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Sample records for chilean agricultural exports

  1. TRADE POLICY AND MAJOR TRENDS IN CHILEAN EXPORTS UNDER DEMOCRACY, 1990-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Llorca-Jaña

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with trade policy and the principal trends in Chilean exports after the return to democracy in 1990. During this period, both exports and imports expanded significantly in Chile. As far as exports are concerned, this boom is mainly due to an effective trade policy of additive regionalism, booming copper prices, export diversification and the economic dynamism of China, the principal beneficiary of Chilean exports. On the negative side, the country is still too dependant on copper and a few other primary products. In addition, nowadays, in relative terms Chile is exporting more copper minerals and less refined copper than it used to do in the 1990s, while Chilean exports remained highly concentrated in a few companies only, many of which belong to foreign nationals.

  2. Variation in implementation of corporate social responsibility practices in emerging economies' firms: A survey of Chilean fruit exporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerkx, L.W.A.; Villalobos, P.; Engler, A.

    2012-01-01

    As in many sectors in emerging economies, the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become important for exporting agri-food firms in view of their integration in global supply chains. The purpose of this research was to assess the implementation by Chilean fruit exporters of CSR prac

  3. Shandong Agricultural Products Exports: Growth, Problems and Countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    Bing Li

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the reasons of the export growth for the Shandong agricultural products which can be attributed to the Shandong agricultural export enterprises’ efforts and Shandong provincial government’s strong supports. Though Shandong agricultural products exports achieved a big success all over the China, there are still some internal problems and external constraints that hinder its further and sustainable developments. Existing main problems for the exports of Shandong agricultural...

  4. Virtual water exported from Californian agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, K. A.; Johansson, E. L.

    2015-12-01

    In an increasingly teleconnected world, international trade drives the exchange of virtual land and water as crops produced in one region are consumed in another. In theory, this can be an optimal use of scarce resources if crops are grown where they can most efficiently be produced. Several recent analyses examine the export of land and water from food production in developing countries where these resources may be more abundant. Here we focus on a developed region and examine the virtual export of land and water from California, the leading agricultural state in the US and the leading global producer of a wide range of fruit, nut, and other specialty crops. As the region faces a serious, ongoing drought, water use is being questioned, and water policy governance re-examined, particularly in the agricultural sector which uses over three-quarters of water appropriations in the state. We look at the blue water embodied in the most widely grown crops in California and use network analysis to examine the trading patterns for flows of virtual land and water. We identify the main crops and export partners representing the majority of water exports. Considered in the context of tradeoffs for land and water resources, we highlight the challenges and opportunities for food production systems to play a sustainable role in meeting human needs while protecting the life-support systems of the planet.

  5. The Agricultural Export Competitiveness and Independent Innovation in Liaoning Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guimin; WANG; Haixian; XIA

    2013-01-01

    Through the vertical and horizontal analysis of agricultural export data in Liaoning Province during the period 2006-2010,we can find that Liaoning Province has already a major exporter of agricultural products,but there is no significant increase in many indicators with great fluctuation or declining trend. Meanwhile,compared with other provinces,the competitive advantages of agricultural export in Liaoning Province are not obvious,lacking competitive potential. Analysis shows that it is a strenuous task for Liaoning Province to transform from a major exporter of agricultural products to strong export province; during the course,relying on independent innovation is the fundamental guarantee. Liaoning Province should rely on independent innovation,to create new agricultural varieties,lead the international standards of agricultural products,form the brand agriculture,and improve the agricultural industry chain.

  6. Causality between Indian Exports, Imports, and Agricultural, Manufacturing GDP.

    OpenAIRE

    László Kónya; Jai Pal Singh

    2007-01-01

    Singh and Kónya (2006) studied the relationship between Indian GDP, exports, and imports from 1950/51 to 2003/2004. A logical further step is to investigate the same issue for two major sectors of the Indian economy: agriculture and manufacturing. In both sectors there is evidence of Granger causality between GDP and total exports, imports. In particular, agricultural GDP causes imports, exports cause agricultural GDP, and any two variables jointly cause the third one. There is also some evid...

  7. A STUDY OF COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE OF INDIAN AGRICULTURAL EXPORTS

    OpenAIRE

    KANAKA. S AND M. CHINADURAI

    2012-01-01

    Recent developments in the international trade scenario and corresponding alterations in India’s foreign trade policies have depicted far reaching implications for India’s agricultural sector in general and agricultural exports in particular. The present study has ascertained the changes in comparative advantage status of India’s major agricultural exports during the postreforms period (1994-95 to 2008-09). India had enjoyed a comparative advantage in tea exports but had depicted a declining ...

  8. Farmer strategies to face labor shortages in Chilean agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Aguirre

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the strategies that farmers in the south of Chile use to face current labor shortages and identify the variables that determine each of these strategies. A multinomial logit model and odds ratios plots with predicted probabilities were applied to a sample of 384 farmers. Interviews and focus groups were applied to specific producers, professionals and public officials. The main results show that only 32.3% of farmers declared that labor shortage is a problem. Of this percentage 52% chose the strategy of paying better, 13.8% chose improve the workers' working conditions, 9.5% chose to mechanize, and 24.1% did not follow a strategy. The production of labor-intensive products (e.g., exportable fruit determines the strategy of paying better; the farmer's educational level influences the strategy of improving the working conditions, and the farmer's age affects the strategy of mechanizing. However, the production of labor-intensive products exhibits the greater effect. The main disadvantage of the "pay better" strategy is that workers do not want to commit to their job.

  9. Australian agricultural quarantine - imports and exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural quarantine is administered by Government to protect all facets of agriculture and the environment from unwanted pests and diseases of animals and plants. Ionising energy would appear to have an excellent future as a quarantine treatment

  10. The economic impacts of climate change on the Chilean agricultural sector: A non-linear agricultural supply model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ponce

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture could be one of the most vulnerable economic sectors to the impacts of climate change in the coming decades, with impacts threatening agricultural production in general and food security in particular. Within this context, climate change will impose a challenge to policy makers, especially in those countries that based their development on primary sectors. In this paper we present a non-linear agricultural supply model for the analysis of the economic impacts of changes in crop yields due to climate change. The model accounts for uncertainty through the use of Monte Carlo simulations about crop yields. According to our results, climate change impacts on the Chilean agricultural sector are widespread, with considerable distributional consequences across regions, and with fruits producers being worst-off than crops producers. In general, the results reported here are consistent with those reported by previous studies showing large economic impacts on the northern zone. However, our model does not simulate remarkable economic consequences at the country level as previous studies did.

  11. Export Market Development for Agricultural Commodity Promotion Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Spatz, Karen J.

    1989-01-01

    Export market development activities are an integral part of today's agricultural marketing due to increasing competition worldwide. Marketing activities include promotion, advertising, and research financed by private and government-supported commodity groups. Cooperatives and private industry primarily market brand products but they also support generic promotion through legislated commodity programs. Federal and State agricultural commodity promotion programs are supported by growers and/o...

  12. Timor Leste - Expanding Near-Term Agricultural Exports : Report Annexes

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    The Government of Timor-Leste (GOTL) is committed to the development of the non-oil economy by enabling the diversification of domestic production and trade integration. The objective of the Timor-Leste Diagnostic Trade Integration Study (DTIS) is to agree on priority actions to help overcome constraints to expanding agricultural exports in the near-term. It supports the government's effor...

  13. Timor Leste - Expanding Near-Term Agricultural Exports - Main Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    The Government of Timor-Leste (GOTL) is committed to the development of the non-oil economy by enabling the diversification of domestic production and trade integration. The objective of the Timor-Leste Diagnostic Trade Integration Study (DTIS) is to agree on priority actions to help overcome constraints to expanding agricultural exports in the near-term. It supports the government's effor...

  14. Latin America's agricultural exports to China: Recent trends

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero, Jorge; O'Connor, Ernesto; Amado, Blanca

    2011-01-01

    Latin America is becoming the fastest growing agricultural production region and Brazil has by far the fastest growing agricultural sector. China from being a small agricultural importer (1.4% of world imports in 1990/01), became the fifth largest importer at 5.4% of world imports in 2006/07. China's overall trade with Latin America has expanded substantially during the last two decades -the rate of growth has been greater than any other region in the world since 2005. Most exports from Latin...

  15. Determinants of Export Participation in East African Agricultural Manufacturing Firms

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    Niringiye Aggrey

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyze the determinants of export participation of agricultural manufacturing firms in East A frica. In order for E ast African agricultural manufacturing firms to achieve global competitiveness, they need to have an indication of the factors that influence their export participation. Regression results using probit estimation procedure indicate that capital, foreign ownership and training in Uganda, average education, location in Nakuru and proportion of unskilled workers in Kenya, and firm size and location in Arusha and Mwanza in Tanzania, positively influences export participation of agricultural manufacturing firms. To promote exports, Tanzania should design strategies to grow small firms into large ones using measures such as loan guarantee schemes for small and medium firms, tax holidays for joint ventures and mergers, etc. The Ugandan government should also provide incentives for capital imports such as maintaining the current zero rating of capital imports. Lastly, Ugandan government should design strategies aimed at attracting foreign direct investment, such as improving economic productivity through the provision of infrastructure and labour force training.

  16. Agriculture, exportation and energy: a brazilian situation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this article aims at verifying if according to the point of view of Final Energy Consumption in the agricultural sector, the Brazilian exports were beneficial to the country or not. Stimulated by a series of incentives it has been made a great effort with the purpose of mainly exporting primary products, and this effort may have been in conflict with the ever increasing indirect costs. And, it is in this point that there is the doubt as to the validity of energy consumption in the sector. (author)

  17. Arab Republic of Egypt - Toward Agricultural Competitiveness in the 21st Century : An Agricultural Export-Oriented Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    The report proposes key elements for an agricultural export-oriented strategy in Egypt, that would build on the achievements of the agricultural strategy during the 1990s. Substantial improvements in the country's macroeconomic environment, following policy reforms - though necessary - have not been sufficient to improve agricultural export performance. Overall, while Egyptian agricultural...

  18. TREND EVALUATION OF AGRICULTURAL EXPORT CROPS IN NIGERIA

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    Aniekan Jim Akpaeti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study uses the Ordinary Least Square (OLS regression technique to evaluate the growth rates of three agricultural export crops (cocoa, palm kernel and palm oil in Nigeria between1970-2009. The result reveals that growth rates in export of these crops are higher in the financial sector reform period than in the pre-financial sector reform period except in palm kernel and are statistically significant at 5% probability level. This therefore suggests the need to enhance the production of these crops through provision of basic farm inputs, extension, proper financing as well as pursue policies that will encourage exportation and discourage the importation of these crops as the way out.

  19. Agriculture-led growth: foodgrains versus export crops in Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Dorosh, Paul; Haggblade, Steven

    1993-01-01

    This article compares the growth-generating power of alternative agricultural development strategies in Madagascar. Projections from a semi-input-output model and a recently developed social accounting matrix suggest that both paddy and export crops stimulate strong linkages with other sectors of the Malagasy economy. But since paddy output can be increased at lower cost, investment in rehabilitating small irrigated rice perimeters generates 40% to 100% more GOP than a comparable investment i...

  20. Modeling Climate Change Impacts on the US Agricultural Exports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-quan; CAI Yong-xia; Beach Robert H; McCARL Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is expected to have substantial effects on agricultural productivity worldwide. However, these impacts will differ across commodities, locations and time periods. As a result, landowners will see changes in relative returns that are likely to induce modiifcations in production practices and land allocation. In addition, regional variations in impacts can alter relative competitiveness across countries and lead to adjustments in international trade patterns. Thus in climate change impact studies it is likely useful to account for worldwide productivity effects. In this study, we investigate the implications of considering rest of world climate impacts on projections of the US agricultural exports. We chose to focus on the US because it is one of the largest agricultural exporters. To conduct our analyses, we consider four alternative climate scenarios, both with and without rest of world climate change impacts. Our results show that considering/ignoring rest of world climate impacts causes signiifcant changes in the US production and exports projections. Thus we feel climate change impact studies should account not only for climate impacts in the country of focus but also on productivity in the rest of the world in order to capture effects on commodity markets and trade potential.

  1. Competitiveness of China’s Agricultural Product Export to the United States of America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aiping; YAO; Liping; WAN

    2014-01-01

    Taking major agricultural product importers at the American market as reference object and using market share and growth rate,this paper analyzed current situation of the competitiveness of China’s agricultural product export to the United States of America. It used the Exports Similarity Index to evaluate the competitiveness of China’s agricultural product export to USA and it analyzed the competitiveness of China’s agricultural product export to USA by the shift share method. Research results indicate that China’s agricultural products occupy small portion of American market and are faced with intense competition of many developing countries,especially the Thailand. However,China still has strong export competitiveness and ranks the second place only second to India. Finally,it came up with recommendations for raising the competitiveness of China’s agricultural product export to USA and promoting China’s agricultural product export to USA.

  2. Mealybug species from Chilean agricultural landscapes and main factors influencing the genetic structure of Pseudococcus viburni

    OpenAIRE

    Correa, Margarita C.G.; Eric Lombaert; Thibaut Malausa; Didier Crochard; Andrés Alvear; Tania Zaviezo; Ferran Palero

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to characterize the distribution of mealybug species along Chilean agro-ecosystems and to determine the relative impact of host plant, management strategy, geography and micro-environment on shaping the distribution and genetic structure of the obscure mealybug Pseudococcus viburni. An extensive survey was completed using DNA barcoding methods to identify Chilean mealybugs to the species level. Moreover, a fine-scale study of Ps. viburni genetic diversity and populatio...

  3. Globalisation determinants of export-led development of Ukrainian agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Karasova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes globalisation preconditions for export in the agricultural sector of Ukraine. The summarised results of the previous research highlight the essential characteristics of the export-led activity concept, establish the current trends, factor conditions and the impact of globalisation on the development of agricultural exports. The article also shows the dynamics and peculiarities of goods and geographical structure of agrarian exports. The areas and causes of Ukraine’s vulnerability in the global agro-food market have been established. The work also deals with the directions of export-led activity development in the context of economic globalisation

  4. Mealybug species from Chilean agricultural landscapes and main factors influencing the genetic structure of Pseudococcus viburni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Margarita C G; Lombaert, Eric; Malausa, Thibaut; Crochard, Didier; Alvear, Andrés; Zaviezo, Tania; Palero, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to characterize the distribution of mealybug species along Chilean agro-ecosystems and to determine the relative impact of host plant, management strategy, geography and micro-environment on shaping the distribution and genetic structure of the obscure mealybug Pseudococcus viburni. An extensive survey was completed using DNA barcoding methods to identify Chilean mealybugs to the species level. Moreover, a fine-scale study of Ps. viburni genetic diversity and population structure was carried out, genotyping 529 Ps. viburni individuals with 21 microsatellite markers. Samples from 16 localities were analyzed using Bayesian and spatially-explicit methods and the genetic dataset was confronted to host-plant, management and environmental data. Chilean crops were found to be infested by Ps. viburni, Pseudococcus meridionalis, Pseudococcus longispinus and Planococcus citri, with Ps. viburni and Ps. meridionalis showing contrasting distribution and host-plant preference patterns. Ps. viburni samples presented low genetic diversity levels but high genetic differentiation. While no significant genetic variance could be assigned to host-plant or management strategy, climate and geography were found to correlate significantly with genetic differentiation levels. The genetic characterization of Ps. viburni within Chile will contribute to future studies tracing back the origin and improving the management of this worldwide invader. PMID:26559636

  5. 78 FR 54199 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Exportation of Agricultural Commodities, Medicine, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Parts 538 and 560 Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Exportation of Agricultural Commodities, Medicine, and Medical Devices to Sudan and Iran; Comment Request... effectiveness of OFAC's licensing procedures for the exportation of agricultural commodities, medicine,...

  6. 76 FR 22339 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Exportation of Agricultural Commodities, Medicine, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... effectiveness of OFAC's licensing procedures for the export of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical... Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Parts 538 and 560 Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Exportation of Agricultural Commodities, Medicine, and Medical Devices to Sudan and Iran; Comment...

  7. INVENTARIO DE GASES CON EFECTO INVERNADERO EMITIDOS POR LA ACTIVIDAD AGROPECUARIA CHILENA Inventory of greenhouse gas emissions by Chilean agriculture

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    Rafael Novoa S.A.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una estimación de los gases con efecto invernadero emitidos por la agricultura chilena. Los resultados indican que el año 1994, la agricultura chilena emitió 321,92 Gg de metano, 21,80 Gg de N2O; 2,96 Gg de NOx y 51,97 Gg de CO. Además, se estimó que las emisiones de COVNM llegan a 2,59 Gg año-1. Estas cifras expresadas como porcentaje de las emisiones del sector no energía chileno llegan a un 74,3 % para el metano, un 5,1 % para el CO; un 93,8 % para el N2O; un 9,8 % para los NOx y un 4,9 % para los COVNM. Al sumar el potencial de calentamiento de las emisiones de metano y óxidos de N resulta que la agricultura estaría emitiendo un total equivalente a 10.504 Gg de CO2 año-1. La silvicultura, el cambio de uso del suelo y la gestión de residuos del país, generan una captación neta de CO2 de 29.709 Gg año-1, por ello se reduce este excedente en un 32 % el que quedaría en 19.205 Gg.The greenhouse gas emissions from Chilean agriculture were estimated. The results showed that during 1994, Chilean agriculture emitted 321.92 Gg of methane; 21.80 Gg of N2O; 2.96 Gg of NOx and 51.97 Gg of CO. Also, agriculture generated 2.59 Gg year-1 of non-methane volatile compound emissions (NMVOC. These figures as a percentage of the non-energy sector emissions are as follows: 74.3% for methane; 5.1 % for CO; 93.8 % for N2O; 9.8 % for NOx and 4.9 % for NMVOC. Taking into account the potential warming effects of methane and nitrous oxide as CO2 equivalent amounts, agriculture is responsible for 10,504 Gg CO2 year-1. Since forestry, land-use changes and handling of residues in Chile represent a net capture of 29,709 CO2 Gg year-1, agriculture reduces this surplus to 35.4 %. So, the total surplus is about 19.205 Gg year-1.

  8. Agricultural subsidies in the United States and their effect on two annual Chilean crops: corn and wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Díaz Osorio

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The development strategies for Chile have been oriented toward a greater commercial openness. Chile and the United States signed a Free Trade Agreement (FTA that has triggered controversies between producers directed to the internal market due to the production and export subsidies that this country carries out. This study analyzed the effect of subsidies granted by the United States to wheat (Tritricum aestivum and corn (Zea mays growers (Farm Bill 2002. For the study, Technical Standard sheet were drawn up, from which were determined the direct production costs and the gross margins. The variables used (market prices, subsidies, freight costs and tariffs and determining the average variable costs allowed us to do a sensitivity analysis, thus establishing the minimum level of production that national farmers must achieve in order to maintain competitiveness while a free trade is in force. The signing of a trade agreement could provoke the eventual withdrawal of many Chilean producers from the business arena while at the same time, favoring consumers with lower prices for the goods derived from these grains.

  9. 75 FR 24969 - China's Agricultural Trade: Competitive Conditions and Effects on U.S. Exports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... COMMISSION China's Agricultural Trade: Competitive Conditions and Effects on U.S. Exports AGENCY: United.... International Trade Commission (Commission) instituted investigation No. 332-518, China's Agricultural Trade... on the conditions of competition in China's agricultural market and trade and their effect on...

  10. Towards a nutrient export risk matrix approach to managing agricultural pollution at source

    OpenAIRE

    Hewett, C. J. M.; Quinn, P. F.; P. G. Whitehead; Heathwaite, A. L.; N. J. Flynn

    2004-01-01

    A generic Nutrient Export Risk Matrix (NERM) approach is presented. This provides advice to farmers and policy makers on good practice for reducing nutrient loss and, hopefully, persuades them to implement such measures. Combined with a range of nutrient transport modelling tools and field experiments, NERMs can play an important role in reducing nutrient export from agricultural land. The Phosphorus Export Risk Matrix (PERM) is presented as an example NERM. The PERM integrates hydrologica...

  11. Towards a nutrient export risk matrix approach to managing agricultural pollution at source

    OpenAIRE

    Hewett, C. J. M.; Quinn, P. F.; P. G. Whitehead; Heathwaite, A. L.; N. J. Flynn

    2004-01-01

    International audience A generic Nutrient Export Risk Matrix (NERM) approach is presented. This provides advice to farmers and policy makers on good practice for reducing nutrient loss and, hopefully, persuades them to implement such measures. Combined with a range of nutrient transport modelling tools and field experiments, NERMs can play an important role in reducing nutrient export from agricultural land. The Phosphorus Export Risk Matrix (PERM) is presented as an example NERM. The PERM...

  12. Promotion of Non-Oil Export in Nigeria: Empirical Assessment of Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.R. Efobi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund (ACGSF was established in 1977 with the aim of enhancing commercial banks’ loans to the agricultural sector in Nigeria with focus on agro-allied and agricultural production. Many years down the line, the country has witnessed poor participation in the international market with regards to non-oil export. The above stance was assessed with a view to establishing interaction between ACGSF and non-oil export using the Vector Auto-regressive (VAR technique. The study found, among others, that there exist a long-run relationship between the ACGSF and export, but the magnitude is minimal. It was therefore recommended, inter alia, that adequate infrastructural and storage facilities, which increase the shelf-life of agricultural outputs are needed to improve non-oil exports in Nigeria.

  13. DYNAMICS OF AGRICULTURAL EXPORTS IN SUB-SAHARA AFRICA: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF RUBBER AND COCOA FROM NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifeanyi Ndubuto Nwachukwu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ithin 1961 – 2010. It specifically estimated the determinants of their export performance and determined the degree of export diversification of the agricultural sector. Both export crops were chosen because they remained the most exported agricultural commodities after the number of agricultural exports commodities shrank from the traditional 12–15 commodities of the 1960s. Published national aggregates on specific trade and macroeconomic variables from reputable secondary sources were used. In the course of data analysis, descriptive statistics, diversification index and Error Correction Model (ECM were employed. Prior to estimation, Unit root and Cointegration tests were conducted. The results revealed that export supply of cocoa was found to be influenced by export cost and rainfall in the long run while output, cost of production and export affected it in the short run. Rubber export supply was influenced by cost of export and exchange rate in the long run while world export-output ratio and cost of export affected it in the short run. The study results further revealed that export diversification measure showed that the sector experienced fluctuations with varying Hirschman indices which ranged from 1.3 x 10-7 to 5.1 x 10-7 , depicting decreasing concentration. Invariably, this implies increasing leanness of the export basket. On the basis of the result, it is necessary to explore policy options such as export financing and foreign exchange policies to promote production in the export subsector of agriculture and industrial sector to diversify the national export basket.

  14. Implications of the US -South Korea Free Trade Agreement on Agricultural Exports from the US

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    Srinivasa Konduru

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The United States-S. Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA became effective in 2012 and is expected to create new opportunities and improve access for one another’s markets. It is expected to benefit the US agricultural sector particularly as S. Korea maintains high trade barriers for agricultural imports. This paper analyses the impact of KORUS FTA on the agricultural exports from the US with an example of table grapes. The results obtained by using the Import demand estimation method show that table grape exports will become more competitive in S. Korea due to the KORUS FTA. The paper also calculates preference indices for various agricultural imports from the US and rest of the world before and after the free trade agreement in S. Korean agricultural markets. This will help in understanding the implications of KORUS FTA not only on the US-S. Korean agricultural trade, but also between S. Korea and the rest of the world.

  15. Performance of African Agricultural Exports and External Market Access Conditions under International Trade Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Nyangito, Hezron Omare

    2004-01-01

    Sub Saharan African agriculture is currently facing challenges in international trade with respect to external market access conditions and competition in world markets as a result of trade liberalization efforts under the world trade organization (WTO) agreements and in particular the agreement on agriculture (AoA). This paper presents the performance of agricultural exports for selected countries and indicates external market barriers faced and the resulting implications of the barriers on ...

  16. Short Term Impact of the Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research: A Bibliometric Analysis Impacto de Corto Plazo de Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research: Un Análisis Bibliométrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Krauskopf

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In January 2007, the Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research was indexed by the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI. This paper reviews the research that has been published since 2007 by using records extracted from the Web of Science database. The papers published were mostly affiliated to researchers from Chile, and six out of the ten most-contributing countries were from Latin America. The analysis by institutions showed Universidad de Concepcion as the most prolific, although this result is not valid. A lack of standardization in the manner the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA subscribed its address on each paper caused a disaggregation of the information. This was proven by the manual curation of each record that was affiliated to any of the centers belonging to INIA. The journal has a self-citation rate of 19.3%, value that is relatively high if compared to other journals from the same subject category listed on The Journal Citation Reports 2010. Finally, this work should be considered a bibliometric snapshot of the current situation of the journal that will serve as a benchmark when new evaluations are made in a few-years time.En enero 2007, la revista Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research fue indexada por el Institute of Scientific Information (ISI, por lo que este artículo analiza la investigación que ha sido publicada desde el año 2007 utilizando los registros extraídos de la base de datos Web of Science. Los artículos publicados fueron mayormente afiliados a investigadores de Chile, siendo seis de los 10 países que más contribuyeron en artículos de Latinoamérica. Un análisis por institución mostró a la Universidad de Concepción como la más prolífica, aunque este resultado no es válido por una ausencia de estandarización en la manera que el Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA suscribe su dirección en cada artículo, lo que provoca disgregación de la información. Esto se verific

  17. The biological control as a strategy to support nontraditional agricultural exports in Peru: An empirical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Duarte Cueva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is oriented to explore the general characteristics of agriculture, the biological control as a pest control mechanism and agro export industry. In this context, we try to promote the use of biological control as a strategy to support nontraditional exports related to products such as asparagus and fresh avocados grown in the La Libertad Department (Peru, through an agronomic and management approach. Biological control is the basis of integrated pest management (IPM and contributes to the conservation of agricultural ecosystems allowing to export companies reduce costs, fulfill international phytosanitary measures and supports the preservation of the environment and health. Thus, the Peruvian agro export companies could build a sustainable competitive advantage and seek a positioning as socially responsible firms. We analyze variables such as crop statistics, comparative costs between biological control and chemical control, main destination markets for asparagus and fresh avocados, international standards, among others.

  18. Mealybug species from Chilean agricultural landscapes and main factors influencing the genetic structure of [i]Pseudococcus viburni[/i

    OpenAIRE

    Correa, Margarita C.G.; Lombaert, Eric; Malausa, Thibaut; Crochard, Didier; Alvear, Andrés; Zaviezo, Tania; Palero, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to characterize the distribution of mealybug species along Chilean agro-ecosystems and to determine the relative impact of host plant, management strategy, geography and micro-environment on shaping the distribution and genetic structure of the obscure mealybug Pseudococcus viburni. An extensive survey was completed using DNA barcoding methods to identify Chilean mealybugs to the species level. Moreover, a fine-scale study of Ps. viburni genetic diversity and populatio...

  19. Recent trends and prospects for agricultural commodity exports in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Takamasa Akiyama; Larson, Donald F

    1989-01-01

    Sub - Sahran African (SSA) countries have seen sharp declines in their shares of agricultural export markets. But their export dependence on the most important crops - coffee and cocoa - has increased. Comparisons in the region and with countries outside the region show the importance of appropriate exchange rates and producer pricing policies, as well as support for technological advancement, for good performance in these sectors. Some countries have successfully introduced changes in these ...

  20. Accelerated export of sediment and carbon from a landscape under intensive agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendell, M; Brazier, R E

    2014-04-01

    The export of total organic carbon (particulate and dissolved) from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems has important implications for water quality and the global carbon cycle. However, most research to date has focused on DOC losses from either forested or peaty catchments, with only limited studies examining the controls and rates of total fluvial carbon losses from agricultural catchments, particularly during storm events. This study examined the controls and fluxes of total suspended sediment (SS), total particulate (TPC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from two adjacent catchments with contrasting intensive agricultural and semi-natural land-use. Data from 35 individual storm events showed that the agricultural catchment exported significantly higher SS concentrations on a storm-by-storm basis than the semi-natural catchment, with peak discharge exerting a greater control over SS, TPC and DOC concentrations. Baseflow DOC concentrations in the agricultural catchment were significantly higher. DOC quality monitored during one simultaneous rainfall event differed between the two study catchments, with more humic, higher molecular weight compounds prevailing in the agricultural catchment and lower molecular weight compounds prevailing in the semi-natural catchment. During an eight month period for which a comparable continuous turbidity record was available, the estimated SS yields from the agricultural catchment were higher than from the semi-natural catchment. Further, the agricultural catchment exported proportionally more TPC and a comparable amount of DOC, despite a lower total soil carbon pool. These results suggest that altered hydrological and biogeochemical processes within the agricultural catchment, including accelerated soil erosion and soil organic matter turnover, contributed to an enhanced fluvial SS and carbon export. Thus, we argue that enhancing semi-natural vegetation within intensively farmed catchments could reduce sediment and carbon losses

  1. Trade Barriers and Countermeasures for Export of China’s Agricultural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Lijing

    2013-01-01

    At present, export of China’s agricultural products is faced with many trade barriers, especially technological barriers. Trade barriers include (1) technological barriers (such as quarantine and inspection barrier, identity certification/authentication barrier and labeling rules barrier); (2) trade remedy barrier; (3) other non-tariff barriers (NTB). Through positioning and analysis of trade barriers of China’s agricultural products, it is known that technological barriers should not be ...

  2. Influence of subsurface drainage on quantity and quality of dissolved organic matter export from agricultural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalzell, Brent J.; King, Jennifer Y.; Mulla, David J.; Finlay, Jacques C.; Sands, Gary R.

    2011-06-01

    Despite its importance for aquatic ecosystem function and watershed carbon budgets, little is known about how land use influences dissolved organic matter (DOM) export. We investigated the influence of subsurface soil drainage, widespread in the Midwestern United States, on DOM export from agricultural fields designed to drain water at either 13 mm d-1 (conventional) or 51 mm d-1 (intense). Intense drainage exported 55% (±22%) more dissolved organic carbon (DOC) per year than conventional drainage due to both increased concentration and water yield. DOC export from plots was strongly dependent on precipitation and showed considerable interannual variability. Mean DOC concentrations in drainage water were low (1.62 and 1.87 mg L-1 for conventional and intense treatments), and fluorescence index (FI) measurements showed that it had a microbial source with little evidence of terrestrially derived material, suggesting that flow through deeper, organic-poor soil horizons is important in regulating DOC export from these plots. We compared DOM in subsurface drains with downstream ditch and stream sites. Increases in DOC concentration and molecular weight accompanied by decreasing FI values at downstream sites showed that streams gain a large amount of terrestrially derived DOM during base flow transport through agricultural landscapes, probably from riparian zones. These results show that DOM compositional characteristics change with catchment area and that the relevant observation scale for DOM dynamics is likely to vary among watersheds. This study also demonstrates that land management practices can directly affect DOC via changes to water flow paths. These results are critical for improving model estimates of DOM export from agricultural landscapes as well as predicting how DOC export will respond to changing land use and climate.

  3. 31 CFR 538.523 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 99 from BIS for medicines and submit a copy to OFAC. See 15 CFR 745.3 for instructions for obtaining... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1, and that fall within the term “agricultural commodity” as... on the Commerce Control List in the Export Administration Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement...

  4. 31 CFR 560.530 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Commodity Classification of EAR 99 from BIS for medicines and submit a copy to OFAC. See 15 CFR 745.3 for..., 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1, and that fall within the term “agricultural commodity” as defined... the Commerce Control List in the Export Administration Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no....

  5. Estimation Of Demand System In An Aids Model:The Opportunity For Exporting Thai Agricultural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waripas Jiumpanyarach

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of the estimation of Almost Ideal Demand System(AIDS model is developed to estimate quantity respond based on price. Five major export agricultural products data from the office of Agricultural Economics, Thailand and Biofuel policy from the office of the National Economic and Social Development Broad were used. The AIDS model estimatesdemand of palm, cassava, and sugar are highly response to changed price. Rubber and rice has less response to the changed price. All of major agricultural products are affect expenditure of Thailand export. This result suggest that the opportunity for increasing supply of energy plants, which benefits to Thai farmer communities for expanding market share in energy plants in domestic and global market.

  6. African Countries’ Agricultural Trade Value Chain Assessment Case study: Tanzania (Cashew nut exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Krepl

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa lost its status as a net exporter of agricultural products in the early 1980s when prices for raw commodities fell and local production stagnated. Since then, agricultural imports have grown faster than agricultural exports. In order to get to the bottom of this critical issue, UNIDO in partnership with the AU, IFAD, AfDB, FAO, and UNECA, developed the African Agribusiness and Agro-Industries Development Initiative (3ADI. The major objective of the 3ADI is to increase private sector investment flows going into the agriculture sector in Africa by mobilizing resources for agribusiness and agro-industrial development from the domestic, regional or international financial systems. This formed the basis of research with the objective of assessing the value addition chain for some vital agricultural commodities in the 3ADI focus countries. UNIDO is developing several action plans in a few African countries – one of them is Tanzania. In the case of Tanzania, the findings show the potential in cashew nuts. The paper’s main goal is to propose a plan or set of steps leading to the improvement of added value generation in the area of agricultural trade in Tanzania. The paper is focused on one commodity Cashew-nuts. Tanzania boosts high volumes of local supply of this commodity, which is the key prerequisite for the value addition chain through local processing. The results from the analysis prove significant economic losses related to the current structure of Tanzanian trade in cashew nuts. The main problem of the current cashew nut trade activities is the very low added value of exported cashew nuts. The paper analyses the structure of value added activities related to the cashew nut trade and proposes a plan for increasing the share of processed cashew nuts at a much higher unit price in comparison to raw cashew nuts. The simulated development in the cashew sector in Tanzania to the year 2030 is based on two expectations a 5

  7. Towards a nutrient export risk matrix approach to managing agricultural pollution at source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, C. J. M.; Quinn, P. F.; Whitehead, P. G.; Heathwaite, A. L.; Flynn, N. J.

    A generic Nutrient Export Risk Matrix (NERM) approach is presented. This provides advice to farmers and policy makers on good practice for reducing nutrient loss and, hopefully, persuades them to implement such measures. Combined with a range of nutrient transport modelling tools and field experiments, NERMs can play an important role in reducing nutrient export from agricultural land. The Phosphorus Export Risk Matrix (PERM) is presented as an example NERM. The PERM integrates hydrological understanding of runoff with a number of agronomic and policy factors into a clear problem-solving framework. This allows farmers and policy makers to visualise strategies for reducing phosphorus loss through proactive land management. The risk of pollution is assessed by a series of informed questions relating to farming intensity and practice. This information is combined with the concept of runoff management to point towards simple, practical remedial strategies which do not compromise farmers’ ability to obtain sound economic returns from their crop and livestock.

  8. Amount, composition and seasonality of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen export from agriculture in contrasting climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graeber, Daniel; Meerhof, Mariana; Zwirnmann, Elke; Ovesen, Niels; Gelbrecht, Jörg; Teixeira de Mello, Franco; Gonzalez-Bergonzoni, Ivan; Jeppesen, Erik; Kronvang, Brian

    2014-01-01

    -temperate and subtropical climate of Denmark and Uruguay, respectively. In each climate, we investigated one stream with extensive agriculture (mostly pasture) and one stream with intensive agriculture (mostly intensively used arable land) in the catchment. We sampled each stream taking grab samples fortnightly...... for two years and measured DOC and DON concentration, as well as molecular composition by size-exclusion chromatography. We used absorbance, fluorescence and parallel factor analysis to gather additional information on the sources and composition of the DOM. The results were coupled to measurements of...... with intensive agriculture in Uruguay and lowest in the stream with extensive agriculture in Denmark. In all streams, the molecular-size composition of DOC and DON were similar and most DOC and DON were exported as humic substances with low C:N ratio, which indicates high bioavailability. Moreover, DON...

  9. Amount, composition and seasonality of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen export from agriculture in contrasting climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graeber, Daniel; Goyenola, Guillermo; Meerhoff, Marianna; Zwirnmann, Elke; Ovesen, Niels Bering; Gelbrecht, Jörg; Teixeira-de Mello, Franco; Gonzalez-Bergonzoni, Ivan; Jeppesen, Erik; Kronvang, Brian

    -temperate and subtropical climate of Denmark and Uruguay, respectively. In each climate, we investigated one stream with extensive agriculture (mostly pasture) and one stream with intensive agriculture (mostly intensively used arable land) in the catchment. We sampled each stream taking grab samples fortnightly...... for two years and measured DOC and DON concentration, as well as molecular composition by size-exclusion chromatography. We used absorbance, fluorescence and parallel factor analysis to gather additional information on the sources and composition of the DOM. The results were coupled to measurements of...... with intensive agriculture in Uruguay and lowest in the stream with extensive agriculture in Denmark. In all streams, the molecular-size composition of DOC and DON were similar and most DOC and DON were exported as humic substances with low C:N ratio, which indicates high bioavailability. Moreover, DON...

  10. Towards a nutrient export risk matrix approach to managing agricultural pollution at source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. M. Hewett

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A generic Nutrient Export Risk Matrix (NERM approach is presented. This provides advice to farmers and policy makers on good practice for reducing nutrient loss and, hopefully, persuades them to implement such measures. Combined with a range of nutrient transport modelling tools and field experiments, NERMs can play an important role in reducing nutrient export from agricultural land. The Phosphorus Export Risk Matrix (PERM is presented as an example NERM. The PERM integrates hydrological understanding of runoff with a number of agronomic and policy factors into a clear problem-solving framework. This allows farmers and policy makers to visualise strategies for reducing phosphorus loss through proactive land management. The risk of pollution is assessed by a series of informed questions relating to farming intensity and practice. This information is combined with the concept of runoff management to point towards simple, practical remedial strategies which do not compromise farmers’ ability to obtain sound economic returns from their crop and livestock. Keywords: nutrients, phosphorus, export, risk, decision support, matrix

  11. Studying the Effects of Non-Tariff Barriers on the Export of the Main Agricultural Products of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ardakani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: As trade agreements decrease tariffs throughout the world, other barriers to trade emerge. These Non-Tariff Barriers (NTBs can be just as troublesome as tariffs for exporting countries. NTBs include any of a number of hindrances that restrict the ability of companies to export. NTBs may now have a greater impact on trade than tariffs. Approach: In contrast with previous research, we used a gravity model to estimate the trade effect of non-tariff barriers imposed by importer countries on pistachios, raisins and shrimp exported by Iran. Results: NTBs had a negative impact on pistachio and shrimp exports and their effect was greater than that of tariffs; raisin exports were unaffected by NTBs. Conclusion/Recommendations: The export and the world demand for agricultural products increasing focusing on quality, packaging, labeling and standards of products. Policy makers in countries that export agricultural products, such as Iran, must consider these characteristics when designing their programs. Therefore, if Iran builds up-to-date production systems, it will increase its exports of agricultural products.

  12. China's Biotech Policies and Their Impacts on U.S. Agricultural Exports to China

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Baohui; Marchant, Mary A.

    2006-01-01

    China is a key player in global agricultural markets, and the number one importer of U.S. soybeans and cotton, whereby soybeans and cotton are two of the main biotech commodities commercialized in the United States. As of 2005, 87% of soybeans and 79% of cotton planted in the U.S. were biotech. Thus, changes in China's biotech policies may have a significant impact on U.S. biotech commodity exports to China. An understanding of the evolution of China's biotech regulations and factors that may...

  13. Analysis of Factors Influencing the Growth of Export of Agricultural Products in Yunnan Province: An Empirical Study Based on CMS Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongmei; LI; Jianxing; LU; Zhiwen; XIAO; Bo; LI

    2013-01-01

    Yunnan Province is the bridgehead for the opening of the southwest region in China,and the economic frontier of China-ASEAN economic cooperation,where the export of agricultural products plays an important role in promoting the openness of the southwest region and strengthening China-ASEAN economic cooperation.In this paper,we use CMS model to analyze causes of the increase in the exports of agricultural products in Yunnan Province during the period 2001-2010.It is found that the expanded import scale of agricultural products in the world,improvement in the export competitiveness of products and the adaption of product export structure to the changes in the structure of world import demand,are the main factors responsible for increase in the exports of agricultural products in Yunnan Province.In recent years, the improvement of competitiveness of the export of agricultural products becomes a key factor for the growth of the export of agricultural products in Yunnan Province.In terms of the products classified,strong export competitiveness has promoted the export of plant products,such as beverages and tobacco,while weak export competitiveness and unreasonable export structure has impeded the export of animal products,plant and animal oil and fat products.

  14. Trade Barriers and Countermeasures for Export of China’s Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijing; WU

    2013-01-01

    At present,export of China’s agricultural products is faced with many trade barriers,especially technological barriers.Trade barriers include(1)technological barriers(such as quarantine and inspection barrier,identity certification/authentication barrier and labeling rules barrier);(2)trade remedy barrier;(3)other non-tariff barriers(NTB).Through positioning and analysis of trade barriers of China’s agricultural products,it is known that technological barriers should not be deemed unreasonable totally.Some barriers also have certain positive significance.To respond to trade barriers,it comes up with countermeasures and recommendations from the perspective of agricultural producers and government.Agricultural producers should actively improve product quality,abide by requirement of importers,and treat quarantine and inspection in a rational manner;government should supply information and issue early warning,assist domestic producers in responding to lawsuits,and take advantage of WTO platform to solve trade disputes.

  15. Agricultural subsidies in the United States and their effect on two annual Chilean crops: corn and wheat

    OpenAIRE

    José Díaz Osorio; Roberto Jara Rojas

    2006-01-01

    The development strategies for Chile have been oriented toward a greater commercial openness. Chile and the United States signed a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) that has triggered controversies between producers directed to the internal market due to the production and export subsidies that this country carries out. This study analyzed the effect of subsidies granted by the United States to wheat (Tritricum aestivum) and corn (Zea mays) growers (Farm Bill 2002). For the study, Technical Standard...

  16. Quarantine treatment of agricultural products for export and import by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Joong Ho; Roh, M.J.; Chung, H.W.; Lee, J.E.; Park, N.Y.; Kwon, Y.J.; Seo, S.J. [Kyungbuk National University, Taegu (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    To pre-establish an alternative technique to the toxic fumigant, methyl bromide which is the current quarantine measure of agricultural products for export and import, some selected agricultural products, such as chestnut, acorn, red bean and mung bean, were subjected to a preliminary study to confirm the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and MBr fumigant on their disinfestation and quality, thereby preparing the basic data for the practical approach. Current quarantine activities were examined and the related limitations were investigated. Quarantine-related pests were investigated on their radiosensitivity and disinfestation effects by both treatments. The pests in chestnut and acorn, Curculio skkimensis Heller, Curculio dentipes Roelofs, and Dichocrocis punctiferalis Guenee showed an increased mortality when exposed to above 0.5 kGy irradiation, resulting in 100% of mortality three weeks later. Callosobruchus chinensis Linne from both red and mung beans revealed a apparent mortality at around 10 days after irradiation of 1 to 3 kGy. Current fumigation was perfect in its disinfesting capability, but it caused the detrimental effects on physical quality of agricultural produce. Whereas, irradiation doses suitable for controlling the pests did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the samples. (author). 53 refs., 74 figs., 138 tabs.

  17. Glacier Runoff and Human Vulnerability to Climate Change: The Case of Export Agriculture in Peru (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, M.

    2013-12-01

    There is growing concern about the effects of climate change and ensuing glacier shrinkage on water supplies for mountain communities worldwide. The issue is only becoming more complex as researchers seek to quantify glacier contributions to streamflow and to pinpoint when and how much glacier runoff will likely change as a result of future climate change and glacier variation. Additionally, some researchers are beginning to recognize the importance of understanding the human dimensions of glacier retreat to identify which social groups (stakeholders) use glacier runoff and how much they use, as well as what socio-environmental forces affect both water supplies and water use. This presentation examines these societal aspects of glacier runoff to analyze human vulnerability to hydrological changes in Peru's Santa River watershed below the most glaciated tropical mountain range in the world, the Cordillera Blanca. Specifically, it focuses on the billion-dollar export-oriented agricultural industry within the Chavimochic irrigation project, which uses Santa River water to irrigate approximately 80,000 hectares in the coastal desert region. Since the 1980s, Santa River water has allowed Chavimochic to sustain a major export economy, provide jobs in the agro-industry and related services, stimulate human migration, enhance or alter livelihoods, generate hydroelectricity, supply drinking water, and shape urban growth and land use practices. All of these variables are dependent on glacier meltwater from the Cordillera Blanca, especially during the dry season when glaciers provide most of the Santa River's water. In short, hundreds of thousands of people have come to depend on glacier runoff, thus revealing their high level of vulnerability to hydrological fluctuations in a glacier-fed watershed. What's more, people worldwide rely on the asparagus, avocados, and artichokes grown with glacier runoff. Consequently, the export-oriented agriculture, through the "virtual water

  18. Creating a Social Wasteland? Non-Traditional Agricultural Exports and Rural Poverty in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Korovkin

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Neoliberal economic policies in Latin America  have resulted in the rapid growth of nontraditional agricultural exports (NTAE. This  growth is often seen as contributing to the alleviation of rural poverty. The paper examines this  view with the focus on Ecuador, using the World  Bank’s definition poverty as a reference. It is  argued that the flower export expansion has created employment opportunities but did not allow  the rural poor to raise themselves above the poverty line. Moreover, flower employment has undermined the pre-existing social networks and community organizations, increasing the levels of insecurity among rural families and undermining  their ability to influence the processes of decision  making.  Resumen: Creando un páramo social? Exportaciones agrícolas no-tradicionales y pobreza rural en EcuadorLas políticas económicas neo-liberales en América Latina han resultado en el rápido crecimiento  de las exportaciones agrícolas no tradicionales  (EANT, lo que es considerado a menudo como  un alivio de la pobreza rural. En este artículo se  estudia esta visión para el caso de Ecuador, utilizando como referencia la definición de pobreza  del Banco Mundial. Aunque se dice que la expansión en la exportación de flores ha creado oportunidades de empleo, no ha logrado que los pobres  rurales crucen la línea de la pobreza. Además, el empleo en este sector ha socavado las redes sociales y organizaciones comunitarias anteriores,  elevando los niveles de inseguridad entre las  familias rurales y minando su capacidad de intervención en el proceso de toma de decisiones.

  19. Urbanization and agriculture increase exports and differentially alter elemental stoichiometry of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from tropical catchments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gücker, Björn; Silva, Ricky C. S.; Graeber, Daniel;

    2016-01-01

    Many tropical biomes are threatened by rapid land-use change, but its catchment-wide biogeochemical effects are poorly understood. The few previous studies on DOM in tropical catchments suggest that deforestation and subsequent land use increase stream water dissolved organic carbon (DOC......) concentrations, but consistent effects on DOM elemental stoichiometry have not yet been reported. Here, we studied stream water DOC concentrations, catchment DOC exports, and DOM elemental stoichiometry in 20 tropical catchments at the Cerrado–Atlantic rainforest transition, dominated by natural vegetation......, pasture, intensive agriculture, and urban land cover. Streams draining pasture could be distinguished from those draining natural catchments by their lower DOC concentrations, with lower DOM C:N and C:P ratios. Catchments with intensive agriculture had higher DOC exports and lower DOM C:P ratios than...

  20. The Predictability of GARCH-Type Models on the Returns Volatility of Primary Indonesian Exported Agricultural Commodities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saarce Elsye Hatane

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural sector plays an important role in Indonesia‟s economy; especially for the plantation sub-sector contributing high revenues to Indonesia‟s exporting sectors. The primary agricultural commodities in Indonesian export discussed in this study would be Crude Palm Oil (CPO, Natural Rubber TSR20, Arabica Coffee, Robusta Coffee, Cocoa, White Pepper and Black Pepper. Meanwhile, the returns volatility nature of agricultural commodity is famous. The volatility refers to heteroscedasticity nature of the returns which can be modeled by GARCH-type models. The returns volatility can be describe by the residual of the mean equation and volatility of error variances in the previous periods. The aims of this study are to examine the predictability of GARCH-type models on the returns volatility of those seven agricultural commodities and to determine the best GARCH-type models for each commodity based on the traditional symmetric evaluation statistics. The results find that the predictability of ARCH, GARCH, GARCH-M, EGACRH and TGARCH, as type of GARCH models used in this study, are different for each commodity.

  1. Investigation the Role of Exchange Rate Volatility on Iran‘s Agricultural Exports (Case Study: Date, Pistachio and Saffron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Khanarinejad

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern methods of quantitative risk analysis, specifically value-at-risk and expected shortfall approach, provide comprehensive and coherent risk evaluation throughout entire distribution of outcomes and can take agricultural business from the realm of uncertainty to specific, quantified risks. Monte Carlo simulation with autocorrelation of standard deviation shows the best results in risk modeling and is used for this research. The analysis showed that production risk is systemic within climatic regions of Ukraine with coefficients of correlation ranging from 0.25 to 0.85. Yield correlation among crops in several oblasts is low to negative, creating opportunities for diversification. However, positive price-yield correlation is dominant for agricultural products in Ukraine due to high dependency on global prices and a large share of export. It is hypothesized that price-yield correlation is directly proportional to the share of country’s international trade in that agricultural product.

  2. The Long-run Impact of Different Exchange Rates on the Projected Agricultural Income of an Export Dependent Region of the UK.

    OpenAIRE

    Joan Moss; Seamus McErlean; Ziping Wu; Andrew Doherty; Jos IJpelaar

    2004-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effects of different exchange rate scenarios on projections for agricultural incomes and prices in a small highly export dependent region, NI. The modelling system used in the analysis is designed to capture the complexities of the relationship between exchange rates and agricultural prices and incomes. The system models not only the main agricultural sectors in NI but also the demand for and supply of agricultural commodities in the EU and beyond. This is important, ...

  3. Urbanization and agriculture increase exports and differentially alter elemental stoichiometry of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from tropical catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gücker, Björn; Silva, Ricky C S; Graeber, Daniel; Monteiro, José A F; Boëchat, Iola G

    2016-04-15

    Many tropical biomes are threatened by rapid land-use change, but its catchment-wide biogeochemical effects are poorly understood. The few previous studies on DOM in tropical catchments suggest that deforestation and subsequent land use increase stream water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations, but consistent effects on DOM elemental stoichiometry have not yet been reported. Here, we studied stream water DOC concentrations, catchment DOC exports, and DOM elemental stoichiometry in 20 tropical catchments at the Cerrado-Atlantic rainforest transition, dominated by natural vegetation, pasture, intensive agriculture, and urban land cover. Streams draining pasture could be distinguished from those draining natural catchments by their lower DOC concentrations, with lower DOM C:N and C:P ratios. Catchments with intensive agriculture had higher DOC exports and lower DOM C:P ratios than natural catchments. Finally, with the highest DOC concentrations and exports, as well as the highest DOM C:P and N:P ratios, but the lowest C:N ratios among all land-use types, urbanized catchments had the strongest effects on catchment DOM. Thus, urbanization may have alleviated N limitation of heterotrophic DOM decomposition, but increased P limitation. Land use-especially urbanization-also affected the seasonality of catchment biogeochemistry. While natural catchments exhibited high DOC exports and concentrations, with high DOM C:P ratios in the rainy season only, urbanized catchments had high values in these variables throughout the year. Our results suggest that urbanization and pastoral land use exerted the strongest impacts on DOM biogeochemistry in the investigated tropical catchments and should thus be important targets for management and mitigation efforts. PMID:26849342

  4. 农业FDI对安徽省农产品出口影响的实证分析%An Empirical Analysis of Influence of Agricultural FDI on the Exportation of Agricultural Products of Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽

    2014-01-01

    通过对安徽省2003年至2012年农产品出口贸易和农业FDI的统计检验和回归分析,发现安徽农产品出口的增长与其农业FDI的实际利用金额成正相关关系,农业FDI的增长能够在一定程度上促进农产品的出口。在此实证分析结果基础上提出一系列的政策建议促进农产品出口和农业FDI的良性循环,保证安徽省农产品贸易的健康发展。%This paper makes a statistical test and regression analysis of the export transactions of agricultural products and agri-cultural FDI, which shows there is a positive correlation between the growth of agricultural products and the actual agricultural FDI of Anhui Province and the growth of agricultural FDI can promote the export of agricultural products to a certain extent. Based on the results of this eempirical analysis, this paper puts forward a series of policy recommedations boost the export of agricultural products and positive circle of agricultural FDI so as to ensure the healthy development of exportation of agricultural products of Anhui province.

  5. Factors controlling phosphorus export from agricultural/forest and residential systems to rivers in eastern China, 1980-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dingjiang; Hu, Minpeng; Wang, Jiahui; Guo, Yi; Dahlgren, Randy A.

    2016-02-01

    This study quantified long-term response of riverine total phosphorus (TP) export to changes in land-use, climate, and net anthropogenic phosphorus inputs to agricultural/forest (NAPIAF) and residential (NAPIR) systems for the upper Jiaojiang watershed in eastern China. Annual NAPIAF rose by 73% in 1980-1999 followed by a 41% decline in 2000-2011, while NAPIR continuously increased by 122% over the 1980-2011 period. Land-use showed a 63% increase in developed land area (D%) and a 91% increase in use of efficient drainage systems on agricultural land area (AD%) over the study period. Although no significant trends were observed in annual river discharge or precipitation, the annual number of storm events rose by 90% along with a 34% increase in the coefficient of variation of daily rainfall. In response to changes of NAPIAF, NAPIR, land-use and precipitation patterns, riverine TP flux increased 16.0-fold over the 32-year record. Phosphorus export via erosion and leaching was the dominant pathway for P delivery to rivers. An empirical model incorporating annual NAPIAF, NAPIR, precipitation, D%, and AD% was developed (R2 = 0.96) for apportioning riverine TP sources and predicting annual riverine TP fluxes. The model estimated that NAPIAF, NAPIR and legacy P sources contributed 19-56%, 16-67% and 13-32% of annual riverine TP flux in 1980-2011, respectively. Compared to reduction of NAPIAF, reduction of NAPIR was predicted to have a greater immediate impact on decreasing riverine TP fluxes. Changes in anthropogenic P input sources (NAPIAF vs. NAPIR), land-use, and precipitation patterns as well as the legacy P source can amplify P export from landscapes to rivers and should be considered in developing P management strategies to reduce riverine P fluxes.

  6. Influence of Antecedent Hydrologic Conditions on Nitrate and Phosphorus Export from a Small Agricultural Catchment in Southern Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrae, M. L.; English, M. C.; Schiff, S. L.; Stone, M.

    2009-04-01

    The ability of the scientific community to quantify and predict discharge and nutrient transport in a range of settings is confounded by the effects of antecedent hydrologic conditions in upland areas. Previous work has empirically linked spatial variables such as land use, soil type, topography, and drainage characteristics to hydrochemical export from various landscapes (e.g. MCDOWELL et al., 2001; ARHEIMER and LIDEN, 2000; STAMM et al., 1998; JORDAN et al., 1997; WELSCH et al., 2001). However, the specific reasons why similar types of events produce different nutrient export patterns are poorly understood. Nutrient (nitrate, soluble and total phosphorus) transport from agricultural catchments is difficult to quantify and predict because of the influence of variable hydrologic flowpaths and their interaction with varying nutrient pools. This research examines the role of antecedent hydrologic conditions on stream discharge and nitrate (NO3-), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and total phosphorus (TP) export from a small (2.7 km2) first-order agricultural catchment in Southern Ontario, Canada. During 59 events occurring over a two-year sampling period (year-round), runoff ratios ranged from 0-0.99). Runoff ratios increased throughout successive events as conditions became wetter although key indices of antecedent wetness such as water table position, pre-event streamflow and soil moisture did not yield predictive relationships. Nitrate, SRP and TP transport from the catchment increased with antecedent wetness during some periods but decreased with antecedent wetness during other periods. This variability appears to be linked to a combination of the position of water table before and during the event, as well as timing of fertilizer application. It is hypothesized that in general, wetter antecedent hydrologic conditions increase nutrient transport from the catchment by increasing macropore connectivity between surface soil horizons and tile drains, although this

  7. Agricultural Exports and the Environment: A Cross-National Study of Fertilizer and Pesticide Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Stefano; York, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The mass consumption of agrochemicals, including manufactured fertilizers and pesticides, by industrialized agricultural systems worldwide threatens human health and the health of ecosystems. The production of these agricultural inputs is a highly energy- and capital-intensive process, and their application contributes to a variety of direct and…

  8. [Chilean nuclear policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobadilla, E

    1996-06-01

    This official document is statement of the President of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, Dr. Eduardo Bobadilla, about the nuclear policy of the Chilean State, Thanks to the international policy adopted by presidents Aylwin (1990-1994) and his successor Frei Ruiz Tagle (1994-), a nuclear development plan, protected by the Chilean entrance to the nuclear weapons non proliferation treaty and Tlatelolco Denuclearization treaty, has started. Chile will be able to develop without interference, an autonomous nuclear electrical system and other pacific uses of nuclear energy. Chile also supports a new international treaty to ban nuclear weapon tests. PMID:9041734

  9. The Politics of Abundance: Export Agriculture and Redistributive Conflict in South America

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Neal Philip

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the politics of modern commodity agriculture and the redistributive politics associated with it, focusing on Argentina and Brazil. Despite the magnitude and consequences of agricultural subsidies and taxation, their political origins are poorly understood. It is widely observed that wealthier countries tend to subsidize farmers while poorer countries tax them, and farmers in developed countries are credited as being skilled at lobbying. What is less clear is where that ...

  10. International Agricultural Trade under Regulatory Asymmetry: An Economic Analysis of SME Export Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Leishman, David

    2012-01-01

    Over the last three decades, international agricultural trade has grown significantly. Technological advances in transportation logistics and storage have created opportunities to ship anything almost anywhere. Bilateral and multilateral trade agreements have also opened new pathways to an increasingly global market place. Yet, international agricultural trade is often constrained by differences in regulatory regimes. The impact of “regulatory asymmetry” is particularly acute for small ...

  11. Influences and Countermeasures of Green Trade Barrier on Export Trade of Chinese Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    With the worsening of environment, many countries pay more attention to the environmental protection. Green (organic) trade barrier gradually attracts more attention to the non-tariff barrier in the international trade. However, according to the economic levels of different countries, great differences exist in environment standards of these countries which resulted in the appearance of green trade barriers as trade protection. This study classified the connotations and characteristics of green trade barrier, gave the descriptions on the development and type of green trade barrier, and analysed the influences on China's export and put forward some countermeasures which aimed at stimulating the development of our foreign trade.

  12. MARKET SEGMENTATION: IDENTIFYING THE HIGH-GROWTH EXPORT MARKETS FOR U.S. AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Michael R. Reed; Salvacruz, Joseph C.

    1994-01-01

    A cluster analysis based on a five-year growth rate of agricultural imports from the United States was conducted on 86 countries and revealed two significant market segments for U.S. agriculture: the high-growth markets and the low-growth markets. Multiple discriminant analysis was then used to test the significance of the countries' trade-related and macroeconomic variables to their market growth classification. The discriminant function was used to predict the high-growth markets for U.S. a...

  13. Phosphorus export by runoff from agricultural field plots with different crop cover in Lake Taihu watershed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Runoff and soil losses from agricultural fields are investigated as major nonpoint sources of phosphorus (P) entering lakes of Eastern China. There is relatively little information on P transport from ricefield and cropland of Lake Taihu watershed in Eastern China. Soil and P in surface runoff from a series of plots in the watershed were evaluated under simulated rainfall conditions. The objectives of this study were to evaluate theeffects of crop cover, slope, and fertilizer application on P concentrations in surface runoff and eroded soil. Accumulated sediment yields varied from 7.1 to 300 g/m2 for croplands, depending on management practices. For all experiment plots, weighted average concentrations of total-P (TP), dissolved P (DP) and particulate P (PP) are much higher than 0.02 mg/L, the limiting concentration in lake water. This result showed the potential contamination of lake water from agricultural surface runoff. Accumulated TP losses were 3.8 and 18.8 mg/m2 for ricefield and cropland, respectively. The estimated annual loss of TP was 0.74 kg/(hm2鷄) for cropland. Most of P loss is in PP form, which accounts for more than 90% of TP loss for cropland.

  14. Spatial distribution of soils determines export of nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon from an intensively managed agricultural landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wohlfart

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The surrounding landscape of a stream has crucial impacts on the aquatic environment. This study pictures the hydro-biogeochemical situation of the Tyrebækken creek catchment in central Jutland, Denmark. The intensively managed agricultural landscape is dominated by rotational croplands. The small catchment mainly consist of sandy soil types besides organic soils along the streams. The aim of the study was to characterise the relative influence of soil type and land use on stream water quality. Nine snapshot sampling campaigns were undertaken during the growing season of 2009. Total dissolved nitrogen (TDN, nitrate (NO3, ammonium nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentrations were measured, and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON was calculated for each grabbed sample. Electrical conductivity, pH and flow velocity were measured during sampling. Statistical analyses showed significant differences between the northern, southern and converged stream parts, especially for NO3 concentrations with average values between 1.4 mg N l−1 and 9.6 mg N l−1. Furthermore, throughout the sampling period DON concentrations increased to 2.8 mg N l−1 in the northern stream contributing up to 81% to TDN. Multiple-linear regression analyses performed between chemical data and landscape characteristics showed a significant negative influence of organic soils on instream N concentrations and corresponding losses in spite of their overall minor share of the agricultural land (12.9%. On the other hand, organic soil frequency was positively correlated to the corresponding DOC concentrations. Croplands also had a significant influence but with weaker correlations. For our case study we conclude that the fractions of coarse textured and organic soils have a major influence on N and DOC export in this intensively used landscape. Meanwhile, the contribution of DON to the total N

  15. Export Mix Changes and Firm Performance: Evidence from Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Espinoza, Roberto; Zahler, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we analyze changes in the export mix of Chilean firms, looking particularly at differences between large firms and SMEs. To do that, we use detailed information of exported products by firms during the period 1995-2005. Our econometric results, which look at the impact of export product churning on firm performance, are heterogeneous by type of change in export mix and by firm size. In general, export mix changes are associated with improvements on productivity, although our res...

  16. Water flowing north of the border: export agriculture and water politics in a rural community in Baja California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlolniski, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Favored by neoliberal agrarian policies, the production of fresh crops for international markets has become a common strategy for economic development in Mexico and other Latin American countries. But as some scholars have argued, the global fresh produce industry in developing countries in which fresh crops are produced for consumer markets in affluent nations implies “virtual water flows,” the transfer of high volumes of water embedded in these crops across international borders. This article examines the local effects of the production of fresh produce in the San Quintín Valley in northwestern Mexico for markets in the United States. Although export agriculture has fostered economic growth and employment opportunities for indigenous farm laborers, it has also led to the overexploitation of underground finite water resources, and an alarming decline of the quantity and quality of water available for residents’ domestic use. I discuss how neoliberal water policies have further contributed to water inequalities along class and ethnic lines, the hardships settlers endure to secure access to water for their basic needs, and the political protests and social tensions water scarcity has triggered in the region. Although the production of fresh crops for international markets is promoted by organizations such as the World Bank and Inter-American Development Bank as a model for economic development, I argue that it often produces water insecurity for the poorest, threatening the UN goal of ensuring access to clean water as a universal human right. PMID:22171411

  17. Quantifying non-tariff measures in international agricultural trade: a tariff equivalent of technical barriers to trade on African horticultural exports to the European markets

    OpenAIRE

    Nimenya, Nicodeme; Frahan, Bruno Henry de; Ndimira, Pascal-Firmin

    2008-01-01

    Fresh food and agricultural products from sub- Saharan Africa meet few tariff barriers because of preferential market access granted to ACP countries through Lomé and Cotonou Act. However, non-tariff barriers are still serious impediments to trade. This paper focuses more specifically on technical barriers to trade (TBT) and sanitary and phytosanitary measures (SPS) on horticultural exports from Kenya and Zambia to France, Germany, the Netherlands and United-Kingdom. Using an extension of pri...

  18. Suspended sediment export in five intensive agricultural river catchments with contrasting land use and soil drainage characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherriff, Sophie; Rowan, John; Melland, Alice; Jordan, Phil; Fenton, Owen; hUallacháin, Daire Ó.

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion and sediment loss from land can have a negative impact on the chemical and ecological quality of freshwater resources. In catchments dominated by agriculture, prediction of soil erosion risk is complex due to the interaction of physical characteristics such as topography, soil erodibility, hydrological connectivity and climate. Robust measurement approaches facilitate the assessment of sediment loss magnitudes in relation to a range of agricultural settings. These approaches improve our understanding of critical sediment transfer periods and inform development of evidence-based and cost-effective management strategies. The aim of this study was to i) assess the efficacy of out-of-channel (ex-situ) suspended sediment measurement approaches, ii) to quantify the variability of sediment exported from five river catchments with varying hydrology and agricultural land uses over multiple years and iii) to investigate trends in relation to physical and land use characteristics when sediment data were compared between catchments. Sediment data were collected in five intensive agricultural river catchments in Ireland (3-11 km2) which featured contrasting land uses (predominantly intensive grassland or arable) and soil drainage classes (well, moderate and poor). High-resolution suspended sediment concentration data (SSC - using a calibrated turbidity proxy) were collected ex-situ and combined with in-stream discharge data measured at each catchment outlet to estimate suspended sediment yield (SSY - t km-2 yr-1). In two catchments additional in-stream turbidity monitoring equipment replicated ex-situ measurements including site specific calibration of individual in-stream and ex-situ turbidity probes. Depth-integrated samples were collected to assess the accuracy of both approaches. Method comparison results showed that true SSC values (from depth-integrated sampling) were predominantly within the 95% confidence interval of ex-situ predicted SSC consequently

  19. Methylmercury production in and export from agricultural wetlands in California, USA: the need to account for physical transport processes into and out of the root zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachand, Philip A.M.; Bachand, Sandra M.; Fleck, Jacob A.; Alpers, Charles N.; Stephenson, Mark; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie

    2014-01-01

    Concentration and mass balance analyses were used to quantify methylmercury (MeHg) loads from conventional (white) rice, wild rice, and fallowed fields in northern California's Yolo Bypass. These analyses were standardized against chloride to distinguish transport pathways and net ecosystem production (NEP). During summer, chloride loads were both exported with surface water and moved into the root zone at a 2:1 ratio. MeHg and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) behaved similarly with surface water and root zone exports at ~ 3:1 ratio. These trends reversed in winter with DOC, MeHg, and chloride moving from the root zone to surface waters at rates opposite and exceeding summertime root zone fluxes. These trends suggest that summer transpiration advectively moves constituents from surface water into the root zone, and winter diffusion, driven by concentration gradients, subsequently releases those constituents into surface waters. The results challenge a number of paradigms regarding MeHg. Specifically, biogeochemical conditions favoring microbial MeHg production do not necessarily translate to synchronous surface water exports; MeHg may be preserved in the soils allowing for release at a later time; and plants play a role in both biogeochemistry and transport. Our calculations show that NEP of MeHg occurred during both summer irrigation and winter flooding. Wild rice wet harvesting and winter flooding of white rice fields were specific practices that increased MeHg export, both presumably related to increased labile organic carbon and disturbance. Outflow management during these times could reduce MeHg exports. Standardizing MeHg outflow:inflow concentration ratios against natural tracers (e.g. chloride, EC) provides a simple tool to identify NEP periods. Summer MeHg exports averaged 0.2 to 1 μg m− 2 for the different agricultural wetland fields, depending upon flood duration. Average winter MeHg exports were estimated at 0.3 μg m− 2. These exports are

  20. Reprint of "Methylmercury production in and export from agricultural wetlands in California, USA: the need to account for physical transport processes into and out of the root zone".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachand, P A M; Bachand, S M; Fleck, J A; Alpers, C N; Stephenson, M; Windham-Myers, L

    2014-06-15

    Concentration and mass balance analyses were used to quantify methylmercury (MeHg) loads from conventional (white) rice, wild rice, and fallowed fields in northern California's Yolo Bypass. These analyses were standardized against chloride to distinguish transport pathways and net ecosystem production (NEP). During summer, chloride loads were both exported with surface water and moved into the root zone at a 2:1 ratio. MeHg and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) behaved similarly with surface water and root zone exports at ~3:1 ratio. These trends reversed in winter with DOC, MeHg, and chloride moving from the root zone to surface waters at rates opposite and exceeding summertime root zone fluxes. These trends suggest that summer transpiration advectively moves constituents from surface water into the root zone, and winter diffusion, driven by concentration gradients, subsequently releases those constituents into surface waters. The results challenge a number of paradigms regarding MeHg. Specifically, biogeochemical conditions favoring microbial MeHg production do not necessarily translate to synchronous surface water exports; MeHg may be preserved in the soils allowing for release at a later time; and plants play a role in both biogeochemistry and transport. Our calculations show that NEP of MeHg occurred during both summer irrigation and winter flooding. Wild rice wet harvesting and winter flooding of white rice fields were specific practices that increased MeHg export, both presumably related to increased labile organic carbon and disturbance. Outflow management during these times could reduce MeHg exports. Standardizing MeHg outflow:inflow concentration ratios against natural tracers (e.g. chloride, EC) provides a simple tool to identify NEP periods. Summer MeHg exports averaged 0.2 to 1μgm(-2) for the different agricultural wetland fields, depending upon flood duration. Average winter MeHg exports were estimated at 0.3μgm(-2). These exports are within the range

  1. Methylmercury production in and export from agricultural wetlands in California, USA: the need to account for physical transport processes into and out of the root zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachand, P A M; Bachand, S M; Fleck, J A; Alpers, C N; Stephenson, M; Windham-Myers, L

    2014-02-15

    Concentration and mass balance analyses were used to quantify methylmercury (MeHg) loads from conventional (white) rice, wild rice, and fallowed fields in northern California's Yolo Bypass. These analyses were standardized against chloride to distinguish transport pathways and net ecosystem production (NEP). During summer, chloride loads were both exported with surface water and moved into the root zone at a 2:1 ratio. MeHg and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) behaved similarly with surface water and root zone exports at ~3:1 ratio. These trends reversed in winter with DOC, MeHg, and chloride moving from the root zone to surface waters at rates opposite and exceeding summertime root zone fluxes. These trends suggest that summer transpiration advectively moves constituents from surface water into the root zone, and winter diffusion, driven by concentration gradients, subsequently releases those constituents into surface waters. The results challenge a number of paradigms regarding MeHg. Specifically, biogeochemical conditions favoring microbial MeHg production do not necessarily translate to synchronous surface water exports; MeHg may be preserved in the soils allowing for release at a later time; and plants play a role in both biogeochemistry and transport. Our calculations show that NEP of MeHg occurred during both summer irrigation and winter flooding. Wild rice wet harvesting and winter flooding of white rice fields were specific practices that increased MeHg export, both presumably related to increased labile organic carbon and disturbance. Outflow management during these times could reduce MeHg exports. Standardizing MeHg outflow:inflow concentration ratios against natural tracers (e.g. chloride, EC) provides a simple tool to identify NEP periods. Summer MeHg exports averaged 0.2 to 1 μg m(-2) for the different agricultural wetland fields, depending upon flood duration. Average winter MeHg exports were estimated at 0.3 μg m(-2). These exports are within the

  2. Plant Level Evidence on Product Mix Changes in Chilean Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Navarro

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes changes in the product mix by Chilean manufacturing plants in the period 1996-2003. Three-quarters of the surviving plants changed the set of products produced and more than three-quarters of the exporting plants changed the mix of products they exported during the sample period. Plants that changed their product mix contributed 85% of the aggregate growth in real sales of surviving plants between 1996 and 2003. Finally and in contrast to the US evidence, there is a negati...

  3. Studying the Effects of Non-Tariff Barriers on the Export of the Main Agricultural Products of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Ardakani; Yazdani, S; O. Gilanpour

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: As trade agreements decrease tariffs throughout the world, other barriers to trade emerge. These Non-Tariff Barriers (NTBs) can be just as troublesome as tariffs for exporting countries. NTBs include any of a number of hindrances that restrict the ability of companies to export. NTBs may now have a greater impact on trade than tariffs. Approach: In contrast with previous research, we used a gravity model to estimate the trade effect of non-tariff barriers imposed by importe...

  4. 7 CFR 947.17 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 947.17 Section 947.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Definitions § 947.17 Export. Export means shipment of potatoes beyond the boundaries of continental...

  5. 7 CFR 924.15 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 924.15 Section 924.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... WASHINGTON AND IN UMATILLA COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 924.15 Export. Export...

  6. 7 CFR 959.18 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 959.18 Section 959.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Handling Definitions § 959.18 Export. Export means to ship onions to any destination which is not...

  7. 7 CFR 915.12 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 915.12 Section 915.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Definitions § 915.12 Export. Export means to ship avocados to any destination which...

  8. 7 CFR 948.17 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 948.17 Section 948.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.17 Export. Export means the shipment of potatoes to any...

  9. 7 CFR 946.15 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 946.15 Section 946.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.15 Export. Export means shipment of potatoes beyond the boundaries...

  10. 7 CFR 966.18 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 966.18 Section 966.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Handling Definitions § 966.18 Export. Export means shipment of tomatoes beyond the boundaries of the...

  11. 7 CFR 923.15 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 923.15 Section 923.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.15 Export. Export means to ship...

  12. 7 CFR 922.15 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 922.15 Section 922.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.15 Export. Export means to ship apricots beyond...

  13. 7 CFR 927.12 - Export market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export market. 927.12 Section 927.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.12 Export market. Export market means any destination...

  14. Chemical metrology, strategic job for the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Standardization Institute's (INN) Metrology unit prepared a study in 1996 to evaluate the impact of metrological activity in Chile. This study was based on a survey of the supply and demand of metrological services and on studies of the behavior of the production system and technological services in Chile during the period 1990-1996. With the information obtained in this study the economic impact resulting from the lack of a national metrology system could be evaluated. This impact was estimated to be a 5% loss in gross national product equal to 125-500 million dollars because of direct product rejection in the mining, fisheries, agricultural and manufacturing sectors. Chemical measurements are responsible for 50% of these losses. In response to this need and coordinated by the INN, a metrological network of reference laboratories began to operate in 1997 for the principal physical magnitudes (mass, temperature, longitude and force) and a CORFO-FDI project began in 2001 that includes the chemical magnitudes. The Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, aware of the problem's importance and the amount of economic damage that the country may suffer, as a result of these deficiencies, has formed a Chemical Metrology Unit to provide technical support. It aims to raise the standards of local analytical laboratories by providing international recognition to the export sector. Nuclear analytical techniques are used as reference methods. This work describes the laboratories that are included in this Chemical Metrology Unit and the historical contribution to the development of local analytical chemistry. The national and international projects are described together with the publications they have generated. The quality assurance program applied to the laboratories is described as well, which has led to the accreditation of the analytical chemical assays. The procedures used for validation and calculation of uncertain nuclear methodologies are described together with

  15. Spatio-temporal variations of nitrogen in an agricultural watershed in eastern China: Catchment export, stream attenuation and discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the monthly hydrogeochemical data of ChangLe River system from 2004 to 2008, total nitrogen (TN) export load (Sn) from nonpoint sources (NPS) to stream and in-stream attenuation load (AL) was estimated by the inverse and forward format of an existing in-stream nutrient transport equation, respectively. Estimated Sn contributed 96 ± 2% of TN entering the river system, while AL reduced the input TN by 23 ± 14% in average. In-stream TN attenuation efficiency in high flow periods (10 ± 5% in average for the entire river system) was much lower than that in low flow periods (39 ± 17%). TN attenuation efficiency in tributaries (28 ± 16% in average) was much higher than that in mainstream (11 ± 8%). Hydrological conditions are important in determining the spatio-temporal distributions of NPS TN export, stream attenuation and discharge. Increasing the water residence time might be a practical method for mitigating stream TN. - Highlights: → We examine variations of catchment TN export, stream attenuation and discharge. → Hydrological condition determines the spatio-temporal variation of NPS pollution. → High flow rate brings high N export from catchment but low attenuation efficiency. → TN attenuation efficiency in tributaries is much higher than that in mainstream. → Increasing the stream water residence time will mitigate stream N discharge. - High flow rate brings large catchment nitrogen export but low in-stream attenuation efficiency, and then enhances stream nitrogen discharge.

  16. 7 CFR 1488.9 - Evidence of export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence of export. 1488.9 Section 1488.9 Agriculture... Export Sales of Agricultural Commodities From Private Stocks Under CCC Export Credit Sales Program (GSM-5) Documents Required for Financing § 1488.9 Evidence of export. (a) If the commodity is exported by rail...

  17. Skill Acquisition in "High Tech" Export Agriculture: A Case Study of Lifelong Learning in Peru's Asparagus Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnoy, Martin; Luschei, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    As one of the world's largest exporters of asparagus, Peru has developed a high-tech system of asparagus production, processing and delivery that requires well-trained and responsive workers. In this study we examine the role of both private and public sectors in preparing workers for the asparagus industry and the implications of this skill…

  18. 31 CFR 560.532 - Payment for and financing of exports and reexports of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and reexports of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.532 Section 560.532... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for payment terms. The following payment terms for sales of agricultural commodities and products, medicine, and medical equipment pursuant to §§...

  19. Department of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Forestry Housing Assistance Laws and Regulations Organic Agriculture Outreach Plant Health Research and Science Rural and ... Agricultural Research Agricultural Statistics Economic Research Food and Agriculture Research OPEDA Scholarship Program MARKETING AND TRADE Exporting ...

  20. PRESENCE OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS IN ALPACAS (LAMA PACOS) INHABITING THE CHILEAN ALTIPLANO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Miguel; Sevilla, Iker; Rios, Carolina; Crossley, Jorge; Tejeda, Carlos; Manning, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of paratuberculosis. The organism causes disease in both domestically managed and wild ruminant species. South American camelids have a long, shared history with indigenous people in the Andes. Over the last few decades, increasing numbers of alpacas were exported to numerous countries outside South America. No paratuberculosis surveillance has been reported for these source herds. In this study, individual fecal samples from 85 adult alpacas were collected from six separate herds in the Chilean Altiplano. A ParaTB mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) liquid culture of each individual fecal sample, followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was used for confirmation. DNA extracts from a subset of confirmed MAP isolates were subjected to mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Fifteen alpaca were fecal culture test-positive. Five false-positive culture samples were negative on PCR analysis for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA), Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), and the 16 S rDNA gene. Three MAP isolates subset-tested belonged to the same MIRU-VNTR type, showing four repeats for TR292 (locus 1) in contrast to the three repeats typical of the MAP reference strain K10. The number of repeats found in the remaining loci was identical to that of the K10 strain. It is not known how nor when MAP was introduced into the alpaca population in the Chilean Altiplano. The most plausible hypothesis to explain the presence of MAP in these indigenous populations is transmission by contact with infected domestic small ruminant species that may on occasion share pastures or range with alpacas. Isolation of this mycobacterial pathogen from such a remote region suggests that MAP has found its way beyond the confines of intensively managed domestic agriculture premises. PMID:27010259

  1. Mercury cycling in agricultural and managed wetlands: a synthesis of methylmercury production, hydrologic export, and bioaccumulation from an integrated field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Fleck, Jacob A; Ackerman, Joshua T; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark; Stricker, Craig A; Heim, Wesley A; Bachand, Philip A M; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Gill, Gary; Stephenson, Mark; Alpers, Charles N

    2014-06-15

    With seasonal wetting and drying, and high biological productivity, agricultural wetlands (rice paddies) may enhance the conversion of inorganic mercury (Hg(II)) to methylmercury (MeHg), the more toxic, organic form that biomagnifies through food webs. Yet, the net balance of MeHg sources and sinks in seasonal wetland environments is poorly understood because it requires an annual, integrated assessment across biota, sediment, and water components. We examined a suite of wetlands managed for rice crops or wildlife during 2007-2008 in California's Central Valley, in an area affected by Hg contamination from historic mining practices. Hydrologic management of agricultural wetlands for rice, wild rice, or fallowed - drying for field preparation and harvest, and flooding for crop growth and post-harvest rice straw decay - led to pronounced seasonality in sediment and aqueous MeHg concentrations that were up to 95-fold higher than those measured concurrently in adjacent, non-agricultural permanently-flooded and seasonally-flooded wetlands. Flooding promoted microbial MeHg production in surface sediment of all wetlands, but extended water residence time appeared to preferentially enhance MeHg degradation and storage. When incoming MeHg loads were elevated, individual fields often served as a MeHg sink, rather than a source. Slow, horizontal flow of shallow water in the agricultural wetlands led to increased importance of vertical hydrologic fluxes, including evapoconcentration of surface water MeHg and transpiration-driven advection into the root zone, promoting temporary soil storage of MeHg. Although this hydrology limited MeHg export from wetlands, it also increased MeHg exposure to resident fish via greater in situ aqueous MeHg concentrations. Our results suggest that the combined traits of agricultural wetlands - slow-moving shallow water, manipulated flooding and drying, abundant labile plant matter, and management for wildlife - may enhance microbial methylation

  2. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation - Quarantine treatment of agricultural products for export and import by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Joong Ho; Kang, H. J.; Chung, H. W.; Roh, M. J. [Kyungbuk National University, Taegu (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    To pre-establish an alternative technique to the toxic fumigant, methyl bromide which is the current quarantine measure of agricultural products for export, some selected agricultural products, such as apple and pear, were subjected to a preliminary study to confirm the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and MeBr fumigant on their disinfestation and quality, thereby preparing the basic data for the practical approach. Current quarantine activities were examined and the related limitations were investigated. Quarantine-related pests were investigated on their radiosensitivity and disinfestation effects by both treatments. The pests in apple and pear, Tetranychus urticae Koch, Panonychus ulmis Koch revealed a 100% mortality at around 17 days after irradiation of 3 kGy but it was too high dose for apple and pear. Tetranychus urticae Koch, Panonychus ulmi Koch from both apple and pear showed an increased mortality when exposed to 1 {approx} 2 kGy irradiation, resulting in apparent mortality 1 month later. 1 {approx} 2 kGy irradiation could be recommended for apple and pear. Current fumigation was perfect in its disinfesting capability, but it caused the detrimental effects on physical quality of agricultural produce. Whereas, irradiation doses suitable for controlling the pests did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the samples. 40 refs., 64 figs., 160 tabs. (Author)

  3. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on agriculture describes how climate change will affect primary agriculture production in Canada with particular focus on potential adaptation options, and vulnerability of agriculture at the farm level. Agriculture is a vital part of the Canadian economy, although only 7 per cent of Canada's land mass is used for agricultural purposes due to the limitations of climate and soils. Most parts of Canada are expected to experience warmer conditions, longer frost-free seasons and increased evapotranspiration. The impacts of these changes on agriculture will vary depending on precipitation changes, soil conditions, and land use. Northern regions may benefit from longer farming seasons, but poor soil conditions will limit the northward expansion of agricultural crops. Some of the negative impacts associated with climate change on agriculture include increased droughts, changes in pest and pathogen outbreaks, and moisture stress. In general, it is expected that the positive and negative impacts of climate change would offset each other. 74 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  4. 7 CFR 35.8 - Date of export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Date of export. 35.8 Section 35.8 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Definitions § 35.8 Date of export. Date of export means the date of loading on board...

  5. Mercury methylation, export and bioaccumulation in rice agriculture - model results from comparative and experimental studies in 3 regions of the California Delta, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham-Myers, L.; Fleck, J.; Eagles-Smith, C.; Ackerman, J.

    2013-12-01

    Seasonally flooded wetland ecosystems are often poised for mercury (Hg) methylation, thus becoming sources of methylmercury (MeHg) to in situ and downstream biota. The seasonal flooding associated with cultivation of rice (Oryza sativa) also generates MeHg, which may be stored in sediment or plants, bioaccumulated into fauna, degraded or exported, depending on hydrologic and seasonal conditions. While many U.S. waters are regulated for total Hg concentrations based on fish targets, California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Delta) will soon implement the first MeHg total maximum daily load (TMDL) control program. Since 2007, a conceptual model (DRERIP-MCM) and several ecosystem-level studies have been advanced to better understand the mechanisms behind Hg methylation, export and bioaccumulation within Delta wetlands, including rice agriculture. Three Delta rice-growing regions (Yolo Bypass, Cosumnes River, Central Delta) of varied soil characteristics, mining influences and hydrology, were monitored over full crop years to evaluate annual MeHg dynamics. In addition to fish tissue Hg accumulation, a broad suite of biogeochemical and hydrologic indices were assessed and compared between wetland types, seasons, and regions. In general, Delta rice fields were found to export MeHg during the post-harvest winter season, and promote MeHg uptake in fish and rice grain during the summer growing season. As described in a companion presentation (Eagles-Smith et al., this session), the experimental Cosumnes River study suggests that rice-derived dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fuels MeHg production and uptake into aquatic foodwebs. Explicit DRERIP-MCM linkages for the role of rice-DOC in MeHg production, export and bioaccumulation were verified across two summers (2011, 2012): rice biomass and root productivity influenced porewater DOC availability and microbial processes, which drove sediment MeHg production and flux to surface water, promoting MeHg bioaccumulation in fish

  6. Impact of landscape characteristics on the stream carbon and nitrogen export: example of a small agricultural catchment in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfart, T.; Exbrayat, J.F.; Schelde, Kirsten;

    2012-01-01

    investigates the relative influence of different landscape characteristics on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) losses into streams. It not only focuses on the "classical" agricultural nitrogen pollutants of nitrate (NO3) and ammonia (NH4) but also hypothesises that dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is an important......Agriculture plays an important role on the environment, notably the quality of water draining cultivated soils. Understanding the relationship between landscape characteristics and stream quality is crucial to sustain a good quality of water and to develop adapted policies. Therefore, this study...... organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were measured whereas DON was calculated for each grabbed sample. Electrical conductivity (EC), pH and flow velocity were simultaneously measured during sampling. Statistical analyses show significant differences in these water quality parameters between the northern...

  7. 7 CFR 958.14 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 958.14 Section 958.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.14 Export....

  8. 7 CFR 945.14 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 945.14 Section 945.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.14 Export....

  9. Factors controlling the export of nitrogen from agricultural land in a large central European catchment during 1900−2010

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopáček, Jiří; Hejzlar, Josef; Posch, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 12 (2013), s. 6400-6407. ISSN 0013-936X. [ASLO 2013. New Orleans, 17.02.2013-22.02.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/12/1218 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 244121 - REFRESH Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : reactive nitrogen * mass budgets * agricultural land * forest * modelling Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 5.481, year: 2013

  10. Hydrologic controls on the export dynamics of dissolved and particulate phosphorus in a lowland, headwater agricultural catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupas, Rémi; Grimaldi, Catherine; Gruau, Gérard; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal

    2014-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) availability controls eutrophication in freshwater ecosystems, since P is generally the limiting nutrient to algal development. The contribution of diffuse P emission to surface waters is significant in intensively livestock farmed catchments as a result of high application rates of P-rich animal waste and subsequent enrichment of soils. This study investigates the transport dynamics of particulate phosphorus (PP), suspended sediments (SS), and dissolved phosphorus (DP) with the aim of elucidating the relationship between PP and DP transport mechanisms and water dynamics in lowland, headwater catchments. The selected catchment (Kervidy-Naizin catchment, France) is particularly suitable for this purpose as it benefits of a 5 years, high-frequency monitoring of PP and DP concentrations at its outlet, including data recovered both during base flow and storm periods, with the monitoring of more than 50 storm flow events. The data analysis includes interpretation of concentration-discharge relationships at the annual time scale and on an event basis, seasonal analysis of flood characteristics and empirical modeling. Annual DP and PP concentration-discharge relationships of interflood samples display a hysteretic pattern, with higher concentrations during the autumn and spring periods, and progressive decrease during winter. No hysteretic pattern is visible for interflood SS concentration, which follows a classical C=a*Qb relationship. During floods, the dynamic of PP export is similar to that of SS during most of the events: the concentration peak occurs during the rising limb of the hydrogram (clockwise hysteresis), suggesting a source close to or within the stream. The amplitude and the hysteresis' loop size for SS and PP are a function of maximum discharge and rate of change in discharge. On the contrary, there is a strong decoupling between DP and SS (and thus PP) during most of the floods (no significant correlation), with DP concentration peaks

  11. 7 CFR 51.912 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 51.912 Section 51.912 Agriculture Regulations... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.912 Export. When designated as Export, grapes shall be packed with any of the customary protective materials such as...

  12. The importance of riparian zones on stream carbon and nitrogen export in a temperate, agricultural dominated landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wohlfart

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The surrounding landscape of a stream has crucial impacts on the aquatic environment. This study pictures the hydro-biogeochemical situation of the Tyrebaekken creek catchment in central Jutland, Denmark. The intensively managed agricultural landscape is dominated by rotational croplands. One northern and one southern stream run through the catchment before converging to form a second order brook. The small catchments mainly consist of sandy soil types besides organic soils along the riparian zone of the streams. The aim of the study was to characterise the relative influence of soil type and land use on stream water quality. Nine snapshot sampling campaigns were undertaken during the growing season of 2009. On each sampling day, 20 points along the stream were sampled as well as eight drain outlets and two groundwater wells. Total dissolved nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentrations were measured and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON was calculated for each grabbed sample. Electro-conductivity, pH and flow velocity were measured during sampling.

    Statistical analyses showed significant differences between the northern, southern and converged stream parts, especially for nitrate concentrations with average values of 9.6 mg N l−1, 1.4 mg N l−1 and 3.0 mg N l−1, respectively. Furthermore, throughout the sampling period DON concentrations increased from 0.1 mg N l−1 to 2.8 mg N l−1 and from 0.1 mg N l−1 to 0.8 mg N l−1in the northern and southern streams, respectively. This corresponded to a contribution of up to 81% to total dissolved nitrogen. Multiple-linear regression analyses performed between chemical data and landscape charateristics showed a significant negative influence of organic soils on instream N concentrations and corresponding losses in spite of their overall minor share of the agricultural land

  13. Spatial distribution of soils determines export of nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon from an intensively managed agricultural landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfart, T; Exbrayat, J-F; Schelde, Kirsten;

    2012-01-01

    % to TDN. Multiple-linear regression analyses performed between chemical data and landscape characteristics showed a significant negative influence of organic soils on instream N concentrations and corresponding losses in spite of their overall minor share of the agricultural land (12.9%). On the other...... catchment mainly consist of sandy soil types besides organic soils along the streams. The aim of the study was to characterise the relative influence of soil type and land use on stream water quality. Nine snapshot sampling campaigns were undertaken during the growing season of 2009. Total dissolved...... nitrogen (TDN), nitrate (NO3−), ammonium nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were measured, and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) was calculated for each grabbed sample. Electrical conductivity, pH and flow velocity were measured during sampling. Statistical analyses showed...

  14. The importance of riparian zones on stream carbon and nitrogen export in a temperate, agricultural dominated landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfart, T; Exbrayat, J F; Schelde, Kirsten;

    2012-01-01

    their overall minor share of the agricultural land (12.9%). On the other hand, organic soil frequency was positively correlated to the corresponding dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Croplands also had a significant influence but with weaker correlations. For our case study we conclude that soil...... northern and one southern stream run through the catchment before converging to form a second order brook. The small catchments mainly consist of sandy soil types besides organic soils along the riparian zone of the streams. The aim of the study was to characterise the relative influence of soil type and...... dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were measured and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) was calculated for each grabbed sample. Electro-conductivity, pH and flow velocity were measured during sampling. Statistical analyses showed significant differences between the northern, southern and converged...

  15. Impact of landscape characteristics on the stream carbon and nitrogen export: example of a small agricultural catchment in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfart, T.; Exbrayat, J.-F.; Schelde, K.; Dalgaard, T.; Frede, H.-G.; Breuer, L.

    2012-04-01

    Agriculture plays an important role on the environment, notably the quality of water draining cultivated soils. Understanding the relationship between landscape characteristics and stream quality is crucial to sustain a good quality of water and to develop adapted policies. Therefore, this study investigates the relative influence of different landscape characteristics on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) losses into streams. It not only focuses on the "classical" agricultural nitrogen pollutants of nitrate (NO3) and ammonia (NH4) but also hypothesises that dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is an important pathways of N losses. In the Bjerringbro area in central Jutland, Denmark, the landscape is dominated by intensively managed croplands draining into the Tyrebaekken creek. More precisely, one northern and one southern stream run through the catchment (842.7 ha) before converging to form a second order brook. Nine snapshot sampling campaigns were undertaken during the growing season of 2009 (April to September). On each sampling day, 20 points along the stream were sampled as well as eight directly contributing drainages and two groundwater wells. Total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), NO3, NH4 and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were measured whereas DON was calculated for each grabbed sample. Electrical conductivity (EC), pH and flow velocity were simultaneously measured during sampling. Statistical analyses show significant differences in these water quality parameters between the northern, southern and converged stream parts, especially when considering NO3-N concentrations with average values of 9.6 mg N/L, 1.4 mg N/L and 3.0 mg N/L, respectively. This is despite the fact that differences in land use were only minor between the two stream sections. Meanwhile, DON concentrations rose by about one order of magnitude from 0.1 mg N/L to 2.8 mg N/L and from 0.1 mg N/L to 0.8 mg N/L in the northern and southern streams, respectively, during the research period

  16. Hypoxia in Chilean Patagonian Fjords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nelson; Vargas, Cristian A.

    2014-12-01

    Chilean Patagonia is one of the largest estuarine systems in the world. It is characterized by a complex geography of approximately 3300 islands, a total surface area of 240,000 km2, and 84,000 km of coast line, including islands, peninsulas, channels, fjords, and sounds. The Chilean Patagonia Interior Sea is filled with a mixture of sea, estuarine, and fresh waters, and is characterized by a two layer vertical general circulation. Dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions in these fjords were analyzed based on historic salinity, dissolved oxygen and nutrient data from 1200 oceanographic stations. Horizontal advection of adjacent well oxygenated Subantarctic Waters (5-6 mL L-1) was the mayor source of DO in the deep layers of the Interior Sea. Incoming DO was consumed by the respiration of autochthonous and allochthonous particulate organic matter, as ocean water flows towards the continental fjord heads, reaching near-hypoxic (2-3 mL L-1) or hypoxic levels (2 mL L-1) and four hypoxic (<2 mL L-1), but only at their heads. None were found to be anoxic (0 mL L-1). We found these DO conditions to be permanent features of the Chilean Patagonia Interior Sea.

  17. Strategic Evolution of Chilean Wine Firms: Vertical Integration and Upgrading in Chile’s Colchagua Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert N. Gwynne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the favourable export trajectories for Chilean wine to global markets in general and the UK market in particular are partly due to the nature of the insertion of wine producing firms into global value chains. Much of the data in this paper comes from a two-year British Academy research project (2005-07 which examined the impacts of globalization on export-oriented wine firms in Chile’s Colchagua Valley and the record of collaboration between these firms and key purchasing companies within the UK market. The paper examines the political economy of value chains in agro-industry, retail concentration in core economy markets and the relevance of convention theory to value chains in the wine sector. The paper then analyses how value chains give context to the nature of upgrading within the Chilean wine sector by focusing on: the strategic example of the lead firm; firm upgrading as a response to the demands of and knowledge flows from retailers; and firm upgrading through the flying winemaker model. The paper will conclude by assessing the relevance of the Chilean experience for other countries wishing to rapidly expand their wine exports, such as those in S. E. Europe.

  18. Strategic Evolution of Chilean Wine Firms: Vertical Integration and Upgrading in Chile’s Colchagua Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Robert N. Gwynne

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that the favourable export trajectories for Chilean wine to global markets in general and the UK market in particular are partly due to the nature of the insertion of wine producing firms into global value chains. Much of the data in this paper comes from a two-year British Academy research project (2005-07) which examined the impacts of globalization on export-oriented wine firms in Chile’s Colchagua Valley and the record of collaboration between these firms and key purchas...

  19. Decomposition on Dual Margin of China ’ s Agricultural Export to EU%我国农产品出口欧盟市场的二元边际分解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨逢珉; 翟慧娟; 毛一卿

    2015-01-01

    Based on the decomposition method of Hummels and Klenow ( 2005 ) , this paper studies the dual margin of China ’ s agricultural export to EU by using the 6-digits level trade data of the Harmonized System from 2002 to 2013 , and finds that the growth of China ’ s agricultural export to EU mainly stems from the extensive mar-gin.On this basis , this paper analyzes the factors which influence the agricultural export to EU by using the panel data of the top 10 importers in EU.We obtain that the promotion of agricultural productivity and proportion of agri-cultural labor force benefits the dual margin of China ’ s agricultural export to EU , while the scale of agricultural has negative effects on dual margin.The proportion of the import value from developing countries has positive effects on the promotion of intensive margin , while the proportion of imported raw materials is not conducive to increasing the extensive margin.Based on the conclusions of empirical research , we propose some suggestions , such as improving the competitiveness of the exported agricultural products , in order to expand the export of agricultural products to EU.%借鉴Hummels和Klenow(2005)的实证研究方法,利用2002~2013年中国农产品出口欧盟市场的HS-6位贸易数据分析了中国农产品出口欧盟市场的二元边际。研究发现:中国农产品对欧盟市场的增长主要源于扩展边际。在此结论基础上,利用中国农产品出口欧盟市场的主要的十个成员国家的面板数据,分析了不同因素对二元边际的影响作用:欧盟市场的农业生产率、农业劳动力占比的提升有利于我国农产品对欧出口的二元边际的提升,但进口国农业经济规模对我国农产品出口的二元边际具有反向作用;欧盟从发展中国家的进口占比提高利于集约边际的提升,而欧盟进口农业原材料的比重提高却不利于扩展边际的提高。基于实证研究的结论

  20. Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination of Agricultural Soil around Dhaka Export Processing Zone (DEPZ, Bangladesh: Implication of Seasonal Variation and Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hafizur Rahman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Intense urbanization, large scale industrialization and unprecedented population growth in the last few decades have been responsible for lowering environmental quality. Soil contamination with metals is a serious concern due to their toxicity and ability to accumulate in the biota. The present work assessed the heavy metal contamination of agricultural soil in the close vicinity of the Dhaka Export Processing Zone (DEPZ in both dry and wet seasons using different indices viz., index of geoaccumulation (Igeo, contamination factor ( , degree of contamination ( , modified degree of contamination (mCd and pollution load index (PLI. Samples were collected from the surface layer of soil and analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS. The trend of metals according to average concentration during the dry and wet seasons was As > Fe > Hg > Mn > Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cd and As > Fe > Mn > Zn > Hg > Cu > Ni > Cr > Pb > Cd, respectively. Because of seasonal rainfall, dilution and other run-off during the wet season, metals from the upper layer of soil were flushed out to some extent and hence all the indices values were lower in this season compared to that of the dry season. Igeo results revealed that the study area was strongly and moderately contaminated with As and Hg in the dry and wet seasons respectively. According to , soil was classified as moderately contaminated with Zn, Cr, Pb and Ni, considerably contaminated with Cu and highly contaminated with As and Hg. The general trend of the mean  was Hg > As > Cu > Zn > Ni > Cr > Pb > Fe > Mn > Cd and As > Hg > Cu > Cd > Zn > Ni >Pb > Fe > Mn in dry and wet seasons, respectively. The mCf values in the dry and wet seasons were 575.13 and 244.44 respectively indicating an ultra high degree of contamination. The Cd values in both seasons were associated with a very high degree of contamination. PLI results indicated immediate

  1. Structural Changes in Asparagus Production and Exports from Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Tatsuya

    2009-01-01

    Asparagus is the star product among non-traditional agricultural exports (NTAXs) in Peru. The export of preserved asparagus has expanded since the end of the 1980s. Although there was some stagnation in the mid-1990s, exports of fresh asparagus have expanded rapidly since the end of the 1990s. Now, the export of both preserved and fresh asparagus constitute the second most important agricultural export in Peru after coffee. Besides the change in demand on the international market, the importa...

  2. Export spillovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choquette, Eliane; Meinen, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the importance of export spillovers in a firm's decision to enter specific export markets and extends the current state of the literature by assessing different mechanisms through which they may occur, namely (i) labour movement, (ii) intra-industry spillovers and (iii) inter......-industry linkages. We do so by exploiting a unique data set covering the universe of manufacturing firms in Denmark for the period 1995–2006 which combines transaction-level export data, firm accounting data, employer–employee linked data and information from yearly input–output tables. We corroborate the...... literature on export spillovers by presenting robust evidence of destination-specific export spillovers. The results suggest that labour mobility as well as intra- and inter-industry linkages (backward linkages) are important channels for export spillovers, while presenting heterogeneous effects across firms...

  3. Export strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thorbjørn; Koed Madsen, Tage

    2002-01-01

    on insights from DCP in order to devise a theoretical basis that could enrich export strategy research. Although our development of DCP insights builds on previous work, it also adds a crucial distinction between knowledge stocks and informational architecture. Changes in architecture are of greater......It is argued here that traditional export strategy research (encompassing the study of internationalization processes and export performance) is characterized by weak theoretical foundations and could benefit from a reorientation towards a dynamic capabilities perspective (DCP). We seek to draw...... importance. Following this elaboration of the dynamic capabilities perspective, we outline some implications and guidelines for future export strategy research....

  4. Transforming Vietnamese Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    Over the past quarter century, Vietnam’s agricultural sector has made enormous progress. Vietnam’s performance in terms of agricultural yields, output, and exports, however, has been more impressive than its gains in efficiency, farmer welfare, and product quality. Vietnamese agriculture now sits at a turning point. The agricultural sector now faces growing domestic competition - from cities, ...

  5. 7 CFR 1493.470 - Evidence of export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; (7) Unit sales price received for the commodity exported and the basis (e.g., FOB, CFR, CIF). Where... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence of export. 1493.470 Section 1493.470... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS...

  6. Policy learning and policy change in a context of industry crisis: the case of Chilean salmon farming industry

    OpenAIRE

    Roa Petrasic, Veronica Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates the policy response to the 2007-2010 sanitary crisis in the Chilean salmon industry, the second largest producer and exporter of salmon in the world. This industry is an emblematic case of the possible consequences of employing an intensive natural resource model for development. The research draws upon the two literatures on policy learning and policy change, and crisis and disaster management, and upon the system failure to explain the causes and consequences ...

  7. Oceanography of the Chilean Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, Silvio; Luis Iriarte, José; Daneri, Giovanni

    2011-03-01

    Chilean Patagonia is one of the most extended fjord regions in the world that covers nearly 240,000 km 2 with an extremely complex coastline and topography in one of the least densely populated areas of the country (1-8 inhabitants every 10 km 2). In recent years, the area has been undergoing somewhat intense pressure since several commercial projects in hydroelectricity, tourism, and commercial salmon and mytilid cultures have been developed, or are in progress. Concomitantly, several large research programs have been devised to study the physical, chemical, and biological environment of Patagonia, such as the CIMAR FIORDO, and recently COPAS Sur-Austral based at Universidad de Concepcion, that attempts to close the bridge between oceanographic knowledge and its use by society. In this introductory article we summarize the collection of papers comprising this Special Issue of Continental Shelf Research. These papers deal with aspects of regional oceanography and geology, inorganic and organic geochemistry, ecology of pelagic and benthic organisms, and past changes in productivity.

  8. The difference in agricultural production cost among European and non-European countries – potato and tomato – market challenges for import-export

    OpenAIRE

    Valogiannis, Elias

    2012-01-01

    The complicated world of fresh fruits and vegetables commerce has inspired me to proceed with this project. The main topic of this research is the production cost of tomato and potato which are the highest- in consumption -vegetables in the Greek market. The study is focused on Greek production versus rest countries around it (European and non European countries) which export these products under specific circumstances. By stating European countries, it is implied that the countries are laid ...

  9. 非关税壁垒下我国农产品出口对策研究%Research on Countermeasures for China's Exports of A-gricultural Products under Non-tariff Barriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于正尉; 杨兰

    2014-01-01

    中国入世以来,农产品进出口总额迅速增长,但与此同时贸易差额自2004年起连续十年呈贸易逆差。中国农产品贸易呈现出进口增长高于出口增长的趋势。贸易逆差究其外部原因主要是由于进口国贸易保护主义的盛行。随着国际贸易竞争加强,新型非关税壁垒措施逐渐替代关税保护措施成为国际贸易保护措施的主要表现形式。就农产品而言,随着科技的发展与社会的进步,技术性贸易壁垒与绿色壁垒已成为当下发达国家普遍实施的主要新型贸易保护措施。本文在分析了我国农产品出口现状以及非关税壁垒对农产品出口的影响后,研究出为应对非关税壁垒,企业应优化调整产业结构,建立绿色体系;政府应宏观调控行业结构,同时加强国际合作。%Since China's entrance into WTO, the total import and export of agricultural products have been increasing rapidly, but meanwhile, the trade balance has showed a deficit of ten consec-utive years since 2004. China's agricultural trade showed a trend of more rapid import growth than export growth. Investigating its external causes, the trade deficit was mainly due to the preva-lence of trade protectionism in the importing country. With the strengthening of international trade competition, new non-tariff measures have gradually replaced tariff protection measures and become the main form of international trade protection measures. For agricultural products, with the progress of science and tech-nology and social development, technical barriers to trade and green barriers have become a major new trade protection mea-sures implemented by developed countries in the moment. After analyzing the current situation of China' agricultural exports and the impact of non-tariff barriers on exports of agricultural prod-ucts, this paper proposed that: to deal with non-tariff barriers, companies should optimize the adjustment of

  10. Flower and fruit production and insect pollination of the endangered Chilean tree, Gomortega keule in native forest, exotic pine plantation and agricultural environments Producción de flores y frutas y polinización por insectos de Gomortega keule en bosque nativo y en terrenos agrícolas, un árbol chileno en peligro de extinción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TONYA A LANDER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to discover whether patterns of flower and fruit production for Gomortega keule, an endangered Chilean tree, differ between exotic pine plantation, agricultural and native forest environments. A pilot study was also undertaken to identify the primary pollinators of G. keule. Although similar proportions of G. keule trees flowered in the agricultural and native forest áreas, more trees in the agricultural sites produced fruit compared to trees in the native forest sites. Flowering and fruiting of G. keule was extremely rare in the exotic pine plantations. Our data show that G. keule flowers are predominantly visited by syrphid flies in March-April, and that syrphids carry a greater proportion of G. keule pollen than the other insects collected. Native forest and low intensity agricultural systems appear to provide habitat in which syrphids forage and G. keule is able to produce fruit successfully, but exotic pine plantation does not; suggesting that a landscape made up of a mosaic of different landuse types is not necessarily inimical to the continued reproduction of G. keule, but that the combination and types of landuses and intensity of management must be carefully considered.El presente estudio fue realizado con el objetivo de establecer si los patrones de producción de flores y frutos de Gomortega keule (Gomortegaceae, un árbol chileno en peligro de extinción, son diferentes entre áreas de plantaciones de pinos exóticos, terrenos agrícolas y áreas de bosque nativo. También fue llevado a cabo un estudio piloto para identificar los principales polinizadores de G. keule. A pesar de que en tierras agrícolas y en áreas de bosque nativo floreció una proporción similar de árboles de G. keule, en zonas agrícolas fructificó una mayor proporción en comparación con los árboles de áreas de bosque nativo. La floración y fructificación de G. keule fue extremadamente rara en las áreas de plantaciones de

  11. Hidden Agricultural Export Subsidies in the WTO Framework and Implications for China%WTO体系下的隐蔽性农产品出口补贴及对中国的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓冰; 李晓玲

    2012-01-01

    The Uruguay Round negotiations failed to establish substantive obligations for hidden agricultural export subsidies. Since the establishment of the WTO, the members have been resorting to the dispute settlement mechanism to interpret and enforce existing soft rules, and on the other hand, negotiating new rules in the Doha Round negotiations. This thesis explores the current situations and especially the development of negotiations of the hidden export subsidies, and analyses China' s interests and stance on this topic.%由于乌拉圭回合谈判未对隐蔽性农产品出口补贴规定实质义务,WTO成立之后,成员一方面借助争端解决机制,解释和实施抽象的现有规则,另一方面通过新一轮农业谈判,制定新规则。文章探讨了WTO体系下隐蔽性农产品出口补贴的现状与谈判进展,阐述了中国在此问题上的立场与利益。

  12. India's Export of Livestock and Allied Products

    OpenAIRE

    J K Sachdeva

    2005-01-01

    One of the main objectives of the governments’ export policy is to maximise agricultural exports in order to earn foreign exchange. It also seeks to provide remunerative prices to the farmers while ensuring adequate availability of essential commodities to the domestic consumers at reasonable prices. This paper analyses the India’s exports of livestock and allied products to principal groups of countries in the light of world trade. The direction of trade has been analysed to explore the area...

  13. Fostering Teaching Quality in Chilean Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman Cruzat, Jose Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to explain the strategies that have been carried out by three Chilean universities in order to advance the quality of their teaching. The studied institutions are the Universidad de los Andes, the Universidad de Talca and the Universidad Catolica de Chile. In each of these three cases the analysis included, both the policies…

  14. Free Trade Agreements and Firm-Product Markups in Chilean Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamorgese, A.R.; Linarello, A.; Warzynski, Frederic Michel Patrick

    In this paper, we use detailed information about firms' product portfolio to study how trade liberalization affects prices, markups and productivity. We document these effects using firm product level data in Chilean manufacturing following two major trade agreements with the EU and the US. The...... dataset provides information about the value and quantity of each good produced by the firm, as well as the amount of exports. One additional and unique characteristic of our dataset is that it provides a firm-product level measure of the unit average cost. We use this information to compute a firm......-product level measure of the profit margin that a firm can generate. We find that new products start being sold on foreign markets as export tariff fall. Moreover, for those products, we observe a fall in both prices and unit average costs. Those effects are mainly driven by an increase in productivity at the...

  15. Farmer strategies to face labor shortages in Chilean agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Verónica Aguirre; Rodrigo Echeverría; Clara Olmedo; Gustavo Blanco

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the strategies that farmers in the south of Chile use to face current labor shortages and identify the variables that determine each of these strategies. A multinomial logit model and odds ratios plots with predicted probabilities were applied to a sample of 384 farmers. Interviews and focus groups were applied to specific producers, professionals and public officials. The main results show that only 32.3% of farmers declared that labor shortage is a problem. Of this perce...

  16. 7 CFR 782.18 - Wheat purchased for export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheat purchased for export. 782.18 Section 782.18... § 782.18 Wheat purchased for export. (a) This section applies to an importer or subsequent buyer who imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of export to a foreign country...

  17. Innovation Performance of Chilean SMEs: A Bivariate Probit Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rehman, Naqeeb Ur

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the innovation activities of Chilean firms’ by using micro level data. Previous studies showed research gap related to micro level analysis of the Chilean SMEs. For the first time, multiple proxies have been used as dependent variables (product/process innovations and patent application/spending), which is neglected by the past studies. A micro level data has been obtained from the World Bank, Enterprise Survey on 696 Chilean SMEs. Bivariate probit...

  18. Main musculoskeletal injuries associated with lameness in Chilean Rodeo horses

    OpenAIRE

    M Mora-Carreño; Briones, R.; JS Galecio; Parra, D.; Rosenfeld, C.; SCHMEISSER, A.; B Menarim

    2014-01-01

    Chilean Rodeo is the most popular equestrian discipline in Chile and it is estimated that musculoskeletal diseases of the equine participants are the leading cause of illness and poor performance, however no related reports have been published. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the main diseases associated with lameness in Chilean Rodeo horses. A retrospective study was performed considering the clinical attention records of horses participating in Chilean Rodeo which pre...

  19. Constructing Realities: Bullying Usages in Chilean Discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Bassaletti-Contreras

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article reports an exploratory research on the uses given in Chile to the Anglicism bullying. In order to do so, its evolution is reviewed from the early studies in the Nordic countries, to the treatment of the topic in the Chilean context. The focus of this work is based on socioconstructionism and in turn promotes the consideration of the characteristics of the socio-cultural and historical context of knowledge production with a postcolonial intention. To review the constructions on the subject, we selected Chilean videos at the YouTube virtual platform, using as methodology discourse analysis and dense description. In results can be observed two meanings of bullying: (i to refer to any kind of aggression and (ii as a homologous of abuse among schoolchildren. In response, it is realized the discrepancy with the proposed definitions from general academia and those used in the local environment in investigations, interventions, public policy and mass media in Chile.

  20. Organizational and territorial cultures in Chilean journalism

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Mellado; Claudia Lagos

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of survey responses of 570 journalists from 114 newspapers, radio, newswires, television, and internet news organizations, this paper describes the role conceptions, epistemological underpinning, and ethical values of the Chilean news media workers, comparing the differences that exist among media types and between the capital and the rest of the country. The findings show territorial cultures of journalism, with differences between the capital and provincial regions, mostly clas...

  1. Memorial 1997 - ENDESA (Chilean Electricity Company)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a comprehensive survey, in depth assessment of the activities overview of ENDESA, Chilean Electricity Company, highlighting economical information and including historical and technical aspects. Economics is its focal point, but other relevant data are shown, like technical data on hydroelectric and thermoelectric power plants. Main activities developed by ENDESA are described, such in Chile as in the foreign. Data on power generation, transmission and transport are also presented and an economical balance of each colligated company are done and analysed

  2. A BVAR Forecasting Model for the Chilean Economy A BVAR Forecasting Model for the Chilean Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Morandé

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available A BVAR Forecasting Model for the Chilean Economy Doan, Litterman, and Sims have described a method for estimaling Bayesian vector autoregressive (BVAR forecasting models. The method has been successfully applied to the U.S. macroeconomic dataset, which is relatively long and stable. Despite the brevity and volatily of the post-1976 Chilean macroeconomic dataset, this paper shows that a straightforward application of the DLS method to this datasef, with simple modification to allow for delays in the release of data, also appears to satisfy at least one criterion of relative forecasting accuracy suggested by Doan, Litterman, and Sims. However, the forecast errors of the Chilean BVARs are stil large in absolute term. Also, the model's coefficients change sharply in periods marked by policy shifts, such as the floating of the peso in 1982.

  3. Vietnamese rice exports: Do large destination markets stimulate?

    OpenAIRE

    Vu, Hanh Thi; Doan, Hung Quang

    2013-01-01

    What determines Vietnamese rice export flows? Data on rice export from Vietnam and its 124 destination markets in 2010 shows that high-income from agricultural sector of importing countries do not necessarily result in higher rice exports whereas exports tend to be higher to highly populated countries. In order to confirm the negative effect of the importing countries' GDP, We proceed to split the full sample into subsamples for Asian and non-Asian importing countries. While GDP covers the en...

  4. Catchment controls on solute export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musolff, Andreas; Schmidt, Christian; Selle, Benny; Fleckenstein, Jan H.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamics of solute export from catchments can be classified in terms of chemostatic and chemodynamic export regimes by an analysis of concentration-discharge relationships. Previous studies hypothesized that distinct export regimes emerge from the presence of solute mass stores within the catchment and their connectivity to the stream. However, so far a direct link of solute export to identifiable catchment characteristics is missing. Here we investigate long-term time series of stream water quality and quantity of nine neighboring catchments in Central Germany ranging from relatively pristine mountain catchments to agriculturally dominated lowland catchments, spanning large gradients in land use, geology, and climatic conditions. Given the strong collinearity of catchment characteristics we used partial least square regression analysis to quantify the predictive power of these characteristics for median concentrations and the metrics of export regime. We can show that median concentrations and metrics of the export regimes of major ions and nutrients can indeed be inferred from catchment characteristics. Strongest predictors for median concentrations were the share of arable land, discharge per area, runoff coefficient and available water capacity in the root zone of the catchments. The available water capacity in the root zone, the share of arable land being artificially drained and the topographic gradient were found to be the most relevant predictors for the metrics of export regime. These catchment characteristics can represent the size of solute mass store such as the fraction of arable land being a measure for the store of nitrate. On the other hand, catchment characteristics can be a measure for the connectivity of these solute stores to the stream such as the fraction of tile drained land in the catchments. This study demonstrates the potential of data-driven, top down analyses using simple metrics to classify and better understand dominant controls of

  5. Some Thoughts on the Evaluation of the Chilean Voucher System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapelli, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Many papers describe the Chilean voucher system as the "textbook" voucher case. But this is mistaken and has prevented research to undertake the key question of how the particular design of the Chilean voucher system determines the results obtained in Chile. This also prevents discussion of how a voucher system with a different design could lead…

  6. Values, animal symbolism, and human-animal relationships associated to two threatened felids in Mapuche and Chilean local narratives

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Thora M; Schüttler, Elke; Benavides, Pelayo; Gálvez, Nicolas; Söhn, Lisa; Palomo, Nadja

    2013-01-01

    Background The Chilean temperate rainforest has been subjected to dramatic fragmentation for agriculture and forestry exploitation. Carnivore species are particularly affected by fragmentation and the resulting resource use conflicts with humans. This study aimed at understanding values and human-animal relationships with negatively perceived threatened carnivores through the disclosure of local stories and Mapuche traditional folktales. Methods Our mixed approach comprised the qualitative an...

  7. German export performance

    OpenAIRE

    Arndt, Sven W.

    1983-01-01

    The Federal Republic of Germany's exports in 1980 represented approximately 23% of GNP. Germany's share of total world exports, however, declined throughout the seventies. What are the factors influencing German export performance? What is the outlook for the future?

  8. US exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the past, present, and future of US coal exports. It is expected that in the 1990's, the following factors will be evident: Significant increases in coal production and port capacity in Australia and South Africa, but little in Canada; Potentially significant increase in coal production and port capacity in Colombia, Venezuela and Indonesia; Continued movement away from subsidized indigenous coal production in Europe and Japan. A substantial growth in world coal trade; Stronger growth in energy demand in the 1990s than in the 1980s; Significantly fewer additions to nuclear generating capacity in the 1990s than in the 1980s; Reduced coal production in Eastern Europe from that of the 1980s; Greater caution will be exercised in putting in new coal production capacity

  9. The CHilean Automatic Supernova sEarch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamuy, M.; Pignata, G.; Maza, J.;

    2012-01-01

    The CHilean Automatic Supernova sEarch (CHASE) project began in 2007 with the goal to discover young, nearby southern supernovae in order to (1) better understand the physics of exploding stars and their progenitors, and (2) refine the methods to derive extragalactic distances. During the first...... four years of operation, CHASE has produced more than 130 supernovae, being the most successful project of its type in the southern hemisphere. Here we describe the project and present illustrative examples of CHASE discoveries of particular relevance....

  10. Agricultural Labor Demand in Chile: A Cointegration Approach Demanda por Trabajo Agrícola en Chile: Un Enfoque de Cointegración

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Saens N; Germán Lobos A; Edinson Rivera A

    2008-01-01

    International evidence shows that the positive relationship between product and agricultural labor has weakened during the last 30 years, especially in emergent economies. Chilean agriculture has not been left out of this phenomenon The main purpose of this reseach was to estimate the causality relationships that govern the product, employment and salaries in the Chilean silviculture-agricultural-livestock sector, using a cointegration approach. Quarterly data from the 1996-2005 period were e...

  11. Are Chileans exposed to dietary furan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, María S; Toledo, Carla; Hevia, Karen; Gomez, J Pablo; Fromberg, Arvid; Granby, Kit; Rosowski, Jaime; Castillo, Oscar; Pedreschi, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Chilean consumer preferences include foods that may contain considerable amounts of furan, a potential human carcinogen. However, there is no information regarding dietary exposure to furan in Chile. Thus, the objective of this work was to determine the Chilean exposure to dietary furan. To accomplish this objective, the furan concentration of 14 types of commercial foods processed at high temperature were analysed based on a modified headspace-GC/MS (HS-GC/MS) method in which the limits of detection for different food matrices ranged from 0.01 to 0.6 ng g(-1). In addition, a risk assessment was made with exposure estimates based on dietary data from national studies on different age groups (9-month-old babies, school children, adults and elderly people). Of the food items surveyed "American"-type coffee (espresso coffee plus hot water) obtained from automatic coffee machine (936 ng g(-1)) and low moisture starchy products like crisps and "soda"-type crackers showed the highest furan concentrations (259 and 91 ng g(-1), respectively). Furthermore, furan was also found in samples of breakfast cereals (approximately 20 ng g(-1)), jarred fruit baby foods (8.5 ng g(-1)) and orange juice (7.0 ng g(-1)). School children (aged 9-13 years) represented the highest intake of furan (about 500 ng kg(-1)(bw) day(-1)), with margins of exposure of 2479 and 2411, respectively, which points to a possible public health risk. PMID:23875686

  12. Minimum effective scale in export promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Timothy J.; Patterson, Paul M.

    2002-01-01

    Nonprice promotion has long been used by small firms or organizations to increase agricultural exports. Some believe that export promotion in these cases is often unsuccessful as the promoter is unable to achieve the “critical mass” of awareness that is required for success. The objective of this article is to develop a theoretical explanation for the likely existence of minimum expenditure thresholds and to estimate their size using an econometric model of the optimal supply of advertising. ...

  13. Exports of Palm Oil from Ghana: A Demand Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kuwornu, John K.M.; Darko, Francis A.; Osei-Asare, Yaw B.; Egyir, Irene S.

    2009-01-01

    Studies have shown that the economy of Ghana cannot afford to rely solely on cocoa exports. It is imperative to diversify the export base of the Ghanaian economy. In this respect, the palm oil sub-sector of the agricultural sector, which until the early part of the 20th century was the major agricultural export commodity of Ghana, needs to be considered for promotion. Currently the palm oil industry faces the challenge of bleak export potential. This study examines trends in the quantity expo...

  14. Horticultural Exports of Developing Countries: Issues under WTO Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Shah

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to evaluate the present and future prospects of developing and developed countries in agricultural exports in general and in horticultural exports in particular. The study also evaluates the behaviour of international export prices for agricultural commodities, both for developing and developed nations. In general, this study provides an insight into the direction in which various developed and developing countries are heading for insofar as their agricultural and horticultural exports are concerned in the changed market conditions. The study has made a few major observations. First, the study shows decline in market share of developing countries’ in world agricultural exports in the face of marginal increase in their market share in world fruits and vegetable (F&V exports during the period between 1981 and 1997. Second, although the study shows lower market share of developing countries’ in world F&V exports during the period between 1981 and 1997, the growth in F&V exports as proportion of total agricultural exports is noticed to be much faster for developing countries’ as against the developed countries’ during the same period. Third, though agricultural exports of Least Developed Countries (LDC have grown only marginally between 1981 and 1997, the growth in their F&V exports is seen to have been tremendous, especially after the late eighties period. Similarly, Socialist Countries of Asia (SCA and developing countries of Oceania have also shown sharp increases in their F&V exports after the late eighties period. Fourth, while except America, other Africa and Oceania, all the developing countries have shown decline in their market share in total F&V exports of Developing Market Economies (DME, Asia shows rise in its market share not only in agriculture but also in F&V exports of DME. Another major observation of this study is in terms of instabilities in export prices. The instabilities in export prices of agricultural

  15. GATT and the Thai Agricultural Economy

    OpenAIRE

    C.D. Gingrich

    1994-01-01

    Thailand has experienced steady economic growth over the last 20 years, in part because of its productive agricultural sector. The primary agricultural commodities produced in Thailand are rice, maize, cassava, poultry, and sugar. Thailand exports significant amounts of these commodities compared to its total agricultural production and the world export market. Thailand's internal and external agricultural policies are basically market oriented, with the exception of sugar and soybean program...

  16. Review of export elasticities

    OpenAIRE

    Ballingall, John; Allen, James

    2011-01-01

    Assumptions on export elasticities can have a big impact on CGE model results, especially at the industry level. Export elasticities measure the responsiveness of demand for a country’s exports to a change in the world price. The greater the elasticity, the greater the change in export demand following a price shift. We find that the size of the export elasticities has an important impact on the magnitude of Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) modelling results. We use CGE models to assess t...

  17. 2003年我国家禽进出口情况%Poultry import and export in china in 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文真

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, china saw the increased poultry product import and the decreased export. The total value of import and export trade of poultry products was composed of 3.3% of that of the national agricultural products, in which, export value made up 4.0% of the total export value of the Chinese agricultural products, and import value accounted for 2.5%.

  18. Demand Uncertainty: Exporting Delays and Exporting Failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a model of trade that explains why firms wait to export and why many exporters fail. Firms face uncertain demands that are only realized after the firm enters the destination. The model retools the timing of the resolution of uncertainty found in models with heterogeneity of...... forecast unknown demands in untested destinations. The option to forecast demands causes firms to delay exporting in order to gather more information about foreign demand. Third, since uncertainty is resolved after entry, many firms enter a destination and then exit after learning that they cannot profit....... This prediction reconciles the high rate of exit seen in the first years of exporting. Finally, when faced with multiple destinations to which they can export, many firms will choose to sequentially export in order to slowly learn more about its chances for success in untested markets....

  19. Simplicity of the Tax Systems: The Chilean Case. (in Spanish)

    OpenAIRE

    Barra, Patricio

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the concept of the simplicity in a tax system. The analysis approaches the different scopes in which the tax simplicity is observed. For this purpose, the main aspects of the Chilean tax system are analyzed, by using indicators that try to define the concept in a quantitative frame. The analysis of the Chilean case is used to infer some implications that could also be valid in other Latin American tax systems.

  20. Association between eating behavior scores and obesity in Chilean children

    OpenAIRE

    Amador Paola; Obregón Ana M; Cataldo Rodrigo; Domínguez-Vásquez Patricia; Smalley Susan V; González Andrea; Ho-Urriola Judith A; Santos José L; Weisstaub Gerardo; Hodgson M Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Inadequate eating behavior and physical inactivity contribute to the current epidemic of childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the association between eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chilean children. Design and methods We recruited 126 obese, 44 overweight and 124 normal-weight Chilean children (6-12 years-old; both genders) according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria. Eating behavior scores were calculated using the ...

  1. DETERMINANTS OF AGRICULTURAL OUTPUT IN SYRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Shakeeb MOHSEN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the determinants of agricultural output in Syria, 1980-2010. The Johansen cointegration test results indicate that agricultural outputs are positively related to the capital, food exports, expenditure and arable land, and negatively related to the oil price. Arable land has the biggest effect on agricultural outputs. The Granger causality test indicates bidirectional short-run causality relationships between capital, food exports, expenditure, arable land and agricultural outputs, and unidirectional short-run causality relationship running from oil price to agricultural outputs. There are also unidirectional long-run causality relationships moving from agricultural outputs to gross fixed capital formation of agriculture, oil price, food exports and arable land. However, there is no long-run causality relationships between final consumption expenditure and agricultural outputs. The result indicates that it is important to speed up the land reclamation process and encourage the investment in the agricultural sector.

  2. Reassessing Export Diversification Strategies: A Cross-Country Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Raul Gouvea; Gautam Vora

    2015-01-01

    This article uses a sample of 44 countries to assess their export performance over the period 1988-2012, using the single-index model, a part of the modern portfolio theory. The article builds four clusters of countries classified by the dominance of exports of 1) fuel products, 2) manufactured products, 3) food items and agricultural products and 4) ores and minerals. All countries in the sample obtain a dominant majority of their export earnings from these broad categories...

  3. 9 CFR 91.16 - Certification of animals for export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification of animals for export. 91.16 Section 91.16 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL...

  4. 9 CFR 91.15 - Inspection of animals for export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection of animals for export. 91.15 Section 91.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL...

  5. Mexico Agriculture Policy Review

    OpenAIRE

    Cahill, Carmel; Jotanovic, Aleksandar; Abraham, Cally

    2008-01-01

    As a NAFTA partner and Canada's third largest export market for agri-food products, developments in Mexico are of direct interest to Canada. Rural poverty, low productivity, poor infrastructure and unclear property rights for both land and water still inhibit the efforts of Mexico's government to improve competitiveness of its agricultural sector.

  6. 7 CFR 51.883 - U.S. Fancy Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Fancy Export. 51.883 Section 51.883 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Grades § 51.883 U.S. Fancy Export. “U.S. Fancy Export” consists of grapes which meet the requirements for U.S. Fancy Table, except that...

  7. EXPORT SUBSIDIES AND PROFIT-SHIFTING IN VERTICAL MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Sheldon, Ian M.; Pick, Daniel H.; McCorriston, Steve

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the interaction between export subsidies and profit-shifting in a vertical production system consisting of agricultural commodity production, and intermediate and final good processing, where the latter two stages may be characterized by imperfect competition. Using a model with general functional forms for demand, comparative statics indicate that an export subsidy to an unprocessed agricultural commodity, under certain circumstances, can have greater profit-shifting effe...

  8. Distribution of Export Price Risk in a Developing Country

    OpenAIRE

    Bourguignon, François; Lambert, Sylvie; Suwa Eisenmann, Akiko

    1996-01-01

    We address the issue of social distribution of an aggregate risk (on agricultural export price), from a macroeconomic perspective. Individual incomes in representative social groups are computed as a function of export prices, which are assumed to be stochastic, using an applied general equilibrium model of an archetype developing economy. The statistical properties of the resulting distribution of individual incomes are then examined. We consider a mapping of different policies on agricultur...

  9. Independence and regulatory effectiveness: The Chilean experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International binding documents state that Member States should provide an effectively independent Regulatory Body. There are no recommendations on how independent a Regulatory Body must be. As a result, many different regulatory structures are found worldwide. Economical development status of Member States can be easily correlated to their regulatory organizations; nuclear power programs are also decisory. Along the last fifty years, regulatory activities in Chile have gone through several changes: before 1974 radioactive facilities were controlled by the Ministry of Health. A Supreme Decree issued on June 1974, approved the 'Regulations on Licensing (of radioactive facilities)', conferring this faculty to the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission. The CNEC had, de facto, the same faculties regarding nuclear facilities. The Nuclear Safety Law, published in 1984 stated that the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEC) was the competent authority regarding nuclear facilities, while Regional Health Services belonging to the Ministry of Health, were competent over all radioactive facilities. In 1987 the Law No. 18.730 amended the Nuclear Safety Law, transferring the competence over 1st category radioactive facilities and associated matters to the CNEC. In 2004 the Ministry of Health went under a great reorganization: the Law No. 19.937 defined new competent authorities, providing an effective independence of the regulatory functions. In 2001, the Board of Directors of the CNEC delegated the faculty of granting authorizations to the Head of the Nuclear and Radiological Safety Department. In 2005, the Board also delegated the faculties of proposing regulations and standards and prosecuting regulation violators on the person of the Head of the Nuclear and Radiological Safety Department. Both, the Ministry of Health and the CNEC, have given decisory steps towards fulfilling the principle of regulatory independence: the first one by separating functions at the level of

  10. Renewable energy export network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Renewable Energy Exporters Network (REEN) has recently been established, following a meeting of renewable energy exporters and government agencies on 30 October 2000. REEN will assist the Australian renewable energy industry to take advantage of the opportunities offered by the burgeoning global market for renewable energy goods and services. Recent estimates of the significant potential global growth is renewable energy demand have reinforced the industry and Government's view that, in the medium to long-term, growth in the Australian renewable energy industry will largely depend on capturing export market share. Expanding the export market was identified as a crucial component in the Renewable Energy Action Agenda, developed jointly by industry and Government and released in June 2000. It was estimated that, for the industry to achieve its vision of sales of $4 billion per year by 2010, exports would need to comprise approximately 50% of the forecast growth in sales. As such, the need for a specific export strategy for the Australian renewable energy industry was recognised in the Action Agenda, and the establishment of the REEN is one of the first initiatives undertaken as part of the Renewable Energy Export Strategy. The REEN comprises approximately 50 export-ready renewable energy companies, the Department of Industry, Science and Resources, Austrade, and Stage Government agencies such as NSW's Sustainable Energy Development Authority. The Export Network will operate electronically, with face-to-face meetings held as appropriate. The Department of Industry, Science and Resources will facilitate the Export Network and has published a website at www.isr.gov.au/industry/reen. The site includes: a members directory; a discussion forum; information on opportunities to showcase Australian renewable; energy products and services; and Iinks to sites containing information that may be useful to renewable energy exporters. Other actions that are being undertaken as

  11. Agriculture in African Development: Theories and Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Dercon; Douglas Gollin

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is the largest sector in most sub-Saharan economies in terms of employment, and it plays an important role in supplying food and export earnings. Rural poverty rates remain high, and labor productivity is strikingly low. This article asks how these factors shape the role of agriculture in African development strategies. Is agricultural growth a prerequisite for growth in other sectors? Or will urbanization and nonagricultural export markets ultimately be the forces that pull the r...

  12. The rise of Brazilian agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Vink, Nick; Sandrey, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore some of the possible lessons for South African agriculture from the Brazilian experience. To this end, the article discusses the performance of Brazilian agriculture in terms of land and labour use, production, and exports. This is followed by aspects of...... Brazilian agricultural policies, namely farmer support, the research and technology transfer system and land issues. The implications for South African agriculture can be summarized as the recognition that history, geography, the development path and agricultural policies all matter. The article then...... identifies five important lessons for agricultural development in South Africa....

  13. Research on the Influence of Export Competitiveness of China’s Agricultural Products:Based on Diamond Model%中国农产品出口竞争力的影响因素研究--基于钻石模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟杨; 张小平

    2014-01-01

    自加入世贸组织以来,中国的农产品贸易面临的环境越来越复杂,农产品出口贸易发展相对缓慢,贸易逆差逐年加大。论文基于波特的钻石模型,从生产要素、需求状况、相关以及辅助产业状况、企业战略、结构以及竞争四个基本要素,和机会、政府两个变量这六个方面进行分析,通过对农产品交易现状况进行分析,总结出它的竞争力,从中找出不利于农产品贸易的障碍和它自身的缺点,最后提出提高我国农产品竞争力的对策。%Since entering to the WTO ,the situation of China’s agricultural trade is increasingly complex ,so the development of our agricultural export trade is relatively slow and the trade deficit increased year by year .Based on Porter's“diamond” model ,this article analyzes the trade of China’s agricultural proclucts from the four basic elements :factors of production ,demand conditions ,related and supporting industries , business strategy ,structure and competition ,and two variables :the opportunity and the government ,and sums up its competitiveness ,to find out the barriers and shortcomings of our country in agricultural trade . The countermeasures for improving the competitiveness of agricultural products’ export are put forward finally .

  14. A Feminine Touch : Gender and Civil-Military Relations in the Chilean Armed Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Gundersrud, Synne Høie

    2015-01-01

    This analysis explores the extent to which gender equality exists within the Chilean military institutions. A clear political and legal space has been created for equality to grow in Chile, and many advances in Chilean politics demonstrate progress in terms of expanding the gender equality agenda in Chilean society. However, my analysis indicates that traditional and discriminatory ideas of gender, dominating the culture of the Chilean Armed Forces, are limiting the social process of integrat...

  15. Results of Chilean water markets: Empirical research since 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Carl J.

    2004-09-01

    Chile's free-market Water Code turned 20 years old in October 2001. This anniversary was an important milestone for both Chilean and international debates about water policy because Chile has become the world's leading example of the free-market approach to water law and water resources management, the textbook case of treating water rights not merely as private property but also as a fully marketable commodity. The predominant view outside of Chile is that Chilean water markets and the Chilean model of water management have been a success, and this perception has encouraged other countries to follow Chile's lead in water law reform. Much of the debate about Chilean water markets, however, has been based more on theoretical or political beliefs than on empirical study. This paper reverses that emphasis by reviewing the evolution of empirical research about these markets since 1990, when Chile returned to democratic government after 16 years of military rule. During the period since 1990, understanding of how Chilean water markets have worked in practice has gradually improved. There have been two major trends in this research: first, a gradual shift from exaggerated claims of the markets' success toward more balanced assessments of mixed results and, second, a heavy emphasis on the economics of water rights trading with very little attention given to the Water Code's impacts on social equity, river basin management, environmental protection, or resolution of water conflicts. The analysis in this study is qualitative and interdisciplinary, combining law, economics, and institutions.

  16. Ecosystem process interactions between central Chilean habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Root-Bernstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding ecosystem processes is vital for developing dynamic adaptive management of human-dominated landscapes. We focus on conservation and management of the central Chilean silvopastoral savanna habitat called “espinal”, which often occurs near matorral, a shrub habitat. Although matorral, espinal and native sclerophyllous forest are linked successionally, they are not jointly managed and conserved. Management goals in “espinal” include increasing woody cover, particularly of the dominant tree Acacia caven, improving herbaceous forage quality, and increasing soil fertility. We asked whether adjacent matorral areas contribute to espinal ecosystem processes related to the three main espinal management goals. We examined input and outcome ecosystem processes related to these goals in matorral and espinal with and without shrub understory. We found that matorral had the largest sets of inputs to ecosystem processes, and espinal with shrub understory had the largest sets of outcomes. Moreover, we found that these outcomes were broadly in the directions preferred by management goals. This supports our prediction that matorral acts as an ecosystem process bank for espinal. We recommend that management plans for landscape resilience consider espinal and matorral as a single landscape cover class that should be maintained as a dynamic mosaic. Joint management of espinal and matorral could create new management and policy opportunities.

  17. Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission dosimetric information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis discusses the nuclear radiation that people who work with radioactive material is exposed to and its control by the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission. A full analysis of the System is presented with information about the Commission and the Department of Nuclear and Radiological Safety which runs the System. Ana analysis of the System is presented in order to obtain requirements. Management flow diagrams, the processes involved and current problems experienced by the users are described. A design logic is modeled producing Data Flow Diagrams (DFD). based on this physical design, or, Model of Physical Data, is prepared including tables, attributes, types of data, primary and foreign keys. A description is presented of how the System is implemented, the tools that are used and how the testing phase is carried out. The Dosimetry System meets the criteria for a Software Engineering project, where the basic cycle was used as a working methodology. The System developed supports the dosimetric control of people exposed to radioactive material. (author)

  18. A Competitive Analysis on the Agricultural Products of China and Thailand in the U. S. Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aiping; YAO; Liping; WAN

    2014-01-01

    This paper selects China and Thailand as a reference object. Based on the U. S. market,it analyzes the export competitiveness of the agricultural products of China and Thailand by market share and growth rate,measures the agricultural products of China and Thailand export competition degree by export product similarity index and estimates the agricultural products of China and Thailand export competitiveness strength by shift share method. The results show that: At present,in the U. S. market,the competition of the agricultural products of China and Thailand is fierce,but export growth of China’s agricultural products is faster and more competitive. Finally on how to further improve China’s agricultural exports competitiveness in the U. S. market and promote China’s agricultural export trade to the U. S. it puts forward the related countermeasures and suggestions.

  19. Development of management system for fruit export from Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of agencies in the control of fruit quality and of phytosanitary aspects have considerably increased in the last four years, resulting in an improvement in the quality of fresh fruits exported from Chile to the USA and Europe. Most of the produce, requiring shipping times of 2 to 3 weeks, is being shipped in refrigerated vessels. The Fundacion Chile has helped this export industry not only by training field inspectors, capable of checking quality of fruit before it has been packed, but also by certifying this quality when required by the exporter or his overseas customer. Strict quarantine requirements in importing countries have imposed a number of restrictions and produce is fumigated either in Chile or in the port of import. It is suggested that before irradiation is applied to Chilean fruits for export one should: (a) evaluate its effect on quality, with special reference on maturity at harvest, (b) demonstrate quarantine efficacy to a standard accepted by importing countries, (c) solve logistical aspects, (d) evaluate application technique in dependence of different packagings, (e) make cost assessments and (f) work towards bilateral agreement regarding acceptance of treatment and of facilities. (author)

  20. Nigeria's Non-Oil Exports; Determinants of Supply and Demand, 1970-1990

    OpenAIRE

    Inutu Lukonga

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews Nigeria’s non-oil export performance during the period 1970-90, analyzes the factors underlying the dismal performance, and estimates the supply-price elasticity of the exports for both the short and long run. A distinguishing feature of the analysis is the incorporation of the effect of domestic demand in the export supply equation for agricultural commodity exports--a feature usually reserved for the manufactured goods where it is generally assumed that domestic demand co...

  1. On the Necessity of International Disciplines on Food Export Restriction (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    YAMASHITA Kazuhito

    2013-01-01

    The world food trade is distorted by agricultural trade policies. Import tariffs and non-tariff barriers are regulated by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the World Trade Organization (WTO) and are disciplined as a result. On the other hand, export quantity restrictions and export taxes have been lightly regulated. This lack of regulation has led many exporting countries to resort to these export measures as world food prices increase. In 2008, as world grain prices soare...

  2. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Food and Agriculture Research OPEDA Scholarship Program MARKETING AND TRADE Exporting Goods Importing Goods Newsroom Agency ... and amplify, producers will be faced with the challenges of adapting. Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack gave a ...

  3. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Nutrition Food Safety Forestry Laws and Regulations Marketing and Trade Organic Agriculture Outreach Plant Health Research ... Research Food and Agriculture Research OPEDA Scholarship Program MARKETING AND TRADE Exporting Goods Importing Goods Newsroom Agency ...

  4. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Food Safety Forestry Laws and Regulations Marketing and Trade Organic Agriculture Outreach Plant Health Research and Science ... and Agriculture Research OPEDA Scholarship Program MARKETING AND TRADE Exporting Goods Importing Goods Newsroom Agency News Releases ...

  5. A critical review of the Chilean civil nuclear liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews the Chilean civil nuclear liability regime. The Nuclear Security Act (Law 18.302), enacted in 1984, and the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, ratified ed by Chile in 1989, are the fundamental laws of the current regime. Although Chile has no nuclear power plants, it is still important to analyze how the Chilean legislation would protect citizens from nuclear damages. This paper does not consider the policy reasons for and against the promotion of atomic energy. Rather, it critically examines the current status of the Chilean nuclear regime. Undoubtedly, if in the future Chile chooses to include nuclear sources in its energy mix, it will not be enough to introduce some isolated legal amendments, but it will be necessary to build a new Chilean Energy Regime which includes nuclear energy. In that scenario, though, it will be useful to know and understand how the current nuclear liability regime works. From this point of view, the reforms this article proposes to the current nuclear liability regime might be helpful to academics and policy makers alike

  6. Association between eating behavior scores and obesity in Chilean children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amador Paola

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate eating behavior and physical inactivity contribute to the current epidemic of childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the association between eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chilean children. Design and methods We recruited 126 obese, 44 overweight and 124 normal-weight Chilean children (6-12 years-old; both genders according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF criteria. Eating behavior scores were calculated using the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ. Factorial analysis in the culturally-adapted questionnaire for Chilean population was used to confirm the original eight-factor structure of CEBQ. The Cronbach's alpha statistic (>0.7 in most subscales was used to assess internal consistency. Non-parametric methods were used to assess case-control associations. Results Eating behavior scores were strongly associated with childhood obesity in Chilean children. Childhood obesity was directly associated with high scores in the subscales "enjoyment of food" (P Conclusion Our study shows a strong and graded association between specific eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chile.

  7. Amino acid biogeo- and stereochemistry in coastal Chilean sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomstein, Bente Aagaard; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Schubert, Carsten J.;

    2006-01-01

    The spatial distribution of total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA) and amino acid enantiomers (D- and L-forms) was investigated in sediments underlying two contrasting Chilean upwelling regions,: at ~23°S off Antofagasta and at ~36°S off Concepcion. The contribution of amino acids to total organic...

  8. Prevalence and risk factors for bruises in Chilean bovine carcasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strappini, A.C.; Frankena, K.; Metz, J.H.M.; Kemp, B.

    2010-01-01

    Records of cattle slaughtered at two Chilean slaughterhouses (SLH1 and SLH2) were used to determine prevalence and risk factors for carcasses with bruises. Bruise prevalence amounted to 12.3% but differed between slaughterhouses (20.8% for SLH1 and 8.6% for SLH2 respectively). Bruise severity grade

  9. 75 FR 23631 - Sugar Re-Export Program, the Sugar-Containing Products Re-Export Program, and the Polyhydric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... withdrawing the proposed rule published at 70 FR 3150 on January 21, 2005, to implement Chapter 17 of the... polyhydric alcohols for use as a substitute for sugar in human food consumption, or to be refined and re...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service 7 CFR Part 1530 Sugar Re-Export Program, the...

  10. Origins of the Chilean Binominal Election System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pastor

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available strategic reaction by the military regime to the defeat of General Augusto Pinochet in the 1988 Plebiscite since the system was formally established during the period between the plebiscite and the first postauthoritarian elections in 1989. This theory, however, offers a mistaken account of the history and evolution of the binominal election system whose origins are considerably more complex than the conventional wisdom suggests. This article explores the internal political processes and the ideology that led the military government to adopt the binominal system. It argues that the election system was the capstone of the authoritarian institutional framework designed by the military government to protect the 1980 Constitution from efforts by the Concertación to reform it. Contrary to popular belief, the binominal system was proposed long before the 1988 Plebiscite by Arturo Marín Vicuña, then secretary of a government commission studying a new electoral law. This article maintains that, more than any other factor, the binominal system reflects and responds to an interpretation of Chilean political history between 1960 and 1973 that was widely shared among the Pinochet government's legal advisorsSe ha asumido que el presente sistema electoral chileno -el "binominal mayoritario"- fue una reacción ante la derrota del General Augusto Pinochet en el plebiscito de 1988, ya que fue lanzado en el intermedio después del plebiscito, pero antes que el régimen militar abandonara el poder. No obstante, esta hipótesis se equivoca en la historia de la evolución del sistema binominal que es más complejo. Este artículo explora la historia de los procesos políticos dentro del régimen militar y la ideología que llevó al sistema binominal. Argumenta que el sistema binominal fue la piedra arquitectónica de la institucionalidad autoritaria del régimen militar que protegía su Constitución de 1980 contra los esfuerzos de la Concertación para

  11. Agriculture in African Development: A Review of Theories and Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Dercon; Douglas Gollin

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is the largest sector in most sub-Saharan economies in terms of employment, and it plays an important role in supplying food and export earnings. Rural poverty rates remain high, and labor productivity is strikingly low. This paper asks how these factors shape the role of agriculture in African development strategies. Is agricultural growth a prerequisite for growth in other sectors? Or will urbanization and non-agricultural export markets ultimately be the forces that pull the ru...

  12. Export Diversification in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Huria, Ankur; Brenton, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Economic activity in many African countries remains highly concentrated and exports are often dominated by mineral resources or a few primary products. The World Bank’s 2011 report on light manufacturing in Africa identified poor trade logistics performance as a constraint that especially penalized African exporters that relied on imported inputs, very often making them uncompetitive. The ...

  13. Main musculoskeletal injuries associated with lameness in Chilean Rodeo horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mora-Carreño

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chilean Rodeo is the most popular equestrian discipline in Chile and it is estimated that musculoskeletal diseases of the equine participants are the leading cause of illness and poor performance, however no related reports have been published. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the main diseases associated with lameness in Chilean Rodeo horses. A retrospective study was performed considering the clinical attention records of horses participating in Chilean Rodeo which presented lameness. Information was collected regarding 114 cases, including identification (name, age and gender and the clinical characteristics of each episode. The average age of the horses was 8 ± 3.4 years. Among the subjects, 98.3% of the episodes corresponded to spontaneous lameness, with 2/4 being the most frequent degree of lameness. Unilateral episodes corresponded to 72.8% (83/114 of the cases, affecting primarily the front limbs (51/83. The most frequent diagnoses were: suspensory ligament desmitis (14%, tarsal osteoarthritis (13.2%, navicular syndrome (8.8%, laminitis (7.9%, deep digital flexor tendonitis (7% and metacarpophalangeal osteoarthritis (6.1%. The high frequency of grade 2 lameness suggests that the majority of veterinary attentions seem to be mostly at obvious conditions. Joint, foot and soft tissue conditions seem to be the main cause of lameness in equines participating in Chilean Rodeo. These results suggest that education regarding the importance of early diagnosis and greater hoof care are primary measures that may favor the prevention of lameness in Chilean Rodeo horses.

  14. Exploitative Learning by Exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golovko, Elena; Lopes Bento, Cindy; Sofka, Wolfgang

    Decisions on entering foreign markets are among the most challenging but also potentially rewarding strategy choices managers can make. In this study, we examine the effect of export entry on the firm investment decisions in two activities associated with learning about new technologies and...... learning about new markets ? R&D investments and marketing investments, in search of novel insights into the content and process underlying learning by exporting. We draw from organizational learning theory for predicting changes in both R&D and marketing investment patterns that accompany firm entry into...... exporting and link these changes to firm productivity. Our results show that marketing investments are equally likely to be triggered by exporting as R&D investments. Furthermore, our results suggest that although export entry is accompanied by increases in both R&D and marketing expenditures, it is...

  15. Variables Associated with Export Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Warren J Bilkey

    1982-01-01

    This study is an analysis of variables associated with the profitability of exporting. Such information is useful both for export management and for government agencies that wish to promote business commitment of exporting. The methodology utilizes a multiple regression analysis of data in questionnaire responses from 168 Wisconsin manufacturing firms in 1979. It provides a means for evaluating difficult-to-measure export marketing considerations (such as, export marketing channels, export me...

  16. CONCENTRATION OF WORLD EXPORTS OF FOREST PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Moreira Coelho Junior

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509812353This study analyzed the degree of concentration in worldwide exports of forest products in the period rangingfrom 1961 to 2008. The data used are available at the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization(FAO. The concentration was determined by the concentration ratio [HR (k], the Herfindahl-HirschmanIndex (HHI, Theil Entropy Index (E and the Gini index (G. The main conclusions were: The aggregateBrazilian share in the world exports of forest products is increasing over time; the most important sectors inthe aggregate world exports of forest products, in decreasing order, were pulp, lumber, paper and cardboard,wooden panels, saw and fire wood. According to Bain, the concentration ratio of the four and eight largestexporters of forest products is moderately low; the HHI and Theil Entropy (E show a reduction in theconcentration of world exports of forest products and greater competition among the countries that sell suchproducts; the Gini index indicates that despite the increase in export of forest products over the period ofanalysis, a smaller number of competitors concentrate increasingly larger shares of international exports of these products; summary indices (HHI, E and G indicated that increased competition has not led to a moreequitable distribution of forest products so as to bring down inequalities and concentration of profits in thesector; despite the downward trend in CR (4 and CR (8, there is an increase in G, probably because theeconomies of scale in the international trade have been held by few competitors; caution is recommendedin the analysis of summary indices (HHI, E and G which had better be checked jointly with the partialindices [CR (k] in order to avoid wrong conclusions; countries with a significant share in total exports, suchas Brazil, should seek business strategies to retain competitive advantages, especially those arising fromeconomies of scale.

  17. Iran, a gas exporter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the gas sector has not allowed, up to now, Iran to become one of the main gas actors, whether it is on the regional or international market. This under-development of the gas sector finds expression, each winter, through the Iranian incapability to satisfy its domestic demand as well as its exportation commitments to Turkey or Armenia. In this study, the author tries to examine the origins of Iranian difficulties to increase its gas production and to abide by its commitments to export gas to other countries. The possibility of gas exportation from Iran to the European Union is also discussed

  18. Guide to software export

    CERN Document Server

    Philips, Roger A

    2014-01-01

    An ideal reference source for CEOs, marketing and sales managers, sales consultants, and students of international marketing, Guide to Software Export provides a step-by-step approach to initiating or expanding international software sales. It teaches you how to examine critically your candidate product for exportability; how to find distributors, agents, and resellers abroad; how to identify the best distribution structure for export; and much, much more!Not content with providing just the guidelines for setting up, expanding, and managing your international sales channels, Guide to Software

  19. Studying Non-Oil Exports in Iran’s Development Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Alavinasab

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing importance of independence from oil revenue due to fluctuations and volatility of oil prices and global demand for oil which greatly affects the revenues of the country, has led to appear the role of non-oil exports beyond the means of foreign exchange earning so that many of researches’ consideration has shifted to the current state of non-oil exports. In this connection, present study investigates the role of agricultural, industrial and mineral exports as well as total non-exports from some aspects during four development plans in Iran’s economy. Result found indicates that industrial exports in total non-oil exports has worst and best situation in the first and fourth plan respectively. Also, non-oil exports out of total exports experienced the most successful and unsuccessful status in the fourth and first development plan respectively.

  20. Slowed Exports Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Ⅲ. Slowed export recovery in the second half Since the beginning of this year, global trade has maintained a recovery growth thanks to the worldwide economic rally.From January to April, the imports of three major Economics--the United States, the euro zone and Japan--rose 17.5 percent on average from a year ago. Import growths for the United States, the euro zone and Japan were 20.9 percent, 4.8 percent and 29 percent, respectively, which spurred China's exports to those regions. From January to June this year, China's exports totaled $705.09 billion, up 35.2 percent from the same period in 2009 and were 5.8 percent higher than the first half of 2008 when the crisis had yet to begin. Those figures indicated China's exports had rebounded to precrisis levels.

  1. Valie EXPORT Society. Overlok

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Valie EXPORT Society asutasid 23. okt. 1999. a. Frankfurdis Kadi Estland, Killu Sukmit ja Mari Laanemets, kui olid külastanud austria naiskunstniku Valie Exporti näitust. Rühmituse aktsioonide kirjeldus

  2. Valie EXPORT Society Rooseumis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Malmös Rooseumi Kaasaegse Kunsti Keskuses näitus "Baltic Babel". Projekt koosneb Läänemeremaade linnades tegutsevate innovatiivsete gruppide aktsioonidest. Kuraator Charles Esche. Esinejatest (Eestist Valie Export Society: Kadi Estland, Killu Sukmit)

  3. Nuclear export controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One approach to describing the multilateral nuclear export controls is to do it according to time. This led to an interesting discovery, i.e. multilateral export controls have been defined by four distinct periods, the forst two of abut five years each, the second two about twice as long. These time periods have another interesting property. The two suppliers groups, which we will discuss in detail, have alternated in dominance over nearly thirty years. After describing the historical developments, the status of the present situation in multilateral nuclear export controls is examined, with the strengths and weaknesses. The future of multilateral nuclear export controls and possible ways that might be taken are considered

  4. Quebec's electricity exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1987 Hydro-Quebec exported over 16 TWh to New England and New York and it plans to export 3,500 MW of firm power, not interruptible, by the early 2000s. It estimates that the northeast US market has an additional potential of 9,000 MW. The export market has become more difficult than anticipated. The federal/state regulatory framework for electricity generation was changing - it encouraged small scale generation, cogeneration and conservation which decreased demand. Demand for power imports has also been influenced by pricing judgements and avoided costs. Environmental concerns and Native protest have become increasingly important factors affecting future export sales and hence the proposed James Bay developments. Regulatory changes affecting supply and pricing, concerns about continental impacts, about further development of electrical sources together with Native requirements will further complicate the Quebec-US electricity trade. (author)

  5. Determinants of Tanzanian export prices

    OpenAIRE

    Rollo, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    . This paper uses firm-level data to study the pricing-behavior of Tanzanian exporters. The important question of how exporting firms make pricing decisions has not received significant attention in the trade literature, which is more focused on factors that determine export flows. The results of the paper show that the free on board price of Tanzanian exports is differentiated both across...

  6. Illegal Weapons Exports?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Amnesty International, a human rights organization, released a report on June 11 accusing China of facilitating regional conflicts and human rights violations by exporting a large quantity of weapons to Sudan, Nepal, Myanmar and the Great Lakes countries of Africa. Responding to such charges, Teng Jianqun, a researcher with the China Arms Control and Disarmament Association, told the official Xinhua News Agency that China has always put its limited arms exports under strict control and surveillance, deno...

  7. Indonesian coal export potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indonesia's coal mining sector is expanding rapidly. Much of the increase in coal production since the mid-1980s has been exported. Indonesian coal mining companies have large expansion programs and continuing strong export growth is projected for the remainder of the 1990s. The low mining costs of indonesian coal, together with proximity to Asian markets, mean that Indonesia is well placed to compete strongly with other thermal coal exporters and win market share in the large and expanding thermal coal market in Asia. However, there is significant uncertainty about the likely future level of Indonesia's exportable surplus of coal. The government's planned expansion in coal fired power generation could constrain export growth, while the ability of producers to meet projected output levels is uncertain. The purpose in this article is to review coal supply and demand developments in Indonesia and, taking account of the key determining factors, to estimate the level of coal exports from Indonesia to the year 2000. This time frame has been chosen because all currently committed mine developments are expected to be on stream by 2000 and because it is difficult to project domestic demand for coal beyond that year. 29 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs

  8. Canada's reactor exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief sketch of the development of Canada's nuclear exports is presented and some of the factors which influence the ability to export reactors have been identified. The potential market for CANDUs is small and will develop slowly. The competition will be tough. There are few good prospects for immediate export orders in the next two or three years. Nonetheless there are reasonable opportunities for CANDU exports, especially in the mid-to-late 1980s. Such sales could be of great benefit to Canada and could do much to sustain the domestic nuclear industry. Apart from its excellent economic and technical performance, the main attraction of the CANDU seems to be the autonomy it confers on purchasing countries, the effectiveness with which the associated technology can be transferred, and the diversification it offers to countries which wish to reduce their dependence on the major industrial suppliers. Each sales opportunity is unique, and marketing strategy will have to be tailored to the customer's needs. Over the next decade, the factors susceptible to Canadian government action which are most likely to influence CANDU exports will be the political commitment of the government to those reactor exports, the performance established by the four 600 MWe CANDUs now nearing completion, the continuing successful operation of the nuclear program in Ontario, and the co-ordination of the different components of Canada's nuclear program (AECL, nuclear industry, utilities, and government) in putting forth a coherent marketing effort and following through with effective project management

  9. EMPIRICAL REGULARITIES OF THE CHILEAN ECONOMY: 1986-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Enrique Restrepo L.; Claudio Soto G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper documents the main empirical regularities of the Chilean economy over the past twenty years, characterizing it in two dimensions. First, it describes the economy’s structure in terms of the sectors’ relative sizes in the long term and the importance of the various components of aggregate demand. Second, it documents the main features of business cycles in Chile. The volatility and persistence of several variables across the cycles is described, together with the correlations within...

  10. The social and cultural impact of advertising among Chilean youths

    OpenAIRE

    Maite Rodríguez Salineros; Enrique Vergara Leyton

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of advertising among Chilean youngsters of different socioeconomic background. We aim to identify the relationship that this group establishes with advertising and, in particular, the way they incorporate it in their socialization strategies. We do not address what advertising does to youngsters, but instead what youngsters do with advertising in their practices of appropriation and reception of it. The research design included focus groups of male and ...

  11. The social and cultural impact of advertising among chilean youths

    OpenAIRE

    Vergara-Leyton, Enrique; Rodríguez-Salineros, Maite

    2010-01-01

    This work analyzes the impact of advertising among Chilean youngsters of different socioeconomic background. We aim to identify the relationship that this group establishes with advertising and, in particular, the way they incorporate it in their socialization strategies. We do not address what advertising does to youngsters, but instead what youngsters do with advertising in their practices of appropriation and reception of it. The research design included focus groups of male and female you...

  12. Rethinking the National Export Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Freund

    2014-01-01

    Four years ago, President Barack Obama set the goal of doubling exports within five years and creating 2 million new export-related jobs. The strategy put in place, however, has failed to achieve superior growth. Freund argues that the emphasis on small and medium enterprises in the National Export Initiative, while attractive, was misguided and recommends a specific set of policies that the administration should concentrate on to boost exports. An export boom requires a system that encourage...

  13. Agriculture in Brazil and China : challenges and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Sawaya Jank; Shunli Yao; Carter, Colin A.; Mário Queiroz de Monteiro Jales

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the asymmetries and complementarities between Brazil's and China's agricultural sectors. Brazil and China are key players in world agriculture. Both countries are among the world's top five producers and exporters of agricultural products and have a significant portion of their population working in agriculture. However, four significant facts profoundly differentiate Brazilian and Chinese agriculture. First, while Brazil has one of the world's most liberal agricultural se...

  14. Analysis on the Influence of the Establishment of China-Japan-South Korea Free Trade Area on China s Agricultural Products for Export%中日韩自由贸易区的建立对我国农产品出口的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄正平

    2013-01-01

    自2012年11月正式启动第一轮谈判以来,中日韩自由贸易区的建立进入了实质性的运作阶段,东亚区域合作掀开了崭新的一页。中日韩自由贸易区的建立将为我国农产品的出口提供良好的发展机遇,同时也会带来一定的负面影响。抓住机遇,克服影响,努力扩大我国农产品的出口,对发展我国农业生产,增加农民收入具有重要的现实意义。%Since the first round of negotiations had been launched in November 2012, the establishment of China-Japan-South Korea Free Trade Area (CJKFTA) has stepped into a substantial operation stage, which opened a new chapter of regional cooperation in East Asia. The establishment of CJKFTA will provide a good opportunity for China’s agricultural products for export, but it also has a definite negative effect. It is important practical significance for us to seize the opportunity, overcome the obstacles, strive to expand China’s agricultural production and increase the farmers’ income.

  15. Boroa-INIA, Primera Variedad de Lupino (Lupinus albus Amargo Exportable Obtenida en Chile Boroa-INIA, First Bitter Lupin (Lupinus albus Cultivar Released in Chile for Export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Mera

    2007-09-01

    . This is a white lupin of indeterminate growing habit, belonging to the landrace known as “Local”. The bitter lupins introduced in the nineties, called “alto-calibre” (high-caliber by Chilean farmers, are interesting for their grain size, but are more susceptible to lupin anthracnose than the “Local” landrace and of lower yield. The main attribute of the Boroa-INIA cv. is a good mean grain weight, 636 mg grain-1 when sown at the appropriate time. This is 32% greater than the control representing the “Local” landrace average. At that mean grain weight, over 80% of Boroa-INIA grains reaches a caliber of 13 mm or bigger. Sown at the right time Boroa-INIA has yielded 6.3 t ha-1, and 4.8 t ha-1 in late sowings. This variety is a contribution of the Chilean Institute of Agricultural Research (INIA to the progress of small farming. Small farmers usually do not invest in improved seed; therefore bitter lupin is not attractive to private seed producers. Consequently, bitter lupin breeding activities have been undertaken by the public sector

  16. Agricultural marketing in Belgium and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Viaene, J.

    1993-01-01

    Agriculture in Belgium and the Netherlands has a strong export tradition and has been market oriented for a long time. In this article agricultural markeling in Belgium and the Netherlands is analyzed on the basis of the concepts structure, conduct and performance. In our review of market structure

  17. Chilean Family Reminiscing about Emotions and Its Relation to Children's Self-Regulation Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, Diana; Nolivos, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined the relation between Chilean parents' narrative participatory styles (i.e., the way in which parents scaffold children's participation in conversations) and children's self-regulation skills. A total of 210 low-income Chilean parent-child dyads participated in the study. Dyads were videotaped talking about a…

  18. A POSSIIBLE WAY OF EXPORT DIIVERSIIFIICATIION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G HORVÁTH

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the Hungarian agriculture should be changed before the EU accession. The new structure should fill the requirements of the EU and beside this it should produce competitive products. Unconventional products (mushroom, fish, honey etc. have a lot of advantages: they can be produced in small farms, their trade is mainly free of regulations and their market is almost unlimited. This paper deals with one of these alternative agricultural enterprises, namely mushroom production. The Hungarian mushroom production – in spite of difficulties – has witnessed a remarkable expansion: it increased its production fourfold and its export fivefold in less than ten years. The low level of wages gives a significant advantage to Hungary against its competitors. If we could secure the appropriate background (technical advice, bank loans, etc. the mushroom industry would become one of the most profitable sector of the Hungarian agriculture.

  19. Canada's nuclear export policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The factors influencing the evolution of Canada's nuclear export policy are examined. Initially, nuclear technology was exported to establish an industry in Canada and to share the technology with other countries. After 1974 an increasingly broad range of political and social factors were taken into account and safeguards became the dominant factor. The indirect impacts of the new policy fall into two groups. One consists of the effects of Canada's leadership in taking a tough stand on safeguards. The second group of effects involve the concern of other countries about access to secure energy supplies and advanced technology. (O.T.)

  20. Coal export facilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a wide range of trade barriers, particularly tariffs, in current and potential coal market. Commonwealth departments in Australia play a crucial role in supporting government industry policies. This article summarises some of more recent activities of the Department of Primary Industries and Energy (DPIE) in facilitating the export of Australian Coals. Coal export facilitation activities are designed to assist the Australian coal industry by directing Commonwealth Government resources towards issues which would be inappropriate or difficult for the industry to address itself

  1. The Impact of Export Strategy on Export Sales Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Robert G.; Elko J Kleinschmidt

    1985-01-01

    Export sales are an important route to growth for the small-to-medium sized firm. This article reports the results of an extensive empirical study of the export strategies of a large sample of high technology electronics firms, and the performance results of adopting alternate export strategies. Six strategy scenarios were identified. The results show that the types of foreign markets selected, segmentation strategies and product strategies all have a pronounced impact on export sales and exp...

  2. Unravel biophysical factors on river water quality response in Chilean Central-Southern watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yevenes, Mariela A; Arumí, José L; Farías, Laura

    2016-05-01

    Identifying the key anthropogenic (land uses) and natural (topography and climate) biophysical drivers affecting river water quality is essential for efficient management of water resources. We tested the hypothesis that water quality can be predicted by different biophysical factors. Multivariate statistics based on a geographical information system (GIS) were used to explore the influence of factors (i.e., precipitation, topography, and land uses) on water quality (i.e., nitrate (NO 3 (-) ), phosphate (PO 4 (3 -) ), silicate (Si(OH)4), dissolved oxygen (DO), suspended solids (TSS), biological oxygen demand (DO), temperature (T), conductivity (EC), and pH) for two consecutive years in the Itata and Biobío river watersheds, Central Chile (36° 00' and 38° 30'). The results showed that (NO 3 (-) ), (PO 4 (3 -) ), Si(OH)4, TSS, EC, and DO were higher during rainy season (austral fall, winter, and spring), whereas BOD and temperature were higher during dry season. The spatial variation of these parameters in both watersheds was related to land use, topography (e.g., soil moisture, soil hydrological group, and erodability), and precipitation. Soil hydrological group and soil moisture were the strongest explanatory predictors for PO 4 (3 -) , Si(OH)4 and EC in the river, followed by land use such as agriculture for NO 3 (-) and DO and silviculture for TSS and Si(OH)4. High-resolution water leaching and runoff maps allowed us to identify agriculture areas with major probability of water leaching and higher probability of runoff in silviculture areas. Moreover, redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that land uses (agriculture and silviculture) explained in 60 % the river water quality variation. Our finding highlights the vulnerability of Chilean river waters to different biophysical drivers, rather than climate conditions alone, which is amplified by human-induced degradation. PMID:27038616

  3. Export of textile machinery products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, the export of textile machinery products continued to keep a rapidly increasing trend. In accordance with the statistics from the custom, as of December this year, the value of exported textile machinery products was USD1.528 billion, increased by 23.54% over the previous year. Except that the export of nonwoven cloth machinery products reduced to a certain degree compared with that in 2006, the export of other varieties of products increased greatly. The export of textile machinery products had been remaining relatively rapid growth since 2000. During this period, the structure of exported products has changed continuously, so do export enterprises. There are still many problems in export of textile machinery products, and manufacturers of textile machinery products should improve and advance continuously. However, on the whole, the integrated and international competitiveness of textile machinery products is enhanced, so is the internationalization level of manufacturers of textile machinery products.

  4. The inclusion of Agriculture products of Paraná in international market between 2000 and 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lediany Freitas de Campos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the inclusion of agriculture of Paraná in external market, 2000-2011. One used descriptive statistical method, based on secondary data, Alice Web, Comtrade, Ipardes. It was found that the Paraná has, on average, about 50% of its exports based on agricultural products and increased to 64.01% in 2011. Twelve major products represent around 90% of agricultural exports and in 2011 accounted for 56.42% of total exports. As for the target markets, the European Union decreased share to Asia, with great emphasis to China. The product A - soybeans, whether or not broken - stands as the most important in the export of the State. The agriculture increased its share in exports of Paraná and the State decreased share in national agricultural exports.

  5. [The Chilean Health Care System: the task ahead].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goic, Alejandro

    2015-06-01

    The most important event in Chilean public health in the XXth Century was the creation of the National Health Service (NHS), in 1952. Systematic public policies for the promotion of health, disease prevention, medical care, and rehabilitation were implemented, while a number of more specific programs were introduced, such as those on infant malnutrition, complementary infant feeding, medical control of pregnant women and healthy infants, infant and adult vaccination, and essential sanitation services. In 1981, a parallel private health care system was introduced in the form of medical care financial institutions, which today cover 15% of the population, as contrasted with the public system, which covers about 80%. From 1952 to 2014, public health care policies made possible a remarkable improvement in Chile's health indexes: downward trends in infant mortality rate (from 117.8 to 7.2 x 1,000 live births), maternal mortality (from 276 to 18.5 x 100,000), undernourished children schooling, and years of primary school education, were significantly improved as well. Nevertheless, compared with OECD countries, Chile has a relatively low public investment in health (45.7% of total national investment), a deficit in the number of physicians (1.7 x 1,000 inhabitants) and nurses (4.8 x 1,000), in the number of hospital beds (2.1 x 1,000), and in the availability of generic drugs in the market (30%). Chile and the USA are the two OECD countries with the lowest public investment in health. A generalized dissatisfaction with the current Chilean health care model and the need of the vast majority of the population for timely access to acceptable quality medical care are powerful arguments which point to the need for a universal public health care system. The significant increase in public expenditure on health care which such a system would demand requires a sustainable growth of the Chilean economy. PMID:26230561

  6. Export oriented industrialization strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Karunaratne, Neil Dias

    1980-01-01

    Disappointment about the results of import substituting industrialization strategies as well as the spectacular performance of a few newly industrialised countries have led many developing countries to switch in the 1970s to export oriented industrialization. This analysis cautions against any misplaced euphoria with regard to this strategy in a neo-mercantilistic and hegemonic world.

  7. China Reshuffles Export Incentives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    What it means for China's economy... Last month, the Chinese Government made sweeping changes to the export tax breaks that domestic companies receive. Here's what happened: On September 14, the Ministry of Finance, the General Administration of Customs, the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of

  8. Benchmarking Nordic Music Export Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Koponen, Arto

    2016-01-01

    Increasing export is necessary for companies and organizations in order to make profit in more globalized business environment. The field of exporting is also ever changing, especially regarding music exporting. The aim of this research project was to explore and improve the joint music export operations in the Nordics. It was assigned by Music Finland which administrates the umbrella organization for a Nordic co-operation called NOMEX. Thus, the author set to discover favorable practices...

  9. Export Restructuring on Rebates Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Again, the Chinese governmenthas recently adjusted the export tax rebates upon 2831 categories of goods, accounting for 37% of the nation's total export products. Export rebates on most products have decreased by 2% to 4%, and some have had an even steeper reduction. For instance,the export tax rebate has plummeted from 11% or 13% to zero on cement and chemical products, which are called "high-energy-consumption.

  10. Chilean Prosopis Mesocarp Flour: Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann; Cristina Quispe; Maria del Pilar C. Soriano; Cristina Theoduloz; Felipe Jiménez-Aspée; Maria Jorgelina Pérez; Ana Soledad Cuello; Maria Inés Isla

    2015-01-01

    In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82–2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest ant...

  11. Preliminary measurements of gamma radiation in Chilean Antarctic Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural and artificial gamma radiation, 1 m above the soil, is being investigated in 4 Chilean Antartic Stations. The measurements are performed with different types of TLD detectors. Preliminary results in the Tte. Marsh Station are reported and discussed. An average exposition of 3,5 μR/h was found during a 108 days period. This exposition corresponds to an annual dose of about 40 mrad, 8% of the annual dose limit for individual of the public. The presence of low energy artificial radioisotopes was not found. (Author)

  12. Agricultural marketing in Belgium and The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    M.T.G. Meulenberg; Viaene, J.

    1993-01-01

    Agriculture in Belgium and the Netherlands has a strong export tradition and has been market oriented for a long time. In this article agricultural markeling in Belgium and the Netherlands is analyzed on the basis of the concepts structure, conduct and performance. In our review of market structure attention is paid to the structure of agriculture, the food consumer, food retailing, government policies, competition and marketing channels. Afterwards market conduct with respect to product, pri...

  13. Growth in Malaysia’s Export Food Market: A Shift-Share Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Emmy Farha Alias; Alias Radam; Yeong Pei Fen; Mohd Rusli Yacob; Md. Ferdous Alam

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture sector plays an important role in the Malaysian economy. Malaysia experiences deficit in food balance of trade but some of the agricultural products such as palm oil, fisheries etc. have competitive advantage. This paper aims to examine Malaysia’s export food market growth between 1996 and 2009 using shift-share analysis. Findings show that the major export commodities from Malaysia are animal or vegetable fats and oils and their cleavage products; prepared edible fats; animal or ...

  14. The adoption of the Eurepgap Standard by Mango Exporters in Piura, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinwechter, Uli; Grethe, Harald

    2006-01-01

    The significance of standards in international agricultural trade is continuously rising. Due to their complexity, especially private industry standards are often expected to have a negative impact on agricultural export sectors in developing countries. The successful adoption of standards by a broad number of producers can be seen as a condition to limit negative socioeconomic consequences. This case study for the mango export sector in Piura, Peru, analyzes the adoption of the Eurepgap sta...

  15. The Japan disaster and U.S. hay exports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarantine control of Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say), by agricultural systems used to produce export quality hay for the Japan market was studied in the laboratory and field. Survival of Hessian fly puparia was evaluated under simulated seasonal weather conditions in incubators, regional o...

  16. 15 CFR 740.18 - Agricultural commodities (AGR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agricultural commodities (AGR). 740.18... EXCEPTIONS § 740.18 Agricultural commodities (AGR). (a) Eligibility requirements. License Exception AGR permits the export of agricultural commodities to Cuba, as well as the reexport of U.S....

  17. Brazil’s Booming Agriculture Faces Obstacles

    OpenAIRE

    Valdes, Constanza

    2006-01-01

    Brazil has emerged as an agricultural superpower in global food and agricultural markets thanks to economic and trade stability and regulatory reforms that encourage investment in agriculture. Brazil is an important producer and the largest exporter of sugar, ethanol, beef, poultry meat, coffee, orange juice, and tobacco.

  18. [The and beginnings of Chilean endocrinology in the 1920s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Delgado, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Rejuvenation was a chapter of critical importance for the worldwide development of endocrinology in the 1920s. This work explores the acceptance of these techniques in Chile. Starting in the late 19th century, the Chilean Medical Journal (Revista Médica de Chile) incorporated references to experiments with endocrine gland preparations that were being conducted in Europe at the time. An appropriation of the experiments by the Austrian Eugen Steinach began in 1920, with prominent figures such as the Italian professor Juan Noe Crevani and the young Chilean student Ottmar Wilhelm. Between 1922 and 1924, Wilhelm developed a series of experiments on dogs, bulls, pigs, rats and Welfare Board patients through the so-called Steinach operation, which consisted of the sectioning of the efferent channel in one of the testicles. Professor Noe's scientific patronage policy and Wilhelm's strategy of succession in the field led the latter to hold a chair in the new School of Medicine of Universidad de Concepci6n at the age of 25. From this position, the. figure of Wilhelm was fundamental for the development of a line of endocrinological research that was able to position Universidad de Concepci6n as a scientific development centre, which was strengthened by the arrival of another disciple of Steinach in Chile, the Latvian professor Alejandro Lipschütz. PMID:27363250

  19. Exports of petroleum products, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1987 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 22,200 m3/d in 1987, up 15% from 1986 levels. Exports of middle distillates and aviation fuel had the largest gains in 1987. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices. The heavy fuel oil price was below the New York spot price in the beginning of 1987 but remained close for the rest of the year. Canada's petroleum products exports were made to 5 countries while imports came from at least 13 countries. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. Exports to Japan and the Far East rose ca 60% over 1986. Product outturns for export were 9% of total Canadian refinery throughput. Exports of aviation turbine fuel from Ontario began in April 1987. The top single exporter in Canada was Irving Oil Ltd. with 2,485,000 m3. Irving was also the top exporter in 1986. 11 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Open Wide: Vietnam’s Agricultural Trade Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Vanzetti, David

    2006-01-01

    Vietnam is about to join the WTO. As a major exporter of rice, coffee, cashew nuts and pepper, accession to the WTO will have little impact on these export markets, as tariffs on these exports are already low. However, accession will require Vietnam to expose some of its inefficient agricultural sectors, such as sugar and maize, to international competition. Furthermore, multilateral reforms within the WTO are likely to raise prices of temperate product goods that are imported by Vietnam, wor...

  1. Export development financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main activities of the Export Development Corporation (EDC) were described, as well as some of the changes currently being implemented. EDC is Canada's official export credit agency, providing risk management services such as insurance, loans, guarantees, equity and leasing. EDC's project finance initiative started in 1991, and focused mainly on the up-front process. It has established itself as a recognized leader in project financing. It has over 15 years experience in a variety of sectors and countries. Energy projects financed to date include hydro projects in India, Argentina and Pakistan, and thermal projects in Thailand, China, Indonesia and Egypt. Lending criteria used to select projects were outlined, along with the risks endemic to project financing

  2. Do Casinos Export Bankruptcy?

    OpenAIRE

    Garrett, Thomas A; Mark W. Nichols

    2006-01-01

    This paper measures the extent to which destination resort casinos export bankruptcy back to visitors' home states. Previous literature has alluded to this possibility, but to date studies have only examined the influence of local casinos on local bankruptcy. Using various survey data, we calculate the number of visits from each state to casino resort destinations in Nevada, New Jersey, and Mississippi. We find strong evidence that states having more residents who visit out-of-state casino re...

  3. Gas Exports in Turkmenistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Caspian region has been at the center of attention since Europe began seeking alternative routes to natural-gas resources. Turkmenistan has the potential to become an important gas exporter to Europe. As a landlocked country, Turkmenistan until recently has relied on post-Soviet pipeline infrastructures. The Central Asian republic has been at the mercy of Moscow's energy policy, which overlaps its foreign policy. At the same time, the revenue from gas exports is an essential part of the Turkmen national budget. This prompted Ashgabat to look for energy partners bypassing Russian territories. It started to convey natural gas first to Iran and then to China. This gave Turkmenistan strong leverage vis-a-vis Moscow. Ashgabat has not decided to export every gas molecule eastward, but, in jeopardizing its relations with Moscow, it expects more than empty pledges from Europe. On the other hand, a simple question emerges: Does Europe really need alternative sources? The answer is in the hands of Gazprom and Russian policy-makers

  4. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Science Rural and Community Development Rural Opportunities Trade Travel and Recreation USDA for Kids Programs and ... and Agriculture Research OPEDA Scholarship Program MARKETING AND TRADE Exporting Goods Importing Goods Newsroom Agency News Releases ...

  5. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Food and Agriculture Research OPEDA Scholarship Program MARKETING AND TRADE Exporting Goods Importing Goods Newsroom Agency ... New uniform, science-based guidance on cover crop management helps producers prevent erosion, improve soil properties, supply ...

  6. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Food and Agriculture Research OPEDA Scholarship Program MARKETING AND TRADE Exporting Goods Importing Goods Newsroom Agency ... USDA Contracts | Visit OIG | Plain Writing | Open | Digital Strategy FOIA | Accessibility Statement | Privacy Policy | Non-Discrimination Statement | ...

  7. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Food and Agriculture Research OPEDA Scholarship Program MARKETING AND TRADE Exporting Goods Importing Goods Newsroom Agency ... nutrients to crops, suppress weeds, improve soil water content, and break pest cycles. Press Release: Secretary Vilsack ...

  8. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Food and Agriculture Research OPEDA Scholarship Program MARKETING AND TRADE Exporting Goods Importing Goods Newsroom Agency News Releases Agency Reports Creative Media & Broadcast Center Email Subscriptions In Case You Missed It... Latest Releases ...

  9. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Conservation Disaster and Emergency Preparedness Employee Services Energy Environment and Natural Resources Ethics Farm Bill Food and ... Research Food and Agriculture Research OPEDA Scholarship Program MARKETING AND TRADE Exporting Goods Importing Goods Newsroom Agency ...

  10. Carbon footprint of premium quality export bananas: case study in Ecuador, the world's largest exporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, Alfredo; Almeida, Maria Gabriela; Villalobos, Pablo

    2014-02-15

    Nowadays, the new international market demands challenge the food producing countries to include the measurement of the environmental impact generated along the production process for their products. In order to comply with the environmentally responsible market requests the measurement of the greenhouse gas emissions of Ecuadorian agricultural goods has been promoted employing the carbon footprint concept. Ecuador is the largest exporter of bananas in the world. Within this context, this study is a first assessment of the carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian premium export banana (Musa AAA) using a considerable amount of field data. The system boundaries considered from agricultural production to delivery in a European destination port. The data collected over three years permitted identifying the hot spot stages. For the calculation, the CCaLC V3.0 software developed by the University of Manchester is used. The carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian export banana ranged from 0.45 to 1.04 kg CO2-equivalent/kg banana depending on the international overseas transport employed. The principal contributors to the carbon footprint are the on farm production and overseas transport stages. Mitigation and reduction strategies were suggested for the main emission sources in order to achieve sustainable banana production. PMID:24361571

  11. British Columbia electricity export policy: Long-term firm exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A policy statement on long-term firm electricity exports from British Columbia is presented, combining the recommendations of the British Columbia Energy Council with provincial objectives and input from interested parties. The general objective of the policy is to maximize net provincial benefits, defined to include financial and non-financial impacts, without negative effects on the province's energy security. Matters considered in the policy include the types of generating resources and transmission facilities permitted, the marketing of the exports, the entities allowed to engage in exports, review of export sales agreements, terms and conditions of export, and the requirement for social and environmental reviews. A background paper is included which provides the reasons for the policy direction on long-term firm electricity exports as well as more detailed information on some aspects of the policy

  12. Risk Taking Propensity and Export Performance of Croatian Exporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Leko-Simic

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Export performance is today one of the most widely used measures of a company’s success, due to the globalization and market liberalization processes. The rather bad export performance of Croatian exporters can be explained by a number of factors, one of which is assumed to be the low level of risk taking propensity, which is one of the three major dimensions of entrepreneurial behavior. The aim of this paper is to analyze company age, size and type of business as determinants of risk taking propensity in Croatian exporting companies. Cluster analysis based on four variable criteria was used in order to determine risk and non-risk takers’ clusters and analyze the significant differences between them in relation to their export performance. The paper is based on research of 88 Croatian exporters.

  13. Examining the role of export competitive advantages on export performance

    OpenAIRE

    Yeganeh Alimohammadi; Reza Aghamousa; Fataneh Alizadeh Meshkani

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of export competitive advantage on export performance in food industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 280 randomly selected experts in food industry and Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.827. The study has applied factor analysis to find important factors influencing export performance. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Bartlett's Test of Sphericity have been performed to validate th...

  14. Voluntary export restraints and resource allocation in exporting countries

    OpenAIRE

    De Melo, Jaime; WINTERS, L Alan

    1990-01-01

    Most literature on voluntary export restraints ( VERs ) analyzes the welfare costs of VERs to consumers in the importing country. The authors propose a method for measuring the effects of a VER on the productivity of factors employed in the exporting industry. Their model measures how a VER affects both revenues and efficiency in an exporting industry. They used the model to estimate the effects of the U.S. Orderly Marketing Agreement ( OMA ) on Korean producers of leather footwear ( 1977 - 8...

  15. Determination of Bacterial Pathogen in Foods for Export and their Raw Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chile is a South American country with an important fish and shellfish production. These products are some of the most important items for the economy of the country. From 1998 to 2001, Chile exported $1 137 625 788 of fish and shellfish. Statistics also show that frozen vegetables are fast becoming high on the food export list. During recent years (1998 to 2001) $223 312 248 worth of frozen vegetables were exported to different countries. This study was performed to trace the presence of pathogens in some of these Chilean foods to be exported: 97 samples of salmon and 84 samples of different frozen vegetables (asparagus, peas and corn) were analyzed in order to determine their levels of microbial contamination. Total bacteria counts (mesophilic aerobes bacteria), Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were tested. Vibrio cholerae was tested only in salmon samples. The analysis of salmon samples showed that the raw material presented a very good quality. However, during the filleting process the fish was contaminated, presenting higher total bacteria counts. Only one of the 48 final product samples presented contamination with a pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes (<100 cfu/g)). Frozen vegetable samples (raw material and final products) did not present any of the pathogen bacteria studied. The mesophilic aerobes bacteria counts were reduced during processing due to the effectiveness of the good manufacturing practices and the technological process used. (author)

  16. Dissolved nutrient exports from natural and human-impacted Neotropical catchments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gücker, Björn; Silva, Ricky C. S.; Graeber, Daniel;

    2016-01-01

    . Methods We measured streamwater nutrient concentrations and exports in 20 south-eastern Brazilian catchments with different land uses (natural Cerrado/semi-deciduous forest, pasture, intensive agriculture and urban areas) and conducted a meta-analysis on nutrient exports from Neotropical catchments, both...... natural and human-impacted. Results Organic forms dominated dissolved nutrient exports in central/south-east Brazil in both natural and human-dominated catchments. Our meta-analysis suggests that there is wide geographic variability in the natural dominance of organic versus inorganic nutrient exports......-east Brazil suggested that land use also increases dissolved P exports. Main conclusions We show that dominance of inorganic versus organic nutrient exports is highly variable across natural Neotropical catchments, a pattern contrasting with the general tendency for dominance of organic N in natural temperate...

  17. Export policy of the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Tomišková, Dominika

    2009-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the export policy of the Czech Republic. It describes the Export strategy of the Czech Republic for 2012--2020 and covers a number of institutions that currently support Czech exporters. The thesis includes a review of the export policy of Slovakia and its comparison with the current Czech export policy. In conclusion, pros and cons of the Czech export policy are highlighted. There are also suggestions to improve the Czech export support in the future.

  18. China's Export Expansion, Export Structure and Energy Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan Yisheng; Ning Xuemin

    2011-01-01

    Since the reform and opening up, China's export trade has maintained a rapid growth; meanwhile, China's energy consumption has been increasing sharply. "High export and high energy consumption" has become the feature of China's trade and economic development. In this paper, based on the input-output analysis approach, the authors have conducted an empirical study on the export trade and energy consumption of 21 trade industrial sectors. The results show that, China is a big net exporter of embodied energy. Assuming that the export growth rate of embodied energy maintains to be about 23.6%, the average annual growth rate of the past 32 years, and based on the input-output data of 2005, by 2030 China's net export of embodied energy would be over eight times more than the aggregate energy production, which is obviously infeasible. As a country of very low per capita en- ergy, China must change its export pattern, encourage or restrain the export of different industrial sectors according to their energy consumption intensity, and promote structural change of energy- efficient exported products, so as to achieve the sustainable development. Accordingly, the authors put forward some suggestions.

  19. Agricultural Protectionism: Debt Problems and the Doha Round

    OpenAIRE

    Nogues, Julio J.

    2005-01-01

    Through financial channels, agricultural protectionism imposes costs on efficient producers that are higher than those associated with negative allocative effects and export losses usually estimated. The link between protectionism and finance has a direct relationship with the WTO Marrakech Agreement of establishing coherence between international trade and financial matters. Here, I call attention to the fact that for efficient agricultural exporters there is little if any coherence between ...

  20. Improving Water Quality Through Better Soil Management in Chilean Vineyard Plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty per cent of arable land in Chile is affected by erosion, the rate having increased by almost 50% during the past 30 years. In Central Chile, a shortage of flat land has increasingly compelled wine growers to plant vineyards on the hillsides. This has resulted in further soil erosion and degradation that already covers 20% of the region, equivalent to 90,500 ha. The sustainability of vineyard operations is further aggravated by the negative impact that this erosion has on downstream water quality, caused by herbicides and nutrients being carried down the hillsides by excess water runoff. The central region of Chile has therefore placed priority on the challenge to develop and implement appropriate land management practices designed to improve water quality and minimise soil erosion in vineyards. Through three consecutive IAEA technical cooperation projects, the Agriculture Section of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, in cooperation with the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences at the University of Chile and the Agriculture and Livestock Service, compared current soil management practices in vineyards in the Apalta valley 200 km south of Santiago de Chile. The fallout radionuclide, Beryllium-7 (7Be), was used as a tracer to estimate short-term (less than a month) soil erosion and deposition across agricultural landscapes. Herbicides labelled with the radioactive carbon-14 (14C) were used to determine the mobility of herbicides during erosion events and hence their influence on water quality. The projects compared planting on terraces with the traditional downslope rows, both with only scarce soil cover during the rainy season. Net annual rates of soil loss from the terraced site (76 t/ha) were only about 7% less than those from the downslope site (82 t/ha), indicating that soil losses were substantial on both terraces and downslopes. The lack of sufficient cover particularly during the first month of the rainy seasons could explain the severity of the observed

  1. Strengthening early math skills in preschoolers, a Chilean study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Ortega

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the positive effect in an intervention programbased on number comprehension in early math skill levels that Chileanpreschoolers present in the relational and numerical skill areas evaluated with the Test of Early Mathematics Assessment Utrecht (TEMT-U, the Spanish version of the Utrecht Early Numeracy Test. The study reveals that there are significant differences in the early math skills levels among those groups subjected to thistype of program and those that in the same period of time were only influenced by the content and activities of the traditional curriculum sequence in the Chilean school population. There are positive effects in the program regardless of the educational level that children attend. There are also relational or skillsPiagetian that show higher achievement levels. The results prove that there are no differences in mathematical literacy levels between boys and girls, contrary to what is observed in later years.

  2. Chilean Prosopis Mesocarp Flour: Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82–2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.

  3. Chilean prosopis mesocarp flour: phenolic profiling and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria Del Pilar C; Theoduloz, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspée, Felipe; Pérez, Maria Jorgelina; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Isla, Maria Inés

    2015-01-01

    In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82-2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food. PMID:25898415

  4. Minimum quality standards and exports

    OpenAIRE

    Birg, Laura; Voßwinkel, Jan S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the interaction of a minimum quality standard and exports in a vertical product differentiation model when firms sell global products. If exante quality of foreign firms is lower (higher) than the quality of exporting firms, a mild minimum quality standard in the home market hinders (supports) exports. The minimum quality standard increases quality in both markets. A welfare maximizing minimum quality standard is always lower under trade than under autarky. A Minimum qualit...

  5. Content validity and reliability of test of gross motor development in Chilean children

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Cano-Cappellacci; Fernanda Aleitte Leyton; Joshua Durán Carreño

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To validate a Spanish version of the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2) for the Chilean population. METHODS Descriptive, transversal, non-experimental validity and reliability study. Four translators, three experts and 92 Chilean children, from five to 10 years, students from a primary school in Santiago, Chile, have participated. The Committee of Experts has carried out translation, back-translation and revision processes to determine the translinguistic equivalence ...

  6. The congressional Committee System of the Chilean Legislature, 1834-1924

    OpenAIRE

    Iván Mauricio Obando Camino

    2011-01-01

    This is a historical, institutional study about the congressional committee system of the Chilean legislature from 1834 through 1924. This study uses a longitudinal perspective to focus on committee origins, functions, processes, and authority. It shows that the Chilean legislature developed a committee system early by taking stock of previous, short-lived congressional experiences and trial-and-error. Congressional committees dealt with bill drafting, housekeeping matters, and bureaucratic o...

  7. HIV prevention and low-income Chilean women: machismo, marianismo and HIV misconceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; MCELMURRY, BEVERLY J.

    2008-01-01

    Socio-cultural factors and HIV-related misinformation contribute to the increasing number of Chilean women living with HIV. In spite of this, and to date, few culturally specific prevention activities have been developed for this population. The goal of the present study was to elicit the perspectives of low-income Chilean women regarding HIV and relevant socio-cultural factors, as a forerunner to the development of a culturally appropriate intervention. As part of a mixed-methods study, fift...

  8. Level of evidence and geographic origin of articles published in Chilean dental journals.

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Moraga

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to determine the geographic origin and level of evidence (LE) of articles published in Chilean dental journals during 2012. The target population for the bibliometric study was articles published in exclusively-scientific Chilean dental journals. These variables were analyzed: journal, area, language, country, region, design, scenario, and LE. A total of 120 articles were published in four journals: International Journal of Odontostomatology (IJOS=59), Revis...

  9. The politics of the Chilean right from the Popular Front to 1964

    OpenAIRE

    Correa, Sofía

    1994-01-01

    The right in Chile has been crucial to the democratic politics of the country ever since the development of the party system. In the period covered by this thesis (1939- 1964) the Chilean right faced the combined challenge of reformist governments and the emergence of mass political parties on the left. This thesis describes the Chilean right as being composed by political parties, entrepreneurial associations and a leading newspaper, El Mercurio. which represented an...

  10. BTX abatement using Chilean natural zeolite: the role of Brønsted acid sites

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro, S.; Valdés, Héctor; Manero, Marie-Hélène; Zaror, Claudio A.

    2012-01-01

    In wastewater treatment facilities, air quality is not only affected by conventional unpleasant odour compounds; toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are also found. In this study, the adsorptive capacity of Chilean natural zeolite toward VOC removal was evaluated. Moreover, the influence of zeolite chemical surface properties on VOC elimination was also investigated. Three modified zeolite samples were prepared from a natural Chilean zeolite (53% clinoptilolite, 40% mordenite and 7% quart...

  11. Effect of slaughter methods on the quality of Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) during refrigerated storage

    OpenAIRE

    Lyu, Fei; Huang, Rui-Ji; Liu, Lin; Zhou, Xuxia; Ding, Yu-Ting

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the influence of slaughter methods on the quality of Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) during refrigerated storage on board. Fishes were slaughtered by asphyxia in air (AA), asphyxia in ice water (AI) or stunning fish heads (SH), and the rigor mortis, pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), trimethylamine (TMA), 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and sensory properties for the fishes were analyzed. On day 0, Chilean jack...

  12. Creating stability in constant uncertainty : dealing with crisis in the Chilean aquaculture industry

    OpenAIRE

    Amundsen, Vilde Steiro

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is the result of a fieldwork conducted in Fish Inc., a Chilean branch of a Norwegian-owned company dealing with equipment for fish farming. The Chilean aquaculture industry has since the sanitary and financial crisis of 2007 experienced a constant unpredictability, with extreme fluctuation between incredible upswings and crashing downturns. The instability and uncertainty of the industry has generated the necessity of creating a sense of continuity for employees in dealing with th...

  13. Slowed Exports Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The first half of 2010 is showing that the impacts of the financial crisis are still lingering.Zhao Jinping,a researcher at the Development Research Center of the State Council,says that the possible implementation of exit strategies in developed countries may deal a heavy blow to a global rally,and it will certainly result in slowed exports growth for China.Zhao published his opinion in the China Economic Times.The first part was published in issue No.33.Edited excerpts of the second part follow:

  14. Soviet energy export prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanlan, Tony

    1991-05-01

    The Soviet Union produces 20% of world energy but since 1988 this is in decline. Awakening consumerism and a sea-change in the structure of foreign trade and internal investment are placing this key industry into unprecedented uncertainty. The difference between success and failure goes beyond the 1988 peak of six million barrels daily of exports in oil equivalent. The article quantifies the key areas of energy uncertainty as equal in volume to total OPEC output and sees the long-term changes of success more than ever dependent on coordinated planning and investment as well as on market reality. (Author).

  15. Diversity and activity of denitrifiers of Chilean arid soil ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GescheBraker

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean sclerophyllous matorral is a Mediterranean semiarid ecosystem affected by erosion, with low soil fertility and limited by nitrogen. However, limitation of resources is even more severe for desert soils such as from the Atacama Desert, one of the most extreme arid deserts on Earth. Topsoil organic matter, nitrogen and moisture content were significantly higher in the semiarid soil compared to the desert soil. Although the most significant loss of biologically preferred nitrogen from terrestrial ecosystems occurs via denitrification, virtually nothing is known on the activity and composition of denitrifier communities thriving in arid soils. In this study, we explored denitrifier communities from two soils with profoundly distinct edaphic factors. While denitrification activity in the desert soil was below detection limit, the semiarid soil sustained denitrification activity. To elucidate the genetic potential of the soils to sustain denitrification processes we performed community analysis of denitrifiers based on nitrite reductase (nirK and nirS genes as functional marker genes for this physiological group. Presence of nirK-type denitrifiers in both soils was demonstrated but failure to amplify nirS from the desert soil suggests very low abundance of nirS-type denitrifiers shedding light on the lack of denitrification activity. Phylogenetic analysis showed a very low diversity of nirK with only three distinct genotypes in the desert soil which conditions presumably exert a high selection pressure. While nirK diversity was also limited to only few, albeit distinct genotypes, the semiarid matorral soil showed a surprisingly broad genetic variability of the nirS gene. The Chilean matorral is a shrub land plant community which form vegetational patches stabilizing the soil and increasing its nitrogen and carbon content. These islands of fertility may sustain the development and activity of the overall microbial community and of

  16. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastrointestinal symptoms on Chilean pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ferrer Poveda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the aim of this research was to determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection on Chilean pregnant women and its relationship with the appearance and severity of hyperemesis and dyspepsia. Methods: quantitative study of prevalence in a transversal cut with variable analysis. The sample was taken from 274 Chilean pregnant women from the Bío Bío province through vein puncture between June and December, 2005. Pregnant women were informed of this study, interviewed and signed an informed consent. The samples were processed using ImmunoComb II Helicobacter pylori IgG kit. Statistical analysis was performed by means of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Program. Results: out of the total number of pregnant women, 68.6% showed infection by Helicobacter pylori. 79.6% of the total sample had symptoms of dyspepsia, and 72.5% of this group presented Helicobacter pylori infection. 12.4% showed pregnancy hyperemesis; among them, 79.4% were infected with Helicobacter pylori. 73.4% of the pregnant women that showed gastric discomfort during the first three months had Helicobacter pylori infection. 53.7% of them continued with gastric discomfort after the first three months; of those, 95.8% were infected. Helicobacter pylori infection was present only in 1.5% of pregnant women without gastric discomfort. Conclusion: both, gastric discomfort of pregnant women and the continuity of severe symptoms of dyspepsia and hyperemesis after the first three months of gestation are significantly correlated with Helicobacter pylori infection.

  17. Second Thoughts on Exporter Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    Empirical literature has established a positive link between firm productivity and export status, yet notable exceptions exist. The present paper shows that the underlying theory (Melitz, 2003) is in fact able to accommodate the rule as well as the exception. The fulcrum of the argument is the...... tension between empirical work measuring productivity based on average cost information, and theoretical work representing productivity by marginal cost. In a heterogeneous firms trade model, we compute productivity based on average cost and find that around the export-indifferent firm, exporters will be...... less productive than non-exporters. Furthermore, we show that this effect may feed through at the industry level....

  18. Exports of petroleum products, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1988 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 32,000 m3/d in 1988, up 44% from 1987 levels. Each product except aviation fuel registered increases in export volumes, which reached the highest total volume of the decade. The main reason for the large increase was the first full year of production from the export-directed refinery at Come By Chance, Newfoundland. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices. The heavy fuel oil price was mostly above the USA east coast spot price during 1988. Attractive prices on the USA east coast resulted in a few cargoes of middle distillate and motor gasoline shipped from British Columbia. Petroleum products imports came from 12 countries; Quebec had the largest volume of imports in 1988. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. Western exporters view the Far East as an ongoing important market. The top single exporter in Canada was Newfoundland Processing, with 32% of the total export volume. 12 figs., 3 tabs

  19. India’s Services Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Hyvonen; Hao Wang

    2012-01-01

    Exports of services are an important source of demand for the Indian economy and account for a larger share of output than in most major economies. The importance of India’s services exports mirrors that of the broader services sector in India, which is large compared with other countries at a similar stage of development. This article provides an overview of India’s services exports, focusing on their composition and destination, and discusses some of the reasons why services exports are so ...

  20. Export base of czech regions

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Šulc

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with the analysis of structure and size of goods exported from the Czech regions in the period of 2003–2009. The analysis is related to the export base theory. At first there is the export base theory characterised in the beginning of the article. There is a limited data base for the assessing of international flow of goods and services in case of Czech regions, for only the data of exported goods is regionally monitored. Both the presence and the increase of importance of ...

  1. Applications of radioisotopes in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India has large population which is engaged in agriculture or related activities. With many agro-climatic zones, diversity in crops and traditional largely plant food based diets, there is need to meet these and increase agricultural production in the face of increasing constraints. Radiations and radioisotopes can contribute significantly to these developments. Mutation breeding is very useful technique in Indian context. Basic technique can be applied where a radiation source or irradiation service and facility to grow few thousand plants are available. Radiation processing can save the valuable food which is subject to spoilage by microbes and insects. Value addition by export is possible by meeting the quarantine and hygienisation conditions

  2. Indo-European and Asian origins for Chilean and Pacific chickens revealed by mtDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongora, Jaime; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Mobegi, Victor A; Jianlin, Han; Alcalde, Jose A; Matus, Jose T; Hanotte, Olivier; Moran, Chris; Austin, Jeremy J; Ulm, Sean; Anderson, Atholl J; Larson, Greger; Cooper, Alan

    2008-07-29

    European chickens were introduced into the American continents by the Spanish after their arrival in the 15th century. However, there is ongoing debate as to the presence of pre-Columbian chickens among Amerindians in South America, particularly in relation to Chilean breeds such as the Araucana and Passion Fowl. To understand the origin of these populations, we have generated partial mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from 41 native Chilean specimens and compared them with a previously generated database of approximately 1,000 domestic chicken sequences from across the world as well as published Chilean and Polynesian ancient DNA sequences. The modern Chilean sequences cluster closely with haplotypes predominantly distributed among European, Indian subcontinental, and Southeast Asian chickens, consistent with a European genetic origin. A published, apparently pre-Columbian, Chilean specimen and six pre-European Polynesian specimens also cluster with the same European/Indian subcontinental/Southeast Asian sequences, providing no support for a Polynesian introduction of chickens to South America. In contrast, sequences from two archaeological sites on Easter Island group with an uncommon haplogroup from Indonesia, Japan, and the Philippines [corrected] and may represent a genetic signature of an early Polynesian dispersal. Modeling of the potential marine carbon contribution to the Chilean archaeological specimen casts further doubt on claims for pre-Columbian chickens, and definitive proof will require further analyses of ancient DNA sequences and radiocarbon and stable isotope data from archaeological excavations within both Chile and Polynesia. PMID:18663216

  3. Export incentives, exchange rate policy and export growth in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J.G. van Wijnbergen; I. Arslan

    1993-01-01

    The driving forces behind the Turkish export miracle, and in fact its very existence, have remained a matter of debate We show there was a boom. As to contributing factors, import growth in the Middle East in excess of import growth elsewhere made a negative contribution. On exports to non-oil count

  4. Wind exports markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the situation of wind export markets and the principles of firming, shaping and moving. Firming means the conversion of uncertain second to second output into hourly deliveries. Firming of energy is used to make up the difference between the hourly schedule and actual output. Firming of capacity is setting aside generation to stand behind fluctuations in wind output within the hour. Shaping is to convert uncertain hour-to-hour output throughout the year into predetermined deliveries that meet consumer demand. Moving refers to BC's attempts to bring about the transport of clean energy to California. But there are transmission issues involved because the network lines to California are already fully subscribed. One solution would be for IPPs to purchase services from Powerex, or any other service provider, at opportunity cost. Another element is that the market price for wholesale electricity is lower than in recent years. It is safe to say that there are lots of uncertainties involved in wind exports.

  5. SMEs IN FUNCTION OF DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE IN SERBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Popović, Blaženka; Maletic, Radojka; Paunović, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural production is very diverse and gives the great opportunities for various activities of small and medium enterprises. There is a great competition for placement of agricultural and food products, on both, domestic and international food markets. In a situation where there is a hyper production of agricultural products in the European market, the export of agricultural and food products is possible only if it offers organic products, for which there is a great demand. Organic produ...

  6. Study of the Effects of Globalization on Iranian Caviar Export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Barghandan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is integration of national economies in globaleconomy and infers on increasing the flow of goods andservices. In this study the consequences of globalization werestudied through the analysis of Level of International Tradeindex (LIT in the caviar export equation. The required datawere gathered from Statistical Yearbook of Foreign Trade,Statistical Yearbook of fisheries, Statistical Yearbook of the International Monetary Fund, United Nations Food and AgricultureOrganization and different issues of Central Bank of Iran over1974-2007. The results showed that domestic production ofcaviar have significant and positive effects on its export. Inaddition, sign of level of international trade variable in theestimated model is positive and indicates trade restrictionsremove lead to increase in caviar export.

  7. Exports of crude oil, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective June 1, 1985, licensing and charging of oil exports ended. The Board now issues export orders specifying neither volumes nor prices and covering an exportation period of up to 1 year for light crude oil and up to 2 years for heavy crude oil, available on request to both Canadian and foreign companies. The Board has assumed a monitoring role, and export prices and volumes are reported monthly by exporters. This annual report provides a review of the volumes and prices associated with the supply and disposition of Canadian crude oil during 1988. Highlights are given with detailed information on prices, both internationally, in Canada, and the Chicago posted price by light or heavy crude, and on volumes including capacity and disposition in both domestic and export markets. A short description of the import market is included. Comparisons are made with the previous year. Export volumes of light crude oil in 1988 increased by 13% to average 50,200 m3/d. Export volumes of heavy crude also increased by ca 13% to 62,600 m3/d. 15 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Sinosure Helping to Stabilize Exports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The unfolding international financial crisis is taking its toll on China’s economy, especially China’s exports. On one hand, overseas demand has plummeted, while on the other, with the worsening credit environment and emerging trade protectionism, export enter-prises are suffering from rising credit risks, to the point where some of them dare not even accept orders.

  9. Tumbling Auto Import and Export

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yantai Chen

    2009-01-01

    @@ The seemingly rebound global financial crisis has seriously eroded world economy from 2008,of which China's tumbling auto imports and exports business is a good example.At the beginning of 2008 it kicked off as an excellent year for the Chinese automotive market,but ended with the onset of a recession in last quarter both from the perspective of import and export.

  10. Insurability of export credit risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsem, K.J.; Antufjew, J.; Huizingh, K.R.E.; Koning, Ruud H.; Sterken, E.; Woltil, M.

    2003-01-01

    Firms exporting their goods and services abroad face risks that are different from the risks faced by firms who do not engage in international trade. It is common practice to allow the receiving party to pay in instalments. The exporting firm faces credit risk, but as in most countries, Dutch firms

  11. Energy implications of the move from a command to a market-based economy: Soviet oil export case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of oil exports and macroeconomic efficiency in the Soviet economy is reviewed. Food imports, losses of agricultural production, prospective reduction in oil exports, and imports of machinery are discussed, and supporting statistics for years 1986 - 1989 are given. (UK)

  12. Mexico: Imports or exports?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation provides an overview of Mexico's energy sector. Proven oil reserves place Mexico in ninth position in the world and fourth largest in natural gas reserves. Energy is one of the most important economic activities of the country, representing 3 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Oil exports represent 8.4 per cent of total exports. Approximately 40 per cent of total public investment is earmarked for energy projects. The author discusses energy resources and energy sector limitations. The energy sector plan for the period 2001-2006 is discussed. Its goals are to ensure energy supply, to develop the energy sector, to stimulate participation of Mexican enterprises, to promote renewable energy sources, and to strengthen international energy cooperation. The regulatory framework is being adapted to increase private investment. Some graphs are presented, displaying the primary energy production and primary energy consumption. Energy sector reforms are reviewed, as are electricity and natural gas reforms. The energy sector demand for 2000-2010 and investment requirements are reviewed, as well as fuel consumption for power generation. The author discusses the National Pipeline System (SNG) and the bottlenecks caused by pressure efficiency in the northeast, flow restriction on several pipeline segments, variability of the Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) own use, and pressure drop on central regions. The entire prospect for natural gas in the country is reviewed, along with the Strategic Gas Program (PEG) consisting of 20 projects, including 4 non-associated natural gas, 9 exploration and 7 optimization. A section dealing with multiple service contracts is included in the presentation. The authors conclude by stating that the priority is a national energy policy to address Mexico's energy security requirements, to increase natural gas production while promoting the diversification of imports, and a regulatory framework to be updated in light of current

  13. Attributing land-use change carbon emissions to exported biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saikku, Laura, E-mail: laura.saikku@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, P.O Box 65, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Soimakallio, Sampo, E-mail: sampo.soimakallio@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland); Pingoud, Kim, E-mail: kim.pingoud@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland)

    2012-11-15

    In this study, a simple, transparent and robust method is developed in which land-use change (LUC) emissions are retrospectively attributed to exported biomass products based on the agricultural area occupied for the production. LUC emissions account for approximately one-fifth of current greenhouse gas emissions. Increasing agricultural exports are becoming an important driver of deforestation. Brazil and Indonesia are used as case studies due to their significant deforestation in recent years. According to our study, in 2007, approximately 32% and 15% of the total agricultural land harvested and LUC emissions in Brazil and Indonesia respectively were due to exports. The most important exported single items with regard to deforestation were palm oil for Indonesia and bovine meat for Brazil. To reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions effectively worldwide, leakage of emissions should be avoided. This can be done, for example, by attributing embodied LUC emissions to exported biomass products. With the approach developed in this study, controversial attribution between direct and indirect LUC and amortization of emissions over the product life cycle can be overcome, as the method operates on an average basis and annual level. The approach could be considered in the context of the UNFCCC climate policy instead of, or alongside with, other instruments aimed at reducing deforestation. However, the quality of the data should be improved and some methodological issues, such as the allocation procedure in multiproduct systems and the possible dilution effect through third parties not committed to emission reduction targets, should be considered. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} emissions from land use changes are highly important. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Attribution of land use changes for products is difficult. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple and robust method is developed to attribute land use change emissions.

  14. Attributing land-use change carbon emissions to exported biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a simple, transparent and robust method is developed in which land-use change (LUC) emissions are retrospectively attributed to exported biomass products based on the agricultural area occupied for the production. LUC emissions account for approximately one-fifth of current greenhouse gas emissions. Increasing agricultural exports are becoming an important driver of deforestation. Brazil and Indonesia are used as case studies due to their significant deforestation in recent years. According to our study, in 2007, approximately 32% and 15% of the total agricultural land harvested and LUC emissions in Brazil and Indonesia respectively were due to exports. The most important exported single items with regard to deforestation were palm oil for Indonesia and bovine meat for Brazil. To reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions effectively worldwide, leakage of emissions should be avoided. This can be done, for example, by attributing embodied LUC emissions to exported biomass products. With the approach developed in this study, controversial attribution between direct and indirect LUC and amortization of emissions over the product life cycle can be overcome, as the method operates on an average basis and annual level. The approach could be considered in the context of the UNFCCC climate policy instead of, or alongside with, other instruments aimed at reducing deforestation. However, the quality of the data should be improved and some methodological issues, such as the allocation procedure in multiproduct systems and the possible dilution effect through third parties not committed to emission reduction targets, should be considered. - Highlights: ► CO2 emissions from land use changes are highly important. ► Attribution of land use changes for products is difficult. ► Simple and robust method is developed to attribute land use change emissions.

  15. Chilean Teachers Begin Exchange Program Visit in Magdalena

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    . Kelly. The Chilean teachers are visiting Magdalena while they are on their Southern Hemisphere summer vacation, and Magdalena's schools are in session. Two Magdalena teachers, Joleen Welborn and Sandra Montoya, will visit San Pedro in June, while they are on summer vacation and the Chilean schools will be in session. Dr. Eduardo Hardy, the AUI/NRAO representative in Chile, will accompany the Chilean teachers on their visit, which has been coordinated by Harrison. "ALMA is a groundbreaking example of the type of international cooperation that marks the future of astronomy. We are especially pleased to sponsor a program that brings together two communities that both enjoy proximity to world-class astronomical research facilities," said Dr. Fred K.Y. Lo, NRAO Director. "While separated by many miles, San Pedro de Atacama and Magdalena have much in common. Both are small communities in high desert environments, and both are next to telescopes where the world's astronomers will be making many exciting discoveries in the coming decades. Bringing these two communities together will advance education and international understanding," Harrison said. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  16. Examining the role of export competitive advantages on export performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeganeh Alimohammadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of export competitive advantage on export performance in food industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 280 randomly selected experts in food industry and Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.827. The study has applied factor analysis to find important factors influencing export performance. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Bartlett's Test of Sphericity have been performed to validate the results and they both validated the questionnaire. The results of the survey have determined six effective groups including product development, e-commerce, marketing planning, organizational performance, competitiveness and supply chain management.

  17. Dental fluorosis in Chilean children: evaluation of risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, A E; Guerrero, S; Icaza, G; Villalobos, J; Anabalón, M

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this case-control study was to determine the association between very-mild-to-moderate enamel fluorosis and exposure during early childhood to fluoridated water, mainly through ingestion of powdered milk. Analysis was performed on 136 residents of the optimally fluoridated community of San Felipe in the Chilean Fifth Region, who were categorised into one of three groups according to their age when water fluoridation was introduced in 1986: Group I was born after 1986; Group II was 16-24 months old in 1986; and Group III was >24 months of age. The case and control subjects were selected on the basis of a clinical examination given in July 1996. Dean's scoring system was used to determine fluorosis status. Risk factor exposure was ascertained by a questionnaire used in interviews with mothers of participating children. Logistic regression analysis, after adjustment for confounding variables, revealed that very-mild-to-moderate enamel fluorosis of permanent central maxillary incisors (CMI) was strongly associated both with the age of the subjects when water fluoridation began and with breast-feeding duration for children belonging to Group I. Subjects in Group I were 20.44 times more likely (95% CI: 5.00-93.48) to develop CMI fluorosis than children who were older than 24 months (Group III) when fluoridation began. Subjects who were between 16 and 24 months old when water fluoridation began were 4.15 times more likely (95% CI: 1.05-16.43) to have CMI fluorosis than children older than 24 months. An inverse association was found with breastfeeding duration (OR=0.86, 95% CI: 0.75-0.98) among Group I subjects but not in Groups II and III. Results obtained suggest that the current fluoride concentration in drinking water may be contributing to fluorosis. Further studies will be necessary to determine the relative competing risks of dental fluorosis and dental caries in Chilean children in order to establish the most appropriate water fluoridation level in

  18. Estonian agriculture works to increase exports / Ella Karapetyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karapetyan, Ella

    2009-01-01

    Eesti põllumajanduse seisust. Eesti Toiduainetööstuse Liit, tootjad ja kaubandusketid algatasid kampaania Eesti toidu populariseerimiseks ning kodumaist kaupa hakkab eristama Eesti rahvuslipu värvides märgistus

  19. Estimation of erosion and sediment export from an agricultural catchment

    OpenAIRE

    Evrard, Olivier; Nord, Guillaume; Cerdan, Olivier; Souchère, Véronique; Le Bissonnais, Yves; Bonté, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Soil erosion leads to important environmental problems (e.g. muddy floods, reservoir sedimentation) in cultivated areas of the European loess belt. This study aimed to quantify erosion and to determine the impact of rainfall seasonality and land use change on soil erosion over the last 40 years in a 94-ha cultivated catchment of Normandy (France). To this end, scenarios representative of the different land use conditions were simulated using the STREAM expert-based erosion model. A 13-yrs lon...

  20. AN OVERVIEW OF CUBAN AGRICULTURE AND PROSPECTS FOR FUTURE TRADE WITH THE UNITED STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Mattson, Jeremy W.; Koo, Won W.

    2003-01-01

    For many years, the United States has blocked trade with Cuba, but the situation has recently changed. The Trade Sanctions Reform and Export Enhancement Act of 2000 loosened U.S. sanctions on agricultural exports to Cuba, allowing Cuba to buy from the United States using cash but not credit. The objectives of this study are to analyze Cuban agricultural production and trade and to estimate potential agricultural trade flows that could occur between the United States and Cuba if the embargo wa...

  1. Agro-manufactured Export Prices, Wages and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Porto, Guido G.

    2008-01-01

    This article estimates the impacts of world agricultural trade liberalization on wages and unemployment in Argentina in the presence of individual labor supply responses and adjustment costs in labor demand. After a 10% increase in agro-manufactured export prices, I find that: (a) the employment probability would increase by 1.36 percentage points, matched by a decline in the unemployment probability of 0.75 percentage points and an increase in labor market participation of 0.61 percentage po...

  2. China's Growth, World Food Prices, and Developing Countries Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Villoria, Nelson

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the impacts of China's growth in the international markets of agricultural products. These impacts are important because they are related to two different ongoing discussions about the role of China in the world economy. One of these discussions have to do with China as a source of price inflation while the other has to do with China as an engine of growth for developing countries, in this case, through increased export opportunities. Our results suggest that China has bee...

  3. Insurability of export credit risks

    OpenAIRE

    Alsem, K.J.; Antufjew, J.; Huizingh, K.R.E.; Koning, Ruud H.; Sterken, E.; Woltil, M.

    2003-01-01

    Firms exporting their goods and services abroad face risks that are different from the risks faced by firms who do not engage in international trade. It is common practice to allow the receiving party to pay in instalments. The exporting firm faces credit risk, but as in most countries, Dutch firms can insure such risks. To some extent, such export credit risks can be insured on the private market. There are private insurance companies that insure short-term risks. On the Dutch market, Gerlin...

  4. 2006 Rare Earth Export Quota

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ According to correlative stipulations in "Goods Import εt Export Administrating Statute of P.R.C", 2006export quota for important industrial products was issued by the Ministry of Commerce of P.R.C. on December 30th of 2005. Export quota of rare earth products is 45,000 tons. It is said the quota will be distributed in two batches. The first batch of quota will reach 70-80% of the total with 21,700 - 24,800tons for domestic companies and 10,500 - 12,000 tons for foreign invested companies. Quota will be distributed to relevant enterprises directly in recent days.

  5. The Economic Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Molua, Ernest L.; Lambi, Cornelius M.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the impact of climate change on crop farming in Cameroon. The country's economy is predominantly agrarian and agriculture and the exploitation of natural resources remain the driving force for the country's economic development. Fluctuations in national income are due not merely to the decline in world demand for Cameroon's traditional agricultural exports or to mistake...

  6. The Status of Human Nutrition and Agricultural Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyse, Bonita; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The authors state that the U.S. Department of Agriculture should be considering productive alternatives for the American farmer, exploring ways to use or export the excess fat, and should be spending at least half of its resources to convince the consumers of the value they are getting from agricultural products. (CT)

  7. Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Gómez-Campos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of waist circumference (WC is considered to be an important means to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The objectives of the study were to (a compare the WC measurements of Chilean students with the international CDC-2012 standard and other international standards, and (b propose a specific measurement value for the WC of Chilean students based on age and sex. A total of 3892 students (6 to 18 years old were assessed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI, and WC were measured. WC was compared with the CDC-2012 international standard. Percentiles were constructed based on the LMS method. Chilean males had a greater WC during infancy. Subsequently, in late adolescence, males showed values lower than those of the international standards. Chilean females demonstrated values similar to the standards until the age of 12. Subsequently, females showed lower values. The 85th and 95th percentiles were adopted as cutoff points for evaluating overweight and obesity based on age and sex. The WC of Chilean students differs from the CDC-2012 curves. The regional norms proposed are a means to identify children and adolescents with a high risk of suffering from overweight and obesity disorders.

  8. Revealing latitudinal patterns of mitochondrial DNA diversity in Chileans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Moreno, Fabián; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Martinón-Torres, Federico; García-Magariños, Manuel; Pantoja-Astudillo, Jaime A; Aguirre-Morales, Eugenia; Bustos, Patricio; Salas, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The territory of Chile is particularly long and narrow, which combined with its mountainous terrain, makes it a unique scenario for human genetic studies. We obtained 995 control region mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from Chileans representing populations living at different latitudes of the country from the North to the southernmost region. The majority of the mtDNA profiles are of Native American origin (∼88%). The remaining haplotypes are mostly of recent European origin (∼11%), and only a minor proportion is of recent African ancestry (∼1%). While these proportions are relatively uniform across the country, more structured patterns of diversity emerge when examining the variation from a phylogeographic perspective. For instance, haplogroup A2 reaches ∼9% in the North, and its frequency decreases gradually to ∼1% in the southernmost populations, while the frequency of haplogroup D (sub-haplogroups D1 and D4) follows the opposite pattern: 36% in the southernmost region, gradually decreasing to 21% in the North. Furthermore, there are remarkable signatures of founder effects in specific sub-clades of Native American (e.g. haplogroups D1j and D4p) and European (e.g. haplogroups T2b3 and K1a4a1a+195) ancestry. We conclude that the magnitude of the latitudinal differences observed in the patterns of mtDNA variation might be relevant in forensic casework. PMID:26517175

  9. Peer victimization: Intimidation and victmization in Chilean students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica López

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study about peer intimidation and victimization with 1167 school students from 6th, 7th, and 8th grade from the Valparaiso Region of Valparaíso, Chile. The instrument used was the Insebull Battery (Avilés & Elices, 2007. Results show that approximately 9% of students have been victim of peer victimization many times or almost every day during the school year. Psychological victimization was more frequent thanphysical aggression, particularly through virtual communication such as cell-phone messages and e-mails. Participants tend to be groups of male students. Although male students participate more in physical aggression, they also receive more physical and psychological aggression. The most frequent places were inside the classroom and the school yard, when the teacher is not present. Most students inform not knowing, or vaguely knowing, thereasons underlying these aggressions, and do not do anything to deal with them. These results coincide with international studies and allow a better understanding of the characteristics of peer victimization in specific educational contexts within the Chilean school system.

  10. Natural activity of 40K in some Chilean building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of the natural level of radioactivity is important to assess the influence of gamma radiation exposure in building materials. The main sources of external radiation exposure in buildings are members of the uranium and thorium decay chains and 40K occurring naturally in building materials, which emit gamma rays.The specific activity of building materials has been reported for many countries. However, for Chilean building materials no such data are available. A study of 40K speciactivity on building materials was carried out with gamma spectrometric system based on high-purity germanium detector. The 40K activity was measured directly by its own gamma-ray line at 1460.8 keV. Samples of gypsum, cement, brick and cement and gravel mixture, widely used in Chile, were used on this work. The samples were corrected by moisture content and the geometrical conditions has been normalized to avoid volumetric corrections. All preliminary results are below the world average of 500 Bq/kg for building materials reported by UNSCEAR

  11. Analysis of Export and Import Processes of Selected Products in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Somnuk Keretho; Saisamorn Naklada

    2011-01-01

    Thailand’s exports include agricultural and industrial goods such as rice, processed and frozen food, electronics, fashion garments and textiles, automobiles and auto parts and accessories. The export of jasmine rice, sugar, frozen shrimp, automobiles and auto parts has been a key contributor to economic growth. Thailand has negotiated free trade agreements with Australia, China, India, Japan, New Zealand and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) that have helped to increase the ...

  12. Thinking on Promoting International Trade Competitive Advantage of Agricultural Products in Guangxi Based on CAFTA Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the status quo and the existing problems of international trade development of agricultural products in Guangxi based on CAFTA framework as follows: the international trade of agricultural products in Guangxi shows a trend of rapid growth, but the structure of export products is simple; the distribution of export market is irrational; the export goods are mainly the resources-intensive goods and labor-intensive goods, with low added value of goods; the brand of agricultural products lacks strong overall international competitiveness. In the context of CAFTA framework, in order to foster the international trade competitive advantage of agricultural products in Guangxi, corresponding suggestions are put forward as follows: the structure of export market should change from the current simple status to diversified trend; the structure of export goods should gradually change from the current factor endowment to the orientation of international market demand; the agricultural production should change from the traditional agricultural products to advantageous complementary characteristic agricultural products; the trade structure should change from the land-intensive agricultural products to labor-intensive and technology-intensive agricultural products; the structure of merchandise trade should change from low-price vicious competition to high added-value competition; the governmental function should change from traditional one-way-direction-oriented function to modern integrated-service-and-supervision-oriented function that meets the requirements of export.

  13. Agricultural Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Gruere, Guillaume P.; Mevel, Simon; Bouet, Antoine

    2009-01-01

    India is considering approving genetically modified (GM) rice, but it fears losing rice exports to sensitive countries with import regulations on GM food, and may wait for China to lead the way. Using a multiregion, computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, we simulate the economic effects of introducing GM rice in India with or without China in the presence of labeling and import approval regulations of GM food in GM sensitive importing countries. We find that the welfare gains with GM ric...

  14. Recent trends/challenges in irrigated agriculture-Why is irrigation important in a discussion of agricultural migration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    United States agriculture contributes 16% of the $9 trillion gross domestic product, 8% of U.S. exports, and 17% of employment while providing food to all citizens, despite the fact that only 2% of the U.S. workforces is on farms. Agricultural productivity has grown by 240% since 1948, while agricul...

  15. Australia's uranium export policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In developing the policy framework for the export of uranium, successive governments have been keenly aware that, in Australia, as in most countries, there has been considerable community interest and controversy surrounding the subject of uranium. When the Australian Labor Government was elected in 1983, it commissioned the Australian Science and Technology Council (ASTEC) to report on Australia's role in the nuclear fuel cycle. In particular, the report examined: (i) Australia's nuclear safeguards arrangements, giving particular attention to the effectiveness of the bilateral and multilateral agreements and to the scope for strengthening these agreements, (ii) the opportunities for Australia through the conditions of its involvement in the nuclear fuel cycle to further advance the cause of nuclear non-proliferation having regard to the policies and practices of recipient countries, (iii) the adequacy of existing technology for the handling and disposal of waste products by consuming countries, and the ways in which Australia could further contribute to the development of safe disposal methods. (orig./UA)

  16. Studying Non-Oil Exports in Iran’s Development Plans

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Mohammad Alavinasab; Ali Naghi Amiri

    2013-01-01

    The increasing importance of independence from oil revenue due to fluctuations and volatility of oil prices and global demand for oil which greatly affects the revenues of the country, has led to appear the role of non-oil exports beyond the means of foreign exchange earning so that many of researches’ consideration has shifted to the current state of non-oil exports. In this connection, present study investigates the role of agricultural, industrial and mineral exports as well as total non-e...

  17. Economy-wide impact of a decline in live-sheep exports: a CGE analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Nazrul

    2005-01-01

    Sheep industry is one of the important agricultural industries in Australia. More than 50 percent of the sheep sold in Australia are exported live and of the total live sheep exports, 70 to 80 percent is exported to the Middle-East countries. In August 2003, Saudi Arabia’s rejection of the MV Cormo Express led to a widespread concern among the members of the industry as well as among the citizens at large. Many started to question about the need for live-sheep trade. This paper examines the e...

  18. E-business and small Ghanaian exporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinson, Robert; Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2006-01-01

    The arfticle aims to investigate the relationship between export intensity and e-business adoption in Ghana. No clear relationship is found among exporters of non-traditional items.......The arfticle aims to investigate the relationship between export intensity and e-business adoption in Ghana. No clear relationship is found among exporters of non-traditional items....

  19. FDI as an Export-Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajderllari, Luljeta; Karantininis, Konstantinos; Lawson, Lartey Godwin

    towards countries with large exports of agri-food, thereby supporting the hypothesis that FDI is used as an export-platform. FDI is coupled with high exports from Denmark, probably of raw or semi-processed food products for further processing and exports. We also find that FDI is higher in countries with...

  20. The world tourism exports cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Gouveia, Pedro; Guerreiro, Raul Filipe; Paulo M.M. Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Considering that tourism is an important industry on a global scale, this study analyses and compares the deviations cycles from the long-term trend of tourism exports for all regions of the world with the cycle of the European Union with 27 member states (EU27). In this context, the approach followed allows us to analyse and determine the synchronization between tourism exports cycles of various regions of interest. In parallel, lagged concordance indices of cycles are id...

  1. Prospects for Australian uranium exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the focus of this paper is Australian uranium exports, the status of other energy minerals is also discussed briefly. The size of its uranium resources has given Australia the opportunity to become a major exporter; however, it is estimated that any major long-term expansion of uranium production hinges on favourable market conditions and on major changes in the Australian government's policy towards the industry. 4 tabs., ill

  2. Export and Import Price Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Jemma Dridi; Kimberly Zieschang

    2004-01-01

    Export and import price indices are essential for assessing the impact of international trade on the domestic economy. Among their most important uses are analyzing developments in the trade balance, measuring foreign prices' contribution to domestic inflation, and deflating nominal values of exports and imports for estimating the volume of gross domestic product. This paper discusses economic concepts for trade price indices at some length. We note the need for reasonably frequent chaining i...

  3. Do Exporters Gain From VERs?

    OpenAIRE

    De Melo, Jaime; WINTERS, L Alan

    1990-01-01

    Previous literature has concentrated on the rent transfer accruing to exporting countries when a VER is binding. This paper studies the efficiency and distributional effects arising when VERs force factors out of industries in which they are most productive. A theoretical model of the industry under the VER is developed to establish qualitative conditions under which a VER will result in: spillovers of exports to unrestricted markets; industry contraction; and loss in national welfare. Key pa...

  4. Exports of petroleum products, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1989 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 30,400 m3/d in 1989, down 5% from 1988 levels. Motor gasoline shipments showed the largest decrease, down 1,500 m3 to 7,700 m3/d. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices except in June and July 1989, when attractive prices were obtained for shipments from the prairie provinces. The heavy fuel oil export price was similar to the USA east coast spot price in 1989, except in December. Canada's petroleum products imports in 1989 were 21,600 m3/d, compared to 18,400 m3/d in 1988. Imports of heavy fuel oil in eastern Canada rose 36% in 1989 because of industries switching from electricity and the high demand for thermal power generation. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. The top single exporter in 1989, as in 1988, was Newfoundland Processing, with a volume of 3,484,500 m3. 24 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Exports of petroleum products, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1990 calendar year. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 34,000 m3/d in 1990, up 12% from 1989 levels. The increase reflects increased output from the Come By Chance refinery in Newfoundland. Motor gasoline exports increased 35% to 10,500 m3/d, reflecting refinery upgrading in eastern Canada. Export prices were generally in line with spot product prices in the USA. Spot prices rose sharply following the Kuwait crisis in August 1990 but fell again in November. The spot price for jet fuel rose more dramatically in that period than for other products, reflecting increased military demand. In winter 1989/90 and during the Kuwait conflict, the export price of heating oil tended to track the USA spot price. Petroleum products imports in 1990 were 18,500 m3/d, compared to 21,900 m3/d in 1988. Imports were lower partially as a result of higher crude runs in Quebec and a Quebec refinery expansion. Imports of heavy fuel oil in eastern Canada continued to be strong in comparison to the mid-1980s. The top single exporter in 1990, as in 1989, was Newfoundland Processing, with a volume of 4,506,400 m3. 13 figs., 5 tabs

  6. BRAZILIAN EXPORTS OF MANUFACTURED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Azevedo Calderon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the Brazilian exports of sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, from 1961 to 2002. The data regarding the three studied products, sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, were joined through the method of Fisher so that an econometric evaluation of the market of the three products could be carried out. Supply and demand models of the Brazilian exports were specified. The results were satisfactory and they match with the literature. The supply of exports presented a positive answer in relation to the exporter's remuneration, to the production, to the use of the installed capacity (cycles of domestic economical activity and to the tendency, and negative in relation to the internal demand. The demand for the Brazilian exports was influenced positively by the world income, participation index and tendency, and negatively for the relative price. The low elasticity-price of the found demand can have implications in the conservation of the Brazilian forest resources because the exporters can increase the prices, reduce the amounts and still increase the incomes.

  7. Privatizing Water in the Chilean Andes: The Case of Las Vegas de Chiu-Chiu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Prieto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean water model has been described as a textbook example of a free-market water system. This article contributes to the critiques of this model by showing the effect of its implementation in the Atacameño community of Chiu-Chiu, located in the Atacama Desert in the south-central Andes. In this community, the privatization of water rights ignored local water management practices that had produced a high-altitude wetland (known as a vega. This led to the inhabitants’ dispossession of crucial water rights and to wetland degradation. This process belies statements that the Chilean model relies on an unregulated market and instead highlights the state’s role in marginalizing local irrigation practices by reducing the water consumption of the indigenous population while keeping the copper mining industry (the main source of Chilean income and related growing urban populations supplied with water.

  8. Agricultural Statistics of Egypt, 1970-84

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, George R.; Parker, John B.

    1985-01-01

    Egypt is one of the world's largest foad importers, annually consuming over $4 billion worth of imported agricultural commodities to feed a population of 48 million. The import bill is growing rapidly as population and consumption ~rowth rates exceed that of agricultural production. Egypt was the 10th largest market for U.S. agricultural exports in 1984. The U.S. market share is about 25 percent, with wheat, wheat flour, and corn making up the bulk of the shipments. This report consists of 90...

  9. 75 FR 70905 - President's Export Council: Meeting of the President's Export Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... International Trade Administration President's Export Council: Meeting of the President's Export Council AGENCY... President's Export Council will hold a meeting to discuss topics related to the National Export Initiative... at 9 a.m. (EST). ADDRESSES: The President's Export Council will convene its next meeting via...

  10. Comparative study of P uptake and utilization from P fertilizers by Chilean wheat genotypes in volcanic ash soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intensification of the agricultural production in Southern Chile demand the application of P fertilizers to volcanic ash soils for optimum plant growth and crop yields. Due to the high P sorption capacities of these soils, high amounts of water-soluble phosphatic fertilizers need to be applied. Therefore, the direct application of locally available Bahia Inglesa phosphate rock has been utilized to supply P to crops in these acid soils. Phosphate rock is a very efficient P input for crops with long growth cycles or crop rotations nevertheless water-soluble P fertilizers must still be applied to crops of short growth cycle. Combined with these strategic P inputs, the use of acid-tolerant and P-efficient genotypes can further contribute to agricultural sustainability. Greenhouse studies were undertaken to explore and identify genotypic variations in P efficiency of wheat grown in Andisols of Southern Chile. 32P isotopic techniques were utilized to measure the uptake of P from triple superphosphate, a water-soluble P fertilizer and the locally available Bahia Inglesa phosphate rock. Substantial genotypic variations in P use efficiency were found among the Chilean wheat genotypes tested. The utilization of the 32P isotopic techniques enabled to quantify the P taken up from the P fertilizer and the assessment of differences among the genotypes. Significant genotypic differences were obtained in the P uptake from the local phosphate rock Bahia Inglesa. Much higher applications of phosphate rock were required in Santa Barbara soil series (Andisol) due to its high P retention. A sustainable strategy for agricultural production in the Andisols of Chile would therefore, be the combined utilization of those efficient wheat genotypes and the local phosphate rock Bahia Inglesa. As P efficiency is a multi-faceted trait, which interacts with a range of environmental factors, further field-testing and validation is required accompanied by in depth studies to assess the relative

  11. Are Export Premia Robust to Innovation Statistics?

    OpenAIRE

    Flora Bellone; Sarah Guillou; Lionel Nesta

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses in what extent innovation contributes to the productivity premium of exporters. We start by performing non parametric tests on TFP distributions on different groups of firms characterized by their export and innovation behavior. We show that the TFP distributions of exporters and innovators stochastically dominate those of non exporters and of non innovators, respectively. We pursue with OLS regressions and show that the export premium, defined as the productivity advantag...

  12. Australia's uranium export potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period 1954-71 in Australia approximately 9000 MT of U3O8 was produced from five separate localities. Of this, 7000 MT was exported to the United Kingdom and United States and the balance stockpiled by the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC). Australia's uranium ore reserves occur in eight deposits in three states and the Northern Territory. However, 83% of Australia's reserves are contained in four deposits in lower Proterozoic rocks in the East Alligator River region of the Northern Territory. The AAEC has calculated Australia's recoverable uranium reserves by eliminating estimated losses during the mining and milling of the ores. AAEC has estimated reasonably assured resources of 289,000 MT of uranium at a recovery cost of less than US$80 per kilogram uranium. The companies have collectively announced a larger ore reserve than the Australian Atomic Energy Commission. This difference is a result of the companies adopting different ore reserve categories. On August 25, 1977, the federal government announced that Australia would develop its uranium resources subject to stringent environmental controls, recognition of Aboriginal Land Rights, and international safeguards. Australian uranium production should gradually increase from 1981 onward, growing to 10,000 to 15,000 MT by 1985-86. Further increases in capacity may emerge during the second half of the 1980s when expansion plans are implemented. Exploration for uranium has not been intensive due to delays in developing the existing deposits. It is likely that present reserves can be substantially upgraded if more exploration is carried out. 6 figures, 3 tables

  13. Agricultural trade and the global phosphorus cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipanski, M.; Bennett, E.; Riskin, S.; Porder, S.

    2012-12-01

    Trends of increasing agricultural trade, increased concentration of livestock production systems, and increased human consumption of livestock products influence the distribution of nutrients across the global landscape. Phosphorus (P) represents a unique management challenge as we are rapidly depleting mineable reserves of this essential and non-renewable resource. At the same time, its overuse can lead to pollution of aquatic ecosystems. We analyzed the relative contributions of food crop, feed crop, and livestock product trade to P flows through agricultural soils for twelve countries from 1961 to 2007. We then used case studies of P fertilizer use in the world's three major soybean export regions: Iowa (USA), Mato Grosso (Brazil), and Buenos Aires (Argentina) to examine the influence of historical P management and soil types on agriculture's environmental consequences. Due to the intensification of agricultural production, average soil surface P balances more than tripled from 6 to 21 kg P per ha between 1961 and 2007 for the twelve study countries. Consequently, countries that are primarily agricultural exporters carried increased risks for water pollution or, for Argentina, reduced soil fertility due to soil P mining to support exports. In 2007, nations imported food and feed from regions with higher apparent P fertilizer use efficiencies than if those crops were produced domestically. However, this was largely because imports were sourced from regions depleting soil P resources to support export crop production. In addition, the pattern of regional specialization and intensification of production systems also reduced the potential to recycle P resources, with greater implications for livestock production than crop production. In a globalizing world, it will be increasingly important to integrate biophysical constraints of our natural resources and environmental impacts of agricultural systems into trade policy and agreements and to develop mechanisms that

  14. Organic carbon in glacial fjords of Chilean Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, Silvio; Gutiérrez, Marcelo; Tapia, Fabián; Abarzúa, Leslie; Daneri, Giovanni; Reid, Brian; Díez, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    The Southern Ice Field in Chilean Patagonia is the largest (13,000 km2) temperate ice mass in the Southern hemisphere, yearly transporting ca. 40 km3 of freshwater to fjords. This volume of fresh and cold water likely affects adjacent marine ecosystems by changing circulation, productivity, food web dynamics, and the abundance and distribution of planktonic and benthic organisms. We hypothesize that freshwater-driven availability of inorganic nutrient and transport of organic and inorganic suspended matter, as well as microbes, become a controlling factor for productivity in the fjord associated with the Baker river and Jorge Montt glacier. Both appear to be sources of silicic acid, but not of nitrate and particulate organic carbon, especially during summer, when surface PAR and glacier thawing are maximal. In contrast to Baker River, the Jorge Montt glacier is also a source of dissolved organic carbon towards a proglacial fjord and the Baker Channel, indicating that a thorough chemical description of sources (tidewater glacier and glacial river) is needed. Nitrate in fiord waters reaches ca. 15 μM at 25 m depth with no evidence of mixing up during summer. Stable isotope composition of particulate organic nitrogen reaches values as low as 3 per mil in low-salinity waters near both glacier and river. Nitrogen fixation could be depleting δ15N in organic matter, as suggested by the detection at surface waters of nif H genes belonging to diazotrophs near the Montt glacier. As diazotrophs have also been detected in other cold marine waters (e.g. Baltic Sea, Arctic Ocean) as well as glaciers and polar terrestrial waters, there is certainly a potential for both marine and freshwater microbes to contribute and have a significant impact on the Patagonian N and C budgets. Assessing the impact of freshwater on C and N fluxes and the microbial community structure in Patagonian waters will allow understanding future scenarios of rapid glacier melting. This research was funded

  15. Agricultural Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  16. POTENTIAL OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT TO INCREASE RURAL EMPLOYMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Pemberton, Carlisle A.; Mgonja, Mary A.

    2007-01-01

    The paper examined whether increasing agricultural output would lead to an expansion of employment in rural areas in the Caribbean and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The paper found that the agricultural development problems in the Caribbean and SSA are very similar, especially, declining export demand for products, adverse trade policies and the actions of nature, causing damage to agricultural production. The simulations performed showed that in both regions, even a 4% annual increase in agricul...

  17. Agricultural trade and rural development in the Middle East and North Africa: recent developments and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    DeRosa, Dean A.

    1997-01-01

    Despite petroleum's prominence in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), agriculture remains important to most to the region's economies. And more robust and more dynamic agricultural growth could significantly boost sustainable economic growth and rural development in those countries. An appropriate avenue for improving agricultural growth is to expand agricultural exports in MENA countries with appreciable-to-large agricultural sectors and comparative advantage in cereal grains, agricultu...

  18. International Marketing Strategies and the relationship with the export performance and export marketing orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Marlon Dalmoro

    2010-01-01

    This work aims to identify the relationship between marketing strategies of exporting Taquari Valley firms with the export performance and export market orientation. To achieve the goal sought proposed is the development of theoretical benchmark, made up items strategies for international marketing, export performance and export market orientation. In epistemological level was conducted a survey, applying for a questionnaire to a sample of 25 exporting companies that have industrial activitie...

  19. The Development Of Export Marketing Strategies Between Manufacturer And Merchant Exporters Within The Indian Apparel Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Davar, S C; Rajagopal, S

    1992-01-01

    With the growing apparel exports from India, the development of export marketing strategies for manufacturer and merchant exporters become significant. This study identifies and draws out the major strategy elements used by manufacturer and merchant exporters. The study indicates that manufacturer exporters utilize product diversification, improved quality and differentiation, competitive pricing, better promotion and having diverse market as elements of their export marketing strategies. The...

  20. The Impact of Firm’s Export Competencies on Export Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Kaplan; Selim Said Eren

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the impacts of employees’ export experience and knowledge, firms’ export experience, firms’ export market information, firms’ export commitment on marketing planning capabilities and export performance and the relationship between marketing planning capabilities and export performance. To test hypotheses the data were collected from a sample of 153 firms operating in the automotive part industry in Turkey via structured questionnaire. Results reveal...

  1. Investigating the Influence of Firm Characteristics on Export Marketing Strategies and Export Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Najmeh Peyman; Ozhan Karimi; Habibollah Danaee

    2013-01-01

    The export performance has been studied to a great extent while fewer researches have focused the export activities of developing countries. Firm characteristics have always been found to impact export performance considerably. Furthermore, the marketing strategy applied by the firm has been an important issue related to performance. In this paper, the relationships among firm characteristics, export marketing strategies as well as export performance were investigated on the export of medical...

  2. China's coal export and inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the development of world's business and trade, coal has become a large part of the import and export goods in the international market. The total amount of coal trade has risen a lot. China is rich in coal resources. According to the estimate made by some experts, the reserve which has been explored recently could be exploited hundreds of years. China's output of raw coal has risen a lot during the past forty years. China coal industry has developed rapidly since the 1980s. It is possible for China to become a big coal export country since it has rich resources and increasing output. The paper suggests four steps which must be taken to expand coal exports in China: improve the level of management and administration of coal mines so as to raise the economic benefit; the follow-up production capacity of the present mines must be enhanced rapidly; step up construction of new large-scale mines; and China's coal washing capacity must be improved speedily since the low capacity has seriously influenced the improvement of coal quality. The paper describes the inspection bureaus and companies that have developed to perform inspection of exports in order to guarantee the quality of export coal

  3. La infografía de 'El Mercurio' de Chile. Chilean El Mercurio's infographics Chilean El Mercurio's infographics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Colle

    Full Text Available Resumen: El diario chileno El Mercurio incluye algunas veces en sus artículos la mención «ver infografía» para invitar a los lectores a completar la lectura con la observación de un cuadro anexo. Este cuadro, sin embargo, no siempre incluye un elemento icónico: como lo demostramos aquí, este diario utiliza una definición extremadamente amplia del concepto de infografía. Además de presentar aquí las características de todos los infográficos publicados en enero y febrero de 2009, mostramos también que los casos en que aparece la mención «ver infografía» no son predecibles a partir de estos cuadros y que éstos no se distinguen, por sus características, del resto de los publicados.Abstract:The chilean newspaper El Mercurio sometimes include in their articles the words «see infographics» inviting readers to complete the reading with the observation of an annexed table. This table, however, does not always include an iconic: as we demonstrated here, this newspaper uses an extremely broad definition of the concept of infographics. Apart from presenting here the characteristics of all infographics published in January and February 2009, we also show that cases in which the words «see infographics» are not predictable from these graphics and they are not distinguished by their characteristics from the rest of them.

  4. Food irradiation: Australian quarantine regulatory attitude toward food exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service (AQIS) is a major operational unit within the Federal Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry of Australia. AQIS has a long history of dealing with irradiation issues, as many imported goods (non food) require disinfestation treatment, for which gamma irradiation is the most cost effective, suitable and efficient means. A ministerial decision was taken in April 1997 which authorised AQIS to oversee a trial of irradiation as a pre-shipment treatment for food to be exported from Australia, with several caveats. Any such treatment would be required to meet importing country requirements, it would be conditional on export certification and would be required to meet certain minimum international requirements established by the Codex Alimentarius. These include minimum and maximum dosage levels and labelling to indicate irradiation treatment has taken place. Strong interest has been generated by the announcement of this trial in a number of food industry segments, who are anxious to participate in the trial program. Further to the anticipated success of the export trial, AQIS is drafting suitable legislation which will allow exports of irradiated foodstuffs from a number of food categories, on an ongoing basis. (author)

  5. Agricultural pricing systems and transportation policy in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gersovitz, M

    1991-01-01

    When agricultural production is taxed, the system of producer prices, transport logistics, and decisions on investments in transport for exports must be considered together. Many African states raise revenue by taxing export crops. A common tool for this purpose is marketing boards. Marketing boards purchase crops at depots established near areas of cultivation, at prices that yield a profit to the board. The boards also arrange for processing and the transport of the product from depots to p...

  6. Latin American Agricultural Trade: The Role of the WTO in Sustainable Virtual Water Flows, European Association of Agricultural Economists

    OpenAIRE

    Niemeyer, Insa; Garrido Colmenero, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    International agricultural trade has been growing significantly during the last decade. Many countries rely on imports to ensure adequate food supplies to the people. A few are becoming food baskets of the world. This process raises issues about the food security in depending countries and potentially unsustainable land and water use in exporting countries. In this paper, we analyse the impacts of amplified farm trade on natural resources, especially water. Farm exports and imports of fi...

  7. Estimating enteric methane emissions from Chilean beef fattening systems using a mechanistic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arias, R.A.; Catrileo, A.; Larraín, R.; Vera, R.; Velásquez, A.; Toneatti, M.; France, J.; Dijkstra, J.; Kebreab, E.

    2015-01-01

    A mechanistic model (COWPOLL) was used to estimate enteric methane (CH4) emissions from beef production systems in Chile. The results expressed as a proportion of gross energy intake (GEI) were compared with enteric fermentation data reported in the last Chilean greenhouse gases inventory, which uti

  8. New English Cultures and Learner Autonomy for Intrinsic Motivation and Democratic Empowerment in the Chilean Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glas, Katharina; Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.

    2013-01-01

    Chilean youth are currently demanding access to better-quality education for all: greater democracy and curricula that respect the country's indigenous cultural roots form part of their petitions. This article puts forward a twofold pedagogical proposal for English Language Teaching intended to foster intrinsic motivation and democratic…

  9. Eating Disorders among a Community-Based Sample of Chilean Female Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granillo, M. Teresa; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders among a community-based sample of female Chilean adolescents. Data were collected through structured interviews with 420 female adolescents residing in Santiago, Chile. Approximately 4% of the sample reported ever being diagnosed with an eating disorder.…

  10. The Class and Culture-Based Exclusion of the Chilean Neoliberal Educational Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavieres, Eduardo A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I analyze the class- and cultural-based exclusion produced by the Chilean neoliberal educational reform, carried out during the period from 1990 to 2010. This educational reform follows the same neoliberal model applied to the economy of the country. Although some indicators improved in relation to coverage and public spending in…

  11. Uneven Distribution of Novice Teachers in the Chilean Primary School System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckes, Lorena; Bascope, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the allocation of novice primary teachers in Chilean schools, looking at their characteristics and at the attributes of the schools at which they are hired after having completed their initial teacher training. The study reveals that in Chile, more qualified novice teachers are more prone to get jobs in socio-economically…

  12. Educational Effectiveness in Chilean Secondary Education: Comparing Different "Value Added" Approaches to Evaluate Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Chereau, B.; Thomas, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports an original investigation into school performance measures and the multilevel nature of pupil achievement data in the Chilean school system using a sample of 177,461 students, nested within 7146 classrooms, 2283 secondary schools and 313 municipalities. The data-set comprised Year 10 students' 2006 SIMCE test's results in two…

  13. Home and Instruction Effects on Emergent Literacy in a Sample of Chilean Kindergarten Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Katherine; Lissi, Maria Rosa

    2009-01-01

    The study examines the home literacy experiences, emergent literacy skills, and instructional experiences of a sample of Chilean kindergarten children (n = 126) and kindergarten families (n = 188) nested in 12 kindergarten classrooms from different socioeconomic status groups and types of schools. Descriptive information is given showing the level…

  14. Morphology, anatomy and histology of Doto uva Marcus, 1955 (Opisthobranchia: Nudibranchia) from the Chilean coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, M.A.; Velde, van der G.; Roubos, E.W.

    2006-01-01

    Doto uva Marcus, 1955 is a nudibranch species recorded from the Brazilian and Chilean coast. In spite of its wide distribution, D. uva has been described only superficially, mainly as to the pattern of its coloration, external morphology, radular teeth and reproductive system. Here we substantially

  15. The Chilean miracle : patrimonialism in a modern free-market democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peppelenbos, L.P.C.

    2005-01-01

    International policy institutions claim that Chile's remarkable economic performance testifies to the merits of a neo-liberal development model. This book argues, however, that 'the Chilean miracle' did not result from the adoption ofneoliberalismitself, but from the persis

  16. Agriculture et politiques agricoles aux États-Unis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devienne Sophie

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The new Farm Bill has just been voted, after difficult negotiations between the White House and Congress. Since the beginning of the commodity-based programs in the 1930s, the agricultural policies in United States were aimed at supporting farm commodity markets and stabilizing farmers incomes. These commodity support policies have been an important contributor to the growth of agricultural productivity and commodity surplus. In the 1950s it became apparent that export demand was capable of creating farm prosperity and became important for the surplus disposal. The US agricultural policies aimed at expanding agricultural exports, and became more offensive as the export competition grew keener. For the first time in 1996, as the market estimates were optimistic, the Fair Act raised the possibility of an end to price support activities as a mean of farm income support. But in 1998 and 1999 weakened export demand led to marked reductions in the prices of the main crops. The 2002 Farm Bill restored the safety net for the farm income. Despite high prices and expansion of demand, and in contradiction with US commitments at the WTO, the new Farm Bill keep on aiming at providing a strong safety net for farm income, which allows the growth of agricultural productivity and the increase in US agriculture competitiveness, and at expanding trade.

  17. Population genetics of the Chilean frog Batrachyla Leptopus (Leptodactylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Formas

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrophoretic variation of proteins encoded by 14 loci was analyzed in eight (five continental and three insular populations of the Chilean leptodactylid frog Batrachyla leptopus. The overall proportion of polymorphic loci was estimated to be 18.7% and the average number of alleles per locus, 1.2, while observed and expected heterozygosities were 1.7 and 5.1%, respectively. The estimated coefficient of genetic identity was 0.940; the corresponding figure for genetic distance was 0.063. F-statistics analysis showed a total inbreeding coefficient (Fit of 0.855 and high levels of genetic subdivision (Fst = 0.596 as well as of inbreeding within populations (Fis = 0.640. However, there was only a moderate level of genetic differentiation (Fst = 0.181 between the insular group of populations and the continental group.A variação eletroforética de proteínas codificadas por 14 loci foi analisada em oito populações (5 continentais e 3 insulares da rã leptodactilídea chilena Batrachyla leptopus. A proporção geral de loci polimórficos foi estimada como sendo de 18,7% e o número médio de alelos por loco, 1,2, enquanto que as heterozigosidades observada e esperada foram 1,7 e 5,1%, respectivamente. O coeficiente esperado de identidade genética foi 0,940; o número correspondente para a distância genética foi 0,063. A análise estatística F mostrou um coeficiente de endogamia total (Fit de 0,855 e altos níveis de subdivisão genética (Fst = 0,596, assim como de endogamia dentro das populações (Fis = 0,640. Contudo, houve apenas um nível moderado de diferenciação genética (Fst = 0,181 entre o grupo insular de populações e o grupo continental.

  18. Amino acid biogeo- and stereochemistry in coastal Chilean sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomstein, Bente Aa.; Jørgensen, Bo B.; Schubert, Carsten J.; Niggemann, Jutta

    2006-06-01

    The spatial distribution of total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA) and amino acid enantiomers ( D- and L-forms) was investigated in sediments underlying two contrasting Chilean upwelling regions: at ˜23 °S off Antofagasta and at ˜36 °S off Concepción. The contribution of amino acids to total organic carbon (%T AAC: 7-14%) and total nitrogen (%T AAN: 23-38%) in surface sediments decreased with increasing water depth (from 126 to 1350 m) indicating that organic matter becomes increasingly decomposed in surface sediments at greater water depth. Changes in the ratio between the protein amino acid aspartate and its non-protein degradation product β-alanine confirmed this observation. Furthermore, estimates of THAA mineralization showed that sedimentary amino acid reactivity decreased with both increasing water depth as well as progressive degradation status of the organic matter that was incorporated into the sediment. Reactivity of organic matter in the sediment was also assessed using the Degradation Index (DI) developed by [Dauwe, B., Middelburg, J.J., 1998. Amino acids and hexosamines as indicators of organic matter degradation state in North Sea sediments. Limnol. Oceanogr.43, pp. 782-798.]. Off Concepción, DI was successfully applied to examine the degradation status of sedimentary organic matter at different water depths. However, unexpected results were obtained at the Antofagasta stations as DI increased with sediment depth, suggesting more degraded organic matter at the surface than deeper in the cores. The contribution of peptidoglycan amino acids to THAA was estimated from the concentrations of D-aspartate, D-glutamic acid, D-serine, and D-alanine. Peptidoglycan amino acids accounted for >18% of THAA in all investigated samples. In surface sediments peptidoglycan amino acids accounted for a progressively larger fraction of THAA at increasing water depths (up to >26%). Further, the contribution of peptidoglycan amino acids to THAA increased with

  19. Prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian P Mundt

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High rates of mental disorders have been reported for prison populations worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. The present study aimed to establish prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisoners. METHOD: A nationwide random sample of 1008 prisoners was assessed in 7 penal institutions throughout Chile. Twelve-month prevalence rates were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI and compared to the prevalence rates previously published for the general population. RESULTS: Prevalence rates were 12.2% (95% CI, 10.2-14.1 for any substance use disorder, 8.3% (6.6-10.0 for anxiety disorders, 8.1% (6.5-9.8 for affective disorders, 5.7% (4.4-7.1 for intermittent explosive disorders, 2.2% (1.4-3.2 for ADHD of the adult, and 0.8% (0.3-1.3 for non-affective psychoses. Significantly higher prevalence rates among prisoners as compared to the general population in Chile were seen for major depression (6.1% vs. 3.7% males, Z=2.58, p<0.05 and illicit drug use (3.3% vs. 0.6% males with drug abuse, Z=2.04, p<0.05; 2.6% vs. 0.1% females with drug abuse, Z=5.36, p<0.001; 3.4% vs. 1.1% males with drug dependence, Z=3.70; p<0.001. Dysthymia (6.5% vs. 15.6%, Z=-2.39, p<0.05, simple (3.3% vs. 11.5%, Z=-3.13, p<0.001 and social phobias (3.9% vs. 9.7%, Z=2.38, p<0.05 were significantly less frequent in the female prison population than in the general population. One-year prevalence rates of alcohol abuse (2.3% vs. 3.9%; Z=-2.04; p<0.05 and dependence (2.7% vs. 8.2%; Z=-5.24; p<0.001 were less prevalent in the male prison population than in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Service provision for prison populations in Chile should acknowledge high rates of depression and illicit drug use. Overall prevalence rates are lower than reported in other LMICs. Previous research in prison populations in LMICs might have overestimated prevalence rates of mental disorders.

  20. Aggregate and soil organic carbon dynamics in South Chilean Andisols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huygens, D.; Boeckx, P.; Van Cleemput, O.; Oyarzún, C.; Godoy, R.

    2005-06-01

    Extreme sensitivity of soil organic carbon (SOC) to climate and land use change warrants further research in different terrestrial ecosystems. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between aggregate and SOC dynamics in a chronosequence of three different land uses of a south Chilean Andisol: a second growth Nothofagus obliqua forest (SGFOR), a grassland (GRASS) and a Pinus radiata plantation (PINUS). Total carbon content of the 0-10cm soil layer was higher for GRASS (6.7 kg C m-2) than for PINUS (4.3 kg C m-2, while TC content of SGFOR (5.8 kg C m-2) was not significantly different from either one. High extractable oxalate and pyrophosphate Al concentrations (varying from 20.3-24.4 g kg-1, and 3.9-11.1 g kg-1, respectively) were found in all sites. In this study, SOC and aggregate dynamics were studied using size and density fractionation experiments of the SOC, δ13C and total carbon analysis of the different SOC fractions, and C mineralization experiments. The results showed that electrostatic sorption between and among amorphous Al components and clay minerals is mainly responsible for the formation of metal-humus-clay complexes and the stabilization of soil aggregates. The process of ligand exchange between SOC and Al would be of minor importance resulting in the absence of aggregate hierarchy in this soil type. Whole soil C mineralization rate constants were highest for SGFOR and PINUS, followed by GRASS (respectively 0.495, 0.266 and 0.196 g CO2-Cm-2d-1 for the top soil layer). In contrast, incubation experiments of isolated macro organic matter fractions gave opposite results, showing that the recalcitrance of the SOC decreased in another order: PINUS>SGFOR>GRASS. We deduced that electrostatic sorption processes and physical protection of SOC in soil aggregates were the main processes determining SOC stabilization. As a result, high aggregate carbon concentrations, varying from 148 till 48 g kg-1, were encountered for all land use sites. Al

  1. Aggregate and soil organic carbon dynamics in South Chilean Andisols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Huygens

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme sensitivity of soil organic carbon (SOC to climate and land use change warrants further research in different terrestrial ecosystems. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between aggregate and SOC dynamics in a chronosequence of three different land uses of a south Chilean Andisol: a second growth Nothofagus obliqua forest (SGFOR, a grassland (GRASS and a Pinus radiata plantation (PINUS. Total carbon content of the 0-10cm soil layer was higher for GRASS (6.7 kg C m-2 than for PINUS (4.3 kg C m-2, while TC content of SGFOR (5.8 kg C m-2 was not significantly different from either one. High extractable oxalate and pyrophosphate Al concentrations (varying from 20.3-24.4 g kg-1, and 3.9-11.1 g kg-1, respectively were found in all sites. In this study, SOC and aggregate dynamics were studied using size and density fractionation experiments of the SOC, δ13C and total carbon analysis of the different SOC fractions, and C mineralization experiments. The results showed that electrostatic sorption between and among amorphous Al components and clay minerals is mainly responsible for the formation of metal-humus-clay complexes and the stabilization of soil aggregates. The process of ligand exchange between SOC and Al would be of minor importance resulting in the absence of aggregate hierarchy in this soil type. Whole soil C mineralization rate constants were highest for SGFOR and PINUS, followed by GRASS (respectively 0.495, 0.266 and 0.196 g CO2-Cm-2d-1 for the top soil layer. In contrast, incubation experiments of isolated macro organic matter fractions gave opposite results, showing that the recalcitrance of the SOC decreased in another order: PINUS>SGFOR>GRASS. We deduced that electrostatic sorption processes and physical protection of SOC in soil aggregates were the main processes determining SOC stabilization. As a result, high aggregate carbon concentrations, varying from 148 till 48 g kg-1, were encountered for all land use

  2. Agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applications of nuclear technology in agriculture sector cover the use of the technology at every aspects of agricultural activity, starting from the seed to harvesting as well as the management of plantations itself. In this sector, a total of 55 entities comprising 17 public agencies and 38 private companies were selected for the study. Almost all, 91 % of them are located in Peninsular Malaysia; the rest operates in Sabah and Sarawak. The findings of the study in the public agencies and private companies are presented in the next sections. (author)

  3. Agricultural methanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having briefly outlined the interest of the development of methanization of agricultural by-products in the context of struggle against climate change, and noticed that France is only now developing this sector as some other countries already did, this publication describes the methanization process also called anaerobic digestion, which produces a digestate and biogas. Advantages for the agriculture sector are outlined, as well as drawbacks and recommendations (required specific technical abilities, an attention to the use of energetic crops, an improved economic balance which still depends on public subsidies, competition in the field of waste processing). Actions undertaken by the ADEME are briefly evoked

  4. Export of radiopharmaceuticals and establishment of export base of cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sam young Unit ech has seized an opportunity to advance into the radiopharmaceuticals market through successful transfer of radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing technology and medical cyclotron, an original technology in nuclear medicine that is the core of less developed areas in nuclear-related fields. The company has continued to push for research development and establishment of market base through industry-academia-research center cooperation with an aim to complement relatively less developed domestic technology and market than in advanced countries, and is making efforts to establish export base in the overseas market based on stabilized supply in the domestic market. As for radiopharmaceuticals, the company is exporting Tc-99m generator to Vietnam, Thailand and the Philippines and preparing itself to export manufacture facilities for Tc-99m generator to Syria and Kazakhstan. In addition, it plans to export 13Mev Cyclotron that has been commercialized after being developed in the domestic market to the U. S. The company plans to grow up to play a pivotal role in the domestic RT area by conducting proactive business activities with an aim to revitalize the domestic market and further domestic original technologies and products in the global market

  5. Carbon export from the raccoon river, iowa: patterns, processes, and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher S; Schilling, Keith E

    2013-01-01

    Farmed landscapes are engineered for productivity, and research suggests they contribute a disproportionate share of inorganic C to the Mississippi River and Gulf of Mexico. Here we use alkalinity and total organic C (TOC) measurements collected from the Raccoon River of Iowa to (i) evaluate inorganic and organic C concentrations and export patterns, (ii) compare current trends to historical conditions, and (iii) link C transport processes to current land use management. Export of inorganic C averaged 106,000 Mg per year and contributes 90% of the C flux from the basin. Alkalinity concentrations are unchanged from 1931 to 1944 levels (∼53 mg L C), but inorganic C loads have doubled due to increasing discharge. Carbonate-rich glacial deposits and agricultural lime provide a large source of inorganic C, and results confirm that alkalinity export in the Raccoon Basin is transport limited. Although fertilization and tillage practices have possibly helped increase C fluxes over the last 70+ yr, the overriding factor on inorganic C export is discharge. Discharge control over C export provides an opportunity for agriculture in terms of quantifying C sequestration for potential C trading. Controlling water flux through soils can limit inorganic C export similar to practices such as reduced tillage and managed rotations. PMID:23673750

  6. Contribution of allochthonous organic carbon across the Serrano River Basin and the adjacent fjord system in Southern Chilean Patagonia: Insights from the combined use of stable isotope and fatty acid biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafon, Alejandra; Silva, Nelson; Vargas, Cristian A.

    2014-12-01

    Chilean Patagonia is characterized by an irregular geography involving many islands, peninsulas, channels, sounds and fjords, that prevent direct interaction between oceanic water masses and freshwater river discharges at the head of the continental fjords. In this paper, we evaluate the potential sources and composition of organic matter along the Serrano River basin and the adjacent channels and fjords in Southern Chilean Patagonia (51-52°S), as well as their importance for marine planktonic organisms. In spring of 2009, evidence of C:N ratio, δ13C, δ15N and fatty acids composition in particulate organic carbon (POC), surface sediment, soil, plankton, and vegetal tissue, as well some physical and chemical characteristics (i.e. salinity, dissolved oxygen, NO3-, NH4+, PO4-3, Si(OH)4), were measured in samples collected during the CIMAR 14 Fiordos oceanographic cruise. Significant differences in δ13C-POC were found between the terrestrial and marine environments but not within fjord stations. Along the fjord region, the high C:N ratio and depleted δ13C values in POC samples suggest that particulate organic matter (POM) in the upper level of the water column (0-10 m depth) is supported by different sources. Terrestrial organic carbon exported by rivers may constitute a significant subsidy, up to 70% based on two end-member mixing model, to the fjord ecosystem. Furthermore, terrestrial carbon might account for a significant percentage of the zooplankton body carbon, estimated both by using isotopic (∼24-61%) and fatty acid analysis (∼14-61%). Isotopic analyses in marine sediment samples suggest that POC seems to be decoupled from terrestrial-influenced surface sources at the fjord stations, and the contribution of surrounding vegetation seemingly unimportant for carbon export to the benthos. Local hydrographic and geomorphological characteristics might determine the presence of oceanographic frontal zones, which in turn might explain differences in carbon

  7. Empirical Analysis of the Structure of Sino-US Agricultural Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingmei Zheng; Jianhong Qi

    2007-01-01

    This paper empirically analyzes the structure of agricultural trade between China and the USA from 1996 to 2005, using different trade indexes such as the Grubel-Lloyd Index, the Revealed Comparative Advantage Index, the Finger-Kreinin Similitude Index and the Export Diversification Index, with a focus on the issues impeding Sino-US agricultural trade. We found that over the period of 1996 to 2005, inter-industry trade outweighed intra-industry trade in Sino-US agricultural trade, and that bilateral trade was more complementary than competitive. At the same time, China's agricultural exports were more diversified than USA exports, but China's degree of diversification steadily declined during the sample period.The findings indicate that there exists great potential for further development of agricultural trade between China and the USA, and that positive and effective trade policies will result in maximization of potential agricultural trade development and will bring forth mutual benefits to both countries.

  8. Home Textile Exports Show Recovery Signs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Lan; Guoyun

    2010-01-01

    @@ In this article we have analysed the export performance of Chinese main home textile products, including bedding products, carpet, curtain and towel based on official export data during the first eight months of 2010.

  9. 2006 RE Export Enterprises List Announced

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ According to "Requirement for RE Export Enterprises and Application Procedure in 2006", the Ministry of Commerce P.R.C announced "2006 Rare Earth Export Enterprises List "on December 30th of 2005. The enterprises are listed below.

  10. Creative destruction and export patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Kvedaras, Virmantas; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2014-01-01

    behavior. The model highlights a process of creative destruction, which allows firms to produce in a finite span of periods determined by the intensity of product and process innovations. The model predicts a wide range of export behavior of the individual firm during its life cycle depending...

  11. On American Cultural Exportation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德俊

    2015-01-01

    American government has been attaching great importance to the role that cultural values plays in international relationships and Culture Exportation has gradually become one of the important parts of American diplomatic strategy. This strategy,which is propelled by a variety of impetuses and conducted by different approaches,is mainly aimed to serve the overall national interests of the United States.

  12. On American Cultural Exportation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德俊

    2015-01-01

    American government has been attaching great importance to the role that cultural values plays in international relationships and Culture Exportation has gradually become one of the important parts of American diplomatic strategy.This strategy,which is propelled by a variety of impetuses and conducted by different approaches,is mainly aimed to serve the overall national interests of the United States.

  13. A Strong Backbone For Export

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China Export & Credit Insurance Corp., founded in 2001, is the country’s only policy-oriented credit insurance company. In line with the state’s diplomatic, foreign trade and industrial policies, it supports the country’s commodity, technology and servic

  14. Euro Area Export Performance and Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Jarkko Turunen; Richard T. Harmsen; Tamim Bayoumi

    2011-01-01

    Concerns about export growth within the euro area peripheral countries due to a lack of competitiveness within the euro area are a key policy issue. Our analysis suggests that: (i) Long-term price elasticities for intra-euro area exports are at least double those for extra-euro area exports, so traditional real effective exchange rate indexes may overstate the effectiveness of euro depreciation in restoring exports growth in the euro area periphery and; (ii) There are surprisingly wide diverg...

  15. Branch being forced to work for export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of efficiency of export of the Tyumen' oil and oil products in February-April 1996 is given. Effect of export taxes reduction and changes of the situation at the internal and external oil market on the export of oil and oil products is considered. Possible prospects on the export development as well as consequences of the newly-adopted tax code for the oil industry are discussed

  16. Child labour, education and export performance

    OpenAIRE

    Kucera, David; Sarna, Ritash

    2004-01-01

    Uses a gravity trade model to estimate the effects of child labour and education on exports from 1993 to 1999, evaluating total exports, total manufacturing exports and manufacturing exports broken down by labour and skill intensity of production using four different classifications of industries. Includes data for up to 162 countries and employs several indicators of child labour (the economic activity rate of ten to fourteen year olds and secondary education non-enrollment rates) and educat...

  17. Export channel pricing management for integrated solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Roine, Henna; Sainio, Liisa-Maija; Saarenketo, Sami

    2012-01-01

    This article studies systems integrators' export channel pricing management for integrated solutions. We find support from our empirical case study for the notion that a systems integrator's export channel pricing strategy is multidimensional and dependent on international pricing environment and partner characteristics and that export partnerships have unique implications on a systems integrator's pricing process. The results show that giving up pricing control in export channel context may ...

  18. EXPORT MARKETING IN INDIA: PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    S. G. Sagar

    2015-01-01

    In export marketing, goods are sent abroad as per the formalities and procedures framed by the home countries as well as by the importing countries. Export marketing is certainly more complicated as compared to domestic marketing particularly due to severe international competition, lengthy procedures and formalities and the quality and cost factors involved. Along with this, export marketing offers ample opportunities for earning high profits. In addition, export marketing has wider economic...

  19. Characterising India’s Exports to the U.S.: The Post Liberalisation Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOUMENDRA NATH BANERJEE

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available India has experienced significant export growth over the past two decades and presently stands as the 10th biggest trading partner of the U.S. Using the U.S. trade data compiled by Robert Feenstra, the U.S. CPI data, and the NBER Manufacturing Productivity database, this empirical paper attempts to understand the anatomy of India’s exports to the U.S. between 1991 and 2006. In particular, we analyse how the allocation of industries in the export sector, skill intensity of products, product diversification, and contributions of new products have changed as India’s exports to the U.S. have grown. Our findings suggest that India has moved from traditional agricultural and raw material products toward exports of sophisticated manufaturing products that require greater skill to produce. Furthermore, our study finds that India has diversified in the range of products it is exporting to the U.S., with new products gaining an increased share in India’s export basket.

  20. Feasibility of irradiating Washington fruits and vegetables for Asian export markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eakin, D.E.; Hazelton, R.F.; Young, J.K.; Prenguber, B.A.; O' Rourke, A.D.; Heim, M.N.

    1987-05-01

    US agricultural export marketing opportunities are limited by the existence of trade barriers in many overseas countries. For example, Japan and South Korea do not permit the importation of apples due to their stated concern over codling moth infestation. One of the purposes of this study was to evaluate the potential of exporting irradiated fruits and vegetables from Washington State to overcome existing trade barriers and prevent the establishment of future barriers. The Asian countries specifically evaluated in this study are Japan, Hong Kong and Singapore. Another purpose of this project was to determine the feasibility of locating an irradiation facility in Washington State. Advantages that irradiated agricultural products would bring in terms of price and quality in export markets were also evaluated.

  1. Growth in Malaysia’s Export Food Market: A Shift-Share Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmy Farha Alias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture sector plays an important role in the Malaysian economy. Malaysia experiences deficit in food balance of trade but some of the agricultural products such as palm oil, fisheries etc. have competitive advantage. This paper aims to examine Malaysia’s export food market growth between 1996 and 2009 using shift-share analysis. Findings show that the major export commodities from Malaysia are animal or vegetable fats and oils and their cleavage products; prepared edible fats; animal or vegetable waxes (HS 15 during the said period. The increasing growth rate of Malaysia’s exports is found in the newly industrialized countries such as China, Iran, India and Ukraine due to their increasing demand for edible oil. However, influences of the trading agreements between these countries also cannot be denied.

  2. OLIVE OIL EXPORT FROM THE PORT OF IZMIR TO EUROPE (1869- 1912

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan ÖZGÜN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Turkey has many different kinds of geographic and climatic characteristics. As a result of this rich ecological structure, there are various agriculture crops. Olive, in harmony with this geographical condition, is a vital importance for İzmir and its environment. At the same time, olive oil is one of the most important export goods that represent the port of İzmir which has agricultural export product. In this respect, İzmir and its hinterland has very suitable ecology for olive production. This study has presented annual values of İzmir olive oil exports for the period 1869- 1912. The findings resulted from the survey (are based on data provided by statistics of the Commercial Reports from Consular Offices in Turkey from 1869 to 1912.

  3. Export growth slowdown from January to April

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    January to April this year, the economic operation of China’s textile industry overall in slowdown trend, the growth rate of output of major products fell significantly, exports and profits were greatly affected, the textile industry is facing great operating pressure. The export side, Japan, EU, U.S. textile and garment export growth has slowed down, the market share

  4. 27 CFR 7.60 - Exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exports. 7.60 Section 7.60... TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES General Provisions § 7.60 Exports. This part shall not apply to malt beverages exported in bond....

  5. 22 CFR 120.17 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export. 120.17 Section 120.17 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.17 Export. (a) Export means: (1) Sending or taking a defense article out of the United States in any manner, except...

  6. 27 CFR 16.31 - Exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exports. 16.31 Section 16... TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE HEALTH WARNING STATEMENT General Provisions § 16.31 Exports. The..., bottled, or labeled for export from the United States, or for delivery to a vessel or aircraft,...

  7. 78 FR 35195 - Acquisition Regulations: Export Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... Parts 925, 952, and 970 RIN 1991-AB99 Acquisition Regulations: Export Control AGENCY: Department of... amend the Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) to add export control requirements... ``DEAR: Export Control and RIN 1991-AB99,'' by any of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking...

  8. 19 CFR 351.520 - Export insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export insurance. 351.520 Section 351.520 Customs... Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.520 Export insurance. (a) Benefit—(1) In general. In the case of export insurance, a benefit exists if the premium rates charged are inadequate...

  9. Impact of export destinations on firm performance

    OpenAIRE

    Cebeci, Tolga

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluates the role of export destinations on productivity, employment, and wages of Turkish firms by comparing the performance of firms that export to low-income destinations and high-income destinations with firms that do not export. A combination of propensity score matching and difference-in-differences methods are employed on a rich set of firm observables, including sector,...

  10. Vietnam : Export Performance in 1999 and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2000-01-01

    Changes in trade policies have been an essential component of the "doi moi" policy implemented by the Government of Vietnam since 1986. Over the years, most export quotas have been lifted and export taxes have been reduced to generally low levels. In addition, export activities by the private sector (both domestic and foreign) have been increasingly encouraged, thus breaking the trade mono...

  11. Export market potential for selected horticultural crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the feasibility of utilising an irradiation plant to disinfest fresh fruit and vegetables destined for export markets. It examines the export market potential of selected crops with the prime view of estimating likely trends in export markets in the future. These trends will have a significant bearing on throughput levels, and hence on the economic viability of an ionising energy plant

  12. 77 FR 20353 - United States Warehouse Act; Export Food Aid Commodities Licensing Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... commodities to be stored. On March 15, 2011 (76 FR 13972-13973), FSA published a notice in the Federal...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency United States Warehouse Act; Export Food Aid Commodities... agreement offered by the Farm Service Agency (FSA) under the United States Warehouse Act...

  13. 76 FR 13972 - United States Warehouse Act; Export Food Aid Commodities Licensing Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Farm Service Agency United States Warehouse Act; Export Food Aid Commodities Licensing Agreement AGENCY... warehouse licenses may be issued under the United States ] Warehouse Act (USWA). Through this notice, FSA is... licenses for agricultural products include grain, cotton, nuts, cottonseed, and dry beans....

  14. More to the Picture than Meets the Eye: On the Ultimate Causes behind the Chilean Economic Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Andersson

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary development discussion on the causes behind the sustained economic growth in Chile since 1985, the predominant canon seldom attach importance to evolving processes taken place prior to the dramatic market oriented shift after 1973. From a long-term development perspective, however, such a view is unsatisfactory and potentially misleading because it tends to disregard the significance of institutional change and the agricultural transformation. Within a framework of long-term institutional change, a reinterpretation of the Chilean economic progress centred on the transformation of the Chilean agriculture is put forward. It is argued that ever since the 1930s a process of social change evolved that helped break down the growth inhibiting traditional institutional order. Specifically, the pressure for modernization, reaching its zenith at the time of the reforms of the latter half of the 1960s, broke elitist economic and political relations and led to agricultural transformation that portended and conditioned the effect of the shift to the market oriented regime of the 1970s and 1980s. Resumen: Más allá de las apariencias: las causas últimas de la transformación económica de ChileEn la discusión actual sobre las causas del sostenido crecimiento económico de Chile desde 1985, el canon predominante rara vez le otorga impor tancia a los procesos anteriores al dramático cambio de orientación hacia la economía de mercado de 1973. Sin embargo, desde una perspectiva de desarrollo a largo plazo, esta mirada es insatisfactoria y potencialmente desorientadora, dada su tendencia a ignorar la importancia del cambio institucional y la transformación de la agricultura que impulsó. Aquí se propone una reinterpretación del progreso de la economía chilena desde la perspectiva del cambio institucional a largo plazo, centrada en la transformación de la agricultura chilena. Se argumenta que, desde la década de los 30, se desarroll

  15. Brazilian Agriculture and Policy Changes under GATT

    OpenAIRE

    Michael D. Helmar

    1994-01-01

    Agriculture has been central to Brazil's development from the 1500's to the mid-1900's. During this period, Brazil's economy was geared toward exporting a small number of primary products and its society was predominantly rural (Baer 1989). Since the Great Depression, and more rapidly since World War II, Brazil's population has become urbanized and the economy has been dominated by an expanding industrial sector. Many policies and investments needed to fuel industrial growth have been at the ...

  16. How Organic Agriculture Contributes to Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kilcher, Lukas

    2007-01-01

    Organic agriculture can contribute to meaningful socio-economic and ecologically sustainable development, especially in poorer countries. This is due on the one hand to the application of organic principles, which means efficient management of local resources (e.g. local seed varieties, manure, etc.) and therefore costeffectiveness. On the other hand, the market for organic products – at local and international level – has tremendous growth prospects and offers creative producers and exporter...

  17. Agricultural radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of radioactive pollution of ecosystems is discussed. The total deposition of 90Sr and 137Cs after the nuclear experiments in 1945-1963 and the contamination rate of main foodstuffs are assessed. Data about radionuclide dynamics in soil, raw materials, forage, milk, milk products and wheat after the Chernobyl accident are presented for various regions of Bulgaria and are compared with the total fallout contamination. The trends in milk and forage contamination for some regions are discussed. Quantitative radiochemical methods for determination of 90Sr and 137Cs are discussed. Migration of 135Cs, 90Sr and 131J is followed in soil, forage, animal organism and human food chains respectively and ways of decontamination are discussed. Radiation effects on biogeocenoses are described. The problem of agriculture management under the conditions of durable soil contamination after nuclear accidents is considered. Recommendations for monitoring and protection of agricultural personnel are presented. 53 refs., 31 tabs., 93 figs

  18. Fishing the future. A snapshot of the Chilean TURFs through the lens of fishers and key stakeholders‟ perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Ueyonahara, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Overfishing is not an exclusive topic of big fishing industry. Overfishing by small-scale fishers is also happening. The Territorial Use of Rights – TURFs was implemented in Chile to protect the Chilean abalone from overfishing. Through the implementation of the TURFs Chilean abalone are no longer threatened by overfishing. The challenge to protect the resource thus seems to be solved. However, while some problems are solved others persist or new ones arise. The thesis explores the discourses...

  19. Comparing Sociodemographic Factors Associated with Disability between Immigrants and the Chilean-Born: Are There Different Stories to Tell?

    OpenAIRE

    Baltica Cabieses; Pickett, Kate E.; Helena Tunstall

    2012-01-01

    This study explored a range of sociodemographic factors associated with disability among international immigrants in Chile, and compared them to the Chilean-born. Secondary data analysis of the Chilean population-based survey CASEN-2006 was conducted (268,873 participants). Main health outcomes: any disability and six different types of disability: visual, hearing, learning, physical, psychiatric and speaking (binary outcomes). Sociodemographic variables: Demographic factors (age, sex, marita...

  20. Alternative Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Will the popularization of bioenergy, a new source for powering China, trigger another agricultural revolution? Skyrocketing energy prices, especially the oil shock in the first half of 2005, are pushing China to seek more substitutes for gasoline. A number of cities are turning to ethanol-blended gas made from com. Starting this month, the sale of regular gasoline will be brought to an end in nine of China's

  1. Resource-Based and Institutional Perspectives on Export Channel Selection and Export Performance

    OpenAIRE

    He, X; Brouthers, K. D.; Filatotchev, I.

    2012-01-01

    Exporting is a critically important strategy for firms to grow, yet research in this area has tended to ignore how firms can leverage resource-based capabilities to improve export performance. Building on the resource-based view and institutional theory, the authors develop a novel perspective to explain how a firm can improve export performance by aligning its export channel with its level of market orientation capabilities, contingent on the institutional distance between home and export ma...

  2. Agricultural problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although there were not reasons to deplore against major activity release from any of the 110 industrial reactors authorized to operate in US, the nuclear incident that occurred at the Three Mile Island Plant in 1979 urged the public conscience toward the necessity of readiness to cope with events of this type. The personnel of the Emergency Planning Office functioning in the frame of US Department of Agriculture has already participated in around 600 intervention drillings on a federal, local or state scale to plan, test or asses radiological emergency plans or to intervene locally. These exercises allowed acquiring a significant experience in elaborating emergency plans, planning the drillings, working out scenarios and evaluation of the potential impact of accidents from the agricultural point of view. We have also taken part in different international drillings among which the most recent are INEX 1 and RADEX 94. We have found on these occasions that the agricultural problems are essential preoccupations in most of the cases no matter if the context is international, national, local or of state level. The paper poses problems specifically related to milk, fruits and vegetables, soils, meat and meat products. Finally the paper discusses issues like drilling planning, alarm and notification, sampling strategy, access authorizations for farmers, removing of contamination wastes. A number of social, political and economical relating problems are also mentioned

  3. Agriculture: access to technology limited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    From country to country and even regionally, the roles of women in agriculture vary, but most of their labor is in unpaid subsistence production and their contributions tend to be underestimated, according to the results of the [UN] Secretary-General's report. Depending on circumstances, they have complementary roles with men, sharing or dividing tasks in the production of crops, care of animals, and forestry management. In sub-Saharan Africa, for example, women contribute 60-80% of labor in food production for both household consumption and sale, while in Malaysia the women account for only 35% of the agricultural labor force, and in Ireland the participation rate is only 10.4%. Although women make this important amount of labor contributions to agricultural production, "development policies tend to favor export crops to earn foreign exchange and the agricultural research tends to address the improvement of production and technologies for commercial production". This results in limited access for women to technical knowledge and innovations, including irrigation, machinery, farming techniques and extension services. This is strengthened by the fact that most of the extension services target farmers who own land and can obtain credit to invest in input and technology. PMID:12293737

  4. "One of the Most Uniform Races of the Entire World": Creole Eugenics and the Myth of Chilean Racial Homogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    This article illuminates why Nicolás Palacios's 1904 monograph, Raza chilena: Libro escrito por un Chileno i para los Chilenos [Chilean Race: A Book Written by a Chilean for Chileans], is central to the creation of a myth of Chilean racial homogeneity at the turn of the twentieth century. Placing Palacios in the context of Latin American eugenic discourse, it demonstrates how he selected a specific racial origin story in order to accommodate his belief in racial hierarchy while also depicting race mixing in a positive light. Specifically, the article highlights how the myth of Chilean racial homogeneity elided the difference between the term "mestizo," which was applied to people of mixed racial heritage, and "white." I contend that Palacios sought to differentiate Chileans from other Latin Americans by emphasizing their racial distinctiveness. The article therefore highlights that Latin American eugenics was concerned with the creation of national narratives that historicized particular racial mixtures in order to reify and affirm national differences. As such, it connects to literature regarding the history of eugenics, race, nation, and the creation of whiteness. PMID:25733067

  5. Private Standards, Handling and Hygiene in Fruit Export Supply Chains: A Preliminary Evaluation of the Economic Impact of Parallel Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeulen, Hester; Jordaan, Daniel du Plessis Scheepers; Korsten, Luuk; Kirsten, Johann F.

    2006-01-01

    With the emergence of private food safety and quality standards in developed countries fruit exporting countries in the developing world face increasing constraints to access markets in the rich industrialised countries in the North. Producers in the South have no alternative as to make the necessary investments on farms and in pack houses to comply with the requirements of these food quality and safety standards. The export of fresh fruit is an important component of South African agricultur...

  6. Going Chinese: Is Exchange Rate Undervaluation a Relevant Policy for Boosting Africa’s Manufactured Export Sector?

    OpenAIRE

    Soininen, Ilmari

    2012-01-01

    The economies of East Asia, notably China, South Korea and Vietnam, have undergone significant industrial transformations over the last several decades. The rapid transition from largely low-productivity, agriculture-based to high-productivity, modern economies was built on a foundation of manufactured exports to the developed world. In contrast, the economies of Sub-Saharan Africa are still largely resource-based, with little manufacturing export activity. This thesis examines the po...

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF ANIMAL SECONDARY RAW MATERIAL MARKET AS A FACTOR OF DIVERSIFICATION OF KAZAKHSTAN’S EXPORT POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Konurbaeva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Products of the recycling of livestock should become the most important part of the Kazakhstani export potential. Using recycled materials in the finished production cycle would significantly diversify the export component of national agro-industrial sector of the Republic.The article proposes an approach to the placement of industries, processing secondary raw materials in order to obtain market product with high added value, which will result in implementing the existing potential of the agricultural sector of the state.

  8. The Quality Control System of Fresh Agricultural Product in International Cold Chain Logistics Based on HACCP:Take the Export of Vegetable in Yunnan Province to Thailand as Example%基于 HACCP 的生鲜农产品国际冷链物流质量控制体系研究--以云南省蔬菜出口泰国为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨扬; 袁媛; 李杰梅

    2016-01-01

    以云南省生鲜蔬菜出口泰国为例,分析生鲜农产品国际冷链物流的主要环节,运用 HACCP 法研究潜在的危险因素,通过引入模糊故障树法改进了 HACCP 法对于关键环节和显著危害的选取判断,建立生鲜农产品国际冷链物流质量控制体系。结果表明:预冷、入库检查、冷藏储存、冷链运输、通关是生鲜农产品国际冷链物流的关键控制点。针对关键控制点提出了相应的预防和控制措施,通过对风险因素持续的监测、评估、预警,可实现对生鲜农产品国际冷链物流质量风险危害的有效控制。%The paper takes the export of vegetable in Yunnan to Thailand as an example and analyzes the main nodes in the international cold chain logistics of fresh agricultural products.The HACCP system is applied to the study of potential risks,and the critical control points and risk priorities are i-dentified by means of fuzzy fault tree analysis.A quality control system is built up for the internation-al cold chain logistics of fresh agriculture products.It is found that critical control points include pre-cooling,cold storage,cold chain transportation,inspection,and quarantine.The fresh agricultural in-ternational cold chain logistics quality safety risks can be controlled effectively with the appropriate prevention,control and the monitoring,evaluation,and pre-warning of risk factors.

  9. Perceived impediments to export involvement among small and medium sized firms : non-exporters perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercy Mpinganjira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of this paper is to examine perceived impediments to export involvement among non-exporting small and medium sized firms (SME's in Malawi. The study also examines levels of interest in exporting among the firms. Problem investigated: Many countries have programs aimed at promoting export involvement among SME's. Despite this, most SME's continue to ignore exporting as a viable business strategy. Information on perceived impediments to export involvement especially from the non-exporters' perspective is often lacking hence the need for this study. Methodology: Data was collected from 80 owner managers of non-exporting SME's. A structured questionnaire was the main instrument used to collect data. Personal interviews were also held with managers for the purposes of probing their answers to the questions in the questionnaire. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 18 was used to analyse the quantitative data obtained from use of the structured questionnaire. Qualitative data obtained through personal interviews was analysed used thematic analysis. Findings: The findings of the study showed significant levels of interest in exporting among the firms. The majority of the owner managers indicated willingness to exploit export opportunities that may be readily available to them. The findings however showed that just over half of the respondents had discussed or investigated the possibility of exporting before. On impediments to exporting, the findings showed that managers perceive many factors as important impediments to their firm's involvement in exporting. The top two most important impediments were internal to the firm and related to human resource issues. They included insufficient knowledge about export opportunities and lack of personnel knowledgeable in exporting. Originality and value of the research: A review of literature shows that most export promotion studies tend to focus more on issues relating to

  10. Latin America's "New Open Regionalism" and WTO Negotiations: the case of agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Valdes, Alberto; Foster, William E.

    2006-01-01

    This article analyses past trade trends and agricultural protectionism in Latin American agriculture, by examining observed changes in Latin American agriculture and trade policies over the last 20 years that have led to what the authors call the "New Open Regionalism". It also discussed the conflicting interests and various trading positions taken up by Latin American countries in multilateral trade talks, as a result of the strong heterogeneity between net agricultural exporters and importe...

  11. Quality, Export and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Pedersen, Kurt

    1998-01-01

    Growth rates in Far Eastern economies have, until recently, been one of the most debated international features. At the same time, quality focus has spread from the same region, notably Japan. It seems only natural to include the concept of quality in an attempt to understand economic growth in an...... international context. The paper, therefore, addresses the complicated interactions between economic growth, export performance and quality. The contribution of the paper, compared to other growth accounting research, is the inclusion of quality data, quality being a significant mirror of technological...... development. The countries covered by the research represent a wide variation in terms of economic development, from poor LDC's to the most developed industrial nations. The empirical results reveal a probable strong relationship between quality/price and export growth as well as economic growth. This new...

  12. Evaluation of Turkey Mushroom Export

    OpenAIRE

    Emine Emel Ak; Yüksel Tüzel; Erkan Eren; Funda Atilla

    2016-01-01

    Turkey is gene center of many plant species and is a country that different endemic plant species are found. A vast geography and the presence of different climatic conditions cause either diversity of plant genetic resources or macro fungi species. Many species of mushrooms grow spontaneously in nature. According to the demand from different country preferred different mushroom species, some mushroom species collected from nature are exported each year. In this study, it was aimed to determi...

  13. Export Intermediation and the Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman

    2005-01-01

    It is claimed that the remarkable growth in numbers of connected firms to the Internet marks a radical shift in current organisation of international business channels. For export intermediaries these new possibilities pose a threat to their current market position. However, virtual market presence...... may not necessarily outperform intermediaries, as physical distribution channels still hold several positional advantages compared to virtually organised ones and the Internet provides organisational and managerial challenges as well. Although reduced market friction may beget some activities...

  14. Chinese Rebalancing and Australian Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard Kelly

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese authorities plan to gradually rebalance the composition of Chinese economic growth from investment towards household consumption. This article uses the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to give a general sense of how this rebalancing might affect Australian exports and economic activity. Dollar for dollar, Chinese investment appears to absorb more than twice as much Australian value-added output as Chinese household consumption. This largely reflects the significant role of resou...

  15. Getting Ready: Preparation for Exporting

    OpenAIRE

    Iacovone, Leonardo; Javorcik, Beata

    2012-01-01

    This study examines developments at the plant-product level preceding an expansion into foreign markets. It relies on very detailed Mexican data for 1994-2004, a period of liberalization in US trade policy vis a vis Mexico, mandated by the North American Free Trade Agreement. Our approach is novel in that we focus on quality, proxied by domestic price premium, of current and future export products. Our findings are consistent with quality upgrading taking place in preparation for entry into e...

  16. Core labour standards and exports

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Marc Siroën

    2012-01-01

    (english) Core labour standards defined by the ILO in 1998 are universal, but applied very differently across countries. Compliance is much higher in high income countries. However, the causality between improved labour standards and economic growth remains a controversial issue. Export-led growth strategies might encourage developing countries to curb the process of standards improvement. In this way, they can raise the volume of their unskilled labour endowments (child and/or forced labour)...

  17. Fuel-consumption reflects increasing export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel consumption in Slovakia has been substantially rising during the first three months of this year. During January and February about 6 percent more petrol and 15 percent more diesel fuel were sold compared to last year. Retail sales were growing even faster, informed president of Slovak Association of Petroleum Industry and Trade (SAPPO), Karoly Robak. He considers this an evidence of a substantial economic growth. The export is executed in form of freight transport (lorries), as this, together with agriculture, is the largest diesel fuel consumer. K. Robak, who at the same time is the Deputy General Manager For Retail at Slovnaft, a.s., Bratislava, expects the sales of fuel to grow by about 8 percent this year. Low prices due to a weaker US dollar should only support these tendencies. Last year the sales grew by 8,3 percent and in retail business the increase exceeded 10 percent. At the moment there are about 700 petrol stations in Slovakia (SAPPO) and over 330 out of them are owned by Slovnaft. The sale of fuel is now moving more to the retail business - to petrol stations as the price difference between retail and wholesale is decreasing. Last year for instance the wholesale recorded an increase in sales of diesel by 6,5 percent whereas retail sales grew by 17 percent. With petrol the situation was similar - 6,4 increase in retail sales and 2,5 percent in wholesale. (Author)

  18. DATA PROTECTION AS BOUNDARY TO THE RIGHT TO ACCESS INFORMATION UNDER CHILEAN LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Camacho Cépeda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available On April 20, 2009, the Transparency Act entered into force in Chile, ensuring citizens the access to public information. Although the balance of this system is positive, it is important to analyse the heart of conflicts which arise when needing to reconcile legal interests and rights guarded by Chilean law, such as the protection of privacy and personal data. The paper analyses the status of the protection of personal data in the Chilean legal system. Firstly, it argues that the right to protection of personal data transcends the classical division between public and private scope, because in both fields it needs to be guarded. Secondly, the abstract seeks to contribute to the debate for the construction of performance standards for public organizations to enable reconciling transparency with the protection of personal data.

  19. Socioeconomic Status and Internalizing Symptoms in Chilean Children: Does Reserve Capacity Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Suzanna M; Castillo, Marcela; Lozoff, Betsy; Gahagan, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Informed by the reserve capacity model, we examined pathways between socioeconomic status (SES) and internalizing symptoms (IS) in 1119 Chilean 10-year-olds. Mediators included parental disciplinary style and reserve capacity resources (RCR), namely home environment, parent-child engagement, and self-esteem, and conduct problems. Using structural equation modeling, the model was stratified by gender. For boys, the SES-IS relationship was mediated by the home environment and parental disciplinary style. For girls, the SES-IS relationship was mediated by the home environment, parent-child engagement, self-esteem, and conduct problems. Findings suggest different RCR may protect against IS in a sample of Chilean children. PMID:27123471

  20. Effects of different N sources on riverine DIN export and retention in a subtropical high-standing island, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang-Chuan, Jr.; Lee, Tsung-Yu; Lin, Teng-Chiu; Hein, Thomas; Lee, Li-Chin; Shih, Yu-Ting; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Shiah, Fuh-Kwo; Lin, Neng-Huei

    2016-03-01

    Increases in nitrogen (N) availability and mobility resulting from anthropogenic activities have substantially altered the N cycle, both locally and globally. Taiwan characterized by the subtropical montane landscape with abundant rainfall, downwind of the most rapidly industrializing eastern coast of China, can be a demonstration site for extremely high N input and riverine DIN (dissolved inorganic N) export. We used 49 watersheds with similar climatic and landscape settings but classified into low, moderate, and highly disturbed categories based on population density to illustrate their differences in nitrogen inputs (through atmospheric N deposition, synthetic fertilizers, and human emission) and DIN export ratios. Our results showed that the island-wide average riverine DIN export is ˜ 3800 kg N km-2 yr-1, approximately 18 times the global average. The average riverine DIN export ratios are 0.30-0.51, which are much higher than the averages of 0.20-0.25 of large rivers around the world, indicating excessive N input relative to ecosystem demand or retention capacity. The low disturbed watersheds have a high N retention capacity and DIN export ratios of 0.06-0.18 in spite of the high N input (˜ 4900 kg N km-2 yr-1). The high retention capacity is likely due to effective uptake by secondary forests in the watersheds. The moderately disturbed watersheds show a linear increase in DIN export with increases in total N inputs and mean DIN export ratios of 0.20 to 0.31. The main difference in land use between low and moderately disturbed watersheds is the greater proportion of agricultural land cover in the moderately disturbed watersheds. Thus, their greater DIN export could be attributed to N fertilizers used in the agricultural lands. The greater export ratios also imply that agricultural lands have a lower proportional N retention capacity and that reforestation could be an effective land management practice to reduce riverine DIN export. The export ratios of the

  1. The reliability of morphometric discriminant functions in determining the sex of Chilean flamingos Phoenicopterus chilensis

    OpenAIRE

    Diego MONTALTI et al

    2012-01-01

    Monomorphic birds cannot be sexed visually and discriminant functions on the basis of external morphological variations are frequently used. Our objective was to evaluate the reliability of sex classification functions created from structural measurements of Chilean flamingos Phoenicopterus chilensis museum skins for the gender assignment of live birds. Five measurements were used to develop four discriminant functions: culmen, bill height and width, tarsus length and middle toe claw. The fun...

  2. Original footage of the Chilean miners with manganism published in Neurology in 1967.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marcelo; Bustamante, M Leonor; Mena, Francisco; Lees, Andrew

    2015-12-15

    Manganism has captured the imagination of neurologists for more than a century because of its similarities to Parkinson disease and its indirect but seminal role in the "l-dopa miracle." We present unpublished footage of the original case series reported in Neurology® in 1967 by Mena and Cotzias depicting the typical neurologic signs of manganism in 4 Chilean miners and their response to high doses of l-dopa. PMID:26668239

  3. Postnatal Growth Patterns in a Chilean Cohort: The Role of SES and Family Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Kang Sim, D. E.; S. Gahagan; Martinez, S.; Blanco, E.; Lozoff, B.; Cappiello, M; Castillo, M

    2012-01-01

    Objective. This study examined how family environmental characteristics served as mediators in the relationship between socioeconomic conditions and infant growth in a cohort of Chilean infants. Methods. We studied 999 infants, born between 1991 and 1996, from a longitudinal cohort which began as an iron deficiency anemia preventive trial. SES (Graffar Index), the Life Experiences Survey, and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) were assessed in infancy. Using path a...

  4. Chilean Native Fruit Extracts Inhibit Inflammation Linked to the Pathogenic Interaction Between Adipocytes and Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes-Farias, Marjorie; Vasquez, Karla; Ovalle-Marin, Angelica; Fuentes, Francisco; Parra, Claudia; Quitral, Vilma; Jimenez, Paula; Garcia-Diaz, Diego F.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by an increase in the infiltration of monocytes into the adipose tissue, causing an inflammatory condition associated with, for example, the development of insulin resistance. Thus, anti-inflammatory-based treatments could emerge as a novel and interesting approach. It has been reported that Chilean native fruits maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) and calafate (Berberis microphylla) present high contents of polyphenols, which are known for their antioxidant and anti-inflam...

  5. Democracy and Student Discontent: Chilean Student Protest in the Post-Pinochet Era

    OpenAIRE

    Peter M. M. Cummings; University of Notre Dame, Indiana

    2015-01-01

    Objective indicators suggest that economic and political conditions improved in Chile between the country’s democratization in 1990 and 2011. Average incomes increased, poverty rates decreased, and the number of positive reviews of Chilean democratic institutions rose. Despite this progress, massive student-led protest waves in 2006 and 2011 demonstrated high levels of subjective discontent in Chile. This paper proposes a three-part explanation for the paradoxical emergence and escalation of ...

  6. Democracy and Student Discontent: Chilean Student Protest in the Post-Pinochet Era

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, Peter M. M.

    2015-01-01

    "Objective indicators suggest that economic and political conditions improved in Chile between the country's democratization in 1990 and 2011. Average incomes increased, poverty rates decreased, and the number of positive reviews of Chilean democratic institutions rose. Despite this progress, massive student-led protest waves in 2006 and 2011 demonstrated high levels of subjective discontent in Chile. This paper proposes a three-part explanation for the paradoxical emergence and escalation of...

  7. Democracy and Student Discontent: Chilean Student Protest in the Post-Pinochet Era

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, Peter M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective indicators suggest that economic and political conditions improved in Chile between the country’s democratization in 1990 and 2011. Average incomes increased, poverty rates decreased, and the number of positive reviews of Chilean democratic institutions rose. Despite this progress, massive student-led protest waves in 2006 and 2011 demonstrated high levels of subjective discontent in Chile. This paper proposes a three-part explanation for the paradoxical emergence and escalation o...

  8. High genetic diversity in a small population: the case of Chilean blue whales

    OpenAIRE

    Torres-Florez, Juan P; Hucke-Gaete, Rodrigo; Rosenbaum, Howard; Christian C Figueroa

    2014-01-01

    It is generally assumed that species with low population sizes have lower genetic diversities than larger populations and vice versa. However, this would not be the case for long-lived species with long generation times, and which populations have declined due to anthropogenic effects, such as the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus). This species was intensively decimated globally to near extinction during the 20th century. Along the Chilean coast, it is estimated that at least 4288 blue whale...

  9. Corporate Social Responsibility in the Chilean Salmon Industry : Institutional Foundations and other Explanatory Factors

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present thesis is to achieve a better understanding of CSR in a cross country context. It bases itself on a qualitative case study of the Chilean salmon industry with emphasis on the Norwegian companies that operate herein. The main theoretical framework is taken from organization theory, and bases itself on the rational and the normative institutional organization perspectives. The main goal is to identify the explanatory factors for the CSR measures in this industry. A ...

  10. Pilot Testing an Internet-Based STI and HIV Prevention Intervention With Chilean Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Natalia; Santisteban, Daniel; Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Ambrosia, Todd; Peragallo, Nilda; Lara, Loreto

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is high among young Chilean women, and there are no STI or HIV prevention interventions available to them that incorporate technology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the preliminary efficacy of an Internet-based STI and HIV prevention intervention (I-STIPI) for Chilean young women on measures of STI- and HIV-related information, motivation, behavioral skills, and preventive behaviors. Design This is a pretest-posttest study. Forty young Chilean women between 18 and 24 years of age participated in an investigation of the I-STIPI’s preliminary efficacy on STI and HIV prevention-related outcomes between baseline and a postintervention assessment. The intervention consisted of four online modules. Data collection was conducted in Santiago, Chile. Paired-samples t test analysis was used to determine whether there were significant differences in each of the outcome variables. Findings After receiving I-STIPI, women reported a significant increase in levels of STI- and HIV-related knowledge, attitudes toward the use of condoms and perceived self-efficacy, and a reduction of risky sexual behaviors with uncommitted partners. Conclusions The I-STIPI showed promise as an Internet-based intervention that can reduce barriers to accessing preventive interventions and increase STI and HIV preventive behaviors in young Chilean women. Clinical Relevance The study provided important information about the ability of an Internet-based intervention to reduce young women’s risk factors and to provide positive preliminary efficacy on STI- and HIV-related outcomes. Internet-based interventions can eliminate many barriers to receiving prevention interventions and may prove to be cost effective. PMID:25410132

  11. The Chilean Labor Market: Job Creation, Quality, Inclusiveness, and Future Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Parro, Francisco; Reyes, Loreto

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes recent labor market developments in the Chilean economy. The evidence shows a booming labor market with strong job creation since 2010. Most of the jobs created during the past three years are quality jobs—that is, jobs with a written contract and whose employers have made the corresponding payments toward pensions, healthcare, and unemployment insurance. We show that a combination of economic growth and specific policies seems to be the driving force behind the strong cre...

  12. Aggregate structure and stability linked to carbon dynamics in a south Chilean Andisol

    OpenAIRE

    C. Oyarzún; Godoy, R.; O. Van Cleemput; P. Boeckx; Huygens, D.

    2005-01-01

    International audience The extreme vulnerability of soil organic carbon to climate and land use change emphasizes the need for further research in different terrestrial ecosystems. We have studied the aggregate stability and carbon dynamics in a chronosequence of three different land uses in a south Chilean Andisols: a second growth Nothofagus obliqua forest (SGFOR), a grassland (GRASS) and a Pinus radiata plantation (PINUS). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Al as soil ...

  13. Crustacean zooplankton species richness in Chilean lakes and ponds (23°-51°S)

    OpenAIRE

    Patricio De los Ríos-Escalante

    2013-01-01

    Chilean inland-water ecosystems are characterized by their low species-level biodiversity. This study analyses available data on surface area, maximum depth, conductivity, chlorophyll-α concentration, and zooplankton crustacean species number in lakes and ponds between 23° and 51°S. The study uses multiple regression analysis to identify the potential factors affecting the species number. The partial correlation analysis indicated a direct significant correlation between chlorophyll-α concent...

  14. The dance of those left behind. Chilean high school students and the possibility of disagreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Depetris Chauvin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the high school students’ protest against the neoliberal conception of education during the first period of President Michelle Bachelet government. Specifically, I analyze how the new generation of young Chileans critically uses and produces pop culture — photoblogs, posters, and stencils — in order to express disagreement with the mercantilist approach to education and the very concept of neoliberal freedom and equality.

  15. Estimating enteric methane emissions from Chilean beef fattening systems using a mechanistic model

    OpenAIRE

    Arias, RA; Catrileo, A; Larraín, R; Vera, R; Velásquez, A.; Toneatti, M; France, J; Dijkstra, J.; Kebreab, E.

    2015-01-01

    Copyright © 2014 Cambridge University Press. A mechanistic model (COWPOLL) was used to estimate enteric methane (CH4) emissions from beef production systems in Chile. The results expressed as a proportion of gross energy intake (GEI) were compared with enteric fermentation data reported in the last Chilean greenhouse gases inventory, which utilized an earlier the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Tier 2 approach. The simulation analysis was based on information from feedstuffs, dry ma...

  16. The Epidemiology of Sleep Quality and Consumption of Stimulant Beverages among Patagonian Chilean College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Vélez; Aline Souza; Samantha Traslaviña; Clarita Barbosa; Adaeze Wosu; Asterio Andrade; Megan Frye; Annette L. Fitzpatrick; Bizu Gelaye; Williams, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives:. (1) To assess sleep patterns and parameters of sleep quality among Chilean college students and (2) to evaluate the extent to which stimulant beverage use and other lifestyle characteristics are associated with poor sleep quality. Methods:. A cross-sectional study was conducted among college students in Patagonia, Chile. Students were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire to provide information about lifestyle and demographic characteristics. The Pittsburgh Sleep Qu...

  17. Understanding Attitudes and Pro-Environmental Behaviors in a Chilean Community

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolás C. Bronfman; Pamela C. Cisternas; Esperanza López-Vázquez; Cristóbal de la Maza; Juan Carlos Oyanedel

    2015-01-01

    Environmental protection and restoration are some of the major challenges faced by our society. To address this problem, it is fundamental to understand pro-environmental behaviors in the population, as well as the factors that determine them. There are, however, very few studies conducted in Latin America that are focused in understanding the environmental behavior of its citizens. The main goal of this research was to study the environmental behaviors of a Chilean community and identify the...

  18. Breast bud detection: a validation study in the Chilean Growth Obesity Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Ana; Garmendia, María Luisa; González, Daniela; Kain, Juliana; Mericq, Verónica; Uauy, Ricardo; Corvalán, Camila

    2014-01-01

    Background Early puberty onset has been related to future chronic disease; however breast bud assessment in large scale population studies is difficult because it requires trained personnel. Thus our aim is to assess the validity of self and maternal breast bud detection, considering girl’s body mass index (BMI) and maternal education. Methods In 2010, 481 girls (mean age = 7.8) from the Growth and Obesity Chilean Cohort Study were evaluated by a nutritionist trained in breast bud detection. ...

  19. Profiles of emotional intelligence and learning strategies in a sample of Chilean students

    OpenAIRE

    García Fernández, José Manuel; Cándido J. Inglés; Suriá Martínez, Raquel; Lagos San Martín, Nelly; Gonzálvez Macià, Carolina; Aparisi Sierra, David; Martínez Monteagudo, María C.

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years, one of the lines of research of great interest in the field of emotional intelligence (EI) has been the analysis of the role of emotions in the educational context and, in particular, their influence on learning strategies. The aims of this study are to identify the existence of different EI profiles and to determine possible statistically significant differences in learning strategies between the obtained profiles. The study involved 1253 Chilean school students from 1...

  20. Ecology of Chilean dolphins and Peale's dolphins at Isla Chiloe, southern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrich, Sonja

    2006-01-01

    Information on the ecology of sympatric species provides important insights into how different animals interact with their environment, with each other, and how they differ in their susceptibility to threats to their survival. In this study habitat use and population ecology of Chilean dolphins (Cephalorhynchus eutropia) and sympatric Peale's dolphins (Lagenorhynchus australis) were investigated in the Chiloe Archipelago in southern Chile from 2001 to 2004. Distribution data collected during ...

  1. Intercultural journalism: Peruvian and Bolivian representation in the Chilean daily press news

    OpenAIRE

    Browne-Sartori, Rodrigo-Francisco; Baessolo-Stiven, Ricardo-Alberto; Silva-Echeto, Víctor-Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the processes through which the massive press generates and represents the cultural discourses of two of the most polemic migrant groups coexisting nowadays in Chile: Peruvians and Bolivians. The representation that the communication media carries out regarding the studied cultures strongly influences the imaginaries of the Chilean audiences. That calls for special concern so as to propose the necessary spaces for intercultural exchange as much in the media as in the soc...

  2. Revision of the Chilean species of Empididae (Diptera described by J. Macquart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Rafael

    Full Text Available Four Chilean species of Empididae (Diptera are revised: Aplomera pachymera (Macquart, 1838, A. gayi Macquart, 1838, Empis nudipes Macquart, 1838 and E. polita Macquart, 1838. Aplomera chilensis (Bezzi, 1909 was also studied and it is being considered junior synonym of A. pachymera. Empis nudipes Macquart, 1838 is confirmed to be a junior synonym of A. gayi Macquart, 1838. Lectotype is being designated for A. pachymera, A. chilensis and E. polita. Illustration of terminalia and photomicrographs of wings are also included.

  3. Morphology, anatomy and histology of Doto uva Marcus, 1955 (Opisthobranchia: Nudibranchia) from the Chilean Coast.

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, M. A.; Van der velde, G.; Roubos, E W

    2006-01-01

    Doto uva Marcus, 1955 is a nudibranch species recorded from the Brazilian and Chilean coast. In spite of its wide distribution, D. uva has been described only superficially, mainly as to the pattern of its coloration, external morphology, radular teeth and reproductive system. Here we substantially extend this description, paying special attention to the morphology, anatomy and histology of the digestive and reproductive system. Furthermore, new data on the morphology of the central nervous s...

  4. Paradoxes of participatory democracy: citizen participation, collective action and political influence in a Chilean environmental conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Spoerer, Matilde

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a critical analysis of the impacts of participatory democracy in public action and collective action. Based on the study of the Barrancones environmental conflict in Chile (2007-2010), the aim is to analyze how transformations and innovations in Chilean environmental law regarding citizen participation have had an ambivalent impact. On one hand, institutional citizen participation appears to be an instrument of economic and authoritarian logic to legitimize energy policy...

  5. Uncommon social trajectories: Chilean low-income adolescents with reading skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Ortiz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that students from low-income families are less successful at school, as indicated by theories of social reproduction. This article focuses on Chilean students that, in spite of their social background, have performed well in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA 2009. Using logistic regression analysis we identify factors associated with academic achievement in reading. Results show that student variables have a greater explanatory value than family and school variables.

  6. O. Nuclear energy in a food exporting country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report attempts to estimate the affect on agricultural exports from New Zealand which might result from the operation of nuclear power. By far the most serious of these would result from an accidental release of radioactive material, and the likely affects of such releases are considered both in the first year after an accident and in the future. Previous assessments of this type have concentrated attention on property damage and on the health hazards which might result to consumers of contaminated food in the first year or two after a release. In this report the emphasis is on exported foods to which different criteria might apply, and some very approximate estimates are made of long-term implications. To a large extent these can be described only as speculations, but they have some value as a guide. No analgous report has been found in the open literature from other countries, and this particularly includes Denmark which has much in common with New Zealand in this regard. The possible effect of routine operation of nuclear power on food exports is also briefly considered

  7. Nuclear export controls - Closing the gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concerns over a nuclear 'black market' have focused international attention on the effectiveness of nuclear export controls. IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei has stated that the emergence of a multinational illicit network demonstrated the inadequacy of the present export control system, that international cooperation on export controls lay on informal arrangements that were not only not binding but also limited in membership, and that export control information was not systematically shared with the IAEA. This criticism, often heard on the political level, does not really do justice to the work of export control groups. The emergence of a multinational illicit network does not necessarily prove failures in export control systems. Criminal activities, by definition, try to circumvent existing rules and regulations, or they exploit the absence of such rules on State level. To fight such individual cases is not so much a task of regular export control systems, whose function lies primarily in establishing standards and procedures for export controls on State level, but rather the task for intelligence services and their international cooperation. The basis of the export control regime is the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Export controls can - and do - play an important role in fostering this universality goal by demanding the implementation of internationally agreed security standards in recipient countries before export licenses are granted. Drawn from the deliberations in the NPT conferences, the current standards to be demanded as conditions of supply are the following: Safeguards, Physical Protection, National export control provisions. According to the NPT system, export controls require IAEA verification in the recipient country. In addition, export controls enable States to provide information to the IAEA on exports and imports as required by the Additional Protocol. The 2005 NPT Review Conference will be an opportunity to review developments

  8. China agricultural outlook for 2015-2024 based on China Agricultural Monitoring and Early-warning System (CAMES)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shi-wei[1,2,3; LI Gan-qiong[1,2,3; LI Zhe-min[1,2,3

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal of Chinese agricultural development is to guarantee national food security and supply of major agricultural products. Hence, the scientific work on agricultural monitoring and early warning as well as agricultural outlook must be strengthened. In this study, we develop the China Agricultural Monitoring and Early-warning System (CAMES) on the basis of a comparative study of domestic and international agricultural outlook models. The system is a dynamic and multi-market partial equilibrium model that integrates biological mechanisms with economic mechanisms. This system, which includes 11 categories of 953 kinds of agricultural products, could dynamically project agricultural market supply and demand, assess food security, and conduct scenario analysis at different spatial levels, time scale levels, and macro-micro levels. Based on the CAMES, the production, consumption, and trade of the major agricultural products in China over the next decade are projected. The following conclusions are drawn: i) The production of major agricultural products will continue to grow steadily, mainly because of the increase in yield, ii) The growth of agricultural consumption will be slightly higher than that of agricultural production. Meanwhile, a high self-sufficiency rate is expected for cereals such as rice, wheat, and maize, with the rate being stable at around 97%. iii) Agricultural trade will continue to thrive. The growth of soybean and milk im- ports will slow down, but the growth of traditional agricultural exports such as vegetables and fruits is expected to continue.

  9. China agricultural outlook for 2015-2024 based on China Agricultural Monitoring and Early-warning System (CAMES)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shi-wei; LI Gan-qiong; LI Zhe-min

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal of Chinese agricultural development is to guarantee national food security and supply of major agricultural products. Hence, the scientiifc work on agricultural monitoring and early warning as wel as agricultural outlook must be strengthened. In this study, we develop the China Agricultural Monitoring and Early-warning System (CAMES) on the basis of a comparative study of domestic and international agricultural outlook models. The system is a dynamic and multi-market partial equilibrium model that integrates biological mechanisms with economic mechanisms. This system, which includes 11 categories of 953 kinds of agricultural products, could dynamical y project agricultural market supply and demand, assess food security, and conduct scenario analysis at different spatial levels, time scale levels, and macro-micro levels. Based on the CAMES, the production, consumption, and trade of the major agricultural products in China over the next decade are projected. The fol owing conclusions are drawn:i) The production of major agricultural products wil continue to grow steadily, mainly because of the increase in yield. i ) The growth of agricultural consumption wil be slightly higher than that of agricultural production. Meanwhile, a high self-sufifciency rate is expected for cereals such as rice, wheat, and maize, with the rate being stable at around 97%. i i) Agricultural trade wil continue to thrive. The growth of soybean and milk im-ports wil slow down, but the growth of traditional agricultural exports such as vegetables and fruits is expected to continue.

  10. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition of Maternal Diet and Erythrocyte Phospholipid Status in Chilean Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla A. Bascuñán

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA, which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20–36 years old in the 3rd–6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA, with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA.

  11. HMGCR rs17671591 SNP Determines Lower Plasma LDL-C after Atorvastatin Therapy in Chilean Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Alejandro; Fernández, César; Ferrada, Luis; Zambrano, Tomás; Rosales, Alexy; Saavedra, Nicolás; Salazar, Luis A

    2016-04-01

    Lipid-lowering response to statin therapy shows large interindividual variability. At a genome-wide significance level, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PCSK9 and HMGCR have been implicated in this differential response. However, the influence of these variants is uncertain in the Chilean population. Hence, we aimed to evaluate the contribution of PCSK9 rs7552841 and HMGCR rs17671591 SNPs as genetic determinants of atorvastatin response in Chilean hypercholesterolaemic individuals. One hundred and one hypercholesterolaemic patients received atorvastatin 10 mg/day for 4 weeks. Plasma lipid profile (TC, HDL-C, LDL-C and TG) was determined before and after statin treatment, and SNPs were identified by allelic discrimination using TaqMan(®) SNP Genotyping Assays. Adjusted univariate and multivariate analyses' models were used for statistical analyses, and a p-value atorvastatin therapy for the PCSK9 variant. However, the HMGCR rs17671591 T allele contributed to basal HDL-C concentration variability along with a higher increase in this lipid fraction after statin medication. In addition, this allele determined greater plasma LDL-C reductions after therapy with atorvastatin. Our data suggest that the HMGCR rs17671591 polymorphism can constitute a genetic marker of lower plasma LDL-C and enhanced HDL-C concentration after atorvastatin therapy in the Chilean population. PMID:26408409

  12. [Position paper from the Department of Ethics of the Chilean College of Physicians about conscientious objection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Sofía P; Besio, Mauricio; Bórquez Estefó, Gladys; Salinas, Rodrigo A; Valenzuela, Carlos Y; Micolich, Constanza; Novoa Sotta, Fernando; Bernier Villarroel, Lioniel; Montt M, Julio; Misseroni Raddatz, Adelio

    2016-03-01

    The Chilean bill that regulates abortion for three cases (Bulletin Nº 9895-11) includes the possibility that health professionals may manifest their conscientious objection (CO) to perform this procedure. Due to the broad impact that the issue of C O had, the Ethics Department of the Chilean College of Physicians considered important to review this concept and its ethical and legal basis, especially in the field of sexual and reproductive health. In the present document, we define the practical limit s of CO, both for the proper fulfillment of the medical profession obligations, and for the due respect and non-discrimination that the professional objector deserves. We analyze the denial of some health institutions to perform abortions if it is legalize d, and we end with recommendations adjusted to the Chilean reality. Specifically, we recognize the right to conscientious objection that all physicians who directly participate in a professional act have. But we a lso recognize that physicians have ineludib le obligations towards their patients, including the obligation to inform about the existence of this service, how to access to it and -as set out in our code of ethics- to ensure that another colleague will continue attending the patient. PMID:27299826

  13. SOCIAL POLICY AGENDAS AND CONSTRUCTION OF DEMOCRACY IN THE CHILEAN TRANSITION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Delamaza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Social policies have been the greatest field of innovation in Chilean state action since 1990. These policies were conceived as a key factor to ensure governance in the political transition to democracy, to strengthen the economic model and to re-establish a link between State and society. This article examines some governmental political initiatives in different areas of social policy. It is important to know how these social programs and policies have shaped the relationship between the new State, which emerged from the negotiations in the late 1980s, and the Chilean society. For this purpose, the general approaches which underlie this policy are reviewed, and then the orientations within them are differentiated. There are five different patterns or tendencies in Chilean social policy, according to their orientation, institutional management and type of relationship with the social organizations. Two of them arose as a result of the implementation of innovative approaches during the 1990s, which also led to the creation of new agencies. A third one is related with the reorientation of policies in traditional areas. The last two of the analyzed trends refer to the interfaces between the social policy and civil society at the local sphere (decentralized entities and externalization - or outsourcing - of the relationship.

  14. Content validity and reliability of test of gross motor development in Chilean children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Cappellacci, Marcelo; Leyton, Fernanda Aleitte; Carreño, Joshua Durán

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To validate a Spanish version of the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2) for the Chilean population. METHODS Descriptive, transversal, non-experimental validity and reliability study. Four translators, three experts and 92 Chilean children, from five to 10 years, students from a primary school in Santiago, Chile, have participated. The Committee of Experts has carried out translation, back-translation and revision processes to determine the translinguistic equivalence and content validity of the test, using the content validity index in 2013. In addition, a pilot implementation was achieved to determine test reliability in Spanish, by using the intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman method. We evaluated whether the results presented significant differences by replacing the bat with a racket, using T-test. RESULTS We obtained a content validity index higher than 0.80 for language clarity and relevance of the TGMD-2 for children. There were significant differences in the object control subtest when comparing the results with bat and racket. The intraclass correlation coefficient for reliability inter-rater, intra-rater and test-retest reliability was greater than 0.80 in all cases. CONCLUSIONS The TGMD-2 has appropriate content validity to be applied in the Chilean population. The reliability of this test is within the appropriate parameters and its use could be recommended in this population after the establishment of normative data, setting a further precedent for the validation in other Latin American countries. PMID:26815160

  15. Winners and Losers from World Agricultural Trade Liberalisation

    OpenAIRE

    SENIOR NELLO, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims at showing the role of agriculture in determining many of the controversies and problems of the current phase of globalisation. This first entails presenting key statistics indicating the main developments in world agricultural trade, illustrating how there has been a relative deterioration of the export performance of developing countries. The Doha Development Agenda of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) is then analysed, indicating the positions of the main actor...

  16. Agricultural Distortions, Poverty and Inequality in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Herault, Nicolas; Thurlow, James

    2009-01-01

    South Africa has rapidly reduced trade barriers since the end of Apartheid, yet agricultural production and exports have remained sluggish. Also, poverty and unemployment have risen and become increasingly concentrated in rural areas. This paper examines the extent to which remaining price distortions, both domestic and foreign, are contributing to the underperformance of the agricultural sector vis-à-vis the rest of the economy. We draw on a computable general equilibrium (CGE) and micro-sim...

  17. Working Paper 72 - Technology Transfer for Agriculture Growth in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Sami Zaki Moussa

    2002-01-01

    This paper searches for the most effective technology for agricultural growth in Africa on the basis ofFAO data available during the last forty years. The paper discusses the challenges for agriculturalgrowth and evaluates the development assistance that was made by donors to the agricultural sector inAfrica in comparison to the sector’s performance and its growth during the last two decades. Ananalysis of the total versus per capita food production is conducted in relation to food exports an...

  18. Export Marketing of Croatian Baby Beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Kolega

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Croatia has traditionally been the exporter of livestock and beef. In 1988 Croatia exported a record of 35,7 thousand tons of livestock, worth almost 60 million US $. During the period between 1981 and 1991, the export of beef and processed meat was somewhat smaller, about 12,8 thousand tons, 40 million US $ worth. The most important export destinations were Italy, with almost 90% of all volume and monetary value of export, and Greece. In March 1993 EU has banned the import of livestock and beef from Croatia, due to a scandal with infected cattle. In spite of the subsequent abolition of this ban, Croatian export never really recovered, so today the export of beef amounts to less than a thousand tons. Even though the conditions on the export markets and in the domestic cattle breeding industry have changed, we think that it is possible to achieve the export expansion of Croatian baby beef in the foreign market. This article describes the results of the research conducted on the Italian and Greek market. According to expert opinions and the results of our survey it is evident that, with a certain quality of the product, it would be possible to renew the export of Croatian baby beef to the target markets.

  19. Understanding China's renewable energy technology exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China became a major player in renewable energy (RE) technology during the 2000s. Chinese solar PV cell and module makers quickly dominated global sales in that industry, while the country's wind turbine producers became poised for significant exports after capturing their rapidly growing home market. In countries like the US, Chinese RE technology strength has been met with claims of excessive governmental support of exports. This study examines to what extent Chinese firms' solar PV and wind technology successes have been enabled by policy supports, and whether those policies appear to have been driven by broader goals versus RE export promotion per se. The evidence suggests that governmental policy toward both wind and solar originated in a push for export-competitive Chinese companies. But the specifics differed substantially due to the particular requirements of building technological capabilities in each: export readiness necessitated substantial support for domestic installation of wind but not solar PV power. The findings also suggest that as the decade of the 2000s progressed, environmental goals played an increasing role alongside export promotion in motivating and shaping Chinese RE technology policies. - Highlights: ► Export policy in the rise of Chinese renewable energy technologies is studied. ► Policy supported wind turbine firms' capabilities via domestic uptake, not exports. ► Pre-2009 solar module exports enjoyed, but did not depend on, export subsidies. ► Renewables development also fit wider technology and environmental policy goals.

  20. The structural characteristics of world trade and the merchandise exports of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Radovan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the world merchandise trade structure and the structure of Serbian merchandise exports. The analysis shows that the prominent characteristic of post-World War II world trade is more dynamic growth in the volume of manufactured goods as compared to agricultural goods. Due to the lessening share of agricultural products world merchandise trade has decreased and rapid industrialization has been fostered in developing countries. An increased share for developing countries followed the developed countries' decreasing share in world manufacturing trade. The developing countries' increased share was strongest in telecom and office equipment exports. These sectors are characterized by production fragmentation, which is being realized by transnational companies. Serbia, like the other South East European countries, has not yet managed to significantly integrate into international production networks. Serbia's most important exports are manufactured products with a low level of added value . In addition, Serbia still has a high share of primary products in its exports. A higher share of exports of goods and services in the gross domestic products (GDP cannot be achieved without increasing imports of new technologies and equipment, i.e. without a higher investment share of the GDP. The main conclusion of this article is that the creation of a favorable investment climate and an increase in Serbia's international credit rating are the preconditions for stronger foreign direct investment (FDI, which would be the main channel for restructuring in the real sector. Creation of new small and medium enterprises (SMEs through greenfield investment and their integration into the international production networks is the starting point for the restructuring of Serbian industrial production and merchandise export, i.e. the way of increasing the share of merchandise exports in the GDP.

  1. An overview of the certified organic export sector in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbon, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of almost all certified and in-conversion organic export operations in Uganda in late 2005. It covers products exported, company size and ownership, standards exported to, certification costs, total export values, value-added in Uganda, marketing channels, crop procurement systems, management of organic operations and the main challenges experienced by exporters. Findings include that numbers of certified exporters are growing rapidly. Export values ...

  2. No-tillage effects on N and P exports across a rice-planted watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xinqiang; Wang, Zhibo; Zhang, Yixiang; Zhu, Chunyan; Lin, Limin; Xu, Lixian

    2016-05-01

    No tillage (NT) can be used as a management tool to alleviate the negative effects of agricultural practices on the environment by reducing the runoff volume and nutrient exports. The main objective of this research was to quantify the effect of NT on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) exports across a rice-planted watershed using the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model. Results show that total N and P runoff exports from rice fields across the watershed ranged from 7.2 to 22.8 kg N/ha and 0.56 to 6.80 kg P/ha, respectively, over five rice-growing seasons under conventional tillage (CT) practice. The adoption of NT reduced the runoff volume, and the total N and total P exports by 25.9, 8.5, and 7.8 %, respectively, compared with the total exports under CT practice in the same study area. Rice yields were reduced by 0.7-1.9 % within the first 4 years after the adoption of NT, but began to rise in the fifth year. These results suggest that a long-term period of NT practice is necessary to reduce N and P exports without comprising the rice yield on rice-planted watersheds. In addition, the benefits of implementing NT practice alone were limited, and other practices, such as water and nutrient management, should be combined with NT practice. PMID:26797950

  3. The biology, economy, hunting and legislation of edible Frogs (Ranidae Intended for Export in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Şereflişan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The frogs production is done on the basis of fully hunting, an important export product in Turkey. The frogs are almost no domestic consumption. The frogs are exported to France, Italy, Switzerland, Lebanon, Greece and Spain by five companies a processed form as live frog, frozen frog legs and chilled frog legs. In Turkey, some regulations related to hunting frogs and exports are prepared by under the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs General Directorate of Protection and Control. The hunting frogs is banned by 3/1 the Commercial Fisheries regulating the hunting notification. These prohibitions are designed to be different for each province. The provinces are permitted for frogs hunting by the legislation in Adana, Afyonkarahisar, Balıkesir, Bingöl, Bursa, Edirne, Bursa, Istanbul and Yalova. Frogs were exported in different amounts (kg with different price in every year during the last ten years. The highest amounts of the frogs with the lowest of price were exported in 2013. Prey weight is shrinking due to overfishing. In this case, the price of export materials has got significantly negative effects. As a result, the ban on hunting and restrictive measures for protection should be taken seriously in some of the provinces. Hunting ban is absolutely necessary in Turkey. In many countries including Turkey, in order to ensure sustainability, it is important to do the frog breeding.

  4. Factors controlling the long-term temporal and spatial patterns of nitrate-nitrogen export in a dairy farming watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rui; Wang, Chun-ying; Hatano, Ryusuke; Kuramochi, Kanta; Hayakawa, Atsushi; Woli, Krishna P

    2015-04-01

    It is difficult to investigate the factors that control the riverine nitrate-nitrogen (NO3--N) export in a watershed which gains or losses groundwater. To control the NO3--N contamination in these watersheds, it is necessary to investigate the factors that are related to the export of NO3--N that is only produced by the watershed itself. This study was conducted in the Shibetsu watershed located in eastern Hokkaido, Japan, which gains external groundwater contribution (EXT) and 34% of the annual NO3--N loading occurs through EXT. The riverine NO3--N exports from 1980 to 2009 were simulated by the SWAT model, and the factors controlling the temporal and spatial patterns of NO3--N exports were investigated without considering the EXT. The results show that hydrological events control NO3--N export at the seasonal scale, while the hydrological and biogeochemical processes are likely to control NO3--N export at the annual scale. There was an integrated effect among the land use, topography, and soil type related to denitrification process, that regulated the spatial patterns of NO3--N export. The spatial distribution of NO3--N export from hydrologic response units (HRUs) identified the agricultural areas with surplus N that are vulnerable to nitrate contamination. A new standard for the N fertilizer application rate including manure application should be given to control riverine NO3--N export. This study demonstrates that applying the SWAT model is an appropriate method to determine the temporal and spatial patterns of NO3--N export from the watershed which includes EXT and to identify the crucial pollution areas within a watershed in which the management practices can be improved to more effectively control NO3--N export to water bodies. PMID:25805369

  5. Contemporary habitat discontinuity and historic glacial ice drive genetic divergence in Chilean kelp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Hamish G

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South America's western coastline, extending in a near-straight line across some 35 latitudinal degrees, presents an elegant setting for assessing both contemporary and historic influences on cladogenesis in the marine environment. Southern bull-kelp (Durvillaea antarctica has a broad distribution along much of the Chilean coast. This species represents an ideal model taxon for studies of coastal marine connectivity and of palaeoclimatic effects, as it grows only on exposed rocky coasts and is absent from beaches and ice-affected shores. We expected that, along the central Chilean coast, D. antarctica would show considerable phylogeographic structure as a consequence of the isolating effects of distance and habitat discontinuities. In contrast, we hypothesised that further south - throughout the region affected by the Patagonian Ice Sheet at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM - D. antarctica would show relatively little genetic structure, reflecting postglacial recolonisation. Results Mitochondrial (COI and chloroplast (rbcL DNA analyses of D. antarctica from 24 Chilean localities (164 individuals revealed two deeply divergent (4.5 - 6.1% for COI, 1.4% for rbcL clades from the centre and south of the country, with contrasting levels and patterns of genetic structure. Among populations from central Chile (32° - 44°S, substantial phylogeographic structure was evident across small spatial scales, and a significant isolation-by-distance effect was observed. Genetic disjunctions in this region appear to correspond to the presence of long beaches. In contrast to the genetic structure found among central Chilean populations, samples from the southern Chilean Patagonian region (49° - 56°S were genetically homogeneous and identical to a haplotype recently found throughout the subantarctic region. Conclusions Southern (Patagonian Chile has been recolonised by D. antarctica relatively recently, probably since the LGM. The inferred trans

  6. PERSPECTIVE OF RETURN OF THE VAT BY RESULTS OF GRAIN EXPORT OUT OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudinova E. E.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two modes of the agricultural taxation are considered in the article: general regime of the taxation and spe-cial mode of the taxation. The authors precisely de-scribed communication between different ways of grain purchases (VAT incl. or VAT excl., and possi-bility of the subsequent compensation of the VAT to the exporter according to its ex-port activity. The fol-lowing question is highly mentioned in the article: the necessity of control of illegal operations in the Russian grain market. The alternative scheme of VAT return is offered

  7. Second Thoughts on the Exporter Productivity Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan

    2012-01-01

    productivity of exporters in proximity to the export-indifferent firm turns out to be lower than that of non-exporters, i.e. the productivity distributions overlap. The paper reviews empirical literature that reports non-positive exporter productivity premia in firm-level data and discusses implications for......Contrary to the prevailing interpretation, this paper shows that the central models of trade with heterogeneous firms [Melitz (2003) and Bernard et al.(2003)] exhibit ambiguous predictions for the exporter productivity premium. This prospect arises due to differences between theoretical and...... empirical representations of firm productivity. Instead of marginal productivity we examine in both models the theoretical equivalent of empirically observable productivity (value-added per employee). Given the presence of fixed export costs or heterogeneous mark-ups and trade costs, the observable...

  8. Price and Income Elasticities of Russian Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardina Algieri

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper gauges export demand elasticities for Russia using an Error Correction technique within a cointegration framework. An extended version of the Imperfect Substitutes Model has been implemented to estimate the sensitivity of Russian exports without oil components to price and to Russian and world income. Our results suggest a robust and negative long run cointegration relationship between the real effective exchange rate, defined as the weighted average of the rouble’s exchange rates versus a basket of the three currencies with the largest share in the trade turnover adjusted to incorporate inflation rate differences (the ratio of the domestic price indices to the foreign price indices, and Russian exports. An increase in exports by 24% is caused by a real depreciation by 10%. Furthermore, a 10% growth in world income leads to a 33% rise in exports. Finally, exports drop by 14% whenever a 10% increase in domestic income occurs

  9. Price and Income Elasticities of Iranian Exports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atrkar Roshan, Sedigheh

    This study investigates the export demand elasticities at the aggregate and disaggregated levels over the period 1977 to 2001 for Iran. By utilizing an export demand model and using time series techniques that account for the nonstationarity in the data, the price and income elasticities of demand are estimated by commodity class. As the elasticities of demand for various categories of exports are different, while they are crucial for policy determination. Based upon the estimated results, price and income elasticities are almost similar to those obtained in earlier studies in the case of developing countries. The main findings of this paper demonstrate that, price elasticities are smaller than -1 for all exports categories, whereas the income elasticities are found to be greater than one. The results also suggested, the income elasticities of industrial goods are higher compared to other export categories, while the lower elasticities are found in primary exports. The price and income elasticity estimates have also good statistical properties.

  10. Promoting exports in the energy technology area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the position of Switzerland as a leader in the investment goods markets for energy-efficiency products and for technologies for using renewable forms of energy. The report quotes figures for exports in these areas and discusses the difficulty of extracting useful data on these products from normal statistical data. Analyses made by a group of experts from the export-oriented technology field, energy service providers and representatives of export promotion institutions are presented and figures are quoted for various product categories. Factors promoting the competitiveness of Swiss products are discussed as well as those impeding it. An analysis of export potential is presented and measures to promote export are discussed. The report also discusses the aids and promotion activities that are considered necessary by companies in the field and the macro-economic perspectives of increased export promotion

  11. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapagain, A. K.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2006-06-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28 per cent of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6 per cent of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture) for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  12. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Chapagain

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28% of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6% of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  13. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Chapagain

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28 per cent of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6 per cent of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  14. Exporting obesity: US farm and trade policy and the transformation of the Mexican consumer food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sarah E; Hawkes, Corinna; Murphy, Sophia M E; Hansen-Kuhn, Karen A; Wallinga, David

    2012-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions, in the United States as well as among its trade partners such as Mexico. It has been established that an "obesogenic" (obesity-causing) food environment is one influence on obesity prevalence. To isolate the particular role of NAFTA, the North American Free Trade Agreement, in changing Mexico's food environment, we plotted the flow of several key products between the United States and Mexico over the 14-year NAFTA period (1994-2008) and situated them in a broader historical context. Key sources of USDA data include the Foreign Agricultural Service's Global Agricultural Trade System, its official repository for current and historical data on imports, exports and re-exports, and its Production, Supply, and Distribution online database. US export data were queried for agricultural products linked to shifting diet patterns including: corn, soybeans, sugar and sweeteners, consumer-oriented products, and livestock products. The Bureau of Economic Analysis' Balance of Payments and Direct Investment Position Data in their web-based International Economic Accounts system also helped determine changes in US direct investment abroad from 1982 to 2009. Directly and indirectly, the United States has exported increasing amounts of corn, soybeans, sugar, snack foods, and meat products into Mexico over the last two decades. Facilitated by NAFTA, these exports are one important way in which US agriculture and trade policy influences Mexico's food system. Because of significant US agribusiness investment in Mexico across the full spectrum of the latter's food supply chain, from production and processing to distribution and retail, the Mexican food system increasingly looks like the industrialized food system of the United States. PMID:22550697

  15. Tax Exportability in Tourism Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohebi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Tax incidence is a basic topic in public economics as the tourism industry is an increasingly major contributor to government revenue. Generally, government taxation objectives are for the purpose of financing programs that improve people’s lives and economic prosperity, accelerate economic growth and allow for access to sustainable development. In the first view, tax policy decisions by government are based on their effects on the distribution of economic welfare. Therefore, to provide incentives for governments to select a suitable tax policy, exportability of tax is important. Hotel room tax is one of the main parts of tourism tax. Despite the importance of tax for government, it seems that the exportability of hotel room tax is still not well known. Therefore, understanding the counteraction of foreign visitors with respect to its main factors is important for the Malaysian government and tourism management. To achieve these aims, this study examines tax incidence effects on the tourism market. Approach: We use hotel room as representative of tourism market. Quarterly data from 1995-2009 are used and a dynamic model of simultaneous equation is employed. Results: Our results indicate that in the short run supply is elastic and demand is inelastic.But in the long run both demand and supply are elastic to price. Conclusion: Based the results if the government imposes one ringgit (Malaysian currency tax on hotel room price, the tourist contribution is more than 89 and 74% in the short run and long run respectively. Hence, we conclude that the Malaysian tourism market is exportable. Our results also indicate that tax on hotel has no negative social effects in the short run.

  16. The International Demand for Thailand's Rice Exports

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    The familiar 'small country' assumption is tested empirically in this paper, focussing upon the long-run international demand for Thailand's rice exports and drawing upon recent developments in the statistical analysis of economic time series. A relatively robust long-run price elasticity of export demand is obtained, at just under 2. The literature on the export demand for manufactured goods has shown the central importance of the 'normalisation' used during estimation. Our results suggest t...

  17. Nuclear exportation and importation - the Brazilian situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author proposes to set up a working group which should be responsible for the compilation of laws, procedures, and national policies for the nuclear importation and exportation in the supplying and receiving countries. Shared international views would simplify the flow of imports and exports between the countries. The author describes the different phases of exportation and importation of nuclear material are processed in her country, Brazil. (CW)

  18. Overseas business costs and firm export performance

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Kneller; Mauro Pisu; Zhihong Yu

    2008-01-01

    The recent microeconomic literature on international trade has highlighted the importance of firm characteristics and trade costs for exports. This study provides evidence on one type of those costs, the costs of doing business overseas, from a theoretical and empirical perspective. Controlling for firm- and industry-level covariates, we find that improvements in the business environment of foreign countries lead to an increase in the export intensity of exporters in the UK manufacturing sect...

  19. Human Capital and Wages in Exporting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the link between a firms education level, export performance and wages of its workers. We argue that firms may escape intence competition in international markets by using high skilled workers to differentiate their products. This story is consistent with our empirical results....... an export wage premium, but it accrues to workers in firms with high skill intensities.Keywords: Exports, Wages, Human Capital, Rent Sharing, Matched Worker-Firm DataJEL Classification: J30, F10, I20...

  20. Markups and Firm-Level Export Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Loecker, Jan; Warzynski, Frederic

    We derive an estimating equation to estimate markups using the insight of Hall (1986) and the control function approach of Olley and Pakes (1996). We rely on our method to explore the relationship between markups and export behavior using plant-level data. We find significantly higher markups when...... see these results as a first step in opening up the productivity-export black box, and provide a potential explanation for the big measured productivity premia for firms entering export markets....

  1. Natural gas exports and macroeconomic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberta, in volumetric terms, is Canada's leading exporter of natural gas, crude oil, bitumen, and coal. Alberta natural gas shipments to other Canadian provinces and exports to the United States have developed into an increasingly important component of Alberta economy. This article attempts to measure the impact of gas production and exports on different sectors of the Alberta economy as the energy producing province of Canada

  2. Will Exports Prevail over Austerity?

    OpenAIRE

    Vasily Astrov; Vladimir Gligorov; Peter Havlik; Mario Holzner; Gabor Hunya; Kazimierz Laski; Sebastian Leitner; Zdenek Lukas; Anton Mihailov; Olga Pindyuk; Leon Podkaminer; Josef Pöschl; Sandor Richter; Waltraut Urban; Hermine Vidovic

    2010-01-01

    The Central, East and Southeast European (CESEE) economies will experience on average a minor rebound of economic growth to 1% in 2010 which will speed up to 2.5% in 2011 and 3.5% in 2012. GDP growth will be higher in the CIS countries and in Turkey, about average in the Central European NMS and lower in the SEE countries and the Baltics. Growth is currently driven mostly by exports which should outweigh the dampening effects of the austerity measures. Whether the countries will actually bene...

  3. A perspective on energy exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on New Brunswick Power's energy export experience over the past two decades, it appears that Canada could have a very special and unique opportunity to input into the US energy market over the coming decades. The CANDU reactor can offer one of these opportunities. Such business opportunities can be of very real benefit to both countries and to the particular regions involved. Like any other form of business, this one must be carefully planned and must be conducted in an environment conducive to the achievement of the objectives of the business

  4. Effects of different N sources on riverine DIN export and retention in subtropical high-standing island, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.-C.; Lee, T.-Y.; Lin, T.-C.; Hein, T.; Lee, L.-C.; Shih, Y.-T.; Kao, S.-J.; Shiah, F.-K.; Lin, N.-H.

    2015-10-01

    Increases in nitrogen (N) availability and mobility resulting from anthropogenic activities has substantially altered N cycle both locally and globally. Taiwan characterized by the subtropical montane landscape with abundant rainfall, downwind to the most rapidly industrializing east coast of China can be a demonstration site for extreme high N input and riverine DIN (dissolved inorganic N) export. We used 49 watersheds classified into low-, moderate-, and highly-disturbed categories based on population density to illustrate their differences in nitrogen inputs through atmospheric N deposition, synthetic fertilizers and human emission and DIN export ratios. Our results showed that the island-wide average riverine DIN export is ~ 3800 kg N km-2 yr-1, approximately 18-fold higher than the global average mostly due to the large input of synthetic fertilizers. The average riverine DIN export ratio is 0.30-0.51, which is much higher than the average of 0.20-0.25 of large rivers around the world indicating excessive N input relative to ecosystem demand or retention capacity. The low-disturbed watersheds, despite of high N input, only export 0.06-0.18 of the input so were well buffered to changes in input quantity suggesting high efficiency of nitrogen usage or high N retention capacity of the less disturbed watersheds. The high retention capacity probably is due to the effective uptake by secondary forests in the watersheds. The moderate-disturbed watersheds show a linear increase of output with increases in total N inputs and a mean DIN export ratio of 0.20 to 0.31. The main difference in land use between low and moderately disturbed watershed is the relative proportions of agricultural land and forests, not the built-up lands. Thus, their greater DIN export quantity could be attributed to N fertilizers used in the agricultural lands. The greater export ratios also imply that agricultural lands have lower proportional N retention capacity and that reforestation could be

  5. Agriculture ideas and modernization of agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Li Kangmin

    2011-01-01

    The development of agriculture has its own history from primitive agriculture, traditional agriculture to modem agriculture. Is it a historical road we must follow?Human being had experienced a long history of living on collection and hunting for about 2,000 to 3,000 millenniums since human being appeared on earth. After we settled down, another 10 millenniums passed. Human being began to cultivate crops and raise animals. Thus, we entered the primitive agriculture stage. The primitive agricu...

  6. Gravity model of trade and Russian exports

    OpenAIRE

    Weckström, Antti

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: The purpose of this thesis is to utilize the Gravity Model of Trade in order to get an understanding of the reasons behind Russian export flows. The aim of this study is to find out if the most common gravity variables have a similar effect on Russian exports as they do for most of the advanced economies. As Russian exports consist mainly of raw materials, one could assume that they behave differently from the exports of western countries. During the past two dec...

  7. Prioritization and Ranking Problems Exporting Iranian Saffron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Askandari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to prioritize and rank problems exporting Iranian saffron. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature on issues related to data and information collected from questionnaires, with 816% reliability is used. In this study, the sample of managers and sales and marketing company is exporting Iranian saffron is the sample size of 231 subjects. The results of this study are positive and significant relationship between the dependent variable and the independent variables of export performance of export barriers exist.

  8. The Impact of Land Use Change on Primary Stream Organic and Inorganic Carbon Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, S. A.; Bauer, J. E.; Grottoli, A. G.; Huey Sanders, T. M.; Matsui, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Terrestrial land use may impact both the amounts of and characteristics of organic and inorganic carbon (OC and IC, respectively) entering aquatic ecosystems. Better understanding of how different land uses alter carbon characteristics and export fluxes from watersheds may lead to better management practices for retaining OC in terrestrial habitats and therefore mitigate CO2 emissions from freshwater ecosystems where terrestrial OC may be more rapidly respired. We examined the fluxes and δ13C and ∆14C signatures of dissolved IC (DIC), dissolved OC (DOC), and particulate OC (POC) exported from 6 watersheds with differing land use at the North Appalachian Experimental Watershed (NAEW) in Coshocton county in northeastern Ohio to assess whether differences in land use are related to variability in the export fluxes and isotopic characteristics of OC and IC pools. We used a Bayesian mixing model (MixSIR) to determine how the relative contributions of potential carbon sources to DIC, DOC, and POC change as a function of watershed land use. Mixing model results from each season were used to approximate relative annual contributions of potential sources to DIC, DOC, and POC export fluxes from each watershed. We found that agricultural land uses (i.e., corn, under both conventional till and no-till management) experienced the greatest degree of disturbance and had the greatest carbon export fluxes. However, the relative extent to which soil OC contributed to export fluxes compared to corn biomass varied as a function of tillage practices. In addition, nonparametric multidimensional scaling (NMDS), based on the δ13C and ∆14C data and mixing model results for DIC, DOC and POC export fluxes, separated non-corn watersheds into 2 further classes of disturbance: moderate disturbance (pasture and mixed land use) and low disturbance (forest). These findings suggest that land use has a measurable impact on the concentration and characteristics of watershed C export fluxes.

  9. System analysis and path choice for modem agricultural development: a case study of Suzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhai Rongxin; Liu Yansui

    2009-01-01

    From the view of.system theory,modern agriculture in a region embodies elements conformitv,structure optimization,multi-functionality and sustainable development.This paper first expounds on the relationship among agricultural elements,structure,function and development theoretically,compartmentalizes agriculture types based on human-land elements matching,and depicts the development path of agricultural multi-functionality.It shows that the matching of human-land elements is a key to agricultural types,and the multi:functionality is an indication of agricultural development stages.At last,as a case study of Suzhou in easteru coastal area,the paper analyzes the evolvement situation and developing mechanism and some typical models of modern agriculture which suit to agriculture system evolvement.The results show that in Suzhou the agriculture productivity has improved greatly,And along with the agriculture structure optimizing,agriculture function has translated from "production " to "nonproduction and production ".With simulation of agricultural trend in Suzhou,it is found that Suzhou has a LP,dependence (labor productivity) on agricultural element,so Suzhou will has much more potential in land productivity.Based on the above analysis on agricultural system,some typical patterns on modern agriculture in Suzhou are brought up,such as export-oriented agriculture,enterprises-leading agriculture,science and technology parks agriculture,stereoscopic agriculture,and tourism and sightseeing agriculture.

  10. Agricultural Production Intensification in Ukraine: Decision Support of Agricultural Policies Based On the Assessment of Ecological and Social Impacts in Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Frayer, O.

    2011-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the major economic sectors of Ukraine. Therefore, improving agricultural practices is of critical importance for economy, environment, and society in Ukraine. Rapidly increasing intensification of agricultural production promotes large agrarian enterprises. These processes lead to certain consequences. An export-oriented business has a raw character, doesn't fulfill its social role and carries environmental risks. The main goal of these studies is to investigate flexible...

  11. Foreign Direct Investment and Electronics Exports: Exploratory Empirical Evidence from Malaysia's Top Five Electronics Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Tuck Cheong Tang; Koi Nyen Wong

    2007-01-01

    The foreign direct investment (FDI) has contributed significantly to Malaysia's electronics exports as well as the growth and development of the electronics industry as a result of the export-oriented industrialization initiatives undertaken since 1970s. The aim of this study is to explore the causation between FDI and electronics exports by using Malaysia''s top five electronics exports by SITC (Standard International Trade Classification) product groups. The findings show a bi-directional c...

  12. Determinants of Expected Short-term Export Performance Improvement: An Empirical Study of Industrial Exporters

    OpenAIRE

    Lages, Luis Filipe; Leal, Ana Catarina

    2004-01-01

    In this research, key determinants of expected short-term export performance improvement are identified. We develop a conceptual framework that incorporates past, current and expected performance, internal and external forces of the firm, and pricing strategy adaptation to the foreign market. The framework is tested via a field survey of industrial exporters. Surprisingly, findings reveal that the effect of firms commitment to exporting on expected short-term export performance improvement is...

  13. Superiority of Exporters and the Causality Between Exporting and Firm Characteristics in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Hiep; Hiroshi Ohta

    2009-01-01

    The study in this paper is on the causal relationship between export activities of firms and their characteristics in a transition country that is pursuing export-led growth strategies and experiencing a fast track of trade liberalization. For this purpose, we examine the superiority of exporters using a panel of firm-level data of manufacturing firms in Vietnam. We observe that exceptional performance of exporters, especially in TFP, does prevail in this country. Via testing self-selection h...

  14. 31 CFR 560.533 - Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.533 Section 560.533 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices, provided that the sale and exportation...

  15. Foreign Agricultural Trade of the United States July/August 1991

    OpenAIRE

    Warden, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    U.S. agricultural exports fell 9 percent, a $2.8-billion decline, during the first 9 months of fiscal year 1991. U.S. agricultural imports totaled $17.3 billion for October-June, up just $22 million from last year at this time.

  16. Adverse childhood experiences, mental health, and quality of life of Chilean girls placed in foster care: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Annina; Kohler, Stefanie; Ruf-Leuschner, Martina; Landolt, Markus A

    2016-03-01

    In Latin America, little research has been conducted regarding exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), mental health, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among foster children. This study examined the association between ACEs and mental health, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and HRQoL in Chilean foster girls relative to age-matched Chilean family girls. Data were obtained from 27 Chilean foster girls and 27 Chilean girls ages 6 to 17 years living in family homes. Standardized self- and proxy-report measures were used. Foster girls reported more ACEs than controls in terms of familial and nonfamilial sexual abuse and both emotional and physical neglect. Girls living in foster care had a significantly higher rate of PTSD, displayed greater behavioral and emotional problems, and reported a lower HRQoL. Analysis confirmed the well-known cumulative risk hypothesis by demonstrating a significant positive association between the number of ACEs and PTSD symptom severity and a significant negative association with HRQoL. Chilean foster girls endured more ACEs that impair mental health and HRQoL than age-matched peers living with their families. These findings have implications for out-of-home care services in Latin America, highlighting the need to implement not only appropriate trauma-focused treatments but also appropriate prevention strategies. PMID:25915644

  17. 10 CFR 590.208 - Small volume exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small volume exports. 590.208 Section 590.208 Energy... WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Applications for Authorization To Import or Export Natural Gas § 590.208 Small volume exports. Any person may export up to 100,000 cubic feet of natural...

  18. Exporter Behavior, Country Size and Stage of Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ana M. Fernandes; Freund, Caroline; Pierola, Martha Denisse

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents new data on the micro structure of the export sector for 45 countries and studies how exporter behavior varies with country size and stage of development. Larger countries and more developed countries have more exporters, larger exporters, and a greater share of exports controlled by the top 5 percent. The extensive margin (more firms) plays a greater role than the inte...

  19. Nuclear exports and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's nuclear export policy together with its non-proliferation and safeguards policy embrace both the country's desire to promote international cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and its effort to minimize the risk of further proliferation of nuclear weapons. This policy reflects the belief that only if Canadian parliamentary and public opinion can be convinced that Canada's nuclear exports will not contribute to nuclear proliferation will the long-term health of the country's nuclear industry be assured. Canada requires a political commitment to non-proliferation from its nuclear partners, and looks to the IAEA to administer safeguards on nuclear material of Canadian origin to guarantee that commitment. Agreements reached with its nuclear partners are in accordance with provisions of the non-proliferation treaty and include a contingency provision for fall-back safeguards if the other state should withdraw from the NPT. Provision is made for mutual agreement on reprocessing and enrichment of nuclear material. Agreements have been reached with some twenty nuclear partners, and efforts are continuing to come to new international understanding on reprocessing, enrichment, and plutonium storage

  20. Export opportunities in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing countries will offer major opportunities to US exporters of energy and related environmental equipment in the next ten years. These opportunities arise because the markets in developing countries will be growing much faster than those in the developed countries during this period, and because these countries will not in most cases have strong domestic manufacturers to compete against. US technologies will help these countries solve their energy, environmental, and economic development problems, and help the US solve its serious trade balance problems. This market will represent over $200 billion between now and 2000. There are, however, many potential problems. These include a lack of focus and coordination among US government trade assistance organizations, a lack of interest on the part of US firms in exporting and an unwillingness to make the needed investments, barriers put up by the governments of potential foreign customers, and strong international competition. This paper describes how the United States Agency for International Development's (A.I.D.) Office of Energy and other US agencies are helping US firms resolve these problems with a comprehensive program of information, trade promotion assistance, and co-funding of feasibility studies. In addition, there are monies available to match unfair concessionary financing offered by our major competitors