    2013-01-01

    The latest progress in biotechnology on fish aquaculture and different modern methods of investigations for increasing of fish productivity in aquaculture are analyzed. Except for the applied aspect, the use of modern biotechnological methods of investigations opens new possibilities for fundamental researches of sex-determining mechanisms, polyploidy, distant hybridization, and developmental biology of bony fishes. Review contains examples of utilizing modern biotechnology methods to obtain ...

  5. Reflections on the Chilean Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia SANTOS PÉREZ

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chile has historically excelled in Latin America for its political stability and its institutional strength, which did not prevent it from living under an authoritarian regime (1973-1988. The political transition was a consequence of a fast political pact between the military and a strong political class that led to a limited democracy because of the origin and content of the Constitution, partially overcome by the constitutional reform of 2005. However, the slow development of the Chilean democratic process is due to both the institutional framework and the behavior of the political actors who have favored political stability based on consensus before the plurality of competition and the political debate for the sake of democratic quality.

  6. Experiences of countries with new aquatic industries: the development of aquaculture in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaby, M

    2008-04-01

    Although caviar is the most significant and famous fishery product of Iran, in recent years the country has gained a lot of experience and had some significant success with other fishery and aquaculture products. Iranian fisheries and aquaculture production reached 522,000 metric tons in 2005, of which 75% originated from capture fishery and 25% from aquaculture activities. Various fishery and aquaculture activities take place in Iran to help meet domestic demand for aquaculture products and to maintain the existing level of natural resources in seas and rivers (restocking natural sources). The ways in which Iran has been able to make progress in developing aquaculture--which could serve as a model for other countries in the region and for developing countries--are as follows: a) optimising the use of climatic diversity in raising various aquatic species; b) establishing the required governmental and nongovernmental organisations for raising aquatic animals, and planning and creating appropriate relationships between those organisations and entities; c) training skilful manpower and educating specialists in the field of aquatic animal health and diseases; d) increasing per capita consumption of fishery products through sensitising public opinion; and e) meeting the requirements for raising the rate of aquatic animal culture and developing the export of fishery products, i.e. by supplying eyed eggs, feed, broodstock, etc.

  7. World aquaculture: environmental impacts and troubleshooting alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Porchas, Marcel; Martinez-Cordova, Luis R

    2012-01-01

    Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize the negative impacts, rather than just prohibiting the activity. Aquaculture is a possible panacea, but at present is also responsible for diverse problems related with the environmental health; however the new strategies proposed during the last decade have proven that it is possible to achieve a sustainable aquaculture, but such strategies should be supported and proclaimed by the different federal environmental agencies from all countries. Additionally there is an urgent need to improve legislation and regulation for aquaculture. Only under such scenario, aquaculture will be a sustainable practice.

  8. Aquaculture practices and the coastal marine environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Ansari, Z.A.; Sreepada, R.A.

    Aquaculture has the potential for causing environmental harm as well as for improving livelihood and nutrition. Aquaculture development, therefore requires to be seen in the wider context of aquatic resource use, land use development and its...

  9. Coastal Aquaculture Development in Bangladesh: Unsustainable and Sustainable Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, A. Kalam; Jensen, Kathe R.; Lin, C. Kwei

    2009-10-01

    Coastal aquaculture in Bangladesh consists mainly of two shrimp species ( Penaeus monodon and Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Currently, there are about 16,237 marine shrimp ( P. monodon) farms covering 148,093 ha and 36,109 fresh water shrimp ( M. rosenbergii) farms covering 17,638 ha coastal area. More than 0.7 million people are employed in the farmed shrimp sector and in 2005-2006 the export value of shrimp was 403.5 million USD. Thus, coastal aquaculture contributes significantly to rural employment and economy but this is overshadowed by negative social and ecological impacts. This article reviews the key issues, constraints and opportunities of sustainable shrimp farming. In addition we present the results of two case studies from southwestern coastal areas where shrimp farming originated and central coastal areas where shrimp farming, especially M. rosenbergii, began in recent years. Lessons learned from the review and case studies are considered in the context of recommendations to encompass a socially equitable and ecologically sound coastal aquaculture.

  10. Mediterranean Aquaculture: Marine Fish Farming Development

    OpenAIRE

    Basurco, B

    2001-01-01

    in many parts of the world, aquaculture production in the Mediterranean has been expanding rapidly over recent years. Total aquaculture production in the region reached 1,266,959 t in 1999, which represents approximately 6% of the world aquaculture production (3% in 1995). Although Mediterranean aquaculture still focuses more on mollusc production (53.9%), the share of fish production is progressing constantly (46% in 1999, and 35% in 1995), parallel to global trends of world a...

  11. Compartmentalisation in aquaculture production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda, C; Jones, J B; Zagmutt, F J

    2008-04-01

    Compartmentalisation is a new tool for disease management within a country. In aquaculture, the successful application of compartmentalisation is largely dependent on the system of production and the epidemiology of the disease(s) for which the compartment is being defined. Therefore, compartmentalisation may not be universally applicable across all systems and diseases. The paper examines the implementation of the concept, providing examples of specific industries, and discusses the application of hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) to the biosecurity of the system. The role of compartmentalisation in the management of aquaculture disease emergencies is also discussed.

  12. Applications of probiotic in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seval Bahadır Koca

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecological impacts including emergence of a large variety of pathogens and bacterial resistance is caused in increase of productivity in aquaculture. This negatively effects are seen as a results of made applications in production cycles (such as randomly use kemoteropatik. Using probi¬otic in aquaculture is a new approach to reduce these negatively effects. In this study is submi¬ted, definition of the concept probiotic, effect mechanisms of probiotics, colonization to host, selection of probiotics, use probiotic in fish, crustacean, the mollusk and the live feed.

  13. Increased competition for aquaculture from fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    ; and supplies from aquaculture have grown continuously. In this paper, the impact of improved fisheries management on aquaculture growth is studied assuming perfect substitution between farmed and wild fish. We find that improved fisheries management, ceteris paribus, reduces the growth potential of global...... aquaculture in markets where wild fisheries constitute a large share of total supply....

  14. Aquaculture Thesaurus: Descriptors Used in the National Aquaculture Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, James A.; And Others

    This document provides a listing of descriptors used in the National Aquaculture Information System (NAIS), a computer information storage and retrieval system on marine, brackish, and freshwater organisms. Included are an explanation of how to use the document, subject index terms, and a brief bibliography of the literature used in developing the…

  15. Enhancing fish performance in Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquaculture currently is the fastest growing agricultural industry and must continue to grow to meet the world’s increasing demand for seafood. Continued growth will depend upon advances in fish genetics and nutrition, and improvements in culture system design and management. The number and complexi...

  16. QTL mapping designs for aquaculture.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massault, C.; Bovenhuis, H.; Haley, C.S.; Koning, de D.J.

    2008-01-01

    Rapid development of genomics technology is providing new opportunities for genetic studies, including QTL mapping, in many aquaculture species. This paper investigates the strengths and limitations of QTL mapping designs for fish and shellfish under three different controlled breeding schemes. For

  17. Ecuador's mangrove forest carbon stocks: A spatiotemporal analysis of living carbon holdings and their depletion since the advent of commercial aquaculture

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we estimate the living carbon lost from Ecuador's mangrove forests since the advent of export-focused shrimp aquaculture. We use remote sensing techniques to delineate the extent of mangroves and aquaculture at approximately decadal periods since the arrival of aquaculture in each Ecuadorian estuary. We then spatiotemporally calculate the carbon values of the mangrove forests and estimate the amount of carbon lost due to direct displacement by aquaculture. Additionally, we calculate the new carbon stocks generated due to mangrove reforestation or afforestation. This research introduces time and land use / land cover change (LUCC) into the tropical forest carbon literature and examines forest carbon loss at a higher spatiotemporal resolution than in many earlier analyses. We find that 80%, or 7,014,517 t of the living carbon lost in Ecuadorian mangrove forests can be attributed to direct displacement of mangrove forests by shrimp aquaculture. We also find that Intergovernmental Panel on Climate C...

  18. Expanding Exports: Can Tennessee Double Its Exports?

    OpenAIRE

    Steven G. Livingston

    2010-01-01

    In this year's State of the Union Address, President Obama announced a National Export Initiative to double American exports over the next five years. He claimed that this could add two million jobs to the American economy. Could Tennessee actually double its exports over this period? And what would be the impact if it did?

  19. ICT & Learning in Chilean Schools: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Jaime; Salinas, Alvaro

    2008-01-01

    By the early nineties a Chilean network on computers and education for public schools had emerged. There were both high expectancies that technology could revolutionize education as well as divergent voices that doubted the real impact of technology on learning. This paper presents an evaluation of the Enlaces network, a national Information and…

  20. Fostering Teaching Quality in Chilean Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman Cruzat, Jose Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to explain the strategies that have been carried out by three Chilean universities in order to advance the quality of their teaching. The studied institutions are the Universidad de los Andes, the Universidad de Talca and the Universidad Catolica de Chile. In each of these three cases the analysis included, both the policies…

  1. [The Chilean Association of Biomedical Journal Editors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, H

    2001-01-01

    On September 29th, 2000, The Chilean Association of Biomedical Journal Editors was founded, sponsored by the "Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT)" (the Governmental Agency promoting and funding scientific research and technological development in Chile) and the "Sociedad Médica de Santiago" (Chilean Society of Internal Medicine). The Association adopted the goals of the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) and therefore it will foster "cooperation and communication among Editors of Chilean biomedical journals; to improve editorial standards, to promote professionalism in medical editing through education, self-criticism and self-regulation; and to encourage research on the principles and practice of medical editing". Twenty nine journals covering a closely similar number of different biomedical sciences, medical specialties, veterinary, dentistry and nursing, became Founding Members of the Association. A Governing Board was elected: President: Humberto Reyes, M.D. (Editor, Revista Médica de Chile); Vice-President: Mariano del Sol, M.D. (Editor, Revista Chilena de Anatomía); Secretary: Anna María Prat (CONICYT); Councilors: Manuel Krauskopff, Ph.D. (Editor, Biological Research) and Maritza Rahal, M.D. (Editor, Revista de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello). The Association will organize a Symposium on Biomedical Journal Editing and will spread information stimulating Chilean biomedical journals to become indexed in international databases and in SciELO-Chile, the main Chilean scientific website (www.scielo.cl).

  2. 76 FR 9210 - Draft DOC National Aquaculture Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... DOC National Aquaculture Policy AGENCY: Commerce. ACTION: Notice of availability of draft aquaculture... draft national aquaculture policy that supports sustainable aquaculture in the United States. The intent of the policy is to guide DOC's actions and decisions on aquaculture and to provide a...

  3. Science, the Environment and Aquaculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jian

    2002-01-01

    This paper first analyzes the problems of natural resources, the environment and agriculture in China. Secondly, it discusses the challenge of sustaining a healthy aquaculture. Thirdly, the role of science and technology in environmental management is described in detail, explaining the interaction between research and implication for govemment policymaking and local authority implementation. Finally, the institutes of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) concerned with studies of aquatic ecosystem management are introduced as examples.

  4. Use of Probiotics in Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Cruz, Patricia; Ibáñez, Ana L.; Monroy Hermosillo, Oscar A.; Ramírez Saad, Hugo C.

    2012-01-01

    The growth of aquaculture as an industry has accelerated over the past decades; this has resulted in environmental damages and low productivity of various crops. The need for increased disease resistance, growth of aquatic organisms, and feed efficiency has brought about the use of probiotics in aquaculture practices. The first application of probiotics occurred in 1986, to test their ability to increase growth of hydrobionts (organisms that live in water). Later, probiotics were used to improve water quality and control of bacterial infections. Nowadays, there is documented evidence that probiotics can improve the digestibility of nutrients, increase tolerance to stress, and encourage reproduction. Currently, there are commercial probiotic products prepared from various bacterial species such as Bacillus sp., Lactobacillus sp., Enterococcus sp., Carnobacterium sp., and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae among others, and their use is regulated by careful management recommendations. The present paper shows the current knowledge of the use of probiotics in aquaculture, its antecedents, and safety measures to be carried out and discusses the prospects for study in this field. PMID:23762761

  5. Effect of aquaculture on world fish supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, R L; Goldburg, R J; Primavera, J H; Kautsky, N; Beveridge, M C; Clay, J; Folke, C; Lubchenco, J; Mooney, H; Troell, M

    2000-06-29

    Global production of farmed fish and shellfish has more than doubled in the past 15 years. Many people believe that such growth relieves pressure on ocean fisheries, but the opposite is true for some types of aquaculture. Farming carnivorous species requires large inputs of wild fish for feed. Some aquaculture systems also reduce wild fish supplies through habitat modification, wild seedstock collection and other ecological impacts. On balance, global aquaculture production still adds to world fish supplies; however, if the growing aquaculture industry is to sustain its contribution to world fish supplies, it must reduce wild fish inputs in feed and adopt more ecologically sound management practices.

  6. Demand Uncertainty: Exporting Delays and Exporting Failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a model of trade that explains why firms wait to export and why many exporters fail. Firms face uncertain demands that are only realized after the firm enters the destination. The model retools the timing of the resolution of uncertainty found in models with heterogeneity...... to forecast unknown demands in untested destinations. The option to forecast demands causes firms to delay exporting in order to gather more information about foreign demand. Third, since uncertainty is resolved after entry, many firms enter a destination and then exit after learning that they cannot profit....... This prediction reconciles the high rate of exit seen in the first years of exporting. Finally, when faced with multiple destinations to which they can export, many firms will choose to sequentially export in order to slowly learn more about its chances for success in untested markets....

  7. [Chilean's nursing knowledge organization and their tendencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Sara Mendoza; Klijin, Tatiana Paravic

    2004-01-01

    A Quantitative, descriptive and retrospective research that explored the Chilean Nursing knowledge organization an their tendencies. The universe was composed by scientists reports published in the Chilean nursing journals between 1965 and 2003 (N=214). Data were collected by an instrument based on the CIPE's and Nogueira's classification and cienciometría indications. Statistics measures of central tendency analysis was managed with SPSS. Some of the results obtained were: the more frequent study subject's was the professional nursing and the tendency is to be focused at the mature people's health necessities and their risk of being ill. It was found: little theoretical nursing sustenance at the reports. The "Ciencia y Enfermería" is the journal that exhibits the best scientific quality of alls.

  8. Constructing Realities: Bullying Usages in Chilean Discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Bassaletti-Contreras

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article reports an exploratory research on the uses given in Chile to the Anglicism bullying. In order to do so, its evolution is reviewed from the early studies in the Nordic countries, to the treatment of the topic in the Chilean context. The focus of this work is based on socioconstructionism and in turn promotes the consideration of the characteristics of the socio-cultural and historical context of knowledge production with a postcolonial intention. To review the constructions on the subject, we selected Chilean videos at the YouTube virtual platform, using as methodology discourse analysis and dense description. In results can be observed two meanings of bullying: (i to refer to any kind of aggression and (ii as a homologous of abuse among schoolchildren. In response, it is realized the discrepancy with the proposed definitions from general academia and those used in the local environment in investigations, interventions, public policy and mass media in Chile.

  9. An overview of Chilean Marine Sciences Journals

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The work provides a global vision of Chilean marine sciences journals, besides the problems that have existed in relation to their edition and publication. In spite of being serious publications with rich scientific content related to the study area, mainly along the coast of the eastern South Pacific, these journals have not reached the expected levels to be considered within the ISI system journals. With the purpose of obtaining an objective appreciation in regard to the presentation format...

  10. Learning by Exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz, Antonio; Newman, Carol; Rand, John

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we analyse the learning-by-exporting (LBE) hypothesis in the Mozambican context. Due to the presence of the ‘Born-Global’ phenomenon among exporters, we address the endogeneity introduced by self-selection, combining a generalised Blinder–Oaxaca approach with results from...... traditional matching techniques. Our results show that very few manufacturing firms export, and that export participation is highly persistent. There is also evidence supporting the LBE hypothesis and the results suggest a significant export premium of between 17 and 21%, controlling for differences...... in observable characteristics between exporters and non-exporters. Finally, qualitative information on non-exporters seeking new markets suggests that ‘lack of knowledge of potential markets’ is the most severe constraint to international market entry. We conclude that the Mozambican Export Promotion Institute...

  11. Myanmar seafood exports:Quick scan of the EU market potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijl, van der W.; Duijn, van A.P.

    2012-01-01

    The Asian region is a major supplier of fish products to the European market. The aquaculture sector in a number of Asian countries has become an important producer as well as exporter of various captured and cultured seafood products. Since Myanmar is in a transition to democracy and the EU decided

  12. Uniparental ancestry markers in Chilean populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Dutra Vieira-Machado

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans has led to the development of a multi-ethnic, admixed population in Chile. This study aimed to contribute to the characterization of the uniparental genetic structure of three Chilean regions. Newborns from seven hospitals in Independencia, Providencia, Santiago, Curicó, Cauquenes, Valdívia, and Puerto Montt communes, belonging to the Chilean regions of Santiago, Maule, and Los Lagos, were studied. The presence of Native American mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroups and two markers present in the non-recombinant region of the Y chromosome, DYS199 and DYS287, indicative of Native American and African ancestry, respectively, was determined. A high Native American matrilineal contribution and a low Native American and African patrilineal contributions were found in all three studied regions. As previously found in Chilean admixed populations, the Native American matrilineal contribution was lower in Santiago than in the other studied regions. However, there was an unexpectedly higher contribution of Native American ancestry in one of the studied communes in Santiago, probably due to the high rate of immigration from other regions of the country. The population genetic sub-structure we detected in Santiago using few uniparental markers requires further confirmation, owing to possible stratification for autosomal and X-chromosome markers.

  13. Antimicrobial use and resistance in aquaculture: findings of a globally administered survey of aquaculture-allied professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuševljak, N; Dutil, L; Rajić, A; Uhland, F C; McClure, C; St-Hilaire, S; Reid-Smith, R J; McEwen, S A

    2013-09-01

    There is limited published information regarding antimicrobial use (AMU) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in aquaculture. Our objective was to determine the opinions of aquaculture-allied professionals around the world on the frequency of AMU and AMR in common aquatic species. The study questionnaire included five sections: respondent demographics, extent of AMU in aquaculture, frequency of observations of AMR in aquaculture, AMR monitoring and surveillance and antimicrobial susceptibility testing in various jurisdictions. It was administered in English and Spanish to 604 professionals in 25 countries and with varying expertise in aquaculture. The response rate was 33% (199/604). Over half of the participants had >10 years of experience in aquaculture: 70% (140/199) were involved in fish health/clinical work and their primary experience was with salmon, tilapia, trout, shrimp (including prawn) and/or catfish. Tetracycline use was reported by 28%, 46%, 18%, 37% and 9% of respondents working with catfish, salmon, tilapia, trout and shrimp, respectively. Resistance to tetracycline in one or more species of bacteria was reported as 'frequent-to-almost always' for the same aquaculture species by 39%, 28%, 17%, 52% and 36% of respondents, respectively. 'Frequent-to-almost always' use of quinolone was reported by 70% (32/46) and 67% (8/12) of respondents from the United States and Canada, respectively, where quinolone products are not approved for aquaculture, and extra-label fluoroquinolone use is either prohibited (United States) or discouraged (Canada). Similar frequencies of quinolone use were also reported by the majority of respondents from Europe [70% (7/10)] and Asia [90% (9/10)] where labelled indications exist. This baseline information can be used to prioritize research or surveillance for AMU and AMR in aquaculture.

  14. The choice of disease control strategies to secure international market access for aquaculture products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinabut, S; Puttinaowarat, S

    2005-01-01

    Since production from capture fisheries cannot meet the demands of exports, aquaculture has subsequently played a major role in securing the raw materials for the world's food industries. Aquaculture has rapidly developed from extensive systems to semi-intensive, intensive and super-intensive systems. This has introduced the use of chemicals and drugs into the systems, which cause residual problems in the products. In the developed world, food safety has become a major issue of concern. The world market now demands healthy aquaculture products from farm to table. To achieve these requirements and to keep their markets, countries involved in aquaculture have implemented control measures such as farm licensing, code of conduct for sustainable aquaculture, hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) and good aquaculture practice. However, infectious diseases in aquaculture are of major concern to the industry and are typically controlled by eradication of the pathogen, treatment with antibiotic or chemotherapeutics, and/or by preventative measures such as the use of probiotics or vaccines. To limit the use of chemicals and antibiotics, good farm management is highly recommended. In terms of treatment, chemicals and antibiotics should be evaluated to establish recommended doses and withdrawal periods, otherwise alternative treatments should be developed. Environmentally-friendly probiotics have been introduced to aquaculture practice in the last decade to replace pathogenic bacteria with beneficial bacteria transient in the gut. Micro-organisms have also been prepared for the purpose of biocontrol and bioremediation. The application of probiotic, biocontrol and bioremediation seem promising; however considerable efforts of further research in terms of food and environmental safety are needed. Vaccination has proved highly effective in controlling diseases in the salmon industry mainly in Europe, America and Japan. In other Asian countries, this practice seem to

  15. Dependency on aquaculture in northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Minh, Hanh; Phan, Van Thi; Nghia, Nguyen Huu

    2016-01-01

    diverse sources of income shows the unstable or risky nature of aquaculture livelihoods in the study area. Our findings suggest that policies promoting aquaculture should focus on training of farmers whilst acknowledging that a diverse income portfolio increases livelihood resilience to external shocks...... such as extreme weather events, diseases and fluctuating market prices....

  16. Aquaculture and food crisis: opportunities and constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, I Chiu; Chao, Nai-Hsien

    2009-01-01

    Fish farming, now well known as aquaculture, has been well recognized since the ancient era. The first written document on fish culture was published in China in 475 BC, and the first koi pond was constructed at the Japanese Imperial Palace grounds during 71-130 AD. In recent years, aquaculture has progressively played an important role in the provision of: animal protein and gourmet cuisines, job opportunities, and foreign currency for developing countries. Asian countries produce around 91 percent of the world's total aquaculture production. Among the top ten aquaculture-producing countries, nine are from Asia. The current global population consist of more than 6.5 billion individuals; over one billion of which face hunger problem. In the highly populated Asia-Pacific region with moderately high-productivity, 642 million people are still facing hunger. Being a proficient and potential source of animal protein, aquaculture will play an increasing and important role in solving the world food problem in the future. This paper discusses both the opportunities and constraints in the aquaculture industry, specifically in the Asia-Pacific region, and its possible role in solving the current global food crisis. Strategies including promotion and adoption of traceability and HACCP systems for food safety, and marketing management for aquaculture products are also suggested. It is hoped that traditional administration of aquaculture management for survival, profit, as well as food safety will successfully match sustainability management to meet the urgent global need for food.

  17. Consumer behaviour and preferences for aquaculture products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Scholderer, Joachim; Verbeke, Wim

    During the last decades, the proportion of aquaculture products in the market place has increased dramatically and this trend seems to continue in the future as well. While both the producers of aquaculture products as well as the distribution channels are aware of this change in product...

  18. Exploring Aquaculture. Curriculum Guide for Agriscience 282.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    This curriculum guide provides materials for teachers to use in developing a course in "Exploring Aquaculture, Agriscience 282," one of 28 semester courses in agricultural science and technology for Texas high schools. This introductory course is designed to acquaint students with the growing industry of aquaculture; it includes…

  19. World Aquaculture: Environmental Impacts and Troubleshooting Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Martinez-Porchas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize the negative impacts, rather than just prohibiting the activity. Aquaculture is a possible panacea, but at present is also responsible for diverse problems related with the environmental health; however the new strategies proposed during the last decade have proven that it is possible to achieve a sustainable aquaculture, but such strategies should be supported and proclaimed by the different federal environmental agencies from all countries. Additionally there is an urgent need to improve legislation and regulation for aquaculture. Only under such scenario, aquaculture will be a sustainable practice.

  20. World Aquaculture: Environmental Impacts and Troubleshooting Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Porchas, Marcel; Martinez-Cordova, Luis R.

    2012-01-01

    Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize the negative impacts, rather than just prohibiting the activity. Aquaculture is a possible panacea, but at present is also responsible for diverse problems related with the environmental health; however the new strategies proposed during the last decade have proven that it is possible to achieve a sustainable aquaculture, but such strategies should be supported and proclaimed by the different federal environmental agencies from all countries. Additionally there is an urgent need to improve legislation and regulation for aquaculture. Only under such scenario, aquaculture will be a sustainable practice. PMID:22649291

  1. Stringency of environmental regulation and aquaculture growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gedefaw Abate, Tenaw; Nielsen, Rasmus; Tveterås, Ragnar

    2016-01-01

    During the last three decades, aquaculture has been the fastest growing animal-food-producing sector in the world, accounting for half of the present seafood supply. However, there is a significant growth disparity among aquaculture-producing countries. The reasons why some countries have achieved...... remarkable growth in aquaculture while others have stagnated or even declined have not been determined. In this article, we investigate whether environmental regulations have an impact on aquaculture growth. Using a cross-country regression analysis, we show that stringent environmental regulations...... are negatively related to aquaculture growth, whereas GDP growth has a positive effect. Countries often face a difficult balancing act between growth and environmental considerations when devising regulations. Our empirical results suggest that stricter environmental regulations in developed countries have...

  2. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF THE FISH AQUACULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Buchatsky

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The latest progress in biotechnology on fish aquaculture and different modern methods of investigations for increasing of fish productivity in aquaculture are analyzed. Except for the applied aspect, the use of modern biotechnological methods of investigations opens new possibilities for fundamental researches of sex-determining mechanisms, polyploidy, distant hybridization, and developmental biology of bony fishes. Review contains examples of utilizing modern biotechnology methods to obtain transgenic fishes with accelerated growth and for designing surrogate fishes. Methods for receiving unisexual shoals of salmon and sturgeon female fishes with the view of obtaining a large quantity of caviar, as well as receiving sterile (triploid fishes are analyzed. Great attention is given to androgenesis, particularly to disperm one, in connection with the problem of conserving rare and vanishing fish species using only sperm genetic material. Examples how distant hybrids may be obtained with the use of disperm androgenesis and alkylated DNA are given. Methods of obtaining fish primordium germ cells, recent developments in cultivation of fish stem cells and their use in biotechnology, as well as ones of transplantation of oogonium and spermatogonium to obtain surrogate fishes. The examples of successful experiments on spermatogonial xenotransplantation and characteristic of antifreezing fish proteins and also the prospect of their practical usage are given.

  3. Environmental impact of non-certified versus certified (ASC) intensive Pangasius aquaculture in Vietnam, a comparison based on a statistically supported LCA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nhu, Trang T.; Schaubroeck, Thomas; Henriksson, Patrik J.G.; Bosma, Roel; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Dewulf, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Pangasius production in Vietnam is widely known as a success story in aquaculture, the fastest growing global food system because of its tremendous expansion by volume, value and the number of international markets to which Pangasius has been exported in recent years. While certification schemes are

  4. Logistics and Exports

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on a new and comprehensive measure of logistics quality, our gravity model suggests logistics in the exporting and partner-country can have an important impact on bilateral exports. A one standard deviation improvement in the exporter’s logistics quality, which for example would improve Gabon to the level of Guinea, would raise exports by almost 60%. Landlocked countries’ exports depend on their neighbours’ logistics, but their own logistics quality is not as important as for other co...

  5. 76 FR 9209 - Draft NOAA National Aquaculture Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... National Aquaculture Policy and Draft DOC National Aquaculture Policy; Notices #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA214 Draft NOAA National Aquaculture Policy AGENCY: National...: Notice of availability of draft aquaculture policy; request for comments. SUMMARY: NOAA is seeking...

  6. REVIEW OF AQUACULTURE GENETIC RESEARCHES IN THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UTHAIRAT NA-NAKORN

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture business has been well established in Thailand for more than 40 years. The most recent data indicated a total production of 260 380 tons. Sixty-five percent of the total production came from coastal aquaculture, mainly tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon culture. Other important species for coastal aquaculture are banana prawn (P. merguensis, cockle (Anadara granosa, green mussel (Perna viridis, oyster (Crassostrea belcheri, Saccostrea commercialis, sea bass (Lates calcarifer and grouper (Epinephelus tauvina. Freshwater aquaculture, although produced only 35% of the annual production, provides major protein source for people in rural areas. Important freshwater species are Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, tawes (Puntius gonionotus, sepat Siam (Trichogasterpectoralis, walking catfish (Glorias spp., stripped catfish (Pangasius sutchi and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Optimum aquacultural practises, namely stocking density, nutrition requirement and water quality have been obtained in most cultured species. But genetic approach has not been considered, thus resulting in deterioration in economic traits which might be due to excessive inbreeding (reviewed by Uraiwan 1989 and/or negative selection (Wongsangchan 1985. The history of researches on genetics in aquaculture in Thailand started in 1982 when the aquaculture genetic programme in form of a network has been established at the National Inland Fisheries Institute, Department of Fisheries. This programme was supported by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC, Canada in cooperation with Dalhousie University, Canada (Uraiwan 1989. In the same year a genetic improvement programme aiming at improving economic characters of some economic fish species has been conducted at the Department of Aquaculture, Kasetsart University. Paralelly a course in Fish Genetics has been offered. Since then different approaches of genetics have been applied with final

  7. Infectious Diseases Affect Marine Fisheries and Aquaculture Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew; Conrad, Jon M.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Kent, Michael L.; Kuris, Armand M.; Powell, Eric N.; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  8. Infectious diseases affect marine fisheries and aquaculture economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew; Conrad, Jon M.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Kent, Michael L.; Kuris, Armand M.; Powell, Eric N.; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  9. The CHilean Automatic Supernova sEarch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamuy, M.; Pignata, G.; Maza, J.

    2012-01-01

    The CHilean Automatic Supernova sEarch (CHASE) project began in 2007 with the goal to discover young, nearby southern supernovae in order to (1) better understand the physics of exploding stars and their progenitors, and (2) refine the methods to derive extragalactic distances. During the first...... four years of operation, CHASE has produced more than 130 supernovae, being the most successful project of its type in the southern hemisphere. Here we describe the project and present illustrative examples of CHASE discoveries of particular relevance....

  10. [Ethics code of the Chilean Biological Society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Etica, C; Valenzuela, C; Cruz-Coke, R; Ureta, T; Bull, R

    1997-01-01

    The Chilean Biological Society has approved an ethics code for researchers, elaborated by its Ethic Committee. The text, with 16 articles, undertakes the main ethical problems that researchers must solve, such as institutional, professional or societal ethics, scientific fraud, breaches in collaborative work, relationships between researchers, participation in juries and committees, ethical breaches in scientific publications, scientific responsibility and punishments. This code declares its respect and valorization of all life forms and adheres to international biomedical ethical codes. It declares that all knowledge, created or obtained by researchers is mankind's heritage.

  11. Aquaculture: global status and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, John; McAndrew, Brendan; Richards, Randolph; Jauncey, Kim; Telfer, Trevor; Lorenzen, Kai; Little, David; Ross, Lindsay; Handisyde, Neil; Gatward, Iain; Corner, Richard

    2010-09-27

    Aquaculture contributed 43 per cent of aquatic animal food for human consumption in 2007 (e.g. fish, crustaceans and molluscs, but excluding mammals, reptiles and aquatic plants) and is expected to grow further to meet the future demand. It is very diverse and, contrary to many perceptions, dominated by shellfish and herbivorous and omnivorous pond fish either entirely or partly utilizing natural productivity. The rapid growth in the production of carnivorous species such as salmon, shrimp and catfish has been driven by globalizing trade and favourable economics of larger scale intensive farming. Most aquaculture systems rely on low/uncosted environmental goods and services, so a critical issue for the future is whether these are brought into company accounts and the consequent effects this would have on production economics. Failing that, increased competition for natural resources will force governments to allocate strategically or leave the market to determine their use depending on activities that can extract the highest value. Further uncertainties include the impact of climate change, future fisheries supplies (for competition and feed supply), practical limits in terms of scale and in the economics of integration and the development and acceptability of new bio-engineering technologies. In the medium term, increased output is likely to require expansion in new environments, further intensification and efficiency gains for more sustainable and cost-effective production. The trend towards enhanced intensive systems with key monocultures remains strong and, at least for the foreseeable future, will be a significant contributor to future supplies. Dependence on external feeds (including fish), water and energy are key issues. Some new species will enter production and policies that support the reduction of resource footprints and improve integration could lead to new developments as well as reversing decline in some more traditional systems.

  12. Sustainable development? Salmon aquaculture and late modernity in the archipelago of Chiloé, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R. Barton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chiloé is an archipelago that has, since the 1980s, become one of the motors of the Chilean economy. Salmon aquaculture swiftly transformed the tradition of isolation and poverty that had defined the local identity and livelihoods. This is now changing due to the rapid experience of modernity. This modernity is driven by transnational capital and large-scale state intervention in the promotion of salmon aquaculture and its current central role in defining development in the islands. While this sector has generated private and public employment and infrastructure, there has also been an important shift in the expectations and aspirations of the local population, towards increased hybridization and also a mercantilization of island culture. The success of salmon production reveals that the conditions of isolation can be transformed, and even benefits reaped from integration into the modern world –globalised, capitalist and rational, rather than traditional– however it also entails risks for the sustainability of fragile socio-ecological systems, including the existence of traditional and alternative livelihoods.

  13. The role of crustacean fisheries and aquaculture in global food security: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondad-Reantaso, Melba G; Subasinghe, Rohana P; Josupeit, Helga; Cai, Junning; Zhou, Xiaowei

    2012-06-01

    The 1996 World Food Summit defined food security as "Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life". This paper looks at the status of production from both shrimp capture fisheries and shrimp aquaculture, as well as trade, in order to understand the contribution of the crustacean sector to overall fish production and thus to global food security. This paper also examines some sustainability issues that will potentially affect the contribution of the crustacean sector (particularly shrimp) to food security. These include sustainable shrimp capture fisheries, sustainable shrimp trade and sustainable shrimp aquaculture. The paper concludes that crustaceans are an important source of aquatic food protein. Production (as food and ornamental) and trade are extremely important for developing countries. It provides both economic development and empowerment in terms of contribution to GDP, consumption, employment, catch value and exports. The crustacean sector generates high value export products which enables producers to buy lower value products in the world market - thus a positive contribution to food security in both producing and exporting countries.

  14. Contrasting Genetic Structure and Diversity of Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1848) Along the Chilean Coast: Stock Identification for Fishery Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Wevar, Claudio; Salinas, Pilar; Hüne, Mathias; Segovia, Nicolás; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Oda, Esteban; Poulin, Elie

    2015-01-01

    Galaxias maculatus (Pisces: Galaxiidae) commonly known as "puye" has a disjunct distribution along the Southern Hemisphere including landlocked and migratory populations at latitudes over 30°S in South America, Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand. Chilean artisanal fishery of G. maculatus has become less important as a resource due to multiple factors including overexploitation, pollution, introduction of predators, and competitors. At the same time, the current conservation status of the species in Chile is still uncertain. Here, we used mtDNA control region sequences (925bp) to investigate main patterns of genetic diversity and structure in populations from 2 biogeographic areas along the Chilean coast. Extremely high levels of genetic diversity characterize the species, suggesting a low amount of influence of the last glacial cycle over its demography compared with other studies in freshwater and marine South American fishes. However, we recognized contrasting genetic patterns between the Intermediate Area (between 30°S and 42°S) and the Magellanic Province (between 42°S and 56°S). On the one hand, over a narrow geographical range (stock units for G. maculatus and this information should be integrated in future management strategies and aquaculture programs for this species.

  15. Aquaculture in Coastal and Marine US Waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aquaculture, also known as aquafarming, is the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and aquatic plants. The presence and location of...

  16. Hydrogen peroxide decomposition kinetics in aquaculture water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (HP) is used in aquaculture systems where preventive or curative water treatments occasionally are required. Use of chemical agents can be challenging in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) due to extended water retention time and because the agents must not damage the fish...... reared or the nitrifying bacteria in the biofilters at concentrations required to eliminating pathogens. This calls for quantitative insight into the fate of the disinfectant residuals during water treatment. This paper presents a kinetic model that describes the HP decomposition in aquaculture water...... the enzyme activity. This was, however, not measured. The model developed successfully described the removal of HP in aquaculture water from three types of RAS and model parameters are estimated. The model and the model parameters provide new information and are valuable tools to improve HP application...

  17. Reproduction of European Eel in Aquaculture (REEL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Tybjerg, Lars; Støttrup, Josianne

    Project aim: Enhance methods and technology applied to produce and culture European eel larvae as basis for the development of a future self-sustained eel aquaculture. Background: The severe decline of the European eel stock calls for conservation measures including national eel management plans...... and establishment of a self-sustained eel aquaculture. In 2005, the National Institute of Aquatic Resources at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU Aqua), the Faculty of Life Sciences at Copenhagen University (KU-Life) and the eel aquaculture industry started to build up a research and technology platform...... for the development of methods to reproduce European eel in aquaculture. Two major projects: Artificial Reproduction of Eels II and III (ROE II and III) succeeded during 2005-2008 to produce viable eggs and larvae that lived up to 12 days. The larvae thereby accomplished the yolk-sac stage and became ready to start...

  18. Capturing ecosystem services, stakeholders' preferences and trade-offs in coastal aquaculture decisions: a Bayesian belief network application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Helene Marie Schmitt

    Full Text Available Aquaculture activities are embedded in complex social-ecological systems. However, aquaculture development decisions have tended to be driven by revenue generation, failing to account for interactions with the environment and the full value of the benefits derived from services provided by local ecosystems. Trade-offs resulting from changes in ecosystem services provision and associated impacts on livelihoods are also often overlooked. This paper proposes an innovative application of Bayesian belief networks - influence diagrams - as a decision support system for mediating trade-offs arising from the development of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand. Senior experts were consulted (n = 12 and primary farm data on the economics of shrimp farming (n = 20 were collected alongside secondary information on ecosystem services, in order to construct and populate the network. Trade-offs were quantitatively assessed through the generation of a probabilistic impact matrix. This matrix captures nonlinearity and uncertainty and describes the relative performance and impacts of shrimp farming management scenarios on local livelihoods. It also incorporates export revenues and provision and value of ecosystem services such as coastal protection and biodiversity. This research shows that Bayesian belief modeling can support complex decision-making on pathways for sustainable coastal aquaculture development and thus contributes to the debate on the role of aquaculture in social-ecological resilience and economic development.

  19. Capturing ecosystem services, stakeholders' preferences and trade-offs in coastal aquaculture decisions: a Bayesian belief network application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Laetitia Helene Marie; Brugere, Cecile

    2013-01-01

    Aquaculture activities are embedded in complex social-ecological systems. However, aquaculture development decisions have tended to be driven by revenue generation, failing to account for interactions with the environment and the full value of the benefits derived from services provided by local ecosystems. Trade-offs resulting from changes in ecosystem services provision and associated impacts on livelihoods are also often overlooked. This paper proposes an innovative application of Bayesian belief networks - influence diagrams - as a decision support system for mediating trade-offs arising from the development of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand. Senior experts were consulted (n = 12) and primary farm data on the economics of shrimp farming (n = 20) were collected alongside secondary information on ecosystem services, in order to construct and populate the network. Trade-offs were quantitatively assessed through the generation of a probabilistic impact matrix. This matrix captures nonlinearity and uncertainty and describes the relative performance and impacts of shrimp farming management scenarios on local livelihoods. It also incorporates export revenues and provision and value of ecosystem services such as coastal protection and biodiversity. This research shows that Bayesian belief modeling can support complex decision-making on pathways for sustainable coastal aquaculture development and thus contributes to the debate on the role of aquaculture in social-ecological resilience and economic development.

  20. Association between eating behavior scores and obesity in Chilean children

    OpenAIRE

    Amador Paola; Obregón Ana M; Cataldo Rodrigo; Domínguez-Vásquez Patricia; Smalley Susan V; González Andrea; Ho-Urriola Judith A; Santos José L; Weisstaub Gerardo; Hodgson M Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Inadequate eating behavior and physical inactivity contribute to the current epidemic of childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the association between eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chilean children. Design and methods We recruited 126 obese, 44 overweight and 124 normal-weight Chilean children (6-12 years-old; both genders) according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria. Eating behavior scores were calculated using the ...

  1. Wine tourism : a review of the Chilean case

    OpenAIRE

    Kunc, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Wine tourism has become a thriving niche in global tourism industry with successful cases like Napa Valley in the USA with 19 million visitors per year. However, there are important disparities among wine regions. The paper analyses the case of the Chilean wine tourism, which is one of the regions with less wine tourists although it is very important in global wine industry, and its reasons for its low level of development. Chilean wine industry has been developing its infrastructure in wine ...

  2. Nutrition education in Chilean primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Sonia; Zacarías, Isabel; Andrade, Margarita; Kain, Juliana; Lera, Lydia; Vio, Fernando; Morón, Cecilio

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to incorporate nutrition education in Chilean primary schools. The baseline information included nutritional status, food consumption and physical activity of 1701 children from 3rd to 7th grade in ten urban and rural schools. Main results showed a high prevalence of obesity (15.4%) and overweight (19.6%), low consumption of vegetables, fruits, and dairy products, high intake of snacks and a low level of physical activity, especially in girls. Because the Ministry of Education does not allow the incorporation of new programs into the curriculum, the educational strategy was based on the development of a text book, a teacher's guide, five practical guides for students from third to eighth grade and a CD-Rom. These materials were validated by 36 teachers in six schools through an educational intervention. Teachers and students considered the educational materials useful, motivational and easy to understand. This program is being implemented in 57 schools.

  3. Markups and Exporting Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Loecker, Jan; Warzynski, Frederic Michel Patrick

    2012-01-01

    estimates of plant- level markups without specifying how firms compete in the product market. We rely on our method to explore the relationship be- tween markups and export behavior. We find that markups are estimated significantly higher when controlling for unobserved productivity; that exporters charge...

  4. Exports to Imports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China covers ground as it attempts to balance imports and exports after a trade deficit in the first quarter As China gears up to rebalance its economy,a key factor will be weaning its reliance on exports.The vigorous efforts are paying off as the country reported a trade deficit in the first

  5. Strong Support for Exporters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The sweeping international financial crisis has taken its toll on the Chinese economy,especially in the export sector.On the one hand,overseas demand has plummeted,while on the other,with the worsening credit environment and emerging trade protectionism,export enterprises are suffering from rising credit risks to the point where some dare not even accept orders.

  6. Industrialisation, Exports and Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabolo, Yves

    1980-01-01

    After reviewing trends in industrial production, exports, and employment in the Third World since 1960, the author discusses industrialization strategies based on the local processing of raw materials for export. Such processing has proved to be a major factor in job creation. (Author/SK)

  7. Developing Refractories for Exporting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANShang-xin

    1996-01-01

    The total output of China refractory products and export volume of China refractory raw materials rank the first in the world,In future the task is to improve the quality of the products to enlarge the variety and to expand export.

  8. DNA vaccines for aquacultured fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, N; LaPatra, S E

    2005-04-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) vaccination is based on the administration of the gene encoding the vaccine antigen, rather than the antigen itself. Subsequent expression of the antigen by cells in the vaccinated hosts triggers the host immune system. Among the many experimental DNA vaccines tested in various animal species as well as in humans, the vaccines against rhabdovirus diseases in fish have given some of the most promising results. A single intramuscular (IM) injection of microgram amounts of DNA induces rapid and long-lasting protection in farmed salmonids against economically important viruses such as infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). DNA vaccines against other types of fish pathogens, however, have so far had limited success. The most efficient delivery route at present is IM injection, and suitable delivery strategies for mass vaccination of small fish have yet to be developed. In terms of safety, no adverse effects in the vaccinated fish have been observed to date. As DNA vaccination is a relatively new technology, various theoretical and long-term safety issues related to the environment and the consumer remain to be fully addressed, although inherently the risks should not be any greater than with the commercial fish vaccines that are currently used. Present classification systems lack clarity in distinguishing DNA-vaccinated animals from genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which could raise issues in terms of licensing and public acceptance of the technology. The potential benefits of DNA vaccines for farmed fish include improved animal welfare, reduced environmental impacts of aquaculture activities, increased food quality and quantity, and more sustainable production. Testing under commercial production conditions has recently been initiated in Canada and Denmark.

  9. An Overview of Aquaculture in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paisley, Larry; Ariel, Ellen; Lyngstad, T. M.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this review was to describe in some detail the Nordic aquaculture industries in order to illuminate the similarities and differences. Information that was gathered for each country includes aquaculture history, aquaculture acts and regulations, production and production systems......, environmental concerns, organic aquaculture and outlook for the future. The information will be useful for risk assessments, design of risk-based surveillance programs and for construction of comparative risk profiles for endemic and exotic diseases affecting aquaculture in the Nordic countries. Aquaculture...... char and cod are most important in Iceland. Other important cultured species include eel and blue mussels. There is much diversity in Nordic aquaculture industries in terms of production, farmed species, and production systems. Although the vast majority of the Nordic aquaculture production...

  10. Vertical Integration in the Taiwan Aquaculture Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzong-Ru Lee (Jiun-Shen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to improve the distribution channels in the Taiwanaquaculture industry through a better vertical integration. This studyis derived from a need to improve the distribution performance ofagricultural-based industries in response to increasing food demandsin Asia and elsewhere. Based on a four-by-eight matrix derived fromboth a value chain and a service profit chain, thirty different strategiesare developed. This development is based on key success factors andstrategies for vertical integration interviewed and cited in the literatures.The findings are identified by applying the Gray Relational Analysis(GRA. For this study, the key success factors for aquaculture wholesalemarkets include the communication, integration and cohesion ofopinion within the wholesale market; government support; andmutualtrust between members of the vertical integration scheme. The suitablevertical integration strategies are an improved safety and hygiene inspectionof aquaculture products, accuracy of aquaculture product categorization,and precision in product weighing.

  11. Streptomyces bacteria as potential probiotics in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Loh eTeng Hern

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In response to the increased seafood demand from the ever-going human population, aquaculture has become the fastest growing animal food-producing sector. However, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics as a biological control agents for fish pathogens has led to the emergence of antibiotic resistance bacteria. Probiotics are defined as living microbial supplement that exert beneficial effects on hosts as well as improvement of environmental parameters. Probiotics have been proven to be effective in improving the growth, survival and health status of the aquatic livestock. This review aims to highlight the genus Streptomyces can be a good candidate for probiotics in aquaculture. Studies showed that the feed supplemented with Streptomyces could protect fish and shrimp from pathogens as well as increase the growth of the aquatic organisms. Furthermore, the limitations of Streptomyces as probiotics in aquaculture is also highlighted and solutions are discussed to these limitations.

  12. Modern aquaculture practices for increased fish production in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Otubusin, S.O.

    1986-01-01

    Various modern aquaculture practices applied in fish production especially in Asia are reviewed. The vast Nigerian aquatic medium of numerous water bodies like rivers, streams, lakes reservoirs, flood plains, irrigation canals, coastal swamps offer great potentials for aquaculture production, if optimally utilized. Constraints to modernization of aquaculture in Nigeria among other factors are: 1) a serious shortage of trained manpower; 2) lack of knowledge on profitability of aquaculture as a...

  13. Genomic approaches in aquaculture and fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cancela, M. Leonor; Bargelloni, Luca; Boudry, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Despite the enormous input into the worldwide development of fish and shellfish farming in the recent decades, in part as an attempt to minimize the impact of fishing on already overexploited natural populations, the application of genomics to aquaculture and fisheries remains poorly developed....... Improving state-of-the-art genomics research in various aquaculture systems, as well as its industrial applications, remains one of the major challenges in this area and should be the focus of well developed strategies to be implemented in the next generation of projects. This chapter will first provide...

  14. A Research Update for the Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquaculture (fish farming) has played an ever-increasing role in providing people with fish, shrimp, and shellfish. Aquaculture is currently the fastest growing sector of global food production and in 2014 totaled 80 million tons valued at $140 billion. The production of food-fish from aquaculture...

  15. 7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303... ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a) Aquaculture is a value loss crop and is compensable only in accord with restrictions set in this...

  16. Assessing the Aquaculture Curricula in the Northeastern Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Gartin, Stacy A.; Lawrence, Layle D.

    2000-01-01

    Survey responses from 70 secondary agriculture teachers who included aquaculture in the curriculum indicated they averaged 4.5 years experience teaching aquaculture. Limited facilities, equipment costs, and low teacher knowledge were barriers. Only eight had used all of the aquaculture curriculum materials from the National Council for…

  17. The impact of Chilean migration on employment in Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariola Sanz, L

    1989-06-01

    This paper discusses the employment situation of Chilean migrant workers, their impact on labor markets in Patagonia, Argentina, and the government's past and projected responses to this phenomenon. In 1980, Chilean inhabitants of patagonia comprised 11% of the area's population. Chilean migration to patagonia was closely linked to economic activities that began to flourish in the 20th century, such as livestock raising, fruit and vegetable cultivation, and mining for coal and petroleum. No Chilean migrants work in a wide range of sectors. In Patagonia's southern provinces availability and ability to withstand rigorous climate conditions are the main factors which account for the prevalence of Chilean manpower. Chilean migrants do not in general displace local manpower. Legislation and the permeability of the border ensure that most workers enter the country as tourists. Clandestine migration is not an issue. Illegal migrants have provoked negative reactions for several reasons: 1) they comprise a marginal population without formal citizenship; 2) being employed as clandestine workers, they pay no social security, nor do their employers; 3) being illegal, they are obliged to accept lower wages and inferior working conditions which creates unfair competition within labor markets; and 4) as a result of these conditions, xenophobic and endophobic attitudes in relations with Argentine nationalists are reinforced. The government has attempted to solve these problems through various measures. Beginning in 1934, most foreigners entered Argentina with a tourist visa, becoming illegal when they stayed beyond authorized limits. Several measures over the years provided amnesty to illegal migrants. Currently, the law promotes immigration, monitors the admission of foreigners to the country and stipulates their rights and obligations. The law lists 115 articles on immigration promotion and on regulation of the movements of foreigners. Because of the present economic crisis in

  18. Guide to software export

    CERN Document Server

    Philips, Roger A

    2014-01-01

    An ideal reference source for CEOs, marketing and sales managers, sales consultants, and students of international marketing, Guide to Software Export provides a step-by-step approach to initiating or expanding international software sales. It teaches you how to examine critically your candidate product for exportability; how to find distributors, agents, and resellers abroad; how to identify the best distribution structure for export; and much, much more!Not content with providing just the guidelines for setting up, expanding, and managing your international sales channels, Guide to Software

  19. Minimun Pension Insurance in the Chilean Pension System Minimun Pension Insurance in the Chilean Pension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Zurita

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the "social" features of the Chilean individual capitalization pension system is the minimum pension scheme. which guarantees its members a minimum pension irrespective of the funds they accumulate, with the only requirement of twenty years of social security tax payments. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the implicit fiscal subsidy, using an option-based approach. We capture the risk associated to the returns on the pension fund account of a worker by modeling its value as a diffusion process and show the correspondence between the minimum pension insurance and a financial put option. Our results are the present value of the minimum pension benefit, equivalent to 3 percent of Chilean GDP for current active and non-active affiliated workers. These estimates are notoriously higher than previous results based on deterministic models, and strongly suggest the importance of explicitly considering the risk associated to pension assets when estimating the cost to the government of the insurance implied by the minimum pension benefit. One of the "social" features of the Chilean individual capitalization pension system is the minimum pension scheme. which guarantees its members a minimum pension irrespective of the funds they accumulate, with the only requirement of twenty years of social security tax payments. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the implicit fiscal subsidy, using an option-based approach. We capture the risk associated to the returns on the pension fund account of a worker by modeling its value as a diffusion process and show the correspondence between the minimum pension insurance and a financial put option. Our results are the present value of the minimum pension benefit, equivalent to 3 percent of Chilean GDP for current active and non-active affiliated workers. These estimates are notoriously higher than previous results based on deterministic models, and strongly suggest the importance of explicitly considering

  20. PRESENCE OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS IN ALPACAS (LAMA PACOS) INHABITING THE CHILEAN ALTIPLANO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Miguel; Sevilla, Iker; Rios, Carolina; Crossley, Jorge; Tejeda, Carlos; Manning, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of paratuberculosis. The organism causes disease in both domestically managed and wild ruminant species. South American camelids have a long, shared history with indigenous people in the Andes. Over the last few decades, increasing numbers of alpacas were exported to numerous countries outside South America. No paratuberculosis surveillance has been reported for these source herds. In this study, individual fecal samples from 85 adult alpacas were collected from six separate herds in the Chilean Altiplano. A ParaTB mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) liquid culture of each individual fecal sample, followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was used for confirmation. DNA extracts from a subset of confirmed MAP isolates were subjected to mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Fifteen alpaca were fecal culture test-positive. Five false-positive culture samples were negative on PCR analysis for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA), Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), and the 16 S rDNA gene. Three MAP isolates subset-tested belonged to the same MIRU-VNTR type, showing four repeats for TR292 (locus 1) in contrast to the three repeats typical of the MAP reference strain K10. The number of repeats found in the remaining loci was identical to that of the K10 strain. It is not known how nor when MAP was introduced into the alpaca population in the Chilean Altiplano. The most plausible hypothesis to explain the presence of MAP in these indigenous populations is transmission by contact with infected domestic small ruminant species that may on occasion share pastures or range with alpacas. Isolation of this mycobacterial pathogen from such a remote region suggests that MAP has found its way beyond the confines of intensively managed domestic agriculture premises.

  1. Slowed Exports Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Ⅲ. Slowed export recovery in the second half Since the beginning of this year, global trade has maintained a recovery growth thanks to the worldwide economic rally.From January to April, the imports of three major Economics--the United States, the euro zone and Japan--rose 17.5 percent on average from a year ago. Import growths for the United States, the euro zone and Japan were 20.9 percent, 4.8 percent and 29 percent, respectively, which spurred China's exports to those regions. From January to June this year, China's exports totaled $705.09 billion, up 35.2 percent from the same period in 2009 and were 5.8 percent higher than the first half of 2008 when the crisis had yet to begin. Those figures indicated China's exports had rebounded to precrisis levels.

  2. Exporting Humanist Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tom

    2016-01-01

    values and ethical stands involved in the export of Danish Architecture. Abstract: Danish architecture has, in a sense, been driven by an unwritten contract between the architects and the democratic state and its institutions. This contract may be viewed as an ethos – an architectural tradition...... with inherent aesthetic and moral values. Today, however, Danish architecture is also an export commodity. That raises questions, which should be debated as openly as possible. What does it mean for architecture and architects to practice in cultures and under political systems that do not use architecture...... as a way of generating humanism, freedom or equality? The essay outlines the background story, identifies a number of positions in relation to architecture exports and discusses some of the dilemmas that arise when Danish architecture is seen in an export perspective....

  3. Valie EXPORT Society Rooseumis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Malmös Rooseumi Kaasaegse Kunsti Keskuses näitus "Baltic Babel". Projekt koosneb Läänemeremaade linnades tegutsevate innovatiivsete gruppide aktsioonidest. Kuraator Charles Esche. Esinejatest (Eestist Valie Export Society: Kadi Estland, Killu Sukmit)

  4. Valie EXPORT Society. Overlok

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Valie EXPORT Society asutasid 23. okt. 1999. a. Frankfurdis Kadi Estland, Killu Sukmit ja Mari Laanemets, kui olid külastanud austria naiskunstniku Valie Exporti näitust. Rühmituse aktsioonide kirjeldus

  5. Containment Area Aquaculture Program. Economics and Marketing of Aquaculture in Dredged Material Containment Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    history ............................ 26 Marketing the demonstration project shrimp .................. 27 Conclusions from Demonstration Project...let 4 U, aDl :5 S- - -- 41c- 06- I.’.*0 I" 1 -6 -2 01%- Chper3E~uto o w omN-nPjld2 Recent shrimp market history The CAAP demosttion project began in...Vicksburg, MS. Aquaculture Business Planning Hanson, J. S., Griffin, W. L., Klinefelter , D. A., and Fisher, D. V. (1988). "Developing an aquaculture

  6. Illegal Weapons Exports?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Amnesty International, a human rights organization, released a report on June 11 accusing China of facilitating regional conflicts and human rights violations by exporting a large quantity of weapons to Sudan, Nepal, Myanmar and the Great Lakes countries of Africa. Responding to such charges, Teng Jianqun, a researcher with the China Arms Control and Disarmament Association, told the official Xinhua News Agency that China has always put its limited arms exports under strict control and surveillance, deno...

  7. Results of Chilean water markets: Empirical research since 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Carl J.

    2004-09-01

    Chile's free-market Water Code turned 20 years old in October 2001. This anniversary was an important milestone for both Chilean and international debates about water policy because Chile has become the world's leading example of the free-market approach to water law and water resources management, the textbook case of treating water rights not merely as private property but also as a fully marketable commodity. The predominant view outside of Chile is that Chilean water markets and the Chilean model of water management have been a success, and this perception has encouraged other countries to follow Chile's lead in water law reform. Much of the debate about Chilean water markets, however, has been based more on theoretical or political beliefs than on empirical study. This paper reverses that emphasis by reviewing the evolution of empirical research about these markets since 1990, when Chile returned to democratic government after 16 years of military rule. During the period since 1990, understanding of how Chilean water markets have worked in practice has gradually improved. There have been two major trends in this research: first, a gradual shift from exaggerated claims of the markets' success toward more balanced assessments of mixed results and, second, a heavy emphasis on the economics of water rights trading with very little attention given to the Water Code's impacts on social equity, river basin management, environmental protection, or resolution of water conflicts. The analysis in this study is qualitative and interdisciplinary, combining law, economics, and institutions.

  8. Aquaculture in Hawaii: Past, present, and future

    OpenAIRE

    Wyban, J; Wyban, C

    1989-01-01

    Hawaii's aquaculture industry has a long and colorful history. When Cook arrived in Hawaii in 1778, over 350 fishponds were in operation. Future prospects for Hawaii's industry are bright. Expanded R&D activities have the greatest growth potential with technology transfer through international consulting and training likely. Commercial activities will focus on intensive culture of shrimp, finfish and seaweeds.

  9. Can greening of aquaculture sequester blue carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nesar; Bunting, Stuart W; Glaser, Marion; Flaherty, Mark S; Diana, James S

    2016-11-15

    Globally, blue carbon (i.e., carbon in coastal and marine ecosystems) emissions have been seriously augmented due to the devastating effects of anthropogenic pressures on coastal ecosystems including mangrove swamps, salt marshes, and seagrass meadows. The greening of aquaculture, however, including an ecosystem approach to Integrated Aquaculture-Agriculture (IAA) and Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) could play a significant role in reversing this trend, enhancing coastal ecosystems, and sequestering blue carbon. Ponds within IAA farming systems sequester more carbon per unit area than conventional fish ponds, natural lakes, and inland seas. The translocation of shrimp culture from mangrove swamps to offshore IMTA could reduce mangrove loss, reverse blue carbon emissions, and in turn increase storage of blue carbon through restoration of mangroves. Moreover, offshore IMTA may create a barrier to trawl fishing which in turn could help restore seagrasses and further enhance blue carbon sequestration. Seaweed and shellfish culture within IMTA could also help to sequester more blue carbon. The greening of aquaculture could face several challenges that need to be addressed in order to realize substantial benefits from enhanced blue carbon sequestration and eventually contribute to global climate change mitigation.

  10. Inverness College: Innovations in Aquaculture Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Technology Strategies, Inc., Carrboro, NC.

    This paper describes the aquaculture program developed at Inverness College in Scotland. Inverness is located in the Scottish Highlands and serves an area roughly the size of Belgium, but with a population of only 300,000. The regional infrastructure and human capital resources in the Highlands are relatively weak due to inadequate transportation,…

  11. PROTEOMICS in aquaculture: applications and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Pedro M; Silva, Tomé S; Dias, Jorge; Jessen, Flemming

    2012-07-19

    Over the last forty years global aquaculture presented a growth rate of 6.9% per annum with an amazing production of 52.5 million tonnes in 2008, and a contribution of 43% of aquatic animal food for human consumption. In order to meet the world's health requirements of fish protein, a continuous growth in production is still expected for decades to come. Aquaculture is, though, a very competitive market, and a global awareness regarding the use of scientific knowledge and emerging technologies to obtain a better farmed organism through a sustainable production has enhanced the importance of proteomics in seafood biology research. Proteomics, as a powerful comparative tool, has therefore been increasingly used over the last decade to address different questions in aquaculture, regarding welfare, nutrition, health, quality, and safety. In this paper we will give an overview of these biological questions and the role of proteomics in their investigation, outlining the advantages, disadvantages and future challenges. A brief description of the proteomics technical approaches will be presented. Special focus will be on the latest trends related to the aquaculture production of fish with defined nutritional, health or quality properties for functional foods and the integration of proteomics techniques in addressing this challenging issue.

  12. The use of probiotics in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, N V

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to present comprehensive notes for the use of probiotics in aquaculture. Probiotics have been proven to be positive promoters of aquatic animal growth, survival and health. In aquaculture, intestines, gills, the skin mucus of aquatic animals, and habitats or even culture collections and commercial products, can be sources for acquiring appropriate probiotics, which have been identified as bacteria (Gram-positive and Gram-negative) and nonbacteria (bacteriophages, microalgae and yeasts). While a bacterium is a pathogen to one aquatic animal, it can bring benefits to another fish species; a screening process plays a significant role in making a probiotic species specific. The administration of probiotics varies from oral/water routine to feed additives, of which the latter is commonly used in aquaculture. Probiotic applications can be either mono or multiple strains, or even in combination with prebiotic, immunostimulants such as synbiotics and synbiotism, and in live or dead forms. Encapsulating probiotics with live feed is a suitable approach to convey probiotics to aquatic animals. Dosage and duration of time are significant factors in providing desired results. Several modes of actions of probiotics are presented, while some others are not fully understood. Suggestions for further studies on the effects of probiotics in aquaculture are proposed.

  13. Organic matter decomposition in simulated aquaculture ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres Beristain, B.

    2005-01-01

    Different kinds of organic and inorganic compounds (e.g. formulated food, manures, fertilizers) are added to aquaculture ponds to increase fish production. However, a large part of these inputs are not utilized by the fish and are decomposed inside the pond. The microbiological decomposition of the

  14. Impact of selective breeding on European aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, K.; Chavanne, H.; Berentsen, P.; Komen, H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine the combined market share of breeding companies in aquaculture production in Europe, to describe the main characteristics of breeding companies and their programs, and to provide per species estimates on cumulative genetic gain in growth performance. Sur

  15. Export Taxes under Bertrand Duopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Roger; Collie, David R.

    2006-01-01

    This article analyses export taxes in a Bertrand duopoly with product differentiation, where a home and a foreign firm both export to a third-country market. It is shown that the maximum-revenue export tax always exceeds the optimum-welfare export tax. In a Nash equilibrium in export taxes, the country with the low cost firm imposes the largest export tax. The results under Bertrand duopoly are compared with those under Cournot duopoly. It is shown that the absolute value of the export subsid...

  16. Exploitative Learning by Exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golovko, Elena; Lopes Bento, Cindy; Sofka, Wolfgang

    Decisions on entering foreign markets are among the most challenging but also potentially rewarding strategy choices managers can make. In this study, we examine the effect of export entry on the firm investment decisions in two activities associated with learning about new technologies and learn......Decisions on entering foreign markets are among the most challenging but also potentially rewarding strategy choices managers can make. In this study, we examine the effect of export entry on the firm investment decisions in two activities associated with learning about new technologies...... and learning about new markets ? R&D investments and marketing investments, in search of novel insights into the content and process underlying learning by exporting. We draw from organizational learning theory for predicting changes in both R&D and marketing investment patterns that accompany firm entry...... into exporting and link these changes to firm productivity. Our results show that marketing investments are equally likely to be triggered by exporting as R&D investments. Furthermore, our results suggest that although export entry is accompanied by increases in both R&D and marketing expenditures...

  17. Anthropometric profile of elite Chilean Paralympic athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Durán-Agüero

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sport is one of the most popular social events worldwide. It becomes interesting to characterize its practitioners, even more in some poorly studied groups such as Paralympic athletes. The main objective of this study is to determine the anthropometric profile of Chilean Elite Paralympic Athletes (CEPA through body composition and somatotype. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 41 subjects (93% of the classified to the Para-Panamerican Games Toronto 2015, who practiced table tennis (n=6, football 5 (n=11, swimming (n=8, rugby (n=7, powerlifting (n=6 and wheelchair tennis (n=3. The body composition and somatotype were assessed through the protocol described by the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK. Results: The CEPA reach an average for that classifies somatotype mostly as meso-endomorphic (5.3 - 7.8 - 0.5, a BMI of 27.4 kg/m2, and body composition for fat mass reaches 29.8% in women and 25.7% in men, while muscle mass gain 42.6% (women and 44.5% (men. Conclusions: The CEPA have a somatotype profile that classifies mostly as meso-endomorphic, body composition has a predominance muscle mass and high fat mass, although is similar to other Paralympics athletes.

  18. THE STATUS OF AQUACULTURE IN THE WORLD AND IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Fijan

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, several authors have presented the production data and the problems in Croatian aquaculture and suggested measures for improvements. Some of these authors referred to some sectors of aquaculture in the world. This paper reports basic statistical data of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, United Nations of the world aquaculture during the period of 1990–1999. The annual growth rate in that period averaged about 10%, and in the year 1999 the aquaculture provided 31.7% of the world needs for aquatic products. The total production and industrialization of aquaculture will continue. Planning of aquaculture development in Croatia and the preparations for joining the European Economic Community must take into account the status of aquaculture and trends in the world, the common fishery policy of EEC (green document, the production in EEC member states and EEC–candidate states and especially the production in neighboring countries. The number, the size and the strength of organizational structures helping the development of aquaculture in EEC are showing these factors to be of decisive importance for the future of sustainable aquaculture in Croatia, too. The very low fish consumption in the country is a negative health factor for the Croatian citizens and it emphasizes the importance of faster development of aquaculture. The paper is intended to stimulate improvements in the aquaculture development strategy, to promote more positive approach towards this food production sector and to speed up its successfulness in Croatia.

  19. Disease and health management in Asian aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondad-Reantaso, Melba G; Subasinghe, Rohana P; Arthur, J Richard; Ogawa, Kazuo; Chinabut, Supranee; Adlard, Robert; Tan, Zilong; Shariff, Mohamed

    2005-09-30

    Asia contributes more than 90% to the world's aquaculture production. Like other farming systems, aquaculture is plagued with disease problems resulting from its intensification and commercialization. This paper describes the various factors, providing specific examples, which have contributed to the current disease problems faced by what is now the fastest growing food-producing sector globally. These include increased globalization of trade and markets; the intensification of fish-farming practices through the movement of broodstock, postlarvae, fry and fingerlings; the introduction of new species for aquaculture development; the expansion of the ornamental fish trade; the enhancement of marine and coastal areas through the stocking of aquatic animals raised in hatcheries; the unanticipated interactions between cultured and wild populations of aquatic animals; poor or lack of effective biosecurity measures; slow awareness on emerging diseases; the misunderstanding and misuse of specific pathogen free (SPF) stocks; climate change; other human-mediated movements of aquaculture commodities. Data on the socio-economic impacts of aquatic animal diseases are also presented, including estimates of losses in production, direct and indirect income and employment, market access or share of investment, and consumer confidence; food availability; industry failures. Examples of costs of investment in aquatic animal health-related activities, including national strategies, research, surveillance, control and other health management programmes are also provided. Finally, the strategies currently being implemented in the Asian region to deal with transboundary diseases affecting the aquaculture sector are highlighted. These include compliance with international codes, and development and implementation of regional guidelines and national aquatic animal health strategies; new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques and new information technology; new biosecurity measures including

  20. HIV prevention and low-income Chilean women

    Science.gov (United States)

    CIANELLI, ROSINA; FERRER, LILIAN; MCELMURRY, BEVERLY J.

    2008-01-01

    Socio-cultural factors and HIV-related misinformation contribute to the increasing number of Chilean women living with HIV. In spite of this, and to date, few culturally specific prevention activities have been developed for this population. The goal of the present study was to elicit the perspectives of low-income Chilean women regarding HIV and relevant socio-cultural factors, as a forerunner to the development of a culturally appropriate intervention. As part of a mixed-methods study, fifty low-income Chilean women participated in a survey and twenty were selected to participate in prevention, in-depth interviews. Results show evidence of widespread misinformation and misconceptions related to HIV/AIDS. Machismo and marianismo offer major barriers to prevention programme development. Future HIV prevention should stress partner communication, empowerment and improving the education of women vulnerable to HIV. PMID:18432428

  1. Ecuador's mangrove forest carbon stocks: a spatiotemporal analysis of living carbon holdings and their depletion since the advent of commercial aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stuart E; Lovette, John

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we estimate the living carbon lost from Ecuador's mangrove forests since the advent of export-focused shrimp aquaculture. We use remote sensing techniques to delineate the extent of mangroves and aquaculture at approximately decadal periods since the arrival of aquaculture in each Ecuadorian estuary. We then spatiotemporally calculate the carbon values of the mangrove forests and estimate the amount of carbon lost due to direct displacement by aquaculture. Additionally, we calculate the new carbon stocks generated due to mangrove reforestation or afforestation. This research introduces time and LUCC (land use / land cover change) into the tropical forest carbon literature and examines forest carbon loss at a higher spatiotemporal resolution than in many earlier analyses. We find that 80 percent, or 7,014,517 t of the living carbon lost in Ecuadorian mangrove forests can be attributed to direct displacement of mangrove forests by shrimp aquaculture. We also find that IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) compliant carbon grids within Ecuador's estuaries overestimate living carbon levels in estuaries where substantial LUCC has occurred. By approaching the mangrove forest carbon loss question from a LUCC perspective, these findings allow for tropical nations and other intervention agents to prioritize and target a limited set of land transitions that likely drive the majority of carbon losses. This singular cause of transition has implications for programs that attempt to offset or limit future forest carbon losses and place value on forest carbon or other forest good and services.

  2. Ecuador’s Mangrove Forest Carbon Stocks: A Spatiotemporal Analysis of Living Carbon Holdings and Their Depletion since the Advent of Commercial Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we estimate the living carbon lost from Ecuador’s mangrove forests since the advent of export-focused shrimp aquaculture. We use remote sensing techniques to delineate the extent of mangroves and aquaculture at approximately decadal periods since the arrival of aquaculture in each Ecuadorian estuary. We then spatiotemporally calculate the carbon values of the mangrove forests and estimate the amount of carbon lost due to direct displacement by aquaculture. Additionally, we calculate the new carbon stocks generated due to mangrove reforestation or afforestation. This research introduces time and LUCC (land use / land cover change) into the tropical forest carbon literature and examines forest carbon loss at a higher spatiotemporal resolution than in many earlier analyses. We find that 80 percent, or 7,014,517 t of the living carbon lost in Ecuadorian mangrove forests can be attributed to direct displacement of mangrove forests by shrimp aquaculture. We also find that IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) compliant carbon grids within Ecuador’s estuaries overestimate living carbon levels in estuaries where substantial LUCC has occurred. By approaching the mangrove forest carbon loss question from a LUCC perspective, these findings allow for tropical nations and other intervention agents to prioritize and target a limited set of land transitions that likely drive the majority of carbon losses. This singular cause of transition has implications for programs that attempt to offset or limit future forest carbon losses and place value on forest carbon or other forest good and services. PMID:25738286

  3. Fisheries and aquaculture industries involvement to control product health and quality safety to satisfy consumer-driven objectives on retail markets in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Eva [University of South Denmark, Department of Environmental and Business Economics, Niels Bohrs vej 9, DK-6700 Esbjerg (Denmark); Institute for Marine Research, University Kiel, Duesternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Rosenthal, Harald [University of South Denmark, Department of Environmental and Business Economics, Niels Bohrs vej 9, DK-6700 Esbjerg (Denmark); Institute for Marine Research, University Kiel, Duesternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Over the past years the export of agricultural and fishery products from developing countries has substantially increased to markets within the OECD. Retailers and importers are expanding their international operations to meet consumer demands for year-round delivery of products. Moreover, consumers have become increasingly concerned about the safety of food, including those derived from aquatic resources [FAO/NACA/WHO Joint Study Group, 1999. Report food safety issues associated with products from aquaculture. WHO Technical Report Series No 883: VII, pp. 1-55]. Governments and leading businesses are responding by imposing new safety regulations and standards to the international food system (e.g. HACCP, EUREP-GAP), product liability and labeling [Reilly, A., Howgate, P., Kaeferstein, F., 1997. Safety hazards and the application of HACCP in aquaculture. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Fish Inspection and Quality Control: A Global Focus, Arlington, VA, 19-24 May 1996. Technomic Publishing, Lancaster, PA, pp. 353-373]. Initial concerns for imports of aquacultural products from developing to industrialized countries focussed on bacterial contamination [Buras, N. 1993. Microbial safety of produce from wastewater-fed aquaculture. In: Pullin, R.V.C., Rosenthal, H., MacLean, J.L.(Eds.), Proceedings of ICLARM Conferences, vol. 31, pp. 285-295]. Today, if trade opportunities are to be maintained, these countries must adapt to a full array of regulations and standards. This paper describes four scenarios in aquaculture and fishing product trade between developing countries and countries in the European Union.

  4. Carotenoids in Aquaculture: Fish and Crustaceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerkeng, Bjorn

    This Chapter deals with selected topics on the use of carotenoids for colouration in aquaculture and incudes examples from ecological studies which support our understanding of functions and actions of carotenoids and colouration in fishes and crustaceans. Animal colours may be physical or structural in origin [1], e.g. Tyndall blues and iridescent diffraction colours, or they may be due to pigments, including carotenoids (Chapter 10).

  5. Probiotics as Control Agents in Aquaculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gómez R. Geovanny D; Balcázar José Luis; MA Shen

    2007-01-01

    Infectious diseases constitute a limiting factor in the development of the aquaculture production, and control has solely concentrated on the use of antibiotics. However, the massive use of antibiotics for the control of diseases has been questioned by acquisition of antibiotic resistance and the need of alternative is of prime importance. Probiotics, live microorganisms administered in adequate amounts that confer a healthy effect on the host, are emerging as significant microbial food supplements in the field of prophylaxis.

  6. New aquaculture drugs under FDA review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, James D.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Only eight active pharmaceutical ingredients available in 18 drug products have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in aquaculture. The approval process can be lengthy and expensive, but several new drugs and label claims are under review. Progress has been made on approvals for Halamid (chloramine-T), Aquaflor (florfenicol) and 35% PeroxAid (hydrogen peroxide) as therapeutic drugs. Data are also being generated for AQUI-S 20E, a fish sedative.

  7. Probiotics as control agents in aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geovanny D, Gómez R.; Balcázar, José Luis; Ma, Shen

    2007-01-01

    Infectious diseases constitute a limiting factor in the development of the aquaculture production, and control has solely concentrated on the use of antibiotics. However, the massive use of antibiotics for the control of diseases has been questioned by acquisition of antibiotic resistance and the need of alternative is of prime importance. Probiotics, live microorganisms administered in adequate amounts that confer a healthy effect on the host, are emerging as significant microbial food supplements in the field of prophylaxis.

  8. Probiotics as Antiviral Agents in Shrimp Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Bestha Lakshmi; Buddolla Viswanath; Sai Gopal, D. V. R.

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are ch...

  9. Risks of Using Antifouling Biocides in Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Meseguer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Biocides are chemical substances that can deter or kill the microorganisms responsible for biofouling. The rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry is having a significant impact on the marine ecosystems. As the industry expands, it requires the use of more drugs, disinfectants and antifoulant compounds (biocides to eliminate the microorganisms in the aquaculture facilities. The use of biocides in the aquatic environment, however, has proved to be harmful as it has toxic effects on the marine environment. Organic booster biocides were recently introduced as alternatives to the organotin compounds found in antifouling products after restrictions were imposed on the use of tributyltin (TBT. The replacement products are generally based on copper metal oxides and organic biocides. The biocides that are most commonly used in antifouling paints include chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, DCOIT (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, Sea-nine 211®, Diuron, Irgarol 1051, TCMS pyridine (2,3,3,6-tetrachloro-4-methylsulfonyl pyridine, zinc pyrithione and Zineb. There are two types of risks associated with the use of biocides in aquaculture: (i predators and humans may ingest the fish and shellfish that have accumulated in these contaminants and (ii the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. This paper provides an overview of the effects of antifouling (AF biocides on aquatic organisms. It also provides some insights into the effects and risks of these compounds on non-target organisms.

  10. Making social sense of aquaculture transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon R. Bush

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Resilience deals explicitly with change and provides a middle ground between the social and the environmental sciences. However, a growing critique by social scientists questions the ability of resilience thinking to adequately examine the social dimensions of change. The question that emerges is how social scientists should engage with resilience. We addressed this question by comparing resilience with agrarian change and transitions theory, through the backdrop of the fastest growing global food sector, aquaculture. Our analysis showed that each theoretical perspective provides fundamentally different insights into social and environmental transition inherent in the aquaculture sector. Although resilience thinking is best suited to assessing the ecological aspects of production, its systems ontology limits the inclusion of dynamic social relations or innovation. In contrast, agrarian transition enables a more meaningful understanding of how social relations are reconfigured as agrarian society shifts toward more capitalist modes of production, and transitions theory provides insights into social process of innovation. Given the epistemological differences between these theoretical approaches, we argue against attempts that reify systemic thinking by naturalizing social theories and concepts into resilience thinking. Instead, we argue that social theories such as agrarian change and transition theory should be seen as complimentary and that integration should focus on bridging results and insights. Doing so enables a more robust assessment of the social aspects of social-ecological transitions in the aquaculture sector and beyond.

  11. Risks of using antifouling biocides in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, Francisco Antonio; Cuesta, Alberto; Meseguer, José; Esteban, Maria Angeles

    2012-01-01

    Biocides are chemical substances that can deter or kill the microorganisms responsible for biofouling. The rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry is having a significant impact on the marine ecosystems. As the industry expands, it requires the use of more drugs, disinfectants and antifoulant compounds (biocides) to eliminate the microorganisms in the aquaculture facilities. The use of biocides in the aquatic environment, however, has proved to be harmful as it has toxic effects on the marine environment. Organic booster biocides were recently introduced as alternatives to the organotin compounds found in antifouling products after restrictions were imposed on the use of tributyltin (TBT). The replacement products are generally based on copper metal oxides and organic biocides. The biocides that are most commonly used in antifouling paints include chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, DCOIT (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, Sea-nine 211(®)), Diuron, Irgarol 1051, TCMS pyridine (2,3,3,6-tetrachloro-4-methylsulfonyl pyridine), zinc pyrithione and Zineb. There are two types of risks associated with the use of biocides in aquaculture: (i) predators and humans may ingest the fish and shellfish that have accumulated in these contaminants and (ii) the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. This paper provides an overview of the effects of antifouling (AF) biocides on aquatic organisms. It also provides some insights into the effects and risks of these compounds on non-target organisms.

  12. Probiotics as Antiviral Agents in Shrimp Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestha Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases.

  13. Probiotics as antiviral agents in shrimp aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, Bestha; Viswanath, Buddolla; Sai Gopal, D V R

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases.

  14. Effluent, nutrient and organic matter export from shrimp and fish ponds causing eutrophication in coastal and back-reef waters of NE Hainan, tropical China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbeck, Lucia S.; Unger, Daniela; Wu, Ying; Jennerjahn, Tim C.

    2013-04-01

    Global aquaculture has grown at a rate of 8.7% per year since 1970. Particularly along the coasts of tropical Asia, aquaculture ponds have expanded rapidly at the expense of natural wetlands. The objectives of this study were (i) to characterize the extent and production process of brackish-water pond aquaculture at the NE coast of Hainan, tropical China, (ii) to quantify effluent and organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus export from shrimp and fish ponds and (iii) to trace their effect on the water quality in adjacent estuarine and nearshore coastal waters harboring seagrass meadows and coral reefs. During two expeditions in 2008 and 2009, we determined dissolved inorganic nutrients, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), chlorophyll a (chl a) and particulate organic matter (POM) in aquaculture ponds, drainage channels and coastal waters in three areas varying in extent of aquaculture ponds. From the analysis of satellite images we calculated a total of 39.6 km² covered by shrimp and fish ponds in the study area. According to pond owners, there is no standardized production pattern for feeding management and water exchange. Nutrient and suspended matter concentrations were high in aquaculture ponds and drainage channels, but varied considerably. The calculated annual export of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and particulate nitrogen (PN) from pond aquaculture into coastal waters was 612 and 680 t yr-1, respectively. High concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), phosphate and chl a at the majority of the coastal stations point at eutrophication of coastal waters, especially close to shore. Coastal eutrophication driven by the introduction of untreated aquaculture effluents may be especially harmful in back-reef areas, where estuarine retention and mixing with open ocean water is restricted thus threatening seagrasses and corals.

  15. Supply Management Analysis of the Chilean Navy Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    1. Generic supply chain diagram (from Sanders, 2012) ......................................11 Figure 2. Chilean Navy Logistics Organization...Sanders, 2012). Supply chain management involves the following activities (Monczka et al., 2009, pp. 17–19). • Purchasing or procurement • Inbound ...it will be measured, and how the data obtained will be used (Monczka et al., 2009). Some examples of indicators used inside the military logistics

  16. The 2011 Chilean Student Movement against Neoliberal Educational Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellei, Cristián; Cabalin, Cristian; Orellana, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the 2011 Chilean student movement, the most relevant social mobilisation in Chile since the restoration of democracy in 1990. Based on available material and secondary sources, it describes the main features of this student movement, analyses the key components of the students' discourse and its relationship with the Chilean…

  17. Association between eating behavior scores and obesity in Chilean children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amador Paola

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate eating behavior and physical inactivity contribute to the current epidemic of childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the association between eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chilean children. Design and methods We recruited 126 obese, 44 overweight and 124 normal-weight Chilean children (6-12 years-old; both genders according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF criteria. Eating behavior scores were calculated using the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ. Factorial analysis in the culturally-adapted questionnaire for Chilean population was used to confirm the original eight-factor structure of CEBQ. The Cronbach's alpha statistic (>0.7 in most subscales was used to assess internal consistency. Non-parametric methods were used to assess case-control associations. Results Eating behavior scores were strongly associated with childhood obesity in Chilean children. Childhood obesity was directly associated with high scores in the subscales "enjoyment of food" (P Conclusion Our study shows a strong and graded association between specific eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chile.

  18. Quality of Chilean Early Childhood Education from an International Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalon, Malva; Suzuki, Emy; Herrera, Maria Olivia; Mathiesen, Maria Elena

    2002-01-01

    Assessed the quality of different types of early childhood care and education programs in Chile according to international standards. Recorded structural and process characteristics observed in the classrooms. Found that Chilean preschool programs showed a minimum level of quality, with a high proportion of centers in the inadequate range.…

  19. Prevalence and risk factors for bruises in Chilean bovine carcasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strappini, A.C.; Frankena, K.; Metz, J.H.M.; Kemp, B.

    2010-01-01

    Records of cattle slaughtered at two Chilean slaughterhouses (SLH1 and SLH2) were used to determine prevalence and risk factors for carcasses with bruises. Bruise prevalence amounted to 12.3% but differed between slaughterhouses (20.8% for SLH1 and 8.6% for SLH2 respectively). Bruise severity grade

  20. Chilean Adolescents' and Parents' Views on Autonomy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, M. Loreto; Pérez, J. Carola; Cumsille, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to understand Chilean parents' and adolescents' conceptions of autonomy and whether they hold different expectations for autonomous behaviors by generation and socioeconomic level. A qualitative approach to data collection was used through separate focus groups of parents and adolescents from different socioeconomic condition.…

  1. Meeting the Needs for More Fish Through Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giap, D. H.; Lam, T. J.

    2015-10-01

    Fish is one of the major sources of animal protein. Due to rising world populations, increasing income and urbanization, demand for fish has been increasing. In order to meet the need for more fish, aquaculture has become increasingly important as wild populations and production from capture fisheries have declined due to overfishing and poor management. In recent years, production from aquaculture has increased rapidly to address the shortfalls in capture fisheries, especially in Asia where aquaculture production accounts for about 90% of world aquaculture production by volume. This paper reviews the status of the world’s fish production, provides an update on Asian aquaculture, and highlights developments that are contributing to sustainable fish production, particularly integrated multi-trophic aquaculture and aquaponics.

  2. Composition of Exports and Export Performance of Eurozone Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierts, Peter; Van Kerkhoff, Henk; De Haan, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates to what extent the composition of exports is related to the export performance of eurozone countries using a data set on exports from the oldest eurozone countries to their top 20 trade partners for the period 1988-2009. The results suggest that a higher share of high techn

  3. 77 FR 69789 - President's Export Council Subcommittee on Export Administration; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security President's Export Council Subcommittee on Export Administration; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting The President's Export Council Subcommittee on Export Administration... PECSEA provides advice on matters pertinent to those portions of the Export Administration Act,...

  4. Exporting to Russia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on extensive fieldwork conducted in Central Asia to explore food exports to Russia. It takes its theoretical starting point in global value chain theory and pinpoints chain entry barriers relating to financing, transportation and standards. The article also proposes rethinking...

  5. China Reshuffles Export Incentives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    What it means for China's economy... Last month, the Chinese Government made sweeping changes to the export tax breaks that domestic companies receive. Here's what happened: On September 14, the Ministry of Finance, the General Administration of Customs, the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of

  6. Export Restructuring on Rebates Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Again, the Chinese governmenthas recently adjusted the export tax rebates upon 2831 categories of goods, accounting for 37% of the nation's total export products. Export rebates on most products have decreased by 2% to 4%, and some have had an even steeper reduction. For instance,the export tax rebate has plummeted from 11% or 13% to zero on cement and chemical products, which are called "high-energy-consumption.

  7. What shapes food value chains? Lessons from aquaculture in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Karen Sau; Kelling, I; Ponte, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we explain what shapes food value chains through the analysis of selected aquaculture industries in four key Asian producing countries. Worldwide production of aquatic resources has grown rapidly in the past few decades, and aquaculture production in Asia has played a decisive role...... and private standards. We find that the most sophisticated aquaculture operations in Asia are found in value chains led by retailers and branded processors and where the quality of domestic institutional frameworks has facilitated compliance with increasing demands from buyers overseas. Finally, we reflect...... on the sustainability challenges of aquaculture and provide four broad observations on the governance of food value chains....

  8. Proteomics and its applications to aquaculture in China: infection, immunity, and interaction of aquaculture hosts with pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xuan-Xian

    2013-01-01

    China is the largest fishery producer worldwide in term of its aquaculture output, and plays leading and decisive roles in international aquaculture development. To improve aquaculture output further and promote aquaculture business development, infectious diseases and immunity of fishes and other aquaculture species must be studied. In this regard, aquaculture proteomics has been widely carried out in China to get a better understanding of aquaculture host immunity and microbial pathogenesis as well as host-pathogen interactions, and to identify novel disease targets and vaccine candidates for therapeutic interventions. These proteomics studies include development of novel methods, assays, and advanced concepts in order to characterize proteomics mechanisms of host innate immune defense and microbial pathogenesis. This review article summarizes some recently published technical approaches and their applications to aquaculture proteomics with an emphasis on the responses of aquaculture animals to bacteria, viruses, and other aqua-environmental stresses, and development of broadly cross-protective vaccine candidates. The reviewed articles are those that have been published in international peer reviewed journals.

  9. Effect of Changes in Seasonal Rain Regime on Coastal Ecosystem Structure and Aquaculture Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosimo, S.; Melaku Canu, D.; Libralato, S.; Cossarini, G.; Giorgi, F.

    2008-12-01

    A downscaling experiment linked climate forcing produced by a Regional Climate Model for Europe to a 3D high resolution coupled transport biogeochemical model for the Lagoon of Venice, which in turn forced: a) a food web model for evaluation of cascading effects on ecosystem structure and b) a population dynamic bioenergetic filter feeders bivalvae model for evaluation of effects on aquaculture activities. The hierarchy of models was used to compare result for a reference situation (RF, 1961-1990) with results for two future IPCC scenarios (2071-2100), representing market oriented and local sustainability policies (scenarios A2 and B2, respectively). Future climate projections suggest that, locally, annual mean rain will not change much but the seasonal patterns will likely do so. Summer and spring will be more dry and winter and autumn more rainy. This will potentially increase winter nutrient concentrations but -because of unfavourable timing - primary and secondary productions will decrease, and nutrient surplus will be exported from the Lagoon of Venice to the Adriatic Sea. The impacts on higher trophic levels could be softened thanks to presence of alternative energy pathways and role of omnivory. However, in our future scenario of the lagoon food web the suitability for higher trophic level organisms seems lower. A more detailed analysis on clam aquaculture indicates that this activity will suffer the decrease of primary productivity, and point to the need of implementation of proper aquaculture management policies. In the light of adaptive management. These policies cannot be a straightfoward extrapolation of present practises, but need to be defined basing on future conditions.

  10. Perception of Aquaculture Education to Support Further Growth of Aquaculture Industry in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awal, Sadiqul; Christie, Andrew; Watson, Matthew; Hannadige, Asanka G. T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The central aim of this study was to determine the perception of aquaculture educational provisions in the state of Victoria, and whether they are sufficient to ultimately support further growth of the industry. Design/methodology/approach: Questionnaires were formulated and distributed to participants in a variety of ways, including via…

  11. Optimization of aquaculture systems in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, M. [Instituto Ciencias de la Construccion Eduardo Torroja, Madrid (Spain); Carrillo, M. [Instituto de Acuicultura de Torre la Sal, Castellon (Spain)

    1997-12-31

    An analysis of present heat production systems, using fossil fuel combustion, employed for sea water heating in Spanish hatcheries is given in this paper and compared to a technical solution based on the employment of a heat pump. Price per unit of produced energy is calculated for each system using liquid and gaseous fuels, and then these prices are compared to the price obtained for a heat pump. The heat pump system is also compared, from the point of view of its precision in maintaining temperatures, to the systems used at the present. A project prototype for thermal conditioning and temperature control in aquaculture rearing tanks is described. (author)

  12. Aqua-Topics. Aquaculture for Youth and Youth Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey, Eileen

    This booklet contains information on aquaculture and ideas for aquaculture projects. The information provided is for students at upper elementary through high school learning levels. Recommended activities at the end of the text are organized by level of difficulty. The activities can be modified depending on area and availability of resources. A…

  13. Major bacterial diseases in aquaculture and their vaccine development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquaculture is emerging as the fastest growing food-producing industry in the world due to the increasing demand for food fish consumption. However, the intensive culture of food fish has led to outbreaks of various bacterial diseases, resulting in annual economic losses to the aquaculture industry ...

  14. Nutrients valorisation via Duckweed-based wastewater treatment and aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed El-Shafai, S.A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Development of a sustainable wastewater treatment scheme to recycle sewage nutrients and water in tilapia aquaculture was the main objective of this PhD research. Use of an Integrated UASB-duckweed ponds system for domestic wastewater treatment linked to tilapia aquaculture was investigated. The tr

  15. Contact zoonosis related to aquaculture: a growing concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquaculture develops fast worldwide, with new cultured species and increased global transport of live aquaculture products. There is a growing recognition of zoonotic disease agents causing epidemics and carrier states in cultured fish and shellfish, especially from warm water systems, transmitted t...

  16. Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troell, M.; Naylor, R.; Metian, M.; Beveridge, M.; Tyedmers, P.H.; Folke, C.; Arrow, K.J.; Barrett, S.; Crépin, A.S.; Ehrlich, P.; Gren, A.; Kautsky, N.; Levin, S.A.; Nyborg, K.; Osterblom, H.; Polasky, S.; Scheffer, M.; Walker, B.; Xepapadeas, A.; de Zeeuw, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment t

  17. Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in finfish aquaculture environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio D. Miranda

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Consumer demand for affordable fish drives the ever-growing global aquaculture industry. The intensification and expansion of culture conditions in the production of several finfish species has been coupled with an increase in bacterial fish disease and the need for treatment with antimicrobials. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance prevalent in aquaculture environments is important to design effective disease treatment strategies, to prioritize the use and registration of antimicrobials for aquaculture use, and to assess and minimize potential risks to public health. In this brief article we provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms in finfish aquaculture environments and highlight specific research that should provide the basis of sound, science-based policies for the use of antimicrobials in aquaculture.

  18. Offshore aquaculture: Spatial planning principles for sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Rebecca R; Lester, Sarah E; Kappel, Carrie V; White, Crow; Bell, Tom W; Stevens, Joel; Gaines, Steven D

    2017-01-01

    Marine aquaculture is expanding into deeper offshore environments in response to growing consumer demand for seafood, improved technology, and limited potential to increase wild fisheries catches. Sustainable development of aquaculture will require quantification and minimization of its impacts on other ocean-based activities and the environment through scientifically informed spatial planning. However, the scientific literature currently provides limited direct guidance for such planning. Here, we employ an ecological lens and synthesize a broad multidisciplinary literature to provide insight into the interactions between offshore aquaculture and the surrounding environment across a spectrum of spatial scales. While important information gaps remain, we find that there is sufficient research for informed decisions about the effects of aquaculture siting to achieve a sustainable offshore aquaculture industry that complements other uses of the marine environment.

  19. Risk Taking Propensity and Export Performance of Croatian Exporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Leko-Simic

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Export performance is today one of the most widely used measures of a company’s success, due to the globalization and market liberalization processes. The rather bad export performance of Croatian exporters can be explained by a number of factors, one of which is assumed to be the low level of risk taking propensity, which is one of the three major dimensions of entrepreneurial behavior. The aim of this paper is to analyze company age, size and type of business as determinants of risk taking propensity in Croatian exporting companies. Cluster analysis based on four variable criteria was used in order to determine risk and non-risk takers’ clusters and analyze the significant differences between them in relation to their export performance. The paper is based on research of 88 Croatian exporters.

  20. Prevalence and risk factors for bruises in Chilean bovine carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strappini, A C; Frankena, K; Metz, J H M; Gallo, B; Kemp, B

    2010-11-01

    Records of cattle slaughtered at two Chilean slaughterhouses (SLH1 and SLH2) were used to determine prevalence and risk factors for carcasses with bruises. Bruise prevalence amounted to 12.3% but differed between slaughterhouses (20.8% for SLH1 and 8.6% for SLH2 respectively). Bruise severity grade 1 (mild) was most frequently recorded. The type of the animal, source of animal, the level of fat cover and lairage time were associated with the presence of bruises. Older categories of animals and animals that pass through a market before being moved to the slaughterhouse are more prone to show bruises. The results also indicate that under the reported Chilean circumstances animals that have longer lairage times (over 12 h) have a significantly reduced risk for bruises, except for oxen. Presence of bruises is also significantly associated with increased carcass pH values.

  1. The Chilean Health System: 20 Years of Reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Annick

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean health care system has been intensively reformed in the past 20 years. Reforms under the Pinochet government (1973-1990 aimed mainly at the decentralization of the system and the development of a private sector. Decentralization involved both a deconcentration process and the devolution of primary health care to municipalities. The democratic governments after 1990 chose to preserve the core organization but introduced reforms intended to correct the system's failures and to increase both efficiency and equity. The present article briefly explains the current organization of the Chilean health care system. It also reviews the different reforms introduced in the past 20 years, from the Pinochet regime to the democratic governments. Finally, a brief discussion describes the strengths and weaknesses of the system, as well as the challenges it currently faces.

  2. Genetic structure characterization of Chileans reflects historical immigration patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyheramendy, Susana; Martinez, Felipe I; Manevy, Federico; Vial, Cecilia; Repetto, Gabriela M

    2015-03-17

    Identifying the ancestral components of genomes of admixed individuals helps uncovering the genetic basis of diseases and understanding the demographic history of populations. We estimate local ancestry on 313 Chileans and assess the contribution from three continental populations. The distribution of ancestry block-length suggests an average admixing time around 10 generations ago. Sex-chromosome analyses confirm imbalanced contribution of European men and Native-American women. Previously known genes under selection contain SNPs showing large difference in allele frequencies. Furthermore, we show that assessing ancestry is harder at SNPs with higher recombination rates and easier at SNPs with large difference in allele frequencies at the ancestral populations. Two observations, that African ancestry proportions systematically decrease from North to South, and that European ancestry proportions are highest in central regions, show that the genetic structure of Chileans is under the influence of a diffusion process leading to an ancestry gradient related to geography.

  3. Women and changes in the Chilean economy: some questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiaroski, M S

    1996-10-01

    The author argues that a new development model that encourages greater participation of women in the work force in domestic piecework, temporary work, and subcontracting may further lead to the exploitation of women in Chile. The importance of women in economic development in Chile should be based on building skills, providing support child care services, reorienting women's education, and tax incentives. Chile over the past decade has achieved relatively stable economic growth and increased employment of women. During 1990-93 the growth of women in the work force increased at a rate of 16.8%, while men's presence increased by only 9.8%. The Chilean economy is based on a sophisticated modern sector and a labor-intensive informal sector. The Chilean model of development relies on cheap, flexible labor and a government approval of this model. Increased participation of women in the labor force is usually perceived as increased economic empowerment. A 1994 Oxfam study found that women were being forced into the labor market due to declines in family income and low wages. 46% of men and women received wages that did not cover basic necessities. The Chilean labor market is gender-stratified. Men are paid better than women for the same work. Men are in more permanent positions. Labor laws are either inadequate or violated, particularly for hours of work and overtime pay and conditions of employment and benefits. Traditional female jobs are those that rely on women's natural attributes. These unskilled attributes are rewarded with low wages. Little opportunity is provided for upgrading skills or acquiring new skills. Some women turn down advancement because of a lack of role models. Women have little opportunity to develop their self-image as workers. Poor self-images affect women's work attitudes and motivation. Some firms use competition between women to boost production. Chilean women remain in subordinate roles.

  4. Educational Opportunity and Contentious Politics: The 2011 Chilean Student Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Salinas, Daniel; Fraser, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    The 2011 Chilean student movement was one of the most massive and original processes of social mobilization in Latin America in the last decade. Led by university students, the movement challenged the longstanding free-market orientation of educational policies in Chile, demanding a more active role for the State in the regulation and supply of education. In this article, we study the main educational and social factors that explain the emergence of the movement. We draw upon social movement ...

  5. A New Liquidity Risk Measure for the Chilean Banking Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastián Becerra; Gregory Claeys; Juan Francisco Martínez

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work is to construct an appropriate measure of liquidity risk for Chilean banks. There are already several measures of liquidity risk in the literature. Most of these metrics are based on specific assumptions and expert opinion. In order to overcome the potential problems associated with discretionary assumptions, and to exploit the information available, similar to the work of Drehman and Nikolaou (2012), we propose a metric based on the behavior of banks in the procure...

  6. An Anatomy Of The Export Expansion Process

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, S

    1986-01-01

    This paper examines the export market strategies and export modes used by small and medium sized Italian manufacturing firms. The firms vary extensively in their extent and type of export dependence on different channel arrangements and export markets. Moreover, the exporting modes used do show some peculiar links with export objectives specifically higher dependence on direct sales is associated with planned export expansion and higher dependence on agent/representatives and distributors is ...

  7. China's Export Expansion, Export Structure and Energy Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan Yisheng; Ning Xuemin

    2011-01-01

    Since the reform and opening up, China's export trade has maintained a rapid growth; meanwhile, China's energy consumption has been increasing sharply. "High export and high energy consumption" has become the feature of China's trade and economic development. In this paper, based on the input-output analysis approach, the authors have conducted an empirical study on the export trade and energy consumption of 21 trade industrial sectors. The results show that, China is a big net exporter of embodied energy. Assuming that the export growth rate of embodied energy maintains to be about 23.6%, the average annual growth rate of the past 32 years, and based on the input-output data of 2005, by 2030 China's net export of embodied energy would be over eight times more than the aggregate energy production, which is obviously infeasible. As a country of very low per capita en- ergy, China must change its export pattern, encourage or restrain the export of different industrial sectors according to their energy consumption intensity, and promote structural change of energy- efficient exported products, so as to achieve the sustainable development. Accordingly, the authors put forward some suggestions.

  8. [ANTHROPOMETRIC CHILEAN TABLE TENNIS PLAYERS OF COMPETITIVE FEATURES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez Sepúlveda, Rodrigo; Barraza, Fernando; Rosales Soto, Giovanni; Báez, Eduardo; Tuesta, Marcelo

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the anthropometric profile and somatotype of a sample of 50 players table tennis competitive with an average age 21.6 (± 3.1) years belonging to the Chilean team and institutions of higher education in the region of Valparaiso. The evaluation was conducted under the protocol marking the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) for the measurement procedure 25 restricted profile variables described by Drinkwater, Norton and Olds. Order to determine the body composition, fat, muscle, bone, skin and tissue residual was considered, using the equations proposed by Kerr. The body shape is characterized through somatotype method proposed by Carter. The sample was divided into 4 groups; Chilean Selection, Traditional Private Universities, State Universities and Private Universities Traditional Nontraditional. Regarding body composition; the Chilean team has the highest values of muscle tissue (45.6 ± 1.7%) and the lowest values of adipose tissue (25.2 ± 1.8%), also presenting lesser value in the Σ 6 skinfolds (mm) . The results showed no significant differences between groups in the aforementioned variables. In general somatotype compared by analyzing SANOVA no significant differences between groups (p = 0.409) was observed. The results show a biotype with such a characterization of endo-mesomorph with average values (4,1-4,9-1,8). This study provides updated data biotypological reference for this sport that can be used for decision-making.

  9. Using the H-index to assess disease priorities for salmon aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Alexander G; Wardeh, Maya; McIntyre, K Marie

    2016-04-01

    Atlantic salmon's (Salmo salar) annual aquaculture production exceeds 2M tonnes globally, and for the UK forms the largest single food export. However, aquaculture production is negatively affected by a range of different diseases and parasites. Effort to control pathogens should be focused on those which are most "important" to aquaculture. It is difficult to specify what makes a pathogen important; this is particularly true in the aquatic sector where data capture systems are less developed than for human or terrestrial animal diseases. Mortality levels might be one indicator, but these can cause a range of different problems such as persistent endemic losses, occasional large epidemics or control/treatment costs. Economic and multi-criteria decision methods can incorporate this range of impacts, however these have not been consistently applied to aquaculture and the quantity and quality of data required is large, so their potential for comparing aquatic pathogens is currently limited. A method that has been developed and applied to both human and terrestrial animal diseases is the analysis of published scientific literature using the H-index method. We applied this method to salmon pathogens using Web of Science searches for 23 pathogens. The top 3 H-indices were obtained for: sea lice, furunculosis, and infectious salmon anaemia; post 2000, Amoebic Gill Disease (AGD) replaced furunculosis. The number of publications per year describing bacterial disease declined significantly, while those for viruses and sea lice increased significantly. This reflects effective bacterial control by vaccination, while problems related to viruses and sea lice have increased. H-indices by country reflected different national concerns (e.g. AGD ranked top for Australia). Averaged national H-indices for salmon diseases tend to increase with log of salmon production; countries with H-Indices significantly below the trend line have suffered particularly large disease losses. The H

  10. Minimum quality standards and exports

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the interaction of a minimum quality standard and exports in a vertical product differentiation model when firms sell global products. If ex ante quality of foreign firms is lower (higher) than the quality of exporting firms, a mild minimum quality standard in the home market hinders (supports) exports. The minimum quality standard increases quality in both markets. A welfare maximizing minimum quality standard is always lower under trade than under autarky. A minimum quali...

  11. NEW APPROACHES TO EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Petronela NEGREA

    2015-01-01

    The economic literature and the political discourse typically look at international competitiveness mainly by the means of export market shares. However, globalisation, production fragmentation and the growing importance of global value chains (GVCs) increasingly challenge traditional approaches of export competitiveness and call for a more accurate and disaggregated level of analysis. Due to the growing fragmentation of production, a country exports now include a significant amount of import...

  12. Measures of Cost Economies in Chilean Banking: 1984-1991 Measures of Cost Economies in Chilean Banking: 1984-1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat B. Nauriyal

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents measures of cost economies in Chilean banking following the many regulatory and structural changes implemented by Chilean authorities in the aftermath of the 1981-83 financial system crisis. Utilizing panel, and annual cross section monthly data on 37 individual banking institutions in operation over 1984-91, a translogarithmic cost specification is adopted to estimate economies of scale and scope. My findings suggest the presence of persistent and significant economies of scale. Weaker evidence on the presence of economies of scope is also detected. These findings are of additional importance as the estimation methodology adopted overcomes an inherent flaw in most other similar studies that lump together different sizes of financial institutions for a cross sectional analysis over a one or two year period. This paper presents measures of cost economies in Chilean banking following the many regulatory and structural changes implemented by Chilean authorities in the aftermath of the 1981-83 financial system crisis. Utilizing panel, and annual cross section monthly data on 37 individual banking institutions in operation over 1984-91, a translogarithmic cost specification is adopted to estimate economies of scale and scope. My findings suggest the presence of persistent and significant economies of scale. Weaker evidence on the presence of economies of scope is also detected. These findings are of additional importance as the estimation methodology adopted overcomes an inherent flaw in most other similar studies that lump together different sizes of financial institutions for a cross sectional analysis over a one or two year period.

  13. Slowed Exports Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The first half of 2010 is showing that the impacts of the financial crisis are still lingering.Zhao Jinping,a researcher at the Development Research Center of the State Council,says that the possible implementation of exit strategies in developed countries may deal a heavy blow to a global rally,and it will certainly result in slowed exports growth for China.Zhao published his opinion in the China Economic Times.The first part was published in issue No.33.Edited excerpts of the second part follow:

  14. Soviet energy export prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanlan, Tony

    1991-05-01

    The Soviet Union produces 20% of world energy but since 1988 this is in decline. Awakening consumerism and a sea-change in the structure of foreign trade and internal investment are placing this key industry into unprecedented uncertainty. The difference between success and failure goes beyond the 1988 peak of six million barrels daily of exports in oil equivalent. The article quantifies the key areas of energy uncertainty as equal in volume to total OPEC output and sees the long-term changes of success more than ever dependent on coordinated planning and investment as well as on market reality. (Author).

  15. Mozambique. Export perespectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Sitz-Kuleszo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Destroyed by wars, military and internal conflicts economy of Republic of Mozambique since more than a decade is constantly growing. This 36th biggest country in the world became the object of interest for investment and trade for many developed economies, mostly from Asia. Nowadays investments in Mozambique are focused mostly on rich carbon and gas sources that has been discovered during last decade. Poland is not important trade partner for Mozambique, however could intensify exchange in upcoming years as, if the development will continue, Republic of Mozambique would need for its economy Polish export specialties.

  16. Protein export through the bacterial flagellar type III export pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamino, Tohru

    2014-08-01

    For construction of the bacterial flagellum, which is responsible for bacterial motility, the flagellar type III export apparatus utilizes both ATP and proton motive force across the cytoplasmic membrane and exports flagellar proteins from the cytoplasm to the distal end of the nascent structure. The export apparatus consists of a membrane-embedded export gate made of FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR and a water-soluble ATPase ring complex consisting of FliH, FliI, and FliJ. FlgN, FliS, and FliT act as substrate-specific chaperones that do not only protect their cognate substrates from degradation and aggregation in the cytoplasm but also efficiently transfer the substrates to the export apparatus. The ATPase ring complex facilitates the initial entry of the substrates into the narrow pore of the export gate. The export gate by itself is a proton-protein antiporter that uses the two components of proton motive force, the electric potential difference and the proton concentration difference, for different steps of the export process. A specific interaction of FlhA with FliJ located in the center of the ATPase ring complex allows the export gate to efficiently use proton motive force to drive protein export. The ATPase ring complex couples ATP binding and hydrolysis to its assembly-disassembly cycle for rapid and efficient protein export cycle. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein trafficking and secretion in bacteria. Guest Editors: Anastassios Economou and Ross Dalbey.

  17. Antibacterial Resistance in African Catfish Aquaculture: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madubuike U. ANYANWU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial resistance (AR is currently one of the greatest threats to mankind as it constitutes health crisis. Extensive use of antibacterial agents in human and veterinary medicine, and farm crops have resulted in emergence of antibacterial-resistant organisms in different environmental settings including aquaculture. Antibacterial resistance in aquaculture is a serious global concern because antibacterial resistance genes (ARGs can be transferred easily from aquaculture setting to other ecosystems and the food chain. African catfish (ACF aquaculture has increased at a phenomenal rate through a continuous process of intensification, expansion and diversification. Risk of bacterial diseases has also increased and consequently there is increased use of antibacterial agents for treatment. Antibacterial resistance in ACF aquaculture has huge impact on the food chain and thus represents risk to public and animal health. In “one health” approach of curbing AR, knowledge of the sources, mechanisms and magnitude of AR in ACF aquaculture and its potential impact on the food chain is important in designing and prioritizing monitoring programs that may generate data that would be relevant for performing quantitative risk assessments, implementation of antibacterial stewardship plans, and developing effective treatment strategies for the control of ACF disease and reducing risk to public health. This review provides insight on the sources, mechanisms, prevalence and impact of antibacterial resistance in ACF aquaculture environment, a setting where the impact of AR is neglected or underestimated.

  18. Nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from aquaculture: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhen; Lee, Jae Woo; Chandran, Kartik; Kim, Sungpyo; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2012-06-19

    Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is an important greenhouse gas (GHG) which has a global warming potential 310 times that of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) over a hundred year lifespan. N(2)O is generated during microbial nitrification and denitrification, which are common in aquaculture systems. To date, few studies have been conducted to quantify N(2)O emission from aquaculture. Additionally, very little is known with respect to the microbial pathways through which N(2)O is formed in aquaculture systems. This review suggests that aquaculture can be an important anthropogenic source of N(2)O emission. The global N(2)O-N emission from aquaculture in 2009 is estimated to be 9.30 × 10(10) g, and will increase to 3.83 × 10(11)g which could account for 5.72% of anthropogenic N(2)O-N emission by 2030 if the aquaculture industry continues to increase at the present annual growth rate (about 7.10%). The possible mechanisms and various factors affecting N(2)O production are summarized, and two possible methods to minimize N(2)O emission, namely aquaponic and biofloc technology aquaculture, are also discussed. The paper concludes with future research directions.

  19. Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troell, Max; Naylor, Rosamond L; Metian, Marc; Beveridge, Malcolm; Tyedmers, Peter H; Folke, Carl; Arrow, Kenneth J; Barrett, Scott; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Ehrlich, Paul R; Gren, Asa; Kautsky, Nils; Levin, Simon A; Nyborg, Karine; Österblom, Henrik; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Walker, Brian H; Xepapadeas, Tasos; de Zeeuw, Aart

    2014-09-16

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture's reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (∼4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection.

  20. Antibiotic Resistance of Diverse Bacteria from Aquaculture in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen, M. M.; Felecia, C.; Reagan, E. L.; Kasing, A.; Lesley, M.; Toh, S. C.

    2016-01-01

    The administration of antimicrobials in aquaculture provides a selective pressure creating a reservoir of multiple resistant bacteria in the cultured fish and shrimps as well as the aquaculture environment. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of antibiotic resistance in aquaculture products and aquaculture's surrounding environment in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Ninety-four identified bacterial isolates constituted of 17 genera were isolated from sediment, water, and cultured organisms (fish and shrimp) in selected aquaculture farms. These isolates were tested for their antibiotic resistance against 22 antibiotics from several groups using the disk diffusion method. The results show that the highest resistance was observed towards streptomycin (85%, n = 20), while the lowest resistance was towards gentamicin (1.1%, n = 90). The multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) index of the isolates tested ranged between 0 and 0.63. It was suggested that isolates with MAR index > 0.2 were recovered from sources with high risk of antibiotic resistant contamination. This study revealed low level of antibiotic resistance in the aquaculture bacterial isolates except for streptomycin and ampicillin (>50% resistance, n = 94) which have been used in the aquaculture industry for several decades. Antibiotic resistant patterns should be continuously monitored to predict the emergence and widespread of MAR. Effective action is needed to keep the new resistance from further developing and spreading.

  1. Key Performance Characteristics of Organic Shrimp Aquaculture in Southwest Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Reinhard Vogl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon; Fabricius, 1798 aquaculture has come to be one of the most important sectors in both the rural and national economies. Likewise, organic shrimp aquaculture has emerged as an alternative farming enterprise for farmers especially in the southwestern districts of Bangladesh. The present study aims to show key performance characteristics of organic shrimp farmers and farming in a prototypical shrimp farming area in Bangladesh. Data was collected in 2009 from organic shrimp farmers in the Kaligonj and Shyamnagar sub-districts through questionnaire interviews, transect walks and focus group discussions. The mean productivity of organic shrimp farming in the area is 320 kg ha−1 yr−1 (ranging from 120 to 711 kg ha−1year−1. Organic farmers are more likely to have a higher monthly income and less aquaculture experience. Moreover, suitable landholdings and classified labor distribution have been found to play an important role in the development of organic shrimp aquaculture. The most common assets of organic shrimp aquaculture are high yield, low production cost, available post larvae and high market prices. Small business farmers are likely to earn more income benefits from organic shrimp aquaculture than their larger-scale counterparts. Finally, the paper suggests that more research is needed to stimulate the success of organic shrimp aquaculture.

  2. 19 CFR 10.38 - Exportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... exported from another port, they shall be forwarded to the port of exportation under a transportation and... shall be endorsed on each package to be so exported and signed by the exporter. (f) Whenever the... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exportation. 10.38 Section 10.38 Customs Duties...

  3. 78 FR 37785 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Gerardo Domingo... Domingo Rodriguez-Rivera (``Rodriguez-Rivera'') was convicted of violating Section 38 of the ] Arms Export... convicted of knowingly and willfully exporting and causing to be exported and attempting to export...

  4. Export incentives, exchange rate policy and export growth in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J.G. van Wijnbergen; I. Arslan

    1993-01-01

    The driving forces behind the Turkish export miracle, and in fact its very existence, have remained a matter of debate We show there was a boom. As to contributing factors, import growth in the Middle East in excess of import growth elsewhere made a negative contribution. On exports to non-oil count

  5. THE FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE COMPONENT OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian ZUGRAVU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fisheries and aquaculture can provide a key contribution to food security and poverty alleviation. Fisheries and aquaculture policy is an instrument for the conservation and management of fisheries and aquaculture. It was created with the aims of managing a common resource. Fisheries policies and management strategies the world over is in a state of flux, continued attempts to use fisheriesas the key to solving a complex web of social and economic issues threaten to overwhelm the basic fact that, if this resources are overfished, they will not sustain either social or development.

  6. Photoinactivation of major bacterial pathogens in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyong Jin Roh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Significant increases in the bacterial resistance to various antibiotics have been found in fish farms. Non-antibiotic therapies for infectious diseases in aquaculture are needed. In recent years, light-emitting diode technology has been applied to the inactivation of pathogens, especially those affecting humans. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of blue light (wavelengths 405 and 465 nm on seven major bacterial pathogens that affect fish and shellfish important in aquaculture. Results We successfully demonstrate inactivation activity of a 405/465-nm LED on selected bacterial pathogens. Although some bacteria were not fully inactivated by the 465-nm light, the 405-nm light had a bactericidal effect against all seven pathogens, indicating that blue light can be effective without the addition of a photosensitizer. Photobacterium damselae, Vibrio anguillarum, and Edwardsiella tarda were the most susceptible to the 405-nm light (36.1, 41.2, and 68.4 J cm−2, respectively, produced one log reduction in the bacterial populations, whereas Streptococcus parauberis was the least susceptible (153.8 J cm−2 per one log reduction. In general, optical density (OD values indicated that higher bacterial densities were associated with lower inactivating efficacy, with the exception of P. damselae and Vibrio harveyi. In conclusion, growth of the bacterial fish and shellfish pathogens evaluated in this study was inactivated by exposure to either the 405- or 465-nm light. In addition, inactivation was dependent on exposure time. Conclusions This study presents that blue LED has potentially alternative therapy for treating fish and shellfish bacterial pathogens. It has great advantages in aspect of eco-friendly treating methods differed from antimicrobial methods.

  7. Management options to mitigate environmental impact of aquaculture in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Edpalina, Rizalita Rosalejos

    2009-01-01

    Asia-Pacific represents the most important region for fisheries and aquaculture production. It is world's largest contributor to the world's aquaculture, producing 46.9 million tons or 91% of the global aquaculture production (FAO, 2005). The growth of aquaculture production has been very strong for the last ten years due to the increased production from China. The aquaculture production in Southeast Asia is diversified comprising 41.6% freshwater fish, 23.5% of aquatic plants, 6.7% crustacea...

  8. Tumbling Auto Import and Export

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yantai Chen

    2009-01-01

    @@ The seemingly rebound global financial crisis has seriously eroded world economy from 2008,of which China's tumbling auto imports and exports business is a good example.At the beginning of 2008 it kicked off as an excellent year for the Chinese automotive market,but ended with the onset of a recession in last quarter both from the perspective of import and export.

  9. Sinosure Helping to Stabilize Exports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The unfolding international financial crisis is taking its toll on China’s economy, especially China’s exports. On one hand, overseas demand has plummeted, while on the other, with the worsening credit environment and emerging trade protectionism, export enter-prises are suffering from rising credit risks, to the point where some of them dare not even accept orders.

  10. Great Challenge in Steel Export

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charlsea Liu

    2009-01-01

    @@ In 2008, the export of China steel products experienoeu, a splendid period f fast growing, and then disappointedly followed by fast depression. Until lest December, China in 2008 exported steel products of 59.21 million tons, less than the same term in 2007 by 3.48 million tons, declining about 5.6%.

  11. Insurability of export credit risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsem, K.J.; Antufjew, J.; Huizingh, K.R.E.; Koning, Ruud H.; Sterken, E.; Woltil, M.

    2003-01-01

    Firms exporting their goods and services abroad face risks that are different from the risks faced by firms who do not engage in international trade. It is common practice to allow the receiving party to pay in instalments. The exporting firm faces credit risk, but as in most countries, Dutch firms

  12. Informal export barriers and poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Porto, Guido G.

    2004-01-01

    The author investigates the poverty impacts of informal export barriers like transport costs, cumbersome customs practices, costly regulations, and bribes. He models these informal barriers as export taxes that distort the efficient allocation of resources. In low-income agricultural economies, this distortion lowers wages and household agricultural income, thereby leading to higher pover...

  13. NEW APPROACHES TO EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Petronela NEGREA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature and the political discourse typically look at international competitiveness mainly by the means of export market shares. However, globalisation, production fragmentation and the growing importance of global value chains (GVCs increasingly challenge traditional approaches of export competitiveness and call for a more accurate and disaggregated level of analysis. Due to the growing fragmentation of production, a country exports now include a significant amount of imports of intermediate goods which are part of the export value. In this case, a simple analysis of the evolution of exports can distort the international competitive position of a country. The article suggests a new approach based on the value-added content of international trade measured by means of global value chain analysis.

  14. Second Thoughts on Exporter Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    Empirical literature has established a positive link between firm productivity and export status, yet notable exceptions exist. The present paper shows that the underlying theory (Melitz, 2003) is in fact able to accommodate the rule as well as the exception. The fulcrum of the argument is the te......Empirical literature has established a positive link between firm productivity and export status, yet notable exceptions exist. The present paper shows that the underlying theory (Melitz, 2003) is in fact able to accommodate the rule as well as the exception. The fulcrum of the argument...... is the tension between empirical work measuring productivity based on average cost information, and theoretical work representing productivity by marginal cost. In a heterogeneous firms trade model, we compute productivity based on average cost and find that around the export-indifferent firm, exporters...... will be less productive than non-exporters. Furthermore, we show that this effect may feed through at the industry level....

  15. On Overinvoicing of Exports in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Zafar Mahmood; Mohammad Azhar

    2001-01-01

    Whereas the policy incentives were designed to promote exports from Pakistan, the incentive system instead led to illicit export practices, i.e., export overinvoicing due to the weaknesses of implementation. Such practices resulted in a significant financial loss to the country and undermined the effectiveness of the export-promoting policy. This paper has determined the presence of overinvoicing of exports in Pakistan and the geographic and product-wise patterns in export overinvoicing. The ...

  16. Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC) ontwikkeltraject meerval : een inventarisatie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, M.; Rothuis, A.J.; Bosma, R.H.

    2012-01-01

    Om een Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC) gecertificeerd product te krijgen is een standaard nodig, waaraan getoetst kan worden. Deze standaard geeft certificeerders een referentiekader. Pas als een standaard aanwezig is, kunnen producten gecertificeerd worden.

  17. Optimizing nitrate removal in woodchip beds treating aquaculture effluents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Ahnen, Mathis; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; Hoffmann, Carl Christian

    2016-01-01

    Nitrate is typically removed from aquaculture effluents using heterotrophic denitrification reactors. Heterotrophic denitrification reactors, however, require a constant input of readily available organic carbon (C) sources which limits their application in many aquaculture systems for practical...... the potential of optimizing woodchip reactors for treating aquaculture effluent. A central composite design (CCD) was applied to assess the effects of simultaneously changing the empty bed contact time (EBCTs of 5.0-15.0 h; corresponding to theoretical hydraulic retention times of 3.3-9.9 h) and bicarbonate...... (HCO3 -) inlet concentration (0.50-1.59 g HCO3 -/l) on the removal rate of NO3 -N, and additional organic and inorganic nutrients, in effluent deriving from an experimental recirculating aquaculture system (RAS).Volumetric NO3 -N removal rates ranged from 5.20 ± 0.02 to 8.96 ± 0.19 g/m3/day and were...

  18. Heterotrophic denitrification of aquaculture effluent using fluidized sand biofilters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability to consistently and cost-effectively reduce nitrate-nitrogen loads in effluent from recirculating aquaculture systems would enhance the industry's environmental stewardship and allow improved facility proximity to large markets in sensitive watersheds. Heterotrophic denitrification techn...

  19. Monitoring and managing microbes in aquaculture - Towards a sustainable industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Sonnenschein, Eva; Gram, Lone

    2016-01-01

    communities to monitor water quality and to efficiently carry out ecosystem services within the aquaculture systems may only be a few years away. Initially, however, we need to thoroughly understand the microbiomes of both healthy and diseased aquaculture systems, and we need to determine how to successfully...... protect fish and larvae against disease. Hence, monitoring and manipulating the microbial communities in aquaculture environments hold great potential; both in terms of assessing and improving water quality, but also in terms of controlling the development of microbial infections. Using microbial...... manipulate and engineer these microbiomes. Similarly, we can reduce the need to apply antibiotics in aquaculture through manipulation of the microbiome, i.e. by the use of probiotic bacteria. Recent studies have demonstrated that fish pathogenic bacteria in live feed can be controlled by probiotics...

  20. Proximate analyses - Utilization of Marine Process Waste for Aquaculture Feeds

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Limited amounts of forage fish are available as an ingredient in feeds for the expanding aquaculture industry. Work is being conducted on a variety of underutilized...

  1. Meagre (Argyrosomus regius Asso, 1801 aquaculture in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kružić Nikolina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to present current status of meagre aquaculture in Croatia. Meagre Argyrosomus regius (Asso, 1801 is a fast growing migratory fish species which used to be widespread along the coast of the Adriatic Sea. Today, it is very rare in fisheries catches and is considered highly endangered. Recently, meagre has become an increasingly important species in the Mediterranean aquaculture. In Croatia, meagre is a relatively new cultured species whose farming started after the year 2000. Since the European Commission identified species diversification as a top priority in the framework of the 2020 strategies for Aquaculture, and with recent studies revealing that meagre adapt easily to captivity and maintain a rapid growth rate, this species became an interesting candidate for Croatian as well as Mediterranean aquaculture.

  2. DIAGNOSIS OF AQUACULTURE IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF ALVARADO VERACRUZ, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenin Rangel-López

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the current situation of aquaculture farms in the Municipality of Alvarado, Veracruz, Mexico. During this study, 29 interviews were conducted aimed to the units of aquaculture producers; 24 variables were analyzed within the aspects of the socio-economic, technical, marketing and legal framework. The most relevant results within the legal framework: 21% of units has “National Registration of Fisheries and Aquaculture” (RNPyA and 7% has “Federal Taxpayer Register” (RFC; in the socio-economic aspects: 187 jobs are generated; on technical aspects: the average area for cultivation is 410.11 ha, 79% of production is Tilapia (Oreochromis spp.. The aquaculture activity on Alvarado, Veracruz, it is in a learning process, therefore strategies are needed in order to the development of the activity and increasing production; improving cultivation methodologies and training producers on managing their aquaculture units.

  3. Aquaculture as a part of a multi-use platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Svenstrup Petersen, Ole; Aarup Ahrensberg, Nick

    2014-01-01

    aquaculture. These developments urgently require effective marine technology and governance solutions to facilitate installation, operation and maintenance of these novel offshore activities. Simultaneously, both economic costs and environmental impact have to remain within acceptable limits, in order...

  4. Exporting calcium from cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerini, Danilo; Coletto, Luisa; Carafoli, Ernesto

    2005-01-01

    All eukaryotic cells import Ca2+ through a number of variously gated plasma membrane channels. Once inside cells, Ca2+ transmits information to a large number of (enzyme) targets. Eventually, it must be exported again, to prevent the overloading of the cytosol with Ca2+. Two systems export Ca2+ from cells: a high affinity, low capacity Ca2+-ATPase, and a lower affinity, but much larger capacity, Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. The ATPase (commonly called the Ca2+ pump) is the fine-tuner of cell Ca2+, as it functions well even if the concentration of the ion drops below the microM level. It is a large enzyme, with 10 transmembrane domains and a C-terminal cytosolic tail that contains regulatory sites, including a calmodulin-binding domain. Four distinct gene products plus a large number of splice variants have been described. Some are tissue specific, the isoform 2 being specifically expressed in the sensorial cells of the Corti organ in the inner-ear. Its genetic absence causes deafness in mice. Two different families of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger exist, one of which, originally described in photoreceptors, transports K+ and Ca2+ in exchange for Na+. The exchanger is particularly active in excitable cells, e.g., heart, where the necessity cyclically arises to rapidly eject large amounts of Ca2+. In addition to heart, the exchanger is particularly important to neurons: the cleavage of the most important neuronal isoform (NCX3) by calpains activated by excitotoxic treatments generates Ca2+ overload and eventually cell death.

  5. Enrichment of bioactive compounds in microalgae for aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Tomásia Micaela Gomez

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are promising microorganisms for the production of food and fine chemicals. Several species of microalgae are used in aquaculture with the purpose of transfer bioactive compounds up to the aquatic food chain. The main objective of this project was to develop a stress–inducement strategy in order to enhance the biochemical productivity of Nannochloropsis gaditana, Rhodomonas marina and Isochrysis sp. for aquaculture purposes having in account their growth and organizational differen...

  6. Green and technical efficient growth in Danish fresh water aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing animal food processing sector in the world. Nevertheless, growth inside the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development has been stagnating, with few exceptions. The main reason is strict environmental regulations. This study investigates if green...... growth can be achieved by introducing new environmentally friendly water purification systems in Danish fresh water aquaculture. Data Envelopment Analysis is used to investigate whether different water purification systems and farm size influence technical efficiency. The empirical results indicate...

  7. Modeling of TAN in recirculating aquaculture systems by AQUASIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Modeling of total ammonium nitrogen (TAN) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) contribute to identifying and quantifying the most important processes and their relative contribution to removal of TAN. AQUASIM is a flexible modular simulation system for water quality in natural and technical...... systems developed by EAWAG (Reichert, 1994). AQUASIM allows simulating complex biological, chemical and physical processes in standardized hydraulic systems. We used AQUASIM to model the steady state TAN concentrations in 12 experimental recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) operated by DTU AQUA...

  8. Key Performance Characteristics of Organic Shrimp Aquaculture in Southwest Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Reinhard Vogl; Brojo Gopal Paul

    2012-01-01

    In Bangladesh, black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon; Fabricius, 1798) aquaculture has come to be one of the most important sectors in both the rural and national economies. Likewise, organic shrimp aquaculture has emerged as an alternative farming enterprise for farmers especially in the southwestern districts of Bangladesh. The present study aims to show key performance characteristics of organic shrimp farmers and farming in a prototypical shrimp farming area in Banglade...

  9. Charting the Research Course for Sustainable Aquaculture in Sabah, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Vun L. W.; Payus C. M.; Mohd Ali S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Due to arising needs and demands, aquaculture is currently the fastest growing food production sector. In order to increase yield and yet to remain sustainable, the challenges would be to minimise impact on the environment and ecosystem services. Aquaculture activity contributes significantly to Malaysia and also the state of Sabah’s economy and food security. Hence, the future changes in the environment as a result of rapid population growth and development would pose as threats to this indu...

  10. Examining the role of export competitive advantages on export performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeganeh Alimohammadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of export competitive advantage on export performance in food industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 280 randomly selected experts in food industry and Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.827. The study has applied factor analysis to find important factors influencing export performance. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Bartlett's Test of Sphericity have been performed to validate the results and they both validated the questionnaire. The results of the survey have determined six effective groups including product development, e-commerce, marketing planning, organizational performance, competitiveness and supply chain management.

  11. Preliminary measurements of gamma radiation in Chilean Antarctic Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuardo B, E. (Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago. Dept. de Aplicaciones Nucleares)

    1983-11-01

    Natural and artificial gamma radiation, 1 m above the soil, is being investigated in 4 Chilean Antartic Stations. The measurements are performed with different types of TLD detectors. Preliminary results in the Tte. Marsh Station are reported and discussed. An average exposition of 3,5 ..mu..R/h was found during a 108 days period. This exposition corresponds to an annual dose of about 40 mrad, 8% of the annual dose limit for individual of the public. The presence of low energy artificial radioisotopes was not found.

  12. Chilean Euphorbiaceae species as sources of fuels and raw chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnecco, S.; Bartulin, J.; Marticorena, C.; Ramirez, A.

    1988-01-01

    The potential of some species of Chilean Euphorbiaceae as sources of hydrocarbon-like materials was evaluated. Samples of plants excluding roots, were analyzed for CH/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/ extractives, resins and hydrocarbons. The presence of waxes and natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene) was confirmed using spectroscopic and chromatographic methods. C/H values for representative fractions were calculated and extracted samples from selected species analyzed for apparent protein contents. Results suggested that at least two species, Euphorbia lactiflua and Euphorbia copiapina might have an industrial potential.

  13. Misconception p value among Chilean and Italian academic psychologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Badenes-Ribera

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The p value misconceptions are based on certain beliefs and attributions about the significance of the results. Thus, they affect the professionals’ decisions and jeopardize the quality of interventions and the accumulation of valid scientific knowledge. We conducted a survey on 164 academic psychologists (134 Italians, 30 Chileans, questioned on this topic. Our findings are consistent with original research and suggest that some participants do not know how to correctly interpret p values. The inverse probability fallacy presents the greatest comprehension problems, followed by the replication fallacy. These results highlight the importance of the statistical re-education of researchers. Recommendations for improving statistical cognition are proposed.

  14. Demographic and labor market in the Chilean countryside Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos René Rodríguez Garcés

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the information provided by the National Socioeconomic Survey of 1990 and 2013, the Chilean countryside reconfigurations are analyzed in terms of their demographic trends and labor market restructuring. A continuous process of depopulation and aging of the rural population is demographically notes. The agricultural activities of the rural labor market charge less important in terms of jobs and income, showing a strong process and favoring deagrarianisation positioning services area. Finally, a growing number of households that hold informal consensual unions and a greater presence of single-parent households, mainly consisting of female-headed households is observed.

  15. Interactions of Aquaculture and Waste Disposal in the Coastal Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Xuemei; Hawkins S.J.

    2002-01-01

    Throughout the world, the coastal zones of many countries are used increasingly for aquaculture in addition to other activities such as waste disposal. These activities can cause environmental problems and health problems where they overlap. The interaction between aquaculture and waste disposal, and their relationship with eutrophication are the subjects of this paper.Sewage discharge without adequate dispersion can lead to nutrient elevation and hence eutrophication which has clearly negative effects on aquaculture with the potential for toxic blooms. Blooms may be either toxic or anoxia-causing through the decay process or simply clog the gills of filter-feeding animals in some cases. With the development of aquaculture, especially intensive aquaculture, many environmental problems appeared, and have resulted in eutrophication in some areas. Eutrophication may destroy the health of whole ecosystem which is important for sustainable aquaculture.Sewage discharge may also cause serious public health problems. Filter-feeding shellfish growing in sewage-polluted waters accumulate micro-organisms, including human pathogenic bacteria and viruses, and heavy metal ion, presenting a significant health risk. Some farmed animals may also accumulate heavy metals from sewage. Bivalves growing in areas affected by toxic algae blooms may accumulate toxins (such as PSP, DSP) which can be harmful to human beings.

  16. Use of sunlight to degrade oxytetracycline in marine aquaculture's waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, J F; Esteves, V I; Santos, E B H

    2016-06-01

    Oxytracycline (OTC) is a broad spectrum antibiotic authorized for use in European aquaculture. Its photo-degradation has been widely studied in synthetic aqueous solutions, sometimes resorting to expensive methods and without proven effectiveness in natural waters. Thus, this work studied the possibility to apply the solar photo-degradation for removal of OTC from marine aquaculture's waters. For that, water samples were collected at different locals of the water treatment circuit, from two different aquaculture companies. Water samples were firstly characterized regarding to pH, salinity, total suspended solids (TSS), organic carbon and UV-Vis spectroscopic characteristics. Then, the samples were spiked with OTC and irradiated using simulated sunlight in order to evaluate the matrix effects on OTC photo-degradation. From kinetic results, the apparent quantum yields and the outdoor half-life times, at 40°N for midsummer and midwinter days were estimated by the first time for these conditions. For a midsummer day, at sea level, the outdoor half-life time predicted for OTC in these aquaculture's waters ranged between 21 and 25 min. Additionally, the pH and salinity effects on the OTC photo-degradation were evaluated and it has been shown that high pH values and the presence of sea salt increase the OTC photo-degradation rate in aquaculture's waters, compared to results in deionised water. The results are very promising to apply this low-cost methodology using the natural sunlight in aquaculture's waters to remove OTC.

  17. Impact of pond and fence aquaculture on reservoir environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai-dong ZHOU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of aquaculture in lakes and reservoirs, its negative effects on water quality and aquatic organisms are clearly emerging. Toward a better understanding of these effects, chemical and biological monitoring was conducted in the Fangbian Reservoir to study the relationship between aquaculture and eutrophication. As a domestic water supply source, this reservoir has reached the mesotrophic level. The concentrations of total nitrogen (TN and total phosphorus (TP in the Fangbian Reservoir have frequently exceeded the prescriptive level according to the Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water (GB3838-2002. Pond and fence aquaculture feeding is the main cause of high levels of nitrogen and phosphorus, accounting for nearly half of the total pollution, and causing the reservoir environmental capacity to be exceeded. The amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus that went directly to the reservoir through the residual bait and fish droppings in fence aquaculture were 42 768 kg per year and 10 856 kg per year respectively, from 2007 to 2009. About 2 913 kg of nitrogen and 450 kg of phosphorus were imported to the reservoir through the exchange of water from the culturing ponds at the same time. Therefore, controlling the aquaculture scale and promoting eco-aquaculture are key measures for lessening the eutrophication degree and improving the water quality.

  18. Interactions of aquaculture and waste disposal in the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuemei, Zhai; Hawkins, S. J.

    2002-04-01

    Throughout the world, the coastal zones of many countries are used increasingly for aquaculture in addition to other activities such as waste disposal. These activities can cause environmental problems and health problems where they overlap. The interaction between aquaculture and waste disposal, and their relationship with eutrophication are the subjects of this paper. Sewage discharge without adequate dispersion can lead to nutrient elevation and hence eutrophication which has clearly negative effects on aquaculture with the potential for toxic blooms. Blooms may be either toxic or anoxia-causing through the decay process or simply clog the gills of filter-feeding animals in some cases. With the development of aquaculture, especially intensive aquaculture, many environmental problems appeared, and have resulted in eutrophication in some areas. Eutrophication may destroy the health of whole ecosystem which is important for sustainable aquaculture. Sewage discharge may also cause serious public health problems. Filter-feeding shellfish growing in sewage-polluted waters accumulate micro-organims, including human pathogenic bacteria and viruses, and heavy metal ion, presenting a significant health risk. Some farmed animals may also accumulate heavy metals from sewage. Bivalves growing in areas affected by toxic algae blooms may accumulate toxins (such as PSP, DSP) which can be harmful to human beings.

  19. 中国紫菜养殖业的发展现状研究%Analysis of Development Process and Current Situation of China Laver Aquaculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李博

    2012-01-01

    紫菜养殖是中国水产养殖业中的代表产业之一。从20世纪70年代开始通过引进外资,开发新品种,创新养殖技术,推动出口,加强协会组织建设等一系列举措,经过30多年的发展,紫菜养殖产业逐步趋于成熟,中国已经成为世界有数的紫菜养殖及出口大国。但是,分析研究发现紫菜养殖业快速发展的同时,在高效率生产及稳定供给、原藻质量保证、市场开发、行业协会建设以及政府管理投入方面仍存在着一些亟待解决的问题。因此,针对这些问题制定相应的措施政策对中国紫菜养殖业的可持续发展有着重要意义。%Laver aquaculture is a representative of China aquaculture industries. From the 1970s, through a series of measures such as, the introduction of foreign investment, developing new products, innovative farming techniques, promotion exports, strengthening of the construction of associations, abd China Laver aquaculture gradually matured. After' thirty years of development, China,is now one of the few countries in the world exports and seaweed' aquaculture. However, by the analysis, it could be found that the rapid development of seaweed aquaculture while, high efficiency in production and a stable supply, quality assurance of raw seaweed, marketing development, construction industry association and government investment there were still some problems to be solved. Therefore, for these issues, to develop appropriate policy measures to solve laver aquaculture issues in China has an important significance for sustainable development.

  20. Environmental impact of non-certified versus certified (ASC) intensive Pangasius aquaculture in Vietnam, a comparison based on a statistically supported LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhu, Trang T; Schaubroeck, Thomas; Henriksson, Patrik J G; Bosma, Roel; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Dewulf, Jo

    2016-12-01

    Pangasius production in Vietnam is widely known as a success story in aquaculture, the fastest growing global food system because of its tremendous expansion by volume, value and the number of international markets to which Pangasius has been exported in recent years. While certification schemes are becoming significant features of international fish trade and marketing, an increasing number of Pangasius producers have followed at least one of the certification schemes recognised by international markets to incorporate environmental and social sustainability practices in aquaculture, typically the Pangasius Aquaculture Dialogue (PAD) scheme certified by the Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC). An assessment of the environmental benefit of applying certification schemes on Pangasius production, however, is still needed. This article compared the environmental impact of ASC-certified versus non-ASC certified intensive Pangasius aquaculture, using a statistically supported LCA. We focused on both resource-related (water, land and total resources) and emissions-related (global warming, acidification, freshwater and marine eutrophication) categories. The ASC certification scheme was shown to be a good approach for determining adequate environmental sustainability, especially concerning emissions-related categories, in Pangasius production. However, the non-ASC certified farms, due to the large spread, the impact (e.g., water resources and freshwater eutrophication) was possibly lower for a certain farm. However, this result was not generally prominent. Further improvements in intensive Pangasius production to inspire certification schemes are proposed, e.g., making the implementation of certification schemes more affordable, well-oriented and facilitated; reducing consumed feed amounts and of the incorporated share in fishmeal, especially domestic fishmeal, etc. However, their implementation should be vetted with key stakeholders to assess their feasibility.

  1. Fisheries and aquaculture industries involvement to control product health and quality safety to satisfy consumer-driven objectives on retail markets in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Eva; Rosenthal, Harald

    2006-01-01

    Over the past years the export of agricultural and fishery products from developing countries has substantially increased to markets within the OECD. Retailers and importers are expanding their international operations to meet consumer demands for year-round delivery of products. Moreover, consumers have become increasingly concerned about the safety of food, including those derived from aquatic resources [FAO/NACA/WHO Joint Study Group, 1999. Report food safety issues associated with products from aquaculture. WHO Technical Report Series No 883: VII, pp. 1-55]. Governments and leading businesses are responding by imposing new safety regulations and standards to the international food system (e.g. HACCP, EUREP-GAP), product liability and labeling [Reilly, A., Howgate, P., Käferstein, F., 1997. Safety hazards and the application of HACCP in aquaculture. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Fish Inspection and Quality Control: A Global Focus, Arlington, VA, 19-24 May 1996. Technomic Publishing, Lancaster, PA, pp. 353-373]. Initial concerns for imports of aquacultural products from developing to industrialized countries focussed on bacterial contamination [Buras, N. 1993. Microbial safety of produce from wastewater-fed aquaculture. In: Pullin, R.V.C., Rosenthal, H., MacLean, J.L.(Eds.), Proceedings of ICLARM Conferences, vol. 31, pp. 285-295]. Today, if trade opportunities are to be maintained, these countries must adapt to a full array of regulations and standards. This paper describes four scenarios in aquaculture and fishing product trade between developing countries and countries in the European Union.

  2. Learning to export and learning by exporting: The case of Ethiopian manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Siba, Eyerusalem; Gebreeyesus, Mulu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the relationship between exporting and firm performance using a longer panel dataset of Ethiopian manufacturing firms for the period 1996 - 2009. We test two hypotheses regarding exporting: selection into exporting versus learning by exporting. According to the selection into exporting hypothesis, more productive firms self-select into exporting due to high entry costs. The learning by exporting hypothesis, on the other hand, emphasizes that firms learn after ent...

  3. 2006 Rare Earth Export Quota

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ According to correlative stipulations in "Goods Import εt Export Administrating Statute of P.R.C", 2006export quota for important industrial products was issued by the Ministry of Commerce of P.R.C. on December 30th of 2005. Export quota of rare earth products is 45,000 tons. It is said the quota will be distributed in two batches. The first batch of quota will reach 70-80% of the total with 21,700 - 24,800tons for domestic companies and 10,500 - 12,000 tons for foreign invested companies. Quota will be distributed to relevant enterprises directly in recent days.

  4. Revisión sobre aspectos biológicos y de cultivo del lenguado chileno (Paralichthys adspersus Review of the biology and cultivation of Chilean flounder (Paralichthys adspersus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El lenguado chileno (Paralichthys adspersus es una especie endémica de la costa chilena, que ha sido objeto de diversos estudios tendientes a analizar las posibilidades que presenta para diversificar la acuicultura marina. El presente trabajo hace una revisión de los diversos resultados obtenidos en el estudio de su biología y técnicas de cultivo, observándose que existe el conocimiento zootécnico necesario para desarrollar su ciclo biológico completo en cautividad y producir individuos de tamaño comercial en condiciones de cultivo. Sin embargo, este conocimiento se encuentra disperso y aún muestra comparativamente con otras especies cultivables, una moderada replicabilidad de los resultados, lo que implica la necesidad de persistir en la optimización de algunos aspectos de su cultivo, para impulsar definitivamente su desarrollo.Chilean flounder (Paralichthys adspersus are endemic to the Chilean coast and have been the subject of several studies on the possible diversification of marine aquaculture. This paper reviews the diverse results obtained from studies of this species' biology and cultivation techniques. The biological and technical knowledge available is sufficient for developing the entire life cycle of this species, producing commercial-sized individuals, in captivity. However, this knowledge is disperse and the results, as compared with those for other harvested species, still show moderately reproducible results, implying the need to continue efforts to optimize some aspects of Chilean flounder cultivation, thereby promoting the species' development definitely.

  5. Geographical classification of Chilean wines by an electronic nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás H Beltrán

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Nicolás H Beltrán, Manuel A Duarte-Mermoud, Ricardo E MuñozDepartment of Electrical Engineering, University of Chile, Santiago, ChileAbstract: This paper discusses the classification of Chilean wines by geographical origin based only on aroma information. The varieties of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Carménère analyzed here are produced in four different valleys in the central part of Chile (Colchagua, Maipo, Maule, and Rapel. Aroma information was obtained with a zNoseTM (fast gas chromatograph and the data was analyzed by applying wavelet transform for feature extraction followed by an analysis with support vector machines for classification. Two evaluations of the classification technique were performed; the average percentage of correct classification performed on the validation set was obtained by means of cross-validation against the percentage of correct classification obtained on the test set. This developed technique obtained results on classification rates over 94% in both cases. The geographical origin of a Chilean wine can be resolved rapidly with fast gas chromatography and data processing.Keywords: geographical origin, origin denomination, wine classification, pattern recognition, support vector machines, wavelet analysis, feature extraction

  6. Antimicrobial activity of submerged cultures of Chilean basidiomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqueveque, Pedro; Anke, Timm; Saéz, Katia; Silva, Mario; Becerra, José

    2010-10-01

    This study is part of a screening program aimed at searching for bioactive metabolites from Chilean basidiomycetes. Submerged cultivation of fungal mycelia in liquid media was evaluated for antimicrobial activity. A total of 148 strains were obtained in vitro. The extracts produced from submerged cultures were evaluated against bacteria and fungi. In the primary antimicrobial assay, approximately 60% of the extracts presented positive biological activity. The highest frequencies of active strains were from the orders Agaricales (31.0%), Polyporales (20.6%), Sterales (18.3%), Boletales (11.4%), and Cortinariales (9.1%). Antifungal activity was more pronounced than antibacterial activity. Twelve extracts that exhibited strong antimicrobial activity showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 50 µL/mL against Bacillus brevis and 25∼50 µL/mL against Penicillium notatum and Paecilomyces variotii. The biological activity of some strains did not vary considerably, regardless of the substrate or collection site whereas, for others, it showed marked variations. Differences in antimicrobial activities observed in the different fungal genera suggested that the ability to produce bioactive compounds is not homogenously distributed among basidiomycetes. The information obtained from this study reveals that Chilean basidiomycetes are able to generate small and/or large variations in the normal pathway of compounds production. Thus, it is necessary to evaluate this biological and chemical wealth, which could be an unsuspected reservoir of new and potentially useful molecules.

  7. Chilean management education: rhetoric of pragmatism, consumerism, individualism and elitism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Mandiola Cotroneo

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to understand the character and the role of higher education in business in relation to the wider institutional and structural contexts within which they function. Being loyal to that widespread background, business schools in Chile have become efficient providers of appropriate goods and services for their respective clients and consumers, behaving more like corporations and businesses rather than educational institutions. From this perspective, business education's alignment with the wider political and socio-economic shifts associated with the developments of market economies and economic globalization is a necessary reflection. In this paper we will provide an account of our problematization of management education practices in Chile. This practice was pictured as one of the main characters at the forefront of the Chilean neo-liberal revolution during the final years of the last century. In particular, we will unravel more closely the chain of signifiers articulating the meaning of Chilean higher business education. This articulation is recuperated mainly around how those involved in the management education practice talk about (ourthemselves. As well as specialised press writings, some academic accounts and fragments from our own 'ethnographic' involvement are used for this purpose. Particular attention is paid to the social, political and fantasmatic logics (GLYNOS; HOWARTH, 2007 as key elements of our own explanation of this practice, which in turn informs our critical standpoint.

  8. Review of occupational hazards associated with aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Melvin L

    2010-10-01

    Aquaculture is an emerging sector that is associated with most of the same hazards that are present in agriculture generally, but many fish farming tasks entail added danger, including working around water and working at night. Comprehensive studies of these hazards have not been conducted, and substantial uncertainty exists as to the extent of these hazards. The question addressed in this investigation was, "What is known about potential hazardous occupational exposures to aquatic plant and animal farmers?" In this review, causes of death included drowning, electrocution, crushing-related injury, hydrogen sulfide poisoning, and fatal head injury. Nonfatal injuries were associated with slips, trips, and falls; machines; strains and sprains; chemicals; and fires. Risk factors included cranes (tip over and power line contact), tractors and sprayer-equipped all-terrain vehicles (overturn), heavy loads (lifting), high-pressure sprayers, slippery surfaces, rotting waste (hydrogen sulfide production), eroding levees (overturn hazard), storm-related rushing water, diving conditions (bends and drowning), nighttime conditions, working alone, lack of training, lack of or failure to use personal flotation devices, and all-terrain vehicle speeding. Other hazards included punctures or cuts from fish teeth or spines, needlesticks, exposure to low temperatures, and bacterial and parasitic infections .

  9. Report on the 2010 Chilean earthquake and tsunami response

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2011-01-01

    In July 2010, in an effort to reduce future catastrophic natural disaster losses for California, the American Red Cross coordinated and sent a delegation of 20 multidisciplinary experts on earthquake response and recovery to Chile. The primary goal was to understand how the Chilean society and relevant organizations responded to the magnitude 8.8 Maule earthquake that struck the region on February 27, 2010, as well as how an application of these lessons could better prepare California communities, response partners and state emergency partners for a comparable situation. Similarities in building codes, socioeconomic conditions, and broad extent of the strong shaking make the Chilean earthquake a very close analog to the impact of future great earthquakes on California. To withstand and recover from natural and human-caused disasters, it is essential for citizens and communities to work together to anticipate threats, limit effects, and rapidly restore functionality after a crisis. The delegation was hosted by the Chilean Red Cross and received extensive briefings from both national and local Red Cross officials. During nine days in Chile, the delegation also met with officials at the national, regional, and local government levels. Technical briefings were received from the President’s Emergency Committee, emergency managers from ONEMI (comparable to FEMA), structural engineers, a seismologist, hospital administrators, firefighters, and the United Nations team in Chile. Cities visited include Santiago, Talca, Constitución, Concepción, Talcahuano, Tumbes, and Cauquenes. The American Red Cross Multidisciplinary Team consisted of subject matter experts, who carried out special investigations in five Teams on the (1) science and engineering findings, (2) medical services, (3) emergency services, (4) volunteer management, and (5) executive and management issues (see appendix A for a full list of participants and their titles and teams). While developing this

  10. Multidrug-exporting secondary transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Akihito

    2003-08-01

    The major cause of intrinsic drug resistance in Gram-negative bacteria is a resistance nodulation division type multidrug exporter, which couples with an outer membrane channel and a membrane fusion protein and exports drugs out of the cell, bypassing the periplasm; this process is driven by proton motive force. A recent crystal structure determination of a major resistance nodulation division type multidrug exporter, AcrB in Escherichia coli, greatly advances our understanding of the multidrug export mechanism. The most striking feature of the AcrB trimer is the presence of three vestibules open to the periplasm at the boundary between the periplasmic headpiece and the transmembrane region. Substrates can gain access to the central cavity from the periplasmic surface of the cytoplasmic membrane and are then actively transported through the extramembrane pore into the outer membrane channel TolC, via the funnel at the top of the AcrB headpiece.

  11. Exports reflect "safety of products"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Most of the made-in-China products are absolutely safe, and the steady increase in exports despite the recent widespread criticism reflects their safety standards, a Ministry of Commerce official said Thursday.

  12. E-business and small Ghanaian exporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinson, Robert; Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2006-01-01

    The arfticle aims to investigate the relationship between export intensity and e-business adoption in Ghana. No clear relationship is found among exporters of non-traditional items.......The arfticle aims to investigate the relationship between export intensity and e-business adoption in Ghana. No clear relationship is found among exporters of non-traditional items....

  13. 31 CFR 592.304 - Exporting authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exporting authority. 592.304 Section... § 592.304 Exporting authority. (a) The term exporting authority means one or more entities designated by a Participant from whose territory a shipment of rough diamonds is being exported as having...

  14. 19 CFR 18.26 - Indirect exportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... merchandise to be exported and provide such evidence of exportation as required by the port director under... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect exportation. 18.26 Section 18.26 Customs... TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT Exportation from Customs Custody of Merchandise Unentered...

  15. 19 CFR 18.42 - Direct exportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Direct exportation. 18.42 Section 18.42 Customs... TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT Merchandise Not Otherwise Subject to Customs Control Exported Under Cover of A Tir Carnet § 18.42 Direct exportation. At the port of exportation, the container...

  16. 19 CFR 18.25 - Direct exportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to be exported and provide such evidence of exportation as required by the port director under § 113... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Direct exportation. 18.25 Section 18.25 Customs... TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT Exportation from Customs Custody of Merchandise Unentered...

  17. 14 CFR 1274.942 - Export licenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export licenses. 1274.942 Section 1274.942... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.942 Export licenses. Export Licenses July 2002 (a) The Recipient shall comply with all U.S. export control laws and regulations, including...

  18. 77 FR 40493 - Export Administration Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Parts 740, 742, 748, 750, 752, and 760 Export Administration... heading of paragraph (d) to read ``Shippers Export Declaration or Automated Export System Record''. 0 2...): Once a mass market classification request is accepted in SNAP-R, you may export and reexport...

  19. 77 FR 16768 - Export Sales Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... Office of the Secretary 7 CFR Part 20 RIN 0551-AA70 Export Sales Reporting Requirements AGENCY: Office of... frozen box/primal cuts) and distillers dried grain (DDG) to the Export Sales Reporting Requirements, is..., Branch Chief, Export Sales Reporting Branch, Import Policies and Export Reporting Division, Office...

  20. 77 FR 72322 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Kue Sang Chun... convicted of violating Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778 (2000)) (``AECA''). Specifically, Chun was convicted of knowingly exporting and causing the export from the United States to...

  1. 27 CFR 28.30 - Export status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export status. 28.30... Export status. (a) Distilled spirits and wines manufactured, produced, bottled in bottles packed in... such purposes are considered to be exported. Export status is not acquired until application on...

  2. 78 FR 60248 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Volha Dubouskaya... States, that is, to willfully export from the United States to Belarus export-controlled items, including... of $100.00. Section 766.25 of the Export Administration Regulations (``EAR'' or ``Regulations'')...

  3. 78 FR 58995 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Iman Kazerani, 153... was convicted of knowingly and willfully exporting and causing the exportation of laptop computers..., a $10,000 criminal fine and an assessment of $100. Section 766.25 of the Export...

  4. 75 FR 12433 - National Export Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... Enterprises (SMEs). Members of the Export Promotion Cabinet shall develop programs, in consultation with the TPCC, designed to enhance export assistance to SMEs, including programs that improve information and other technical assistance to first-time exporters and assist current exporters in identifying...

  5. 40 CFR 273.40 - Exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exports. 273.40 Section 273.40... UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Large Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.40 Exports. A... exporter in 40 CFR 262.53, 262.56(a)(1) through (4), (6), and (b) and 262.57; (b) Export such...

  6. FDI as an Export-Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajderllari, Luljeta; Karantininis, Konstantinos; Lawson, Lartey Godwin

    towards countries with large exports of agri-food, thereby supporting the hypothesis that FDI is used as an export-platform. FDI is coupled with high exports from Denmark, probably of raw or semi-processed food products for further processing and exports. We also find that FDI is higher in countries...

  7. 40 CFR 273.20 - Exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exports. 273.20 Section 273.20... UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Small Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.20 Exports. A... exporter in 40 CFR 262.53, 262.56(a) (1) through (4), (6), and (b) and 262.57; (b) Export such...

  8. Aquaculture genomics, genetics and breeding in the United States: Current status, challenges, and priorities for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advancing the production efficiency and profitability of aquaculture is dependent upon the ability to utilize a diverse array of genetic resources. The ultimate goals of aquaculture genomics, genetics and breeding research are to enhance aquaculture production efficiency, sustainability, product qua...

  9. Rising Threshold Shows Export Ambition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Beginning from March 1 of this year,China only allows authorized manufacturers to engage in automobile exports in an effort to raise auto quality.The licensing system,jointly introduced by Ministry of Commerce,National Development and Reform Commission,General Administration of Customs,State Quality Inspection Administration and Certification and Accreditation Administration of China,aims to ensure that only large and credible auto manufacturers take part in auto exports.

  10. BRAZILIAN EXPORTS OF MANUFACTURED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Azevedo Calderon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the Brazilian exports of sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, from 1961 to 2002. The data regarding the three studied products, sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, were joined through the method of Fisher so that an econometric evaluation of the market of the three products could be carried out. Supply and demand models of the Brazilian exports were specified. The results were satisfactory and they match with the literature. The supply of exports presented a positive answer in relation to the exporter's remuneration, to the production, to the use of the installed capacity (cycles of domestic economical activity and to the tendency, and negative in relation to the internal demand. The demand for the Brazilian exports was influenced positively by the world income, participation index and tendency, and negatively for the relative price. The low elasticity-price of the found demand can have implications in the conservation of the Brazilian forest resources because the exporters can increase the prices, reduce the amounts and still increase the incomes.

  11. 78 FR 61743 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations: Initial Implementation of Export Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ..., et al. Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations: Initial Implementation of Export Control...-AF65 Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations: Initial Implementation of Export Control... Register of April 16, 2013. As part of the Export Control Reform (ECR) Initiative, the Bureau of...

  12. 19 CFR 122.78 - Entry or withdrawal for exportation or for transportation and exportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for exportation or for transportation and exportation. If a shipment is exported under an entry or... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry or withdrawal for exportation or for transportation and exportation. 122.78 Section 122.78 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER...

  13. 78 FR 29700 - President's Export Council; Subcommittee on Export Administration; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security President's Export Council; Subcommittee on Export Administration; Notice of Open Meeting The President's Export Council Subcommittee on Export Administration (PECSEA) will...). The PECSEA provides advice on matters pertinent to those portions of the Export Administration Act,...

  14. 76 FR 10004 - President's Export Council; Subcommittee on Export Administration; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security President's Export Council; Subcommittee on Export Administration; Notice of Open Meeting The President's Export Council Subcommittee on Export Administration (PECSEA) will... provides advice on matters pertinent to those portions of the Export Administration Act, as amended,...

  15. 77 FR 8807 - President's Export Council, Subcommittee on Export Administration; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security President's Export Council, Subcommittee on Export Administration; Notice of Open Meeting The President's Export Council Subcommittee on Export Administration (PECSEA) will... pertinent to those portions of the Export Administration Act, as amended, that deal with United...

  16. 76 FR 11756 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Ali Amirnazmi; Order Denying Export Privileges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Action Affecting Export Privileges; Ali Amirnazmi; Order Denying Export... 766.25 of the Export Administration Regulations (``EAR'' or ``Regulations'') \\1\\ provides, in... the Office of Export Enforcement, may deny the export privileges of any person who has been...

  17. 15 CFR 732.5 - Steps regarding Shipper's Export Declaration or Automated Export System record, Destination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Declaration or Automated Export System record, Destination Control Statements, and recordkeeping. 732.5... THE EAR § 732.5 Steps regarding Shipper's Export Declaration or Automated Export System record... Automated Export System (AES) record. Exporters or agents authorized to complete the Shipper's...

  18. 15 CFR 758.1 - The Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) or Automated Export System (AES) record. 758.1 Section 758.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record. (a) The Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record. The SED (Form 7525-V, Form 7525-V-Alt, or Automated Export System record)...

  19. Do African Manufacturing Firms Learn from Exporting?

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Collier; Marcel Fafchamps; Francis Teal; Stefan Dercon

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we use firm-level panel data for the manufacturing sector in four African countries to estimate the effect of exporting on efficiency. Estimating simultaneously a production function and an export regression that control for unobserved firm effects, we find both significant efficiency gains from exporting, supporting the learning-byexporting hypothesis, and evidence for self-selection of more efficient firms into exporting. The evidence of learning-by-exporting suggests that Af...

  20. China will Reduce Aluminium Export in 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Starting from January 1, 2005, China eliminated the 8 per cent export tax rebate for aluminium, and further more, the exporters will have to pay 5 per cent export tax. This is beyond the expectations of the producers, for most of them thought only the 8 per cent export tax rebate would be eliminated and it was still too early to add the export tax.

  1. Continuity and export performance in Peruvian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Malca Guaylupo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the relationship between continuity of business in international markets and their export performance. For this, the paper focuses on the Peruvian export companies during the period 2000-2008, stage where Peruvian exports had continued growth. the results achieved in international markets are analyzed and through probabilistic logit model establishes the relationship between continuity in these markets and the export performance measured in export sales.

  2. Helminth parasites of finfish commercial aquaculture in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Jiménez, L C; Paredes-Trujillo, A I; Vidal-Martínez, V M

    2017-03-01

    Latin America has tripled production by aquaculture up to 78 million tonnes in the past 20 years. However, one of the problems that aquaculture is facing is the presence of helminth parasites and the diseases caused by them in the region. In this review we have collected all the available information on helminths affecting commercial aquaculture in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), emphasizing those causing serious economic losses. Monogeneans are by far the most common and aggressive parasites affecting farmed fish in LAC. They have been recognized as serious pathogens in intensive fish culture because they reach high levels of infection rapidly, and can infect other phylogenetically related fish species. The next most important group comprises the larval stages of digeneans (metacercariae) such as Diplostomum sp. and Centrocestus formosanus, which cause serious damage to farmed fish. Since LAC aquaculture has been based mainly on exotic species (tilapia, salmon, trout and carp), most of their parasites have been brought into the region together with the fish for aquaculture. Recently, one of us (A.I.P.-T.) has suggested that monogeneans, which have generally been considered to be harmless, can produce serious effects on the growth of cultured Nile tilapia. Therefore, the introduction of fish together with their 'harmless' parasites into new sites, regions or countries in LAC should be considered a breakdown of biosecurity in those countries involved. Therefore, the application of quarantine procedures and preventive therapeutic treatments should be considered before allowing these introductions into a country.

  3. Potential use of power plant reject heat in commercial aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, M.

    1977-01-01

    Current research and commercial activities in aquaculture operations have been reviewed. An aquaculture system using mostly herbivorous species in pond culture is proposed as a means of using waste heat to produce reasonably priced protein. The system uses waste water streams, such as secondary sewage effluent, animal wastes, or some industrial waste streams as a primary nutrient source to grow algae, which is fed to fish and clams. Crayfish feed on the clam wastes thereby providing a clean effluent from the aquaculture system. Alternate fish associations are presented and it appears that a carp or tilapia association is desirable. An aquaculture system capable of rejecting all the waste heat from a 1000-MW(e) power station in winter can accommodate about half the summer heat rejection load. The aquaculture facility would require approximately 133 ha and would produce 4.1 x 10/sup 5/ kg/year of fish, 1.5 x 10/sup 6/ kg/year of clam meat, and 1.5 x 10/sup 4/ kg/year of live crayfish. The estimated annual pretax profit from this operation is one million dollars. Several possible problem areas have been identified. However, technical solutions appear to be readily available to solve these problems. The proposed system shows considerable economic promise. Small scale experiments have demonstrated the technical feasibility of various components of the system. It therefore appears that a pilot scale experimental facility should be operated.

  4. Agricultural subsidies in the United States and their effect on two annual Chilean crops: corn and wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Díaz Osorio

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The development strategies for Chile have been oriented toward a greater commercial openness. Chile and the United States signed a Free Trade Agreement (FTA that has triggered controversies between producers directed to the internal market due to the production and export subsidies that this country carries out. This study analyzed the effect of subsidies granted by the United States to wheat (Tritricum aestivum and corn (Zea mays growers (Farm Bill 2002. For the study, Technical Standard sheet were drawn up, from which were determined the direct production costs and the gross margins. The variables used (market prices, subsidies, freight costs and tariffs and determining the average variable costs allowed us to do a sensitivity analysis, thus establishing the minimum level of production that national farmers must achieve in order to maintain competitiveness while a free trade is in force. The signing of a trade agreement could provoke the eventual withdrawal of many Chilean producers from the business arena while at the same time, favoring consumers with lower prices for the goods derived from these grains.

  5. Responsible aquaculture in 2050: Valuing local conditions and human innovations will be key to success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diana, J.S.; Egna, H.S.; Chopin, T.; Peterson, M.S.; Cao, L.; Pomeroy, R.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Slack, W.T.; Bondad-Reantaso, M.G.; Cabello, F.

    2013-01-01

    As aquaculture production expands, we must avoid mistakes made during increasing intensification of agriculture. Understanding environmental impacts and measures to mitigate them is important for designing responsible aquaculture production systems. There are four realistic goals that can make futur

  6. An overview: biomolecules from microalgae for animal feed and aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaakob, Zahira; Ali, Ehsan; Zainal, Afifi; Mohamad, Masita; Takriff, Mohd Sobri

    2014-12-01

    Despite being more popular for biofuel, microalgae have gained a lot of attention as a source of biomolecules and biomass for feed purposes. Algae farming can be established using land as well as sea and strategies can be designed in order to gain the products of specific interest in the optimal way. A general overview of the contributions of Algae to meet the requirements of nutrients in animal/aquaculture feed is presented in this study. In addition to its applications in animal/aquaculture feed, algae can produce a number of biomolecules including astaxanthin, lutein, beta-carotene, chlorophyll, phycobiliprotein, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs), beta-1,3-glucan, and pharmaceutical and nutraceutical compounds which have been reviewed with respect to their commercial importance and current status. The review is further extended to highlight the adequate utilization of value added products in the feeds for livestock, poultry and aquaculture (with emphasis in shrimp farming).

  7. Taking account of fish welfare: lessons from aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntingford, F A; Kadri, S

    2009-12-01

    This paper explores the possibility that lessons learned from aquaculture might contribute to current debate on welfare and fisheries. After looking briefly at the history of research interest in the welfare of farmed fishes, some implications of using different definitions of and approaches to the concept of welfare are discussed. Consideration is given to the way in which the aquaculture industry has responded to public concern about fish welfare and, for cases where these responses have been effective, why this might be the case. Finally, possible cross-over points between aquaculture and fisheries in the context of fish welfare, as well as experience and expertise that might be shared between these two areas, are identified.

  8. Microbial populations causing off-flavour in recirculated aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukassen, Mie Bech; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Schramm, Edward

    Microbial production of geosmin, a secondary metabolite with an earthy off-flavour is a serious economic problem in wine production, drinking water and aquaculture. Geosmin is produced by a small group of bacteria all harboring the geosmin synthetase gene (geoA). Sequencing and analyzing the dist......Microbial production of geosmin, a secondary metabolite with an earthy off-flavour is a serious economic problem in wine production, drinking water and aquaculture. Geosmin is produced by a small group of bacteria all harboring the geosmin synthetase gene (geoA). Sequencing and analyzing...... and activity. These findings are useful for the future optimization and management of full-scale aquaculture plants, and can be used as a diagnostic tool in developing strategies to limit the presence and growth of geosmin-producing bacteria....

  9. Human Health Consequences of Use of Antimicrobial Agents in Aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Kruse, H.; Grave, K.

    2009-01-01

    industry in many regions of the world and the widespread, intensive, and often unregulated use of antimicrobial agents in this area of animal production, efforts are needed to prevent development and spread of antimicrobial resistance in aquaculture to reduce the risk to human health.......Intensive use of antimicrobial agents in aquaculture provides a selective pressure creating reservoirs of drug-resistant bacteria and transferable resistance genes in fish pathogens and other bacteria in the aquatic environment. From these reservoirs, resistance genes may disseminate by horizontal...... gene transfer and reach human pathogens, or drug-resistant pathogens from the aquatic environment may reach humans directly. Horizontal gene transfer may occur in the aquaculture environment, in the food chain, or in the human intestinal tract. Among the antimicrobial agents commonly used...

  10. Level of evidence and geographic origin of articles published in Chilean dental journals.

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Moraga

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the geographic origin and level of evidence (LE) of articles published in Chilean dental journals during 2012. The target population for the bibliometric study was articles published in exclusively-scientific Chilean dental journals. These variables were analyzed: journal, area, language, country, region, design, scenario, and LE. A total of 120 articles were published in four journals: International Journal of Odontostomatology (IJOS=59), Revista Clínic...

  11. Amino acid biogeo- and stereochemistry in coastal Chilean sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomstein, Bente Aagaard; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Schubert, Carsten J.;

    2006-01-01

    The spatial distribution of total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA) and amino acid enantiomers (D- and L-forms) was investigated in sediments underlying two contrasting Chilean upwelling regions,: at ~23°S off Antofagasta and at ~36°S off Concepcion. The contribution of amino acids to total organic...... carbon (%TAAC: 7-14%) and total nitrogen (%TAAN: 23-38%) in surface sediments decreased with increasing water depth (from 126 to 1350 m) indicating that organic matter becomes increasingly decomposed in surface sediments at greater water depth. Changes in the ratio between the protein amino acid...... aspartate and its non-protein degradation product β-alanine confirmed this observation. Furthermore, estimates of THAA mineralization showed that sedimentary amino acid reactivity decreased with both increasing water depth as well as progressive degradation status of the organic matter that was incorporated...

  12. Justified Ilegality?: Controlled clientelism by the Chilean administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Moriconi Bezerra

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean civil service is considered one of the most efficient in Latin America. However, different studies describe the informal institutions that operate between the Legislative Power and the bureaucracy to fill positions in the public administration. Although some of these clientelistic practices are against the law, they have been accepted and defended in both the political and scientific spheres. Legality is not considered an important value if certain indexes have a positive development. In this context, it is important to study how corruption and clientelism have been ignored, or hidden, through political discourses and technical reports about the situation of bureaucracy. All of this allows a better understanding of why after 20 years of administrative reforms there are damaging practices which negatively affect democracy that have not been eradicated.

  13. Simple Tool to Evaluate Airtightness in Chilean Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex González Cáceres

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Given the high impact that air leaks have on buildings’ energy expenses, most developed countries have set out norms which regulate their presence in homes. Chile will soon begin this process; however, the airtightness revision strategy in envelopes has not been resolved as of yet. This article presents a tool to Assess Airtightness in Design, EHeD. The software will allow predicting the performance of homes under the regulations which will be set out, aiding designers, builders or owners to make decisions when making changes to improve airtightness. EHeD has been validated through pressurization tests in diverse homes across the country, with results that are in line with expectations, thus validating its calculation model. The methodology considers three stages: determining the main factors that have an impact on the airtightness in Chilean homes, preparing an airtightness database for each component (wall, windows and doors and preparing a calculation model that is integrated in an IT interface.

  14. Chilean prosopis mesocarp flour: phenolic profiling and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria Del Pilar C; Theoduloz, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspée, Felipe; Pérez, Maria Jorgelina; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Isla, Maria Inés

    2015-04-17

    In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82-2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.

  15. Chilean Prosopis Mesocarp Flour: Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82–2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.

  16. Aquaculture Asia, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp.1-60, July - September 2002

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    CONTENTS: Sustainable Aquaculture - Peter Edwards writes on rural aquaculture: Aquaculture for Poverty Alleviation and Food Security - Part II. Shrimp pond waste management by U Win Latt. The role of rural extension in the sustainable development of Chinese aquaculture by Min Kuanhong. Farmers as Scientists: Diversity enhances profitability and sustainability by M.C. Nandeesha. Properties of Liming Materials by Claude E. Boyd, Mali Boonyaratpalin & Taworn Thunjai. Seed Produc...

  17. The Effect of Export Tax on Indonesia’s Cocoa Export Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The government of Indonesia implemented an export tax policy on cocoa beans since April 2010 in order to develop cocoa processing industry. The objective of this article is to analyze the effect of export tax on Indonesia’s cocoa export competitiveness. The results indicate that with the implementation of export tax, cocoa export product composition shift from cocoa beans to processed cocoa products. On the other hand, Indonesia’s cocoa export growth is lower than the growth of cocoa world de...

  18. The Impact of Firm’s Export Competencies on Export Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Kaplan; Selim Said Eren

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the impacts of employees’ export experience and knowledge, firms’ export experience, firms’ export market information, firms’ export commitment on marketing planning capabilities and export performance and the relationship between marketing planning capabilities and export performance. To test hypotheses the data were collected from a sample of 153 firms operating in the automotive part industry in Turkey via structured questionnaire. Results reveal...

  19. Measuring the Export Subsidy Equivalents (ESEs) through Price Discrimination Generated by Exporting State Trading Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Nobuhiko; Kinoshita, Junko; FUJII, Toshiaki; Kaise, Harry M.

    2005-01-01

    The Doha Round framewoek agreements state that all forms of export sucsides should be eliminated, which includes not only export subsides through food aid and export credits, but also "consumer financed" ones through exporting STEs. Therefore, one needs a theoretical definition and practical measurements of "hidden" export subsides unregulated under the current WTO rules. This paper proposes a basic definition for the "consumer financed" export subsidy equivalent (ESE) created by STEs' price ...

  20. Assessment of a closed greenhouse aquaculture and hydroponic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Head, W.D.

    1984-01-01

    Research was conducted to address three objectives: 1) to determine the nitrogen cycling of a closed greenhouse aquaculture and hydroponic system; 2) to determine the energy budget of a closed greenhouse aquaculture and hydroponic system; and 3) to determine which low cost fish diets could be used as a replacement or supplement to commercial diets for Tilapia mossambica. A 6435 liter recirculating aquaculture system was enclosed in a 32.6 m/sup 2/ greenhouse. Water was recirculated through two 416 liter trickling filter towers and three 5.5 m long hydroponic troughs. The aquaculture tank was stocked with a polyculture of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and tilapia (Tilapia mossambica) and the hydroponic troughs were planted with tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum). The fishes were fed a commercial fish diet and the tomatoes were irrigated with the aquaculture water using a modified Nutrient Film Technique. The fish yield was 42.2 kg and the average tomato yield from 24 plants was 4.1 kg/plant. The combined fish and tomato production accounted for 65% of the total nitrogen input. Leaf analyses and visual inspection showed that the tomato plants from the hydroponic troughs were deficient in potassium and magnesium. An energy analysis of the greenhouse and aquaculture-hydroponic system showed that when combining the energy outputs of heat, fish, and tomatoes the energy ratio (energy output/energy input) was similar to literature values for milkfish pond culture. When only the fish production was considered the energy ratio was similar to literature values reported for intensive water recirculating systems.

  1. VOCALS-CUpEx: the Chilean Upwelling Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garreaud, R. D.; Rutllant, J. A.; Muñoz, R. C.; Rahn, D. A.; Ramos, M.; Figueroa, D.

    2011-03-01

    The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) was a major field experiment conducted in spring of 2008 off southern Peru and northern Chile, aimed at better understanding the coupled climate systems of the southeast Pacific. Because of logistical constrains, the coastal area around 30° S was not sampled during VOCALS-REx. This area not only marks the poleward edge of the subtropical stratocumulus cloud regime (thus acting as a source of transient disturbances) but is also one of the most active upwelling centers and source of surface ocean kinetic energy along the Chilean coast. To fill such an observational gap, a small, brief, but highly focused field experiment was conducted in late spring 2009 in the near-shore region around 30° S. The Chilean Upwelling Experiment (CUpEx) was endorsed by VOCALS as a regional component. CUpEx included long-term monitoring, an intensive two-week field campaign and off-shore research flights. Our goal was to obtain an atmospheric/oceanic dataset with enough temporal and spatial coverage to be able to document (a) the mean diurnal cycles of the lower-troposphere and upper-ocean in a region of complex topography and coastline geometry, and (b) the ocean-atmosphere response to the rapid changes in coastal winds from strong, upwelling-favorable equatorward flow (southerly winds) to downwelling-favorable poleward flow (northerly winds). In this paper we describe the measurement platforms and sampling strategy, and provide an observational overview, highlighting some key mean-state and transient features.

  2. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastrointestinal symptoms on Chilean pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ferrer Poveda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the aim of this research was to determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection on Chilean pregnant women and its relationship with the appearance and severity of hyperemesis and dyspepsia. Methods: quantitative study of prevalence in a transversal cut with variable analysis. The sample was taken from 274 Chilean pregnant women from the Bío Bío province through vein puncture between June and December, 2005. Pregnant women were informed of this study, interviewed and signed an informed consent. The samples were processed using ImmunoComb II Helicobacter pylori IgG kit. Statistical analysis was performed by means of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Program. Results: out of the total number of pregnant women, 68.6% showed infection by Helicobacter pylori. 79.6% of the total sample had symptoms of dyspepsia, and 72.5% of this group presented Helicobacter pylori infection. 12.4% showed pregnancy hyperemesis; among them, 79.4% were infected with Helicobacter pylori. 73.4% of the pregnant women that showed gastric discomfort during the first three months had Helicobacter pylori infection. 53.7% of them continued with gastric discomfort after the first three months; of those, 95.8% were infected. Helicobacter pylori infection was present only in 1.5% of pregnant women without gastric discomfort. Conclusion: both, gastric discomfort of pregnant women and the continuity of severe symptoms of dyspepsia and hyperemesis after the first three months of gestation are significantly correlated with Helicobacter pylori infection.

  3. Bayesian spatiotemporal interpolation of rainfall in the Central Chilean Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossa-Moreno, Juan; Keir, Greg; McIntyre, Neil

    2016-04-01

    Water availability in the populous and economically significant Central Chilean region is governed by complex interactions between precipitation, temperature, snow and glacier melt, and streamflow. Streamflow prediction at daily time scales depends strongly on accurate estimations of precipitation in this predominantly dry region, particularly during the winter period. This can be difficult as gauged rainfall records are scarce, especially in the higher elevation regions of the Chilean Andes, and topographic influences on rainfall are not well understood. Remotely sensed precipitation and topographic products can be used to construct spatiotemporal multivariate regression models to estimate rainfall at ungauged locations. However, classical estimation methods such as kriging cannot easily accommodate the complicated statistical features of the data, including many 'no rainfall' observations, as well as non-normality, non-stationarity, and temporal autocorrelation. We use a separable space-time model to predict rainfall using the R-INLA package for computationally efficient Bayesian inference, using the gridded CHIRPS satellite-based rainfall dataset and digital elevation models as covariates. We jointly model both the probability of rainfall occurrence on a given day (using a binomial likelihood) as well as amount (using a gamma likelihood or similar). Correlation in space and time is modelled using a Gaussian Markov Random Field (GMRF) with a Matérn spatial covariance function which can evolve over time according to an autoregressive model if desired. It is possible to evaluate the GMRF at relatively coarse temporal resolution to speed up computations, but still produce daily rainfall predictions. We describe the process of model selection and inference using an information criterion approach, which we use to objectively select from competing models with various combinations of temporal smoothing, likelihoods, and autoregressive model orders.

  4. Managerial and learning skills in exporting SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUBÉN FERNÁNDEZ ORTIZ

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the perception of exports in the field of business management can have a key impact on the exporting behavior of SMEs. In particular, it can determine the decision to implement an export policy, as well as the policies applied to consolidate exports. This paper covers two main aspects. First, the extent to which managerial perceptions of exports affect the decision to export, and second, for these SMEs which are already exporters, we study the managerial perceptions that can help to consolidate their commitment to exports. To this aim, some scales based on structural equations to measure the perception of the advantages and disadvantages of exporting are developed and validated. Both analyses are carried out considering whether the SMEs involved are family businesses or not, so that the results obtained can also explain the potential impact of this fact.

  5. Export Competitiveness of Textile Commodities: A Panel Data Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Tarun

    2015-01-01

    The Paper assesses the export competitiveness of top fifteen textile products (different for each export destination) at 6 digit level of HS classification exported by India to top seven textile export destinations by using both price and income export elasticities. The export elasticities are estimated using dynamic panel data approach for each country separately. Commodity specific elasticities are further estimated to forecast the exports of commodities exported to respective export destin...

  6. Determinants of Short-Term Export Performance in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Subhani, Muhammad Imtiaz; Osman, Ms. Amber; Habib, Sukaina

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates the interdependency between independent (Increase of pricing strategy adaptation, Increase of export intensity, Firm's commitment to exporting, Export market development, Export market competition, Past Pricing Strategy Adaptation, Past Export Performance Satisfaction, Past Export Intensity, Export market distance) and dependent variables (i.e. Expected Short-Term Export Performance improvement) of export performance. The framework is tested via a survey through que...

  7. Indo-European and Asian origins for Chilean and Pacific chickens revealed by mtDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongora, Jaime; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Mobegi, Victor A; Jianlin, Han; Alcalde, Jose A; Matus, Jose T; Hanotte, Olivier; Moran, Chris; Austin, Jeremy J; Ulm, Sean; Anderson, Atholl J; Larson, Greger; Cooper, Alan

    2008-07-29

    European chickens were introduced into the American continents by the Spanish after their arrival in the 15th century. However, there is ongoing debate as to the presence of pre-Columbian chickens among Amerindians in South America, particularly in relation to Chilean breeds such as the Araucana and Passion Fowl. To understand the origin of these populations, we have generated partial mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from 41 native Chilean specimens and compared them with a previously generated database of approximately 1,000 domestic chicken sequences from across the world as well as published Chilean and Polynesian ancient DNA sequences. The modern Chilean sequences cluster closely with haplotypes predominantly distributed among European, Indian subcontinental, and Southeast Asian chickens, consistent with a European genetic origin. A published, apparently pre-Columbian, Chilean specimen and six pre-European Polynesian specimens also cluster with the same European/Indian subcontinental/Southeast Asian sequences, providing no support for a Polynesian introduction of chickens to South America. In contrast, sequences from two archaeological sites on Easter Island group with an uncommon haplogroup from Indonesia, Japan, and the Philippines [corrected] and may represent a genetic signature of an early Polynesian dispersal. Modeling of the potential marine carbon contribution to the Chilean archaeological specimen casts further doubt on claims for pre-Columbian chickens, and definitive proof will require further analyses of ancient DNA sequences and radiocarbon and stable isotope data from archaeological excavations within both Chile and Polynesia.

  8. Phylogeny of the Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus in European Aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cieslak, Michael; Mikkelsen, Susie Sommer; Skall, Helle Frank;

    2016-01-01

    One of the most valuable aquaculture fish in Europe is the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, but the profitability of trout production is threatened by a highly lethal infectious disease, viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS), caused by the VHS virus (VHSV). For the past few decades, the subgenogr......One of the most valuable aquaculture fish in Europe is the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, but the profitability of trout production is threatened by a highly lethal infectious disease, viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS), caused by the VHS virus (VHSV). For the past few decades...

  9. Carbon dioxide stripping in aquaculture. part 1: terminology and reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colt, John; Watten, Barnaby; Pfeiffer, Tim

    2012-01-01

    The removal of carbon dioxide gas in aquacultural systems is much more complex than for oxygen or nitrogen gas because of liquid reactions of carbon dioxide and their kinetics. Almost all published carbon dioxide removal information for aquaculture is based on the apparent removal value after the CO2(aq) + HOH ⇔ H2CO3 reaction has reached equilibrium. The true carbon dioxide removal is larger than the apparent value, especially for high alkalinities and seawater. For low alkalinity freshwaters (carbon dioxide removal.

  10. Eradication of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in Danish aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank; Jensen, Britt Bang

    Eradication of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in Danish aquaculture Olesen N.J.1, Skall H.F.1, Jensen B.B.2, Henriksen N.H.3, Mellergård S.4, H. Korsholm H.5 1National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Aarhus, Denmark 2Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Oslo, Norway 3Danish...... Aquaculture Association, Silkeborg, Denmark 4Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Glostrup, Denmark 5Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Vejle, Denmark Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) virus was first isolated in Denmark in 1962, when more than half of the approximately 800 Danish fish farms...

  11. Export Readiness Assessment of Ten Iranian Pharmaceutical Companies and Comparison with their Export Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mohammadzadeh, Mohammad Poloee, Tayebeh Ghari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the area of exporting, in developing countries, including Iran, the concept of export readiness is unknown to many decision makers and field of activity of Iranian pharmaceutical companies have been limited to the domestic market. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to compare the export performance of ten Iranian pharmaceutical companies with their export readiness. Methods: In order to do this, the top ten of Iranian pharmaceutical companies were selected as the sample. The companies' export readiness was measured, and compared with their export volume as well as their export growth (as two factors for determining the export performance in five years, to practically check the model and find the strengths and weaknesses of these Iranian pharmaceutical companies in the export factors. Results: Base on the results of the study, the export readiness of these companies does not have significant correlation with companies' export volume in the current circumstances, but it can predict the export growth in the firm's export rate with 95% certainty. Conclusion: The most important thing is that according to the data collected in our study, most of these ten Iranian pharmaceutical companies are not ready to attend in exporting and international markets and only two companies were ready to export. It seems that making improvement in some variables like obtaining international standards, marketing and exporting education, having a transparent and documented plan and having the responsible person for export could increase export readiness of pharmaceutical companies.

  12. 77 FR 50082 - Notice of Opportunity To Submit Content Request for the 2013 Census of Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... Census of Aquaculture AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, Department of Agriculture. ACTION... currently accepting stakeholder feedback in the form of content requests for the 2013 Census of Aquaculture..., (202) 720-4333. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The results of the 2005 Census of Aquaculture were...

  13. 50 CFR 21.47 - Depredation order for double-crested cormorants at aquaculture facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cormorants at aquaculture facilities. 21.47 Section 21.47 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND... aquaculture facilities. (a) What is the purpose of this depredation order? The purpose of this depredation...? This depredation order applies to commercial freshwater aquaculture facilities and to State and...

  14. Research update for the Harry K. Dupree Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquaculture (fish farming) has played an ever-increasing role in providing people with fish, shrimp, and shellfish. Aquaculture is currently the fastest growing sector of global food production and in 2014 totaled 80 million tons valued at $140 billion. The production of food-fish from aquaculture h...

  15. Quality, Export and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Pedersen, Kurt

    1998-01-01

    in an international context. The paper, therefore, addresses the complicated interactions between economic growth, export performance and quality. The contribution of the paper, compared to other growth accounting research, is the inclusion of quality data, quality being a significant mirror of technological...... development. The countries covered by the research represent a wide variation in terms of economic development, from poor LDC's to the most developed industrial nations. The empirical results reveal a probable strong relationship between quality/price and export growth as well as economic growth. This new...

  16. Creative destruction and export patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Kvedaras, Virmantas; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2014-01-01

    varieties obsolete. For a given technology (variety) production costs decrease after an infant period due to learning. While all firms are assumed to be symmetric in a life-cycle perspective, at a given point in time firms of different ages differ in productivity, firm size, product quality, and export...... behavior. The model highlights a process of creative destruction, which allows firms to produce in a finite span of periods determined by the intensity of product and process innovations. The model predicts a wide range of export behavior of the individual firm during its life cycle depending...

  17. Report on the 2010 Chilean earthquake and tsunami response

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2011-01-01

    In July 2010, in an effort to reduce future catastrophic natural disaster losses for California, the American Red Cross coordinated and sent a delegation of 20 multidisciplinary experts on earthquake response and recovery to Chile. The primary goal was to understand how the Chilean society and relevant organizations responded to the magnitude 8.8 Maule earthquake that struck the region on February 27, 2010, as well as how an application of these lessons could better prepare California communities, response partners and state emergency partners for a comparable situation. Similarities in building codes, socioeconomic conditions, and broad extent of the strong shaking make the Chilean earthquake a very close analog to the impact of future great earthquakes on California. To withstand and recover from natural and human-caused disasters, it is essential for citizens and communities to work together to anticipate threats, limit effects, and rapidly restore functionality after a crisis. The delegation was hosted by the Chilean Red Cross and received extensive briefings from both national and local Red Cross officials. During nine days in Chile, the delegation also met with officials at the national, regional, and local government levels. Technical briefings were received from the President’s Emergency Committee, emergency managers from ONEMI (comparable to FEMA), structural engineers, a seismologist, hospital administrators, firefighters, and the United Nations team in Chile. Cities visited include Santiago, Talca, Constitución, Concepción, Talcahuano, Tumbes, and Cauquenes. The American Red Cross Multidisciplinary Team consisted of subject matter experts, who carried out special investigations in five Teams on the (1) science and engineering findings, (2) medical services, (3) emergency services, (4) volunteer management, and (5) executive and management issues (see appendix A for a full list of participants and their titles and teams). While developing this

  18. RNA Export through the NPC in Eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Masumi; Inose, Haruko; Masuda, Seiji

    2015-03-20

    In eukaryotic cells, RNAs are transcribed in the nucleus and exported to the cytoplasm through the nuclear pore complex. The RNA molecules that are exported from the nucleus into the cytoplasm include messenger RNAs (mRNAs), ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), transfer RNAs (tRNAs), small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs), micro RNAs (miRNAs), and viral mRNAs. Each RNA is transported by a specific nuclear export receptor. It is believed that most of the mRNAs are exported by Nxf1 (Mex67 in yeast), whereas rRNAs, snRNAs, and a certain subset of mRNAs are exported in a Crm1/Xpo1-dependent manner. tRNAs and miRNAs are exported by Xpot and Xpo5. However, multiple export receptors are involved in the export of some RNAs, such as 60S ribosomal subunit. In addition to these export receptors, some adapter proteins are required to export RNAs. The RNA export system of eukaryotic cells is also used by several types of RNA virus that depend on the machineries of the host cell in the nucleus for replication of their genome, therefore this review describes the RNA export system of two representative viruses. We also discuss the NPC anchoring-dependent mRNA export factors that directly recruit specific genes to the NPC.

  19. Phylogeny of the viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in European aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cieslak, Michael; Mikkelsen, Susie S.; Skall, Helle F.; Baud, Marine; Diserens, Nicolas; Engelsma, Marc Y.; Haenen, Olga L.M.; Mousakhani, Shirin; Panzarin, Valentina; Wahli, Thomas; Olesen, Niels J.; Schütze, Heike

    2016-01-01

    One of the most valuable aquaculture fish in Europe is the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, but the profitability of trout production is threatened by a highly lethal infectious disease, viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS), caused by the VHS virus (VHSV). For the past few decades, the subgenogr

  20. Ocean modelling for aquaculture and fisheries in Irish waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dabrowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Marine Institute, Ireland, runs a suite of operational regional and coastal ocean models. Recent developments include several tailored products that focus on the key needs of the Irish aquaculture sector. In this article, an overview of the products and services derived from the models are presented. A shellfish model that includes growth and physiological interactions of mussels with the ecosystem and is fully embedded in the 3-D numerical modelling framework has been developed at the Marine Institute. This shellfish model has a microbial module designed to predict levels of coliform contamination in mussels. This model can also be used to estimate the carrying capacity of embayments, assess impacts of pollution on aquaculture grounds and help to classify shellfish waters. The physical coastal model of southwest Ireland provides a three day forecast of shelf water movement in the region. This is assimilated into a new harmful algal bloom alert system used to inform end-users of potential toxic shellfish events and high biomass blooms that include fish killing species. Further services include the use of models to identify potential sites for offshore aquaculture, to inform studies of potential cross-contamination in farms from the dispersal of planktonic sea lice larvae and other pathogens that can infect finfish and to provide modelled products that underpin the assessment and advisory services on the sustainable exploitation of the marine fisheries resources. This paper demonstrates that ocean models can provide an invaluable contribution to the sustainable blue growth of aquaculture and fisheries.

  1. Fish to 2030 : Prospects for Fisheries and Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This report analyzes global prospects for fisheries and aquaculture. The World Bank Group (WBG) Agriculture Action Plan 2013-15 summarizes critical challenges facing the global food and agriculture sector. An ever-increasing global population necessitates adequate food and nutrition for the growing population through increased production and reduced waste. Production increase must occur in...

  2. Peace Corps Aquaculture Training Manual. Training Manual T0057.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    This Peace Corps training manual was developed from two existing manuals to provide a comprehensive training program in fish production for Peace Corps volunteers. The manual encompasses the essential elements of the University of Oklahoma program that has been training volunteers in aquaculture for 25 years. The 22 chapters of the manual are…

  3. Aquaculture: A Course of Study for Sand Point Secondary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Office of Public Information and Publications.

    This program is designed to involve students in the economy of their community. It combines an interdisciplinary educational program with practical field and laboratory experience. This program provides opportunities in the area of aquaculture, controlled cultivation of marketable species and the total ecological corrections necessary to maintain…

  4. Developing low cost feed grade soybean protein concentrates for aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    One emerging area in the global soy industry, particularly the U.S. soybean industry, has been developing soy-based feeds as an alternative protein source to meet the growing needs of aquaculture in China and elsewhere. Traditionally, fishmeal is a key protein ingredient in fish diets, but its sup...

  5. Impact of an aquaculture extension project in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2009-01-01

    This paper is an impact study of key short- and long-run effects of the Danida supported Mymensingh Aquaculture Extension Project (MAEP) in Bangladesh, applying different matching and double difference estimators. Results are mixed. First, the paper finds a positive short-run impact on pond...

  6. Coping styles in farmed fish: consequences for aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castanheira, Maria Filipa; Conceição, Luís E.C.; Millot, Sandie

    2015-01-01

    on coping styles may contribute to improved sustainability of the aquaculture industry, including welfare and performance of farmed fish. Moreover, we will suggest areas for future research, where genetic basis (heritability/epigenetic) of coping styles, and the neuroendocrine mechanisms behind consistent...

  7. Microorganisms in recirculating aquaculture systems and their management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurangwa, E.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Recirculation aquaculture systems (RASs) are increasingly considered as production systems of the future with a minimum ecological impact for the production of aquatic food. To maintain a good water quality and to produce quality and healthy fishery products, the systems depend on a diverse microbia

  8. Charting the Research Course for Sustainable Aquaculture in Sabah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vun L. W.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to arising needs and demands, aquaculture is currently the fastest growing food production sector. In order to increase yield and yet to remain sustainable, the challenges would be to minimise impact on the environment and ecosystem services. Aquaculture activity contributes significantly to Malaysia and also the state of Sabah’s economy and food security. Hence, the future changes in the environment as a result of rapid population growth and development would pose as threats to this industry in terms of quality, quantity and sustainability. Unforeseen environmental changes such as environmental pollution from other sources, climate change and the changes in policies would jeopardize the sustainability of this industry. In order to anticipate such impacts to the aquaculture activities, this paper set to chart a sustainable course for its development. Four important research courses were proposed: establishment of a sustainable framework, assessment of impacts of climate change, viability and vulnerability assessment due to future environmental changes and food security. Such findings would eventually allow the stakeholders to plan and manage the resources and aquaculture activities in such a way that foster sustainable food security and resilient aquatic ecosystems.

  9. Beyond net deficits: new priorities for an aquacultural geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belton, B.; Bush, S.R.

    2014-01-01

    Geographers first identified aquaculture as an important field of study during the 1990s, pointing to a ‘net deficit’ in geographical knowledge about the activity. This paper examines how far geographers have come in bridging this knowledge deficit in the last 20 years. While increasing attention ha

  10. Bridging the gap between aquaculture and the information sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens G. Balchen

    1986-10-01

    Full Text Available The aquaculture industry is traditionally a low technology industry. But as demands on productivity, quality and availability are increasing the application of modern industrial technology is inevitable. After the fundamental problems of biology and of civil, mechanical and chemical engineering have been resolved, major progress may be expected through the application of the tools of the information sciences.

  11. Sustainable aquaculture in ponds: Principles, practices and limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R.H.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2011-01-01

    The global aquaculture production of crustaceans, shellfish and fish has to increase to satisfy the growing demand and also to compensate for the reduced capture from overexploited fisheries. Extending the area of brackish and fresh water ponds is constrained by the limited availability of land and

  12. Phylogeny of the Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus in European Aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cieslak, Michael; Mikkelsen, Susie Sommer; Skall, Helle F.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most valuable aquaculture fish in Europe is the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, but the profitability of trout production is threatened by a highly lethal infectious disease, viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS), caused by the VHS virus (VHSV). For the past few decades, the subgenogr...

  13. International cooperation on the use of peracetic acid in aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will discuss collaborative efforts on research to evaluate the usefulness of peracetic acid (PAA) as a therapeutant in aquaculture. Research has been underway since 2009 with a scientist from the Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (Berlin, Germany). Ther...

  14. Ocean modelling for aquaculture and fisheries in Irish waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowski, T.; Lyons, K.; Cusack, C.; Casal, G.; Berry, A.; Nolan, G. D.

    2016-01-01

    The Marine Institute, Ireland, runs a suite of operational regional and coastal ocean models. Recent developments include several tailored products that focus on the key needs of the Irish aquaculture sector. In this article, an overview of the products and services derived from the models are presented. The authors give an overview of a shellfish model developed in-house and that was designed to predict the growth, the physiological interactions with the ecosystem, and the level of coliform contamination of the blue mussel. As such, this model is applicable in studies on the carrying capacity of embayments, assessment of the impacts of pollution on aquaculture grounds, and the determination of shellfish water classes. Further services include the assimilation of the model-predicted shelf water movement into a new harmful algal bloom alert system used to inform end users of potential toxic shellfish events and high biomass blooms that include fish-killing species. Models are also used to identify potential sites for offshore aquaculture, to inform studies of potential cross-contamination in farms from the dispersal of planktonic sea lice larvae and other pathogens that can infect finfish, and to provide modelled products that underpin the assessment and advisory services on the sustainable exploitation of the resources of marine fisheries. This paper demonstrates that ocean models can provide an invaluable contribution to the sustainable blue growth of aquaculture and fisheries.

  15. Coral aquaculture: applying scientific knowledge to ex situ production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leal, M.C.; Ferrier-Pagès, C.; Petersen, D.; Osinga, R.

    2016-01-01

    Coral aquaculture is an activity of growing interest due to the degradation of coral reefs worldwide and concomitant growing demand for corals by three industries: marine ornamental trade, pharmaceutical industry and reef restoration. Although captive breeding and propagation of corals is a well-kno

  16. Home Textile Exports Show Recovery Signs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Lan; Guoyun

    2010-01-01

    @@ In this article we have analysed the export performance of Chinese main home textile products, including bedding products, carpet, curtain and towel based on official export data during the first eight months of 2010.

  17. 2006 RE Export Enterprises List Announced

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ According to "Requirement for RE Export Enterprises and Application Procedure in 2006", the Ministry of Commerce P.R.C announced "2006 Rare Earth Export Enterprises List "on December 30th of 2005. The enterprises are listed below.

  18. Fishery and Aquaculture Relationship in the Mediterranean: Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. RELINI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the Mediterranean represents only 0.8% of the world seas, it is the site of a very long-established fishing activity, characterized mainly by multispecific catch and by artisanal or coastal activity, resulting from a mosaic of very diversified structures and gears, along more than 45,000 km of coastline. Two main biological features of this sea are the occurrence of a large richness of species (it represents 5.5% - 7% of world marine fauna and 16.6% of macrophyta, which stands in contrast with its ‘trophic poverty’ and the absence of large monospecific fishery, except for some small and large pelagic fish. Another biological characteristic of Mare Nostrumis the high invasion of exotic species, some exploited by fishery and aquaculture, some others quite dangerous. For the entire Mediterranean and Black Sea, the production (catch + aquaculture had been steadily increasing over the period 1972-1988 from 1,140,000 t to 2,080,000 t . The period 1988-1991 has shown a drastic drop in catches (in 1991: 1,400,000 t. From 1990 to 1995 the total catch increased to 1,701,379 t then decreased and in 2000 reached 1,485,046 t . In 2000 Turkey had the first place with 496,174 t, 26.9% of the total value (1,846,026 t, including fishing and aquaculture, followed by Italy with 25%, Greece 9%, Spain 7.6% and Algeria 5.4%. As in many parts of the world, aquaculture production in the Mediterranean is rapidly expanding. In 1970 the total aquaculture production was about 18,297 t of which 74.3% produced in Italy. In 2000 a value of 358,614 t was reached, about 1/4 of the total fishery catch, while the world aquaculture production corresponds to half of the world total catch. Italy is still the main producer with 46.7% , followed by Greece with 21.5%, Turkey 9.9% and France 6.7%. A sharp drop in the production of the European eel ( Anguilla anguilla and of the European flat oyster ( Ostrea edulis is recorded. Positive and negative interactions between

  19. Export Intermediation and the Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman

    2005-01-01

    It is claimed that the remarkable growth in numbers of connected firms to the Internet marks a radical shift in current organisation of international business channels. For export intermediaries these new possibilities pose a threat to their current market position. However, virtual market presence...

  20. On American Cultural Exportation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德俊

    2015-01-01

    American government has been attaching great importance to the role that cultural values plays in international relationships and Culture Exportation has gradually become one of the important parts of American diplomatic strategy.This strategy,which is propelled by a variety of impetuses and conducted by different approaches,is mainly aimed to serve the overall national interests of the United States.

  1. On American Cultural Exportation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德俊

    2015-01-01

    American government has been attaching great importance to the role that cultural values plays in international relationships and Culture Exportation has gradually become one of the important parts of American diplomatic strategy. This strategy,which is propelled by a variety of impetuses and conducted by different approaches,is mainly aimed to serve the overall national interests of the United States.

  2. A Strong Backbone For Export

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China Export & Credit Insurance Corp., founded in 2001, is the country’s only policy-oriented credit insurance company. In line with the state’s diplomatic, foreign trade and industrial policies, it supports the country’s commodity, technology and servic

  3. Export channel pricing management for integrated solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Roine, Henna; Sainio, Liisa-Maija; Saarenketo, Sami

    2012-01-01

    This article studies systems integrators' export channel pricing management for integrated solutions. We find support from our empirical case study for the notion that a systems integrator's export channel pricing strategy is multidimensional and dependent on international pricing environment and partner characteristics and that export partnerships have unique implications on a systems integrator's pricing process. The results show that giving up pricing control in export channel context may ...

  4. Globalisation and Ireland s Export Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Ruane, Frances; Siedschlag, Iulia; Murphy, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED This paper provides empirical evidence on Ireland?s export performance in the context of increased globalisation over the past ten years. Using insights from recent contributions to international trade and economic growth theories, we first examine patterns and changes of revealed comparative advantages for Ireland?s exports of goods and services. We then investigate whether Irish exports have specialised in fast growing industries and markets in world exports over the period. Th...

  5. Counter-insurgents of the blue revolution? Parasites and diseases affecting aquaculture and science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, Reginald B; Bullard, Stephen A

    2014-12-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest-growing segment of food production and is expected to supply a growing portion of animal protein for consumption by humans. Because industrial aquaculture developed only recently compared to industrial agriculture, its development occurred within the context of a growing environmental awareness and acknowledgment of environmental issues associated with industrial farming. As such, parasites and diseases have become central criticisms of commercial aquaculture. This focus on parasites and diseases, however, has created a nexus of opportunities for research that has facilitated considerable scientific advances in the fields of parasitology and aquaculture. This paper reviews Myxobolus cerebralis , Lepeophtheirus salmonis , white spot syndrome virus, and assorted flatworms as select marquee aquaculture pathogens, summarizes the status of the diseases caused by each and their impacts on aquaculture, and highlights some of the significant contributions these pathogens have made to the science of parasitology and aquaculture.

  6. An Introduction to Export Assistance in the Internet Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanathan, Somasundaram; Rask, Morten

    's (2002) model about web marketing strategies for conceptualizing the Internet related developments associated with export assistance. Finally, we highlight the implications of providing export assistance over the Internet. Those interested in export assistance research and those providing export...

  7. Effects of seawater ozonation on biofilm development in aquaculture tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wietz, Matthias; Hall, Michael R; Høj, Lone

    2009-07-01

    Microbial biofilms developing in aquaculture tanks represent a reservoir for opportunistic bacterial pathogens, and procedures to control formation and bacterial composition of biofilms are important for the development of commercially viable aquaculture industries. This study investigated the effects of seawater ozonation on biofilm development on microscope glass slides placed in small-scale aquaculture tanks containing the live feed organism Artemia. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) demonstrated that ozonation accelerated the biofilm formation cycle, while it delayed the establishment of filamentous bacteria. Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria were the most abundant bacterial groups in the biofilm for both water types, but ozonation influenced their dynamics. With ozonation, the bacterial community structure was relatively stable and dominated by Gammaproteobacteria throughout the experiment (21-66% of total bacteria). Without ozonation, the community showed larger fluctuations, and Alphaproteobacteria emerged as dominant after 18 days (up to 54% of total bacteria). Ozonation of seawater also affected the dynamics of less abundant populations in the biofilm such as Betaproteobacteria, Planctomycetales and the Cytophaga/Flavobacterium branch of phylum Bacteroidetes. The abundance of Thiothrix, a bacterial genus capable of filamentous growth and fouling of larvae, increased with time for both water types, while no temporal trend could be detected for the genus Vibrio. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) demonstrated temporal changes in the dominant bacterial populations for both water types. Sequencing of DGGE bands confirmed the FISH data, and sequences were related to bacterial groups commonly found in biofilms of aquaculture systems. Several populations were closely related to organisms involved in sulfur cycling. Improved Artemia survival rates in tanks receiving ozonated water suggested a positive effect of ozonation on animal

  8. Chilean Teachers Begin Exchange Program Visit in Magdalena

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    . Kelly. The Chilean teachers are visiting Magdalena while they are on their Southern Hemisphere summer vacation, and Magdalena's schools are in session. Two Magdalena teachers, Joleen Welborn and Sandra Montoya, will visit San Pedro in June, while they are on summer vacation and the Chilean schools will be in session. Dr. Eduardo Hardy, the AUI/NRAO representative in Chile, will accompany the Chilean teachers on their visit, which has been coordinated by Harrison. "ALMA is a groundbreaking example of the type of international cooperation that marks the future of astronomy. We are especially pleased to sponsor a program that brings together two communities that both enjoy proximity to world-class astronomical research facilities," said Dr. Fred K.Y. Lo, NRAO Director. "While separated by many miles, San Pedro de Atacama and Magdalena have much in common. Both are small communities in high desert environments, and both are next to telescopes where the world's astronomers will be making many exciting discoveries in the coming decades. Bringing these two communities together will advance education and international understanding," Harrison said. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  9. 76 FR 52935 - President's Export Council, Subcommittee on Export Administration; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security President's Export Council, Subcommittee on Export Administration; Notice of Open Meeting The President's Export Council Subcommittee on Export Administration (PECSEA) will... Administration Act, as amended, that deal with United States policies of encouraging trade with all...

  10. 75 FR 54857 - President's Export Council, Subcommittee on Export Administration; Notice of Recruitment of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security President's Export Council, Subcommittee on Export Administration; Notice of Recruitment of Private-Sector Members; Date Extension Summary: The President's Export Council Subcommittee on Export Administration (PECSEA) advises the U.S. Government on matters and issues pertinent...

  11. 75 FR 47548 - President's Export Council Subcommittee on Export Administration; Notice of Recruitment of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security President's Export Council Subcommittee on Export Administration; Notice of Recruitment of Private-Sector Members SUMMARY: The President's Export Council Subcommittee on Export Administration (PECSEA) advises the U.S. Government on matters and issues pertinent...

  12. 15 CFR 752.15 - Export clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export clearance. 752.15 Section 752.15 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU... COMPREHENSIVE LICENSE § 752.15 Export clearance. (a) Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated...

  13. 19 CFR 12.4 - Exportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exportation. 12.4 Section 12.4 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES... Caustic Or Corrosive Substances § 12.4 Exportation. The exportation of merchandise, the subject of §...

  14. 78 FR 45168 - Acquisition Regulations: Export Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... Parts 925, 952 and 970 RIN 1991-AB99 Acquisition Regulations: Export Control AGENCY: Department of... Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) to add export control requirements applicable to the... business August 23, 2013. ADDRESSES: You may submit comments, identified by ``DEAR: Export Control and...

  15. 19 CFR 18.43 - Indirect exportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... port to another for actual exportation at the second port, any export declarations required to be... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect exportation. 18.43 Section 18.43 Customs... TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT Merchandise Not Otherwise Subject to Customs Control...

  16. 27 CFR 28.223 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.223... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on kegs, barrels, cases, crates... “Export” on each container or case before removal for export, for use on vessels or aircraft, or...

  17. 27 CFR 28.193 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.193... Drawback Filing of Notice and Removal § 28.193 Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required... chapter, the exporter shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government...

  18. 78 FR 61953 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-08

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Timothy Gormley, Inmate... engaging in transactions relating to exporting amplifiers to China and India without obtaining the required... assessment and a $1,000 criminal fine. Section 766.25 of the Export Administration Regulations (``EAR''...

  19. 78 FR 37520 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Placido Molina, Jr... convicted of violating Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778 (2006 & Supp. IV 2010)) (``AECA''). Specifically, Molina was convicted of knowingly and willfully attempting to export and...

  20. 27 CFR 28.154 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.154..., for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the marks... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side...

  1. 78 FR 35195 - Acquisition Regulations: Export Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... Parts 925, 952, and 970 RIN 1991-AB99 Acquisition Regulations: Export Control AGENCY: Department of... amend the Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) to add export control requirements... ``DEAR: Export Control and RIN 1991-AB99,'' by any of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking...

  2. 78 FR 60250 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Vikramaditya Singh, a.k... attempting to cause the export of digital microwave radios to Iran without the required authorization from... probation, six months of home confinement and a $100,000 fine. Section 766.25 of the Export...

  3. 78 FR 37518 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Lee Roy Perez, Inmate... convicted of violating Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778 (2006 & Supp. IV 2010)) (``AECA''). ] Specifically, Perez was convicted of knowingly and willfully exporting and causing to...

  4. 78 FR 60249 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Andrew Silcox, Inmate... of violating Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778 (2006 & Supp. IV 2010)) (``AECA''). Specifically, Silcox was convicted of knowingly and willfully exporting from the United...

  5. 22 CFR 120.17 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export. 120.17 Section 120.17 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.17 Export. (a) Export means: (1) Sending or taking a defense article out of the United States in any manner, except...

  6. 7 CFR 915.12 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 915.12 Section 915.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Definitions § 915.12 Export. Export means to ship avocados to any destination which...

  7. 7 CFR 948.17 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 948.17 Section 948.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.17 Export. Export means the shipment of potatoes to any...

  8. 27 CFR 4.80 - Exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exports. 4.80 Section 4.80... TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE General Provisions § 4.80 Exports. The regulations in this part shall not apply to wine exported in bond....

  9. Export growth slowdown from January to April

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    January to April this year, the economic operation of China’s textile industry overall in slowdown trend, the growth rate of output of major products fell significantly, exports and profits were greatly affected, the textile industry is facing great operating pressure. The export side, Japan, EU, U.S. textile and garment export growth has slowed down, the market share

  10. 26 CFR 52.4682-5 - Exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exports. 52.4682-5 Section 52.4682-5 Internal... (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES § 52.4682-5 Exports. (a) Overview. This section provides rules relating to the tax imposed under section 4681 on ozone-depleting chemicals (ODCs) that are exported. In...

  11. 7 CFR 947.17 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 947.17 Section 947.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Definitions § 947.17 Export. Export means shipment of potatoes beyond the boundaries of continental...

  12. 7 CFR 966.18 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 966.18 Section 966.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Handling Definitions § 966.18 Export. Export means shipment of tomatoes beyond the boundaries of the...

  13. 7 CFR 923.15 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 923.15 Section 923.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.15 Export. Export means to ship...

  14. 27 CFR 7.60 - Exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exports. 7.60 Section 7.60... TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES General Provisions § 7.60 Exports. This part shall not apply to malt beverages exported in bond....

  15. 7 CFR 51.912 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 51.912 Section 51.912 Agriculture Regulations... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.912 Export. When designated as Export, grapes shall be packed with any of the customary protective materials such as...

  16. 7 CFR 922.15 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 922.15 Section 922.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.15 Export. Export means to ship apricots beyond...

  17. 27 CFR 16.31 - Exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exports. 16.31 Section 16... TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE HEALTH WARNING STATEMENT General Provisions § 16.31 Exports. The..., bottled, or labeled for export from the United States, or for delivery to a vessel or aircraft,...

  18. 7 CFR 946.15 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 946.15 Section 946.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.15 Export. Export means shipment of potatoes beyond the boundaries...

  19. 7 CFR 924.15 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 924.15 Section 924.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... WASHINGTON AND IN UMATILLA COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 924.15 Export. Export...

  20. 7 CFR 959.18 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 959.18 Section 959.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Handling Definitions § 959.18 Export. Export means to ship onions to any destination which is not...

  1. 7 CFR 927.12 - Export market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export market. 927.12 Section 927.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.12 Export market. Export market means any destination...

  2. The Application of Integrated Multi Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA Using Stratified Double Net Rounded Cage (SDFNC for Aquaculture Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapto P. Putro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase of fishery production nationally and internationally may impact on the potential emergence of a variety of environmental problems. The application of sustainable aquaculture is urgently needed by breeding fish for commercial purposes in a manner such that it has a minimum impact on the environment, contributing to the development of local communities and generating economic benefits. The design of the cage and farming practice in aquaculture activities are the important steps to ensure that farming activity is still observed in order to anticipate the risk of organic enrichment caused by the activities. The application of Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture  (IMTA on the Stratified Double Floating Net Cage  (SDFNC integrated with biomonitoring are an appropriate solution to the ongoing productive farming practices. IMTA is an aquaculture practice using more than one species of biotas which have ecologically mutual relationship as a part of the food chain in the area at the same time. The application of IMTA allows farmers to get several aquaculture products in the same area without increasing the horizontal area of the farms. At first, the SDFNC has been applied for farming Cyprinus carpio and Tilapia niloticus as polyculture system in freshwater ecosystem of Rawapening Lake, Central Java. Its operation has been able to increase the production capacity of at least 75% of conventional cages. The application of SDFNC-IMTA using milkfish (Chanos Chanos, seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii, and white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei has been able to minimize the impact and maintain the water ecosystem in the Gulf Awerange, South Sulawesi.

  3. 19 CFR 19.38 - Supervision of exportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the sales ticket procedure for exportation shall be exported only under Customs supervision as... exportation transactions, examination of articles being exported, and audits of the proprietor's records. (b) Supervision of ATF bonded exports. Customs officers may conduct general supervision of exportations...

  4. 50 CFR 14.63 - Export declaration requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PLANTS IMPORTATION, EXPORTATION, AND TRANSPORTATION OF WILDLIFE Wildlife Declarations § 14.63 Export... Declaration for Importation or Exportation of Fish or Wildlife (Form 3-177) signed by the exporter, or the exporter's agent, shall be filed with the Service prior to the export of any wildlife at the port...

  5. 19 CFR 122.118 - Exportation from port of arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... copy. (2) Exportation copy. The exportation copy shall be filed by the exporting airline when clearance... aircraft's clearance documents. The exportation and clearance copies shall show the exporting airline's... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exportation from port of arrival. 122.118...

  6. Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; Lee Andruske, Cinthya; Hespanhol, Jefferson; Sulla Torres, Jose; Arruda, Miguel; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of waist circumference (WC) is considered to be an important means to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The objectives of the study were to (a) compare the WC measurements of Chilean students with the international CDC-2012 standard and other international standards, and (b) propose a specific measurement value for the WC of Chilean students based on age and sex. A total of 3892 students (6 to 18 years old) were assessed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and WC were measured. WC was compared with the CDC-2012 international standard. Percentiles were constructed based on the LMS method. Chilean males had a greater WC during infancy. Subsequently, in late adolescence, males showed values lower than those of the international standards. Chilean females demonstrated values similar to the standards until the age of 12. Subsequently, females showed lower values. The 85th and 95th percentiles were adopted as cutoff points for evaluating overweight and obesity based on age and sex. The WC of Chilean students differs from the CDC-2012 curves. The regional norms proposed are a means to identify children and adolescents with a high risk of suffering from overweight and obesity disorders. PMID:26184250

  7. Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Gómez-Campos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of waist circumference (WC is considered to be an important means to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The objectives of the study were to (a compare the WC measurements of Chilean students with the international CDC-2012 standard and other international standards, and (b propose a specific measurement value for the WC of Chilean students based on age and sex. A total of 3892 students (6 to 18 years old were assessed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI, and WC were measured. WC was compared with the CDC-2012 international standard. Percentiles were constructed based on the LMS method. Chilean males had a greater WC during infancy. Subsequently, in late adolescence, males showed values lower than those of the international standards. Chilean females demonstrated values similar to the standards until the age of 12. Subsequently, females showed lower values. The 85th and 95th percentiles were adopted as cutoff points for evaluating overweight and obesity based on age and sex. The WC of Chilean students differs from the CDC-2012 curves. The regional norms proposed are a means to identify children and adolescents with a high risk of suffering from overweight and obesity disorders.

  8. Human Capital and Wages in Exporting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    . Using a very rich matched worker-firm longitudinal dataset we find that firms with high export intensities pay higher wages. However, an interaction term between export intensity and skill intensity has a positive impact on wages and it absorbs the direct effect of the export intensity. That is, we find......This paper studies the link between a firms education level, export performance and wages of its workers. We argue that firms may escape intense competition in international markets by using high skilled workers to differentiate their products. This story is consistent with our empirical results...... an export wage premium, but it accrues to workers in firms with high skill intensities...

  9. Paleomagnetism of Permian and Triassic rock, central Chilean Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Randall D.; Kent, Dennis V.; Mpodozis, Constantino; Davidson, John

    The first paleomagnetic data from Permian and Triassic formations west of the Andean divide are presented. Four formations of Permian or Triassic age in the central Chilean Andes have been investigated: two are located in the coastal ranges, and two are in the main cordillera. Of the formations in the main cordillera (Pastos Blancos and Matahuaico formations), only the Pastos Blancos Formation has yielded characteristic directions. While a fold test is absent, magnetizations are most likely secondary and yield pre-tilt corrected concordant inclinations, but yield declinations discordant 30° clockwise in comparison to the South American apparent polar wander path. Both formations from the coastal ranges (Cifuncho and Pichidangui formations) yielded stable directions. Postfolding magnetizations in the Cifuncho Formation also show declinations discordant 30° clockwise and concordant inclinations. The Pichidangui Formation has two stable components: one of postfolding age is concordant to apparent polar wander path data, and one of probable prefolding (Late Triassic) age is concordant in declination, but discordant in inclination. Further work is needed to better define the prefolding magnetizations in the Pichidangui Formation, but at present these preliminary results are the first paleomagnetic signs of displaced terranes along the Pacific margin of Chile. If correct, the results suggest that the Pichidangui Formation was some 15° of latitude farther south during the Late Triassic and had likely moved northward to its present latitudinal position with respect to cratonic South America by Middle to Late Jurassic.

  10. Peer victimization: Intimidation and victmization in Chilean students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica López

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study about peer intimidation and victimization with 1167 school students from 6th, 7th, and 8th grade from the Valparaiso Region of Valparaíso, Chile. The instrument used was the Insebull Battery (Avilés & Elices, 2007. Results show that approximately 9% of students have been victim of peer victimization many times or almost every day during the school year. Psychological victimization was more frequent thanphysical aggression, particularly through virtual communication such as cell-phone messages and e-mails. Participants tend to be groups of male students. Although male students participate more in physical aggression, they also receive more physical and psychological aggression. The most frequent places were inside the classroom and the school yard, when the teacher is not present. Most students inform not knowing, or vaguely knowing, thereasons underlying these aggressions, and do not do anything to deal with them. These results coincide with international studies and allow a better understanding of the characteristics of peer victimization in specific educational contexts within the Chilean school system.

  11. Exporting and Productivity: Learning from Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn;

    2017-01-01

    different policy stance than typical in Africa. This is especially so in promoting export-oriented industry. If learning by exporting is a key driver of progress, then a fundamental reason for Africa's lack of transformation is likely to be the low policy priority given to export promotion in the past....... To enlarge the body of empirical evidence, we use an extensive 2005–2012 firm-level panel data set from Vietnam and separate out productivity effects of exporting due to self-selection. This allows us to conclude that firms actually learn by exporting. We also examine how this learning takes place. Our...... findings suggest that productivity gains are associated with moving to larger scale for foreign-owned firms with little evidence of subsequent learning on export markets. We find strong evidence to suggest that private domestic firms learn and accumulate knowledge from export markets with learning...

  12. Perceived impediments to export involvement among small and medium sized firms : non-exporters perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercy Mpinganjira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of this paper is to examine perceived impediments to export involvement among non-exporting small and medium sized firms (SME's in Malawi. The study also examines levels of interest in exporting among the firms. Problem investigated: Many countries have programs aimed at promoting export involvement among SME's. Despite this, most SME's continue to ignore exporting as a viable business strategy. Information on perceived impediments to export involvement especially from the non-exporters' perspective is often lacking hence the need for this study. Methodology: Data was collected from 80 owner managers of non-exporting SME's. A structured questionnaire was the main instrument used to collect data. Personal interviews were also held with managers for the purposes of probing their answers to the questions in the questionnaire. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 18 was used to analyse the quantitative data obtained from use of the structured questionnaire. Qualitative data obtained through personal interviews was analysed used thematic analysis. Findings: The findings of the study showed significant levels of interest in exporting among the firms. The majority of the owner managers indicated willingness to exploit export opportunities that may be readily available to them. The findings however showed that just over half of the respondents had discussed or investigated the possibility of exporting before. On impediments to exporting, the findings showed that managers perceive many factors as important impediments to their firm's involvement in exporting. The top two most important impediments were internal to the firm and related to human resource issues. They included insufficient knowledge about export opportunities and lack of personnel knowledgeable in exporting. Originality and value of the research: A review of literature shows that most export promotion studies tend to focus more on issues relating to

  13. Export Rebates on Grain Finished

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ According to the State Statistics Bureau, China's consumer price index (CPI) jumped by 6.9 percent year-on-year last November, approaching the high levels seen at the end of 1996, one of the largest areas of increase was the price of grain,which rose by 6.6 percent. There is no doubt the growth in CPI can be mainly attributed to soaring food prices and the diffusion effect of oil price adjustments. Large orders for grain exports have put Chinese grain suppliers under tremendous pressure. In order to solve this problem, the Finance Ministry and State Administration of Taxation together announced that 84 categories of export tax rebates on major types of grain will be eliminated.

  14. Export Rebates on Grain Finished

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu; Xinwen

    2008-01-01

      According to the State Statistics Bureau, China's consumer price index (CPI) jumped by 6.9 percent year-on-year last November, approaching the high levels seen at the end of 1996, one of the largest areas of increase was the price of grain,which rose by 6.6 percent. There is no doubt the growth in CPI can be mainly attributed to soaring food prices and the diffusion effect of oil price adjustments. Large orders for grain exports have put Chinese grain suppliers under tremendous pressure. In order to solve this problem, the Finance Ministry and State Administration of Taxation together announced that 84 categories of export tax rebates on major types of grain will be eliminated.……

  15. A Study of the Aquaculture Industry in Texas to Assist in Establishing Aquaculture as a Course Offering in Agricultural Science and Technology. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillingham, John; And Others

    A 1989-90 project determined the knowledge and skills necessary for employment in the aquaculture industry. The study identified technical materials and other resources available in private industry and higher education institutions. Two surveys determined the status of aquaculture in Texas school districts and identified tasks performed by…

  16. NAS Panel faults export controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    A study prepared by a top-level panel says that current export controls on militarily sensitive U.S. technology may be “overcorrecting” previous weaknesses in that system, resulting in “a complex and confusing control system” that makes it more difficult for U.S. businesses to compete in international markets. Moreover, this control system has “an increasingly corrosive effect” on U.S. relations with allies. The panel recommended that the United States concentrate more effort on bringing about uniformity in the export control policies of countries belonging to the Coordinating Committee on Multilateral Export Controls (CoCom), i.e., most of the member nations in NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty Organization) and Japan.The 21-member panel was appointed by the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP), a joint unit of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), and the Institute of Medicine (IOM). The panel, composed of administrators, researchers, and former government officials, was chaired by AGU member Lew Allen, Jr., director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Pasadena, Calif.) and former chief of staff of the U.S. Air Force. Their report was supported by NAS funds, by a number of private organizations (including AGU), by the U.S. Departments of Commerce, Defense, Energy, and State, by the National Science Foundation, and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  17. Reporting quality of papers published in Chilean dental journals. Evaluation period: 2002-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio E Uribe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the reporting quality of papers published between 2002-2012 in Chilean dental journals. Methods: Bibliometric analysis of research papers published in indexed Chilean dental journals between 2002-2012. Three calibrated examinators (interoperator- Kappa=.83 assessed 205 papers: 150 case-reports, 37 observational studies and 18 clinical trials. Reporting quality was evaluated using CARE for case reports, STROBE for observational studies and CONSORT for clinical trials. Descriptive statistics were conducted. Results: Case-reports reported 35% of the required methodological items; epidemiological research reported 16% of required items for Materials and Methods and 10% for Results. Clinical research reported 29% of required Materials and Methods items and 20% of Results items. Conclusion: Case-report, epidemiological and clinician research papers in Chilean dental journals published during the 2002-2012 period are lacking explicit key methodological items, preventing a proper research replication or clinical application of the results.

  18. HIV prevention and low-income Chilean women: machismo, marianismo and HIV misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; McElmurry, Beverly J

    2008-04-01

    Socio-cultural factors and HIV-related misinformation contribute to the increasing number of Chilean women living with HIV. In spite of this, and to date, few culturally specific prevention activities have been developed for this population. The goal of the present study was to elicit the perspectives of low-income Chilean women regarding HIV and relevant socio-cultural factors, as a forerunner to the development of a culturally appropriate intervention. As part of a mixed-methods study, fifty low-income Chilean women participated in a survey and twenty were selected to participate in prevention, in-depth interviews. Results show evidence of widespread misinformation and misconceptions related to HIV/AIDS. Machismo and marianismo offer major barriers to prevention programme development. Future HIV prevention should stress partner communication, empowerment and improving the education of women vulnerable to HIV.

  19. Privatizing Water in the Chilean Andes: The Case of Las Vegas de Chiu-Chiu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Prieto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean water model has been described as a textbook example of a free-market water system. This article contributes to the critiques of this model by showing the effect of its implementation in the Atacameño community of Chiu-Chiu, located in the Atacama Desert in the south-central Andes. In this community, the privatization of water rights ignored local water management practices that had produced a high-altitude wetland (known as a vega. This led to the inhabitants’ dispossession of crucial water rights and to wetland degradation. This process belies statements that the Chilean model relies on an unregulated market and instead highlights the state’s role in marginalizing local irrigation practices by reducing the water consumption of the indigenous population while keeping the copper mining industry (the main source of Chilean income and related growing urban populations supplied with water.

  20. Potential heterogeneity in crustacean zooplankton assemblages in southern chilean saline lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P De los Rios-Escalante

    Full Text Available The Chilean saline lakes are distributed mainly in the Atacama desert in northern Chile and the southern Patagonian plains. The scarce studies are restricted mainly to northern Chilean saline lakes, and these revealed that the main component in these ecosystems are the halophylic copepod Boeckella poopoensis Marsh 1906, or the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana (Kellog, 1906, and both species do not coexist. The present study consisted of field observations in zooplankton assemblages in southern Chilean saline lakes (51-53 ºS. These first observations revealed three different patterns, one saline lake only with A. persimilis (Piccinelli and Prosdocimi, 1968, a second lake only with B. poopensis, and a third lake with A. persimilis, B. poopoensis and unidentified harpacticoid copepod. These results are different in comparison with the observations in the literature that described the non-coexistence between B. poopoensis with brine shrimps. Ecological and biogeographical topics were discussed.

  1. Major viral diseases affecting fish aquaculture in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, S I; Rodríguez, S

    1997-06-01

    The number of viruses isolated from fish has grown in the last few years as a reflection of the increasing interest in fish diseases, particularly those occurring in aquaculture facilities. Of all the described viruses, only a few are considered to be of serious concern and economic importance; they are described in this review, drawing special attention to the four families of viruses (Birnaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Iridoviridae and Reoviridae) that have been reported in Spanish aquaculture. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, a member of the first family, is the most spread virus with a prevalence of 39%. Viral diseases are untreatable and because effective and safe vaccines for fish are not yet commercially available, a great care needs to be exercised when moving fish or eggs from one site or country to another. Some fish health control regulations have been legislated in Europe and USA.

  2. Economic Analysis on Key Challenges for Sustainable Aquaculture Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gedefaw Abate, Tenaw

    developmental stage. The key challenge in this regard is that the conventional used live feed items, Artemia and rotifers, are nutritionally deficient. Thus, the first main purpose of the thesis is carrying out an economic analysis of the feasibility of commercial production and the use of an alternative live...... challenges that could obstruct its sustainable development, such as a lack of suitable feed, which includes fishmeal, fish oil and live feed, and negative environmental externalities. If the aquaculture industry is to reach its full potential, it must be both environmentally and economically sustainable....... To this end, key challenges should be thoroughly examined to identify sustainable and efficient solutions. Thus, the thesis focuses on two important bottlenecks in the growth of the aquaculture sector—namely, lack of nutritionally suitable live feed items for marine finfish production and negative...

  3. Overview of the application of nucleotide in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Do Huu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Although long history application in infant formula, dietary nucleotide supplementation has been used only recently in the evaluation of growth performance, stress and pathogen resistance in aquaculture species. This paper addresses the present knowledge of the use of nucleotide supplemented in the diet for culture species. Research reveals that dietary nucleotide may have significant impact and is recommended to add to the feed of aquatic species to get better performance. However, more studies should also be conducted to have better understandings on dose requirement, duration of application, impact on different life stage and under different environmental stress and pathogens. Further study should also examine the effects of dietary nucleotide supplementation of intestinal microbiota and gut morphology, and immune response of aquaculture species.

  4. Overview of the application of nucleotide in aquaculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hoang Do Huu

    2016-01-01

    Although long history application in infant formula, dietary nucleotide supplementation has been used only recently in the evaluation of growth performance, stress and pathogen resistance in aquaculture species. This paper addresses the present knowledge of the use of nucleotide supplemented in the diet for culture species. Research reveals that dietary nucleotide may have significant impact and is recommended to add to the feed of aquatic species to get better performance. However, more studies should also be conducted to have better understandings on dose requirement, duration of application, impact on different life stage and under different environmental stress and pathogens. Further study should also examine the effects of dietary nucleotide supplementation of intestinal microbiota and gut morphology, and immune response of aquaculture species.

  5. Effects of probiotic Bacillus species in aquaculture – An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian-Teodor BURUIANĂ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The ingestion of a large amount of certain types of beneficial bacteria can reduce the multiplication and development of pathogenic bacteria in the gut. A “probiotic” is a product that contains live microorganisms which positively influence the host intestinal microbiota by preventing the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria and promoting the growth and development of beneficial bacteria. Bacillus spp. are Gram-positive endospore-forming bacteria with beneficial effects in aquaculture industry. The dietary supplementation of Bacillus spp. in fish culture improved especially growth performance, immune response and the disease resistance of fish against pathogenic bacterial infections. The objective of the current paper is to review the recent published investigations reported in the scientific literature on the use of probiotic Bacillus spp. in aquaculture, focusing on their beneficial effects on the host. This review includes the main effects of Bacillus spp. administration in shrimp culture, carp culture, tilapia culture, and other fish culture.

  6. Liposarcoma in clownfish, Amphiprion ocellaris Cuvier, produced in indoor aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, G; Benharroch, D; Kachko, L; Reis-Hevlin, N; Zilberg, D

    2015-06-01

    Clownfish, Amphiprion ocellaris Cuvier, produced and grown in an experimental indoor aquaculture facility, presented with lipomatous tumours. A total of 14 affected fish were examined. Based on the total number of fish at the aquaculture facility at the time of outbreak of this pathology, the scope of the incident is estimated to be 1 of 300 fish. The tumours were characterized by the presence of mature adipocytes of variable sizes, lipoblasts and by an invasive behaviour, which affected internal organs, muscle, central nervous system and, in one case, an eye. Detailed macroscopic and histopathological features are presented. The suggested diagnosis is that of a well-differentiated liposarcoma, a diagnosis so far never applied to fish. The limited outbreak of the neoplasm lasted a few months in 2011 and did not recur. Possible factors leading to this phenomenon, notably the metastasis, are discussed.

  7. Feeding preferences of mesograzers on aquacultured Gracilaria and sympatric algae

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz-Rivera, Edwin; Friedlander, Michael

    2011-01-01

    While large grazers can often be excluded effectively from algal aquaculture operations, smaller herbivores such as small crustaceans and gastropods may be more difficult to control. The susceptibility of three Gracilaria species to herbivores was evaluated in multiple-choice experiments with the amphipod Ampithoe ramondi and the crab Acanthonyx lunulatus. Both mesograzers are common along the Mediterranean coast of Israel. When given a choice, the amphipod preferred to consume Gracilaria lem...

  8. Aquaculture in tropical Mexican lakes and dams: achievements and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Carranza, Jorge; Lopez, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Mexico, with highly diverse physiography, geology, soils and climate, is a country with a broad mosaic of aquatic ecosystems within 320 watersheds. This paper presents a brief picture of Mexican fresh waters, the distribution of rainfall and the potential for aquaculture. The main fish species and water bodies, dams and lakes, are highlighted. The country faces problems of surface water shortage which requires better management.

  9. Strategic Review and the Feasibility of Seaweed Aquaculture in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, A; Clarke, D.; Kraan, S.

    2004-01-01

    The National Seaweed Forum, commissioned by the Minister for the Marine and Natural Resources in 1999, evaluated the current status of the Irish Seaweed Industry, investigated the potential uses of seaweeds and identified measures to be undertaken for developing the different industrial sectors. Seaweed aquaculture was identified as a key area for the development of the Irish Seaweed Industry to meet growing market demands and to create attractive and high–skilled jobs in peripheral communiti...

  10. Investigation of a novel approach for aquaculture site selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Lynne; Telfer, Trevor C; Ross, Lindsay G

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the potential use of two "species distribution models" (SDMs), Mahalanobis Typicality and Maxent, for aquaculture site selection. SDMs are used in ecological studies to predict the spatial distribution of species based on analysis of conditions at locations of known presence or absence. Here the input points are aquaculture sites, rather than species occurrence, thus the models evaluate the parameters at the sites and identify similar areas across the rest of the study area. This is a novel approach that avoids the need for data reclassification and weighting which can be a source of conflict and uncertainty within the commonly used multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) technique. Using pangasius culture in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, as a case study, Mahalanobis Typicality and Maxent SDMs were evaluated against two models developed using the MCE approach. Mahalanobis Typicality and Maxent assess suitability based on similarity to existing farms, while the MCE approach assesses suitability using optimal values for culture. Mahalanobis Typicality considers the variables to have equal importance whereas Maxent analyses the variables to determine those which influence the distribution of the input data. All of the models indicate there are suitable areas for culture along the two main channels of the Mekong River which are currently used to farm pangasius and also inland in the north and east of the study area. The results show the Mahalanobis Typicality model had more high scoring areas and greater overall similarity than Maxent to the MCE outputs, suggesting, for this case study, it was the most appropriate SDM for aquaculture site selection. With suitable input data, a combined SDM and MCE model would overcome limitations of the individual approaches, allowing more robust planning and management decisions for aquaculture, other stakeholders and the environment.

  11. The role of probiotics in aquaculture in Nigeria - a review

    OpenAIRE

    Kolndadacha, O.D.; Adikwu, I.A.; Okaeme, A.N.; Atiribom, R.Y.; Mohammed, A.; Musa, Y.M.

    2011-01-01

    Aquaculture is beset by many problems especially diseases caused by bacteria as the major deteriorating factors. The use of vaccines and antimicrobial agents have been centered on disease control, but are associated with problems The development of antibiotic resistance among the microorganisms have become a global concern as a result of indiscriminate use of antibiotics. Several alternative suggestions for disease prevention have been on probiotics for its efficacy, low cost, less side effec...

  12. Taurine and fish development: insights for the aquaculture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Wilson; Rønnestad, Ivar; Dinis, Maria Teresa; Aragão, Cláudia

    2013-01-01

    Expansion of the aquaculture industry is limited by incomplete knowledge on fish larval nutritional requirements. Nevertheless, it is believed that dietary taurine deficiencies may be particularly critical for fish larvae. The reasons include the high taurine levels found during egg and yolk-sac stages of fish, suggesting that taurine may be of pivotal importance for larval development. Moreover, unlike aquaculture feeds, natural preys of fish larvae contain high taurine levels, and dietary taurine supplementation has been shown to increase larval growth in several fish species. This study aimed to further explore the physiological role of taurine during fish development. Firstly, the effect of dietary taurine supplementation was assessed on growth of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) larvae and growth, metamorphosis success and amino acid metabolism of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) larvae. Secondly, the expression of taurine transporter (TauT) was characterised by qPCR in sole larvae and juveniles. Results showed that dietary taurine supplementation did not increase sea bream growth. However, dietary taurine supplementation significantly increased sole larval growth, metamorphosis success and amino acid retention. Metamorphosis was also shown to be an important developmental trigger to promote taurine transport in sole tissues, while evidence for an enterohepatic recycling pathway for taurine was found in sole at least from juvenile stage. Taken together, our studies showed that the dependence of dietary taurine supplementation differs among fish species and that taurine has a vital role during the ontogenetic development of flatfish, an extremely valuable group targeted for aquaculture production.

  13. Application of Constructed Wetlands on Wastewater Treatment for Aquaculture Ponds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gu; WU Zhenbin; CHENG Shuiping; LIANG Wei; HE Feng; FU Guiping; ZHONG Fei

    2007-01-01

    A group of constructed wetlands (CWs) were applied to the recirculating aquaculture system. This study assessed the performance of CWs in treating the aquaculture wastewater, examined the water quality condition of aquaculture ponds and the growth and the survival rate of "target" species(Ictalurus punctatus and Megalobrama amblycephala). The results showed that CWs were effective on reducing the concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, at 70.5%), total suspended solids (TSS, at 81.9%),chlorophyll a (Chl-a, at 91.9%), ammonium (NH4+, at 61.5%) and nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N, at 68.0%). Effect of CWs on phosphate (PO43- -P) removal was relatively lower (at 20.0%). The concentrations of BOD5, TSS, Chl-a, NH4+ and TN, TP in the recirculating culture pond were significantly lower than that in the control pond( p < 0.05 ). CWs could help to increase total yield, survival rate of the "target" species and significantly decrease feed conversion ratio ( p < 0.05 ).

  14. Export Marketing of Croatian Baby Beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Kolega

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Croatia has traditionally been the exporter of livestock and beef. In 1988 Croatia exported a record of 35,7 thousand tons of livestock, worth almost 60 million US $. During the period between 1981 and 1991, the export of beef and processed meat was somewhat smaller, about 12,8 thousand tons, 40 million US $ worth. The most important export destinations were Italy, with almost 90% of all volume and monetary value of export, and Greece. In March 1993 EU has banned the import of livestock and beef from Croatia, due to a scandal with infected cattle. In spite of the subsequent abolition of this ban, Croatian export never really recovered, so today the export of beef amounts to less than a thousand tons. Even though the conditions on the export markets and in the domestic cattle breeding industry have changed, we think that it is possible to achieve the export expansion of Croatian baby beef in the foreign market. This article describes the results of the research conducted on the Italian and Greek market. According to expert opinions and the results of our survey it is evident that, with a certain quality of the product, it would be possible to renew the export of Croatian baby beef to the target markets.

  15. Research on China's Aquaculture Efficiency Evaluation and Influencing Factors with Undesirable Outputs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Jianyue; WANG Pingping

    2015-01-01

    Taking the aquaculture area, the number of farming boats and that of aquaculturist as input variables, the aquaculture production as desirable output variable and polluted economic loss as undesirable output variable, this paper conducts SBM model to evaluate the aquaculture efficiency based on the data of 16 aquaculture-developed provinces in China from 2004 to 2011. The results show the efficiency in China has not changed much in recent years with the efficiency values mainly between 0.39 and 0.53, and the efficiency of marine-aquaculture-dominated provinces is generally higher than that of freshwater-aquaculture-dominated ones. To analyze the difference under the efficiency, the panel Tobit model is used with education level factor, training factor, technology ex-tension factor, technical level factor, scale factor and species factor as the efficiency influencing factors. The results show that tech-nology extension factor and technical level factor have significant positive influence.

  16. Towards sustainable coexistence of aquaculture and fisheries in the coastal zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Øjvind; Gomez, Emma Bello; Børsheim, Knut Yngve;

    2012-01-01

    Globally, coastal areas are subject to an increase in competing activities. Coastal fisheries and aquaculture are highly dependent on availability and accessibility of appropriate sites. Aquaculture production is increasing, whereas fisheries are at best stagnant. Coastal activities also include ......, both industries represent human activities strongly influencing, and influenced by, the environment. Management of aquaculture and fisheries, as well as other uses of the coastal zone, should be considered integral parts with local variations in their respective importance.......Globally, coastal areas are subject to an increase in competing activities. Coastal fisheries and aquaculture are highly dependent on availability and accessibility of appropriate sites. Aquaculture production is increasing, whereas fisheries are at best stagnant. Coastal activities also include...... ecosystem‐based management as demanded by the Marine Strategy Directive. The biological interconnectedness of fisheries and aquaculture is strong, with factors such as competition for space, disease transmission, genetic impact from escapees, availability of food for cultured finfish, and organic...

  17. Organic carbon in glacial fjords of Chilean Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, Silvio; Gutiérrez, Marcelo; Tapia, Fabián; Abarzúa, Leslie; Daneri, Giovanni; Reid, Brian; Díez, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    The Southern Ice Field in Chilean Patagonia is the largest (13,000 km2) temperate ice mass in the Southern hemisphere, yearly transporting ca. 40 km3 of freshwater to fjords. This volume of fresh and cold water likely affects adjacent marine ecosystems by changing circulation, productivity, food web dynamics, and the abundance and distribution of planktonic and benthic organisms. We hypothesize that freshwater-driven availability of inorganic nutrient and transport of organic and inorganic suspended matter, as well as microbes, become a controlling factor for productivity in the fjord associated with the Baker river and Jorge Montt glacier. Both appear to be sources of silicic acid, but not of nitrate and particulate organic carbon, especially during summer, when surface PAR and glacier thawing are maximal. In contrast to Baker River, the Jorge Montt glacier is also a source of dissolved organic carbon towards a proglacial fjord and the Baker Channel, indicating that a thorough chemical description of sources (tidewater glacier and glacial river) is needed. Nitrate in fiord waters reaches ca. 15 μM at 25 m depth with no evidence of mixing up during summer. Stable isotope composition of particulate organic nitrogen reaches values as low as 3 per mil in low-salinity waters near both glacier and river. Nitrogen fixation could be depleting δ15N in organic matter, as suggested by the detection at surface waters of nif H genes belonging to diazotrophs near the Montt glacier. As diazotrophs have also been detected in other cold marine waters (e.g. Baltic Sea, Arctic Ocean) as well as glaciers and polar terrestrial waters, there is certainly a potential for both marine and freshwater microbes to contribute and have a significant impact on the Patagonian N and C budgets. Assessing the impact of freshwater on C and N fluxes and the microbial community structure in Patagonian waters will allow understanding future scenarios of rapid glacier melting. This research was funded

  18. Mismatch between classroom furniture and anthropometric measures in Chilean schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellucci, H I; Arezes, P M; Viviani, C A

    2010-07-01

    Children spend about five hours per day sitting down while doing their school work. Considering this as well as the potential inadequate use of school furniture, it is likely that some anatomical-functional changes and problems in the learning process may occur. The aim of this study was to compare furniture sizes within three different schools with the anthropometric characteristics of Chilean students in the Valparaíso region, in order to evaluate the potential mismatch between them. The sample consisted of 195 volunteer students (94 male, 101 female) of the 8th grade, ranging from 12.5 to 14.5 years of age from 3 different schools. Regarding the methodology, 6 anthropometric measures (Stature, Popliteal height, Buttock-popliteal length, Elbow height while sitting, Hip width, Thigh thickness and Subscapular height) were gathered, as well as 8 dimensions from the school furniture. For the evaluation of classroom furniture a match criterion equation was defined. After considering the existing classroom furniture dimensions in each match criterion equation, the anthropometric characteristics of the considered population were compared in order to determine the mismatch between them. Results indicated that seat height, which should be considered as the starting point for the design of classroom furniture, was appropriate for students' popliteal height in only 14% of the 2 out of the 3 schools, and 28% in the third. Seat to desk height was too high and mismatched 99% of the students in one school and 100% in the others. Therefore, it was possible to conclude that the classroom's furniture was inadequate in almost all the analyzed cases and subjects. It is possible that the high mismatch percentage found between furniture and students' anthropometry can be associated to the fact that the acquisition and selection of the furniture was made without any ergonomic concern or criteria.

  19. Analysis of the development of global capture fishery and aquaculture production

    OpenAIRE

    Algayd, Abdelhamid Alhadi

    2011-01-01

    Global production from capture fisheries and aquaculture and the food fish supply is currently the highest on record and remains very significant for global food security. This study is focused on the contribution of the aquaculture to the global production of fish, crustaceans, molluscs, and other aquatic animals in the short-time observation from 2000- 2008. The aim of the presented PhD. Thesis title "Analysis of The Development of Global Capture Fish and Aquaculture Production (200-2008)" ...

  20. Feeding ecology of penaeid shrimp in Kenyan mangrove ecosystems: implications for biological shrimp aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Gatune, W.C.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological shrimp aquaculture derives its feed input from the naturally occurring food sources. This practice has an environmental advantage of reducing the use of fish meal as the main food input. Use of fish meal in aquaculture has a negative effect on the coastal fisheries in the sense of depleting fish stocks. It also has a tendency to discharge wastes that pollutes the receiving coastal ecosystems. Ecological shrimp aquaculture therefore impacts low burden to the coastal ecosystems since...

  1. The use of yeast as single-cell protein in aquacultural diets

    OpenAIRE

    Coutteau, P. (Peter); Lavens, P.

    1989-01-01

    Aquaculture is becoming more and more an industrial practice. However, feed cost, which may mount up to around 30% of the total operating costs still appears to be one of the major constraints for further expansion of aquaculture. Due to the relatively inexpensive mass-production of yeasts, serious efforts have been made to evaluate the incorporation of these Single-Cell Proteins in aquaculture diets. The aim of this communication is to review the most important results obtained with yeast di...

  2. Life Cycle Assessment for environmentally sustainable aquaculture management : a case study of combined aquaculture systems for carp and tilapia

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was applied to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with two-net cage aquaculture systems of common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in the Cirata reservoir, Indonesia. The studied system included fingerling production in hatcheries, fish rearing in cages, and transport of fry and feed as well as that of harvested fish to markets. The environmental impact indicators were calculated based on the annual production i...

  3. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy in aquaculture: photoinactivation studies of Vibrio fischeri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Alves

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT combines light, a light-absorbing molecule that initiates a photochemical or photophysical reaction, and oxygen. The combined action of these three components originates reactive oxygen species that lead to microorganisms' destruction. The aim was to evaluate the efficiency of PACT on Vibrio fischeri: 1 with buffer solution, varying temperature, pH, salinity and oxygen concentration values; 2 with aquaculture water, to reproduce photoinactivation (PI conditions in situ. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To monitor the PI kinetics, the bioluminescence of V. fischeri was measured during the experiments. A tricationic meso-substituted porphyrin (Tri-Py(+-Me-PF was used as photosensitizer (5 µM in the studies with buffer solution and 10-50 µM in the studies with aquaculture water; artificial white light (4 mW cm(-2 and solar irradiation (40 mW cm(-2 were used as light sources; and the bacterial concentration used for all experiments was ≈10(7 CFU mL(-1 (corresponding to a bioluminescence level of 10(5 relative light units--RLU. The variations in pH (6.5-8.5, temperature (10-25°C, salinity (20-40 g L(-1 and oxygen concentration did not significantly affect the PI of V. fischeri, once in all tested conditions the bioluminescent signal decreased to the detection limit of the method (≈7 log reduction. The assays using aquaculture water showed that the efficiency of the process is affected by the suspended matter. Total PI of V. fischeri in aquaculture water was achieved under solar light in the presence of 20 µM of Tri-Py(+-Me-PF. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: If PACT is to be used in environmental applications, the matrix containing target microbial communities should be previously characterized in order to establish an efficient protocol having into account the photosensitizer concentration, the light source and the total light dose delivered. The possibility of using solar light in PACT to

  4. You will never again be a Chilean like the others : From diaspora to diasporic practices among Chilean refugees returning from exile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurid Aga Askeland

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on repatriation of refugees who came to Norway after the coup d'état in Chile in 1973. The Chilean refugees formed part of a diaspora during exile. The authors’ concern is the returnees' relationship with the diaspora upon return. The purpose of the article is to discuss whether the notion of diaspora may contribute to an understanding of the situation of the returnees. Diaspora is widely used in migration studies, although the concept is not particularly related to studies on refugees and their return. The article is based on interviews with Chilean returnees from Norwegian exile. The authors argue that their situation may be best understood as one of continued diasporic identity and diasporic consciousness.

  5. Baseline study of US industry solar exports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobius, T M; Levi, R S; Bereny, J A

    1980-10-01

    This study is a detailed aggregate profile of US solar export activity in 1979 based on a survey of all segments of the solar industry. It identifies the dollar volume of exports by technology: (1) solar heating and cooling products; (2) wind products; (3) photovoltaics; (4) solar thermal electric; (5) OTEC and biomass; and (6) support products and services. The study offers to government and industry groups, for the first time, comprehensive information with which to formulate export goals and assistance measures based on the current realities of the solar export marketplace. Specific and aggregate recommendations which can lead to identification of realistic solar export opportunities and development of solar export markets are included.

  6. Price and Income Elasticities of Russian Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardina Algieri

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper gauges export demand elasticities for Russia using an Error Correction technique within a cointegration framework. An extended version of the Imperfect Substitutes Model has been implemented to estimate the sensitivity of Russian exports without oil components to price and to Russian and world income. Our results suggest a robust and negative long run cointegration relationship between the real effective exchange rate, defined as the weighted average of the rouble’s exchange rates versus a basket of the three currencies with the largest share in the trade turnover adjusted to incorporate inflation rate differences (the ratio of the domestic price indices to the foreign price indices, and Russian exports. An increase in exports by 24% is caused by a real depreciation by 10%. Furthermore, a 10% growth in world income leads to a 33% rise in exports. Finally, exports drop by 14% whenever a 10% increase in domestic income occurs

  7. Land-based salmon aquacultures change the quality and bacterial degradation of riverine dissolved organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamjunke, Norbert; Nimptsch, Jorge; Harir, Mourad; Herzsprung, Peter; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Neu, Thomas R.; Graeber, Daniel; Osorio, Sebastian; Valenzuela, Jose; Carlos Reyes, Juan; Woelfl, Stefan; Hertkorn, Norbert

    2017-03-01

    Aquacultures are of great economic importance worldwide but pollute pristine headwater streams, lakes, and estuaries. However, there are no in-depth studies of the consequences of aquacultures on dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition and structure. We performed a detailed molecular level characterization of aquaculture DOM quality and its bacterial degradation using four salmon aquacultures in Chile. Fluorescence measurements, ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the DOM revealed specific and extensive molecular alterations caused by aquacultures. Aquacultures released large quantities of readily bioavailable metabolites (primarily carbohydrates and peptides/proteins, and lipids), causing the organic matter downstream of all the investigated aquacultures to deviate strongly from the highly processed, polydisperse and molecularly heterogeneous DOM found in pristine rivers. However, the upstream individual catchment DOM signatures remained distinguishable at the downstream sites. The benthic algal biovolume decreased and the bacterial biovolume and production increased downstream of the aquacultures, shifting stream ecosystems to a more heterotrophic state and thus impairing the ecosystem health. The bacterial DOM degradation rates explain the attenuation of aquaculture DOM within the subsequent stream reaches. This knowledge may aid the development of improved waste processing facilities and may help to define emission thresholds to protect sensitive stream ecosystems.

  8. Should Australia Export its Native Birds?

    OpenAIRE

    Kingwell, Ross S.

    1994-01-01

    Commercial export from Australia of native birds, wild or captive bred, is prohibited. This paper firstly describes the current legislation and regulations that restrict the export of native birds and discusses why governments have adopted such a regulatory approach to bird species preservation. Secondly, the paper reviews the debate concerning the export ban, pointing out strengths and weaknesses in arguments and indicating the important role of CITES. Lastly, the paper outlines a new case f...

  9. Effective Border Tax Adjustments for Export Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn P. Jenkins; Chun-Yan Kuo

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we address the administration issues associated with the most important border tax adjustments for export expansion. These relate to the refund of input tax credits under the VAT and the relief from customs duties on imported inputs used to produce exports. Such refunds in many developing countries are either not paid in a timely fashion or have been fraudulently overstated in the claims made by exporters. These become impediments that have frequently discouraged foreign invest...

  10. Exporting by Migrants and Indigenous Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Schøtt, Thomas; Pişkinsüt Şengüler, Ece

    2016-01-01

    Migrants may become entrepreneurs in their host countries. They may utilize their dual embeddedness in both the home country and the host country, and also use transnational links to gain a competitive advantage in exporting compared to indigenous entrepreneurs. Migrant entrepreneurs’ advantage may...... around the world was surveyed in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, which reports on migration and exporting. Hierarchical linear modeling shows that migrant entrepreneurs export more than indigenous entrepreneurs, especially in the first generation, and especially among educated and male migrants...

  11. Human Capital and Wages in Exporting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the link between a firms education level, export performance and wages of its workers. We argue that firms may escape intence competition in international markets by using high skilled workers to differentiate their products. This story is consistent with our empirical results....... an export wage premium, but it accrues to workers in firms with high skill intensities.Keywords: Exports, Wages, Human Capital, Rent Sharing, Matched Worker-Firm DataJEL Classification: J30, F10, I20...

  12. Integrated export development under conditions of globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Jatuliavičienė, Gražina

    2010-01-01

    In the dissertation from the holistic point of view are discussed export development peculiarities in the global area. The main aim of the dissertation is the expansion of the export development concept in consideration to the challenges of globalization. Therefore, peculiarities of internationalization and globalization processes and their connections in the context of export development are discussed; alternation of internationalization models under conditions of globalization is evaluated,...

  13. Tax Exportability in Tourism Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohebi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Tax incidence is a basic topic in public economics as the tourism industry is an increasingly major contributor to government revenue. Generally, government taxation objectives are for the purpose of financing programs that improve people’s lives and economic prosperity, accelerate economic growth and allow for access to sustainable development. In the first view, tax policy decisions by government are based on their effects on the distribution of economic welfare. Therefore, to provide incentives for governments to select a suitable tax policy, exportability of tax is important. Hotel room tax is one of the main parts of tourism tax. Despite the importance of tax for government, it seems that the exportability of hotel room tax is still not well known. Therefore, understanding the counteraction of foreign visitors with respect to its main factors is important for the Malaysian government and tourism management. To achieve these aims, this study examines tax incidence effects on the tourism market. Approach: We use hotel room as representative of tourism market. Quarterly data from 1995-2009 are used and a dynamic model of simultaneous equation is employed. Results: Our results indicate that in the short run supply is elastic and demand is inelastic.But in the long run both demand and supply are elastic to price. Conclusion: Based the results if the government imposes one ringgit (Malaysian currency tax on hotel room price, the tourist contribution is more than 89 and 74% in the short run and long run respectively. Hence, we conclude that the Malaysian tourism market is exportable. Our results also indicate that tax on hotel has no negative social effects in the short run.

  14. International Marketing Strategies and the relationship with the export performance and export marketing orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Dalmoro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to identify the relationship between marketing strategies of exporting Taquari Valley firms with the export performance and export market orientation. To achieve the goal sought proposed is the development of theoretical benchmark, made up items strategies for international marketing, export performance and export market orientation. In epistemological level was conducted a survey, applying for a questionnaire to a sample of 25 exporting companies that have industrial activities, chosen in a not probabilistic manner. Finally, it was observed that the key decisions on how to act in various markets in terms of strategies for international marketing - satisfaction with the internal market, international consistency, adaptation and localization level of the strategies - have relationship with the export market orientation and the export performance of studied companies.

  15. 75 FR 52505 - Fiscal Year 2011 Veterinary Import/Export Services, Veterinary Diagnostic Services, and Export...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Fiscal Year 2011 Veterinary Import/Export Services, Veterinary... plasm, organisms, and vectors; for certain veterinary diagnostic services; and for export certification... information on Veterinary Diagnostic program operations, contact Dr. Elizabeth Lautner, Director,...

  16. Markups and Firm-Level Export Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Loecker, Jan; Warzynski, Frederic

    We derive an estimating equation to estimate markups using the insight of Hall (1986) and the control function approach of Olley and Pakes (1996). We rely on our method to explore the relationship between markups and export behavior using plant-level data. We find significantly higher markups when...... we control for unobserved productivity shocks. Furthermore, we find significant higher markups for exporting firms and present new evidence on markup-export status dynamics. More specifically, we find that firms' markups significantly increase (decrease) after entering (exiting) export markets. We...

  17. ROMANIAN EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS ON THE EUROPEAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Clipa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Exports of a nation can form a large part of its commercial card on the international market. Global consumer, according to the quality of exports, may associate a certain image about the country of origin. This article aims at explaining the relationship between exports and competitiveness of a nation, the analysis focuses on the nature and intensity of intra-Community exports of Romania. To this end we considered a number of performance indicators that are able to reveal the positioning of trade from Romania to the EU.

  18. Human Capital and Wages in Exporting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    This paper studies the link between a firms education level, export performance and wages of its workers. We argue that firms may escape intense competition in international markets by using high skilled workers to differentiate their products. This story is consistent with our empirical results....... Using a very rich matched worker-firm longitudinal dataset we find that firms with high export intensities pay higher wages. However, an interaction term between export intensity and skill intensity has a positive impact on wages and it absorbs the direct effect of the export intensity. That is, we find...

  19. Prioritization and Ranking Problems Exporting Iranian Saffron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Askandari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to prioritize and rank problems exporting Iranian saffron. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature on issues related to data and information collected from questionnaires, with 816% reliability is used. In this study, the sample of managers and sales and marketing company is exporting Iranian saffron is the sample size of 231 subjects. The results of this study are positive and significant relationship between the dependent variable and the independent variables of export performance of export barriers exist.

  20. Design and Application of a Solar Mobile Pond Aquaculture Water Quality-Regulation Machine Based in Bream Pond Aquaculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingguo Liu

    Full Text Available Bream pond aquaculture plays a very important role in China's aquaculture industry and is the main source of aquatic products. To regulate and control pond water quality and sediment, a movable solar pond aquaculture water quality regulation machine (SMWM was designed and used. This machine is solar-powered and moves on water, and its primary components are a solar power supply device, a sediment lifting device, a mechanism for walking on the water's surface and a control system. The solar power supply device provides power for the machine, and the water walking mechanism drives the machine's motion on the water. The sediment lifting device orbits the main section of the machine and affects a large area of the pond. Tests of the machine's mechanical properties revealed that the minimum illumination necessary for the SMWM to function is 13,000 Lx and that its stable speed on the water is 0.02-0.03 m/s. For an illumination of 13,000-52,500 Lx, the sediment lifting device runs at 0.13-0.35 m/s, and its water delivery capacity is 110-208 m(3/h. The sediment lifting device is able to fold away, and the angle of the suction chamber can be adjusted, making the machine work well in ponds at different water depths from 0.5 m to 2 m. The optimal distance from the sediment lifting device to the bottom of the pond is 10-15 cm. In addition, adjusting the length of the connecting rod and the direction of the traction rope allows the SMWM to work in a pond water area greater than 80%. The analysis of water quality in Wuchang bream (Parabramis pekinensis and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix culture ponds using the SMWM resulted in decreased NH3(+-N and available phosphorus concentrations and increased TP concentrations. The TN content and the amount of available phosphorus in the sediment were reduced. In addition, the fish production showed that the SMWM enhanced the yields of Wuchang bream and silver carp by more than 30% and 24%, respectively. These

  1. Design and Application of a Solar Mobile Pond Aquaculture Water Quality-Regulation Machine Based in Bream Pond Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingguo; Xu, Hao; Ma, Zhuojun; Zhang, Yongjun; Tian, Changfeng; Cheng, Guofeng; Zou, Haisheng; Lu, Shimin; Liu, Shijing; Tang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Bream pond aquaculture plays a very important role in China's aquaculture industry and is the main source of aquatic products. To regulate and control pond water quality and sediment, a movable solar pond aquaculture water quality regulation machine (SMWM) was designed and used. This machine is solar-powered and moves on water, and its primary components are a solar power supply device, a sediment lifting device, a mechanism for walking on the water's surface and a control system. The solar power supply device provides power for the machine, and the water walking mechanism drives the machine's motion on the water. The sediment lifting device orbits the main section of the machine and affects a large area of the pond. Tests of the machine's mechanical properties revealed that the minimum illumination necessary for the SMWM to function is 13,000 Lx and that its stable speed on the water is 0.02-0.03 m/s. For an illumination of 13,000-52,500 Lx, the sediment lifting device runs at 0.13-0.35 m/s, and its water delivery capacity is 110-208 m(3)/h. The sediment lifting device is able to fold away, and the angle of the suction chamber can be adjusted, making the machine work well in ponds at different water depths from 0.5 m to 2 m. The optimal distance from the sediment lifting device to the bottom of the pond is 10-15 cm. In addition, adjusting the length of the connecting rod and the direction of the traction rope allows the SMWM to work in a pond water area greater than 80%. The analysis of water quality in Wuchang bream (Parabramis pekinensis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) culture ponds using the SMWM resulted in decreased NH3(+)-N and available phosphorus concentrations and increased TP concentrations. The TN content and the amount of available phosphorus in the sediment were reduced. In addition, the fish production showed that the SMWM enhanced the yields of Wuchang bream and silver carp by more than 30% and 24%, respectively. These results

  2. Export Readiness Assessment of Ten Iranian Pharmaceutical Companies and Comparison with their Export Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Mohammadzadeh, Mohammad Poloee, Tayebeh Ghari

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the area of exporting, in developing countries, including Iran, the concept of export readiness is unknown to many decision makers and field of activity of Iranian pharmaceutical companies have been limited to the domestic market. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to compare the export performance of ten Iranian pharmaceutical companies with their export readiness. Methods: In order to do this, the top ten of Iranian pharmaceutical companies were selected as the sa...

  3. Foreign Direct Investment and Electronics Exports: Exploratory Empirical Evidence from Malaysia's Top Five Electronics Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Tuck Cheong Tang; Koi Nyen Wong

    2007-01-01

    The foreign direct investment (FDI) has contributed significantly to Malaysia's electronics exports as well as the growth and development of the electronics industry as a result of the export-oriented industrialization initiatives undertaken since 1970s. The aim of this study is to explore the causation between FDI and electronics exports by using Malaysia''s top five electronics exports by SITC (Standard International Trade Classification) product groups. The findings show a bi-directional c...

  4. 78 FR 53727 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Northwest Fruit Exporters, Application No. 84-24A12. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Northwest Fruit Exporters...

  5. 78 FR 1837 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Northwest Fruit Exporters, Application No. 84-23A12. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Northwest Fruit Exporters...

  6. 22 CFR 125.1 - Exports subject to this part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exports subject to this part. 125.1 Section 125... EXPORT OF TECHNICAL DATA AND CLASSIFIED DEFENSE ARTICLES § 125.1 Exports subject to this part. (a) The controls of this part apply to the export of technical data and the export of classified defense...

  7. 21 CFR 1312.23 - Issuance of export permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Issuance of export permit. 1312.23 Section 1312.23... CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exportation of Controlled Substances § 1312.23 Issuance of export permit. (a) The... regulation in § 1312.30 of this part be exported only pursuant to the issuance of an export permit....

  8. 21 CFR 1312.22 - Application for export permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for export permit. 1312.22 Section... EXPORTATION OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exportation of Controlled Substances § 1312.22 Application for export permit. (a) An application for a permit to export controlled substances shall be made on DEA Form...

  9. 10 CFR 590.208 - Small volume exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small volume exports. 590.208 Section 590.208 Energy... WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Applications for Authorization To Import or Export Natural Gas § 590.208 Small volume exports. Any person may export up to 100,000 cubic feet of natural...

  10. 7 CFR 1488.9 - Evidence of export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence of export. 1488.9 Section 1488.9 Agriculture... Export Sales of Agricultural Commodities From Private Stocks Under CCC Export Credit Sales Program (GSM-5) Documents Required for Financing § 1488.9 Evidence of export. (a) If the commodity is exported by rail...

  11. 75 FR 44761 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... opportunities for sales of canned salmon in the Export Markets, selling strategies for the Export Markets, sales... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application for an Export Trade Certificate of Review From Canned Wild Salmon Export Council, LLC (``CWSEC''). SUMMARY:...

  12. 77 FR 58809 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... Operation described below in the following Export Trade and Export Markets. Export Trade COL-RICE plans to... Export Trade Activities and Methods of Operation: 1. Purpose: COL-RICE will manage on an open tender..., incluso pulido o glaseado); 1006.4000--broken rice (arroz partido). Export Market The Republic of...

  13. External Technical Support for School Improvement: Critical Issues from the Chilean Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osses, Alejandra; Bellei, Cristián; Valenzuela, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    To what extent school improvement processes can be initiated and sustained from the outside has been a relevant question for policy-makers seeking to increase quality in education. Since 2008, the Chilean Government is strongly promoting the use of external technical support (ETS) services to support school improvement processes, as part of the…

  14. Chilean Adolescents' and Parents' Views on Autonomy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, M. Loreto; Pérez, J. Carola; Cumsille, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to understand Chilean parents' and adolescents' conceptions of autonomy and whether they hold different expectations for autonomous behaviors by generation and socioeconomic level. A qualitative approach to data collection was used through separate focus groups of parents and adolescents from different socioeconomic…

  15. HLA-B*5701 frequency in Chilean HIV-infected patients and in general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Poggi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that HLA-B*5701 screening reduces the risk for hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir in HIV-infected patients. Since B*5701 prevalence varies among different populations, it is important to determine the carrier frequency prior to its use for the screening of HIV-infected patients.The aim of this study was to determine HLA-B*5701 carrier frequency in Chilean general population and HIV-infected patients referred for B*5701 typing. For that purpose 300 blood bank donors and 492 abacavir-naïve HIV-infected patients from Chile were screened for B*5701 by a sequence specific primer PCR.We detected 14/300 (4.7% B*57-positive individuals in the Chilean general population, 11 (3.7% were B*5701 positive, and 3 (1% had another subtype.All were heterozygous,thus a B*5701 allele frequency of 2% was determined.Eleven of 492 (2.2 % HIV-patients carried a B*5701 allele. The difference between these frequencies is probably due to slow progression of HIV infection in HLA-B*5701 carriers, thus less patients would require antiretroviral therapy and B*5701 typing. Considering the usefulness of B*5701 screening, its prevalence in the Chilean general population,and the availability of a validated method,we conclude that HLA-B*5701 typing in Chilean HIV-infected patients about to initiate abacavir treatment is strongly recommended

  16. Bruises in Chilean cattle: their characterization, occurrence and relation with pre-slaughter conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strappini, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    Bruises on cattle carcass affect the quality of the meat and are indicators of poor welfare conditions. According to the literature the occurrence of bruises is related to pre- slaughter conditions, however their contribution is not clear for Chilean cattle. The aim of this thesis was to provide a b

  17. The Class and Culture-Based Exclusion of the Chilean Neoliberal Educational Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavieres, Eduardo A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I analyze the class- and cultural-based exclusion produced by the Chilean neoliberal educational reform, carried out during the period from 1990 to 2010. This educational reform follows the same neoliberal model applied to the economy of the country. Although some indicators improved in relation to coverage and public spending in…

  18. The Long Journey: Perspectives on the Coordination of Chilean Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, José M.; Leihy, Peodair S.

    2017-01-01

    It is fairly established that Chilean higher education presents a high level of Habermasian "privatism," as long labeled by José Joaquin Brunner, being among the world's most privatized systems in terms of who pays, who is held to benefit directly from its action and who controls it. Less clear, however, is the contribution of public…

  19. Level of evidence and geographic origin of articles published in Chilean dental journals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Moraga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the geographic origin and level of evidence (LE of articles published in Chilean dental journals during 2012. The target population for the bibliometric study was articles published in exclusively-scientific Chilean dental journals. These variables were analyzed: journal, area, language, country, region, design, scenario, and LE. A total of 120 articles were published in four journals: International Journal of Odontostomatology (IJOS=59, Revista Clínica de Periodoncia, Implantología y Rehabilitación Oral (PIRO=28, Journal of Oral Research (JOR=18, and Revista Dental de Chile (RDC=15. From the total, 80.83% were published in Spanish and 70% had a Chilean affiliation. Most publications corresponded to areas of pathology (21 others (20 and prosthodontics (20. None of the articles was Level 1 Evidence, 6.49% was 2b, 14.29% was 2c, 63.64% was 4, and 15.58% was 5. Chilean dental journals mainly publish articles of domestic origin and low LE.

  20. Morphology, anatomy and histology of Doto uva Marcus, 1955 (Opisthobranchia: Nudibranchia) from the Chilean coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, M.A.; Velde, van der G.; Roubos, E.W.

    2006-01-01

    Doto uva Marcus, 1955 is a nudibranch species recorded from the Brazilian and Chilean coast. In spite of its wide distribution, D. uva has been described only superficially, mainly as to the pattern of its coloration, external morphology, radular teeth and reproductive system. Here we substantially

  1. Remaking Education from Below: The Chilean Student Movement as Public Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jo

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the Chilean student movement and its ten-year struggle for public education as an example of public pedagogy. Secondary and university students, along with the parents, teachers, workers and community members who have supported them, have engaged in the most sustained political activism seen in Chile since the democratic…

  2. The Impact of Powerful Oral Language Lab on Chilean EFL Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Hsuying Chiou; Andruske, Cynthia Lee

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory qualitative case study reports the impact of using a public-speaking structure (Powerful Oral Language Lab [POLL]) in teaching preservice Chilean English pedagogy students. It describes how this task-based method of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teacher training is related to language strategic competence. Twenty students…

  3. Educational Effectiveness in Chilean Secondary Education: Comparing Different "Value Added" Approaches to Evaluate Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Chereau, B.; Thomas, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports an original investigation into school performance measures and the multilevel nature of pupil achievement data in the Chilean school system using a sample of 177,461 students, nested within 7146 classrooms, 2283 secondary schools and 313 municipalities. The data-set comprised Year 10 students' 2006 SIMCE test's results in two…

  4. Eating Disorders among a Community-Based Sample of Chilean Female Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granillo, M. Teresa; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders among a community-based sample of female Chilean adolescents. Data were collected through structured interviews with 420 female adolescents residing in Santiago, Chile. Approximately 4% of the sample reported ever being diagnosed with an eating disorder.…

  5. [Recommendations for Chilean travelers to the FIFA World Cup 2014 in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret, Cecilia; Weitzel, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    This article provides a checklist of precautions and vaccines for Chilean travelers attending the FIFA World Cup 2014 in Brazil. It aims to help physicians to prepare visitors of this mass gathering and summarizes useful hints to avoid infectious diseases considering the circumstances and availabilities in Chile.

  6. The Chilean miracle : patrimonialism in a modern free-market democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peppelenbos, L.P.C.

    2005-01-01

    International policy institutions claim that Chile's remarkable economic performance testifies to the merits of a neo-liberal development model. This book argues, however, that 'the Chilean miracle' did not result from the adoption ofneoliberalismitself, but from the persis

  7. Bringing the Schools Back in: The Stratification of Educational Achievement in the Chilean Voucher System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizala, Alejandra; Torche, Florencia

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the socioeconomic stratification of achievement in the Chilean voucher system using a census of 4th and 8th graders, a multilevel methodology, and accounting for unobserved selectivity into school sector. Findings indicate that the association between the school's aggregate family socioeconomic status (SES) and test scores is…

  8. Draft Genome of Chilean Honeybee (Apis mellifera) Gut Strain Lactobacillus kunkeei MP2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, Alejandro; Henríquez-Piskulich, Patricia; Sanchez, Carolina; Rojas-Herrera, Marcelo; Moreno-Pino, Mario; Gómez, Marcela; Rodríguez Da Silva, Rafael; Maracaja-Coutinho, Vinicius; Aldea, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the first draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus kunkeei strain MP2, isolated from a Chilean honeybee gut. The sequenced genome has a total size of 1.58 Mb distributed into 44 contigs and 1,356 protein-coding sequences. PMID:25301653

  9. 78 FR 18814 - Amendment to the Export Administration Regulations: List of Items Classified Under Export Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Part 774 RIN 0694-AF73 Amendment to the Export Administration Regulations: List of Items Classified Under Export Control Classification 0Y521 Series--Biosensor Systems... specified biosensor systems, ``software'' and ``technology'' under Export Control Classification...

  10. Package power stations for export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The cheap and efficient generation of power is an essential requirement for the success and prosperity of any community and is especially important to third world countries. It is therefore logical that the more technologically advanced nations should seek to produce power stations for the developing countries. Power plant can now be designed into a packaged form that may be readily exported and commissioned. This valuable and interesting collection of papers were originally presented at a seminar organised by the Power Industries Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Topics considered include the developing world market for packaged power stations using indigenous fuels; multi-fuel systems for power generation; packaging, modularisation, and containerisation of equipment for power boilers for export; compact coal-fired industrial plant; rural woodburning power stations; biomass gasification based power generation technology and potential; gas fed reciprocating engine development; packaged heavy duty gas turbines for power generation; and criteria for assessing the appropriateness of package power technologies in developing countries.

  11. FACTORES DE ÉXITO EN PROVEEDORES DE BIENES MANUFACTURADOS DE LA SALMONICULTURA CHILENA SUCCESS FACTORS IN SUPPLIERS OF MANUFACTURES WITHIN THE CHILEAN SALMON INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Torres Fuchslocher

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza, en base a un trabajo empírico, los principales factores a nivel de la empresa que han determinado el éxito de los proveedores locales de manufacturas, en términos de participación de mercado, en el cluster del salmón en Chile. La investigación envolvió un levantamiento de material empírico a través de 50 entrevistas, las cuales fueron evaluadas cualitativamente y por medio de un análisis econométrico de corte transversal, usando variables explicativas cualitativas. Los resultados destacan la especialización sectorial, la innovación en productos especializados para la industria y la cooperación horizontal, dentro de la estrategia de entrada; y la antigüedad de la empresa, la capacidad de innovación interna, la capacidad financiera (capacidad de otorgar crédito a clientes y bajo nivel de endeudamiento y la diversificación de la cartera productos, dentro de la competitividad previa, como determinantes del éxito de los proveedores.This article analyses the main factors at the firm-level which have determined the success, in terms of market share, of manufacture suppliers within the Chilean salmon industry. The analysis is based on data collected in an empirical research that included 50 interviews with suppliers. The data was evaluated through both a qualitative analysis and a cross section econometric analysis. The results show the importance of sectoral specialization, the innovation on specialized products for the aquaculture industry and horizontal cooperation within the entry strategy of firms, whereas the firm's age, the internal innovation capabilities, the own capital and the diversification of product portfolio were the main competitive factors before the entry.

  12. Probabilistic risk assessment of veterinary medicines applied to four major aquaculture species produced in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Andreu; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2014-01-15

    Aquaculture production constitutes one of the main sources of pollution with veterinary medicines into the environment. About 90% of the global aquaculture production is produced in Asia and the potential environmental risks associated with the use of veterinary medicines in Asian aquaculture have not yet been properly evaluated. In this study we performed a probabilistic risk assessment for eight different aquaculture production scenarios in Asia by combining up-to-date information on the use of veterinary medicines and aquaculture production characteristics. The ERA-AQUA model was used to perform mass balances of veterinary medicinal treatments applied to aquaculture ponds and to characterize risks for primary producers, invertebrates, and fish potentially exposed to chemical residues through aquaculture effluents. The mass balance calculations showed that, on average, about 25% of the applied drug mass to aquaculture ponds is released into the environment, although this percentage varies with the chemical's properties, the mode of application, the cultured species density, and the water exchange rates in the aquaculture pond scenario. In general, the highest potential environmental risks were calculated for parasitic treatments, followed by disinfection and antibiotic treatments. Pangasius catfish production in Vietnam, followed by shrimp production in China, constitute possible hot-spots for environmental pollution due to the intensity of the aquaculture production and considerable discharge of toxic chemical residues into surrounding aquatic ecosystems. A risk-based ranking of compounds is provided for each of the evaluated scenarios, which offers crucial information for conducting further chemical and biological field and laboratory monitoring research. In addition, we discuss general knowledge gaps and research priorities for performing refined risk assessments of aquaculture medicines in the near future.

  13. Last millenium environmental changes in Lake Bertrand sediments, Chilean Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacré, V.; Fagel, N.; Schmidt, S.; Alvarez, D.; Araneda, A.; Urrutia, R.

    2012-04-01

    'W). The identification of the diatom assemblages and its temporal variability in both lake sediments will help to identify the origin of those silica-rich layers. In addition, further sedimentological analyses are in progress to better characterize the sediment deposition models. This research was funded by Chilean Fondecyt project number 1070508 and Belgian projects (FNRS proposal 1360 2007-2010, ULg CFRA 1060 2009-2010).

  14. Population genetics of the Chilean frog Batrachyla Leptopus (Leptodactylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Formas

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrophoretic variation of proteins encoded by 14 loci was analyzed in eight (five continental and three insular populations of the Chilean leptodactylid frog Batrachyla leptopus. The overall proportion of polymorphic loci was estimated to be 18.7% and the average number of alleles per locus, 1.2, while observed and expected heterozygosities were 1.7 and 5.1%, respectively. The estimated coefficient of genetic identity was 0.940; the corresponding figure for genetic distance was 0.063. F-statistics analysis showed a total inbreeding coefficient (Fit of 0.855 and high levels of genetic subdivision (Fst = 0.596 as well as of inbreeding within populations (Fis = 0.640. However, there was only a moderate level of genetic differentiation (Fst = 0.181 between the insular group of populations and the continental group.A variação eletroforética de proteínas codificadas por 14 loci foi analisada em oito populações (5 continentais e 3 insulares da rã leptodactilídea chilena Batrachyla leptopus. A proporção geral de loci polimórficos foi estimada como sendo de 18,7% e o número médio de alelos por loco, 1,2, enquanto que as heterozigosidades observada e esperada foram 1,7 e 5,1%, respectivamente. O coeficiente esperado de identidade genética foi 0,940; o número correspondente para a distância genética foi 0,063. A análise estatística F mostrou um coeficiente de endogamia total (Fit de 0,855 e altos níveis de subdivisão genética (Fst = 0,596, assim como de endogamia dentro das populações (Fis = 0,640. Contudo, houve apenas um nível moderado de diferenciação genética (Fst = 0,181 entre o grupo insular de populações e o grupo continental.

  15. Prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian P Mundt

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High rates of mental disorders have been reported for prison populations worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. The present study aimed to establish prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisoners. METHOD: A nationwide random sample of 1008 prisoners was assessed in 7 penal institutions throughout Chile. Twelve-month prevalence rates were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI and compared to the prevalence rates previously published for the general population. RESULTS: Prevalence rates were 12.2% (95% CI, 10.2-14.1 for any substance use disorder, 8.3% (6.6-10.0 for anxiety disorders, 8.1% (6.5-9.8 for affective disorders, 5.7% (4.4-7.1 for intermittent explosive disorders, 2.2% (1.4-3.2 for ADHD of the adult, and 0.8% (0.3-1.3 for non-affective psychoses. Significantly higher prevalence rates among prisoners as compared to the general population in Chile were seen for major depression (6.1% vs. 3.7% males, Z=2.58, p<0.05 and illicit drug use (3.3% vs. 0.6% males with drug abuse, Z=2.04, p<0.05; 2.6% vs. 0.1% females with drug abuse, Z=5.36, p<0.001; 3.4% vs. 1.1% males with drug dependence, Z=3.70; p<0.001. Dysthymia (6.5% vs. 15.6%, Z=-2.39, p<0.05, simple (3.3% vs. 11.5%, Z=-3.13, p<0.001 and social phobias (3.9% vs. 9.7%, Z=2.38, p<0.05 were significantly less frequent in the female prison population than in the general population. One-year prevalence rates of alcohol abuse (2.3% vs. 3.9%; Z=-2.04; p<0.05 and dependence (2.7% vs. 8.2%; Z=-5.24; p<0.001 were less prevalent in the male prison population than in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Service provision for prison populations in Chile should acknowledge high rates of depression and illicit drug use. Overall prevalence rates are lower than reported in other LMICs. Previous research in prison populations in LMICs might have overestimated prevalence rates of mental disorders.

  16. 78 FR 17189 - Trunkline LNG Export, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization to Export Liquefied Natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... Trunkline LNG Export, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization to Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced... January 10, 2013, by Trunkline LNG Export, LLC (TLNG Export), requesting long-term, multi-contract authorization to export domestically produced liquefied natural gas (LNG) in an amount up to of 15...

  17. Do Firms Learn by Exporting or Learn to Export? Evidence from Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Swedish Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Pär; Eliasson, Kent; Lindvert, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Using a matching approach, we compare the productivity trajectories of future exporters and matched and unmatched non-exporters. Future exporters have higher productivity than do unmatched non-exporters before entry into the export market, which indicates self-selection into exports. More interestingly, we also find a productivity increase among future exporters relative to matched non-exporters 1-2 years before export entry. However, the productivity gap between future exporters and matched ...

  18. Using Metadata Description for Agriculture and Aquaculture Papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Šimek, J. Vaněk, V. Očenášek, M. Stočes, T. Vogeltanzova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the most used metadata formats and thesauri suitable for describing scientific and research papers in the domains agriculture, food industry, aquaculture, environment and rural areas. These include the Dublin Core (DC, Metadata Object Description Schema (MODS, Virtual Open Access Agriculture and Aquaculture Repository Metadata Application Profile (VOA3R AP and the AGROVOC thesaurus. Having analyzed the metadata formats and research paper lifecycle, the authors would recommend that each paper should entail metadata description as soon as it is published. The metadata are to describe the content and properties of the paper. One of the most suitable metadata formats is the VOA3R AP that is partially patterned on the DC and combined with the AGROVOC thesaurus. As a result, an effective description, availability and automatic data exchange between and among local and central repositories should be attained.The knowledge and data presented in the present paper were obtained as a result of the following research programs and grant schemes: the Grant No. 20121044 of the Internal Grant Agency titled „Using Automatic Metadata Generation for Research Papers“, the Grant agreement No. 250525 funded by the European Commission corresponding to the VOA3R Project (Virtual Open Access Agriculture & Aquaculture Repository: Sharing Scientific and Scholarly Research related to Agriculture, Food, and Environment, http://voa3r.eu and the Research Program titled „Economy of the Czech Agriculture Resources and their Efficient Use within the Framework of the Multifunctional Agrifood Systems“ of the Czech Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport number VZ MSM 6046070906.

  19. Evaluation on Biofilter in Recirculating Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sumoharjo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture pays more attention as a bio-integrated food production system that serves as a model of sustainable aquaculture, minimizes waste discharge, increases diversity and yields multiple products. The objectives of this research were to analyze the efficiency of total ammonia nitrogen biofiltration and its effect on carrying capacity of fish rearing units. Pilot-scale bioreactor was designed with eight run-raceways (two meters of each that assembled in series. Race 1-3 were used to stock silky worm (Tubifex sp as detrivorous converter, then race 4-8 were used to plant three species of leaf-vegetable as photoautotrophic converters, i.e; spinach (Ipomoea reptana, green mustard (Brassica juncea and basil (Ocimum basilicum. The three plants were placed in randomized block design based on water flow direction. Mass balance of nutrient analysis, was applied to figure out the efficiency of bio-filtration and its effect on carrying capacity of rearing units. The result of the experiment showed that 86.5 % of total ammonia nitrogen removal was achieved in 32 days of culturing period. This efficiency able to support the carrying capacity of the fish tank up to 25.95 kg/lpm with maximum density was 62.69 kg/m3 of fish biomass productionDoi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.80-85 [How to cite this article: Sumoharjo, S.  and Maidie, A. (2013. Evaluation on Biofilter in Recirculating Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture.  International Journal of  Science and Engineering, 4(2,80-85. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.80-85

  20. The Export Promoting Effect of Emigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiller, Sanne

    . This paper provides a first attempt to identify the export-promoting effect of emigration on the firm level. Using detailed Danish firm-level data, we can parsimoniously control for export determinants other than emigration, unobserved heterogeneity at the firm level, as well as for self-selection of firms...

  1. Export potential of Brazilian industrial firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno César Pino Oliveira de Araújo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the recent astonishing export growth in Brazil came from firms which already exported. The export base was not able to grow at the same pace. Since expanding the export base may have several positive effects on firms' productivity and size, in this paper we provide a four-level classification of Brazilian industrial firms according to their potential to export, and we identify a subset of non-exporting firms which are potential exporters. The effects of export stimulating policies may be improved by focusing more closely on these firms.O recente crescimento das exportações no Brasil se baseou fortemente naquelas firmas já exportadoras, e a base exportadora não conseguiu acompanhar o mesmo ritmo de crescimento. Considerando que expandir a base exportadora pode ter efeitos positivos sobre a produtividade e tamanho das firmas, neste artigo classificamos as firmas industriais brasileiras em quatro níveis de acordo com o potencial exportador, e especialmente identificamos um subconjunto de firmas que não exportam mas que são potenciais exportadoras. Os efeitos das políticas de promoção às exportações podem ser maximizados se elas forem focalizadas nestas firmas.

  2. Textile Exports to Japan Witnessing a Downturn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China textile and apparel exports to Japan was witnessing a downturn in all statistics of China Customs and Japan METI in the Jan.-Apr. 2010 period. Exports to Japan this year later will face more pressure as gains in Japan’s consumption could moderate due to a lackluster jobs market and debt crisis.

  3. 27 CFR 28.123 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.123..., or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.123 Export marks. (a) General. In addition... filled under the provisions of part 24 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export”...

  4. 27 CFR 28.103 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.103... Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.103 Export marks. (a) General. In addition to the marks and brands required... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side...

  5. 27 CFR 28.144 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.144... § 28.144 Export marks. (a) General Requirement. In addition to the marks and brands required to be... brewer shall mark the word “Export” on each container or case of beer, or the words “Beer concentrate...

  6. 27 CFR 28.216 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.216... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on packages or other bulk... “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government head of each container before removal...

  7. Exports and firm profitability: Quality matters!

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a tailor-made newly available data set to investigate for the first time the links between profitability and the quality of exports in enterprises from manufacturing industries in Germany, one of the leading actors on the world market for goods. The paper demonstrates that exporters of high-quality goods tend to be more profitable.

  8. The Export Quotas for Next Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>China’s Ministry of Commerce recently announced the 2006 export quotas for some metals commodities. According to the document, China’s export quotas for tungsten and its products will be 15,800 tons. For antimony and its products, the quotas will be

  9. 9 CFR 352.16 - Exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exports. 352.16 Section 352.16 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION... CERTIFICATION EXOTIC ANIMALS AND HORSES; VOLUNTARY INSPECTION Exotic Animals § 352.16 Exports. This shall...

  10. Risk in A Concentrated Export Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The export destination of China’s home textile products are considered to be highly concentrated. This is reflected by the statistical data of the past couple of years when, the top export destination of the following products-bedding products, curtain and towel- is United States.

  11. 7 CFR 945.14 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 945.14 Section 945.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.14 Export....

  12. The Decline in China Textile Exports Narrowed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This is a crucial moment for China’s textile export industry, which is in the midst of deep economic downturn. In the January-Novem- ber 2009 period, the decline in accumulated textile and apparel exports was being constantly reduced and the tendency of rebound is

  13. 40 CFR 273.56 - Exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exports. 273.56 Section 273.56 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Universal Waste Transporters § 273.56 Exports. A universal...

  14. China Not the Only Rare Earth Exporter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Since China announced it was reducing exports of rare earth,there have been continuous voices in the international community demanding China expand exports or seek alternative resources.The United States has also complained to the WTO that China is hoarding the commodity.

  15. 7 CFR 958.14 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 958.14 Section 958.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.14 Export....

  16. Home Textile Exports Show Recovery Signs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this article we have analysed the export performance of Chinese main home textile products, including bedding products, carpet, curtain and towel based on official export data during the first eight months of 2010.Let’s first look at the background. The growth in China’s manufacturing

  17. The Silver Export Quota for 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>China’s Ministry of Commerce recently announced the first lot of silver export quota for 2005. According to report, the first lot of silver export quota amounts to 2,443 tons which is 252 tons more on 2004 basis. There are 37 en-

  18. 77 FR 73627 - 2012 LNG Export Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2012-29894] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 2012 LNG Export Study AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of availability of 2012 LNG Export Study and request for comments. Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. [FE Docket No. 10-161-LNG] and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC. Lake Charles...

  19. 27 CFR 24.292 - Exported wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exported wine. 24.292... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.292 Exported wine. (a) General. Wine may be removed from a bonded wine premises without payment of...

  20. 75 FR 69573 - Export Enforcement Coordination Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ..., employees, or agents, or any other person. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, November 9, 2010. [FR Doc... Documents#0;#0; ] Executive Order 13558 of November 9, 2010 Export Enforcement Coordination Center By the... Homeland Security for administrative purposes, an interagency Federal Export Enforcement...