Sample records for chile transantiago recargado

  1. Influence of large changes in public transportation (Transantiago) on the black carbon pollution near streets (United States)

    Gramsch, E.; Le Nir, G.; Araya, M.; Rubio, M. A.; Moreno, F.; Oyola, P.


    In 2006 a large transformation was carried out on the public transportation system in Santiago de Chile. The original system (before 2006) had hundreds of bus owners with about 7000 diesel buses. The new system has only 13 firms with about 5900 buses which operate in different parts of the city with little overlap between them. In this work we evaluate the impact of the Transantiago system on the black carbon pollution along four roads directly affected by the modification to the transport system. Measurements were carried out during May-July of 2005 (before Transantiago) and June-July of 2007 (after Transantiago). We have used the Wilcoxon rank-sum test to evaluate black carbon concentration in four streets in year 2005 and 2007. The results show that a statistically significant reduction between year 2005 (before Transantiago) and year 2007 (after Transantiago) in Alameda street, which changed from a mean of 18.8 μg m-3 in 2005 to 11.9 μg m-3 in 2007. In this street there was a decrease in the number of buses as well as the number of private vehicles and an improvement in the technology of public transportation between those years. Other two streets (Usach and Departamental) did not change or experienced a small increase in the black carbon concentration in spite of having less flux of buses in 2007. Eliodoro Yañez Street, which did not have public transportation in 2005 or 2007 experienced a 15% increase in the black carbon concentration between those years. Analysis of the data indicates that the change is related to a decrease in the total number of vehicles or the number of other diesel vehicles in the street rather than a decrease in the number of buses only. These results are an indication that in order to decrease pollution near a street is not enough to reduce the number of buses or improve its quality, but to reduce the total number of vehicles.

  2. Chile. (United States)


    The background notes on Chile provide a statistical summary of the population, geography, government, and the economy, and more descriptive text on the history, population, government, economy, defense, and foreign relations. In brief, Chile has 13.3 million Spanish Indian (Mestizos), European, and Indian inhabitants and an annual growth rate of 1.6%. 96% are literate. Infant mortality is 18/1000. 34% of the population are involved in industry and commerce, 30% in services, 19% in agriculture and forestry and fishing, 7% in construction, and 2% in mining. The major city is Santiago. The government, which gained independence in 1810, is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches. There are 12 regions. There are 6 major political parties. Suffrage is universal at 18 years. Gross domestic product (GDP) is $29.2 billion. The annual growth rate is 5% and inflation is 19%. Copper, timber, fish, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, and molybdenum are its natural resources. Agricultural products are 9% of GDP and include wheat, potatoes, corn, sugar beets, onions, beans, fruits, and livestock. Industry is 21% of GDP and includes mineral refining, metal manufacturing, food and fish processing, paper and wood products, and finished textiles. $8.3 billion is the value of exports and $7 billion of imports. Export markets are in Japan, the US, Germany, Brazil, and the United Kingdom. Chile received $3.5 billion in economic aid between 1949-85, but little in recent years. 83% live in urban centers, principally around Santiago. Congressional representation is made on the basis of elections by a unique binomial majority system. Principal government officials are identified. Chile has a diversified free market economy and is almost self-sufficient in food production. The US is a primary trading partner. 49% of Chile's exports are minerals. Chile maintains diplomatic relations with 70 countries, however, relations are strained with Argentina and Bolivia. Relations

  3. Chile. (United States)


    Chile is a long (2650 miles), narrow (250 miles at widest point) country sandwiched between the Andes mountains and the Pacific. The northern desert is rich in copper and nitrates; the temperate middle region is agricultural and supports the major cities, including Santiago, the capital, and the port of Valparaiso; and the southern region is a cold and damp area of forests, grasslands, lakes, and fjords. The country is divided into 12 administrative regions. Chile's population of 12.5 million are mainly of Spanish or Indian descent or mestizos. Literacy is 92.3%, and the national language is Spanish. Infant mortality is 18.1/1000, and life expectancy is 68.2 years. 82% of the people are urban, and most are Roman Catholics. Chile was settled by the Spanish in 1541 and attached to the Viceroyalty of Peru. Independence was won in 1818 under the leadership of Bernardo O'Higgins. In the 1880s Chile extended its sovereignty over the Strait of Magellan in the south and areas of southern Peru and Bolivia in the north. An officially parliamentary government, elected by universal suffrage, drifted into oligarchy and finally into a military dictatorship under Carlos Ibanez in 1924. Constitutional government was restored in 1932. The Christian Democratic government of Eduardo Frei (1964-70) inaugurated major reforms, including land redistribution, education, and far-reaching social and economic policies. A Marxist government under Salvador Allende lasted from 1970 to 1973 when the present military government of General Pinochet Ugarte took power, overthrew Allende, abolished the Congress, and banned political parties. It has moved the country in the direction of a free market economy but at the cost of systematic violations of human rights. A new constitution was promulgated in 1981, and congressional elections have been scheduled for October, 1989. A "National Accord for Transition to Full Democracy" was mediated by the Catholic Church in 1985. The social reforms of the

  4. Chile; Recent Economic Developments


    International Monetary Fund


    This paper examines the sources of growth in Chile and compares Chile’s experience with that of other countries. Two alternative measures of the sources of growth for Chile are presented to facilitate comparisons with other studies. The first measure adjusts factor inputs for the degree of utilization (using the unemployment rate), and the second measure introduces an index of the quality of factor inputs. The paper presents estimates of potential output of Chile for 1971–95, and also discuss...

  5. Chile: Its Conventional Threats (United States)


    tdf.htm>. Internet. Accessed 30 October 2004. 20 21 BIBLIOGRAPHY Barros, Van Buren Mario. Historia Diplomatica de Chile . Santiago: Editorial Andres...USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT CHILE : ITS CONVENTIONAL THREATS by Lieutenant Colonel Claudio Toledo Chilean Army Dr. Gabriel Marcella Project...3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Chile Its Conventional Threats 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  6. Chile's agricultural diversification


    Arnade, Carlos Anthony; Sparks, Amy


    Chile's fruit sector, both in production and exports, has grown significantly since 1974. At that time, Chile introduced structural reforms in its economy which assured that market principles would operate regarding land ownership. Also, the government began a 'hands-off' policy which basically allowed free-market principles to prevail. As a result of these conditions operating in the economy, Chile's agricultural sector diversified from producing largely annual crops and wool to also produci...

  7. Chile 1920-1980. (United States)

    Drake, Paul W.


    Annotated bibliography on the history of Chile during 60 years in the middle of the twentieth century is presented. A general outline of major Chilean developments during this period is presented to aid college level history instructors develop curriculum on Chile. Outline topics are the end of the Parliamentary Republic, 1920-31; popular front…

  8. IDRC in Chile

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers at PUCC also studied residential energy use, the need to use wood fuel more efficiently, and the potential for small- and medium-scale hydroelectric power generation. Chile's energy management policies drew on this research. IDRC. IDRC in Chile. INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH CENTRE. R.

  9. Chile - Selected Issues


    International Monetary Fund


    This Selected Issues paper for Chile describes the postcrisis recovery experience. The recovery from the 2008–2009 global crisis has been markedly different both among advanced and emerging economies. The steady improvement in the labor wedge-distortions related to the consumption leisure decision helped support the recovery. In Chile, the growth generated by this improvement, was sufficient to overcome the relatively weak performance of efficiency (TFP). Chile’s recovery has been characteriz...

  10. [Domestic violence in Chile]. (United States)

    León, Tomás; Grez, Marcela; Prato, Juan Andrés; Torres, Rafael; Ruiz, Sergio


    According to recent surveys, there is a high prevalence of domestic violence (DV) in Chile. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed, Scielo, and Lilacs with the MesH terms "Chile", "Mental Health", "Health", "Domestic Violence", to explore the impact of DV on health in Chile. Eleven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Two studies were prospective, exploring the influence of DV on maternal-infant health. Nine studies explored the influence of DV on mental health in adults. DV was associated with deranged mental health indicators specially anxiety and depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Similar results were observed among mothers who were victims of violence and their children. It is concluded that DV is a complex phenomenon with serious effects on health. However the number of studies on the subject is low and new follow up studies are required. Predictive models for DV and effective preventive measures are urgently needed.

  11. IDRC in Chile

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    labour market trends and align educa- tional programs with the skills needed by industry. Researchers at PUC also studied residential energy use ... IDRC represented “the possibility of keeping ideas alive” during the Pinochet dictatorship, says Ricardo Lagos, an IDRC- supported researcher who went on to become Chile's ...

  12. IDRC in Chile

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Latin Americans benefit from the potential of open data. □ Indigenous farmers cope ... Fast-Start Financing. Duration: 2012–2015. Grantee: Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. Water resources in the populous Maipo. River Basin are under stress from competing demands and climate change effects. Researchers are ...

  13. Spent Fuel in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López Lizana, F.


    The government has made a complete and serious study of many different aspects and possible road maps for nuclear electric power with strong emphasis on safety and energy independence. In the study, the chapter of SFM has not been a relevant issue at this early stage due to the fact that it has been left for later implementation stage. This paper deals with the options Chile might consider in managing its Spent Fuel taking into account foreign experience and factors related to safety, economics, public acceptance and possible novel approaches in spent fuel treatment. The country’s distinctiveness and past experience in this area taking into account that Chile has two research reactors which will have an influence in the design of the Spent Fuel option. (author)

  14. Identidad Docente en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia González Castro


    Full Text Available Este ensayo invita a pensar el discurso identitario docente en Chile, desde la perspectiva de la tropología, entendida como ejes textuales sobre los cuales se figura la realidad y que son efecto de la interacción comunicativa entre integrantes de un colectivo social, que comparten una enciclopedia o repertorio de experiencias comunes que permiten asignar sentido a un mensaje.

  15. Primary Medical Care in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.

    Primary medical care in Chile: accessibility under military rule [Front Cover] [Front Matter] [Title Page] Contents Tables Figures Preface Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: The Restructuring of Medical Care Financing in Chile Chapter 3: Inflation and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 4: Help...

  16. Rule of Repression in Chile. (United States)

    American Indian Journal, 1979


    This report on the current condition of the Mapuche Indians of Chile is edited from a document on the "Situation of Human Rights in Chile" and details the repressive and inhumane treatment of the largest indigenous ethnic minority in the country. (Author/RTS)

  17. Protecting Dark Skies in Chile (United States)

    Smith, R. Chris; Sanhueza, Pedro; Phillips, Mark


    Current projections indicate that Chile will host approximately 70% of the astronomical collecting area on Earth by 2030, augmenting the enormous area of ALMA with that of three next-generation optical telescopes: LSST, GMTO, and E-ELT. These cutting-edge facilities represent billions of dollars of investment in the astronomical facilities hosted in Chile. The Chilean government, Chilean astronomical community, and the international observatories in Chile have recognized that these investments are threatened by light pollution, and have formed a strong collaboration to work at managing the threats. We will provide an update on the work being done in Chile, ranging from training municipalities about new lighting regulations to exploring international recognition of the dark sky sites of Northern Chile.

  18. Country profile: Chile. (United States)


    The first case of AIDS in Chile was diagnosed in 1984. There have been 1060 cases reported since then throughout the country, or 8.2 cases for every 100,000 Chileans. 92.8% of all people with AIDS in Chile are male, with the male:female AIDS patient ratio increasing from 12.9:1 for the period 1984-1991 to 15.2:1 currently. This increase in the proportion of male AIDS cases suggests the existence of a rapidly increasing male HIV infection rate. 82% of reported cases are the result of unprotected sexual intercourse, 66.8% of which are among males who identify themselves as homosexual or bisexual. The 7.2:1 ratio of homosexual/bisexual transmission to heterosexual transmission for 1984-1989, however, declined to 3.9:1 for 1990-1994, indicating an increase in the extent of HIV/AIDS transmission through sex between men and women. Heterosexual sex is the reported means of transmission for 15.2% of currently identified AIDS cases in Chile. The mode of transmission was unknown for 10% of reported cases, due to vertical transmission among 1%, and the result of the direct exchange of blood among 7%. 60% of these latter cases were reported among IV drug users, 20% were reported as the result of blood transfusion, and 16% were reported in hemophiliacs. Most transmissions by blood transfusion occurred before 1987, when blood product controls were implemented. Infection due to IV drug use grew to 69.8% of such blood-related cases in 1990-94, compared to just 29.4% of cases in 1984-89. 81.5% of all cases are among people aged 20-49 years, with 64.1% of cases among individuals aged 30-49. Those under age 20 comprise 2.3% of total cases and those aged 20-29 years comprise 17.4%.

  19. Robotics research in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ruiz-del-Solar


    Full Text Available The development of research in robotics in a developing country is a challenging task. Factors such as low research funds, low trust from local companies and the government, and a small number of qualified researchers hinder the development of strong, local research groups. In this article, and as a case of study, we present our research group in robotics at the Advanced Mining Technology Center of the Universidad de Chile, and the way in which we have addressed these challenges. In 2008, we decided to focus our research efforts in mining, which is the main industry in Chile. We observed that this industry has needs in terms of safety, productivity, operational continuity, and environmental care. All these needs could be addressed with robotics and automation technology. In a first stage, we concentrate ourselves in building capabilities in field robotics, starting with the automation of a commercial vehicle. An important outcome of this project was the earn of the local mining industry confidence. Then, in a second stage started in 2012, we began working with the local mining industry in technological projects. In this article, we describe three of the technological projects that we have developed with industry support: (i an autonomous vehicle for mining environments without global positioning system coverage; (ii the inspection of the irrigation flow in heap leach piles using unmanned aerial vehicles and thermal cameras; and (iii an enhanced vision system for vehicle teleoperation in adverse climatic conditions.

  20. Eso's Situation in Chile (United States)


    ESO, the European Southern Observatory, in reply to questions raised by the international media, as well as an ongoing debate about the so-called "Paranal case" in Chilean newspapers, would like to make a number of related observations concerning its status and continued operation in that country [1]. THE ESO OBSERVATORY SITES IN CHILE The European Southern Observatory, an international organisation established and supported by eight European countries, has been operating more than 30 years in the Republic of Chile. Here ESO maintains one of the world's prime astronomical observatories on the La Silla mountain in the southern part of the Atacama desert. This location is in the Fourth Chilean Region, some 600 km north of Santiago de Chile. In order to protect the La Silla site against dust and light pollution from possible future mining industries, roads and settlements, ESO early acquired the territory around this site. It totals about 825 sq. km and has effectively contributed to the preservation of its continued, excellent "astronomical" quality. Each year, more than 500 astronomers from European countries, Chile and elsewhere profit from this when they come to La Silla to observe with one or more of the 15 telescopes now located there. In 1987, the ESO Council [2] decided to embark upon one of the most prestigious and technologically advanced projects ever conceived in astronomy, the Very Large Telescope (VLT). It will consist of four interconnected 8.2-metre telescopes and will become the largest optical telescope in the world when it is ready. It is safe to predict that many exciting discoveries will be made with this instrument, and it will undoubtedly play a very important role in our exploration of the distant universe and its many mysteries during the coming decades. THE VLT AND PARANAL In order to find the best site for the VLT, ESO performed a thorough investigation of many possible mountain tops, both near La Silla and in Northern Chile. They showed

  1. Nuclear energy evolution in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir Dupouy, J.


    The interest about the nuclear in Chile, as is the case in other countries, began at the end of World War Two. That initial interest did not have a big national impact, since the secrecy that characterized the first years of the nuclear era restrained the acquisition of technological information. Since August 1945 up to our days, scientifical, political and international people and events have chronologically marked the evolution of nuclear energy in Chile. (Author)

  2. El proceso emprendedor en Chile


    José Miguel Benavente


    Este estudio analiza los factores que afectan en forma positiva y negativa el proceso de creación de emprendimientos dinámicos en Chile. Se basa en una encuesta a 200 empresas jóvenes, la cual es parte de una muestra de casi 2000 empresas de América Latina. El presente estudio se enfoca básicamente en el segmento de nuevos emprendimientos existentes en Chile.

  3. Country watch: Chile. (United States)

    Frasca, T


    Confidentiality is a critical issue in the conduct of HIV tests in Chile. Though HIV testing is confidential in the public health system (through the use of a coding system), syphilis tests which are conducted simultaneously with HIV, require clients to provide their identity as well as address. In response to this concern, the National AIDS Commission has launched training programs in all 26 public health services for staff involved with HIV/AIDS programs. The training programs allow professional staff and volunteers to understand the importance of confidentiality. Nevertheless, cases of breaches of confidentiality have been reported, raising doubts as to the ability of the system to maintain confidentiality. These cases often occur at the hospitals or clinics where staff is insensitive to the needs of their clients and oblivious of their rights. Hence, it is highlighted that to reinforce confidentiality, patients, advocacy groups, human rights activists and health care administrators must pay attention to the many ways in which confidentiality is breached.

  4. complejidad en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alejandro Bustamante-Ubilla


    Full Text Available El presente estudio tiene por objetivo caracterizar el clima organizacional al interior de 2 hospitales dealta complejidad de Chile, determinando las dimensiones más y menos influyentes. Para su desarrollose aplicó un cuestionario que consta de 71 variables agrupadas en 14 dimensiones a una muestra de561 funcionarios. La interpretación de los resultados se realizó a través del análisis del valor prome-dio estandarizado y su confiabilidad ratificada mediante el alfa de Cronbach. A partir de lo anterior, sedeterminó que las dimensiones que influyen por encima del promedio fueron: identidad, motivaciónlaboral y responsabilidad; en tanto que las dimensiones que muestran un nivel de impacto por debajodel promedio resultaron ser: equipo y distribución de personas y material, administración del conflictoy comunicación.© 2015 Universidad ICESI. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. Este es un artículo Open Access bajo lalicencia CC BY (

  5. Country watch: Chile. (United States)

    Montoya Leiva, M


    Servicio Paz y Justicia (SERPAJ) is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) established in Chile in 1977. It supports fundamental human dignity and rights by fighting discrimination and exclusion based upon individual differences. SERPAJ promotes training, organization, and the political participation of community members as part of the democratic process, working mainly with the at risk women, street children, and youth of Santiago's working-class neighborhoods. Groups participate in workshops and training courses on human rights and development, civic education, and methods of non-violent community action. In 1987, SERPAJ-Sur Oriente began to include the topic of sexuality and AIDS/STDs in courses training working-class women as community human rights agents. The NGO is therefore one of the first mainstream Chilean human rights organizations to incorporate HIV/AIDS issues. A basic facts brochure was developed, followed by a pilot education project developed in one neighborhood which was then systematically replicated in other neighborhoods. The comments of some people who have participated in SERPAJ workshops are presented.

  6. Modernitet og forbrugskultur i Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristoffanini, Pablo Rolando


    I de sidste årtier er Chile blevet et egentligt forbrugersamfund. Udbredelsen af forbrugskulturen og forbrugerismen er centrale fænomener i chilenernes dagligliv og har nået et omfang, som har konsekvenser for de borgere, der ikke kan deltage fuldt ud heri, noget som er typisk for et samfund med en...... ujævn økonomisk udvikling og med store sociale forskelle. Denne proces er ikke et produkt af en stille, fredelig og naturlig samfundsudvikling, således som magteliten og de toneangivende intellektuelle i Chile har fremstillet det. Som jeg vil vise, er skabelsen af et egentlig forbrugssamfund knyttet til...... til i dag. Ifølge disse er Chile blevet et moderne samfund netop i kraft af, at Chile er et ægte forbrugersamfund med alt, hvad dette indebærer, såvel materielt som symbolsk. For det tredje er billedet af Chile som en ”supermoderne” nation i den latinamerikanske kontekst en udbredt forestilling hos...

  7. Wildfires in Chile: A review (United States)

    Úbeda, Xavier; Sarricolea, Pablo


    This paper reviews the literature examining the wildfire phenomenon in Chile. Since ancient times, Chile's wildfires have shaped the country's landscape, but today, as in many other parts of the world, the fire regime - pattern, frequency and intensity - has grown at an alarming rate. In 2014, > 8000 fires were responsible for burning c. 130,000 ha, making it the worst year in Chile's recent history. The reasons for this increase appear to be the increment in the area planted with flammable species; the rejection of these landscape modifications on the part of local communities that target these plantations in arson attacks; and, the adoption of intensive forest management practices resulting in the accumulation of a high fuel load. These trends have left many native species in a precarious situation and forest plantation companies under considerable financial pressure. An additional problem is posed by fires at the wildland urban interface (WUI), threatening those inhabitants that live in Chile's most heavily populated cities. The prevalence of natural fires in Chile; the relationship between certain plant species and fire in terms of seed germination strategies and plant adaptation; the relationship between fire and invasive species; and, the need for fire prevention systems and territorial plans that include fire risk assessments are some of the key aspects discussed in this article. Several of the questions raised will require further research, including just how fire-dependent the ecosystems in Chile are, how the forest at the WUI can be better managed to prevent human and material damage, and how best to address the social controversy that pits the Mapuche population against the timber companies.

  8. The biomethane potential in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiffert, M.; Kaltschmitt, M.; Miranda, J.A.


    Within the last decade natural gas gained considerable importance in Chile. The contribution of natural gas within the energy system will increase in the future by predicted 3.6% annually until the year 2015. Due to limited resources within its own country, the energy system of Chile depends on natural gas imports preferential from Argentina. Therefore, the aim of several stakeholders from policy and industry is to reduce the share of imported primary energy within the overall energy system. In order to reach this goal, the use of domestic resources and particularly the utilisation of biomass as one of the most important renewable sources of energy in Chile could play an important role. Against this background, the goal of this paper is the analysis of the technical potentials of biomethane as a substitute for natural gas. For the production of biomethane the anaerobic or bio-chemical (i.e. Biogas) as well as the thermo-chemical conversion pathways (i.e. Bio-SNG) are considered. The results of this analysis show that biomass converted to biomethane is a promising energy provision option for Chile and it contributes to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

  9. Forest nursery management in Chile (United States)

    Rene Escobar R.; Manuel Sanchez O.; Guillermo Pereira C.


    The forest economy in Chile is based on products from artificial reforestation efforts on approximately 2 million ha. From these, about 1.5 million ha (75%) are planted with Pinus radiata, 400,000 ha (20%) with species of Eucalyptus, principally E. globulus and E. nitens, and the rest (5%) composed by other...

  10. Chiliques volcano, Chile (United States)


    A January 6, 2002 ASTER nighttime thermal infrared image of Chiliques volcano in Chile shows a hot spot in the summit crater and several others along the upper flanks of the edifice, indicating new volcanic activity. Examination of an earlier nighttime thermal infrared image from May 24,2000 showed no thermal anomaly. Chiliques volcano was previously thought to be dormant. Rising to an elevation of 5778 m, Chiliques is a simple stratovolcano with a 500-m-diameter circular summit crater. This mountain is one of the most important high altitude ceremonial centers of the Incas. It is rarely visited due to its difficult accessibility. Climbing to the summit along Inca trails, numerous ruins are encountered; at the summit there are a series of constructions used for rituals. There is a beautiful lagoon in the crater that is almost always frozen.The daytime image was acquired on November 19, 2000 and was created by displaying ASTER bands 1,2 and 3 in blue, green and red. The nighttime image was acquired January 6, 2002, and is a color-coded display of a single thermal infrared band. The hottest areas are white, and colder areas are darker shades of red. Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.These images were acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U

  11. Socialisme i Chile efter Pinochet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristoffanini, Pablo Rolando


    Chile bliver ofte præsenteret som et paradigme for resten af det latinamerikanske kontinent: Et land med høj økonomisk vækst og politisk stabilitet. Landet har endda haft to socialistiske præsidenter siden 2000, den sidste den første kvindelige præsident. Succeshistorien har en bagside: De...... socialistiske regeringer har accepteret et begrænset demokrati og videreført en nyliberal økonomisk politik, der har bragt dem på konfrontationskurs med massebevægelserne og isoleret Chile fra de andre lande i regionen, der søger integration og gensidig støøte. Udgivelsesdato: Februar...

  12. [Chile: social protection in health]. (United States)

    Urriola, Rafael


    This piece begins with a brief discussion of the concepts leading to the social right to health protection. Special emphasis is placed on the principle of social cohesion, which has influenced social health protection in European countries. Chile's experience in this field from the 1990s to the present is described, as exemplified in three dimensions. In the first place, social security coverage is presented as a means to achieve universal (horizontal) coverage. A discussion follows on vertical coverage, where the author identifies health problems for which insured persons have guaranteed rights of access to medical care. This section describes available emergency care, primary health care, and the special plan for Universal Access to Explicit Guarantees (Acceso Universal de Garantías Explícitas de salud, or AUGE). Thirdly, the discussion covers the funding sources supporting the Chilean health care system: Government subsidies, contributions to social security, and out-of-pocket disbursements for private care. Chile's public health system has various special programs. One of them is catastrophic insurance, which covers 100% of the care needed for complex and very costly treatments. Older persons (over 65) have coverage for 100% of the cost of eyeglasses and hearing aids, and for 50% of the cost of home care. If life expectancy is an appropriate indicator of health system results, it is worth noting that Chile and the United States of America have both achieved a life expectancy of 77 years, even though Chile spends only 5.9% of its gross domestic product on health care, as compared to the 15% spent by the United States.

  13. Serious fungal infections in Chile. (United States)

    Alvarez Duarte, E; Denning, D W


    The incidence and prevalence of fungal infections in Chile are unknown. Here, we have estimated the burden of serious fungal diseases from data obtained from clinical reports, WHO reports, Chilean census, OECD reports and comprehensive literature search available on PubMed and SciELO, among other scientific resources. Due the lack of official data about fungal diseases, frequencies were calculated based on the specific populations at risk. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (>4 episodes/year) is estimated to occur in 3108/100,000. Using a low international average rate of 5/100,000, we estimate 878 candidaemia cases and 132 patients with intra-abdominal candidiasis. Due to the low incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in Chile, limited numbers of patients with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis are likely: a total of 1212, 25% following TB. Invasive aspergillosis is estimated to affect 296 patients following leukaemia therapy, transplantation and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 1.7/100,000. In addition, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (SAFS) were estimated to be around 97.9/100,000 and 127/100,000 respectively, in 675,772 adult asthmatics and 1700 CF patients. Given a 38,000 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) population, with around 2189 new cases of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) annually, cryptococcal meningitis and Pneumocystis pneumonia are estimated at 0.12/100,000 and 4.3/100,000, respectively. In total, 325,000 (1.9%) people in Chile develop serious fungal infections annually. Respiratory fungal disease predominates in Chile; a national action plan for fungal disease is urgently needed, including epidemiological studies to validate the estimates.

  14. Sistema de salud de Chile The health system of Chile


    Víctor Becerril-Montekio; Juan de Dios Reyes; Annick Manuel


    En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Chile, incluyendo su estructura, financiamiento, beneficiarios y recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone. Este sistema está compuesto por dos sectores, público y privado. El sector público está formado por todos los organismos que constituyen el Sistema Nacional de Servicios de Salud y cubre aproximadamente a 70% de la población, incluyendo a los pobres del campo y las ciudades, la clase media baja y los jubilados, así como ...

  15. Earthquake engineering research program in Chile (United States)

    Saragoni, G. R.


    Earthquake engineering research in Chile has been carried out for more than 30 years. Systematic research is done at the university of Chile in Santiago. Other universities such as the Catholic University, university of Concepcion, and the Federico Santa Maria Technical University have begun to teach and conduct research in earthquake engineering in recent years. 

  16. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile (United States)

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima


    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have led to…

  17. [Antimicrobial susceptibility in Chile 2012]. (United States)

    Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime


    Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains.

  18. Rainfall erosivity in Central Chile (United States)

    Bonilla, Carlos A.; Vidal, Karim L.


    SummaryOne of the most widely used indicators of potential water erosion risk is the rainfall-runoff erosivity factor ( R) of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). R is traditionally determined by calculating a long-term average of the annual sum of the product of a storm's kinetic energy ( E) and its maximum 30-min intensity ( I30), known as the EI30. The original method used to calculate EI30 requires pluviograph records for at most 30-min time intervals. Such high resolution data is difficult to obtain in many parts of the world, and processing it is laborious and time-consuming. In Chile, even though there is a well-distributed rain gauge network, there is no systematic characterization of the territory in terms of rainfall erosivity. This study presents a rainfall erosivity map for most of the cultivated land in the country. R values were calculated by the prescribed method for 16 stations with continuous graphical record rain gauges in Central Chile. The stations were distributed along 800 km (north-south), and spanned a precipitation gradient of 140-2200 mm yr -1. More than 270 years of data were used, and 5400 storms were analyzed. Additionally, 241 spatially distributed R values were generated by using an empirical procedure based on annual rainfall. Point estimates generated by both methods were interpolated by using kriging to create a map of rainfall erosivity for Central Chile. The results show that the empirical procedure used in this study predicted the annual rainfall erosivity well (model efficiency = 0.88). Also, an increment in the rainfall erosivities was found as a result of the rainfall depths, a regional feature determined by elevation and increasing with latitude from north to south. R values in the study area range from 90 MJ mm ha -1 h -1 yr -1 in the north up to 7375 MJ mm ha -1 h -1 yr -1 in the southern area, at the foothills of the Andes Mountains. Although the map and the estimates could be improved in the future by

  19. Rituales y “fetiches” políticos en Chile colonial: entre el sello de la Audiencia y el pendón del Cabildo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenzuela Márquez, Jaime


    Full Text Available La legitimación festiva del sistema de poder colonial contaba en el Nuevo Mundo con dos aliados simbólicos fundamentales, dos objetos que representaban directamente al monarca y que, por ese mismo hecho, eran recargados de majestuosidad y rodeados de veneración. El sello y el pendón reales se constituían así en soportes de su presencia intangible, pero ubicua, en todos los rincones del imperio a través de su panoplia litúrgica y, específicamente, gracias a estos objetos singulares. Transformados, a través de un ceremonial sacro/profano apropiado, en verdaderos “fetiches” —al encarnar la “omnipresencia” del soberano, cual transubstanciación divina—, ambos objetos cumplirán su rol político a través de estrategias rituales diferentes, pero complementarias, en el seno de las representaciones mentales colectivas de la sociedad colonial.

    Por su parte, los representantes vicarios del soberano y la élite local de Santiago van a aprovecharse ampliamente de la existencia de estos objetos y de la “sacralidad” con que estaban recargados. Al gozar de la exclusividad de su manipulación, estos actores sociales del poder reforzarán su prestigio individual y los lugares privilegiados reservados a sus instituciones al interior del sistema.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available El problema de la desigualdad en Chile ha sido abordado desde diferentes puntos de vista como la cuestión de la distribución de la riqueza o el acceso a los derechos sociales. Es este trabajo se observa el mismo problema pero desde la perspectiva recientemente esbozada por los movimientos sociales: la del racismo ambiental o la desigual distribución de los deshechos del desarrollo y el consumo. De esta manera se revisan sucintamente los principales conflictos que han surgido en el último tiempo a lo largo del país entre empresas públicas y privadas y comunidades locales y originarias. Así mismo se examinan las formas de organización que estas últimas han asumido y el estado actual de articulación entre ellas. De la revisión de la situación se concluye que estamos ante el surgimiento de un actor de nuevo tipo, que surge de las contradicciones del Chile neoliberal y que se diferencia del movimiento ecologista por vincular sus reivindicaciones a la defensa del territorio y al derecho a la autodeterminación de los pueblos.

  1. President of Chile at CERN

    CERN Multimedia


    The President of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, in the ATLAS cavern with, from left to right, Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesman, Vivian Heyl, CONICYT President, and Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General. Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General, and Vivian Heyl, CONICYT President, signing a cooperation agreement between CERN and Chile’s Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT).The President of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, paid a visit to CERN during her three-day tour of Switzerland. The charismatic Michelle Bachelet and her large delegation were greeted by the CERN Director-General and then taken to see the ATLAS experiment and the LHC. She also took time to meet the Chilean community working at CERN, comprising several physicists in the Theory Group and the ATLAS experiment. The meeting was followed by the signing of a cooperation agreement between CERN and Chile’s Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científi...

  2. Letter from Chile: Re-establishing health care in Chile (United States)

    Jiménez, Jorge


    Chile's long term social policy has produced very impressive outcomes in general health indicators, with a national health service established as early as 1952. During the years of the Pinochet dictatorship (1973-89) public health institutions were greatly affected, with sharp diminution in financing which affected investment and salaries. The democratic government initiated in 1990 faced a difficult situation, with underpaid staff and decrepit hospitals. The ministry took immediate action to improve salaries and start an ambitious health sector reform including investment in infrastructure, technology, and modern management. Decentralisation and autonomy, changes in payment for service mechanisms, and a public-private mix are the main objectives of this reform, keeping the public role as predominant in the proposed structure. This process has been affected by union unrest and public opinion dissatisfaction, which tend to present obstacles to progress in this complicated issue. Imagesp729-ap730-a

  3. Relations Between Chile and ESO (United States)


    As announced in an earlier Press Release (PR 08/94 of 6 May 1994), a high-ranking ESO delegation visited Santiago de Chile during the week of 24 - 28 May 1994 to discuss various important matters of mutual interest with the Chilean Government. It consisted of Dr. Peter Creola (President of ESO Council), Dr. Catherine Cesarsky (Vice-President of ESO Council), Dr. Henrik Grage (Former Vice-President of ESO Council) and Professor Riccardo Giacconi (ESO Director General), the latter accompanied by his advisers. THE SUPPLEMENTARY TREATY BETWEEN CHILE AND ESO Following a meeting with the ambassadors to Chile of the eight ESO member countries, the ESO delegation was received by the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Carlos Figueroa, and members of his staff. The ESO delegation was pleased to receive assurances that the present Chilean Government, like its predecessors, will continue to honour all contractual agreements, in particular the privileges and immunities of this Organisation, which were laid down in the Treaty between ESO and Chile that was signed by the parties in 1963 and ratified the following year. The discussions covered some aspects of the proposed Supplementary Treaty which has been under preparation during the past year. This included in particular the desire of the Chilean side to further increase the percentage of guaranteed time for Chilean astronomers at the future ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) and also the rules governing the installation by ESO member countries of additional telescopes at the ESO observatories in Chile. ESO invited a Chilean delegation to visit the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany) later this year for the final adjustment of the text of the Supplementary Treaty, after which it should be possible to proceed rapidly with the signing and ratification by the Chilean Parliament and the ESO Council. THE SITUATION AROUND PARANAL The ESO delegation expressed its deep concern to the Chilean Government about the continuing legal

  4. Chile: los mapuches y el Bicentenario Chile: Mapuches e do Bicentenario Chile: Mapuche and the Bicentennial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bengoa


    Full Text Available El Bicentenario de la República de Chile se conmemoró en el mes de septiembre del año 2010. Además de marcar un importante hito histórico, coincidió con un cambio político en el Gobierno del país, el que pasó de la Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia a la Alianza de partidos formada por la derecha chilena. Se cumplieron por tanto 20 años desde que en el año 1990 cambiara el Gobierno militar presidido por el general Pinochet. Ese largo tiempo, dos décadas, coincide con un período de políticas que el Estado ha implementado hacia los Pueblos Indígenas. El Proyecto “Conmemoraciones y Memorias Subalternas” ha realizado durante el año 2010 un conjunto de investigaciones de terreno y documentales tendientes a comprender del modo más objetivo y científico lo ocurrido en el período y por tanto la situación actual de las sociedades mapuches en sus complejas relaciones con la chilena.O Bicentenario da República do Chile comemorou-se no mês de Setembro do ano 2010. Junto com transformar-se num marco histórico, coincidiu com uma mudança política no Governo do país, que passou da Concertação de Partidos pela Democracia (centro-esquerda à Aliança de partidos formada pela direita chilena. Cumpriram-se por tanto 20 anos desde que em 1990 mudasse o Governo militar presidido pelo general Pinochet. Esse longo tempo, duas décadas, coincide com um período de políticas que o Estado implementou para com os Povos Indígenas. O Projeto “Comemorações e Memórias Subalternas” realizou durante o ano 2010 um conjunto de pesquisas de campo e documentais tendentes a compreender do modo mais objetivo e científico o ocorrido no período e, por tanto, a situação atual das sociedades mapuches em suas complexas relações com a chilena.The conmeration of the 200 years of the Independence of Chile was in September 2010. This year was also the political change from the Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia to the right

  5. Current Discussions Between ESO and Chile (United States)


    [Joint Press Release by the Government of the Republic of Chile and the European Southern Observatory. The text is issued simultaneously in Santiago de Chile (in Spanish) and at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (in English).] Today, Tuesday, 18 April 1995, at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany), Mr. Roberto Cifuentes, Plenipotentiary Ambassador representing the Government of the Republic of Chile, and the Director General of the European Southern Observatory, Professor Riccardo Giacconi, have signed a Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement to the Convention of 6 November 1963 which governs the relations between Chile and this International Organisation. This Agreement which in practice signifies a widening and strengthening of the cooperative relations between the Organisation and the Chilean scientific community will hereafter be submitted for ratification by the National Congress of the Republic of Chile (the Parliament) and by the ESO Council. According to the Agreement signed today, Chilean astronomers will have privileged access within up to 10 percent observing time on all present and future ESO telescopes in Chile. Moreover, ESO accepts to incorporate into its labour regulations for Chilean personnel concepts like freedom of association and collective bargaining. This signing of the Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement to the original Convention of 1963 follows after months of constructive dialogue between the parties. It constitutes an important step towards a solution of some of the pending points on the current agenda for discussions between the Government of Chile and ESO. Among the issues still pending, ESO has informed the Government of Chile that respect for its immunities by the Chilean State is of vital importance for the continuation of the construction of the world's largest telescope at Paranal, as well as the continued presence of the Organisation in Chile. The Chilean Government, on its side, and concerning

  6. Crustal seismicity in central Chile (United States)

    Barrientos, S.; Vera, E.; Alvarado, P.; Monfret, T.


    Both the genesis and rates of activity of shallow intraplate seismic activity in central Chile are poorly understood, mainly because of the lack of association of seismicity with recognizable fault features at the surface and a poor record of seismic activity. The goal of this work is to detail the characteristics of seismicity that takes place in the western flank of the Andes in central Chile. This region, located less than 100 km from Santiago, has been the site of earthquakes with magnitudes up to 6.9, including several 5+ magnitude shocks in recent years. Because most of the events lie outside the Central Chile Seismic Network, at distances up to 60 km to the east, it is essential to have adequate knowledge of the velocity structure in the Andean region to produce the highest possible quality of epicentral locations. For this, a N-S refraction line, using mining blasts of the Disputada de Las Condes open pit mine, has been acquired. These blasts were detected and recorded as far as 180 km south of the mine. Interpretation of the travel times indicates an upper crustal model consisting of three layers: 2.2-, 6.7-, and 6.1-km thick, overlying a half space; their associated P wave velocities are 4.75-5.0 (gradient), 5.8-6.0 (gradient), 6.2, and 6.6 km/s, respectively. Hypocentral relocation of earthquakes in 1986-2001, using the newly developed velocity model, reveals several regions of concentrated seismicity. One clearly delineates the fault zone and extensions of the strike-slip earthquake that took place in September 1987 at the source of the Cachapoal River. Other regions of activity are near the San José volcano, the source of the Maipo River, and two previously recognized lineaments that correspond to the southern extension of the Pocuro fault and Olivares River. A temporary array of seismographs, installed in the high Maipo River (1996) and San José volcano (1997) regions, established the hypocentral location of events with errors of less than 1 km

  7. Mujeres inmigrantes peruanas en Chile


    Carolina Stefoni


    Este artículo reflexiona en torno a la situación de la migración peruana en Chile, en particular sobre la situación de exclusión social y laboral que enfrentan las mujeres inmigrantes en Santiago. La migración peruana se caracteriza por ser eminentemente femenina y con una alta concentración laboral de este grupo en el trabajo doméstico. ¿Por qué se han vuelto las labores la fuente principal de trabajo para estas mujeres?, ¿basta con señalar que se debe a mano de obra más barata o existen otr...

  8. Chile: perspectives in school health. (United States)

    Langdon, M C; Gazmuri, C; Venegas, L


    The leading health problems of children and adolescents in Chile is reviewed. The Chilean educational system and how the system addresses its principal health problems are described. A school health program is described as well as other educational programs designed and developed by nongovernmental institutions which have a smaller coverage. Current research studies regarding growth and development, child morbidity, nutritional level, and mental health studies are reviewed. In addition, principal challenges that include developing more efficient ways of referring children, enriching the curriculum and teacher training, assigning school hours for health teachers, and enlarging coverage of the health care evaluation programs are outlined. Of special importance is developing prevention programs for parents and children using school and community leaders to prevent health problems in areas such as human sexuality education, decision-making, social abilities, and alcohol and drug abuse. Main efforts should be directed toward low-income families and children to improve life conditions.

  9. Intercultural bilingual education in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Ibarra Figueroa


    Full Text Available This article is based on analysis of the actions of public bodies and institutions that are being created in Chile to meet demand in Intercultural Bilingual Education (IBE. The aim is to analyze the practical training of students in initial teacher training in intercultural basic education at the Catholic University of Temuco. In addition, reveal the working methods of collaborative field between family-school- community partnership in key initial identification and subsequent components and devices in the proper relationship of individuals, in order to establish criteria by biopsychosocial processes from the identity the Other and You as host in the plural diversity of human beings, with aim is to recommend  a public policy with an emphasis on multicultural values of each community, enriching the human condition and biopolitics regarding the integration from the educational training and the role that fits the state.

  10. Chile and Mercosur: One Strategic Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oviedo, Humberto


    ... a big free trade area. Chile has been proactive to open its economy unilaterally and now is looking for creating the best conditions to participate in some important economic blocks, as a NAFTA, MERCOSUR, the Asian-Pacific...

  11. A decade towards better health in Chile. (United States)

    Helmke, Irene


    In 1990, after 17 years of dictatorship, Chile started rebuilding its political system with a focus on improving social conditions and health. A recent study of the last 10 years shows some positive results. Irene Helmke reports.

  12. Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, Chile (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, in extreme southern Chile. WMO station ID 85934. Period of record 1896-1954. The original forms were scanned at the Museo...

  13. May 1960 Puerto Montt, Valdivia, Chile Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On May 22, 1960, a Mw 9.5 earthquake, the largest earthquake ever instrumentally recorded, occurred in southern Chile. The series of earthquakes that followed...

  14. Where Do Mexico and Chile Stand on Inclusive Education? Short Title: Inclusion in Mexico and Chile (United States)

    García-Cedillo, Ismael; Romero-Contreras, Silvia; Ramos-Abadie, Liliana


    This paper discusses the background, current situation and challenges of educational integration and inclusive education in Mexico and Chile. These countries obtained similar low results on the academic achievement of their students (Mexico last and Chile second last) among OECD countries; and above average scores, among Latin-American countries.…

  15. [Papillomavirus and cervical cancer in Chile]. (United States)

    O'Ryan, Miguel; Valenzuela, María Teresa


    Molecular, clinical and epidemiological studies have established beyond doubt that human papiloma viruses (HPV) cause cervical cancer. The virus is also associated with genital warts and other less common cancers in oropharynx, vulva, vagina and penis. Worldwide, VPH genotypes 16 and 18 are the most common high risk genotypes, detected in near 70% of women with cervical cancer. The discovery of a cause-effect relationship between several carcinogenic microorganisms and cancer open avenues for new diagnostic, treatment and prevention strategies. In this issue of Revista Médica de Chile, two papers on HPV are presented. Guzman and colleagues demonstrate that HPV can be detected in 66% to 77% of healthy male adolescents bypolymerase chain reaction and that positivity depends on the site of the penis that is sampled. These results support the role of male to female transmission of high risk HPVs in Chile and should lead to even more active educational campaigns. The second paper provides recommendations for HPV vaccine use in Chile, generated by the Immunization Advisory Committee of the Chilean Infectious Disease Society. To issue these recommendations, the Committee analyzes the epidemiological information available on HPV infection and cervical cancer in Chile, vaccine safety and effectiveness data, and describes cost-effectiveness studies. Taking into account that universal vaccination is controversial, the Committee favors vaccine use in Chile and it's incorporation into a national program. However, there is an indication that the country requires the implementation of an integrated surveillance approach including cross matching of data obtained from HPV genotype surveillance, monitoring of vaccination coverage, and surveillance of cervical cancer. The final decision of universal vaccine use in Chile should be based on a through analysis of information.ev Mid Chile

  16. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetovic, Alexander, E-mail: [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile. Av. San Carlos de Apoquindo 2200, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Munoz, Cristian M., E-mail: [AES Gener and Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Catolica de Chile (Chile)


    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: > We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. > Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. > Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. > Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. > We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  17. A unique collaboration in Chile. (United States)


    The Chilean Red Cross Society and the family planning association--APROFA, International Planned Parenthood Federation's affiliate, are joining forces to help prevent the spread of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. APROFA established a working group to study the knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behavior of students at the National Training Institute, INACAP. 7000 students were sampled in 11 Chilean cities. The study found that 36% of the females, and 77% of males were sexually active before the age of 20. Nearly 1/2 of the women and 1/5 of the men did not know that condoms could protect them against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and pregnancy. APROFA designed a program to increase students knowledge of AIDS, reduce promiscuity and increase knowledge of and use of condoms. In October, 1988 an educational package distributed, consisting of a training manual, slides, educational booklets, a poster, and a video of 3 films. It has proved so successful that APROFA has adapted it for community groups, educational institutions, and its youth program. APROFA/Red Cross nurses and Red Cross volunteers have participated in workshops and training with the package. The Red Cross has organized AIDS-related activities in Chile since 1986, including education campaigns, information for blood donors, and a telephone hotline to provide AIDS counseling. Goals are to target more poor areas and groups outside of society's mainstream in the next year for sex education and information on STDs.

  18. Radioactive wastes management development in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir, S.A.; Cruz, P.F.; Rivera, J.D.; Jorquera, O.H.


    A Facility for immobilizing and conditioning of radioactive wastes generated in Chile, has recently started in operation. It is a Radioactive Wastes Treatment Plant, RWTP, whose owner is Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, CCHEN. A Storgement Building of Conditioned Wastes accomplishes the facility for medium and low level activity wastes. The Project has been carried with participation of chilean professionals at CCHEN and Technical Assistance of International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA. Processes developed are volume reduction by compaction; immobilization by cementation and conditioning. Equipment has been selected to process radioactive wastes into a 200 liters drum, in which wastes are definitively conditioned, avoiding exposition and contamination risks. The Plant has capacity to treat low and medium activity radioactive wastes produced in Chile due to Reactor Experimental No. 1 operation, and annex Laboratories in Nuclear Research Centers, as also those produced by users of nuclear techniques in Industries, Hospitals, Research Centers and Universities, in the whole country. With the infrastructure developed in Chile, a centralization of Radioactive Wastes Management activities is achieved. A data base system helps to control and register radioactive wastes arising in Chile. Generation of radioactive wastes in Chile, has found solution for the present production and that of near future

  19. Zahraničně obchodní politika Chile


    Horáková, Anna


    The Diploma thesis focuses on foreign trade policy of Chile. The first part is a brief summary of socio-economic characteristics of the country. The following section deals with the individual strategies in the approach to foreign trade policy applied in Chile since independence to the present. It exams the determinants of changes in foreign trade policy of Chile and monitors changes in territorial and commodity structure of the foreign trade of Chile. In the final section assesses the curren...

  20. Chile; Staff Report for the 2003 Article IV Consultation


    International Monetary Fund


    Chile has successfully resisted contagion from neighboring countries difficulties. Chile's inflation targeting framework has successfully anchored inflation expectations and increased the economy's resilience to external shocks while maintaining price stability. The floating exchange rate regime is an essential part of the macroeconomic policy framework and continues to serve Chile well. The interest in recapitalizing the central bank is welcomed. Executive Directors commend Chile for the tra...

  1. [Beginning of the Microbiology education in Chile: formation centers]. (United States)

    Osorio, Carlos


    The first Chair of Microbiology in Chile was created in the School of Medicine of the Cañadilla at the University of Chile in 1892. Dr. Alejandro del Río Soto Aguilar was its first Professor. For almost three decades it was the only educational center for microbiologists in Chile. Among them were the first Professors of the new School of Medicine of the Catholic University of Chile and of the University of Concepción.

  2. Ideology drives health care reforms in Chile. (United States)

    Reichard, S


    The health care system of Chile evolved from rather unique historical circumstances to become one of the most progressive in Latin America, offering universal access to all citizens. Since the advent of the Pinochet regime in 1973, Chile has implemented Thatcherite/Reaganite reforms resulting in the privatization of much of the health care system. In the process, state support for health care has been sharply curtailed with deleterious effects on health services. As Chile emerges from the shadow of the Pinochet dictatorship, it faces numerous challenges as it struggles to rebuild its health care system. Other developing nations considering free-market reforms may wish to consider the high costs of the Chilean experiment.

  3. Chile: the Mapuche and the Bicentennial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bengoa


    Full Text Available The conmeration of the 200 years of the Independence of Chile was in September 2010. This year was also the political change from the Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia to the right political wing chilean political parties. During the last 20 years the Goverment of Chile was in the hands of the center left coalition, after the dictatorship period of Gral Augusto Pinochet end in 1990. During two decades the state aplied social policies in order two develop the indigenous comunities, specially the mapuche comunities of the south of Chile. During 2010 the research proyect named “Conmemoraciones y memorias subalternas” tried to understand the current situation of the comunities, the conflict and others aspects of the indigenous situation. This paper is part of those research.

  4. Chile mental health country profile. (United States)

    Stewart, Carmen López


    This paper describes main facts about Chile starting with key socio-demographic, socio-economic, political, environmental, epidemiological, social support and social pathology aspects that characterize the context in which current mental and neurological policy and programmes have been put in place since 2000, as part of the National Health Plan and Health Sector Strategy Plan. The 'National Plan for Mental Health and Psychiatry', using a community psychiatry approach, has been partially implemented for people covered by the Public Health Insurance, which comprises 62% of the Chilean population (people with lower income). This paper also describes: the management, population needs and demands, financial resources, human resources in primary care, mental health specialist care and community-based care, physical capital, social capital, provision and processes, and outcomes of the plan. Strengths are analyzed, like the health reform, including its values and principles, the active participation of consumer and family groups as well as mental health NGOs, access to mental health services through primary care, quality assurance of the mental health services delivered to the population and progressive development of a culture of respect for human rights, including those of people with mental illnesses. Finally, difficulties for the advance of mental health care are also enumerated: the low priority still given to mental health compared with physical health by the country's leaders, the insufficient emphasis on mental health in both undergraduate and postgraduate professional training, the strong stigma and discrimination associated with mental illness in the general population and the advocacy by some mental health professionals of the traditional model of care (role of the psychiatric hospital).

  5. Socioeconomic determinants of disability in Chile. (United States)

    Zitko Melo, Pedro; Cabieses Valdes, Báltica


    Disability is a worldwide public health priority. A shift from a biomedical perspective of dysfunction to a broader social understanding of disability has been proposed. Among many different social factors described in the past, socioeconomic position remains as a key multidimensional determinant of health. The study goal was to analyze the relationship between disability and different domains of socioeconomic position in Chile. Cross-sectional analysis of an anonymized population-based survey conducted in Chile in 2006. Any disability (dichotomous variable) and 6 different types of disability were analyzed on the bases of their relationship with income quintiles, occupational status, educational level, and material living standards (quality of the housing, overcrowding rate and sanitary conditions). Confounding and interaction effects were explored using R statistical program. Income, education, occupation, and material measures of socioeconomic position, along with some sociodemographic characteristics of the population, were independently associated with the chance of being disabled in Chile. Interestingly, classic measures of socioeconomic position (income, education, and occupation) were consistently associated with any disability in Chile, whereas material living conditions were partially confounded by these classic measures. In addition to this, each type of disability showed a particular pattern of related social determinants, which also varied by age group. This study contributed to the understanding of disability in Chile and how different domains of socioeconomic position might be associated with this prevalent condition. Disability remains a complex multidimensional public health problem in Chile that requires the inclusion of a wide range of risk factors, of which socioeconomic position is particularly relevant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nuclear public information activities in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Quintana; R


    Nuclear plans and developing programs in developing and developed countries are facing-in a higher or lower degree- opposition from public opinion. The objectives and contents of the public education program on nuclear energy in Chile are dealt with in this paper


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Mihaela Győri


    Full Text Available The contemporary development of the Chilean Tourism sector is analyzed mainly on thebasis of data supplied by the National Service of Tourism in Chile. Figures on inboundtourism, domestic tourism, lodging, employment, receipts, as well as the existing structurewithin the sector, were taken into consideration for the investigated period of 1999-2006.

  8. Doing Business 2014 Economy Profile : Chile


    World Bank; International Finance Corporation


    This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Chile In a series of annual reports, Doing Business assesses regulations affecting domestic firms in 189 economies and ranks the economies in 10 areas of business regulation, such as starting a business, resolving insolvency and trading across borders. This year's report data cover regulations measured from June 2012 through M...

  9. A solar radiation database for Chile. (United States)

    Molina, Alejandra; Falvey, Mark; Rondanelli, Roberto


    Chile hosts some of the sunniest places on earth, which has led to a growing solar energy industry in recent years. However, the lack of high resolution measurements of solar irradiance becomes a critical obstacle for both financing and design of solar installations. Besides the Atacama Desert, Chile displays a large array of "solar climates" due to large latitude and altitude variations, and so provides a useful testbed for the development of solar irradiance maps. Here a new public database for surface solar irradiance over Chile is presented. This database includes hourly irradiance from 2004 to 2016 at 90 m horizontal resolution over continental Chile. Our results are based on global reanalysis data to force a radiative transfer model for clear sky solar irradiance and an empirical model based on geostationary satellite data for cloudy conditions. The results have been validated using 140 surface solar irradiance stations throughout the country. Model mean percentage error in hourly time series of global horizontal irradiance is only 0.73%, considering both clear and cloudy days. The simplicity and accuracy of the model over a wide range of solar conditions provides confidence that the model can be easily generalized to other regions of the world.

  10. Functional Labour Market Areas for Chile


    Francisco Rowe


    Administrative areas are arbitrarily designed and do not necessarily reflect the geographical patterns of socio-economic and labour market activity. Labour market areas (LMAs) are required to analyse spatial labour market activity and provide a framework to guide spatially-explicit employment policy development. This resource describes a data source of a set of recently created labour market areas for Chile.

  11. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley. (United States)


    ... viticultural area are four 1:24,000 Scale U.S.G.S. topography maps. They are titled: (1) St. Helena, CA 1960... Valley viticultural area, using landmarks and points of reference found on appropriate U.S.G.S. maps..., with a county road known locally as Chiles and Pope Valley Road; (5) Then in a southwesterly direction...

  12. Sistema de salud de Chile The health system of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Becerril-Montekio


    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Chile, incluyendo su estructura, financiamiento, beneficiarios y recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone. Este sistema está compuesto por dos sectores, público y privado. El sector público está formado por todos los organismos que constituyen el Sistema Nacional de Servicios de Salud y cubre aproximadamente a 70% de la población, incluyendo a los pobres del campo y las ciudades, la clase media baja y los jubilados, así como los profesionales y técnicos. El sector privado cubre aproximadamente a 17.5% de la población perteneciente a los grupos sociales de mayores ingresos. Un pequeño sector de la población, perteneciente a la clase alta, realiza pagos directos de bolsillo a proveedores privados de servicios de atención a la salud. Alrededor de 10% de la población está cubierta por otras agencias públicas, fundamentalmente los Servicios de Salud de las Fuerzas Armadas. Recientemente el sistema se reformó creando el Régimen General de Garantías en Salud, que establece un Sistema Universal con Garantías Explícitas que se tradujo, en 2005, en el Plan de Acceso Universal con Garantías Explícitas (AUGE, que garantiza el acceso oportuno a servicios de calidad para 56 problemas de salud, incluyendo cáncer en niños, cáncer de mama, trastornos isquémicos del corazón, VIH/SIDA y diabetes.This paper describes the Chilean health system, including its structure, financing, beneficiaries, and its physical, material and human resources. This system has two sectors, public and private. The public sector comprises all the organisms that constitute the National System of Health Services, which covers 70% of the population, including the rural and urban poor, the low middle-class, the retired, and the self-employed professionals and technicians.The private sector covers 17.5% of the population, mostly the upper middle-class and the high-income population. A small

  13. An analysis of health progress in Chile. (United States)

    Medina, E; Kaempffer, A M


    Chile has been no exception to the Latin American trend of declining general mortality, i.e., over the past 20 years (between 1961-81) general mortality in Chile fell by some 47%. A number of circumstances makes Chile a suitable place for studying the factors leading to these favorable developments. National information is available, including reasonably reliable data on the magnitude of health problems, the risks of dying, and the collection of conditioning factors affecting health. Adjusting for age and sex, overall mortality in Chile fell by 20% in the 1960s and 29% in the 1970s, but the most marked declines, especially in the latter decade, occurred among infants (a 60% reduction) and children 1-4 years old (a 67% reduction). Morbidity indicators suggest that overall morbidity declined little, but considerable reductions were observed in infectious disease cases preventable by immunization as well as in moderate and severe cases of malnutrition. Data on deaths attributed to specific causes show that mortality due to certain causes, including communicable diseases, malnutrition, maternal problems, and stomach cancer, dropped sharply, while mortality caused by a wide range of mostly chronic problems remained relatively stable. This implies that health efforts made to combine those latter problems failed to greatly modify the mortality involved. It is difficult to quantify the mental health status of any group unless data on reliable and representative indicators are available. In Chile, information is available only on mortality caused by problems whose genesis normally involves a change in mental health. This happens in the case of alcoholism and cirrhosis of the liver, the latter generally being caused in Chile by excess alcohol consumption. Accidents and violent acts also have been associated frequently in Chile with excess alcohol consumption and emotional disturbances. With the exception of mortality attributed to alcoholism, which increased by 0.3 deaths

  14. Characteristics of focal mechanisms in Chile subduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiaoshan


    Full Text Available We use the Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT solution of the earthquakes occurred in Chile subduction to analyze the characteristics of focal mechanisms. We define the angle between P, B, and T axes of focal mechanisms and three stress axes of tectonic stress field as the consistency parameter, to research the dynamic changes of focal mechanism pattern in earthquake preparation area before the 2010 Maule, Chile earthquake. The result shows that the consistency parameter decreases before the earthquake, and the area of the lower consistent parameter visually coincides with the distribution of aftershocks. This phenomenon is similar to the Load-Unload Response Ratio (LURR decreases prior to the occurrence of macro-fracture happened in the acoustic emission experiments involving large rock specimens under tri-axial stress.

  15. [Mental disorders among immigrants in Chile]. (United States)

    Rojas, Graciela; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Castro, Ariel; Guajardo, Viviana; Torres, Pamela; Díaz, Berta


    Chile is receiving immigrant populations coming from other Latin-American countries. To determine the prevalence of Common Mental Disorders (CMD) among immigrants who live in Independencia, a quarter in Santiago, Chile. A cross sectional study was carried out in the primary health care clinic and in the state-funded school of Independencia. A representative sample of 282 adults and 341 children were interviewed. Mental disorders were diagnosed using CIS-R and MINI structured interviews. The interviewed immigrants came mostly from Peru. The prevalence of mental disorders in the adult population was 17.8% and among children, it was 29.3%. The adult immigrants have a lower prevalence of mental disorders than the Chilean population but it increases among children. Barriers of access to health services, that should be solved, were detected.

  16. Studies to Control Endemic Typhoid Fever in Chile (United States)


    1985. 2. Corey G, Ferreccio C, Garcia J, Maldonado A, Schenone H. Flores B. (1983) Estudio epidemiologico en manipuladores de alimentos en servicio de ... salud San Felipe - Los Andes. Boletin del instituto de salud publica, 24+95-99. 3. Diaz M, Munoz V, Durruty J, Osorio M, Arriagada M, Reyes H, Lynch MB...Chile. 111:609-615. 11. Ministerio de Salud , Republica de Chile. (1982) Informe de gobierno de Chile. Proceedings of the XXI Conference sanitaria

  17. Chile's pipelines - who's out in the cold?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellhouse, G.


    There is a battle on in Northern Chile to supply the region with gas and electricity. Two pipelines and a transmission line are being built, but there is insufficient demand to merit the construction of all of these projects. It is widely believed that the first pipeline to be finished will be the overall winner, but the situation is not that simple. A more sensible conclusion could be the merger of the two pipeline projects, rationalising supply of gas to the region. (Author)

  18. The Occurrence of Fog in Chile. (United States)

    Cereceda, Pilar; Schemenauer, Robert S.


    The topography in Chile is extremely complex and many types of fog are found; both factors complicate the presentation of the data. Despite this, measurements from standard meteorological stations suggest a latitudinal maximum in fog frequency between 35° and 40°S for coastal stations. This is supported by data from inland stations in Chile and the available observations from Argentina on the Atlantic coast of South America. Along the Chilean coast the average number of days with fog ranges from 3 to 59 per year. The variation in fog frequencies is related to persistent synoptic-scale circulation patterns and to ocean currents.Specialized fog observations wore made at three remote locations in northern Chile to determine fog frequencies on the coastal mountains. The sites were in a very add region (26°-28°S) near a large-scale fog-water collection project. Fog frequencies as high as 189 days per year with another 84 days of patchy fog were reported at an altitude of 860 m. These are 3-15 times higher than at low-elevation coastal locations at similar latitudes. Clearly, observations from standard meteorological stations are not suitable for estimating higher-elevation fog frequencies.

  19. Radiological protection in interventional cardiology in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.; Leyton, F.A.; Farias, E.; Silva, A.M.; Vano, E.; Oyarzun, C.; Gamarra, J.; Ortiz, P.


    In September 2000, an expert mission was assigned to Chile, under the regional project named 'International BBS in Medical Practices Radiation Protection and Quality Assurance In Interventional Radiology' (ARCAL XLIX). The objective of the mission was to evaluate the level of radiation protection (RP) and safety in interventional cardiology ( IC ) installations. A team of local cardiologists, medical physicists and technologists was created for this purpose and during one week, several cardiology laboratories were evaluated and some basic quality controls (QC) were carried out. A basic pilot training course in radiation protection was imparted at the Hospital of the University of Chile in Santiago de Chile and some of the key objectives for a future national quality assurance programme were presented during the national congress of IC. In addition, a national survey on radiation protection aspects was circulated and its results evaluated. These activities enabled the local team to become familiar with the methodology of assessment of the level of protection and the organization of a programme, which was illustrated with the examples of similar European programmes. As result of these actions, several proposals were made to both the local authorities and the IAEA. The most important were: a) to initiate a basic QC programme, b) to organize a training in RP for cardiologists in order to formalize their accreditation, c) to improve personal occupational dosimetry, d) to initiate a programme of patient dosimetry, e) to optimize the technical and clinical protocols, f) to create a national registry of incidents with skin injuries. (author)

  20. Chile: Una Vision Politica, Economica y Social (Chile: A Political, Economic, and Social View). (United States)

    Cortes-Hwang, Adriana


    This address seeks to explain in brief the historical background and political, economic, and social conditions leading to the democratic election of a Marxist president in Chile. A historical sketch of Chilean government from independence in 1810 is provided with a description of the situation just before Salvador Allende's election in 1969. Some…

  1. The Mass Media and Political Socialization: Chile, 1970-2000 (United States)

    Walter, Amy R.


    This project seeks to determine the effect of the mass media on political attitudes and behaviors in Chile between the years 1970 and 2000. The relationship between the media and "political socialization" is just now gaining recognition in scholarly research, and Chile offers an excellent case study. This paper traces these two variables…

  2. Critical Perspectives on Adolescent Vocational Guidance in Chile (United States)

    McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; McWhirter, Benedict T.


    In this article, the lens of critical psychology is applied to adolescent career development and vocational guidance in Chile. The authors describe and critique the status of adolescent vocational guidance in Chile, the reproduction of extant social inequities in Chilean education, and offer recommendations for enhancing vocational guidance…

  3. Chile - Institutional Design for an Effective Education Quality Assurance


    World Bank


    The main objective of this report is to present the Government of Chile with policy options related to the institutional distribution of roles and responsibilities for effective quality assurance in education. Following the introduction, the report is structured as follows. Chapter II presents background information on the evolution of Chile's education system since 1980. This information,...

  4. Childcare in Chile. The role of ethnicity and socioeconomic inequalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cárcamo Leiva, Rodrigo Alejandro


    Chile has embarked on a road that must lead to the reduction of inequality gaps for the population. A public policy called Chile Growths With You has focused on an increase in the breadth of coverage of non-maternal care through childcare centers to provide equal opportunities in early childhood and

  5. All projects related to chile | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Impact of ICTs on Local Democracy : Transparency and Citizen Participation in the Municipality of Peñalolén (Chile). Project. The municipality of Peñalolén in Santiago, Chile, is characterized by great socioeconomic diversity and strong social networks (clubs for the elderly and young people, sports clubs, labour unions, ...

  6. [A scientometric view of Revista Médica de Chile]. (United States)

    Krauskopf, Manuel; Krauskopf, Erwin


    During the last decade Revista Médica de Chile increased its visibility, measured on citations and impact factor. To perform a scientometric analysis to assess the performance of Revista Médica de Chile. Thomson's-ISI Web of Science and Journal Citation Reports QCR) were consulted for performance indicators of Revista Médica de Chile and Latin American journals whose subject is General and Internal Medicine. We also report the h-index of the journal, which infers quality linked to the quantity of the output. According to the h-index, Revista Médica de Chile ranks 4 among the 36 journals indexed and published by Argentina, Brazil, Chile and México. The top ten articles published by Revista Médica de Chile and the institutions with the higher contribution to the journal, were identified using citations. In the Latin American region, Brazil relevantly increased its scientific output. However, Argentina, Chile and México maintain a plateau during the last decade. Revista Médica de Chile increased notoriously its performance. Its contribution to the Chilean scientific community dedicated to Medicine appears to be of central value.

  7. Hedging in derivatives markets: the experience of Chile


    Fernando Avalos; Ramon Moreno


    Prior to the onset of the 2008 financial crisis, domestic FX derivatives markets in Chile had gained depth and liquidity, boosted by the growing hedging needs of private pension funds. During the crisis, Chile suffered significantly less stress than other EMEs, within Latin America and outside. We present evidence suggesting that this was related to the liquidity and resilience of its FX derivatives markets.

  8. [Health inequality gap in inmigrant versus local children in Chile]. (United States)

    Cabieses, Baltica; Chepo, Macarena; Oyarte, Marcela; Markkula, Niina; Bustos, Patricia; Pedrero, Víctor; Delgado, Iris


    Children and young international migrants face different health challenges compa red with the local population, particularly if they live in insecure environments or adverse social conditions. This study seeks to identify gaps in health outcomes of children between immigrant and local population in Chile. This study analyses data from three sources: (i) Born in Chile: Electronic records of antenatal visits from all municipal antenatal clinics of Recoleta in 2012; (ii) Growing up in Chile: Population survey "National Socioeconomic Characterization" (CASEN) from 2013 and (iii) Getting sick in Chile: Data of all hospital discharges in 2012, provided by the department of statistics and health information (DEIS) of the Ministry of Health. (I) Born in Chile: Im migrants more frequently have psychosocial risk (62.3% vs 50.1% in Chileans) and enter later into the program (63.1% vs 33.4% enter later than 14 weeks of pregnancy). All birth outcomes were better among immigrants (e.g. caesarean sections rates: 24.2% immigrants vs % Chileans). (ii) Growing up in Chile: A higher proportion of migrant children is outside the school system and lives in multidi mensional poverty (40% immigrants vs 23.2% Chileans). (iii) Getting sick in Chile: Injuries and other external causes were more frequent cause of hospitalisation among migrants (23.6%) than the local population (16.7%) aged between 7 and 14 years. Addressing the needs of the children in Chile, regardless of their immigration status, is an ethical, legal and moral imperative.


    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Cabieses, Báltica; Araya, Alejandra; Matsumoto, Cristina; Miner, Sarah


    Chile is a country with an incipient HIV epidemic. Just as in other countries, disadvantaged groups in Chile are contributing to the increased incidence of the disease. The Mapuche indigenous population is one such group that has been affected by the spread of HIV. However, no prevention programs are tailored to the culturally specific needs of this community. In recognition of this discrepancy, an academic-community partnership was formed to develop an HIV educational module for a Mapuche community. The module was developed for use as part of an already established health-related program. The aims of the module were to identify perceptions about HIV among Mapuches and present information specific to HIV and its prevention. Focus was placed on cultural sensitivity. The module was carried out in connection with a first-aid course in an attempt to increase effectiveness of the intervention by working jointly with an established community program. Sixteen (16) Mapuches participated voluntarily and demonstrated some knowledge regarding HIV, but they lacked an overall understanding as to how it is transmitted and why prevention strategies are affective. Participants correctly identified sexual contact as a means of transmission, but when asked why, one person stated, “I just know it, I read it.” There were significant barriers to communication within the group, secondary to cultural practices related to age and gender. Major obstacles in controlling HIV are the lack of prevention strategies targeted to disadvantaged groups. The module developed for this intervention was the first effort of the Academic Community Partnership established between the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile and the Mapuche group around HIV prevention. Continued collaboration between academia and affected communities as well as incorporating HIV information into established programs are effective strategies for delivering prevention information to disadvantaged populations and for

  10. Area Handbook Series: Chile: A Country Study (United States)


    Roberto. "Competencia poco libre, la concentra- ci6n de los mercados y la presencia de los grupos," Mensaje [Santiago], 28, No. 283, October 1979, 645...Autoritario Chileno: Un Estudio de Dos Casos." (Paper presented at workshop "Six Years of Military Rule in Chile," sponsored by Latin American Program...and Louis C. Faron. Native Peoples of South America. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1959. Stragier, Julio Sj. "El Mercado de la Vivienda en la Economia social



    Loyola Heufemann, AMANDA


    Los efectos del embarazo adolescente en Chile han sido poco estudiados aun cuando existe diversa literatura para el resto del mundo, en especial para países desarrollados. Este trabajo estima el efecto del embarazo adolescente sobre la asistencia o completitud de la educación secundaria, años de escolaridad y participación laboral. Usando datos de corte transversal del a˜no 2012 y un enfoque de variable instrumental a trav´es del uso de la entrega comunal de la píldora anticoncept...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Nicolás Vizcaya Carrillo


    Full Text Available it is true that all human activities today are capable of analysis and prospective projection, confirmed there are a number of areas of knowledge which are considered key to the development of mankind and therefore of each company in each country is to see the evolution of the relevant future. It is true that today there are hundreds of professional disciplines that are studied and are performed as day to day and that play important roles in the welfare and development of society and in particular if this trial will be analyzed in the development of techniques current looking for Chile.



    Lulo C,Mario


    Para un sector de la crítica y de la academia chilena, la gran novela de la Dictadura es una asignatura pendiente. En este artículo se problematiza este tema mediante la formulación de una hipótesis según la cual una serie de novelas aparecidas en Chile entre 1977 y 2006 cumplen con la función de narrar -desde su fragmentariedad- las causas y consecuencias del 11 de septiembre de 1973. Así, busca plantear las bases epistemológicas e históricas que posibiliten llevar a cabo una investigación d...

  14. Sobre lectura y escritura en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grínor Rojo


    Full Text Available In recent years, research conducted in Chile on reading, reading proficiency and reading news on politics shows that negative values around 50. These data add to the forty million illiterates in Latin America, so this article rejects the death of the book and the frivolous faith in the replacement of the book by the use of information technology and communication (schools full of computers Instead, he insists on paying serious attention to the links between reason, book, and reading in the development of the individual and society

  15. Chile Successfully Halts Rise in Childhood Obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorisek, Aleksandra Sasa


    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity in Latin America has become a cause for concern. The IAEA has worked closely with the Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA) at the University of Chile since 1997 to address the problem of malnutrition in the country. In Santiago, the Laboratory of Energy Metabolism and Stable Isotopes was established in 1998 with the help of the IAEA to provide an isotope ratio mass spectrometer and training in the use of stable isotope techniques to assess body composition, infant feeding practices and total daily energy expenditure

  16. La atencion preescolar en Chile: desafios para la redemocratizacion (Preschool Care in Chile: Challenges for Redemocratization. Discussion Paper No. 13). (United States)

    Filp, Johanna; Undurrage, Consuelo

    This paper examines the current status of programs for preschool children in Chile. Section 1 of the paper provides an overview of the situation of preschool children in Chile. The country's population includes more than 1.6 million children between the ages of 0 and 5 years 11 months, and in urban areas, 18.4 percent of children between the ages…

  17. HIV Issues and Mapuches in Chile. (United States)

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Cabieses, Báltica; Araya, Alejandra; Matsumoto, Cristina; Miner, Sarah


    Chile is a country with an incipient HIV epidemic. Just as in other countries, disadvantaged groups in Chile are contributing to the increased incidence of the disease. The Mapuche indigenous population is one such group that has been affected by the spread of HIV. However, no prevention programs are tailored to the culturally specific needs of this community. In recognition of this discrepancy, an academic-community partnership was formed to develop an HIV educational module for a Mapuche community. The module was developed for use as part of an already established health-related program. The aims of the module were to identify perceptions about HIV among Mapuches and present information specific to HIV and its prevention. Focus was placed on cultural sensitivity. A total of 16 Mapuches participated voluntarily and showed some knowledge regarding HIV, but they lacked an overall understanding as to how it is transmitted and why prevention strategies are effective. Continued collaboration between academia and affected communities as well as incorporating HIV information into established programs are effective strategies for delivering prevention information to disadvantaged populations and for further understanding their perceptions and health care needs.

  18. Forest mapping with satellite in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, A. [SSC Satellitbild (Sweden)


    Chile has about 9.1 million ha of forest land, among which 7.6 million ha are native forest and 1.5 million ha are plantations of exotic species. The number of plantations is constantly growing due to the important role these areas play in the national economy. Pino Radiata (Pinus radiata) is found in most of the plantations while the remaining parts are dominated by Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.) The governmental Instituto Forestal (INFOR) in Santiago de Chile, is monitoring the rapid changes in these areas through frequent inventories. As an inventory of this type takes about six years to complete in all areas (one region per year), it is of great importance to find quicker ways to cover these areas. The native forest has in recent years been the subject of debate, not only for economic reasons, but also as a result of ecological pressure for conservation. Where to conserve, where to put restrictions and where to allow forestry are the big issues. Against this background it is necessary to evaluate different data sources that can give information about the present forest situation and provide the means to monitor the changes. The aim of the project was to evaluate whether satellite imagery could fulfill INFOR`s demand for forestry information, and to investigate the kind of data source and methodology to apply when using satellite data

  19. Silencio y memoria: Nocturno de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Iniesta Ruiz


    Full Text Available El presente estudio, sostenido por el Trabajo de Fin de Grado Representación y ficción: Nocturno de Chile y Sostiene Pereira (2015, se introduce en la construcción literaria articulada en la obra Nocturno de Chile, de Roberto Bolaño, examinando y evaluando sus fronteras, fronteras que resultan tan movedizas como las de cualquier construcción inserta en el marco de la ficción. Las implicaciones históricas y políticas del relato hacen que su impronta testimonial cobre una fuerza inusitada, y nociones como la memoria, la violencia o el silencio ayudan a vertebrar una obra de arte verbal que logra, en el decurso de su propia narración, asediar al lector con las angustiosas imágenes de un pasado hecho presente en el camino de un tiempo político que se subyuga a la propia creación artística.

  20. Carbon monoxide concentration forecasting in Santiago, Chile. (United States)

    Perez, Patricio; Palacios, Rodrigo; Castillo, Alejandro


    In the city of Santiago, Chile, air quality is defined in terms of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 microm (PM10) concentrations. An air quality forecasting model based on past concentrations of PM10 and meteorological conditions currently is used by the metropolitan agency for the environment, which allows restrictions to emissions to be imposed in advance. This model, however, fails to forecast between 40 and 50% of the days considered to be harmful for the inhabitants every year. Given that a high correlation between particulate matter and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations is observed at monitoring stations in the city, a model for CO concentration forecasting would be a useful tool to complement information about expected air quality in the city. Here, the results of a neural network-based model aimed to forecast maximum values of the 8-hr moving average of CO concentrations for the next day are presented. Forecasts from the neural network model are compared with those produced with linear regressions. The neural network model seems to leave more room to adjust free parameters with 1-yr data to predict the following year's values. We have worked with 3 yr of data measured at the monitoring station located in the zone with the worst air quality in the city of Santiago, Chile.

  1. [Burden of psychiatric diseases in Chile]. (United States)

    Vicente P, Benjamín; Kohn, Robert; Saldivia B, Sandra; Rioseco S, Pedro


    Chile has one of the highest disease burdens caused by neuropsychiatric illnesses in the world, according to WHO, reaching to 31%. Major depression and alcohol use disorders are ranked first and second in attributed disability among adults. Nearly one-third of the population has had a psychiatric disorder in their lifetime, and 22.2% in the past year. Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent conditions, followed by major depression and alcohol abuse. Currently, mental health accounts for 2.3%) of the health care budget, which is less than some neighboring countries. The availability of 1.3 psychiatric beds per 10,000 inhabitants, is less than the mean of lower-income countries. Moreover, 81% are for chronic rather than acute care. Chile has 4.0 psychiatrist per 100,000 inhabitants, which is lower than other countries in Latin America. Only 38.5% of those patients with a psychiatric diagnosis receive any kind of mental health care, whether from a specialist or primary care. There is a perception among lay persons, that psychiatric treatments lack efficacy, despite evidence demonstrating the contrary. Not addressing the treatment gap in mental health has serious public health implications.

  2. ESO and Chile: 10 Years of Productive Scientific Collaboration (United States)


    ESO and the Government of Chile launched today the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe", written by the beneficiaries of the ESO-Chile Joint Committee. This annual fund provides grants for individual Chilean scientists, research infrastructures, scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. In a ceremony held in Santiago on 19 June 2006, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) and the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs marked the 10th Anniversary of the Supplementary Agreement, which granted to Chilean astronomers up to 10 percent of the total observing time on ESO telescopes. This agreement also established an annual fund for the development of astronomy, managed by the so-called "ESO-Chile Joint Committee". ESO PR Photo 21/06 ESO PR Photo 21/06 Ten Years ESO-Chile Agreement Ceremony The celebration event was hosted by ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of Special Policy for the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ambassador Luis Winter. "ESO's commitment is, and always will be, to promote astronomy and scientific knowledge in the country hosting our observatories", said ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "We hope Chile and Europe will continue with great achievements in this fascinating joint adventure, the exploration of the universe." On behalf of the Government of Chile, Ambassador Luis Winter outlined the historical importance of the Supplementary Agreement, ratified by the Chilean Congress in 1996. "Such is the magnitude of ESO-Chile Joint Committee that, only in 2005, this annual fund represented 8 percent of all financing sources for Chilean astronomy, including those from Government and universities", Ambassador Winter said. The ESO Representative and Head of Science in Chile, Dr. Felix Mirabel, and the appointed Chilean astronomer for the ESO-Chile Joint Committee, Dr. Leonardo Bronfman, also took part in the

  3. Analýza obchodných vzťahov medzi EU a Chile


    Chabová, Zuzana


    The aim of my bachelor thesis is to particularly charakterize Chile's economy and to analyze its position in international trade. The main part of my whole work is the analysis of business relationship between European Union and Chile, which I also describe in point of law. The work has five main chapters. The first chapter describes the economical situation of Chile. The second chapter is concerned with Chile's whole foreign trade. The third chapter analyze Chile's foreign trade legally thro...

  4. El Parque Portal Bicentenario en Santiago de Chile / Portal Bicentennial Park in Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beach Lobos, Myriam;


    Full Text Available Se presenta los principios que orientaron el diseño del Parque Portal Bicentenario, un parque de 50 hás. que será el eje principal de la nueva urbanización “Ciudad Parque Bicentenario”, actualmente en construcción en los terrenos del ex aeropuerto de Los Cerrillos en Santiago de Chile.The following text was submitted to the Architecture Competition together with the project drawings. It presents the principles that leaded the design. The 123 acres park will be the main axis of a new urban development in Santiago “Ciudad Parque Bicentenario” at present under construction on the area occupied by the former Cerrillos Airport, Santiago de Chile.

  5. Homicide in Chile: Trends 2000-2012. (United States)

    Otzen, Tamara; Sanhueza, Antonio; Manterola, Carlos; Hetz, Monica; Melnik, Tamara


    Homicide, an external cause of morbidity and mortality, caused 473,000 deaths worldwide in 2012, a rate of 6.2 per 100,000 inhabitants. The aim of this study was to describe homicide mortality trends in Chile between 2000 and 2012 by year, gender, age group, geographic distribution (by zone and by region) and type of homicide. This was a population-based study. Data for homicide mortality in Chile between 2000 and 2012 were used and they were provided by the Chilean Ministry of Health's Department of Statistics and Health Information (DEIS) and PAHO/WHO. The homicide mortality rates were calculated per 100,000 inhabitants. The study variables were year, geographic distribution, gender, age group and type of homicide. The annual percentage change (APC) of the rates was analyzed, and a logarithm of the rates by year and region was fitted by applying linear regression models. In addition, relative risks (RR) were calculated. 95% confidence intervals were considered in all the analyses. The average yearly rate of homicide (HMR) in Chile (2000-2012) was 4.9. The rates were higher in men (8.7) than in women (1.1), with a RR of 8.2. The rates were higher in the country's central zone (5.0), increasing in recent years in the southern zone, with a significant positive APC of 1.1%. The Aisén Region had the highest rate (7.6), although Antofagasta was the region with the most significant APC (3.1%). The highest rate (9.2) was verified in the 25 to 39 age group. The highest rate (5.5) was recorded in 2005. The most frequent type of homicide was assault with an object (44.8%). Although the homicide rates are higher in the southern zone of the country, the northern zone is showing a tendency to increase, becoming an even more serious problem, which not only affects those directly involved, but society as a whole.

  6. Metallurgical characterization of kaolin from Atacama, Chile

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    Oscar Rivera

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to determine the exploitation potentiality of a kaolin deposit from Atacama in the north of Chile, two types of kaolin (K-1 and K-2 were characterized by XRD, XRF, SEM/EDXS, size distribution, whiteness and DSC. Kaolinite, quartz, muscovite and albite were recognized as main constituents of the ore deposit, and also a significant amount of impurities that negatively impacts on quality were detected. Results show that the low quality presented by the samples, especially K-2, impedes their industrial use as raw material and further mineral concentration processes are proposed. Finally, the results of thermal analysis confirm a conversion to metakaolin that could be the basis for an alternative processing route.

  7. Avian influenza in Chile: a successful experience. (United States)

    Max, Vanessa; Herrera, José; Moreira, Rubén; Rojas, Hernán


    Avian influenza (AI) was diagnosed in May 2002 for the first time in Chile and South America. The epidemic was caused by the highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) virus subtype H7N3 that emerged from a low pathogenic virus. The index farm was a broiler breeder, located in San Antonio, V Region, which at the time was a densely populated poultry area. Stamping of 465,000 breeders, in 27 sheds, was immediately conducted. Surveillance activities detected a second outbreak, 1 wk later, at a turkey breeding farm from the same company. The second farm was located 4 km from the index case. Only 25% of the sheds were infected, and 18,500 turkeys were destroyed. In both outbreaks, surveillance zones and across-country control measures were established: prediagnosis quarantine, depopulation, intensive surveillance, movement control, and increased biosecurity. Other measures included cleaning, disinfection, and controlling the farms with sentinels to detect the potential presence of the virus. Zoning procedures were implemented to allow the international trade of poultry products from unaffected areas. Positive serologic results to H5N2 virus also were detected in other poultry farms, but there was no evidence of clinical signs or virus isolation. Epidemiological investigation and laboratory confirmation determined that positive serology was related to a contaminated imported batch of vaccine against inclusion body hepatitis. All actions taken allowed the control of the epidemic, and within 7 mo, Chile was free of AI. Epidemic and control measures that prevented further spread are described in this article, which illustrates the importance of a combination of control measures during and after an outbreak of AI. This study is a good example of how veterinary services need to respond if their country is affected by HPAI.

  8. A new case constructing adelid moth from Chile (Lepidoptera

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    Luis E. Parra


    Full Text Available A new case constructing adelid moth from Chile (Lepidoptera. The adult and larva of Ceromitia tubulifolia sp. nov. are described and illustrated. The larvae seem to be associated with sclerophyllous forest of central Chile. The larvae make a protective case from of a piece of leaf. The name phylloikos is proposed for this form of larval case. A review of the morphology and bionomics of this species are provided.Uma nova mariposa Adelidae (Lepidoptera construtora de casulo do Chile. O adulto e a larva de Ceromitia tubulifolia sp. nov. são descritos e ilustrados. As larvas parecem estar associadas à mata esclerófila do Chile central. A larva utiliza um pedaço de folha para construir uma estrutura protetora denominada phylloikos. Comentários sobre aspectos morfológicos e bionômicos da espécie são apresentados.


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    Jorge Sapunar Z., MD, MSC, FACP


    Finalmente, la frecuencia, morbilidad y mortalidad de la diabetes mellitus, se suman para explicar que el manejo de la enfermedad y sus complicaciones consuma el 10,2% del presupuesto en salud de Chile.

  10. Instrucción pública en chile. 1864


    Amunártegui, Luis Miguel


    Memoria escrita por el Secretario General de la Universidad de Chile. Descripción de la educación en Chile, particularmente de la universitaria, introducido por el argumento del origen común de las naciones hispanoamericanas, y las diferencias que se presentan a partir de los procesos de emancipación.

  11. The Revolutionary Left and Terrorist Violence in Chile. (United States)


    public’s expectations. The combination of an increased money supply and artificially low official prices eventually precipitated a black market in food...Fraude Electoral Designada por la Facultad de Derecho de la Pontifica Universidad de Chile," in Libro Blanco del Cambio de Gobierno de Chile, Editorial...the black market at very inflated exchange rates. Foreigners, however, including a Frenchman, a Swede, a Spanish Jesuit, and a Brazilian, have

  12. Development in Chile 1990 - 2005: Lessons from a positive experience


    García Hurtado, Álvaro


    Chile, in the last 15 years, has shown remarkable results in terms of growth, poverty reduction and democratic governance. This paper reviews the structural changes that were behind these positive outcomes, as well as the pending challenges for Chile’s development. Also shows that Chile did better in terms of growth than social integration and that this is related to the weak representation and participation of a wide majority in the national debate and decision making process. It also draws ...

  13. Behavioral problems and tobacco use among adolescents in Chile

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    Caris Luis


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between behavioral problems and tobacco smoking among adolescent students in Chile. METHODS: Data were drawn from a study that included questionnaire surveys of 46 907 school-attending adolescents in all 13 of the administrative regions of Chile. Assessments were based on an adapted, Spanish-language version of the Drug Use Screening Inventory. The conditional form of the logistic regression model was used for analysis, with matching of students on individual schools, and with further statistical adjustments for sex, age, and selected risk factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of tobacco smoking among the adolescents was very high across all of Chile, with a level between 56% and 65% in each of the 13 regions. The estimated odds of tobacco use in youths at the highest level of behavioral problems was about twice that for youths at the lowest levels, both before and after controlling for sex, age, lack of participation in recreational activities, level of irritability, and levels of problems with school, family attention, and mental health. CONCLUSIONS: These findings help to complement and complete the evidence of prior studies on tobacco smoking among adolescents with behavior problems, including recent research on Central American youths. Although the magnitude of observed associations in Chile was not as great as that for the associations found in Central America, both the strength of these associations and their statistical significance were observed throughout Chile. This is the first study in Chile on potentially causal relationships such as these.

  14. Primer "Entrenamiento en Metodologías de Investigación Clínica en Chile" (EMIC-Chile: Fundamentos psicoeducativos First "Training in Clinical Research Methodologies in Chile" (EMIC-Chile: Psychoeducational foundations

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    B. Cabieses


    Full Text Available EMIC-Chile ("Entrenamiento en Metodologías para la Investigación Clínica en Chile" es un proyecto académico desarrollado durante el año 2008 en Chile para entrenar a profesionales de la salud y disciplinas afines en metodología de investigación clínica, con el objetivo de aumentar la calidad de los proyectos de investigación con fines concursables en nuestro país. El propósito de este artículo es dar a conocer el programa y sus fundamentos teóricos de enseñanza-aprendizaje, que estuvieron en la base de la estructura, metodología, evaluación y sistematización del conocimiento entregado. Para ello, primero se describe el programa, la metodología, la evaluación y el seguimiento. Posteriormente se detallan los aspectos psicoeducativos considerados, con especial énfasis en el aprendizaje social y la educación de adultos. Finalmente, se discute en torno a las posibles consideraciones de este programa para futuras intervenciones educativas en investigación en salud en Chile. Se espera que esta experiencia y sus fundamentos educativos sirvan de motor para futuras iniciativas en el área, a favor de la investigación en salud en Chile.EMIC-Chile ("Entrenamiento en Metodologías para la Investigación Clínica en Chile" is an academic project developed in Chile during 2008 to train health professionals in clinical research. The purpose of this initiative was to improve the quality of research projects that are submitted to apply for public funding. The aim of this article is to describe the psycho-educative theories that supported this training program, its structure, methods and evaluation. Firstly, the program is described in detail. Secondly, psycho-educative theories are described, with special emphasis of social learning theory and education for adults. Finally, implications of EMIC-Chile are stated, in order to improve future research training experiences in Chile. It is expected that this article enhance other research experts

  15. Mortalidad por enfermedades respiratorias en Chile durante 1999 MORTALITY DUE TO RESPIRATORY DISEASES, CHILE-1999




    Se trata de un estudio descriptivo que presenta características sobre la mortalidad por causas respiratorias (CR) en Chile durante 1999. Se muestra que las CR constituyen la tercera causa de muerte en el país. La "neumonía por agente no especificado" (NANE) es la primera causa aislada de muerte respiratoria en ambos sexos con un 64%, seguida de enfermedades respiratorias crónicas que originan un 30% de las defunciones. Por lo anterior se hace necesario prevenir la ocurrencia de la NANE, asegu...

  16. La Medialuna: un edificio para Chile/The Crescent, a building for Chile

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    Moreira Recchione, Alberto


    Full Text Available Se refiere los antecedentes históricos sobre la escuela ecuestre de la jineta y su introducción en las faenas agrícola-ganaderas chilenas. Se reseña el nacimiento del rodeo como deporte nacional chileno y los requerimientos del complejo espacio de la “fiesta del rodeo”: un problema arquitectónico y también urbanístico./ The equestrian school of "La Jineta" in Chile, and the architecture for the national holiday of "rodeo."

  17. The International Plate Boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC) in the northern Chile seismic gap (United States)

    Schurr, B.; Asch, A.; Sodoudi, F.; Manzanares, A.; Ritter, O.; Klotz, J.; Chong-Diaz, G.; Barrientos, S.; Villotte, J.-P.; Oncken, O.


    Fast convergence between the oceanic Nazca and the continental South American plate is accommodated by recurrent rupture of large segments of the two plates' interface. The resulting earthquakes are among the largest and, for their sizes, most frequent on Earth. Along the Chilean and southern Peruvian margin, all segments have ruptured at least once in the past 150 years for which there exist historic and/or instrumental records. The one segment that is most mature for re-rupture stretches for more than 500 km along the northernmost Chilean coast between roughly -23° and -18° latitude. It last broke in 1877 in a magnitude ~8.8 earthquake, triggering a major Tsunami. From the historical record, it has been known to have a recurrence cycle of approximately 110 years. The adjoining segments to the north and south broke rather recently in 1995 and 2001 in M>8 earthquakes and an M 7.7 earthquake encroached the southern part of the gap in 2007. The IPOC project intends to investigate this segment of the Nazca-South American plate boundary, on which a strong to devastating earthquake is expected to occur within the next years, by monitoring at a variety of time-scales deformation, seismicity, and magnetotelluric fields in the subduction zone at the closing stages of the interseismic cycle before and possibly during occurrence of a big earthquake. For that purpose, installation of long-term observatories in Northern Chile started in 2006 in a close cooperation of the Universidad de Chile (Santiago, Chile), the Universidad Catolica del Norte (Antofagasta, Chile), the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (Paris, France), and the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ, Potsdam, Germany). Currently we are operating 14 modern seismological stations equipped with STS-2 broadband seismometers and accelerometers (EPI sensor). At least two more stations will be installed in the near future. To cope with the high resolution and dynamic of the sensors and data acquisition

  18. Observations on female sterilization in Chile. (United States)

    Menanteau-Horta, D


    Prior to 1976, voluntary female sterilization was 1 of the regular family planning services offered in Chile. After that the Ministry of Public Health declared that it could not be considered a fertility regulation activity and could thus be performed only for health reasons. Between 1971-75, there was almost a 6-fold increase in the number of sterilizations performed at the Valdivia Regional Hospital, with a rise to 2400 procedures. Such an unprecedented increase in voluntary sterilization prompted this study. The results are based on a 1976 survey of women sterilized between 1971-75 at the Valdivia Regional Hospital. Personal interviews were conducted. The number of voluntary sterilizations there during the aforementioned period showed a sustained upward trend; the number of births increased only moderately during that time. The data on sterilization in the Valdivia area is compared to that collected by the Santiago study. Age, marital status, place of origin or residence, education, and religion were compared. Socioeconomic and occupational data were also examined. 9 of 10 women in Valdivia were from low-income families. This agrees closely with the Santiago data. About 1/4 of the women in both samples were employed outside the home. Also in both samples, about 1/2 of the spouses of sterilized women were blue collar workers; only 1/5 or less were white collar, and very few were professionals. About 52% in Valdivia and 45% in Santiago had borne 7 or more viable offspring. The average number of spontaneous abortions was also similar. A significantly higher percentage (P0.01) of Valdivia women used contraceptives. There are some general trends apparent in both groups as to the reasons for sterilization; most were prompted by difficult socioeconomic conditions. 37.9% of the Santiago women felt their families were complete and 27.3% of the other group cited the same reason. Other reasons were medical, failure of contraception, problems with spouse, and other. Medical

  19. [Consumption of antidepressants in Chile from 1992 to 2004]. (United States)

    Jirón, Marcela; Machado, Márcio; Ruiz, Inés


    Data from the Ministry of Health show that in Chile in 2004, 17% of the population had some form of depression, and mood disorders are the tenth cause of disability-adjusted life years (DALY) loss. To determine consumption of antidepressants (ADs) in Chile from 1992 to 2004. National sales data were obtained from the company IMS Health Chile and converted into defined daily doses (DDDs) per 1,000 inhabitants per day. Available ADs were classified in four pharmacological groups (i.e., serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, SNRLs; selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitors, SSRLs; tricyclic antidepressants, TCAs; and others). Total economic burden of ADs utilization and cost per DDDs were also calculated. Trends over time were analyzed using Pearson-R2. Total ADs consumption in Chile measured by DDDs per 1,000 inhabitants per day (DHD) increased linearly (y =0.901x + 1.9129; R2 =0.9296; p economic burden of ADs in Chile (total cost of DDDs consumed) increased from US$65.4 million in 2001 to US$74.6 million in 2004 (14% increase). Average cost per DDD of all AD increased linearly, however not significantly from US$ 0.94 in 2001 to US$ 1.04 in 2004 (y =0.0362x + 0.8784; R2 =0.7382; p =0,262). DDDs per 1,000 inhabitants per day increased linearly over 470% from 1992-2004. SSRLs were the most commonly consumed drugs in Chile. Future research should evaluate the cost-effectiveness of antidepressants in Chile, comparing the results with drug utilization, and determining if unnecessary expenditures have been paid out.

  20. Increasing the donor pool in Chile. (United States)

    Palacios, J M


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate organ donation in Chile following the creation of the "Corporación Nacional de Fomento de Trasplantes." The corporation was created in 1991 as a private, nonprofit organization whose main purpose was to increase the number of actual donors and multiorgan procurement. The organization is independent of the national government and acts as a link between the needs of patients and society and those of the National Ministry of Health. Following the creation of the corporation, the number of actual donors increased from 32 to 98. The number of potential donors increased 3-fold. Family refusal for organ donation was between 28% and 53.4%. Pediatric and marginal donors increased from 2% to 15%. Ninety-five percent of the donors came from Santiago, where 33% of the population lives and most of the efforts were concentrated. The corporation is working to increase organ donation throughout the rest of the country by organizing public campaigns; promoting knowledge about transplantation among medical and nursing personnel at hospitals, schools, universities, and social gatherings; evaluating technical and financial results; and helping with the processes of organ procurement.

  1. Social Networks and Political Parties in Chile

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    Adler Lomnitz, Larissa


    Full Text Available This paper describes the origin and evolution of two Chilean political parties (the Radical Party and the Christian Democrat Party through the analysis of the social networks that originated and composed them. The aim of this study is to propose a model of national political cultures on the basis of the structure of social networks related to power and of the symbol system, which legitimizes it. The structure of social networks, horizontal and vertical, are based on reciprocal or redistributive forms of exchange, on what is being exchanged and on the articulation between networks. In every society there are symmetrical and asymmetrical exchanges, which produce horizontal and vertical networks. These networks interact among themselves to form the social fabric. The dominance of some over others and how they combine, delineate the character of the political culture (authoritarian vs. egalitarian. Chile is a multiparty country within which there are cohorts of horizontal groups of friends, who informally exercise a central control over their members and create invisible boundaries setting them apart from others, in which leadership is under constrains. The result is both a strong presidential system based on an almost fanatic legitimacy, combined with factionalism and a strong parliamentary system.

  2. Psychosocial variables of sexual satisfaction in Chile. (United States)

    Barrientos, Jaime E; Páez, Dario


    This study analyzed psychosocial variables of sexual satisfaction in Chile using data from the COSECON survey. Participants were 5,407 subjects (2,244 min and 3,163 women, aged 18-69 years). We used a cross-sectional questionnaire with a national probability sample. Data were collected using a thorough sexual behavior questionnaire consisting of 190 face-to-face questions and 24 self-reported questions. A single item included in the COSECON questionnaire assessed sexual satisfaction. Results showed that high education level, marital status, and high socioeconomic levels were associated with sexual satisfaction in women but not in men. The results also showed important gender differences and sustain the idea that sexuality changes may be more present in middle and high social classes. The proximal variables typically used for measuring sexual satisfaction, such as the frequency of sexual intercourse and orgasm, showed a positive but smaller association with sexual satisfaction. Other important variables related to sexual satisfaction were being in love with the partner and having a steady partner. The results confirmed previous findings and are discussed in the frame of approaches like the exchange, equity, and sexual scripts theories.

  3. Predecessors of the giant 1960 Chile earthquake. (United States)

    Cisternas, Marco; Atwater, Brian F; Torrejón, Fernando; Sawai, Yuki; Machuca, Gonzalo; Lagos, Marcelo; Eipert, Annaliese; Youlton, Cristián; Salgado, Ignacio; Kamataki, Takanobu; Shishikura, Masanobu; Rajendran, C P; Malik, Javed K; Rizal, Yan; Husni, Muhammad


    It is commonly thought that the longer the time since last earthquake, the larger the next earthquake's slip will be. But this logical predictor of earthquake size, unsuccessful for large earthquakes on a strike-slip fault, fails also with the giant 1960 Chile earthquake of magnitude 9.5 (ref. 3). Although the time since the preceding earthquake spanned 123 years (refs 4, 5), the estimated slip in 1960, which occurred on a fault between the Nazca and South American tectonic plates, equalled 250-350 years' worth of the plate motion. Thus the average interval between such giant earthquakes on this fault should span several centuries. Here we present evidence that such long intervals were indeed typical of the last two millennia. We use buried soils and sand layers as records of tectonic subsidence and tsunami inundation at an estuary midway along the 1960 rupture. In these records, the 1960 earthquake ended a recurrence interval that had begun almost four centuries before, with an earthquake documented by Spanish conquistadors in 1575. Two later earthquakes, in 1737 and 1837, produced little if any subsidence or tsunami at the estuary and they therefore probably left the fault partly loaded with accumulated plate motion that the 1960 earthquake then expended.

  4. Psychiatric disorders among the Mapuche in Chile. (United States)

    Vicente, Benjamin; Kohn, Robert; Rioseco, Pedro; Saldivia, Sandra; Torres, Silverio


    The Mapuche are the largest indigenous group in Chile; yet almost all data on the mental health of indigenous populations are from North America. The study examines the differential DSM-III-R prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders and service utilization among indigenous and non-indigenous community residence. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was administered to a stratified random sample of 75 Mapuche and 434 non-Mapuche residents of the province of Cautín. Lifetime prevalence and 12-month prevalence rates were estimated. Approximately 28.4% of the Mapuche population had a lifetime, and 15.7% a 12-month, prevalent psychiatric disorder compared to 38.0% and 25.7%, respectively, of the non-Mapuche. Few significant differences were noted between the two groups; however, generalized anxiety disorder, simple phobia, and drug dependence were less prevalent among the Mapuche. Service utilization among the Mapuche with mental illness was low. This is a preliminary study based on a small sample size. Further research on the mental health of indigenous populations of South America is needed.

  5. [Nutritive value of shellfish consumed in Chile]. (United States)

    Pak, N; Vera, G; Araya, H


    The purpose of the present study was to determine the protein quality and digestibility of shellfish commonly consumed in Chile, and to estimate its contribution to the protein needs of the Chilean population. The shellfish studied were chorito (Mytilus edulis chilensis), macha (Mesodesma donacium), loco (Concholepas concholepas), cholga (Aulacomya ater), erizo (Loxechinus albus) and almeja (no specific variety). The NPU method was used to determine protein quality. The percentage of protein adequacy for adult rations was calculated according to FAO/WHO 1973. The contribution of shellfish to the protein availability according to the family income of the Santiago population, was also calculated. Most of the shellfish presented NPU values of about 70; the lowest values were found for loco (54.9) and macha (63.3). The apparent and true digestibility gave an average of 83.6 and 90.4, respectively. The percentage of protein adequacy of habitual rations ranged between 27% (erizo) and 58% (loco). The availability of shellfish protein in relation to total protein increased from 0.4 to 2.5% when income increased. It is concluded therefore, that shellfish protein is, in general, of good quality. Nevertheless, it might be considered of poor influence insofar as fulfilling the protein needs of the population studied, whatever its socioeconomic level.

  6. Chile menos volátil

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    Felipe Larraín B.


    Full Text Available Desde fines de 1998 la economía chilena se desaceleró mucho. Si entre 1988 y 1998 la tasa de crecimiento promedio alcanzó un 7.8%, durante el período postcrisis asiática fue de sólo un 3.7%. Sin embargo, junto con la desaceleración del crecimiento, la volatilidad de la economía se redujo prácticamente a la mitad.Este trabajo investiga, mediante un análisis empírico formal, el papel que tuvieron la introducción de la flotación cambiaria y la utilización de la regla de superávit estructural en transformar a Chile en una economía menos volátil. Nuestros resultados muestran que la introducción de la regla fiscal parece haber reducido en un tercio la volatilidad del crecimiento del PIB. Por su parte, la flotación cambiaria contribuyó a reducir esa volatilidad adicionalmente en alrededor de un cuarto. Así, en conjunto, ambas medidas aparecen como responsables de haber disminuido la volatilidad del crecimiento de la economía chilena en casi 60%. Estos resultados son robustos ante especificaciones y posibles problemas de endogeneidad en algunas de las variables explicativas.

  7. [Mental health in Chile and Finland: Challenges and lessons]. (United States)

    Retamal C, Pedro; Markkula, Niina; Peña, Sebastián


    This article analyses and compares the epidemiology of mental disorders and relevant public policies in Chile and Finland. In Chile, a specific mental health law is still lacking. While both countries highlight the role of primary care, Finland places more emphasis on participation and recovery of service users. Comprehensive mental health policies from Finland, such as a successful suicide prevention program, are presented. Both countries have similar prevalence of mental disorders, high alcohol consumption and high suicide rates. In Chile, the percentage of total disease burden due to psychiatric disorders is 13% and in Finland 14%. However, the resources to address these issues are very different. Finland spends 4.5% of its health budget on mental health, while in Chile the percentage is 2.2%. This results in differences in human resources and service provision. Finland has five times more psychiatric outpatient visits, four times more psychiatrists, triple antidepressant use and twice more clinical guidelines for different psychiatric conditions. In conclusion, both countries have similar challenges but differing realities. This may help to identify gaps and potential solutions for public health challenges in Chile. Finland’s experience demonstrates the importance of political will and long-term vision in the construction of mental health policies.

  8. National control and eradication program of bovine tuberculosis in Chile. (United States)

    Max, Vanessa; Paredes, Luis; Rivera, Alejandro; Ternicier, Claudio


    There have been reports of the presence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in Chile for more than 100 years. Several prevalence studies have revealed that there is a wide spectrum of disease across the country with certain geographic areas where the disease is endemic through to other geographic areas where infection is sporadic and at very low prevalence. In 2009, this information was used to divide Chile into different geographic zones based on prevalence rates. This will enable the correct actions to be undertaken to reduce the prevalence of TB. Thus the northern part of Chile which has a medium to high prevalence of TB will be categorized as a control zone. In contrast, the southern part of Chile which has a high proportion of the bovine population, has a low prevalence of TB and will be classified as an eradication zone (Paredes, 2008). Although there have been several past attempts to create a national control and eradication program in Chile, none has been successful. A national program is proposed, and outlined in this paper. Progress toward program initiation in 2009 has been difficult, mostly because of the global economic crisis, difficulties in the milk and meat industry, and social and political issues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Policy-Driven Productivity in Chile and Mexico in the 1980s and 1990s


    Raphael Bergoeing; Patrick J. Kehoe; Timothy J. Kehoe; Raimundo Soto


    Both Chile and Mexico experienced severe economic crises in the early 1980s, but Chile recovered much faster than did Mexico. Using growth accounting and a calibrated dynamic general equilibrium model, we conclude that the crucial determinant of this difference between the two countries was the faster productivity growth in Chile, rather than higher investment or employment. Our hypothesis is that this difference in productivity was driven by earlier policy reforms in Chile, the most crucial ...

  10. 75 FR 3756 - Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia (United States)


    ...)] Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia AGENCY: United States International Trade... preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of... mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  11. 75 FR 22369 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's Republic of China... (United States)


    ...-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's Republic of China... orders on certain preserved mushrooms (mushrooms) from Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's Republic... reviews of the antidumping duty orders on mushrooms from Chile, India, Indonesia, and the PRC, pursuant to...

  12. 75 FR 28059 - Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore (United States)


    ... Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... Trade Agreements with Chile, Australia, and Singapore. DATES: July 15, 2010: Deadline for filing written... effects of the free trade agreements (FTAs) concluded with Chile, Singapore, and Australia. In its report...

  13. 76 FR 14320 - Importation of Figs and Pomegranates From Chile Under a Systems Approach (United States)


    ... allowed. Importation of pomegranates (Punica granatum) from Chile is allowed if the fruit is fumigated... Pomegranate (Punica granatum) and Fig (Ficus carica) from Chile Imported into the Continental United States... pomegranates (Punica granatum) may be imported into the continental United States from Chile under the...

  14. Globalization, Inequality, and Transnational Activism: A Case Study on Chile

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    Moctezuma Garcia


    Full Text Available Globalization has transformed how states are governed through a neoliberal economic approach that reinforces an unregulated capitalist market. An emphasis on Chile is important because it was the first state in Latin America to apply neoliberalism and has been hailed as a prime example for other developing states to integrate similar strategies to strengthen the local economy. However, inequality continues to persist despite economic gains. A combination of historical struggles affecting victims of the Pinochet era and present struggles with poverty, have resulted in a constant conflict between the power elite and the rest of society. Social movements in Chile have played a pivotal role in raising international awareness and pressuring the local government to protect the rights of highly vulnerable populations. A focus on transnational activism provides an effective medium for local and international advocates to work together toward holding Chile accountable for addressing social disparities.

  15. Chile y los Desafíos Globales de Seguridad

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    John Griffiths Spielman


    Full Text Available El presente artículo pretende abordar el tema "Chile y los desafíos globales de seguridad", asumiendo a modo de propuesta una noción de seguridad relativa a todo fenómeno violento e intencional, que como producto de su actuación provoca mortalidad, y ello desde la perspectiva de un país pequeño, tal y como Chile, si bien notablemente interconectado a nivel global. En consecuencia, Chile debería asumir un efecto potencialmente mayor de las principales amenazas globales. En síntesis, se expresa que en el actual escenario de seguridad, la lejanía geográfica de los fenómenos ya no es necesariamente un factor que prevenga los efectos de dichas amenazas sobre la seguridad de un Estado.

  16. The Unexpected Awakening of Chaitén Volcano, Chile (United States)

    Carn, Simon A.; Zogorski, John S.; Lara, Luis; Ewert, John W.; Watt, Sebastian; Prata, Alfred J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Villarosa, Gustavo


    On 2 May 2008, a large eruption began unexpectedly at the inconspicuous Chaitén volcano in Chile's southern volcanic zone. Ash columns abruptly jetted from the volcano into the stratosphere, followed by lava dome effusion and continuous low-altitude ash plumes [Lara, 2009]. Apocalyptic photographs of eruption plumes suffused with lightning were circulated globally. Effects of the eruption were extensive. Floods and lahars inundated the town of Chaitén, and its 4625 residents were evacuated. Widespread ashfall and drifting ash clouds closed regional airports and cancelled hundreds of domestic flights in Argentina and Chile and numerous international flights [Guffanti et al., 2008]. Ash heavily affected the aquaculture industry in the nearby Gulf of Corcovado, curtailed ecotourism, and closed regional nature preserves. To better prepare for future eruptions, the Chilean government has boosted support for monitoring and hazard mitigation at Chaitén and at 42 other highly hazardous, active volcanoes in Chile.

  17. Biogeografía marina de Chile continental Marine biogeography of continental Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Por casi un siglo, varios autores han analizado los patrones de distribución de la fauna y flora marina del Pacífico de Sudamérica y de la costa de Chile en particular, con el propósito de establecer el número de las unidades biogeográficas presentes. Si bien los patrones generales actuales son relativamente bien conocidos, la mayoría de los estudios se ha enfocado en las discontinuidades distribucionales y en propuestas de clasificación más que en los factores y procesos dinámicos que han formado las unidades espaciales identificadas. Aun en el caso de las clasificaciones, las conclusiones publicadas se basan principalmente en el análisis de uno o pocos grupos seleccionados, y presentan diferencias importantes en los criterios de selección de los grupos, el número de especies involucrado y la metodología usada. Por otra parte, las discrepancias entre estudios específicos tienden a obscurecer un fenómeno relevante y de mayor escala como es la dinámica de las biotas, uno de los aspectos biogeográficos menos conocidos en Chile. En tal contexto, este trabajo presenta una revisión de literatura sobre la biogeografía marina de Chile y sus aspectos asociados, con los siguientes objetivos: (a resumir las características oceanográficas, climáticas y geomorfológicas de la costa continental de Chile; (b discutir 27 clasificaciones biogeográficas publicadas para la costa chilena, analizando los criterios y procedimientos usados por los autores, sus conclusiones principales, y la concordancia entre los estudios; (c evaluar los procesos dispersivos y vicariantes asociados a los desplazamientos y modificaciones de las biotas de la región, en función de los antecedentes disponibles sobre las condiciones existentes y los principales eventos ocurridos durante los períodos Terciario y Cuaternario; y (d proponer un escenario de cambio biogeográfico basado en determinantes históricas y su influencia en la formación, carácter y din

  18. Analysis and projections of physics in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, Leopoldo; Zambra, Marcelo [Comision Chilena de EnergIa Nuclear, Casilla 188D, Santiago (Chile); Loewe, Marcelo [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Facultad de Fisica, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago (Chile); Gutierrez, Gonzalo; Molina, Mario [Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile); Barra, Felipe; Lund, Fernando [Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Av. Blanco Encalada 2008, Santiago (Chile); Saavedra, Carlos [Universidad de Conception, Departamento de Fisica, Esteban Iturra S/N, Barrio Universitario, Conception (Chile); Haberle, Patricio [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa MarIa, Departamento de Fisica, Av. Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile)], E-mail:


    In the present work, an assessment of the Physics research capacity in Chile is presented. For this, the period between 2000 and June 2005 has been studied. In this period almost 200 physicists have contributed to scientific production in terms of ISI publications. Amongst these 200, {approx}160 correspond to theoretical physicists and only {approx}40 to experimental physicists; {approx}178 are men and only {approx}22 are women. A more detailed analysis shows that {approx}160 physicists have at least one appearance in ISI publications per year considering the last 3 years. Ten years ago, a similar criteria (at least one appearance per year in ISI articles, considering mobile three-year periods), the number of active physicists in the Chilean community was estimated at 70. Therefore, the Chilean active physicists' community has doubled in 10 years. There exist 20 centres in which scientific research is developed: 18 university centres, a government institute and a private institute. As regards scientific productivity, both as related to disciplines or research areas, and well as in relation to research centres, it is found that, generally, scientific production, in a particular area in Physics or in a research centre, is directly related to the number of corresponding researchers; that is to say, the percentage of the national productivity in an area or research centre corresponds to its share in the total number of physicists in the country. A geographical analysis shows that 50% of the productivity corresponds to Santiago and 50% to the rest of the country. The impact of the different funds for research is assessed, also: FONDECYT, Presidential Chairs and large projects and centres of excellence. According to Physics researchers opinion, Fondo Nacional de Ciencia y TecnologIa (FONDECYT, National Fund fro Science and Technology) has become the best instrument to support researchi activities in Chile. However, the amount of projects awarded has practically not

  19. Analysis and projections of physics in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, Leopoldo; Zambra, Marcelo; Loewe, Marcelo; Gutierrez, Gonzalo; Molina, Mario; Barra, Felipe; Lund, Fernando; Saavedra, Carlos; Haberle, Patricio


    In the present work, an assessment of the Physics research capacity in Chile is presented. For this, the period between 2000 and June 2005 has been studied. In this period almost 200 physicists have contributed to scientific production in terms of ISI publications. Amongst these 200, ∼160 correspond to theoretical physicists and only ∼40 to experimental physicists; ∼178 are men and only ∼22 are women. A more detailed analysis shows that ∼160 physicists have at least one appearance in ISI publications per year considering the last 3 years. Ten years ago, a similar criteria (at least one appearance per year in ISI articles, considering mobile three-year periods), the number of active physicists in the Chilean community was estimated at 70. Therefore, the Chilean active physicists' community has doubled in 10 years. There exist 20 centres in which scientific research is developed: 18 university centres, a government institute and a private institute. As regards scientific productivity, both as related to disciplines or research areas, and well as in relation to research centres, it is found that, generally, scientific production, in a particular area in Physics or in a research centre, is directly related to the number of corresponding researchers; that is to say, the percentage of the national productivity in an area or research centre corresponds to its share in the total number of physicists in the country. A geographical analysis shows that 50% of the productivity corresponds to Santiago and 50% to the rest of the country. The impact of the different funds for research is assessed, also: FONDECYT, Presidential Chairs and large projects and centres of excellence. According to Physics researchers opinion, Fondo Nacional de Ciencia y TecnologIa (FONDECYT, National Fund fro Science and Technology) has become the best instrument to support researchi activities in Chile. However, the amount of projects awarded has practically not been increased, which is

  20. [Foodborne disease outbreaks surveillance in Chile]. (United States)

    Olea, Andrea; Díaz, Janepsy; Fuentes, Rodrigo; Vaquero, Alejandra; García, Maritza


    Foodborne disease outbreaks are one of the main health problems globally, having an extensive impact on human welfare. The World Health Organization considers them as the main cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries, and responsible for high levels of loss of productivity in developed countries. To describe the epidemiology of foodborne disease outbreaks according to data contained in an automated surveillance system. Descriptive observational study of notified outbreaks from the surveillance system, between 2005 and 2010 in Chile. The information was based on etiology, temporal and spatial distribution, and epidemiologic description of outbreaks during this period. There were 5,689 notified outbreaks. Most of them occurred during 2006 (1,106 outbreaks, rate 6.7 per 100,000 inhabitants) and 2008 (1,316 outbreaks, rate 7.9 per 100, 000 inhabitants) with an increase during summer. Fifty four percent occurred in the Metropolitan region. The group aged 15 to 44 years old, was the most affected one. Sixty four percent of the outbreaks had the food involved registered, of which fish and fishery products reached 42%. An 81% of the outbreaks did not have a precise etiologic diagnosis. Of all patients involved, 97% were outpatients, 3,2% were hospitalized patients, and 0,1% died. Only 49% of the outbreaks had information about the lack of food safety, with a 34,1% related to food handling procedures. Through the information on the epidemiology of foodborne diseases obtained by the Chilean surveillance system, appropriate control measures could be taken.

  1. Migración y Mercado Laboral en Chile


    Dante Contreras; Jaime Ruiz-Tagle; Paulina Sepúlveda


    Los últimos procesos migratorios que ha vivido Chile han despertado el interés respecto a los efectos de la inmigración sobre la economía del país. El objetivo de este trabajo es caracterizar y analizar los efectos de la inmigración sobre el mercado laboral en Chile y la situación de los migrantes en el mercado laboral local. Utilizando los datos de la encuesta CASEN 2006 y 2009, y los datos de Extranjería del Ministerio del Interior y del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, encontramos que ...

  2. Chile y las sociedades latinoamericanas en un mundo globalizado


    Antonio Garretón, Manuel


    Sr Ministro de Educación de Francia, Jack Lang, Sra Ministro de Educación de Chile, Mariana Aylwin, Sr Embajador de Chile en Francia, Marcelo Schilling, Sr Presidente de la Universidad Paris-3 Sorbonne-Nouvelle, Jean-Michel Lacroix, Sr Director del Instituto de Altos Estudios de América Latina, Jean Michel Blanquer, señoras y señores, amigas y amigos. Es un honor para mí ser el primer profesor invitado de la Cátedra de Estudios Chilenos creada por el Ministerio de Educación francés en la Univ...

  3. Chile: Inauguración de la universidad Alberto Hurtado.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Montes SJ.


    Full Text Available El 20 de octubre de 1997, se inauguró en Santiago de chile la Universidad Alberto Hurtado, dirigida por la Compañía de Jesús. En esa ocasión, su Rector, Fernando Montes S.J, pronunció su discurso inaugural en presencia del presidente chileno Eduardo Frei, del expresidente Patricio Alwing y de unas mil personas, entre senadores, diputados, figuras políticas, académicas y religiosas de Chile. Encuentro produce aquí el texto completo del discurso del Padre Montes S. J.

  4. Scenarios for wind power in Brazil, Argentina and Chile; Cenarios para a energia eolio eletrica no Brasil, Argentina e Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedecca, Joao Gorestein; Nogueira, Larissa Goncalves; Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martino [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], emails:,,; Gomes, Rodolfo Dourado [International Energy Initiative-Latin America (IEI-LA), Campinas, SP (Brazil)], email:


    The Chilean, Argentinean and Brazilian power matrixes presented in the last two decades a growth of the non-renewable energy sources share, especially fossil sources, mainly in installed capacity and in a lesser degree in energy production. Greenpeace and the European Renewable Energy Council have elaborated a reference energy scenario together with a scenario analyzing the institution of ample measures for the promotion of renewable energy sources. Feed-in tariffs and auction or bidding mechanisms implemented in Brazil and Argentina and the renewable portfolio standard implemented in Chile allied with the wind industry state in these countries indicate that Chile and Argentina will fulfill the 2020 wind power installed capacity predicted in the reference scenarios, while Brazil will reach the energy revolution scenario prediction. Important energy policy changes are required if the Chile and Argentina energy revolution scenarios wind power installed capacity are to become a reality in 2020. (author)

  5. Intelectuais e política no Chile: Apontamentos sobre a revista Aurora de Chile (1938-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Amélia M.C. Melo

    Full Text Available Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é o de examinar a revista Aurora de Chile que circula em Santiago entre 1938-1940. Criada por Pablo Neruda esta publicação apresentou-se como um importante órgão de comunicação da Alianza de Intelectuales de Chile para la Defensa de la Cultura (AICH, entidade fundada em articulação com outras organizações internacionais de intelectuais e com orientação da Comintern. A revista situou-se nos debates políticos e culturais desses anos no Chile e atuou vigorosamente na defesa dos princípios da democracia, das liberdades públicas e contra o fascismo. Neste estudo busco demonstrar o papel desta revista como uma das vozes da perspectiva frentista que passou a orientar o Partido Comunista Chileno no período.

  6. Chile: protección social de la salud Chile: social protection in health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Urriola


    Full Text Available This piece begins with a brief discussion of the concepts leading to the social right to health protection. Special emphasis is placed on the principle of social cohesion, which has influenced social health protection in European countries. Chile’s experience in this field from the 1990s to the present is described, as exemplified in three dimensions. In the first place, social security coverage is presented as a means to achieve universal (horizontal coverage. A discussion follows on vertical coverage, where the author identifies health problems for which insured persons have guaranteed rights of access to medical care. This section describes available emergency care, primary health care, and the special plan for Universal Access to Explicit Guarantees (Acceso Universal de Garantías Explícitas de salud, or AUGE. Thirdly, the discussion covers the funding sources supporting the Chilean health care system: Government subsidies, contributions to social security, and out-of-pocket disbursements for private care. Chile’s public health system has various special programs. One of them is catastrophic insurance, which covers 100% of the care needed for complex and very costly treatments. Older persons (over 65 have coverage for 100% of the cost of eyeglasses and hearing aids, and for 50% of the cost of home care. If life expectancy is an appropriate indicator of health system results, it is worth noting that Chile and the United States of America have both achieved a life expectancy of 77 years, even though Chile spends only 5.9% of its gross domestic product on health care, as compared to the 15% spent by the United States.

  7. Energy from the Andes. The hydropower plant La Confluencia in Chile; Energie aus den Anden. Die Wasserkraftanlage La Confluencia in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Mathias [Hochschule Regensburg (Germany). Bauingenieurwesen


    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the hydropower plant La Confluencia situated nearly 150 km south of Santiago de Chile (Chile). La Confluencia is a project development of a Norwegian-Australian joint venture of SN Power utilities (Oslo, Norway) and Pacific Hydro (Melbourne, Australia). Constructora Hochtief Tecsa (Santiago, Chile) took over the order to construct the plant completely including planning, construction, equipment and operation. The system concept was developed in collaboration with Poeyry Energy (Zurich, Switzerland). The plant design was devised in cooperation with Intertechne (Curitiba, Brazil), EDIC Ingenieros (Santiago, Chile) and Geocontrol (Madrid, Spain).

  8. [Fertility Survey, Metropolitana region, Chile 1989]. (United States)


    A fertility study was carried out by the Chilean Association for Protection of the Family (APROFA) in metropolitan Chile in 1989 to update data from the most recent fertility study in 1974. A random and self-weighted sample of 600 women aged 15-44 in 32 urban communes of the metropolitan region were interviewed in November 1989. 55% were married or in stable consensual unions, 39.1% were single, and 5.9% were separated, divorced, or widowed. 24.1% had primary educations, 15.5% had some form of higher education, and .2% were illiterate. 64.2% of the women had children, of whom 63.8% had 1 or 2. Only 2.1% had 6 or more children. 46.2% felt that the ideal family size was 1-2 children and 30.7% that it was 3 children. 40.4% of women with children wanted another child and 59.6% did not. 25.1% of the sample had never had sexual relations, 7.3% had not had sexual relations in the 12 months prior to the interview, and the remaining 67.6% were sexually active. At the time of the survey 6.1% were pregnant and 11.1% had had a birth in the preceding 12 months. 28.3% of these pregnancies were considered unwanted, usually for economic reasons or because the family was considered complete. 55.6% of the sample reported using contraceptives. 48.6% used IUDs, 26.0% used oral contraceptives, 6.9% periodic abstinence methods, and 1.8% barrier methods. Only 7.5% of women aged 15-19 used contraception. Rates of use stabilized after age 25 at about 72%. 80.9% of women married or in union used a method, as did 20.2% of single and 59.3% of separated or divorced women. The data for the survey are still under analysis and all statistics are provisional.

  9. The New Student Loan System in Chile's Higher Education (United States)

    Larrain, Christian; Zurita, Salvador


    Chile's higher education system stands out as being one of the most privatized and open to the market in the world. Recently, the Chilean Congress passed Law #20.027 of 2005, which provides the legal framework for the creation of a student loan system guaranteed both by the State and by higher education institutions (HEIs), financed by the private…

  10. Radiation doses in neuroangiography for a clinical hospital in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergara, F.; Valenzuela, E.


    The objective of this study is to estimate the levels of radiation to the patient in neuroangiography procedures diagnostic and therapy in a Chile's Hospital, using a biplane angiographic system Siemens model ArtisZee. This research was conducted under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the support of their radiation protection programs for patients

  11. Triassic volcanic units in coastal region of Antofagasta, northern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basso, M.; Cortes, J.A.; Marinovic, N


    U-Pb geochronological evidence of a Middle to Late Triassic volcanic event was found in the coastal region of Antofagasta, northern Chile (23 o -23 o 30 ). Two new ages were obtained from rhyolitic tuffs and an associated dome, which have classically been attributed to the Jurassic La Negra Formation (au)

  12. Fourth Generation Warfare in Chile: Illicit Drug Trafficking Threats (United States)


    chain, such as Mexico, Central America, Ecuador, Venezuela , Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, among others. In addition to the increase in levels of...Organization of American States, the Common Market of the South ( Mercosur ), the Group of Financial Action of South America (Gafisud), and also in the Mechanism

  13. A gendered look at workplace mental health in Chile | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Apr 21, 2016 ... Assessing the impact of working conditions on mental health. Documenting workplace mental health risks and protective factors. Identifying policy best practices that promote healthier workplaces. Strengthening the training capacity of research user organizations. Raising public awareness in Chile of ...

  14. Evictions and the Right to Housing: Experience from Canada, Chile ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This book tells the story of evictions and planned evictions in the Canadian cities of Vancouver, Toronto, and Calgary. It explores the housing plight of Santiago de Chile's urban poor during the military dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet. It looks at how the 500th anniversary of Columbus's arrival in America resulted in mass ...

  15. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Chile 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Chile has experienced several serious energy supply incidents over the last decade, including major droughts, a sustained gas supply cut from Argentina (since 2004), and a major earthquake in early 2010 which affected electricity networks and refineries, and caused several black-outs. Due to Chile's unique and sinuous geography - it runs 4 300 kilometres from North to South and only 175 kms from East to West- the country's energy markets are regionally disjointed, particularly as the regional gas and electricity grids are not connected. In the arid North, energy demand is dominated by the mining industry, and operates based on a separate thermal-based Sistema Interconectado Norte Grande (SING) electricity grid. The more densely-populated central region (including Santiago) operates on the more hydro-dependent Sistema Interconectado Central (SIC) electricity grid. The southernmost, hydro-rich regions of the country are not connected to the rest of Chile in terms of electricity and gas. The following report is based on an IEA Emergency Response Assessment carried out in 2010 and 2011 which looked specifically at Chile's capacity to respond to short-term emergencies in oil, gas and electricity.

  16. Sowing Consumers in the Garden of Mass Retailing in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ossandón, José


    It is known that some key elements of modern consumer credit were originally developed in department stores. However, almost no attention has been given to new developments in this area. This paper studies the case of retail credit in Chile. Special attention is given to a particular technique...

  17. Severe mortality impact of the 1957 influenza pandemic in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowell, Gerardo; Simonsen, Lone; Fuentes, Rodrigo


    INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological studies of the 1957 influenza pandemic are scarce, particularly from lower income settings. METHODS: We analyzed the spatial-temporal mortality patterns of the 1957 influenza pandemic in Chile including detailed age-specific mortality data from a large city and inves......INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological studies of the 1957 influenza pandemic are scarce, particularly from lower income settings. METHODS: We analyzed the spatial-temporal mortality patterns of the 1957 influenza pandemic in Chile including detailed age-specific mortality data from a large city...... and investigated risk factors for severe mortality impact across regions. RESULTS: Chile exhibited two waves of excess mortality in winter 1957 and 1959 with a cumulative excess mortality rate of 12 per 10,000, and a ~10-fold mortality difference across provinces. High excess-mortality rates were associated...... with high baseline mortality (R2=41.8%; P=0.02), but not with latitude (P>0.7). Excess mortality rates increased sharply with age. Transmissibility declined from R=1.4-2.1 to R=1.2-1.4 between the two pandemic waves. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated A/H2N2 mortality burden in Chile is the highest on record...

  18. Education with ICT in South Korea and Chile (United States)

    Sanchez, Jaime; Salinas, Alvaro; Harris, Jordan


    This article presents a linear-analytical case study on the development of ICT within the educational systems of Chile and South Korea. Through a comprehensive meta-data analysis and bibliographic review, we collected information on both educational systems and their ICT adoption policies. Key differences necessary to understand how both countries…

  19. Dynamics of Investment for Market-Oriented Farmers in Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyes, A.; Kuyvenhoven, A.; Lensink, R.; Moll, H.A.J.


    Using panel data from a survey conducted in 2006 and 2008 of 177 market-oriented farmers in central Chile, we investigate investment under imperfect capital markets. Specifically we determine the impact of formal credit constraints on fixed investment. By controlling for endogeneity problems, we

  20. All projects related to chile | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Total Funding: CA$ 553,000.00. Women supporting women: Networked civic engagement to foster effective women's leadership for inclusive policymaking. Project. “Women supporting Women” is an applied research project led by Fundación Democracia y Desarrollo. Region: Chile, West Indies, North and Central America, ...

  1. All projects related to chile | Page 7 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Latin American Schoolnets (REDAL) network and the Latin American Education Portals Network (RELPE) have made a substantive contribution to ... The municipality of Peñalolén in Santiago, Chile, is characterized by great socioeconomic diversity and strong social networks (clubs for the elderly and young people, ...

  2. All projects related to chile | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    The Impact of Price, Tax, and Advertising Policies on Alcohol Use in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, and Peru. Project. Alcohol consumption in the Americas comes at a considerable cost. End Date: July 11, 2017. Topic: SURVEYS, STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, POLICY MAKING, LOW INCOME GROUPS, SOCIAL PROBLEMS, ...

  3. How Local Market Pressures Shape Leadership Practices: Evidence from Chile (United States)

    Carrasco, Alejandro; Fromm, Germán


    Chile is well known worldwide for its extensive use of market-driven mechanisms in education. Using a case study strategy in three schools, this paper shows that "universal" voucher system and mixed provision (co-existence of subsidised private and state-funded schools) policies are reshaping school management practices. The paper draws…

  4. All projects related to Chile | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to support policies and programs that create greater opportunities and improve the well-being of 900,000 people living in poverty in the rural-urban territories of Chile, Colombia, and Mexico. Topic: ECONOMIC GROWTH, RURAL AREAS, EMPLOYMENT, LATIN AMERICA, FOOD, POLICY MAKING. Region: ...

  5. Neoliberal Education and Student Movements in Chile: Inequalities and Malaise (United States)

    Cabalin, Cristian


    This article examines the major consequences of the neoliberal education system implemented in Chile during the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet and how two important student movements contested this structure. In 2006 and 2011, thousands of students filled the streets to demand better public education, more social justice and equal opportunities.…

  6. How Chile is taking its first steps towards nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitev, Lubomir


    Chile's Association of Engineers is urging the government to launch a programme of new nuclear build due to the rising electricity demand that could lead to four reactors being in operation by 2030. Fernando Sierpe, head of the association's nuclear power committee, talks to NucNet about plans, progress and possible obstacles.

  7. The Araucanian Indian in Chile. IWGIA Document 20. (United States)

    Berdichewsky, Bernardo

    One of the larger of the native peoples of South America, the Araucanians include different ethnic subgroups, some of which are now extinct. Once geographically spread extensively over the southern cone of South America, at present they are reduced to only two closely related groups: (1) the Mapuche of southern Chile, the largest one; and (2) the…

  8. [Health research and health technology assessment in Chile]. (United States)

    Espinoza, Manuel Antonio; Cabieses, Báltica; Paraje, Guillermo


    Health research is considered an essential element for the improvement of population health and it has been recommended that a share of the national health budget should be allocated to develop this field. Chile has undertaken efforts in the last decades in order to improve the governmental structure created to promote the development of health research, which has increased human resources and funding opportunities. On the other hand, the sustained economic growth of Chile in the last decades suggests that the health expenditure will maintain its increasing trend in the following years. This additional funding could be used to improve coverage of current activities performed in the health system, but also to address the incorporation of new strategies. More recently, health technology assessment (HTA) has been proposed as a process to support decisions about allocation of resources based on scientific evidence. This paper examines the relationship between the development of health research and the HTA process. First, it presents a brief diagnosis of the situation of health research in Chile. Second, it reviews the conceptual basis and the methods that account for the relationship between a HTA process and the development of health research. In particular, it emphasizes the relevance of identifying information gaps where funding additional research can be considered a good use of public resources. Finally, it discusses the challenges and possible courses of action that Chile could take in order to guarantee the continuous improvement of an articulated structure for health research and HTA.

  9. The histories and destinies of Chile and California (United States)

    Brooke Penaluna


    In Strangers on Familiar Soil, Edward Dallam Melillo shows how Californians and Chileans each have one foot on their land and the other connecting them through the Pacific Ocean. Melillo reframes our understanding of US history in the west and links the histories and destinies of Chile and California from 1786 to the current day. Contrary to popular belief, Melillo...

  10. Cooperating to compete : associative peasant business firms in Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berdegué Sacristán, J.A.


    Since 1990 the government of Chile has carried out a major effort to support the participation of small scale agriculture in one of the most liberalized and competitive economies of the developing world. In particular, the Agricultural Development Institute (INDAP), and agency of the Ministry of

  11. All projects related to chile | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Topic: STATISTICAL DATA, DATABASES, DATA RETRIEVAL, DATA ANALYSIS, POLICY MAKING, Governance, Internet. Region: Brazil, South America, Chile, ... Latin American societies continue to struggle with high income inequality as a source of social and economic tension. Start Date: April 23, 2009. End Date: March ...

  12. Interdisciplinary studies of eruption at Chaiten Volcano, Chile (United States)

    John S. Pallister; Jon J. Major; Thomas C. Pierson; Richard P. Hoblitt; Jacob B. Lowenstern; John C. Eichelberger; Lara. Luis; Hugo Moreno; Jorge Munoz; Jonathan M. Castro; Andres Iroume; Andrea Andreoli; Julia Jones; Fred Swanson; Charlie Crisafulli


    There was keen interest within the volcanology community when the first large eruption of high-silica rhyolite since that of Alaska's Novarupta volcano in 1912 began on 1 May 2008 at Chaiten volcano, southern Chile, a 3-kilometer-diameter caldera volcano with a prehistoric record of rhyolite eruptions. Vigorous explosions occurred through 8 May 2008, after which...

  13. Recent Curriculum Change in Post-Pinochet Chile. (United States)

    Aedo-Richmond, Ruth; Richmond, Mark


    Reports on curriculum reform in Chile following the 1990 replacement of the Pinochet military regime with the democratically elected government of Patricio Aylwin. Significant reforms occurred in primary and rural education. Other improvements included increased professionalization of teaching, and funding for the Ministry of Education. (MJP)

  14. La prensa satírica de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paúl Alonso


    Full Text Available Refiere el autor sobre la revista más vendida de Chile y convertida en el referente obligado de la prensa alternativa en Latinoamérica. De humor descarnado, irreverente, de marcado rechazo a la Dictadura militar de Pinochet y en la búsqueda constante por revelar las contradicciones de la sociedad chilena.

  15. All projects related to Chile | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Labour Market Regulations, Outcomes and Income Distribution in Colombia and Chile. Project. Latin American societies continue to struggle with high income inequality as a source of social and economic tension. Start Date: April 23, 2009. End Date: March 31, 2011. Topic: LABOUR MARKET, LABOUR POLICY, LABOUR ...

  16. Domestic Violence and Women's Mental Health in Chile (United States)

    Ceballo, Rosario; Ramirez, Cynthia; Castillo, Marcela; Caballero, Gabriela Alejandra; Lozoff, Betsy


    Domestic violence against women is a pervasive, global health problem. This study investigates the correlates and psychological outcomes of domestic abuse among women in a semi-industrial country. The participants included 215 mothers residing in working-class communities located on the outskirts of Santiago, Chile. We utilized structural equation…

  17. Chile : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Plusieurs études ont montré que certaines formes de réseautage d'affaires collaboratif peuvent avoir une incidence positive sur l'innovation, les résultats financiers et le développement régional. Région: Chile, El Salvador, Paraguay, Uruguay. Programme: Initiative Think tank. Financement total : CA$ 250,000.00.

  18. All projects related to chile | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Start Date: March 31, 2008. End Date: January 1, 2010. Topic: YOUTH ORGANIZATIONS, YOUTH UNREST, SOCIAL PARTICIPATION. Region: Argentina, South America, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay, North and Central America. Total Funding: CA$ 2,917,200.00. Women Migrants Advocacy in Latin America.

  19. Integrated geophysical characteristics of the 2015 Illapel, Chile, earthquake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herman, Matthew W.; Nealy, Jennifer L.; Yeck, William L.; Barnhart, William D.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Benz, Harley M.


    On 16 September 2015, a Mw 8.3 earthquake ruptured the subduction zone offshore of Illapel, Chile, generating an aftershock sequence with 14 Mw 6.0–7.0 events. A double source W phase moment tensor inversion consists of a Mw 7.2 subevent and the main Mw 8.2 phase. We determine two slip models for

  20. All projects related to chile | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Rethinking Political Legitimacy: Citizen Inclusion and Social Digital Media. Project. In Chile, a mobilized, invigorated civil society is using new digital technologies to transform political participation. Start Date: November 17, 2011. End Date: May 17, 2014. Topic: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, COMPUTER NETWORKS, ...

  1. Education in Chile. Bulletin, 1964, No. 10. OE-14096 (United States)

    Freeburger, Adela R.; Hauch, Charles C.


    This bulletin notes that Chile was one of the first Latin American republics to achieve political democracy, with all aspects of its cultural, educational, and philosophical life influenced by Spanish tradition, reinforced by French and Italian influences. This document provides a brief historical background, then proceeds to describe the system…

  2. Science, Technology, and Innovation in Chile | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    With this in mind, and following a conversation between Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chrétien and Chilean President Eduardo Frei in 1997, IDRC and the Chilean National Council for Science and Technology (CONICYT) agreed to collaborate in a review of Chile's policies and programs in science and technology.

  3. [Brucellosis in Chile: Description of a series of 13 cases]. (United States)

    Olivares, Roberto; Vidal, Pamela; Sotomayor, Camila; Norambuena, Mackarenna; Luppi, Mario; Silva, Francisco; Cifuentes, Marcela


    Brucellosis is a zoonosis caused by Brucella spp. It may be acquired by consuming unpasteurized dairy products. Brucellosis has a low incidence in Chile, thus, we have a scarce data. To report and to characterize the first series of clinical cases of adult patients diagnosed with brucellosis in Chile. We describe a series of 13 clinical cases in patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2016 in three different centers in the Metropolitan Region, Chile. A retrospective analysis was performed on clinical presentation, laboratory, antibiotic treatment, morbidity and mortality. The mean age was 50 years old. Eight cases had a record of consumption of unpasteurized dairy products. The most frequently reported complaints were fever. The most frequent focal point involved was the spine. Only one patient had a positive blood culture, while the diagnosis was made using serological techniques in the other part of the group. The most indicated antibiotic regimens were doxycycline-rifampicin and doxycycline-gentamicin. The hospital stay was 20 days approximately as an average. Clinical cure was achieved in all cases. Brucellosis is an infrequent zoonosis in Chile, and it produces a nonspecific clinical picture, so it is necessary to have high suspicion to make the diagnosis based in the antecedent of consumption of unpasteurized dairy or raw meat.

  4. Worthy Women of Chile: What Role Did They Play? Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad Program 1995 (Chile). (United States)

    Hertzberg, Ruth A.

    This paper describes the lives of some notable women in the history of Chile from the time of the conquistadors to the present. The significant women described in the paper include: (1) Ines de Suarez (accompanied Pedro de Validivia in 1544); (2) Micaela Bastidas Puyucahua (wife of Incan leader Jose Gabriel Tupac Amaru, about 1780); (3) Gabriela…

  5. Jazz en Chile: su historia y función social Jazz in Chile: its history and social function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Menanteau


    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una visión general de la historia del jazz en Chile que destaca la función social de esta música y el cambio que tuvo a través del tiempo. Estos cambios se relacionaron con diferentes valoraciones de la práctica jazzística local. En un principio el jazz fue música popular masiva. Posteriormente fue valorado estéticamente por un segmento de élite, quienes eran profesionales en áreas no musicales y en muchos casos eran instrumentistas aficionados. En una tercera etapa, músicos profesionales asumieron la práctica del jazz como una plataforma para fusionar el lenguaje jazzístico con recursos tomados de la música tradicional chilena. Este tránsito del jazz en Chile está cruzado por factores socioeconómicos y estéticos, que se analizan en el trabajo.The article presents an overview of the history of jazz in Chile on the basis of the social function of jazz and the changes it has underwent over the years in terms of the valúes it has represented for Chilean society. Initially jazz was considered as mass popular music. Afterwards it was valued in aesthetic terms by a group belonging to the élite of Chilean society. Many of them belonged to non-music professions and in some cases were amateur musicians. Most recently professional musicians took up jazz as the basis for combining the jazz style with elements belonging to traditional music of Chile. This process in Chile is also influenced by social, economic and aesthetic aspects which are explored in this article.

  6. Factores determinantes de la esperanza de vida en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Planck Barahona-Urbina


    Full Text Available Introducción: En las últimas décadas, Chile ha experimentado un fuerte crecimiento económico, lo que ha permitido mejorar las condiciones de vida de los ciudadanos. Objetivos: Determinar los factores asociados a la esperanza de vida en Chile. Diseño: Análisis econométrico. Lugar: Chile. Intervenciones: Aplicación del modelo de regresión múltiple con series temporales para el análisis de la esperanza de vida en Chile. Se utilizó datos de naturaleza agregada del Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE y el Banco Central de Chile para el período comprendido entre 1988 y 2008. Se utilizó como variable dependiente la esperanza de vida en años y, como variables explicativas, el PIB per cápita, número de médicos, número de enfermeras y gasto público en salud. Principales medidas de resultados: Factores asociados a la esperanza de vida. Resultados: Luego del análisis, los resultados han puesto de manifiesto que el ingreso per cápita, el número de médicos, número de enfermeras y el gasto en salud resultaron ser estadísticamente significativos, es decir, tienen un efecto positivo sobre la esperanza de vida de las personas. Conclusiones: A la luz de los resultados podría argumentarse lo beneficioso que puede resultar en términos cuantitativos un aumento del PIB per cápita a la hora de conseguir una mayor esperanza de vida de las personas. Igualmente, los resultados sugieren el efecto positivo que produce un incremento del número de personal médico en el país dado, pues esta variable ha permitido satisfacer la demanda sanitaria cada vez más creciente de la población. El aumento del presupuesto social en salud ha sido una variable que ha tenido un resultado positivo a la hora de valorar su efecto en la mejora de las condiciones de vida en Chile.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar-Jara FI


    Full Text Available La extracción nutrimental determina la cantidad de nutrimentos extraída por una planta, puede cuantificarse en una etapa fenológica determinada o a través del ciclo de cultivo. Es una forma para establecer cuánto fertilizante se debe aplicar al cultivo de chile mediante el cálculo de la cantidad de nutrimento requerido por la planta para expresar un rendimiento esperado, por lo tanto, la cantidad necesaria de nutrimento para producir una tonelada de producto fresco debe ser un dato conocido. Se revisó literatura científica actualizada acerca de la cantidad de nutrimentos que extrae el cultivo de chile por tonelada de frutos frescos cosechados al igual que las partes vegetales no destinadas para consumo (follaje, tallos, raíces, es decir, el requerimiento nutrimental específico de chile; asimismo, se revisó la distribución de los nutrimentos en los órganos de las plantas, cómo es influenciada por las diferencias en tecnología de producción, rendimiento y las condiciones del suelo. Se encontró que la extracción y requerimientos nutrimentales en chile variaron por cultivares, tipos de chiles (jalapeño, dulce y pimiento, órgano muestreado y por sistemas de producción. De acuerdo con los resultados encontrados en esta revisión, se puede asegurar que el requerimiento nutrimental específico del cultivo de chile que sirva de base para el cálculo de dosis de fertilización, es como se indica a continuación (en kg t-1: Nitrógeno (N, 2.4 - 4.0; Fósforo (P2O5, 0.4 - 1.0; Potasio (K2O, 3.4 - 5.29, Calcio (CaO: 0.55 - 1.80 y Magnesio (MgO, 0.28 - 0.49.

  8. Vnější ekonomické vztahy Chile


    Horáková, Anna


    Práce se zabývá vnějšími ekonomickými vztahy Chile. V první části je charakterizována ekonomika Chile. V druhé části je zmapován vývoj obchodní politiky Chile a zapojování Chile do ekonomické integrace. Poslední kapitola nejprve analyzuje vývoj obchodu Chile, ilustruje problém jednostranného zaměření chilského exportu a analyzuje obchodní vztahy s EU, USA a Čínou. Následně jsou naznačeny nové ?role? Chile ve vztahu ke světovému obchodu.

  9. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Chile has an area of 740,760 square kilometers. The capital is Santiago. The country is 4,183 km. long and ranges from 22.5 to about 354 km. in width. Its chief topographic features para]lei each other - the Coastal Range, Andes Mountains and Central Valley. The Coastal Range rises to 2,130 meters in the north, but averages from 610 to 700 meters high generally. The range plunges into the Pacific Ocean far south of Valparaiso and reappears in the southern archipelagic islands. The Andes extend along nearly the entire length of Chile and contain 100 volcanoes. Andean peaks range mostly from 3,000 to 6,700 meters in elevation. In southern Chile the Andes are lower, and contain about a dozen major lakes. The mountains disappear in Chilean Patagonia, but reappear at Cape Horn. The Central Valley lies between the Coastal Range and the Andes, being best defined in the midland region as a 64 to 72 km sloping plain. It is the Chilean heartland with three-quarters of the country's population. Salt basins are found over much of northern Chile in the very arid desert, while the region south of the Gulf of Reloncavi consists of unpopulated islands, fjords, channels and heavily forested mountains. The Strait of Magellan, the Tierra del Fuego archipelago and a flat grassland area make up the extreme southern end of the country. Much of Chile is subject to flash floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides and avalanches. In September 1976 the Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear (CCEN) was given exclusive rights to negotiate contracts with private companies for the exploration, development and mining of uranium and other radioactive minerals. The new law provides the CCEN with considerable flexibility in the terms of the contracts. Pre-964 owners of uranium deposits may reach agreements with foreign companies to mine the uranium, but since 1964 all uranium has belonged to the state. Uranium produced in the country can only be exported after Chile's needs have been met. The

  10. Male attitudes to family planning education in Santiago, Chile. (United States)

    Hall, M F


    Male attitudes toward family planning education were assessed through a study of 720 men in Santiago and 240 men in a nearby rural area of Chile. Interviews were conducted by male students at the University of Chile School of Public Health. A large majority of the men were using or planned to use contraception in the future. There was a near consensus that adults should be informed regarding family planning. More than a majority of the respondents favored provision of contraceptive information for unmarried women, but most did not approve of premarital sexual activity for females. Most respondents favored the teaching of sex education in schools "according to the age of the children." Younger and higher class males tended to hold the most liberal attitudes.

  11. Trust via disasters: the case of Chile's 2010 earthquake. (United States)

    Dussaillant, Francisca; Guzmán, Eugenio


    Chile has a long-standing history of natural disasters and, in particular, earthquakes. The latest big earthquake hit Chile on 27 February 2010 with a magnitude of 8.8 on the Richter scale. As an event that had a profound impact on significant portions of the population, the earthquake could theoretically have served to build trust by promoting new trust networks through the enhancement of distant family ties and the interaction between affected neighbours. This study offers an empirical analysis of this theory in the Chilean case. It finds that if initial social capital is very low (thus allowing for post-disaster looting and violence), then the impact of the trust-increasing effect is smaller. It also shows that the effect of the disaster was not transitory, but that it persisted and actually increased over time. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  12. Seeking a preferential option for the rural poor in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Dew


    Full Text Available From colonial times well into the twentieth century (and, unfortunately, even beyond the man/land relationship in Latin America has been markedly unjust. Small numbers of families have owned large tracts of the best land, while large numbers of poor families have struggled with tiny plots of marginal land or labored on the estates of the rich. Chile was no exception to this pattern. Thus, its experiment with land reform in the 1960s and 1970s, the setback of reform under the military in the 1970s and 1980s, and the resumption of reform under democrats in the 1990s, may provide lessons for the rest of Latin America. Is a preferential option for the rural poor still possible in a neoliberal economic system? In Chile, the answer is a qualified “yes”

  13. [Mental health financing in Chile: a pending debt]. (United States)

    Errázuriz, Paula; Valdés, Camila; Vöhringer, Paul A; Calvo, Esteban


    In spite of the high prevalence of mental health disorders in Chile, there is a significant financing deficit in this area when compared to the world's average. The financing for mental health has not increased in accordance with the objectives proposed in the 2000 Chilean National Mental Health and Psychiatry Plan, and only three of the six mental health priorities proposed by this plan have secure financial coverage. The National Health Strategy for the Fulfilment of Health Objectives for the decade 2011-2020 acknowledges that mental disorders worsen the quality of life, increase the risk of physical illness, and have a substantial economic cost for the country. Thus, this article focuses on the importance of investing in mental health, the cost of not doing so, and the need for local mental health research. The article discusses how the United States is trying to eliminate the financial discrimination suffered by patients with mental health disorders, and concludes with public policy recommendations for Chile.

  14. niño lector en Chile (1860-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara-Maria Parra-Triana


    Full Text Available En este artículo se propone establecer las coordenadas para el estudio de la formación del niño lector en Chile a partir del análisis de las publicaciones periódicas comprendidas entre 1860 y 1960, periodo conocido como el del Estado Liberal hasta los tiempos de la Reforma y Revolución. Se revisan algunas fuentes bibliográficas básicas para la comprensión de la problemática lectora en el Chile moderno junto con la consideración de ciertas herramientas teórico-conceptuales que ayudarían al estudio de un corpus ejemplificado con tres publicaciones periódicas de tres diferentes momentos, que muestran el proceso de modernización de las prácticas lectoras que dan paso al ejercicio de la lectura como actividad de entretenimiento.

  15. Simbolic boundaries and middle classes. Social mobility in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayarí Castillo


    Full Text Available After more than three decades of the implementation of the policies of structural adjustment in Chile, the middle classes increased their weight in the social structure and changed their economic sector, occupation and trajectories of social mobility. This article analyzes the perceptionof symbolic boundaries, which emerging of these macro-processes and shapes the subjectivity of middle class subjects into upward mobility processes and modifies their perceptions of inequality. Whit this objective the paper presents a qualitative analysis of cases in which discursive components like meritocracy, the effort and the idea of “barriers/obstacles” became a key discursive axis. This article is inscribed within the recent studies on middle classes for the Chilean case, which focus specially on the cultural aspects after reproduction of stratification and inequality in Chile.

  16. Reforma educativa y política en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Angell


    Full Text Available This article examines two important educational reforms introduced since the return to democracy in Chile. The first one was targeted at the poorest 10% of schools in Chile. The second was a fundamental reform of the primary educational sector. Both have been successful in meeting their objectives, and mark a fundamental shift from the educational reforms of the Pinochet government. The reasons for the success of the reforms are broken down into political, institutional and operational factors. In essence, a small team of trained educational reformers, with widespread support and strong backing from the Minister of Education and the President were able to overcome the resistance of the bureaucrats of the Ministry of Education and that of the school teachers union.

  17. Study of air pollution in Chile using biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes, E.; Gras, N.; Guzman, G.; Pereira, I.


    A project has been undertaken within the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. The present project aims at the selection of appropriate plants and other indicators for monitoring of air pollution in several cities and rural areas in Chile. Nuclear analytical techniques, in particular neutron activation analysis (NAA) will be used complemented by AAS for the analysis of selected elements and to determine the sources of pollutants and the applicability of biomonitors to study air pollution in large areas, using indicators either naturally grown or artificially introduced to the region under examination. (author)

  18. An update on aging and dementia in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Fuentes

    Full Text Available Chile is in an advanced demographic transition stage with the population over 60 years of age representing 15% of the total population and whose number of elderly has more than doubled between 1990 and 2014. Rapid economic advancement has promoted significant changes in social organization to which the country is not accustomed. The mental health problems of the elderly are particularly challenging to the country's present social and health structures. The prevalence of dementia in people over 60 years exceeds 8% and is even higher in the rural population. There is more training on dementia in the local medical and scientific community, increased awareness within the civilian community but insufficient responsiveness from the state to the broad diagnostic and therapeutic requirements of patients and caregivers. The objective of the present study was to provide an update of the information on dementia in the context of the ageing process in Chile.

  19. Inequality of opportunity in health: evidence from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Gallardo


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess the possible presence of inequality of opportunities in the health status of Chileans, according to sociodemographic circumstances. METHODS Self-rated health data were used from the Chilean National Health Survey of 2010 to test the hypothesis of strong and weak equality of opportunities in the health status of the Chilean population. These hypotheses were tested using nonparametric techniques and second-order stochastic dominance criteria. RESULTS Robust empirical evidence was obtained, which indicate that the education level of the mother, household socioeconomic status, sex, zone, and region of residence determine opportunities to achieve good health in Chile. CONCLUSIONS Better health status was identified for Chilean adults whenever their mothers had a higher education level, their household income was higher, they were men, or lived in urban areas. The region of residence also affects opportunities to achieve good health in Chile.

  20. Nuevos inmigrantes en Chile: Los determinantes de su actividad emprendedora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio MANCILLA


    Full Text Available En Chile es poca la literatura que estudia a los inmigrantes desde una perspectiva económica, y menos la que aborda su actitud emprendedora (a pesar de que son proporcionalmente más emprendedores que los habitantes locales. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar los factores que influyen en el emprendimiento de los in - migrantes sudamericanos en Chile. Se utilizó un modelo logit ajustado para even - tos extraños para determinar el impacto sobre la probabilidad de emprendimiento individual. Algunos resultados indican que el tiempo de residencia, forma legal de ingreso al país, nivel educacional y experiencia previa de emprendimiento, influyen en la probabilidad de crear una actividad empresarial.

  1. Female migration in Chile: types of moves and socioeconomic characteristics. (United States)

    Herold, J M


    This paper examines inter-provincial female migration in Chile for the 1965--1970 period, with a view to describing socioeconomic characteristics of migrant women and to determining differences and similarities in age, educational level, occupation, and type of move (first, return, or repeat) between movers to the capital and to other urban areas. Data are from a five percent sample of the 1970 Chilean census. Findings reveal that non-return migrants to other urban areas are differentiated from those to Santiago by an older age structure, higher educational levels, higher status occupations, and are more likely to be making a second (or higher-order) move. Moreover, educational measures suggest that recent female migration to urban Chile is more prevalent among the upper than the lower strata of the society.

  2. Obchodní a kulturní zvláštnosti Chile


    Štieglerová, Renata


    The aim of this bachelor thesis is to analyse business and cultural particularities of Chile. The thesis is divided into three chapters. First chapter talks about general characteristics of Chile, which include economical, political and administrative facts, history of Chile and geographical conditions. Second chapter outlines cultural aspects such as structure of population, language and Chilean cuisine. Last chapter deals with business particularities of Chilean businessmen. A part of this ...

  3. Pre-crisis Conditions and Government Policy Responses: Chile and Mexico during the Great Recession


    Bruno Martorano


    Chile and Mexico reacted to the crisis by implementing several policy responses, they achieved different outcomes. In particular, the Chilean economy recovered faster than the Mexican one. However, the main differences are related to social outcomes. On one hand, the Gini coefficient decreased in both countries. On the other hand, both overall and child poverty dropped in Chile while they rose sharply in Mexico. , Chile introduced a stimulus package twice as large the Mexican one. When the fi...

  4. Entrepreneurship in Chile from a Viewpoint of a Foreign Investor


    Česká, Markéta


    This bachelor thesis focuses on entrepreneurship in Chile from a viewpoint of a foreign investor. The main objective is to depict the business environment of Chile, using an example of a real business case. The first part concentrates on PESTLE analysis of Chile. Second part focuses on the conditions of launching and running a business in that country. In the third part a hotel project is analysed and relevant conclusions are drawn.

  5. chile : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Évaluation de l'incidence des outils numériques dans l'enseignement des mathématiques et des sciences au Chili. Projet. Par comparaison avec le reste du monde, l'Amérique latine et les Caraïbes font piètre figure dans les évaluations de l'apprentissage. Région: Chile. Programme: Networked Economies. Financement ...

  6. Seabird eggs as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cifuentes, Jacqueline Munoz; Becker, Peter H.; Sommer, Ute; Pacheco, Patricia; Schlatter, Roberto


    Seabird eggs are proposed as biomonitors of chemical contamination in Chile. - Seabird eggs were used as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile. Brown-hooded Gull (Larus maculipennis), Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus), Trudeau's Tern (Sterna trudeaui), Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus), and Pink-footed Shearwater (Puffinus creatopus) eggs were sampled at different breeding sites during the 1990s. Mercury and organochlorines (PCBs, DDT, HCB, HCH, and PCP) were quantified to reveal the interspecific differences, spatial and temporal trends in contamination levels. Trudeau's Tern displayed the highest levels of mercury (486 ng g -1 wet weight). The highest ΣDDT concentrations were measured in Brown-hooded Gulls (726 ng g -1 ). PCB levels were similar among the species (102-236 ng g -1 ), but the composition of the PCB mixture was different in Pink-footed Shearwaters. With the exception of the Brown-hooded Gull, all species studied presented similar and low levels of organochlorines (ΣOHa). Residues of PCB and related compounds were not detected in any of the seabird eggs analyzed in Chile. Geographical variation was low, although levels of industrial chemicals were slightly higher in eggs from Concepcion Bay, and agricultural chemicals in eggs from Valdivia. Also interannual variation was low, but some evidence was found of decreasing levels in gull eggs throughout the time of the study. The causes of the low levels and small variability in space and time of environmental chemicals in Chilean seabirds are discussed. We propose the use of seabirds in future monitoring of the development of chemical contamination in Chile

  7. Water Services in Chile : Comparing Private and Public Performance


    Bitrán, Gabriel A.; Valenzuela, Eduardo P.


    In 1988, Chile put in place a new regulatory regime for water and sanitation, allowing rates to reflect the actual cost of providing services. The government then reorganized the sector under 13 state-owned regional water companies and, in 1998, started to partially privatize some of them. Four years after the first sale, it is now possible to assess the early results of privatization. Thi...

  8. Unintended pregnancy and sex education in Chile: a behavioural model. (United States)

    Herold, J M; Thompson, N J; Valenzuela, M S; Morris, L


    This study analysed factors associated with unintended pregnancy among adolescent and young adult women in Santiago, Chile. Three variations of a behavioural model were developed. Logistic regression showed that the effect of sex education on unintended pregnancy works through the use of contraception. Other significant effects were found for variables reflecting socioeconomic status and a woman's acceptance of her sexuality. The results also suggested that labelling affects measurement of 'unintended' pregnancy.

  9. Crow, Joanna. The Mapuche in Modern Chile: A Cultural History


    Ramay, Allison


    The relationship between Mapuche indigenous people and the Chilean state has been the focus of an increasing number of books within Chile and abroad, all of which probe how the Mapuche have responded to past and present government policies. These publications are written by Mapuche and non-Mapuche academics, trained in the disciplines of anthropology, history, literature and sociology and, unlike previous historiography, they focus on Mapuche actors’ political negotiations with the state. The...

  10. The Political Economy of Productivity: The Case of Chile


    Patricio Navia; Nicolás Eyzaguirre; Jocelyn Olivari; Ignacio Briones; José Miguel Benavente; Cristóbal Aninat


    This paper analyzes the political economy of productivity-related policymaking in Chile following a political transaction cost model (Spiller and Tommasi, 2003; Murillo et al., 2008). The main findings indicate that i) the Chilean policymaking process (PMP) was successful in the 1990s in implementing productivityenhancing policies, but as the country moved to a higher stage of development, the PMP grew less adept at generating the more complex set of policies needed to increase productivity a...

  11. The U.S. Financial Crisis: Lessons from Chile (United States)


    raised interest rates. This plan was described by one economist as an unsustainable “ Ponzi ” scheme , and indeed was a critical factor in bringing down...1 Bosworth, Barry P., Rudiger Dornbusch, and Raúl Labán, eds. The Chilean Economy: Policy Lessons and Challenges. Washington, D.C. The Brookings...Institution. 1994. p. 41. Order Code RS22961 September 29, 2008 The U.S. Financial Crisis: Lessons From Chile J. F. Hornbeck Specialist in

  12. Overcoming Fear of Floating: Exchange Rate Policies in Chile.


    Jose De Gregorio; Andrea Tokman R.


    The paper reviews the exchange rate management experience in Chile, with particular emphasis on the floating exchange rate regime and its two forex intervention episodes. It presents evidence on Chile’s favorable conditions to face exchange rate shocks: a well-developed financial sector, that offers hedging opportunities taken up by the corporate sector to decrease its vulnerability through balance sheet effects; and a low and decreasing level of passthrough from the exchange rate to prices. ...

  13. Dynamics of Investment for Market-Oriented Farmers in Chile


    Reyes, Alvaro; Lensink, Robert; Kuyvenhoven, Arie; Moll, Henk


    Using panel data from a survey conducted in 2006 and 2008 of 177 market-oriented farmers in central Chile, we investigate investment under imperfect capital markets. Specifically we determine the impact of formal credit constraints on fixed investment. By controlling for endogeneity problems, we find credit constraints to have a significant negative impact on fixed investment. In addition, a time trend is significant, which we understand as evidence of the impact of the global financial crisi...

  14. Climate change and energy policy in Chile: Up in smoke?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundaca T, Luis


    This paper provides an ex-post assessment of the climate and energy policy developments in Chile emerging from a neoliberal economic model, during the period 1971–2007. First, correlation and regression analyses were performed to analyse historical CO 2 emissions as a product of demographic, economic and energy-wide drivers. Then I estimate indicators related to CO 2 emissions, energy use and economic activity. In the light of empirical results, I identify policy instruments and structural issues. Finally, I present a comparative analysis of Chile and other Latin American countries. Statistical tests show that variability of CO 2 emissions is explained mostly by GDP per capita (‘affluence’) than any other tested variable. Indicators show that the diversification and decarbonisation of the energy mix has been a major policy challenge. With two notable exceptions (hydro and natural gas), the CO 2 intensity of the energy supply mix suggests no effective policies, while energy security crises triggered negative carbon effects and increased prices. No clear policies to promote energy efficiency can be identified until 2005. Explicit policy instruments to promote renewable energy are only recognised after 2004. The results strongly suggest that Chile lacked of policies to effectively decarbonise its energy–economy system. - Highlight: ► The first paper that quantitatively assesses key drivers of CO 2 emissions in Chile. ► It examines energy and climate policy development during the period 1971–2007. ► GDP per capita (‘affluence’) is the main determinant of CO 2 emissions. ► Diversification and decarbonisation of energy mix has been a major policy challenge. ► Policy approach under analysed period not suited for a low-carbon economy.

  15. Disaster Governance and Vulnerability: The Case of Chile


    Vicente Sandoval; Martin Voss


    "This exploratory work seeks to shed light on disaster governance by looking into potential linkages between the production of vulnerability and disaster governance in Chile. Our point of investigation is the case of post-disaster Chaitén and the Chilean model of Disaster Risk Management. The work begins by situating disaster governance and the production of vulnerability in a broader context of existing governance system that includes a multiplicity of actors and socio-economic, socio-ecolog...

  16. Science, Technology, and Innovation in Chile | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Science, Technology, and Innovation in Chile présente les résultats de cette étude. Les lecteurs y trouveront une analyse détaillée des politiques sur les sciences et la technologie du Chili qui part du « système d'innovation national ». On y propose des moyens d'améliorer la coordination du secteur public, des réformes ...

  17. [Female migrant workers in Santiago, Chile, during the 1980s]. (United States)

    Szasz, I


    The author examines the status of female migrant workers in Santiago, Chile, in the 1980s, with a focus on the level of poverty and social inequalities. Aspects considered include "the dramatic transformation in domestic service, the increase in the number of non-migrant, lower class women participating in the economy, and the limited and precarious status of women's employment in the more dynamic sectors of the economy." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  18. Arsenic exposure and its impact on health in Chile. (United States)

    Ferreccio, Catterina; Sancha, Ana María


    The problem of arsenic in Chile was reviewed. In Chile, the population is exposed to arsenic naturally via drinking-water and by air pollution resulted from mining activities. The sources of arsenic were identified to estimate the exposure of population to arsenic through air, water, and food. Health effects, particularly early effects, observed in children and adults, such as vascular diseases (premature cardiac infarct), respiratory illnesses (bronchiectasis), and skin lesions have been described. Chronic effects, such as lung and bladder cancers, were reported 20 years after peak exposure and persisted 27 years after mitigation measures for removing arsenic from drinking surface water were initiated. Although the effects of arsenic are similar in different ethnic and cultural groups (e.g. Japanese, Chinese, Indian, Bangladeshi, American, and Taiwanese), variations could be explained by age at exposure, the dose received, smoking, and nutrition. Since health effects were observed at arsenic levels of 50 microg/L in drinking-water, it is advised that Chile follows the World Health Organization's recommendation of 10 microg/L. The Chilean experience in removal of arsenic suggests that it is feasible to reach this level using the conventional coagulation process.

  19. La Medicina Mapuche en la cultura neoliberal de Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cancino, Rita

    La Medicina Mapuche en la cultura neoliberal de Chile La medicina mapuche juega, junto con la religion mapuche, un papel importante para muchos chilenos, tanto como una expresión de los raíces de la cultura chilena, y como símbolo de una visión del mundo mágico. Para los mapuches, los ‘machis’ son...... ha sabido adaptarse a la lógica del mercado moderno. En los últimos años, las llamadas farmacias mapuches han surgido en muchas ciudades importantes donde proporcionan una medicina alternativa que muchos chilenos consideran como una pura y auténtica expresión del Chile original. La medicina de la...... farmacia mapuche sigue siendo una mercancía, pero se comercializa como una alternativa espiritual a la biomedicina más impersonal y producida en masa. En esta ponencia nos gustaría discutir la paradoja de la medicina mapuche y los motivos de la coexistencia con la medicina tradicional en Chile. Palabras...

  20. Teenage sexuality and rights in Chile: from denial to punishment. (United States)

    Casas, Lidia; Ahumada, Claudia


    While Chile sees itself as a country that has fully restored human rights since its return to democratic rule in 1990, the rights of teenagers to comprehensive sexuality education are still not being met. This paper reviews the recent history of sexuality education in Chile and related legislation, policies and programmes. It also reports a 2008 review of the bylaws of 189 randomly selected Chilean schools, which found that although such bylaws are mandatory, the absence of bylaws to prevent discrimination on grounds of pregnancy, HIV and sexuality was common. In relation to how sexual behaviour and discipline were addressed, bylaws that were non-compliant with the law were very common. Opposition to sexuality education in schools in Chile is predicated on the denial of teenage sexuality, and many schools punish sexual behaviour where transgression is perceived to have taken place. While the wider Chilean society has been moving towards greater recognition of individual autonomy and sexual diversity, this cultural shift has yet to be reflected in the government's political agenda, in spite of good intentions. Given this state of affairs, the Chilean polity needs to recognise its youth as having human rights, or will continue to fail in its commitment to them.

  1. [Teenage fecundity rates in Chile: a serious public health problem]. (United States)

    Molina C, Ramiro; Molina G, Temístocles; González A, Electra


    Teenage fecundity rates are an indicator of epidemiological discrimination in developing countries. To study fertility rates of girls under 14 years of age in Chile from 1993 to 2003. Information of children born alive from mothers aged 10 to 15 years, was obtained from the Chilean National Institute of Statistics. Age segmented population data was obtained from the Ministry of Health. Trends were analyzed by regions and single ages. The rates in communities of the Metropolitan Region were compared. Between 1993 and 2003, there was an increasing trend in fecundity rates, ratios and crude numbers. These rates duplicate from 14 to 15 years of age. In the Metropolitan Region, the fecundity ratios of communities with lower economical incomes is seven times greater than those with higher incomes. During 2003, the fecundity rates in Chile were 100 and 10 higher than those of Holland and Sweden in 1981. In developing countries with very low infant mortality rates such as Chile, the high fecundity rates of young girls is an indicator of a deficient human and social development. Sexual Education and Health Services for adolescents are essential to prevent this public health problem.

  2. Incidence and prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in Chile. (United States)

    González, Robinson; Soza, Alejandro; Hernández, Verónica; Pérez, Rosa M; Alvarez, Manuel; Morales, Arturo; Arellano, Marco; Riquelme, Arnoldo; Viviani, Paola; Covarrubias, Carmen; Arrese, Marco; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Nervi, Flavio


    Chronic hepatitis C is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. Epidemiological data regarding this infection in developing countries is scanty. Prevalence of hepatitis C (HCV) infection was investigated in a random sample of Chilean general adult population older than 20 years of age. Additionally, frequency of HCV infection was assessed in group of native Chilean Amerindians (Mapuche Indians) living in an isolated locality of the Southern Chile. Incidence of HCV infection was estimated using serum samples separated by 7 years (1993-2000). Among 959 subjects, prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies was 1.15% (95% CI 0.48-1.82%) and 0.83% when only RIBA-confirmed cases were considered. Among these subjects, 62.5% had detectable HCV RNA in serum and 40% of them had a history of blood transfusion. Age distribution of cases showed a steadily increasing prevalence with age. Estimated incidence of new HCV infections was 15 per 100,000 subjects per year in the period 1993-2000. No cases were detected among the 145 Mapuche subjects studied. HCV infection is a prevalent disease in the Hispanic population of Chile with a low incidence in the last decade, whereas it was not detected in an isolated Mapuche Indian community. Age distribution of prevalence suggests that the peak of infection in Chile occurred 30 to 50 years ago.

  3. [Eugenic abortion could explain the lower infant mortality in Cuba compared to that in Chile]. (United States)

    Donoso S, Enrique; Carvajal C, Jorge A


    Cuba and Chile have the lower infant mortality rates of Latin America. Infant mortality rate in Cuba is similar to that of developed countries. Chilean infant mortality rate is slightly higher than that of Cuba. To investigate if the lower infant mortality rate in Cuba, compared to Chile, could be explained by eugenic abortion, considering that abortion is legal in Cuba but not in Chile. We compared total and congenital abnormalities related infant mortality in Cuba and Chile during 2008, based on vital statistics of both countries. In 2008, infant mortality rates in Chile were significantly higher than those of Cuba (7.8 vs. 4.7 per 1,000 live born respectively, odds ratio (OR) 1.67; 95% confidence intervals (Cl) 1.52-1.83). Congenital abnormalities accounted for 33.8 and 19.2% of infant deaths in Chile and Cuba, respectively. Discarding infant deaths related to congenital abnormalities, infant mortality rate continued to be higher in Chile than in Cuba (5.19 vs. 3.82 per 1000 live born respectively, OR 1.36; 95%CI 1.221.52). Considering that antenatal diagnosis is widely available in both countries, but abortion is legal in Cuba but not in Chile, we conclude that eugenic abortion may partially explain the lower infant mortality rate observed in Cuba compared to that observed in Chile.

  4. Seroepidemiology of human toxoplasmosis in Chile Seroepidemiología de la toxoplasmosis en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del C. Contreras


    Full Text Available A series of already published and unpublished seroepidemiological surveys for toxoplasmosis, carried out in Chile in 1982-1994, is reviewed, expanded and analyzed. The surveys included 76,317 apparently healthy individuals of different ages (0.57% of the country's total population, from 309 urban and rural-periurban localities. Urban groups were integrated by blood donors, delivering mothers and middle grade schoolchildren, while rural-periurban individuals corresponded to unselected family groups. Blood samples were collected in filter paper. The presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was determined by the indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT, titers > 16 were considered positive. The test resulted positive in 28,124 (36.9% of the surveyed people. Two hundred and six (0.3% individuals presented IHAT titers > 1000, probably corresponding to acute or reactivated infections. A progressive increase of positive IHAT from northern to southern regions of the country was noted, phenomenom probably related to geographical conditions and to a higher production and consumption of different types of meat in the latter regions. It is postulated that ingestion of T. gondii cysts by humans is epidemiologically as important as ingestion of oocysts. The results presented stress the epidemiological importance of toxoplasmosis in humans, and warn about eventual implications in immunocompromised patients and in transplacental transmission, organ transplants and transfusions.En este trabajo se revisa, se amplía y se analiza en conjunto una serie de encuestas seroepidemiológicas sobre toxoplasmosis efectuadas en Chile entre 1982 y 1994, utilizando la reacción de hemaglutinación indirecta (RHAI. El estudio incluyó 76.317 personas aparentemente sanas de diferentes edades (0,57% de la problación total del país, procedentes de 309 localidades urbanas y rural-periurbanas. Los grupos urbanos estuvieron constituídos por donantes de sangre, parturientas y

  5. Environmental management in Chile: The power plants case; Gestion ambiental en Chile: Caso de las centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadrijevic, Maritza [Comision Nacional del Medio Ambiente, (Chile)


    In this paper are presented the general aspects of the historic evolution o the legal norms on environmental matters in Chile; general aspects of the electric generation system and the instruments of environmental management currently applied in the fossil fueled power plants, such as: the assessment system of the environmental impact; compliance of the air quality and emissions Standards and plans for decontamination [Espanol] En este trabajo se dan a conocer aspectos generales de la evolucion historica de las normas juridicas en materia ambiental en Chile; aspectos generales del sistema de generacion electrica y los instrumentos de gestion ambiental que actualmente se aplican a las plantas de generacion termoelectricas, tales como: el sistema de evaluacion de impacto ambiental; cumplimiento de normas de la calidad de aire y de emision y, planes de descontaminacion

  6. First bird remains from the Eocene of Algarrobo, central Chile Primeros restos de aves del Eoceno de Algarrobo, Chile central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto E Yury-Yáñez


    Full Text Available Paleogene records of birds in the Eastern margin of the Pacific Ocean have increased in recent years, being almost exclusively restricted to fossil Sphenisciformes (penguins. New avian remains (Ornithurae, Neornithes from Middle-to-Late Eocene levels of the Estratos de Algarrobo unit, in Algarrobo, central Chile, are disclosed in the present work. These new finds are significant in representing the first non-spheniscid bird remains of Middle to Late Eocene age, recovered in mid-latitudes of the eastern Pacific and probably belonging to a procelarid. It complements the regional record of Eocene birds, previously known only at high-latitudes such as Seymour Island (Antarctica and Magallanes (Chile, and low-latitude locations in Peru.Los registros de aves paleógenas en el margen oriental del Océano Pacífico se han incrementado en los últimos años, estando casi exclusivamente restringidos a Sphenisciformes fósiles (pingüinos. Nuevos fósiles avianos (Ornithurae, Neornithes provenientes de niveles del Eoceno Medio a Tardío de los Estratos de Algarrobo, en Algarrobo, Chile central, son dados a conocer en el presente trabajo. Estos nuevos hallazgos son significativos en representar los primeros restos de aves no-spheníscidos de edad Eoceno Medio a Tardío, recuperadas en latitudes intermedias del Pacífico oriental y probablemente pertenezcan a un procelárido. Este hallazgo complementa el registro regional del grupo durante el Eoceno, anteriormente conocido en localidades de altas latitudes como isla Seymour (Antártica y Magallanes (Chile, y localidades de bajas latitudes en Perú.

  7. Hacia un nuevo modelo de desarrollo rural en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Toro


    Full Text Available Uno de los sectores sociales más vulnerables en Chile se encuentra íntimamente relacionado al minifundio, a la ruralidad y al trabajador agrícola. La realidad de la industria agraria nacional está determinada por su inherente naturaleza estacional, por la escasez hídrica y por la alta tendencia hacia la informalidad de las relaciones laborales, factores que en conjunto merman la calidad de vida de la población y disminuyen las posibilidades de desarrollo del mundo rural. El diagnóstico es el de una absoluta desvinculación con el mundo social y con el desarrollo económico exhibido en las grandes urbes del país. Por su parte, las estrategias gubernamentales que han pretendido impulsar el desarrollo rural en el país, no han contemplado la total complejidad de sus territorios y se han limitado a fomentar el desarrollo productivo agrícola y a mejorar la cobertura de servicios básicos de la población. El presente artículo, problematiza lo rural como fenómeno sociológico a partir de la resignificación del concepto a lo largo de su historia epistemológica, analizando críticamente el modelo de desarrollo rural presente en Chile. Abstract One of the poorest social strata in Chile is related to small farmsteads, rurality, and farmworker dependent.The reality of the national agricultural industry is determined by it’s seasonal nature, water scarcity and because of it’s high propensity to informality in labor relations. Together, these factors diminish the quality of life and the posibilities of development of rural population. The diagnosis of rurality in Chile is synonim of marginality. Meanwhile, government strategies that have sought to boost rural development have not considered the full complexity of rural territories and have been limited to encourage agricultural production and to improve basic services of the population. This paper problematises the rural concept rural as sociological phenomenon. In addition, the prevailing

  8. Field survey of the 16 September 2015 Chile tsunami (United States)

    Lagos, Marcelo; Fritz, Hermann M.


    On the evening of 16 September, 2015 a magnitude Mw 8.3 earthquake occurred off the coast of central Chile's Coquimbo region. The ensuing tsunami caused significant inundation and damage in the Coquimbo or 4th region and mostly minor effects in neighbouring 3rd and 5th regions. Fortunately, ancestral knowledge from the past 1922 and 1943 tsunamis in the region along with the catastrophic 2010 Maule and recent 2014 tsunamis, as well as tsunami education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate to high ground after the earthquake. There were a few tsunami victims; while a handful of fatalities were associated to earthquake induced building collapses and the physical stress of tsunami evacuation. The international scientist joined the local effort from September 20 to 26, 2015. The international tsunami survey team (ITST) interviewed numerous eyewitnesses and documented flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment deposition, damage patterns, performance of the navigation infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The ITST covered a 500 km stretch of coastline from Caleta Chañaral de Aceituno (28.8° S) south of Huasco down to Llolleo near San Antonio (33.6° S). We surveyed more than 40 locations and recorded more than 100 tsunami and runup heights with differential GPS and integrated laser range finders. The tsunami impact peaked at Caleta Totoral near Punta Aldea with both tsunami and runup heights exceeding 10 m as surveyed on September 22 and broadcasted nationwide that evening. Runup exceeded 10 m at a second uninhabited location some 15 km south of Caleta Totoral. A significant variation in tsunami impact was observed along the coastlines of central Chile at local and regional scales. The tsunami occurred in the evening hours limiting the availability of eyewitness video footages. Observations from the 2015 Chile tsunami are compared against the 1922, 1943, 2010 and 2014 Chile tsunamis. The

  9. Una arteria norte-sur y el Santiago de Chile „non plus ultra’: la historia de un largo trayecto. / A north-south artery and Santiago de Chile 'non plus ultra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Pavez Reyes


    Full Text Available Este escrito resume la prehistoria e historia del Complejo Vial Norte-Sur, de Santiago de Chile, como parte de las acciones del Estado de Chile, en la época del urbanismo realizado por el sector público. /This paper summarizes the prehistory and history of North-South Road Complex, Santiago de Chile, as part of the actions of the State of Chile, at the time of planning by the public sector.

  10. Una arteria norte-sur y el Santiago de Chile „non plus ultra’: la historia de un largo trayecto. / A north-south artery and Santiago de Chile 'non plus ultra


    María Isabel Pavez Reyes


    Este escrito resume la prehistoria e historia del Complejo Vial Norte-Sur, de Santiago de Chile, como parte de las acciones del Estado de Chile, en la época del urbanismo realizado por el sector público. /This paper summarizes the prehistory and history of North-South Road Complex, Santiago de Chile, as part of the actions of the State of Chile, at the time of planning by the public sector.

  11. Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: first record from Chile and a newly documented host plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas


    Full Text Available Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: first record from Chile and a newly documented host plant. Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham, 1892 (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae is recorded for the first time from Chile. Male and female adults were reared from leaf-tying larvae collected on Myrica pavonis (Myricaceae, which is a new host plant record for S. smithiana.

  12. Citizenship ‘from Above’? The Case of Chile, 1964-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Ree, Gerard


    During the last fifty years, citizenship in Chile has been re-interpreted and reformulated in different ways. By combining top-down and bottom-up approaches towards citizenship, this article argues that the reformulation of citizenship in Chile has been brought about through both state-initiated

  13. Detection of possible Phytophthora pinifolia infection in pinus radiata green sawn timber produced in Chile (United States)

    R. Ahumada; C. Díaz; M. Peredo; C. Barría; P. González; G. Cuevas


    A new needle blight disease was observed on Pinus radiata in Chile during 2004. The disease, known in Chile as Daño Foliar del Pino (DFP), stretches southward from the Arauco to Valdivia Provinces, and was present over an area of about 60 000 ha in 2006, with different levels of intensity. The disease is typified by needle infections and...

  14. Entrevista a Mónica Maldonado. Las condiciones carcelarias en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeska David


    Full Text Available Abogada, egresada de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. Comenzó su carrera judicial en los Tribunales de Santiago en 1970 y a partir del año 2001 se desempeña como Fiscal Judicial de la Corte Suprema de Chile.

  15. Ex-ante Study of a Possible Modernisation of the EU-Chile Association Agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henry de Frahan, Bruno; Hartwell, Christopher; Kuik, O.J.; Lirette, Paul; Mirecka, Katarzyna; Nolan Garcia, Kimberly; Pellandra, Andrea; Polanco, Rodrigo; Schmidt-Hebbel, Klaus; Shuvaieva, Iryna; Sidlo, Kataryna; Teresinski, Jan; Torrent, Ramon; Valdes, Albert

    This study provides an ex-ante impact assessment of the possible modernisation of the EU-Chile Association Agreement. Since the current agreement entered into force in 2003, Chilean exports of agricultural/food products and services to the EU have nearly tripled while EU exports to Chile have

  16. Isaac Newton Institute of Chile: The fifteenth anniversary of its "Yugoslavia" Branch (United States)

    Dimitrijević, M. S.

    In 2002, the Isaac Newton Institute of Chile established in Belgrade its "Yugoslavia" Branch, one of 15 branches in nine countries in Eastern Europe and Eurasia. On the occasion of fifteen years since its foundation, the activities of "Yugoslavia" Branch of the Isaac Newton Institute of Chile are briefly reviewed.

  17. Ontological disorders: nightmares, psychotropic drugs and evil spirits in southern Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonelli, C.


    This article explores several equivocations in the relationship between state healthcare workers and the Pehuenche population in southern Chile. In particular, it focuses on radical differences in understanding the body, personhood, sleeping and dreaming. In Alto Bío Bío, Chile, while healthcare

  18. Credit constraints in rural financial markets in Chile: determinants and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyes, A.


    Using data from two surveys carried out in 2006 and 2008 on 177 farmers in Chile, this study measures access to credit and empirically determine the effects of credit constraints on investment and production for market-oriented farmers in central Chile. More specifically, four issues are dealt

  19. 77 FR 12903 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Chile Environmental... (United States)


    ... United States-Chile Environmental Cooperation Agreement ACTION: Notice of preparation of the 2012-2014 U..., 2003. We encourage submitters to refer to: (1) The U.S.-Chile Environmental Cooperation Agreement; (2... effective implementation and enforcement of environmental laws and regulations; (2) encouraging development...

  20. A new species of Eupithecia Curtis (Lepidoptera, Geometridae from the Azapa Valley, northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas


    Full Text Available A new species of Eupithecia Curtis (Lepidoptera, Geometridae from the Azapa Valley, northern Chile. Male and female adults of a new species of Eupithecia Curtis from the Arica Province, Chile are described and illustrated. The species is compared with E. yubitzae Vargas & Parra, 2004, from the same locality, and E. galapagosata Landry & Rindge 1995, from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador.

  1. A dainty review of the business and economic history of Chile and Latin America


    Bátiz-Lazo, Bernardo


    This introductory piece provides some context to the special edition on business and economic history of Chile and Latin America. It also provides an introduction to better understanding research and method in business history while inviting for this field to be further developed in Chile.

  2. Socio-economic Segregation with (without) Competitive Education Policies: A Comparative Analysis of Argentina and Chile. (United States)

    Narodowski, Mariano; Nores, Milagros


    The view that competition initiatives in education, such as Chile's introduction of vouchers, promote socioeconomic segregation in schools is questioned. Chile and Argentina have faced very different decentralization reforms, carried out within different regulatory frameworks, but have arrived at similar situations in terms of schools'…

  3. Chile and Its Efforts to Present High-Level Technologies to the Developed World (United States)

    Young, Nathan


    Chile is rich in natural resources. Like many other resource-dependent nations, it has never made technology transfer a subject of intense focus. This article sheds light on the technological state of Chile today and its efforts to promote development, increase innovation and move towards a knowledge-based economy. The paper summarizes current…

  4. Effectiveness of Different Kidney Exchange Mechanisms on Improving Living Donor Transplantation in Chile


    Diego Contreras; Javier Dominguez


    Chile has a very low cadaveric organ donation rate; at the same time, living donor transplantation activity is low. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact on the number and quality of transplants of the potential application of different mechanisms for kidney exchange from living donors to patients on Chile's waiting list.

  5. 75 FR 19658 - Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations (United States)


    ... Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... antidumping duty orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia would be likely to lead... revocation of the antidumping duty order on preserved mushrooms from Indonesia would not be likely to lead to...

  6. chile : tous les projets | Page 5 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: INTRAREGIONAL MIGRATION, WOMEN WORKERS, WOMEN'S RIGHTS. Région: ... Région: Brazil, South America, Chile, Colombia, North and Central America, Panama ... Région: Argentina, South America, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, North and Central America, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay.

  7. Regiones-commodities: Crisis y contagio en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Daher


    Full Text Available La hipótesis de un nuevo dualismo entre una capital subglobal y sus "regiones-commodities" subyace en el estudio del impacto diferencial de las tres últimas crisis internacionales en las regiones de Chile, cuantificado a través de cuatro indicadores: el producto, el empleo, la inversión externa y las exportaciones, cuya variación permite verificar la disímil vulnerabilidad de cada región y su desigual exposición al riesgo de contagio de crisis. Fundamentado en un marco conceptual que sostiene que las crisis siguen siendo más regionales que globales, y que existe una verdadera geografía del contagio, el estudio muestra evidencia empírica que permite constatar: 1 la reproducción de un desbalance norte-sur al interior de Chile; 2 la doble paradoja de Santiago, cuya economía es la más diversificada y la más vulnerable, la más recesiva y la de mayor crecimiento; 3 la emergencia de Antofagasta como segunda economía regional de Chile, desplazando a Valparaíso y Concepción; 4 el paralelismo de Santiago y Antofagasta como regiones con el mayor producto, la mayor inversión extranjera y mayores exportaciones; y 5 la "mercosurización" de Santiago, capital subglobal, y la globalización de sus "regiones-commodities".The hypothesis of a new dualism between a sub-global capital city and its "commodities regions" underlies the study of the differential impact of the three last international crises on the regions of Chile. This impact is quantified through four indicators: product, employment, foreign investment and exports, and their variability allow the verification of the dissimilar vulnerability of each region and its dissimilar exposure to the risk of crisis contamination. The study is based on a conceptual frame that states that crisis continue to be more regional-like than global, and that there is a real geography of contamination. On the other hand, this study shows empirical evidence which makes it possible to verify: 1 the

  8. Tectonic controls on the 1960 Chile megathrust-earthquake segment (United States)

    Melnick, D.; Moreno, M.,; Strecker, M. S.; Echtler, H. P.


    Understanding the principles that govern the triggering of great subduction earthquakes and the finite rupture length, and consequently earthquake magnitude, is of utmost importance for a better assessment of natural hazards at active plate margins. In principle, two major processes have been inferred to generate and control the magnitude of a giant subduction earthquake (M > 9): (1) the forearc of the upper plate has to accumulate enough elastic strain to rupture and cause fault slip, and (2) the rupture has to propagate for a length of hundreds of kilometers. The great 1960 Chile earthquake (Mw 9.5) corresponds to such a megathrust event that ruptured ~1000 km of the Nazca-South America plate boundary. Rupture started at 38.2S, adjacent to the Arauco peninsula, and propagated southward until it stalled in the vicinity of the Chile Triple Junction. We integrate geologic, geodetic, and seismologic data to propose three major factors that control rupture propagation and upper-plate contraction during the 1960 earthquake. These include: microplate behaviour of the Chiloe forearc block, subduction of trench sediments, and the geometry of the deep-reaching, inherited Lanalhue fault zone in the South American plate. The first two factors provide a mechanical homogeneity of the upper plate and plate interface, respectively, smoothing the plate interface and reducing seismic strength, ultimately facilitating rupture propagation over a great distance. The third aspect leads to stress concentration and enhanced upper-plate contraction along the Lanalhue fault and the southern Arauco peninsula, at the leading edge of the Chiloe microplate, where the 1960 earthquake sequence nucleated. The combination of these fortuitous factors is not unique. Forearc microplates associated with trench sediments and inherited deep-reaching faults are characteristic of other subduction zones that have generated Mw > 9 earthquakes. In addition to Chile, the Alaska, Sumatra, and Cascadia

  9. On the generation of coastal lows in central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutllant, J.


    Previous studies of the coastal-low occurrences in central Chile have been aimed at the formulation of a conceptual model to explain observed features in connection with applied studies. The most prominent weather pattern associated with CL occurrences, (type A), coincides with the onset of a warm, middle-troposphere ridge over central Chile, and a surface high over northern Argentina. The synoptic forcing of the low is related to weak frontal disturbances that travel equatorwards. They result in a thickening of the marine layer that becomes blocked by the coastal escarpment, at the time of the onset of the ridge aloft. The blocking of the stable air above the subsidence inversion by the Andes is also hypothesized. The analysis of the subsidence inversion, the geometry of the coastal and Andes mountain ranges, and a scale analysis of the non-dimensional governing equations for the generation of the coastal lows, following the approach of Reason and Steyn (1990); leads to the conclusion that both blocking actions are strong and persistent in central Chile. An interactive mechanism between the upper and lower blocking effects is postulated to explain the cyclonic vorticity and the initial steering of the coastal lows. The scale analysis of the governing equations for the propagation stage of the low suggests that, departing for the South African case, non-linearity is important here, and that solitary Kelvin waves could be expected. Theoretical phase propagation speeds and Rossby radii are found to range between 8 and 15 m s-1 and 100-250 km, respectively. The importance of strong southerly winds ahead of the low and weak winds at its trailing edge is also stressed, as another major departure from the coastal-low behaviour elsewhere. (author). 17 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  10. Cluster minero sin cluster solcial: Antofagasta-Chile

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    Antonio Eduardo Daher Hechem


    Full Text Available Antofagasta, la ciudad más global de Chile - inserta desde su fundación en los mercados internacionales y la más expuesta a sus ciclos - capital de la segunda mayor economía regional del país, la segunda con más inversión extranjera y la primera en exportaciones, es contradictoriamente la con mayor brecha entre pobreza por ingresos y pobreza multidimensional, confirmando así que el crecimiento económico, incluso el mayor, no se traduce necesariamente en desarrollo: la estrategia de cluster mienro no ha logrado ser inclusiva de un cluster social. Antofagasta, región-commodity por excelencia, la más emblemática del modelo exportador, determina en gran medida los equilibrios macroeconómicos y partidas relevantes del presupuesto de la nación, incluidas las asignadas a seguridad nacional y políticas sociales. Chile depende tanto del cobre como de Antofagasta: la sustentabilidad económica del país y sus regiones está estrechamente vinculada al mercado del cobre y a los territorios subnacionales que lo producen. Si el país es vulnerable frente a los precios internacionales de ese recurso, Antofagasta lo es en extremo: el cobre, la mayor ventaja comparativa del país –no siempre la más competitiva- es a la vez, y en consecuencia, el mayor “talón de Aquiles” de Chile y sus regiones mineras.

  11. [AIDS in Chile: a problem with multiple facets]. (United States)

    Ormazabal, B


    Chile's 1st case of AIDS was diagnosed in 1984. Some 250 AIDS cases and 1600 HIV positive persons have since been reported, although the actual number by some estimates may reach 5000. Chile, although in the initial stages of the epidemic, already has a serious problem which at present can only be combatted through education. It will be necessary to convince the population that significant modifications of sexual behavior are needed to control the spread of the disease. Education for AIDS prevention is a priority of the National Commission on AIDS (CONASIDA), which is basing its program on the premise that stable monogamy is the most natural form of expression of a couple. Manuals for prevention are under development, and the 1st, for health workers and the general population, is in process of publication. A series of pamphlets and educational videos for workers in sexually transmitted disease clinics are under development. Educational materials are also being created for specific groups such as university students and agricultural workers and for groups at high risk. A social communications campaign has been prepared and approved by the authorities, and is awaiting funding for dissemination. Education of the population is also a concern for the Catholic Church, which views reinforcement of the family and its mission of providing sex education as a primary means of preventing AIDS. CONASIDA is also responsible for epidemiological study of AIDS in Chile through surveillance of sentinel groups and in quality control of the blood supply. Condoms are to be distributed in sexually transmitted disease clinics for the purpose of AIDS prevention.

  12. Physical dating violence victimization in college women in Chile. (United States)

    Lehrer, Jocelyn A; Lehrer, Evelyn L; Zhao, Zhenxiang


    There are no published studies on physical dating violence in college students in Chile, and campuses across the country currently lack systematized programs to prevent or respond to this public health problem. This is the first study to examine prevalence and predictors of physical dating violence victimization with a sample of female college students in Chile. A closed-ended questionnaire was administered to students enrolled in general education courses at a major public university. The prevalence of women's physical dating violence victimization was calculated, and generalized ordered logit models were used to estimate risk factors for such victimization (n = 441). Ancillary analyses examined associations of dating violence victimization with experiences of unwanted sexual contact and forced condom nonuse. Approximately 21% of subjects reported one or more incidents of physical dating violence not involving physical injury since age 14, and another 5% reported at least one incident resulting in physical injury during this time period. Risk factors identified in five sequential models were sexual abuse and witnessing of domestic violence in childhood, low parental education, residence away from the parental home, urban residence, and having had sexual intercourse. Maternal employment and religious participation had protective effects. Dating violence victimization was found to be significantly associated with experiences of unwanted sexual contact and forced condom nonuse. The study findings show a high prevalence of physical dating violence, strong associations between several sociodemographic factors and dating violence, and links between dating violence and sexual/reproductive risk. Our results indicate a need to expand attention to this public health problem in Chile as well as other developing countries, where research and prevention/response initiatives have generally been similarly limited. The findings also have important implications for the content of

  13. Regional dispersion of oxidized sulfur in Central Chile (United States)

    Olivares, G.; Gallardo, L.; Langner, J.; Aarhus, B.

    Chile has a long tradition of exploiting mineral resources, particularly copper (Cu). One of the largest Cu smelters, Caletones, located some 150 km south of the country's capital, Santiago, in Central Chile, is responsible for about 0.4% of about 70 Tg S/yr oxidized sulfur (SO x) emitted by anthropogenic sources worldwide. Santiago, a megacity with 5 million inhabitants, stands for about 5 Gg S/yr. The average meteorological conditions are unfavorable for the dispersion of pollutants in this area. All this poses risks for human health and vegetation. Also, downwind from these polluted areas there may be large-scale impacts on cloud properties and on oxidative cycles. Here, we present the first attempt to assess the regional distribution of SO x in Central Chile using a dispersion model (MATCH) driven with data from a limited area weather forecast model (HIRLAM). Emphasis has been given to the impact of Cu smelters upon urban air quality, particularly that of Santiago. Six 1-month long periods were simulated for the years 1997, 1998 and 1999. These periods span over a broad range of typical meteorological conditions in the area including El Niño and La Niña years. Estimates of the regional dispersion and deposition patterns were calculated. The emissions from the large Cu smelters dominate the distribution of SO x. A budget of SO x over an area of 200×200 km 2 around Santiago is presented. There is too low a number of monitoring stations to perform a detailed evaluation of MATCH. Nevertheless, the model reproduces consistently all the regional-scale characteristics that can be derived from the available observations.

  14. Dos nuevos registros de ascidias (Tunicata: Ascidiacea para la costa continental de Chile Two new records of ascidians (Tunicata: Ascidiacea for the continental coast of Chile

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    Full Text Available Las ascidias (Tunicata: Ascidiacea Asterocarpa humilis (Heller, 1878 (Styelidae y Molgula ficus (Macdonald, 1859 (Molgulidae se registran por primera vez, para la costa de Chile continental. Los ejemplares se recolectaron en los años 1997 y 1998 en tres localidades en los alrededores de la Bahía de Antofagasta, Chile (23º43´S; 70º 26´W, asociados a las agrupaciones de las ascidias Pyura chilensis Molina, 1872 y Ciona intestinalis Linnaeus, 1767, que se fijan en sistemas suspendidos de cultivo de ostiones y en mantos intermareales del «piure de Antofagasta», P. praeputialis (Heller, 1878. En el trabajo se describen las especies y se discuten sus distribuciones geográficas y la posibilidad que ambas hayan sido introducidas o invadido costas de Chile. Se destaca el carácter vivíparo para A. humilis. Con este trabajo el número de especies de ascidias descritas para Chile continental se eleva desde 53 a 55The ascidians (Tunicata: Ascidiacea Asterocarpa humilis (Heller, 1878 (Styelidae and Molgula ficus (Macdonald, 1859 (Molgulidae are recorded for the first time for the continental coast of Chile. The specimens were collected during 1997 and 1998 at 3 localities in and around the Bay of Antofagasta (23º 43´ S; 70º 26´ W, Chile, in suspended scallop aquaculture ropes, attached to Ciona intestinalis Linnaeus, 1767 and Pyura chilensis Molina, 1872, and in intertidal beds of the sea squirt P. praeputialis (Heller, 1878. This work describes the species and discusses their geographical distribution as well as possibilities for their introduction and/or invasion to Chile. The viviparous condition for A. humilis is communicated. The number of ascidians reported for continental Chile increases from 53 to 55



    Vidal Molina,Paula


    Se presenta una entrevista realizada a Theotonio dos Santos, que menciona los motivos y su experiencia vivida en Chile durante el periodo de la Unidad Popular. A partir de esto, describe algunos temas de debate en la izquierda chilena de la época, su visión de la Unidad Popular, el marxismo y las particularidades de la su teoría. Así también, se refiere al movimiento social contemporáneo y a la necesidad de la existencia del pensamiento critico.

  16. Desarrollo de la Energía Mareomotriz en Chile.

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    Daniel Vega Salinas


    Full Text Available El presente artículo trata una revisión del estado del arte de la energía marina, que puede ser generada por las mareas o el oleaje, se analizaron las experiencias a nivel mundial, así como se estudió la factibilidad técnica y económica de la instalación de esta fuente de energía en Chile, específicamente para la industria del cultivo de salmón.

  17. Chernobyl: one year after; radiological measurements in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinones O, O.


    The results of environmental radionuclides activity measurements in 694 samples obtained from National Sampling Network and 152 samples from foods imported during april 1986 - april 1987 in order to evaluate the possible influence, in Chile, of the Chernobyl accident, is presented. The results showed that only long life radionuclides like strontium 90 and Cesium 137 were detected. However, Cesium 134 in some imported food was found in lowlevels. The higher value was 36.0% of Maximum Permissible level referring to radiocesium (370 Bq/Kg). (author)

  18. Derived intervention levels for radionuclides in foods in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinones O, O.; Tomicic M, I.


    The present paper reports the methodology and Derived Intervention Levels (DILs) for radionuclides in foods in Chile for international trading, in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency. The radionuclides of interest were classified in three groups, according to their radiotoxicity, and the DILs calculated for each category of food (Cereals, Roots, Vegetables, Fruits, Meat, Fish and Milk). Values of 1[mSv.y -1 ] [5] as a Dose Reference Level and 507 [Kg.a -1 ] [1] as a Total Annual Consumption, were considered. (author)

  19. Regiones-commodities: Crisis y contagio en Chile


    Antonio Daher


    La hipótesis de un nuevo dualismo entre una capital subglobal y sus "regiones-commodities" subyace en el estudio del impacto diferencial de las tres últimas crisis internacionales en las regiones de Chile, cuantificado a través de cuatro indicadores: el producto, el empleo, la inversión externa y las exportaciones, cuya variación permite verificar la disímil vulnerabilidad de cada región y su desigual exposición al riesgo de contagio de crisis. Fundamentado en un marco conceptual que sostiene...

  20. Fundamentos del Tipo de Cambio Real en Chile


    Rodrigo Cerda; Alvaro Donoso; Aldo Lema


    Un modelo basado en la relación gasto-producto (efecto Salter-Swan) y los términos de intercambio, habría predicho un incremento más pronunciado del tipo de cambio real (TCR) en Chile durante la segunda mitad de los '80, una caída menos acentuada entre 1990 y 1997, y un aumento más fuerte a partir de 1998 cuando irrumpió la crisis financiera internacional. Este trabajo incorpora en forma exhaustiva otros factores en la determinación de largo plazo del TCR, tanto de oferta como de demanda. Usa...


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    Full Text Available This article analizes the installation in Chile of a neoliberal model during the military regime headed by General Augusto Pinochet, between 1973 and 1979. Within that context, it offers a reinterpretation of the allegedly foundational character of that government, its also supposedly early adherence to the neoliberal matrix, and its break with the Keynesian capitalism which had prevailed since the 1930’s. The analysis is focused on the evolution of military with regard to the links between the State and development, and on the debate between neoliberalism and statism that was carried out within the armed forces

  2. Memoria Colectiva del Golpe de Estado de 1973 en Chile


    Jorge Manzi; Soledad Ruiz; Mariane Krause; Alejandra Meneses; Andrés Haye; Edmundo Kronmüller


    En el presente artículo se muestran resultados de una investigación cualitativa sobre memoria colectiva acerca de los hechos acontecidos el 11 de Septiembre de 1973 en Chile, sus causas y sus consecuencias. Sobre la base de datos provenientes de 44 entrevistas semiestructuradas, se realizó un análisis cualitativo de contenidos y uno lingüístico. Los resultados muestran diferencias en cuanto a coincidencias y discrepancias en los contenidos de la memoria colectiva en función de la ...

  3. The Payout Stage in Chile: Who Annuitizes and Why?


    Estelle James; Guillermo Martinez; Augusto Iglesias


    El año 1981 Chile adoptó su nuevo sistema de pensiones caracterizado por la existencia de cuentas de ahorro individual. En 1983 el nuevo sistema comenzó a pagar pensiones, existiendo un conjunto de reglas muy detalladas que se aplican al cálculo y procedimientos de contratación de los beneficios. En consecuencia, el sistema chileno nos ofrece una oportunidad para examinar cómo los pensionados y los proveedores de pensiones reaccionan cuando un sistema de capitalización individual reemplaza a ...

  4. Implementación de la Reforma Previsional en Chile


    Solange Berstein


    El sistema de pensiones en Chile basado en la capitalización individual comenzó a operar hace 30 años. En este período ha tenido importantes cambios, sobre todo en materias financieras relacionadas con las inversiones de los Fondos de Pensiones. La más reciente reforma tuvo un carácter comprensivo, abarcando al sistema de pensiones en forma integral, incluidos lo pilares no contributivo y voluntario. En este artículo se hace un resumen de los principales cambios que formaron parte de la Refor...

  5. Effective Universal Coverage of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 in Chile. (United States)

    Guerrero-Núñez, Sara; Valenzuela-Suazo, Sandra; Cid-Henríquez, Patricia


    determine the prevalence of Effective Universal Coverage of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 in Chile and its relation with the variables: Health Care Coverage of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2; Average of diabetics with metabolic control in 2011-2013; Mortality Rate for Diabetes Mellitus; and Percentage of nurses participating in the Cardiovascular Health Program. cross-sectional descriptive study with ecological components that uses documentary sources of the Ministry of Health. It was established that there is correlation between the Universal Effective Coverage of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 and the independent variables; it was applied the Pearson Coefficient, being significant at the 0.05 level. in Chile Universal Health Care Coverage of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (HbA1ctransversal com componentes ecológicos, utilizando fontes documentais do Ministério da Saúde. Foi estabelecida correlação entre Cobertura Universal Efetiva da Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 e as variáveis independentes, aplicando o Coeficiente de Pearson, sendo significante ao 0,05. no Chile a Cobertura Universal Efetiva da Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 (HbA1cestudio descriptivo transversal con componentes ecológicos, utilizando fuentes documentales del Ministerio de Salud. Se estableció que existe correlación entre la Cobertura Universal Efectiva de la Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 y las variables independientes, aplicando el Coeficiente de Pearson, siendo significativa al nivel 0,05. en Chile la Cobertura Universal Efectiva de Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 (HbA1c<7% en población estimada) es menor que 20%; esta se relaciona con la Tasa de Mortalidad por Diabetes Mellitus y con el Porcentaje de participación de enfermeras en el Programa de Salud Cardiovascular, que es significativa al nivel 0,01. la prevalencia de Cobertura Universal Efectiva de la Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 es baja; sin embargo algunas regiones se destacan en la cobertura y en el control metabólico de pacientes que participan del control de salud. La

  6. Increasing organ donation by presumed consent and allocation priority: Chile. (United States)

    Zúñiga-Fajuri, Alejandra


    Chile, a middle-income country, recently joined Israel and Singapore as the world's only countries to require reciprocity as a precondition for organ transplantation. The Chilean reform includes opt-out provisions designed to foster donation and priority for organ transplantation for registered people. Although the reform has had serious difficulties in achieving its mission, it can be reviewed by other countries that seek to address the serious shortage of organs. As increased organ donation can substantially enhance or save more lives, the effect on organ availability due to incentives arising from rules of preference should not be underestimated.

  7. Tendencias en la segregación residencial en Chile


    Alan Garín Contreras; Sonia Salvo Garrido; Gonzalo Bravo Araneda


    Los análisis sobre segregación residencial en Chile, están adquiriendo una importancia creciente, dado que sus efectos sociales son cada vez más evidentes. A objeto de identificar las tendencias que sigue este proceso, se hace una revisión de la investigación a nivel nacional y que permita ser un aporte para el avance en este tema. Los resultados indican que la segregación residencial está disminuyendo, los principales mecanismo que operan en este proceso son: el funcionamiento del mercado de...

  8. Inestabilidad estructural en Chile: informe de políticas


    Ricardo J. Caballero


    (Disponible en idioma inglés únicamente) En este trabajo se identifican las debilidades económicas de Chile y se ofrecen recomendaciones de políticas para mejorar la estabilidad. Los problemas actuales incluyen vínculos financieros internacionales débiles, un mandato del Banco Central precariamente diseñado para tratar las sacudidas de los términos de intercambio, la propensión a desperdiciar la poca liquidez que hay en el sistema bancario y el desarrollo limitado de los mercados financieros....

  9. Reflections on gender issues in work transitions in Chile. (United States)

    Cronin, Shawna


    To explore the work transitions of Chilean women. Observations and dialogue of Chilean women and their experiences in current and past work. A personal and historical reflection to understand the experiences of work for Chilean women. Exploring work transitions requires an understanding of the macro level historical impact on the participation of women in work in Chilean society. Macro level factors such as participation in the free labour market economy ultimately impacts on the individual choices of the women of Chile regarding their opportunities to transition into productive paid employment. The understanding of work transitions must consider the influences of the labour market economy.

  10. [The contradictory requirements of university teaching in Chile]. (United States)

    Norero V, Colomba


    Chile should become a member of the "society of knowledge". Therefore, undergraduate curricula of university careers should be revised, to offer shorter programs that prepare for a permanent training during the whole professional life. This proposal requires an agile academic team, endowed with the adequate methodological tools, but also a contingent of interested and motivated students with comprehension and expression skills and a study discipline. This article comments on the training deficiencies of students that are admitted to Chilean universities and the difficulties of university teachers to compensate this training deficiencies in order to teach their subjects in shorter lapses.

  11. Recorrido fragmentario por las memorias de los terremotos en Chile


    Marisol Palma Behnke


    Este artículo presenta una reflexión en torno al terremoto como condición histórica de espacios nacionales y regionales que se representa en diversas memorias presentes en la larga duración de la historia de Chile. Los terremotos, sucesos naturales violentos que sacuden el cuerpo en la contingencia, se representan en diferentes memorias (individuales y colectivas) con imágenes que refieren al quiebre y ruptura de estructuras materiales, familiares, sociales, políticas, económicas y culturales...

  12. Studies to Control Endemic Typhoid Fever in Chile (United States)


    have negative stool cultures if the stool 18-21 specimens are fully formed. This is because the short chain fatty acids produced as end products of...cells in saline are taken after neutra- ,34’," lization of gastric acidity by 1 g NaHCO To idetify a more convenient3. method to administer vaccine...Guerra, C., Larach, G. Incidencia de litiasis biliar en material de autopsias analysis de composicion de los calculos. Rev.Med.Chile 100:1320-1327

  13. Informality wears uniform: Beauty salons’ workers in Santiago, Chile

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    Rosario Palacios Ruiz de Gamboa


    Full Text Available This article examines how flexible work economy has been affecting a group of beauty salons’ workers in Santiago, Chile. They do not have a work contract and receive their payment as if they were giving an independent service, but depend on the rules their bosses impose them. The kind of work described in the article appears to be a new arrangement within the context of urban informality, which has present and future implications regarding social security and uncertainty. Drawing on ethnographic observation in four beauty salons, I describe how the embodied belief of being an independent worker helps to enact many skills required by the flexible work economy.

  14. Abundance of Mepraia spinolai in a Periurban zone of Chile. (United States)

    Cattan, Pedro E; Pinochet, Angélica; Botto-Mahan, Carezza; Acuna, Mariana I; Canals, Mauricio


    Mepraia spinolai is a silvatic species of Triatominae which prefers microhabitats near to or in rock piles. It is also able to maintain similar or higher size populations near houses. The density of bugs in quarries near Santiago, Chile, differed within microhabitats and varied significantly within sites according to season. M. spinolai was not found in sites characterized by human perturbation of quarries. Our results confirm M. spinolai as a silvatic triatomine whose importance as a vector of Chagas disease will depend on contact with humans. This could occur if the habitats where populations of this species are found become exploited for the building of urban areas.

  15. Abundance of Mepraia spinolai in a Periurban Zone of Chile

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    Cattan Pedro E


    Full Text Available Mepraia spinolai is a silvatic species of Triatominae which prefers microhabitats near to or in rock piles. It is also able to maintain similar or higher size populations near houses. The density of bugs in quarries near Santiago, Chile, differed within microhabitats and varied significantly within sites according to season. M. spinolai was not found in sites characterized by human perturbation of quarries. Our results confirm M. spinolai as a silvatic triatomine whose importance as a vector of Chagas disease will depend on contact with humans. This could occur if the habitats where populations of this species are found become exploited for the building of urban areas.

  16. Medication Overdoses at a Public Emergency Department in Santiago, Chile

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    Pablo Aguilera, MD


    Full Text Available Introduction: While a nationwide poison control registry exists in Chile, reporting to the center is sporadic and happens at the discretion of the treating physician or by patients’ self-report. Moreover, individual hospitals do not monitor accidental or intentional poisoning in a systematic manner. The goal of this study was to identify all cases of intentional medication overdose (MO that occurred over two years at a large public hospital in Santiago, Chile, and examine its epidemiologic profile. Methods: This study is a retrospective, explicit chart review conducted at Hospital Sótero del Rio from July 2008 until June 2010. We included all cases of identified intentional MO. Alcohol and recreational drugs were included only when they were ingested with other medications. Results: We identified 1,557 cases of intentional MO and analyzed a total of 1,197 cases, corresponding to 0.51% of all emergency department (ED presentations between July 2008 and June 2010. The median patient age was 25 years. The majority was female (67.6%. Two peaks were identified, corresponding to the spring of each year sampled. The rate of hospital admission was 22.2%. Benzodiazepines, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and tricyclic antidepressants (TCA were the causative agents most commonly found, comprising 1,044 (87.2% of all analyzed cases. Acetaminophen was involved in 81 (6.8% cases. More than one active substance was involved in 35% of cases. In 7.3% there was ethanol co-ingestion and in 1.0% co-ingestion of some other recreational drug (primarily cocaine. Of 1,557 cases, six (0.39% patients died. TCA were involved in two of these deaths. Conclusion: Similar to other developed and developing nations, intentional MO accounts for a significant number of ED presentations in Chile. Chile is unique in the region, however, in that its spectrum of intentional overdoses includes an excess burden of tricyclic antidepressant and benzodiazepine overdoses, a

  17. Fruit production in Chile: bright past, uncertain future

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    Jorge B. Retamales


    Full Text Available In 2007 (the last agricultural census, Chile had 308, 445 ha of fruit orchards: an increase of almost 32% from the previous census (1997. The most important species were table grapes (20%, avocados (13% and apples (12%. Some 22% of the fruit crops growing area corresponded to juvenile orchards; within the species with higher proportion of juvenile orchards were prunes (42% and blueberries (56%. Most orchards are located between latitude 27º18` S (Copiapó and 40º36´S (Puerto Varas. The industry is driven by the export component which accounts for more than 50% of the fruits produced. In the crop season 2009-2010, approximately 254 million boxes (around 2.5 million tons were exported, representing over US$ 3.5 million. Processed and fresh fruits represented 8.2 and 26.7% of the total forest and agricultural Chilean exports in 2008, respectively. The main markets for this fruits were USA/Canada (42% and Europe (32%. The fruit grower receives, on average, 12-16% of the total price of the fruit in its final destination. Each year the fruit industry employs 450.000 people directly, of which 1/3 are permanent. Even though the fruit industry employs the highest proportion of the agricultural labor and the growing area has increased in the last 20 years, the proportion of agricultural employment has decreased from 19.5% in 1989 to 10.8% in 2008. It might also be noted that Chile invests only 0.7% of the GDP in research. In the last 40 years, the fruit industry has been a motor for the Chilean economic development, but the lower rates of currency exchange, the rising costs of energy (oil, electricity, and the increasing scarcity of hand labor have drastically reduced the profitability and are putting at risk the viability of a large proportion of the fruit orchards in Chile. It is estimated that this season around 65% of the orchards will have a negative economic balance in their operations. Higher investment in research, improvements in fruit quality

  18. Calidad de vida y discapacidad auditiva en Chile


    Suazo Díaz, Pilar


    [ES] La pérdida auditiva es una discapacidad sensorial que genera diversas dificultades en el desarrollo biopsicosocial de las personas que la padecen, pudiendo afectar a su calidad de vida. La investigación que se presenta buscó describir y analizar la percepción de calidad de vida (CV) de las personas en situación de discapacidad auditiva de Chile. Para este efecto, se utilizó metodología mixta explicativa secuencial. En el abordaje cuantitativo participaron 102 personas con pérdidas de...

  19. Parasites of the Green-backed Firecrown (Sephanoides sephaniodes in Chile Parásitos del picaflor chico (Sephanoides sephaniodes en Chile

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    Daniel González-Acuña


    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal and external parasites from 12 Green-backed Firecrown (Sephanoides sephaniodes were collected between January 2004 and December 2008 from the Biobío Region south-central Chile and Santiago (central Chile. Helminths collected included 1 trematode species (Mosesia sp. and 1 cestode species (Hymenolepis trinidadensis. The mite Proctophyllodes huitzilopchtlii was the only ectoparasite species found. All these parasites represent new records for Chile and the first parasites reported for this host species.Se recolectaron parásitos internos (gastrointestinales y externos de 12 picaflores (Sephanoides sephaniodes entre enero del 2004 y diciembre del 2008, de la región del Biobío en el centro-sur de Chile y en Santiago, en la región central de Chile. Los helmintos recolectados incluyeron 1 especie de trematodo (Mosesia sp. y 1 de cestodo (Hymenolepis trinidadensis. Únicamente se encontró 1 especie de ectoparásito, el ácaro Proctophyllodes huitzilopchtlii. Todos los parásitos mencionados representan nuevos registros para Chile y se registran por primera vez para este hospedero.

  20. Moluscos dulceacuícolas exóticos en Chile Exotic freshwater mollusks in Chile

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    Sergio Letelier V.


    Full Text Available Las especies de moluscos exóticas dulceacuícolas registradas en esta contribución, corresponden a ejemplares recolectados en humedales en acuarios comerciales o interceptados en barreras aduaneras, así como de referencias bibliográficas. Un total de 7 especies pertenecientes a 6 géneros fueron identificadas: Pomacea bridgesii; Helobia sp.; Thiara (Melanoides tuberculata; Melanoides maculata; Physa sp.; Physella venustula y Biomphalaria sp. Melanoides maculata fue recolectada en el río Lluta y clasificada como especie criptogénica. Los moluscos exóticos recolectados podrían tener éxito en su establecimiento si se considera la vulnerabilidad de los hábitats nativos debido al cambio en las condiciones climáticas globales o a las elevaciones térmicas producidas en el sector costero por los fenómenos de El Niño. En este sentido, las especies subtropicales observadas se podrían considerar como no endémicas y vectores potenciales de zoonosis parasitarias. Las principales vías de introducción de moluscos dulceacuícolas exóticos se derivaron del intercambio comercial, por lo cual, y frente a su incremento interregional, se hace necesario recopilar datos ecológicos y taxonómicos adecuados que permitan evaluar el riesgo de su establecimiento, así como servir de base para la aplicación de futuros tratamientos en bioseguridad.The exotic freshwater mollusk species we report here were collected in wetlands, commercial aquariums, or were given to us by government officials who intercepted some exotic species at customs offices. Other records came from the specialized literature. These species are Pomacea bridgesii; Helobia sp.; Thiara (Melanoides tuberculata; Melanoides maculata; Physa sp., Physella venustula and Biomphalaria sp. It is not clear how Melanoides maculata, found in the Río Lluta, reached Chile. The exotic species collected could expand their ranges in Chilean territory given global environmental and climate change or the

  1. Chile y la globalización: una dependencia potencialmente peligrosa Chile and globalization: a potentially dangerous dependence

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    Fernando Duque


    Full Text Available Este ensayo tiene varios propósitos. Primero, discutir el concepto de globalización en sus diferentes acepciones, particularmente, la económica, la política y la cultural. En segundo lugar, intenta tratar de describir y demostrar el enorme grado de dependencia que Chile tiene del actual proceso globalizador. En tercer término, se trata de señalar que la actual globalización, es un proceso similar al que ha ocurrido en otras épocas de la historia. Especialmente se comenta en detalle el análisis del profesor Ferguson quien compara la actual globalización con la que ocurrió a fines del siglo XIX y comienzos del XX. Se concluye que el actual proceso de globalización es tan volátil, inestable y peligroso como fue la globalización decimonónica. Se concluye también indicando que es altamente probable que el actual proceso globalizador, termine en forma similar a como terminó la globalización 1870-1914. Finalmente se argumenta que debido a que Chile está geográficamente ubicado en la parte más austral del hemisferio sur, es probable que el país salga relativamente intacto de la conflagración que se avecina.This article begins by discussing the different meanings of globalization, especially the economic, political and social ones. It then describes how Chile is greatly dependent on the current globalization process, as well as points out that this process is similar to others that have taken place in other times in history. It discusses in detail professor Ferguson's analysis comparing the current globalization with the one that occurred at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th. The article concludes that the current process is as volatile, unstable and dangerous as that of the 19th century, and that it is highly probable that it will end as that of 1870-1914. It also argues that since Chile is on the southernmost part of the southern hemisphere, it will be relatively preserved from the oncoming conflagration.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateo Martinic B.


    Full Text Available En este artículo se entrega una visión completa acerca de los ferrocarriles construidos y explotados en la región austral de Chile y se ofrece asimismo una explicación sobre su modesta expresión hist��rica, cosa notable en un territorio como la Patagonia chilena en cuya colonización y desarrollo ulterior fue importante la utilización de la tecnología industrial moderna. Se dan a conocer también algunas interesantes iniciativas ferrocarrileras que no llegaron a materializarseIn spite of the important development in Chilean Patagonia between circa 1870 an 1973, particulary in the old Magellan Territory, an almost surprising fact was that in between many incorporated industrial technology the railroad, a paradigm of modernity, had a scarce representation. In this paper, a complete review about railroads settled and exploted in southernmost Chile is done and a explanation of its modest expression and some interesting projects that necer became materialized which explains the emptiness in the historical information on the subject

  3. [Epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus infection and AIDS in Chile]. (United States)

    García O, Maritza; Olea N, Andrea


    In Chile, the first cases of AIDS were reported 23 years ago, and since then, through December 2006, 17.235 persons have been notified with HIV infection or AIDS1. To the year 2005, there have been 5.288 fatal cases of AIDS. The last available data indicates that notification rates for AIDS and HIV infection in 2006 were 2.5 and 4.5 per 100.000 inhabitants, respectively, and mortality rate for AIDS in 2005 was 2.4 per 100.000 inhabitants. Trend analysis shows a decline in the notification rate among men, both for HIV infection and AIDS, which could be a real decrease or a sub notification bias. In Chile, like in other countries of the region, variations in the epidemiologic pattern were observed considering age group, gender, educational level and geographic distribution of the population. Currently, the Chilean Ministry of Health has implemented both a surveillance and monitoring system on line, in order to improve the quality and opportunity of the information, therefore providing an important tool to HIV infection/AIDS prevention and control strategies.

  4. [Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in Chile. December 2003]. (United States)


    From 1984, when the first case of AIDS was diagnosed in Chile, to December 2003, 6.060 patients with AIDS and 6.514 with asymptomatic HIV infection have been notified to a passive national surveillance system; around 3,800 have died due to the infection. Magnitude of the under reporting is discussed. Assumed routes of the infection have been: sexual (94.1%), blood--largely intravenous drug use--(4.3%) and vertical transmission (1.6%). According to analysis performed by the National Commission on AIDS (CONASIDA), a governmental office, HIV/AIDS epidemic in Chile is characterized by: predominance in male homo/bisexuals, urban and rural distribution, impoverishment of the affected people, diagnosis made mainly during adulthood and a steady trend to affecting more women and heterosexuals at large. Since 2001 there has been a continuous increase in access to standard antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for those cared for by the public health system, reaching free coverage for 100% of this population by 2003, which has determined a significant decrease in the rate AIDS-associated clinical manifestations while reaching an stop of the previously increasing lethality of the infection (from a 15% increase from 1993-1997 to 0.2% from 1998-2003).

  5. Spatial phylogenetics of the vascular flora of Chile. (United States)

    Scherson, Rosa A; Thornhill, Andrew H; Urbina-Casanova, Rafael; Freyman, William A; Pliscoff, Patricio A; Mishler, Brent D


    Current geographic patterns of biodiversity are a consequence of the evolutionary history of the lineages that comprise them. This study was aimed at exploring how evolutionary features of the vascular flora of Chile are distributed across the landscape. Using a phylogeny at the genus level for 87% of the Chilean vascular flora, and a geographic database of sample localities, we calculated phylogenetic diversity (PD), phylogenetic endemism (PE), relative PD (RPD), and relative PE (RPE). Categorical Analyses of Neo- and Paleo-Endemism (CANAPE) were also performed, using a spatial randomization to assess statistical significance. A cluster analysis using range-weighted phylogenetic turnover was used to compare among grid cells, and with known Chilean bioclimates. PD patterns were concordant with known centers of high taxon richness and the Chilean biodiversity hotspot. In addition, several other interesting areas of concentration of evolutionary history were revealed as potential conservation targets. The south of the country shows areas of significantly high RPD and a concentration of paleo-endemism, and the north shows areas of significantly low PD and RPD, and a concentration of neo-endemism. Range-weighted phylogenetic turnover shows high congruence with the main macrobioclimates of Chile. Even though the study was done at the genus level, the outcome provides an accurate outline of phylogenetic patterns that can be filled in as more fine-scaled information becomes available. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Taxonomy of Rhagoletis population associated with wild plums in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frias, Daniel; Alvina, Andres


    In South America, there are about fifteen Rhagoletis species that live in association with wild and cultivated Solanaceae host plants (Foote 1981, Frias 1992). The principal information on taxonomy for these species is the morphology of adults. Thus, in the genus Rhagoletis, in general, there is little information about immature stages especially on first and second larva instars (Steck et al. 1990, Carrol and Wharton 1989, Steck and Wharton 1988, Persson 1963, White and Elson-Harris 1992, Hernandez-Ortiz 1992, 1993, Frias et al. 1993). Presently, in Chile, there are 4 species associated with Solanaceae host plants. R. tomatis Foote and R. nova (Schiner) are associated with cultivated Solanaceae Lycopersicum esculentum Miller or cultivated tomatoes and Solanum muricatum Aiton or sweet cucumber respectively. R. conversa Bethes has two Solanum host plants, S. nigrum L. and S. tomatillo (Remy) Phil. F. (Frias et al. 1984). The host for R. penela Foote is unknown. Moreover, in the last few years, a population on wild plums of the Myrobalan variety (Rosaceae) was detected (Gonzalez 1989). At present, there is no information about the origin and taxonomy of this population. In this work, we have studied the morphology of eggs, three instar larvae, pupae and adults of this population associated with wild plums as well as aspects of its geographical distribution in Chile

  7. Pharmacovigilance in veterinary medicine in Chile: a pilot study. (United States)

    Iragüen, D; Urcelay, S; San Martín, B


    Iragüen, D., Urcelay, S., San Martín, B. Pharmacovigilance in veterinary medicine in Chile: a pilot study. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap.34, 108-115. In Chile, there is no present government policy to survey and analyse adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in the field of veterinary medicine. The intent of this study is to assess, for the first time, ADR frequency in treated animals. To this purpose, a 6-month period pilot study based on WHO recommendations was conducted to monitor ADRs in cats and dogs for frequently used drugs and common labelled signs. Of a total of 149 detected ADRs, 29 (6 in cats and 23 in dogs) were notified by means of ADR report forms, while the rest was identified after reviewing patient clinical records, thus evidencing strong under-reporting problems. More than 70% of ADRs were related to antimicrobials, vaccines and tranquilizers. In dogs, there was a significant effect on ADRs' presentation when acepromazine, amoxicillin, carprofen, ivermectin, sextuple vaccine (polyvalent vaccine that confers immunity against canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus, Leptospira canicola, L. icterohemmoragiae, canine adenovirus type 2 and canine parainfluenza virus) and phytomenadione (subcutaneous injection) were administered. In the case of cats, a significant influence on ADRs was detected when acepromazine, amoxicillin or vitamin K was administered. Present results suggest the need for a pharmacovigilance programme in veterinary medicine for timely ADR-presenting drug detection and drug safety improvement. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Abortion in Chile: the practice under a restrictive regime. (United States)

    Casas, Lidia; Vivaldi, Lieta


    This article examines, from a human rights perspective, the experience of women, and the practices of health care providers regarding abortion in Chile. Most abortions, as high as 100,000 a year, are obtained surreptitiously and clandestinely, and income and connections play a key role. The illegality of abortion correlates strongly with vulnerability, feelings of guilt and loneliness, fear of prosecution, physical and psychological harm, and social ostracism. Moreover, the absolute legal ban on abortion has a chilling effect on health care providers and endangers women's lives and health. Although misoprostol use has significantly helped to prevent greater harm and enhance women's agency, a ban on sales created a black market. Against this backdrop, feminists have taken action in aid of women. For instance, a feminist collective opened a telephone hotline, Linea Aborto Libre (Free Abortion Line), which has been crucial in informing women of the correct and safe use of misoprostol. Chile is at a crossroads. For the first time in 24 years, abortion law reform seems plausible, at least when the woman's life or health is at risk and in cases of rape and fetal anomalies incompatible with life. The political scenario is unfolding as we write. Congressional approval does not mean automatic enactment of a new law; a constitutional challenge is highly likely and will have to be overcome. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An overview of the dinosaur fossil record from Chile (United States)

    Rubilar-Rogers, David; Otero, Rodrigo A.; Yury-Yáñez, Roberto E.; Vargas, Alexander O.; Gutstein, Carolina S.


    In Chile, the record of dinosaurs in Jurassic and Cretaceous sediments is often restricted to footprints, with few skeletal remains. Tetanuran theropods are known in the Upper Jurassic, and bones of titanosaur sauropods in the Late Cretaceous, including partial skeletons (e.g. Atacamatitan chilensis Kellner et al.). Also from the late Cretaceous, an ornithopod vertebra, a pair of theropod teeth and one tarsometatarsus of a gaviiform bird (Neogaeornis wetzeli Lambrecht) have been reported. The Cenozoic fossil record comprises abundant and well-preserved marine birds from Eocene and Miocene units, with a specially abundant record of Sphenisciformes and less frequently, Procellariiformes. There is an excellent Miocene-Pliocene record of other birds such as Odontopterygiformes, including the most complete skeleton ever found of a pelagornithid, Pelagornis chilensis Mayr and Rubilar-Rogers. Fossil birds are also known from Pliocene and Pleistocene strata. A remarkable collection of birds was discovered in lacustrine sediments of late Pleistocene age associated to human activity. The perspectives in the study of dinosaurs in Chile are promising because plenty of material stored in institutional collections is not described yet. The record of Chilean dinosaurs is relevant for understanding the dynamics and evolution of this group of terrestrial animals in the western edge of Gondwana, while Cenozoic birds from the Region may contribute to the understanding of current biogeography for instance, the effect of the emergence and establishment of the Humboldt Current.

  10. Spearfishing to depletion: evidence from temperate reef fishes in Chile. (United States)

    Godoy, Natalio; Gelcich, L Stefan; Vásquez, Julio A; Castilla, Juan Carlos


    Unreliable and data-poor marine fishery landings can lead to a lack of regulatory action in fisheries management. Here we use official Chilean landing reports and non-conventional indicators, such as fishers' perceptions and spearfishing competition results, to provide evidence of reef fishes depletions caused by unregulated spearfishing. Results show that the three largest and most emblematic reef fishes targeted mainly by spearfishers (> 98% of landings) [Graus nigra (vieja negra), Semicossyphus darwini (sheephead or pejeperro), and Medialuna ancietae (acha)] show signs of depletion in terms of abundance and size and that overall the catches of reef fishes have shifted from large carnivore species toward smaller-sized omnivore and herbivore species. Information from two snorkeling speargun world championships (1971 and 2004, Iquique, Chile) and from fishers' perceptions shows the mean size of reef fish to be declining. Although the ecological consequences of reef fish depletion are not fully understood in Chile, evidence of spearfishing depleting temperate reef fishes must be explicitly included in policy debates. This would involve bans or strong restrictions on the use of SCUBA and hookah diving gear for spearfishing, and minimum size limits. It may also involve academic and policy discussions regarding conservation and fisheries management synergies within networks of no-take and territorial user-rights fisheries areas, as a strategy for the sustainable management of temperate and tropical reef fisheries.

  11. Effective Universal Coverage of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 in Chile

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    Sara Guerrero-Núñez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: determine the prevalence of Effective Universal Coverage of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 in Chile and its relation with the variables: Health Care Coverage of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2; Average of diabetics with metabolic control in 2011-2013; Mortality Rate for Diabetes Mellitus; and Percentage of nurses participating in the Cardiovascular Health Program. Method: cross-sectional descriptive study with ecological components that uses documentary sources of the Ministry of Health. It was established that there is correlation between the Universal Effective Coverage of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 and the independent variables; it was applied the Pearson Coefficient, being significant at the 0.05 level. Results: in Chile Universal Health Care Coverage of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (HbA1c<7% estimated population is less than 20%; this is related with Mortality Rate for Diabetes Mellitus and Percentage of nurses participating in the Cardiovascular Health Program, being significant at the 0.01 level. Conclusion: effective prevalence of Universal Health Coverage of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 is low, even though some regions stand out in this research and in the metabolic control of patients who participate in health control program; its relation with percentage of nurses participating in the Cardiovascular Health Program represents a challenge and an opportunity for the health system.

  12. Desarrollo metropolitano integrado: El caso de Santiago de Chile

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    Paulina Schiappacasse


    Full Text Available El Área Metropolitana de Santiago (AMS ocupa un rol significativo en términos demográficos y de desarrollo económico en Chile. Sin embargo existen debilidades importantes en el establecimiento de mecanismos adecuados que permitan definir su orientación estratégica en un marco global competitivo; esta situación se intensifica en la medida que las áreas metropolitanas en Chile, no poseen una institucionalidad definida y un marco legal que las sustente. El AMS esta siendo afectada por cambios estructurales típicos en la evolución de las grandes metrópolis, con las consecuentes externalidades negativas que incrementan las dificultades para enfrentar y orientar su crecimiento y para establecer instancias de colaboración entre los diferentes actores involucrados. En este artículo se analiza la situación del AMS, en el marco de la discusión internacional, en relación a las metas estratégicas necesarias para el logro de un desarrollo metropolitano sustentable. La intención es contribuir al debate nacional actual en torno a la revisión y cambio de las políticas de planificación, en particular, aquellas orientadas a enfrentar los procesos dinámicos que están experimentando las ciudades.

  13. Configuración de la homosexualidad medicalizada en Chile

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    Juan Rolando Cornejo

    Full Text Available Este artículo realiza un análisis histórico de la producción intelectual chilena en torno a la homosexualidad y constata una permanencia del paradigma medicalizador, verificable hasta la actualidad. Tal paradigma, su conceptualización y representación, además de influenciar imaginarios sociales, dan lugar a la homofobia y a las dificultades para introducir reformas pro derechos de la comunidad LGBT. Sus antecedentes inmediatos se encuentran en el higienismo y en intentos modernizadores acaecidos en Chile durante las primeras décadas del siglo XX. Dicho paradigma habría transitado en Chile por cuatro momentos: un período de instalación; otro de predominio de la interpretación psicoanalítica; un tercero de hegemonía del método fenomenológico; y finalmente un período de apologética medicalizadora, años, coincidente con la vuelta a la democracia, la irrupción de los movimientos LGBT organizados y las reivindicaciones de derechos para las personas LGBT.

  14. [Toxoplasmosis, a parasitic zoonoses prevalent in Chile: count and challenges]. (United States)

    Mimica, Francisco; Muñoz-Zanzi, Claudia; Torres, Marisa; Padilla, Oslando


    Toxoplasmosis, cosmopolitan parasitic zoonosis often found in humans, is transmitted mainly by food and water, and is considered a significant risk of morbidity and mortality in pregnant women, newborns and immunocompromised patients. To identify the information about this zoonosis and its first reports in Chile. Review of publications in Pubmed, Mesh search of systematic reviews, case studies, cross-sectional studies, systematic reviews, meta-analysis and specialty publications. In addition, other publications in parasitology journals were analyzed. There are reports of the presence of this disease in Chile for 60 years. During this time several differences in prevalence depending on geographic location, age and education level of the population have been detected. There is low epidemiological vigilance and lack of specific official preventive measures for this disease, despite the possible introduction of new parasite genotypes of an increased virulence and pathogenicity in the country through the importation of meat. New enigmas have arisen in relation to this disease associating it with Alzheimer, Parkinson's disease, autism, learning disabilities, among others.

  15. [Challenges in the health care of international migrants in Chile]. (United States)

    Bernales, Margarita; Cabieses, Báltica; McIntyre, Ana María; Chepo, Macarena


    To investigate the perceptions of primary health workers (PHW) about the challenges of health care for migrants. A qualitative multicase study was conducted in eight communes of Chile, using the snowball technique, where 101 PHW and local authorities were recruited. Semi-structured interviews and focal groups were conducted, achieving information saturation. The findings were grouped into two major thematic axes: 1. Technical and administrative difficulties, and 2. Perception of cultural barriers. According to the PHW, although regulations have been established and health care strategies have been generated for the migrant population, these are mostly not stable or known to all PHW. They are also not easy to implement in the various realities investigated. The absence of records on the number of migrants accessing the health system makes it difficult to design specific interventions. Additionally, health care has complications, and the PHW do not necessarily have tools that allow them to provide a care that is culturally sensitive to the needs of the migrant community. The findings put into question the new challenges in health that Chile is facing in the face of the growing migrant population. The needs perceived by PHW are: stability and clarity in the regulations in force in relation to access and provision of services, training in regulations and the concrete way in which they should operate, and sensitization in cultural competence.

  16. Equity in out-of-pocket payment in Chile. (United States)

    Mondaca, Alicia Lorena Núñez; Chi, Chunhuei


    To assess the distribution of financial burden in Chile, with a focus on the burden and progressivity of out-of-pocket payment. Based on the principle of ability to pay, we explore factors that contribute to inequities in the health system finance and issues about the burden of out-of-pocket payment, as well as the progressivity and redistributive effect of out-of-pocket payment in Chile. Our analysis is based on data from the 2006 National Survey on Satisfaction and Out-of-Pocket Payments. Results from this study indicate evidence of inequity, in spite of the progressivity of the healthcare system. Our analysis also identifies relevant policy variables such as education, insurance system, and method of payment that should be taken into consideration in the ongoing debates and research in improving the Chilean system. In order to reduce the detected disparities among income groups, healthcare priorities should target low-income groups. Furthermore, policies should explore changes in the access to education and its impact on equity.

  17. Different Seed Selection and Conservation Practices for Fresh Market and Dried Chile Farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico. (United States)

    Kraft, Kraig H; de Jesús Luna-Ruíz, José; Gepts, Paul


    Different Seed Selection and Conservation Practices for Fresh Market and Dried Chile Farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico. The process of selecting and saving seed is the most basic and oldest of agricultural practices. In today's modern and highly capital-intensive agriculture, seeds are often treated like another chemical input. This study sought to examine seed selection and saving practices among chile farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico, where both industrial and traditional agriculture are practiced. We observed a clear division among farmers who plant chile peppers commercially. Sixty-eight chile pepper farmers were surveyed in order to document seed selection and saving practices. Fifteen respondents (22%) planted chile peppers destined for the fresh market and all utilized purchased commercial seed of F1 hybrid varieties. Fifty-three farmers (78%) planted chiles to be dried and either saved their own or purchased seeds that others had saved and selected. Farmers who saved their own seed sought to maintain an ideotype, rather than directionally select for certain traits, much like Cleveland et al. (2000) chronicled in central Mexican maize farmers. Farmers would benefit from a participatory plant-breeding program in order to maintain productive seed stock for the continued cultivation of dried chile pepper in the state.

  18. The Mining Sectors in Chile and Norway, ca. 1870-1940

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranestad, Kristin

    Chile and Norway are two ‘natural resource intensive economies’, which have had different development trajectories, yet are closely similar in industrial structure and geophysical conditions. The questions of how and why Chile and Norway have developed so differently are explored through...... an analysis of how knowledge accumulation occurred and how it was transformed by learning into technological innovation in mining, a sector which has long traditions in Norway and has by far been the largest export sector in Chile for centuries. Similar types of ‘knowledge organisations’ with the direct aim...

  19. Hydrogeologische Untersuchungen der Geothermalfelder von Puyehue und Cordón Caulle, Chile


    Dorsch, Klaus


    -Resumen extendido- Investigaciones realizadas en conjunto con la Universidad de Chile, en las áreas geotermales activas entre Lago Ranco y Lago Rupanco en el Sur de Chile (40.5ºS) han sido enfocadas a establecer balances hídricos e hidroquímicos. Esta tesis muestra los resultados de dos estudios de terreno realizados en las temporadas enero-marzo 2001 y enero-febrero 2002, y una investigación bibliográfica y recopilación de datos llevada a cabo en Chile. Los cálculos del caudal total se bas...

  20. Actitudes lingüísticas en Santiago de Chile

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    Darío Rojas


    Full Text Available Resumen Este artículo analiza las actitudes lingüísticas de hablantes nativos de español de la ciudad de Santiago, hacia al español de Chile y hacia el español de los otros países hispanohablantes: El artículo es parte de los resultados del Proyecto LIAS (Linguistic Identity and attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, financiado por El Consejo Noruego de Investigación (RCN. La recolección de los datos se realizó en la capital del país, entrevistando una muestra de 400 informantes estratificada con las variables de edad, sexo y nivel socioeconómico. Entre nuestros hallazgos, destacan los siguientes: 1 los santiaguinos muestran seguridad lingüística en comparación con variedades regionales del español de Chile, pero una gran inseguridad cuando se comparan con el habla de otros países; 2 sus actitudes se ven influenciadas tanto por características lingüísticas (modelo ideal de lengua, conservador y de raigambre colonial como por características extralingüísticas (estatus social; 3 el concepto de mayor peso dentro de la ideología lingüística de los santiaguinos es la corrección idiomática, que se articula con otros dos conceptos clave: el de unidad lingüística y el de entendimiento (o comprensión lingüística. Abstract This article analyzes the linguistic attitudes of Spanish speakers from Santiago, towards Spanish spoken in Chile and in the other Spanish-speaking countries. It is a result of the LIAS-Project (Linguistic Identity and attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, funded by The Research Council of Norway (RCN. The data were gathered in the capital of the country, interviewing a stratified sample of 400 persons based on the variables of age, sex and socioeconomic status. Our main findings are the following: 1 Santiaguinos show linguistic confidence when they compare their speech to regional varieties of Chilean Spanish, but they show great insecurity when they compare their speech to those of other

  1. Adding the human dimension to drought: an example from Chile (United States)

    Rangecroft, Sally; Van Loon, Anne; Maureira, Héctor; Rojas, Pablo; Alejandro Gutiérrez Valdés, Sergio; Verbist, Koen


    Drought and water scarcity are important hazards and can lead to severe socio-economic impacts in many regions of the world. Given the interlinked interactions and feedbacks of hydrological droughts and their impacts and management, we need tools to evaluate these complexities and effects on the availability of water resources. Here we use a real-world case study of the Huasco basin (Northern Chile) in which we quantify the influence of human activities on hydrological drought signals. In this arid region, Andean snowmelt provides water essential for users, with agriculture acting as the main water consumer (85% of total). An increasing water demand from different water sectors (agriculture, mining, and domestic water usage) has increased pressure on available water and its management. Consequently, the Santa Juana dam was built by 1995 to increase irrigation security for downstream users, and recent management and restrictions have been established with the objective to limit impacts of hydrological droughts across the basin. The feedbacks between water availability and water management are explored for this water stressed region in Chile. Hydro-meteorological (e.g. precipitation, temperature, streamflow, reservoir levels) variables have been analysed to assess trends and drought patterns. Data over the past three decades has indicated a decrease in surface water supply, with the basin entering a situation of water scarcity during the recent multiyear drought (2007 - to-date), partly caused by meteorological drought and partly by abstraction. During this period, water supply failed to meet the demands of water users, resulting in the implementation of water restrictions. As well as the necessary continuous hydro-meteorological data, here we used information on human water users and scenario modeling, allowing for the analysis and quantification of feedbacks. This work highlights the importance of local knowledge, especially in understanding water laws, rights

  2. Primer "Entrenamiento en Metodologías de Investigación Clínica en Chile" (EMIC-Chile: Fundamentos psicoeducativos

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    B. Cabieses

    Full Text Available EMIC-Chile ("Entrenamiento en Metodologías para la Investigación Clínica en Chile" es un proyecto académico desarrollado durante el año 2008 en Chile para entrenar a profesionales de la salud y disciplinas afines en metodología de investigación clínica, con el objetivo de aumentar la calidad de los proyectos de investigación con fines concursables en nuestro país. El propósito de este artículo es dar a conocer el programa y sus fundamentos teóricos de enseñanza-aprendizaje, que estuvieron en la base de la estructura, metodología, evaluación y sistematización del conocimiento entregado. Para ello, primero se describe el programa, la metodología, la evaluación y el seguimiento. Posteriormente se detallan los aspectos psicoeducativos considerados, con especial énfasis en el aprendizaje social y la educación de adultos. Finalmente, se discute en torno a las posibles consideraciones de este programa para futuras intervenciones educativas en investigación en salud en Chile. Se espera que esta experiencia y sus fundamentos educativos sirvan de motor para futuras iniciativas en el área, a favor de la investigación en salud en Chile.

  3. Los patelogastrópodos intermareales de Chile y Perú Intertidal limpets of Chile and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available En este estudio se entrega un sistema de clasificación que refleja las relaciones de parentesco, inferidas a partir del análisis de la región 16S de ADN mitocondrial, de los patelogastrópodos que habitan en la zona intermareal a lo largo de la costa rocosa de Chile y Perú. Además, se incluye el análisis comparativo de estos patelogastrópodos en relación con la estructura, la morfología y los patrones de color de la concha, los dientes de la rádula y la anatomía corporal. Adicionalmente, se entrega información respecto de la distribución y ecología para todos los miembros de este grupo. Los resultados muestran que la fauna Lottiidae de Chile y Perú consiste en al menos nueve especies de patelogastrópodos intermareales. Esto es, ocho especies de patelogastrópodos agrupadas dentro del clado monofilético Scurria (S. variabilis, S. zebrina, S. viridula, S. plana, S. scurra, S. araucana, S. ceciliana y una especie no determinada y un "taxón problemático" asignado preliminarmente dentro del género Lottia (Lottia orbignyi. El grupo está presente entre los 5º S y 54º S, registrándose en los niveles intermareales superior, medio e inferior, desde zonas expuestas a protegidas del oleaje. A nivel intraespecífico, los resultados nos permiten proponer la sinonimia de S. parasitica con S. variabilis, y de S. ceciliana con S. boehmita. Según esto, S. variabilis presentaría al menos tres ecofenotipos: (1 en sustratos rocosos a lo largo de todo su rango geográfico, (2 sobre las conchas de Fissurella crassa y F. limbata principalmente en Chile centro-sur y (3 sobre las placas del chitón Enoplochiton niger en el norte de Chile y sur del Perú. Por su parte, S. ceciliana es una especie de patelogastrópodo que presenta un patrón morfológico y de coloración de la concha altamente variable. En general, la alta variabilidad del patrón de color y morfología de la concha sitúa a estos patelogastrópodos entre los más complejos y

  4. Las aguas en la estructura urbana de Santiago de Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonás Figueroa Salas


    The water resources are necessary for development of production processes, human consumption and as a climate and landscape, among others. The last time the weather events have transformed the waters in dire terms of natural disasters, with a high impact on the people and the natural and built heritage in urban areas. This article presents some scope of an investigation about the role of river water and rainwater in the urban morphological structure of the nineteenth century city and the physical growth of the twentieth century. It concludes with the idea of turning water into instruments of sustainability in order to redevelop large parts of Santiago de Chile lacking quality elements, thereby surpassing the treatment of public works exclusively with which today is handled the issue.

  5. Soil erosion and its control in Chile - An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellies, A.


    Accelerate erosion in Chile is a consequence from land use that degrade soil such as compaction, loss of organic matter and soil structure. The erosion is favored by the very hilly landscape of the country that increases erosivity index and the high erodibility given by an elevated annual rate of rainfall with irregular distribution. Several experiences have demonstrated that adequate crop management and crop rotations can minimize erosion. The most effective control is achieved conserving and improving soil structure with management systems that include regular use of soil-improving crops, return of crop residues and tillage practices, thus avoiding unnecessary breakdown soil or compacted soil structure. Conservation tillage increased organic matter levels improving stabile soil structure, aeration and infiltration. (author) [es

  6. The energy sector in Chile: An introductory outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    After an introduction on Chilean energy policy, governmental structure in the energy sector, and foreign investment regulations, descriptions and analyses are provided of the main energy sectors in Chile: petroleum, electric power, natural gas, coal, and non-traditional energy sources. The descriptions include a general overview, government policies, current legislation, incentives and restrictions to energy production, organizations that have a bearing on policy design, and the role of the particular sector in the national economy. The analyses outline the current and possible future state of activity in each sector and provide an indication of areas of interest and business opportunities for Canadian investors. A directory is included of public organizations and other entities related to energy. 12 refs, 1 fig., 9 tabs

  7. [Quality of life of older people living in Antofagasta, Chile]. (United States)

    Urzúa, Alfonso; Bravo, Miguel; Ogalde, Mario; Vargas, Carolina


    As basic needs of older people are covered, the concern about the determinants of their quality of life becomes preeminent. To evaluate the relationship between self-reported quality of life and related variables. The Quality of Life Survey for older people developed by the World Health Organization (WHOQOL-Old), the reduced scale of Ryff Psychological Well Being, the Functional Social Support Questionnaire, the SF-12 and GHQ12 general health surveys were applied to 406 older adults aged 71 ± 7 years (83% women), that were members of older people organizations and lived in Antofagasta, Chile. Older people that perceived themselves as sick had significantly lower quality of life scores. Self-acceptance, social support, autonomy and having a purpose in life also influenced the perception of quality of life. Health issues and the sense of self efficacy are determinants of the quality of life of these older subjects.

  8. Studies on osteoporosis in Chile using isotope-related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, G.; Palma, T.; Cortes-Toro, E.


    Several studies on bone densitometry measurements in healthy individuals have been performed in Chile. However due to the fact that different techniques and no uniform protocols have been used to select patients, the results obtained are not suitable as reference values for a normal chilean population. Therefore, foreign reference values are used. This study will select healthy normal individuals, typical urban chilean residents, and measure bone density using the DEXA technique. The selection will be made according to a well defined protocol. Serum osteocalcin, a marker of bone remodeling, will be measured in all subjects as a means-a assessing bone metabolism. Bone trace element composition will be measured in selected subjects. Samples will be obtained by biopsy or through normal surgical procedures and will be analyzed by neutron activation analysis. (author)

  9. Cultural experiences of immigrant nurses at two hospitals in Chile (United States)

    Rodríguez, Gabriel; Angélica-Muñoz, Luz; Hoga, Luiza Akiko Komura


    Objective to explore the cultural experiences of nurses who immigrated to Chile. The study's theoretical framework was the Purnell Model for Cultural Competence. Method Leininger's Observation-Participation-Reflection method was developed at two hospitals in the city of Santiago, and ethnographic interviews were held with 15 immigrant nurses. Results among Purnell's 12 domains, the following were identified: Overview/heritage, Communication, Workforce issues, Family roles and organization, Biocultural ecology and Health-care practices. The difficulties were related to the language and its semantic meaning, the new responsibilities and the difficult relationship with colleagues. "In search of better horizons - the decision to immigrate", "Gaining confidence and establishing a support network - employability and professional performance" and "Seeking for people's acceptance - professional adaptation in a new cultural scenario" are cultural themes that represent their experiences. Conclusions the competence to offer cultural care demands the development of public policies and continuing education programs at health institutions, specifically focused on immigrant nurses. PMID:26107824

  10. Identidad y fronteras urbanas en Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Márquez


    Full Text Available Este articulo analiza a través de un ejercicio etnográfico los procesos de construcción identitaria de los habitantes de barrios pobres y medios de la ciudad de Santiago de Chile. Se plantea que las identidades que alli se construyen son expresión de los procesos de segregación urbana de la ciudad de Santiago y ellas dan cuenta del debilitamiento de un modelo urbano asentado en la heterogeneidad social, la noción de espacio público y valores como la ciudadanía política y la integración social. Paradojalmente, esta misma segregación urbana abre también paso a un imaginario y una práctica de vida comunitaria y tribal que refuerza y protege al nosotros de la peligrosidad de los otros.

  11. [Vaccines against hepatitis A and B in Chile]. (United States)

    Valenzuela, M Teresa


    The mode of transmission and epidemiological approach for hepatitis A and B are different. However, both are preventable with vaccines whose efficacy and long lasting protection has been demonstrated. This review describes the secular tendency of both infections in Chile, their risk factors that have contributed to their persistence in the country and the interventions that have been carried out to reduce the disease burden. Although the vaccine for hepatitis B was incorporated to the immunization program in 2005, the vaccine for hepatitis A persists in the list of interventions that must be assumed with priority by the Ministry of Health. If Chilean health authorities pretend to reach the enteric disease indicators of developed countries, they must accelerate the epidemiological transition towards the elimination of hepatitis A.

  12. Business Incubation in Chile: Development, Financing and Financial Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Chandra


    Full Text Available Business incubation in Chile is still in its nascent stages, with approximately 27 incubators supported primarily by a coalition of government and universities. Chilean business incubators tend to capitalize on regional resource strengths and have a strategic focus on high growth, high innovation, high impact businesses as a result of a government mandate to focus on developing business with high potential for economic development and job creation. The government’s efforts to create the framework conditions for entrepreneurship by investing in business incubators, organizing risk capital for early stage ventures to fill capital market gaps and support for angel networks as well as incubator funding are discussed. Policy implications for the continued growth of the incubation industry are provided.

  13. Cerro Amarillo rhyolites, advanced AFC in the northern SVZ, Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, E; Hildreth, W


    Cerro Amarillo is a Quaternary medium size (500m high, 2 km 2 ) rhyolite dome complex located close to the Chile-Argentina border, reaching a height of 4162 m, between the headwaters of the Rio Colina and the Nieves Negras Pass. It overlies a broad anticline of thick Middle Jurassic pelites (Alvarez et al., 1997). Thiele (1980) includes this complex in his 'Unidad Volcanica Antigua', a Pleistocene composite map unit made up of andesites and trachyandesites. Ramos et al. (1997), while recognizing its rhyolitic character, assigned a Tertiary age to the lava domes, most likely based on the late Pliocene age of silicic dikes outcropping eastward, in Argentina. Both the lack of younger overlying units and freshness of its components, together with preservation of the unconsolidated, easily eroded pyroclastic deposits at its base, suggest, however, that it is not older than Pleistocene (au)

  14. Telemedicine: Its Importance in Cardiology Practice. Experience in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Escobar, MD, FACC, FAHA


    Full Text Available There is a growing need worldwide to take medical care to distant locations far from the main urban centers, particularly to rural areas. Furthermore, there is the ethical imperative to provide equal access to medical care to all patients, regardless of their place of residence, so as to satisfy an increasingly demanding population. A widespread problem, from which cardiology is not excepted, is the insufficient number of specialists and their uneven distribution. The upsurge in information and communications technology has made available a large collection of tools, mainly computers, smartphones, e-mail, and the Internet, to name just a few, to meet the needs of communication between individuals and organizations. This article defines telemedicine and describes its application in the practice of cardiology and its impact in Chile.

  15. Study of air pollution in Chile using biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes, Eduardo; Gras, Nuri; Andonie, Oscar; Sepulveda, Susana; Pereira, Iris


    A project has been undertaken within the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. The present paper describes the activities undertaken within the framework of this project. Sampling of different lichens species has been performed in clean areas (native forest), preparation of such samples has been done under controlled, cryogenic conditions and analysed by neutron activation analysis. Participation in an intercomparison run organized by the IAEA for the determination of trace and minor elements in two lichens samples, has also been carried out. Transplant of lichens collected in clean areas has been done in Santiago. (author)

  16. Costs of examinations performed in a hospital laboratory in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Lobos Andrade

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the total average costs related to laboratory examinations performed in a hospital laboratory in Chile. Method: Retrospective study with data from July 2014 to June 2015. 92 examinations classified in ten groups were selected according to the analysis methodology. The costs were estimated as the sum of direct and indirect laboratory costs and indirect institutional factors. Results: The average values obtained for the costs according to examination group (in USD were: 1.79 (clinical chemistry, 10.21 (immunoassay techniques, 13.27 (coagulation, 26.06 (high-performance liquid chromatography, 21.2 (immunological, 3.85 (gases and electrolytes, 156.48 (cytogenetic, 1.38 (urine, 4.02 (automated hematological, 4.93 (manual hematological. Conclusion: The value, or service fee, returned to public institutions who perform laboratory services does not adequately reflect the true total average production costs of examinations.

  17. El gobierno Neoliberal de la Universidad en Chile. Colectivo Communes




    La condición actual de la universidad en Chile está determinada por el mercado y la consumación de la gestión empresarial neoliberal en casi la totalidad de sus dimensiones. La clase dirigente, mediante el poder mediático y económico y su expresión en la política institucional, ha buscado la naturalización de este fenómeno, inscribiéndose en el sentido común que se refleja en el lenguaje y en las prácticas cotidianas. Estas mismas élites políticas y empresariales son dueñas o las principales ...

  18. Discovering the Complexity of Capable Faults in Northern Chile (United States)

    Gonzalez, G.; del Río, I. A.; Rojas Orrego, C., Sr.; Astudillo, L. A., Sr.


    Great crustal earthquakes (Mw >7.0) in the upper plate of subduction zones are relatively uncommon and less well documented. We hypothesize that crustal earthquakes are poorly represented in the instrumental record because they have long recurrence intervals. In northern Chile, the extreme long-term aridity permits extraordinary preservation of landforms related to fault activity, making this region a primary target to understand how upper plate faults work at subduction zones. To understand how these faults relate to crustal seismicity in the long-term, we have conducted a detailed palaeoseismological study. We performed a palaeoseismological survey integrating trench logging and photogrammetry based on UAVs. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) age determinations were practiced for dating deposits linked to faulting. In this contribution we present the study case of two primary faults located in the Coastal Cordillera of northern Chile between Iquique (21ºS) and Antofagasta (24ºS). We estimate the maximum moment magnitude of earthquakes generated in these upper plate faults, their recurrence interval and the fault-slip rate. We conclude that the studied upper plate faults show a complex kinematics on geological timescales. Faults seem to change their kinematics from normal (extension) to reverse (compression) or from normal to transcurrent (compression) according to the stage of subduction earthquake cycle. Normal displacement is related to coseismic stages and compression is linked to interseismic period. As result this complex interaction these faults are capable of generating Mw 7.0 earthquakes, with recurrence times on the order of thousands of years during every stage of the subduction earthquake cycle.

  19. When memory becomes heritage: Experiences from Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bianchini, Maria


    Full Text Available This article explores the relationships between memory politics and urban heritage in the construction of a twenty-first century democratic society. It focuses on the case of Chile and concentrates on three examples of public buildings in the capital city, Santiago. Given what can be considered a difficult heritage –linked to the recent experience of dictatorship and state sponsored violence– these buildings have been in recent years objects of heritage politics, directed to address a public memory related to those events. Based on these case studies, the article critically discusses the materialization of the dominant human rights discourse in the current memory politics affecting Santiago’s urban heritage.Este artículo aborda las relaciones entre políticas de memoria y patrimonio urbano en el proceso de construcción de una sociedad democrática del siglo XXI. El análisis se centra en el caso de Chile y presenta tres ejemplos de edificios públicos de la capital, Santiago. Los tres sitios representan lo que puede considerarse un patrimonio difícil –vinculado a una reciente experiencia de dictadura y violencia de Estado– y, por esta razón, han sido objeto, en años recientes, de políticas patrimoniales dirigidas a gestionar la memoria pública de esos eventos. A través de estos casos, el artículo analiza críticamente la materialización del discurso dominante de los derechos humanos en las actuales políticas de memoria que afectan al patrimonio urbano de Santiago.

  20. Design of a probabilistic wildfire alert system for Chile (United States)

    Crawford, Ben; Dacre, Helen; Lopez Saldana, Gerardo; Charlton-Perez, Andrew


    During the past 50 years over 200,000 wildfires have burned nearly 2.3 million hectares in Chile, leading to significant economic consequences. To improve wildfire warning capabilities, statistical models have been developed by the University of Chile for 15 different geographic regions of the country to quantify wildfire risk based on a set of specific meteorological variables (air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, accumulated precipitation, and time of year). Currently, the warning system uses data input from ground-based weather stations and alerts are issued one day ahead. This project improves upon the current system by using variables from ensemble weather prediction datasets (TIGGE archive from ECMWF) as input to the wildfire risk model. This allows development of a probabilistic alert system that takes into account uncertainties in the specific meteorological forecast variables used in the wildfire risk model. This also allows the wildfire risk index to be calculated up to seven days ahead. The integration of the statistical wildfire risk model with the ensemble weather prediction system provides additional information about uncertainty to improve resource allocation decisions. The new system is evaluated using MODIS satellite wildfire detection datasets from 2008-2015 for each of the 15 geographic wildfire risk regions. The prototype alert system is then compared to alerts made using forecast variables from the operational ensemble weather prediction system used by the Chilean Meteorological Service. Finally, a novel method to update the wildfire risk statistical model parameters in real time based on observed spatial and temporal wildfire patterns will be presented.

  1. [Revista Médica de Chile in the year 2012]. (United States)

    Reyes B, Humberto; Bustos-González, Atilio; Andresen H, Max; Palma H, Joaquín


    During the year 2012, 539 manuscripts were submitted to this journal, following an increasing trend in the recent decade. Rejection rate was 33%. This higher number of submissions demanded a larger number and wider scope of external reviews, retarding the editorial process. The mean time lapse from reception to acceptance (or rejection) was 6.3 months (range 2-14) and from acceptance to publication 5.3 months (range 3-7). Research articles were 43.9% of published manuscripts and the remaining articles were Reviews, Special Articles, Case Reports, articles on Medical Ethics, Medical Education, Evidence Based Medicine, Public Health, History of Medicine, Letters to the Editor and others. Thirty seven published manuscripts (14.6%) came from foreign countries and 9 of them were published with full text in English. The 2012 Impact Factor was 0.360, showing little variation from previous years, locating the journal in the upper part of quartil 4 in the ISI-JCR category "Medicine, General and Internal", while the SCImago Journal & Country Rank locates the Revista in quartil 2 of its category "Medicine (miscellaneous)". In contrast with the low citation rate, the number of visits to the open access electronic version in averages over 3 million visits per year, illustrating that the interest among readers outnumbers the country's expectable readership. Only 22% of articles declared to have received financial help from entities external to the institution where the work was performed, coming mainly from Chilean Governmental competitive funds. The aim of Revista Médica de Chile is to provide readers and authors a valuable source of information about current relevant topics in general and internal medicine, progress in related specialties and updates in basic sciences, rendering them available to Health professionals in Chile and worldwide, following international standards of ethical and scientific quality in medical publications.

  2. Antipathetic relationships among adolescents : Exploring prevalence, gender differences, and stability in the United States and Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, Christian; Rodkin, Philip C.; Dijkstra, Jan


    The present study approaches antipathetic relationships among adolescents in two distinct cultural contexts: Chile and United States. Antipathetic relationships have been shown to be common among adolescents; however, little is known about patterns of antipathy in this population, and its

  3. Phosphate geochemistry, mineralization processes, and Thioploca distribution in shelf sediments off central Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmkvist, Lars; Arning, Esther T.; Küster-Heins, Kathrin


    mineralization, and occurrence of dense communities of the filamentous sulfur bacteria, Thioploca spp., on the continental shelf off central Chile during the austral summer when high phytoplankton productivity and anoxic bottom water prevailed. Freshly deposited phytodetritus stimulated extremely high sulfate...

  4. Book Review Helm Field Guides — Birds of Chile including the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Review Helm Field Guides — Birds of Chile including the Antarctic Peninsula, the Falkland Islands and South Georgia by Albaro Jaramillo with illustrations by Peter Burke and David Beadle (2003)

  5. New records of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Halacaroidea) from Patagonia (Chile)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pešić, V.; Smit, H.; Datry, T.


    New records of water mite species (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Halacaroidea) from Patagonia (Southern Chile) are reported. Four species, Anisitsiellides australis Smit, 2002, Peregrinacarus falklandensis Bartsch, 2001, Lobohalacarus weberi (Romijn & Viets, 1924) and Soldanellonyx monardi Walter, 1919 are

  6. First parasitological study of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis, Amphibia in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóbal Castillo

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduced species can arrive into new territories with parasites; however, these species are expected to face lower parasite richness than in their original regions. Both introduced hosts and parasites can affect native fauna. Since their release into the wild in Chile following laboratory use, Xenopus laevis Daudin, 1802 has widely spread throughout central Chile. The only pathogen described on the host is the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Longcore, Pessier, Nichols, 1999; thus, this is the first parasitological study of this species in Chile. In 10 localities in central Chile, 179 specimens of X. laevis were captured and examined for parasites in the gastrointestinal tube, cavities, lungs, liver, and skin. Only nine specimens of the genus Contracaecum Railliet, Henry, 1912 were found in six specimens of X. laevis from a private dam in La Patagua. It is likely that these parasites originated from species of native birds. This is the first record of Contracaecum sp. in Chilean amphibians.

  7. Comparative study of virgin olive oil quality from single varieties cultivated in Chile and Spain. (United States)

    García-González, Diego L; Romero, Nalda; Aparicio, Ramón


    Olive tree varieties that were cultivated only in the Mediterranean basin a few decades ago are now planted in the Southern Hemisphere as well. The chemical composition of the oils produced in countries as far distant as Spain and Chile are affected by differences in latitude and climate. In this work, seven monovarietal virgin olive oils from Chile (Arbequina, Barnea, Frantoio, Koroneiki, Leccino, Manzanilla and Picual) have been characterized by the chemical compounds responsible for taste (phenols) and aroma (volatiles). The oils were produced in five regions of Chile, and the concentration values of some chemical compounds were related to the geographical location of the olive tree orchards. Virgin olive oils from the major cultivars, Arbequina and Picual, were characterized in comparison with the same monovarietal oils produced in Spain. The concentration values of fourteen volatile compounds showed significant differences (p Chile. Concerning the phenol composition, main differences were found on the secoiridoids derivatives of oleuropein and ligstroside, apigenin and luteolin.

  8. Sensory properties of chile pepper heat - and its importance to food quality and cultural preference. (United States)

    Guzmán, Ivette; Bosland, Paul W


    Chile peppers are one of the most important vegetable and spice crops in the world. They contain capsaicinoids that are responsible for the characteristic burning (pungency) sensation. Currently, there are 22 known naturally occurring capsaicinoids that can cause the heat sensation when consumed. Each produces a different heat sensation effect in the mouth. A need exists for a standard and new terminology to describe the complex heat sensation one feels when eating a chile pepper. A comprehensive set of descriptors to describe the sensory characteristics of chile pepper heat was developed. It was validated with trained panelists tasting samples representing the five domesticated species and 14 pod-types within these species. Five key attributes that define and reference a lexicon for describing the heat sensation of chile peppers were determined to describe the heat sensation in any product, and importantly, can be used in the food industry worldwide. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-23 - Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. (United States)


    ... organization of Chile (Servicio Agricola y Ganadero, referred to in this section as SAG) or a private export...) Responsibilities of Servicio Agricola y Ganadero. SAG will ensure that: (1) Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot...

  10. Initial results from the operation of village hybrid systems in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holz, R.; Baring-Gould, E.I.; Corbus, D. [and others


    The government of Chile has undertaken a rural electrification program to electrify 75% of the population by the year 2000. Renewable energy is considered within this program, and its application facilitated through a technical cooperation agreement between Chile`s national energy commission (CNE) and the U.S. Department of Energy. In order to introduce isolated mini-grid hybrid wind-energy systems into Chile, three pilot projects were implemented in Region IX. The goal of the pilot systems is to establish renewables as a viable option for rural electrification in the Chilean context. In this paper we report on the first six months of three pilot projects. Presented as background information are brief descriptions of the power systems, data acquisition systems, and the operation and maintenance (O&M) protocols. Analyses of loads, component performance, system operation, and balance of payments for O&M are the primary points presented. Important lessons learned and future plans are also discussed.

  11. ¿Qué hacer con los impuestos que pagan las ganancias de capital en Chile?


    Eduardo Engel; Alexander Galetovic


    Este trabajo analiza cualitativamente las consecuencias económicas de los impuestos a las ganancias de capital actualmente vigentes en Chile. Se describen los tratamientos especiales que reciben los distintos tipos de ganancia de capital y se analizan sus consecuencias sobre la asignación de recursos. Las principales conclusiones y proposiciones del estudio son las siguientes. Primero, la regla general en Chile es que las ganancias de capital deben tributar como ingreso ordinario. Esto es una...

  12. The Implementation of Monetary Policy in an Emerging Economy: The Case of Chile


    Christian A Johnson; Rodrigo Vergara


    Central bank authorities base implementation of monetary policy on an analysis of multiple variables known as monetary policy indicators. In a small open economy such as Chile, these indicators may include in-flation misalignments, unemployment, GDP growth, money growth, the current account balance, exchange rate volatility and international re-serves. A neural network approach is used to establish the correspond-ing weights considered by the Board of the Central Bank of Chile dur-ing the per...

  13. Competing Claims Among Argentina, Chile, and Great Britain in the Antarctic: Economic and Geopolitical Undercurrents (United States)


    White, 60. 54 Guerra del Ejdrcito and author, General Augusto Pinochet Ugarte, have given Chile its own unique brand of Southern Cone by General Pinochet , Geopolitica, and Leyes que se Deducen del Estudio de la Expansion de los Estados, authored by Julio von Chrismar. These works...practical side, Pinochet completely reorganized the country under a plan dubbed the "Regionalization of Chile." This plan addressed the development and

  14. Indigenous rights in Chile: National identity and majority group support for multicultural policies


    Pehrson, Samuel; Gonzalez, Roberto; Brown, Rupert


    We examine support for policies affecting indigenous ethnic minorities in Chile. Specifically, we examine the role of national group definitions that include the largest indigenous group—the Mapuche—in different ways. Based on questionnaire data from nonindigenous Chilean students (N = 338), we empirically distinguish iconic inclusion, whereby the Mapuche are seen as an important part of Chile's history and identity on the one hand, from egalitarian inclusion, which represents the Mapuche as ...

  15. A new genus and species of Lasiopteridi (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) on Haplopappus foliosus (Asteraceae) from Chile


    Maia, Valéria Cid; Villagra, Cristian A.


    ABSTRACT A new genus and species of gall midge, Haplopappusmyia gregaria, is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, and female). This species induces apical galls on Haplopappus foliosus (Asteraceae), an endemic shrub from central Chile. The specimens were collected at La Ligua Municipality, Petorca Province, Valparaiso region, Chile, during spring of 2011-2014. This area corresponds to one of the fifth Mediterranean Matorral biome, considered among Earth's biodiversity hotspots. The n...

  16. Solar cooking and wood in Chile, energetical alternatives; Cocina solares y manejo de lena en Chile, alternativas energeticas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, R. P.


    Firewood in Latin America is, after petroleum, the second primary source of energy. In Chile, the statistics have shown that the total use of energy produce by firewood fluctuates between 16 and 21% from which the residential sector represents 54%. There are great social and environmental impacts produced by the use of firewood. For the near future, it will be difficult to eradicate the firewood consumption in Latin America. In looking for sustainable use of firewood to produce energy, NGOs have developed efficient systems for production, management and consume of it. For this research we will focus on the efficient use of biomass and solar energy use for cooking, both to be applied in suitable places. The paper shows Chilean experiences on both, biomass and solar energy production, and how these programs have impacted the national statistics in energy consumption. (Author)

  17. Un Plan Regulador para Cartagena, una ciudad de la costa central de Chile: una visión de futuro en 1976. / A master plan for Cartagena, a city on the central coast of Chile: a vision in 1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavez Reyes,María Isabel


    Full Text Available Se presenta la reseña de un proyecto de planificación urbana, conforme a la escuela desarrollada por la FAU de la Universidad de Chile, durante la etapa madura del Estado Planificador Urbano-Regional chileno. / It provides an overview of an urban planning project, developed under the FAU School of the University of Chile, during the mature stage of the Urban-Regional Planning State of Chile.

  18. Isotope hydrology and geochemistry of northern Chile groundwaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available HYDROLOGIE ISOTOPIQUE ET GEOCHIMIE DES EAUX SOUTERRAINES DU NORD CHILI. Cet article est un résumé des études de caractérisation d’aquifères situés dans la Pampa del Tamarugal et du Salar de Atacama au nord du Chili à l’aide d’isotopes. Les objectifs principaux de ces études étaient d’obtenir de l’information sur l’origine et le temps de résidence des eaux souterraines, la qualité des eaux, les taux d’évaporation des salars et la relation entre les inondations et la recharge des aquifères. Les principales conclusions de ces études sont les suivantes: a la majorité de l’eau souterraine est de bonne qualité à l’exception des zones situées près des salars b un système multi-aquifère a été identifié dans le bassin de la Pampa del Tamaragual en relation avec des zones de recharges situées à différentes altitudes et c une importante portion des eaux souterraines dans les aquifères de la Pampa devraient êtres considérées comme une ressource non renouvelable. HIDROLOGÍA ISOTÓPICA Y GEOQUÍMICA DE LAS AGUAS SUBTERRÁNEAS DEL NORTE DE CHILE. En este trabajo se presenta un resumen de estudios que se han realizado en el Norte de Chile, en acuíferos localizados en la Pampa del Tamarugal y en el Salar de Atacama. Los principales objetivos de esos estudios fueron obtener información sobre el origen y el tiempo de residencia del agua subterránea, calidad química del agua, tasas de evaporación desde los salares y evaluar la relación entre inundaciones y recarga a los acuíferos. Las principales conclusiones de estos estudios fueron las siguientes: a la mayoría del agua subterránea es de buena calidad, con la excepción de las áreas cercanas a los salares b se identificó en la cuenca de la Pampa del Tamarugal un sistema de multiacuífero relacionado a áreas de recargas localizadas en diferentes altitudes c una parte importante del agua subterránea en la Pampa del Tamarugal tiene que ser tratada como un recurso

  19. Mercury contamination in chile: a chronicle of a problem foretold. (United States)

    Barrios-Guerra, Carlos A


    This review analyzes the effects of environmental mercury contamination in Chile. This contamination generates one of the most important environmental conflicts in the country in that it affects air, ground, and water (rivers and oceans), which are fundamental in maintaining natural biotic equilibrium and at the same time important for the nation's economy. Chile possesses extraordinarily wealthy mining resources between Regions I and IV that have developed into an extraction industry essential for the economy of the country. However, waste discharges from this production have created an environmental problem in that the majority of the mines are located in the Andes mountain range, or areas close by, and the water used in the extraction process is deposited into the rivers, significantly increasing the amount of chemical contamination. Therefore, the cities and downstream waters used in agriculture suffer the negative consequences of a natural resource that is becoming more and more scarce. In addition, minerals released from mills into the atmosphere are deposited onto the soil, drastically affecting the biological resources of these areas. One of these affected areas is the Metropolitan region, where one of the highest contamination levels of mercury in the country was found in one of its affluents due to industrial and domestic waste discharge. In a country that is only 200 km in width, the gathering of all these contaminants in the rivers results in a rapid flow to the ocean, thereby contaminating coastal waters and the biota. In general, this contamination has been detected in semiclosed bodies of water (bays). Between Regions VII and IX, the principal sources of mercury contamination are related to cellulose industrial sites (Regions VII and VIII) and, until the 1980s, the bleach-soda industry. The most important industrial and fishing activity is also found in this area. In San Vicente Bay, waste discharges released into the ocean include sewage, industrial

  20. Factors Affecting Growth of Pinus radiata in Chile (United States)

    Alvarez-Munoz, Jose Santos

    The Chilean forestry industry is based on hundreds of thousands of hectares of Pinus radiata plantations that have been established in a variety of soil and climate conditions. This approach has resulted in highly variable plantation productivity even when the best available technology was used. Little information is known about the ecophysiology basis for this variability. We explored the spatial and temporal variation of stand growth in Chile using a network of permanent sample plots from Modelo Nacional de Simulacion de Pino radiata. We hypothesized that the climate would play an important role in the annual variations in productivity. To answer these questions we developed the following projects: (1) Determination of site resource availability from historical data from automatic weather stations (rainfall, temperatures) and a geophysical model for solar irradiation, (2) Determination of peak annual leaf area index (LAI) for selected permanent sample plots using remote sensing technologies, (3) Analysis of soil, climate, canopy and stand factors affecting the Pinus radiata plantation growth and the use efficiency of site resources. For project 1, we estimated solar irradiation using the r.sun , Hargreaves-Samani (HS), and Bristow-Campbell (BC) models and validated model estimates with observations from weather stations. Estimations from a calibrated r.sun model accounted for 94% of the variance (r2=0.94) in monthly mean measured values. The r.sun model performed quite well for a wide range of Chilean conditions when compared with the HS and BC models. Our estimates of global irradiation may be improved with better estimates of cloudiness as they become available. Our model was able to provide spatial estimates of daily, weekly, monthly and yearly solar irradiation. For project 2, we estimated the inter-annual variation of LAI (Leaf Area Index), using remote sensing technologies. We determined LAI using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering a 5 year period

  1. Pollution in coastal fog at Alto Patache, Northern Chile. (United States)

    Sträter, Ellen; Westbeld, Anna; Klemm, Otto


    The Atacama Desert in Northern Chile is one of the most arid places on earth. However, fog occurs regularly at the coastal mountain range and can be collected at different sites in Chile to supply settlements at the coast with freshwater. This is also planned in the fog oasis Alto Patache (20°49'S, 70°09'W). For this pilot study, we collected fog water samples in July and August 2008 for chemical analysis to find indications for its suitability for domestic use. Fog water samples were taken with a cylindrical scientific fog collector and from the net and the storage tank of a Large Fog Collector (LFC). The pHs of advective fog, originating from the stratus cloud deck over the Eastern Pacific, varied between 2.9 and 3.5. Orographic fog, which was formed locally, exhibited a pH of 2.5. About 50% of the total ionic concentration was due to sea salt. High percentages of sulfate and very high enrichment factors (versus sea salt) of heavy metals were found. Both backward trajectories and the enrichment factors indicate that the high concentrations of ions and heavy metals in fog were influenced by anthropogenic activities along the Chilean Pacific Coast such as power plants, mining, and steel industry. We found no direct indication for the importance of other sources such as the emission of dimethyl sulfide from the ocean and subsequent atmospheric oxidation for acidity and sulfate or soil erosion for heavy metal concentrations. When fog water was collected by the LFC, it apparently picked up large amounts of dry deposition which accumulated on the nets during fog-free periods. This material is rinsed off the collector shortly after the onset of a fog event with the water collected first. During the first flush, some concentrations of acidity, nitrate, As, and Se, largely exceeded the Chilean drinking water limits. Before any use of fog water for domestic purpose, its quality should be checked on a regular basis. Strategies to mitigate fog water pollution are given.

  2. Waiting list in a public health facility in Santiago, Chile

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    Alejandro Letelier


    Full Text Available Introduction Waiting lists are a well-known problem in public healthcare systems worldwide. For instance, England had over one million people in waiting lists for elective surgical procedures in 2000. Spain had over 360 000 patients in surgical waiting lists in 2007. Chile has been trying to manage waiting times through the GES (Explicit Guarantees in Healthcare plan, which was established by the Chilean government in 2005. Waiting lists for the guaranteed-care diseases in the GES plan had 380 000 patients at the beginning of 2010, and that number was reduced to zero in 2011. Internationally, there are some descriptive studies about waiting lists that focus on variables such as waiting times and number of patients in the list. In Chile, however, this type of study is lacking. Purpose This study aims to describe the characteristics of waiting lists for medical specialties between April and October 2011. It also aims to identify the components of management models in public healthcare centers, and to identify and analyze waiting-time frames of patients referred to a secondary or tertiary healthcare public center from a public primary healthcare center. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study of the waiting list for first-time consultations for medical specialties was carried out. Referred patients were described and grouped using indicators of access to healthcare and waiting time between April and October 2011. Each consultation request or referral of a new patient was included in the waiting list and analyzed. Results There were 15 935 requests for consultations; 5 717 requests were resolved, and 8 544 were not (54% of the total requests for consultation. There was a mean waiting time of 498 days for non-resolved requests for consultation, and a mean of 141 days for resolved requests. The specialties in highest demand were orthopedic surgery and ophthalmology. The main waiting-list management processes were referral and reception of requests

  3. Biological soil crusts in Chile along the precipitation gradient (United States)

    Samolov, Elena; Glaser, Karin; Baumann, Karen; Leinweber, Peter; Jung, Patrick; Büdel, Burkhard; Mikhailyuk, Tatiana; Karsten, Ulf


    Biological soil crusts in Chile along a precipitation gradient Elena Samolov* (1), Karin Glaser (1), Karen Baumann (2), Peter Leinweber (2), Patrick Jung (3), Burkhard Büdel (3), Tatiana Mikhailyuk (4) and Ulf Karsten (1) (1) Institute of Biological Sciences - Applied Ecology and Phycology, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany, (2) Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences - Soil Sciences, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany (3) University of Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern, Germany (4) M.H. Kholodny Institute of Botany, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine * Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are an association of different microorganisms and soil particles in the top millimeters of the soil. They are formed by algae, cyanobacteria, microfungi, bacteria, bryophytes and lichens in various compositions; together with their by-products they create a micro-ecosystem that performs important ecological functions, e.g. primary production, nitrogen fixation, mineralization and stabilization of soils. These top-soil assemblages are almost unstudied in South America (Büdel et al. 2016). Therefore, our aim is to investigate for the first time biodiversity of the key photosynthetic organisms, green algae and cyanobacteria following a precipitation gradient along the west coast of Chile. We are applying polyphasic approach - a combination of microscopy, culture dependent (16S and 18S rRNA, ITS) and culture independent molecular techniques (NGS). First results, based on culturing and light microscopy, showed high diversity of eukaryotic algae in biocrusts from humid regions, followed by semi-arid regions. Lichen dominated biocrusts from arid regions were characterized by a high diversity of green algae, while cyanobacteria were scarcely present. The functional role of the BSCs in the biogeochemical cycle of phosphorous (P) was evaluated using state of the art analytical methods including 31P-NMR (nuclear magnetic

  4. The Frequency Dependent Characteristics of the 2010 Chile Earthquake (United States)

    Kiser, E.; Ishii, M.


    The 2010 Chile earthquake is important both because of its magnitude (Mw 8.8), and its spatial relationship to geological features (e.g., the Juan Fernandez Ridge) and past large events (e.g., the1960 Mw 9.5 Chile earthquake). To determine the spatio-temporal relationship of the rupture propagation, we use seismic data from the USArray Transportable Array (TA) and apply a back-projection method. The TA data are filtered into three frequency ranges, 1-5 Hz, 0.1 - 0.5 Hz, and 0.05 - 0.01 Hz. The back-projection results from these three frequency ranges reveal unique aspects of the Chilean earthquake. The highest frequency data (1-5 Hz) show that slip occurred on two separate segments. The initial low-amplitude rupture is bilateral and has rupture velocities as low as 0.8 km/s near its southern end, near the Arauco Peninsula. The second high-amplitude segment is updip and to the north of the initial rupture and has a much higher rupture velocity (3.0 km/s). The gap between the two rupture regions and their timing suggests that the initial rupture triggered the second rupture. A similar rupture pattern is obtained using the intermediate-frequency data (0.1-0.5 Hz). However, for the second, northern rupture, the energy at intermediate-frequency lags behind the high-frequency energy. This observation suggests that slower slip is following the rupture front, which supports the hypothesis that fault lubrication is an important factor for the slips associated with giant earthquakes. Finally, the results using the lowest-frequency data (0.01-0.05 Hz) show a much different picture of the rupture than the other two frequency ranges. Here, the highest amplitude energy is at the southern extent of the initial rupture, near the Arauco Peninsula. These lowest-frequency results agree well with the available geodetic observations, which show largest deformation south of the epicenter. In general, it appears that the northern rupture, which corresponds to the area of the 1985

  5. Hacia un planteamiento de arquitectura docente, en Chile

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    Mac Clure Alamos, Oscar


    Full Text Available On this pages the author expound the different architectural Solutions adopted for school projects from his professional experience: 22 years (1959-1981 in the Construction Society of Educational Establishments in Santiago de Chile, as well as the execution -four years at the Santiago University (late State Technical University- of the modified project for the Planetarium which had been projected by the Construction Society. He also expound briefly a number of constructions of educational character carried out through the practicing of his profession. Taking as a base these experiences, he offers some suggestions and conclusions that will be useful for future programmes intended to solve the problems of the school buildings. From a critical and objective position he tries to show the actual situation on the educational architecture in this country.En estas páginas se pretende dar a conocer diferentes soluciones arquitectónicas adoptadas en los proyectos escolares, a través de mi experiencia profesional, durante 22 años (1959 - 1981 en la Sociedad Constructora de Establecimientos Educacionales en Santiago de Chile. También la ejecución, durante 4 años (1981 - 1985, en la Universidad de Santiago (ex Universidad Técnica del Estado del proyecto modificado y la construcción del edificio para el Planetario, que había realizado en la Sociedad Constructora. En forma breve expondré, además, algunas obras de carácter educacional, realizadas en el ejercicio privado de mi profesión. En base a estas experiencias procuraré entregar algunas sugerencias y conclusiones que podrían ser útiles en futuros programas destinados a resolver los problemas de las construcciones docentes. Desde una posición crítica y objetiva intentaré también dar a conocer la situación actual de la arquitectura educacional en el país.

  6. Academisation of nursing: An ethnography of social transformations in Chile. (United States)

    Ayala, Ricardo A; Fealy, Gerard M; Vanderstraeten, Raf; Bracke, Piet


    Nursing in Chile is considered to be the leading example of professional development in Latin America - nurses must undertake five years of university education on a full-time programme. Academisation of nursing education is a key aspect in the evolution into professional status. The consequences of education, however, are commonly related to the replication of social institutions and structures that perpetuate social inequalities. The study's aim was to comprehend the consequences of nursing academisation and its relationships with the social transformations which that country has witnessed. We draw upon ethnographic data, gathered between 2010 and 2011 in a 500-bed, high-quality university hospital in Chile. Participants were nurses ranging from beginners to experienced professionals and recruited from wards representing technically expert nursing and caring-oriented nursing. The data were organised to allow the development of concepts and patterns, using the Grounded Theory approach. Despite the fact that Chilean nursing originated from the educated elite class, today's nurses share a middle-class consciousness, and a sense of class distinction is encouraged throughout academic training - the 'eliteness' of professional groups. This discourse antagonises middle-class people who 'should' adopt a professional-class identity. A tension among nurses surfaced, based on a competition for a scarce resource: social mobility. Furthermore, an antagonist stratification between university-trained nurses and auxiliary nurses has developed, and in the process the title 'nurse' and the practice of 'nursing' have been monopolised by university-trained nurses, resulting in a relationship of domination-subordination. The academisation process followed by Chilean nursing is rooted in the social-class transformations of that country. Such process has been ineffective in preventing social inequalities, resulting in the reproduction of earlier historical class differences in nursing

  7. Complex seismic anisotropy beneath the IPOC stations of northern Chile (United States)

    Reiss, Miriam Christina; Wölbern, Ingo; Rümpker, Georg


    The subduction of the Nazca plate beneath Central South America has been subject to numerous seismological studies. Here, we focus on seismic anisotropy which provides a direct link to the dynamic processes acting within the upper mantle and crust. The main mechanisms responsible for the development of large scale anisotropy are: i) crystallographic preferred orientation of upper mantle minerals and ii) shape-preferred orientation caused by cracks, melt-filled lenses or alternating layers within the crust. In this context, subduction zones represent a complex anisotropic puzzle as seismic anisotropy can be located in regions beneath, within, and above the subducting slab. We use the analysis of teleseismic shear-wave splitting to measure seismic anisotropy in response to subduction-related deformation processes. Previous studies on shear-wave splitting from South America have reported partly contradicting results and interpretations in terms of mantle flow and crustal deformation. Russo and Silver (1994) mostly found trench-parallel fast polarizations which they attributed to trench-parallel mantle flow beneath the slab and confined zones of oblique polarization directions. Wölbern et al. (2014) reported significant short-scale variations of fast polarization directions. They proposed that anisotropy results from fossil anisotropy in the subducting slab, whereas deviating fast polarizations in trench-parallel orientation were attributed to crustal anisotropy related to deep-reaching local shear zones. Long et al. (2016) found complex splitting measurements which they interpreted as the result of different anisotropic source regions. Overall, the complexity of splitting measurements yield a departure from a conventional 2D corner flow model. To investigate the upper mantle and crust in this subduction setting further, we use data from the Integrated Plate boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC) located in northern Chile, which consists of 21 stations with up to ten years

  8. Geomodels of coseismic landslides environments in Central Chile. (United States)

    Serey, A.; Sepulveda, S. A.; Murphy, W.; Petley, D. N.


    Landslides are a major source of fatalities and damage during strong earthquakes in mountain areas. Detailed geomodels of coseismic landslides environments are essential parts of seismic landslide hazard analyses. The development of a site specific geological model is required, based on consideration of the regional and local geological and geomorphological history and the current ground surface conditions. An engineering geological model is any approximation of the geological conditions, at varying scales, created for the purpose of solving an engineering problem. In our case, the objective is the development of a methodology for earthquake-induced landslide hazard assessment applicable to urban/territorial planning and disaster prevention strategies assessment at a regional scale adapted for the Chilean tectonic conditions. We have developed the only 2 complete inventories of landslides triggered by earthquakes in Chile. The first from the Mw 6.2, shallow crustal Aysén earthquake in 2007. Second one from the Mw 8.8, megathrust subduction Maule earthquake in 2010. From the comparison of these 2 inventories with others from abroad, as well as analysis of large, prehistoric landslide inventories proposed as likely induced by seismic activity we have determined topographic, geomorphological, geological and seismic controlling factors in the occurrence of earthquake-triggered landslides. With the information collected we have defined different environments for generation of coseismic landslides based on the construction of geomodels. As a result we have built several geomodels in the Santiago Cordillera in central Chile (33°S), based upon the San Ramón Fault, a west-vergent reverse fault that outcrops at the edge of Santiago basin recently found to be active and a likely source of seismic activity in the future, with potential of triggering landslides in the Santiago mountain front as well as inland into the Mapocho and Maipo Cordilleran valleys. In conclusion

  9. Radiation doses in neuroangiography for a clinical hospital in Chile; Dosis de radiacion en neuroangiografia para un hospital clinico de Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vergara, F.; Valenzuela, E., E-mail: [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Facultad de Medicina. Centro de Terapia Endovascular; Ubeda, C.A.; Nocetti, D., E-mail: [Universidade de Tarapaca (Chile). Centro de Estudos en Ciencias Radiologicas (CECRad). Dept. de Tecnologic Medica. Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud (FACSAL)


    The objective of this study is to estimate the levels of radiation to the patient in neuroangiography procedures diagnostic and therapy in a Chile's Hospital, using a biplane angiographic system Siemens model ArtisZee. This research was conducted under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the support of their radiation protection programs for patients.

  10. Evaluacion de la Interaccion Adulto-Nino en Aulas Pre-escolares de Concepcion, Chile. [Evaluation Adult-Child Interaction in Preschool Classrooms of Concepcion, Chile. (United States)

    Mathiesen De G., Maria Elena; Herrera G., Maria Olivia; Villalon B., Malva; Suzuky S., Emy


    Presents findings from investigation of the validity of the Arnett Caregiver Interaction Scale, CIS (1989), in preschools in Concepcion, Chile. Demonstrates the reliability and validity of the scale to evaluate the interaction of the childhood educator with young children, suggesting changes to the scale. Notes differences found for school type.…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Álvarez E.


    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza un conjunto de consorcios tecnológicos apoyados con recursos públicos en Argentina, Chile, Colombia y Uruguay. Estos programas buscan facilitar la interacción entre empresas e instituciones dedicadas a la producción de ciencia y tecnología. Los resultados, basados en datos recabados para un subconjunto de los grupos apoyados, ponen en relieve las dificultades y los largos tiempos que se re-quieren para lograr resultados concretos, en particular, en innovación tecnológica. El trabajo cuantitativo muestra una evaluación relativamente baja de las empresas res-pecto al efecto de estos instrumentos en la generación de innovaciones de productos y procesos y la obtención de patentes, aunque existen aspectos relativamente mejor evaluados, como el mejoramiento del acceso a conocimiento tecnológico, en ámbitos como el mercadeo y los recursos humanos. Esto puede deberse a que varios de los consorcios llevan poco tiempo en funcionamiento y necesitan un plazo más largo para ser evaluados.

  12. National and international astronomical activities in Chile 1849--2002 (United States)

    Duerbeck, H. W.


    At all times and in many ways, Chilean astronomy has been influenced externally, either by astronomical expeditions from other parts of the world, or by astronomers that immigrated from other countries. We outline the history of the Chilean National Observatory, beginning with its origins out of Gilliss' US Naval Expedition to the Southern Hemisphere, over its directors Moesta, Vergara, Obrecht, Ristenpart to the middle of the 20th century, as well as the astronomical development at the Universidad Católica. In addition, various international expeditions, which aimed at observations of solar eclipses, the Venus transit of 1882, and the Mars opposition of 1907, were carried out. While a major photometric project of Harvard Observatory was active for only six weeks in the north of Chile, the spectroscopic Mills expedition of Lick Observatory in Santiago lasted several decades, and the solar observatory of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory near Calama even longer. Finally we give a brief overview of the evolution and the actual state of the international observatories Cerro Tololo, La Silla, Paranal, and Las Campanas.

  13. La trayectoria de la antropología en Chile

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    José Bengoa


    Full Text Available Este trabajo se basa en los contenidos de un curso dictado en la Escuela de Antropología de la Universidad Academia de Humanismo Cristiano, cuyo objeto es comprender desde una perspectiva crítica, la trayectoria de la antropología en Chile y sus aportes al conjunto de las ciencias sociales y la cultura de nuestra sociedad. Siguiendo una tesis crítica, se observa el carácter profundamente conservador que ha tenido la antropología en nuestro país y se aboga por una antropología crítica. Para dar cuenta de dicha tesis, el artículo pone especial énfasis en los precursores de la disciplina, así como en sus vínculos con ciertos postulados teóricos, distinguiendo además los grandes temas nacionales que configuraron la emergencia y consolidación tardía de la antropología chilena

  14. [Mortality due to congenital malformations in Chile (1969-1997)]. (United States)

    Bedregal, P; Orfali, C; Norero, E; Vercellino, M


    Congenital malformations are defined as those structural, metabolic or functional defects found at birth. To study the mortality due to congenital malformations in Chile between 1969 and 1997, their type, individual, temporal and geographic variations. A descriptive analysis of deaths registered by the National Statistics Institute and the Ministry of Health. Means, frequencies, raw and adjusted rates were calculated and inferences for some variables were carried out. Between 1969 and 1997 ther was tendency towards a reduction in rates of mortality due to congenital malformations and an increment in their relative importance. During the period, the risk for chromosome (98%) and osteomuscular (67%) malformations increased. Men and children of less than one year had the higher risk. In 1995, 1167 deaths due to congenital malformations were registered, 90% in children of less than 5 years. Higher risks occurred in urban zones (with a rate of 8.25 per 100,000) in the third region (rate 11.59) and second region (rate 11.2). Most deaths occurred in hospitals (85%). Main causes of death were circulatory system, central nervous system and chromosome malformations. The differences in regional deaths due to congenital malformations suggests specific risks that deserve further study.

  15. Interbasin underflow between closed Altiplano basins in Chile. (United States)

    Montgomery, Errol L; Rosko, Michael J; Castro, Santiago O; Keller, Barry R; Bevacqua, Paolo S


    Interbasin ground water movement of 200 to 240 L/sec occurs as underflow beneath a mountainous surface water divide separating the topographically higher Salar de Michincha from the topographically lower Salar de Coposa internally drained basins in the Altiplano of northern Chile. Salt-encrusted flats (salars) and saline lakes occur on the lowest parts of the basin floors and comprise the principal evaporative discharge areas for the basins. Because a surface water divide separates the basins, surface water drainage boundaries do not coincide with ground water drainage boundaries. In the region, interbasin ground water movement is usually not recognized, but occurs for selected basins, and at places is an important component of ground water budgets. With increasing development of water for mining industry and potential exportation of ground water from the Altiplano for use at coastal cities, demonstration and quantification of interbasin movement is important for assessment of sustainable ground water development in a region of extreme aridity. Recognition and quantification of interbasin ground water underflow will assist in management of ground water resources in the arid Chilean Altiplano environment.

  16. Analysis of contaminating elements in tree rings in Santiago, Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romo-Kroeger, C.M.; Avila, M.J.; Eaton, L.C.; Lopez, L.A.


    Using the 22'' isochronous cyclotron at the University of Chile, we have performed PIXE analyses on a group of samples collected from trees of metropolitan parks in Santiago. Dendrochronology was performed on each sample, which was then sectioned for the PIXE and other analyses, neutron activation and electro-chemistry. Available samples are trunk sections or cores obtained by the use of a 4.0 mm stainless steel incremental corer. We took three cores from each tree with permission of the municipalities. For the PIXE we use infinitely thick targets, as wood slabs taken along the trunk radius, and thin targets obtained by acid digestion of wood pieces and deposition on Kapton foils. Self supporting thick targets were placed directly in the PIXE chamber in a position so as to allow the irradiation of a specific annual ring. Potassium and Calcium appear as the most abundant elements in wood. Other elements such as S, Cu, Zn, As, Br and Pb were detected in amounts above the natural background in wood, and can be attributed to environmental contamination. The K/Ca ratios appear to be different for each species of tree, and seem to be related to the physico-chemical properties of wood. Preliminary results show important amounts of As and Cu (supposedly from mining origin) with increasing presence in the recent years. Pb and Zn (supposedly from vehicle origin) are also higher in recent years. (author)

  17. Gas geochemistry of the Cordon Caulle geothermal system, Southern Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepulveda, Fabian [SGGES, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Lahsen, Alfredo [Department of Geology, University of Chile, P.O. Box 13518 (21), Santiago (Chile); Powell, Thomas [Mighty River Power, P.O. Box 445, Hamilton (New Zealand)


    The Cordon Caulle geothermal system is located in a NW-trending volcano-tectonic depression of the Southern Andean Volcanic Zone of Chile. Outflows of low chloride water were previously interpreted as the surface expression of a shallow steam-heated aquifer, with subsurface temperatures of 150-170 C. Gas data from fumaroles and hot springs have been used to assess the nature and temperature of the deeper, underlying geothermal reservoir. Fumaroles at the northeastern border of Cordon Caulle have {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios typical of subduction margins (6-7 R{sub A}) and N{sub 2}/Ar ratios of about 40, indicating deep convection of air-saturated groundwater. Fumaroles at the southwestern border have N{sub 2}/Ar ratios >300, suggesting the presence of a deep volcanic component. Gas ratios of fumarole discharges yield equilibration temperatures >300 C, whereas those of hot spring waters suggest temperatures of about 160 C. Based on these data, and comparisons with well documented liquid and vapor-dominated geothermal systems, a model is proposed of a boiling liquid-dominated geothermal system overlain by a secondary steam-heated aquifer. (author)

  18. Nitrogen fixation in four dryland tree species in central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovalle, C.; Arredondo, S.; Aronson, J.; Longeri, L.; Avendano, J.


    Results are presented from a 5-year experiment using 15 N-enriched fertilizer to determine N 2 fixation in four tree species on degraded soils in a Mediterranean-climate region of central Chile in which there are 5 months of drought. Species tested included three slow-growing but long-lived savannah trees native to southers South America, (acacia caven, Prosopic alba and P. chilensis; Mimosoideae), and Tagasaste (Chamaecytisus proliferus ssp. palmensis; Papilonoideae), a fast-growing but medium-lived tree from the Canary Islands. Tagasaste produced four- to twenty-fold more biomass than the other species, but showed declining N 2 fixation and biomass accumulation during the 5th year, corresponding to the juvenile-to-adult developmental transition. Nitrogen content was significantly higher in Tagasaste and Acacia caven than in the other species. The data revealed inter-specific differences in resource allocation and phenology of N 2 fixation rarely detailed for woody plants in dryland regions. (author)

  19. The distributional incidence of the gasoline tax in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostini, Claudio A.; Jiménez, Johanna


    This paper analyzes the distributional incidence of the excise tax on gasoline in Chile using Household Budget Surveys. The incidence is calculated with respect to both income and expenditure distributions in order to consider the potential differences between transitory and permanent income. The Suits Index is estimated as a measure of the degree of progressivity of the tax, and confidence intervals are calculated using a bootstrap methodology to statistically compare changes in the incidence given changes in the tax. The results show that the tax, contrary to the evidence for several developed countries, is slightly or moderately progressive, with a lower degree of progressivity observed in the calculations based on income than those based on expenditure. The simulation of the 25% reduction in the tax rate implemented in 2008 shows that, in terms of incidence, its effect is to reduce the progressivity of the gasoline tax, which is the opposite of what was sought by the government with this policy. -- Highlights: •Gasoline tax is an optimal tax and is a significant instrument of climate policy. •Despite its benefits, it faces political economy challenges in its implementation. •In the public discussion in developing countries the tax is considered regressive. •The estimation of the distributional incidence shows that it is slightly progressive. •Increases in gasoline taxes can reduce both negative externalities and inequality

  20. Disaster Governance and Vulnerability: The Case of Chile

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    Vicente Sandoval


    Full Text Available This exploratory work seeks to shed light on disaster governance by looking into potential linkages between the production of vulnerability and disaster governance in Chile. Our point of investigation is the case of post-disaster Chaitén and the Chilean model of Disaster Risk Management. The work begins by situating disaster governance and the production of vulnerability in a broader context of existing governance system that includes a multiplicity of actors and socio-economic, socio-ecological, and political processes. Coming from a multi-scalar perspective, we use the disaster Pressure and Release (PAR model to enable a differentiated analysis of the multiplicity of actors, rules, and processes related to DRM that participate in the production of disaster vulnerability in the current Chaitén. With this we address the questions as to ‘why’ the Chilean model of DRM is prominently centralised and ‘what’ are the effects on the production of disaster vulnerability for the case of post-disaster Chaitén.

  1. [Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the Seventh Region of Chile]. (United States)

    Baechler, Roberto; Mujica, Verónica; Aqueveque, Ximena; Ramos, Lola; Soto, Alex


    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Latin America is not well known. To study the real prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and its associated risk factors in the VII region of Chile. A probabilistic sample of 1,325 subjects over the age of 20, stratified by age and differentiated by place of residence was studied. The criteria of the World Panel of Experts convened by the World Health Organization in 1997, was used to define the presence of diabetes (two fasting blood glucose values over 126 mg/dl or a blood glucose over 200 mg/dl, 2 hours after a 75 g carbohydrate oral load). The global prevalence estimated for DM in this population was 5.39%. The calculated prevalence in subjects between 20 and 44 years was 1.88% (CI 0.39-3.37); between 45 and 64 years, 10.75% (CI 8.35-13.14); 65 years or older 11.30% (CI 8.00-14.60), p diabetics were not aware of their condition. Forty eight percent of diabetics and 31% of non diabetics were hypertensive (p diabetics and 24.6% of non diabetics had at least one diabetic parent (p diabetics than in non diabetics (15.7 and 24.3% respectively, p diabetics and non diabetics were sedentary. Health care systems require an epidemiological monitoring system to provide information about the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and to control the evolution of patients.

  2. Incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in Valparaiso, Chile (United States)

    Araya, Juan; Martinez, René; Niklander, Sven; Marshall, Maureen


    Background To determine the incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in the province of Valparaíso, Chile. Material and Methods Retrospective review of salivary gland tumours diagnosed between the years 2000 and 2011 from four local pathology services. Information on demographics and histopathology were retrieved from the medical records. Results The study sample consisted of 279 salivary gland tumours. Prevalence and incidence rates per 100.000 persons were 15.4 and 2.51, respectively. Most of the neoplasms corresponded to benign tumours (70.3%). The most affected gland was the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumour (53.8%) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common malignant tumour (7.2%). Conclusions Salivary gland tumours are uncommon neoplasms that usually arise in the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma were the most common benign and malignant tumours reported in this series. Key words:Salivary gland tumours, benign tumours, malignant tumours, salivary glands neoplasms, cancer, neoplasia. PMID:26034925

  3. Premarital sexual activity and contraceptive use in Santiago, Chile. (United States)

    Herold, J M; Valenzuela, M S; Morris, L


    The Santiago Young Adult Reproductive Health Survey was conducted in 1988 to examine the sexual behavior of and contraceptive use among young adults in Chile. The survey was based on multistage household probability samples of 865 women and 800 men aged 15-24 who were living in Santiago in 1988. Findings show that 35 percent of females and 65 percent of males had had premarital intercourse. Among those who had done so, the median age at first experience was 18.4 years for women and 16.4 years for men. Only 20 percent of females and 19 percent of males used contraceptives at first premarital intercourse. Use of contraceptives increased with age at the time of that event. Fertility data reveal that 70 percent of first births were premaritally conceived, and more than one-third of these were born prior to union. The high rates of premarital and unintended pregnancy among young women and the low prevalence of effective contraceptive use indicate a need for greater emphasis on sex education and family planning services directed at adolescents and unmarried young adults in Santiago.


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    DR. Manuel García de Los Ríos A.


    Full Text Available En Chile no se dispone de datos del desarrollo de la diabetes hasta 1950. Este artículo está basado en nuestras vivencias y en la revisión de la bibliografía a partir de esa fecha. La diabetología nacional se inicia con la creación de las Unidades de Diabetes en los Hospitales San Juan de Dios, El Salvador y Clínico de la Universidad Católica, las que se transforman en centros de investigación y formadores de especialistas. El año 2002, la Corporación Nacional Autónoma de Certificación de Especialidades Médicas reconoce a la Diabetología como especialidad derivada de la Medicina Interna. En esta visión histórica se incluyen los temas relacionados con diabetes en los que existe aporte de publicaciones de autores chilenos; se hace mención a los cursos y congresos de la especialidad, a los libros y guías ministeriales disponibles, a las sociedades, asociaciones y federaciones importantes y al día mundial de la diabetes.

  5. Apacheta, a new geothermal prospect in Northern Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urzua, Luis; Powell, Tom; Cumming, William B.; Dobson, Patrick


    The discovery of two high-temperature fumaroles, with gas geochemistry compatible with an economic geothermal system, established Apacheta as one of the most attractive geothermal exploration prospects in northern Chile. These remote fumaroles at 5,150 m elevation were first sampled in 1999 by ENAP and its partners, following up on the reports of a CODELCO water exploration well that flowed small amounts of dry steam at 4,540 m elevation in the valley 4.5 km east of the fumaroles. The prospect is associated with a Plio-Pleistocene volcanic complex located within a NW-trending graben along the axis of the high Andes. The regional water table is 4,200 masl. There are no hot springs, just the 88 degrees C steam well and the 109 degrees and 118 degrees C fumaroles with gas compositions that indicate reservoir temperatures of greater than or equal to 250 degrees C, using a variety of gas geothermometers. An MT-TDEM survey was completed in 2001-2002 by Geotermica del Norte (SDN), an ENAP-C ODELCO partnership, to explore the Apacheta geothermal concession. The survey results indicated that base of the low resistivity clay cap has a structural apex just west of the fumaroles, a pattern typically associated with shallow permeability within a high temperature geothermal resource. SGN plans to drill at least one exploration well in 2002-03 to characterize a possible economic resource at Apacheta.

  6. High resolution tsunami inversion for 2010 Chile earthquake

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    T.-R. Wu


    Full Text Available We investigate the feasibility of inverting high-resolution vertical seafloor displacement from tsunami waveforms. An inversion method named "SUTIM" (small unit tsunami inversion method is developed to meet this goal. In addition to utilizing the conventional least-square inversion, this paper also enhances the inversion resolution by Grid-Shifting method. A smooth constraint is adopted to gain stability. After a series of validation and performance tests, SUTIM is used to study the 2010 Chile earthquake. Based upon data quality and azimuthal distribution, we select tsunami waveforms from 6 GLOSS stations and 1 DART buoy record. In total, 157 sub-faults are utilized for the high-resolution inversion. The resolution reaches 10 sub-faults per wavelength. The result is compared with the distribution of the aftershocks and waveforms at each gauge location with very good agreement. The inversion result shows that the source profile features a non-uniform distribution of the seafloor displacement. The highly elevated vertical seafloor is mainly concentrated in two areas: one is located in the northern part of the epicentre, between 34° S and 36° S; the other is in the southern part, between 37° S and 38° S.

  7. Frictional contrast controls timing and great earthquakes in southern Chile (United States)

    Moreno, M.; Li, S.; Melnick, D.; Bedford, J. R.; Baez, J. C., Sr.; Motagh, M.; Metzger, S.; Vajedian, S.; Sippl, C.; Contreras-Reyes, E.; Gutknecht, B. D.; Oncken, O.


    Many fundamental processes of the earthquake cycle in subduction zones, including those controlling the timing and size of great earthquakes, are still poorly understood. Here we use continuous GPS, differential interferometry and seismological data to analyze the 2016 southern Chile earthquake (Mw 7.6). This was the first >7.5 Mw event that occurred in the rupture zone of the 1960 earthquake (Mw 9.5), offering unique constraints on the material properties and mechanics of the seismogenic zone. The 2016 earthquake ruptured the deeper portion of a highly coupled asperity with most slip concentrated in the deeper segment of the seismogenic zone near the transition to the continental Moho. We find that the steady subduction of a coupled asperity induces accumulation of shear stress around its downdip border, where moderate-size seismic events uncouple the fault before the entire coupled area fails in a major event. We propose that the deeper segments of the seismogenic fault are strained and stressed during decades because of the transition between two regions of contrasting frictional behaviour. Mechanical modeling suggests that variations of the pore pressure controls frictional variations and thus the lag time between deeper, lower magnitude events, such as the 2016 earthquake, and shallower great to giant earthquakes. The frictional segmentation inferred from our model coincides with the presence of a forearc basin in the upper plate, suggesting that the segmentation may be persistent in time. Our results strengthen the understanding of the mechanics of asperities and their link to geologic and geomorphic features.

  8. Cultural meanings of musculoskeletal diseases in Chile's Mapuche Population. (United States)

    Alarcon, Ana M; Vidal, Aldo; Castro, Marcela


    Eight out of 10 Mapuche indigenous women have a musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) and do not seek early medical aid. To study both the cultural meanings and implications of MSD from the Mapuche worldview. Ethnographic study carried out from 2008 to 2011 on indigenous reserves in southern Chile. Sixty-four Mapuches participated in comprehensive interviews, which were transcribed and analyzed by the research team. Five cultural domains: (a) foro kutran/bone disease is the general denomination of MSD; (b) Re-Rume Kutran/progressive and incurable course, refers to the course of the disease; (c) Kalül fücha mawiza/body is an old tree, describes internal manifestations such as worn bones, dry body, weak blood, and spiritual weakness; (d) witrür tripai foro/deformation is the external manifestation of MSD; and (e) Reñma ka lof kutran/family and community suffering refers to the impact of MSD. The explanation of MSD is consistent with the integrated body-nature-spirit worldview of the Mapuche. To provide cultural nursing health care so that patients receive prompt diagnosis and care.

  9. [Foundations for the institutionalization of health technology assessment in Chile]. (United States)

    Castillo-Riquelme, Marianela; Santelices C, Emilio


    The Chilean health system has not been completely oblivious to health technology assessment (HTA). In fact, significant advances in the areas of health prioritization using criteria of disease burden, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness among others, can be acknowledged. The introduction of the reform of Explicit Health Guarantees (GES) has been an important milestone in this arena, allowing the consideration of other dimensions such as social preferences in health. However, the application of HTA encompasses the entire health system and in that sense the institutionalization of a process properly defined and extensively validated in our country, is imminent. This paper discusses the foundations on which progress must be made in institutionalizing HTA, starting from the architecture of our health care system and in light of the economic and social reality. We review some background information first, and then discuss some important considerations in our context, including information on the institutional and legal framework. It concludes with the authors' view on some key elements to consider in HTA in Chile, which does not necessarily represent the vision of the Ministry of Health.

  10. Cohort profile: The Limache, Chile, birth cohort study. (United States)

    Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia; Zumelzú, Elinor; Rona, Roberto J


    The Limache cohort was set up to assess the programming and life course events hypotheses in relation to cardiovascular risk factors and chronic respiratory conditions, especially asthma, in the context of an unprecedented economic growth in Chile. The cohort was a representative sample of 1232 participants born between 1974 and 1978 in the hospital of Limache. The study includes data collected at birth, during the 1st year of life, at 22 to 28 years (collected between 2000 and 2002) and at 32 to 38 years (collected between 2010 and 2012). The data collected include anthropometric measurements at birth, 1st year of life and in adulthood, socio-economic and demographic data, lifestyle information including smoking, alcohol consumption and food intake, respiratory symptoms, lung function, broncho-reactivity to methacholine and skin prick reaction to eight allergens, measurement of cardiovascular risk factors and information on common mental health, mainly in the most recent study. The principal researchers welcome collaborative projects, especially those that will compare similar data sets in other settings. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  11. Avian Influenza in wild birds from Chile, 2007-2009. (United States)

    Mathieu, Christian; Moreno, Valentina; Pedersen, Janice; Jeria, Julissa; Agredo, Michel; Gutiérrez, Cristian; García, Alfonso; Vásquez, Marcela; Avalos, Patricia; Retamal, Patricio


    Aquatic and migratory birds, the main reservoir hosts of avian influenza viruses including those with high pathogenic potential, are the wildlife species with the highest risk for viral dissemination across countries and continents. In 2002, the Chilean poultry industry was affected with a highly pathogenic avian influenza strain, which created economic loss and triggered the establishment of a surveillance program in wild birds. This effort consisted of periodic samplings of sick or suspicious animals found along the coast and analyses with standardized techniques for detection of influenza A virus. The aim of this work is to report the detection of three avian influenza strains (H13N2, H5N9, H13N9) in gulls from Chile between 2007-2009, which nucleotide sequences showed highest similitudes to viruses detected in wild birds from North America. These results suggest a dissemination route for influenza viruses along the coasts of Americas. Migratory and synanthropic behaviors of birds included in this study support continued monitoring of avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in The Americas and the establishment of biosecurity practices in farms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. O conflito social no Chile: Estado, mercado e democracia

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    Carlos Ruiz Encina


    Full Text Available A recente conflitualidade social e política no Chile se vincula ao esgotamento dos limites da política estabelecida pelo pacto da transição para a democracia. A expansão contínua dos processos de privatização das condições da reprodução social acabou por criar uma situação de aguda incerteza na vida cotidiana de amplos setores da sociedade, os quais, apesar do crescimento econômico, enfrentam uma grande desigualdade, derivada da extrema concentração econômica e de oportunidades. Os limites do sistema político e da até então bem-sucedida coalizão de governo são transbordados por um mal-estar que abriga a formação de novos atores sociais e políticos. Isso configura a possibilidade de uma passagem para um novo período político.

  13. Illegal fishing and territorial user rights in Chile. (United States)

    Oyanedel, Rodrigo; Keim, Andres; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Gelcich, Stefan


    Illegal fishing poses a major threat to conservation of marine resources worldwide. However, there is still limited empirical research that quantifies illegal catch levels. We used the randomized response technique to estimate the proportion of divers and the quantities of loco (Concholepas concholepas) they extracted illegally. Loco have been managed for the past 17 years through a territorial user rights for fisheries system (TURFs) in Chile. Illegal fishing of loco was widespread within the TURFs system. Official reported landings (i.e., legal landings) accounted for 14-30% of the total loco extraction. Our estimates suggest that ignoring the magnitude of illegal fishing and considering only official landing statistics may lead to false conclusions about the status and trends of a TURFs managed fishery. We found evidence of fisher associations authorizing their members to poach inside TURFs, highlighting the need to design TURFs systems so that government agencies and fishers' incentives and objectives align through continuous adaptation. Government support for enforcement is a key element for the TURFs system to secure the rights that are in place. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. Modeling Chagas disease in Chile: From vector to congenital transmission. (United States)

    Canals, Mauricio; Cáceres, Dante; Alvarado, Sergio; Canals, Andrea; Cattan, Pedro E

    Chagaś disease is a human health problem in Latin America. It is highly prevalent in northern Chile between the Arica-Parinacota and Coquimbo regions, with reported incidence of 3-11/100000 inhabitants and mortality of 0.3-0.4/100000. The interruption of vector transmission was reported in 1999 by means of the elimination of the primary vector, Triatoma infestans, from human dwellings, thus the epidemiologic dynamics of this disease should be modified. Here we model the dynamics of Chagaś disease based on previous models for vector and congenital transmission, propose a model that includes both transmission forms and perform simulations. We derive useful relationships for the reproductive number (R 0 ) showing that it may be expressed as the sum of the vector (R 0V ) and congenital (R 0C ) contributions. The vector contribution is larger than the congenital one; without the former Chagaś disease vanishes exponentially in two to three generations. Sensitivity analyses showed that the main parameters that intervene are the human bite rate, the density of vectors per human and the mortality rate of the insect vectors. Our model showed that the success of the eradication of Chagaś disease is based on the interruption of domestic transmission. Once this is obtained, the control strategies should focus on avoiding the domiciliation of wild vectors, re-colonization by the primary vector, and an adequate coverage of congenital case treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Apuntes sobre el renacer de la huelga obrera en Chile

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    Daniel Núñez Arancibia


    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza un conjunto de manifestaciones indicativas del resurgimiento de la huelga obrera en Chile, con especial atención en el marco de las condiciones políticas en que evolucionaron las organizaciones obreras, desde finales de la dictadura hasta la reciente era neoliberal. Además se examina la reaparición de expresiones reivindicativas de los trabajadores, que se han dado a pesar de algunas medidas dirigidas a despolitizar las luchas laborales y de varias reformas legales que redujeron el espacio de actuación de las organizaciones obreras. Estos variados esfuerzos organizativos han tenido lugar en sectores primarios, en donde se confrontan las nuevas condiciones de flexibilización y precariedad que el empresariado chileno ha impulsado. En contra de las perspectivas estructuralistas, en este análisis se sustenta la importancia que los subcontratistas y los trabajadores tercerizados han tenido en dichos procesos, y la apelación a huelgas extralegales en tanto hechos significativos en relación con la actual crisis de las clásicas identidades ligadas a la vida fabril y al trabajo normal

  16. militar en la frontera de chile en el siglo XIX

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    Wilma Vilaboa Blome


    Full Text Available The historic origin of the habitat in the Bio-Bio Region was singular and repeated nowhere else in Chile. The uncivilized and fragmented geography, with no communication routes to the south of the Bio-Bio River towards the end of the nineteenth century, together with the resistance of the indigenous people and the perception of having a country divided in two parts by an inexpugnably frontier by means of civil colonisation, provoked the political decision of settling these territories by the action of military force. Thus, in the geographical area that appears as an interstice and is known as “The Frontier”, the territorial occupation followed defensive lines along the fluvial routes in the form of a series of military forts that developed to become cities such as Collipulli, Mulchen, Negrete and Temuco. This chronic situation of instability could neither allow the consolidation of foundation cities, nor the development of an agricultural economy or a commercial trade economy, which explains the late incorporation of this area to the nation. A country within a country; it neither assumes its rules nor submits to its jurisdiction; it does not even follow the economic model of its time.

  17. The debate in Chile on organ donation revisited

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    Miguel Hugo Kottow Lang


    Full Text Available Resumen Aumenta la escasez de órganos para trasplantes de cadáver a vivo, en tanto la lista de receptores crece por extensión de las indicaciones médicas para trasplantar y la longevidad de enfermos crónicos con disfunciones orgánicas. Chile tiene una tasa bajísima de 6,7 donantes por millón, pese a una ley de consentimiento presunto enmendada para acoger un “principio de reciprocidad”. Casi cuatro millones de personas documentan su rechazo a donar, y el 53% de familias niegan la donación en los presuntamente disponibles. Es urgente repensar y flexibilizar ciertos aspectos hasta ahora rechazados como algún incentivo no material, la donación parcial de órganos, la posibilidad de aceptar vínculos personales entre donantes y receptores, e incrementar la transparencia de los procedimientos para fomentar la confianza en ellos.

  18. Cost of Capital Estimation for Highway Concessionaires in Chile

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    Cristian Vergara-Novoa


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the cost of capital estimation for highway concessionaires in Chile. We estimated the cost of equity and the cost of debt and determined the capital structure for each one of twenty-four concessionaires that operate highways. We based our estimations on the developments of Sharpe (1964, Modigliani and Miller (1958, and Maquieira (2009, which were also compared with the Brusov et al. (2015 developments. We collected stock prices for different highway concessionaires around the world from Google Finance and Reuters’ websites in order to determine the Beta of equity using a representative company. After that, we estimated the cost of equity considering Hamada (1969 and a Capital Asset Pricing Model. Then, we estimated the cost of capital using the cost of debt and the capital structure of Chile’s highway concessionaires. With all above, we were able to determine the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC for highway concessions which ranges from 5.49 to 6.62%.

  19. High intraspecific variability of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto in Chile. (United States)

    Alvarez Rojas, Cristian A; Ebi, Dennis; Paredes, Rodolfo; Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Urriola, Nicole; Roa, Juan Carlos; Manterola, Carlos; Cortes, Sandra; Romig, Thomas; Scheerlinck, Jean-Pierre; Lightowlers, Marshall W


    Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto is the major cause of cystic echinococcosis in most human and animal cases in the world and the most widespread species within the E. granulosus sensu lato complex. E. granulosus s.s. remains endemic in South America together with other species of the Echinococcus genus, especially in some areas in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Peru. Except for a single human case caused by E. canadensis (G6) described in the literature, only E. granulosus s.s. has been found in the Chilean territory. In the current study 1609bp of the cox1 gene from 69 Chilean isolates of E. granulosus s.s. from humans and animals were analysed. In total, 26 cox1 haplotypes were found, including the widespread haplotype EG01 (22 isolates) and also EGp1 (5), EgRUS7 (1), EgAus02 (1) and EgAus03 (2). Twenty-one different haplotype not previously described were identified from 38 Chilean isolates designated EgCL1-EgCL21. Previous work had described low variability of E. granulosus s.s. in South America, based on isolates from Peru. Results obtained in this work challenge the previously described idea of the low diversity of the parasite in South America, and warrant future investigation on the origin and spread of the parasite in the continent after the Spanish arrival. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. [Epidemiological profile of deaths after the 2010 earthquake in Chile]. (United States)

    Lastra T, Jorge; Guzmán C, Guillermo; Conejeros R, Consuelo; Suárez V, Guillermo; Chávez F, Orlando


    On February 27, 2010 a powerful earthquake followed by a tsunami stroke Chile. The study of mortality during this emergency can provide important public health information. To describe the main characteristics of people who died during the earthquake and the following three months. Cross sectional analysis of death records databases obtained from Department of Health Statistics and Information of the Ministry of Health and the Coroner office. Until May 25,2010, 505 corpses were completely identified. Seventy two of these corresponded to people aged 80 years or more. The higher age adjusted death rates per 100,000 inhabitants were observed among subjects aged more than 80 years and those aged 70 to 79 years (22.6 and 7.7 respectively). The higher rates of deaths were observed in regions where the earthquake had a higher intensity and coastal regions affected by the tsunami. The causes of death were trauma in 75% of cases and drowning in 25%. There was no association between the Mercalli scale of earthquake intensity and rates of death. Among deceased subjects, there was a concentration of unemployed, under educated and low socioeconomic status subjects. After the earthquake, the higher rates of deaths occurred among older people and in the region of the epicenter of the earthquake. Most deaths were due to trauma.

  1. El Chile de las regiones: una historia inconclusa

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    Arenas, Federico


    Full Text Available The Chilean regions have a history that dates back several decades since the first attempts to establish regionalization in the fifties, until the Regional Governments were installed in 1993. Nevertheless, the critical reading of the regionalization process and decentralization show that beyond many advances, we are still far from representing a country with a unitary decentralized state model. In this work, the most important milestones of the Chilean institutional development are revised at a regional scale, in order to establish the level of advance and the overdue challenges on this subject in the country.

    Las regiones chilenas tienen una historia que se remonta a varias décadas, desde los primeros intentos de establecer una regionalización en Chile en los años cincuenta, hasta la instalación de los denominados Gobiernos Regionales el año 1993. Sin embargo, la lectura crítica del proceso de regionalización y sobre todo de la descentralización, muestra que más allá de los innumerables avances, todavía estamos lejos de representar como país, un modelo de estado unitario desconcentrado. En este trabajo se revisan los hitos más importantes del desarrollo institucional chileno a la escala regional, con el fin de establecer el nivel de avance y los desafíos pendientes del país en esta materia.

  2. Tendencias en la segregación residencial en Chile

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    Alan Garín Contreras


    Full Text Available Los análisis sobre segregación residencial en Chile, están adquiriendo una importancia creciente, dado que sus efectos sociales son cada vez más evidentes. A objeto de identificar las tendencias que sigue este proceso, se hace una revisión de la investigación a nivel nacional y que permita ser un aporte para el avance en este tema. Los resultados indican que la segregación residencial está disminuyendo, los principales mecanismo que operan en este proceso son: el funcionamiento del mercado del suelo, políticas públicas y los movimientos migratorios al interior de la ciudad.Comoefecto, la segregación ha generado un aumento de los problemas sociales como el alcoholismo, delincuencia, jóvenes solteras embarazadas y deserción escolar. También se observa una predominancia de estudios cuantitativos y una significativa heterogeneidad en el uso de indicadores, como un escaso análisis sobre la percepción y autopercepción de los habitantes de barrios segregados.

  3. Self-generated Literacy Practices in Disadvantaged Environments in Chile

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    Margarita Calderón López


    Full Text Available This study explores the role of literacy in disadvantaged environments and the interplay between self-generated literacy practices and their conceptualization of literacy in 7 to 10-year-old Chilean pupils from two different schools located in Santiago, Chile. The study was framed within a participatory approach focused on promoting the children’s agency and voice in the research. A range of second-level data materials were collected through interviews with parents, photographs and existing documents. Although at a resources-associated level the sociocultural context did not inhibit the emergence of literacy practices, the context did contribute to the children’s understanding of literacy. This study raises the need for considering how children’s understanding of literacy influence their involvement and learning about reading and writing as their experiences and perceptions have an important role in their learning process, particularly on how they develop their reading and writing practices. The findings implied that by raising the participants’ awareness of the relevance of everyday practices in relation with reading and writing, they are likelier to feel more comfortable and empowered towards their own literacy practices. Particularly, the empowerment of children coming from a disadvantaged background would give them more opportunities to support their learning. By making the children aware of the relevance of their own perceptions and practices, the pupils could gain in confidence, be agents of their learning processes, and have more resources to succeed on the demanding school environment.


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    Claudio Lavados Montes


    Full Text Available La equidad en el acceso a la atención de salud, eficacia en las intervenciones destinadas a promover, preservar y recuperar la salud, y eficiencia en el uso de los recursos disponibles son los objetivos centrales de la Reforma del Sistema de Salud en Chile, basados en el principio de justicia. Este artículo trata el tema de la justicia en salud desde la definición tradicional, pasando por la de salud, para culminar en lo que la bioética entiende hoy por justicia, y si este principio se verifica o es vulnerado dentro del Plan AUGE, toda vez que la Constitución Política de Chile establece el derecho a la salud como un derecho básico reconocido para todos los ciudadanos.Eqüidade no acesso à atenção de saúde, eficácia nas intervenções destinadas a promover, preservar e recuperar a saúde e eficiência no uso dos recursos disponíveis, são os objetivos centrais da Reforma do Sistema de Saúde no Chile, baseados no principio da justiça. Este artigo trata o tema da justiça em saúde a partir da definição tradicional, passando pela de saúde, para culminar no que a bioética entende hoje por justiça e se este principio se verifica ou é vulnerado dentro do Plano AUGE, toda vez que a Constituição Política do Chile estabelecer o direito à saúde como um direito básico reconhecido para todos os cidadãos.Equality in access to health care, efficiency in interventions designed to promote, preserve and recuperate health, and the efficient use of available health care resources are the central objectives of the Health Care System Reform in Chile, based on the principle of justice. This article deals with the theme of justice in health, starting from the traditional definition, continuing to that of healthcare, and culminating in what bioethics interprets today as justice, and whether this principle is verified or not under Plan AUGE, as the Political Constitution of Chile establishes the right to health care as a basic right

  5. Psicología comunitaria y políticas sociales en Chile Psicologia comunitaria e políticas sociais no Chile Community psychology and social policies in Chile

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    Jaime Alfaro Inzunza


    Full Text Available En este artículo analizamos la relación entre Psicología Comunitaria y políticas sociales, estableciendo la influencia de las políticas sociales sobre el desarrollo contemporáneo de la Psicología Comunitaria en Chile. Sostenemos que su consolidación como profesión se asocia estrechamente a la implementación de políticas sociales a partir de la década de los noventa y su conformación actual está condicionada y tensionada por las orientaciones de estas políticas. Se examina la evolución tanto de las políticas sociales como de la Psicología Comunitaria en Chile, los puntos de encuentro y las tensiones, de las que derivamos una serie de desafíos y proyecciones que examinamos en el presente artículo, con el objetivo de avanzar en la comprensión de esta relación.Este artigo investigou a relação entre a Psicologia Comunitária e as políticas sociais, estabelecendo a influência das políticas sociais sobre o desenvolvimento contemporâneo da Psicologia Comunitária no Chile. Afirmamos que a sua consolidação como profissão está intimamente associada à implementação de políticas sociais desde a década de noventa e sua formação atual está condicionada e tensionada pelas diretrizes dessas políticas. O estudo analisa a evolução das políticas sociais e da psicologia comunitária no Chile, os pontos de encontro e de tensão, dos quais se deriva uma série de desafios e projeções discutidos neste artigo com o objetivo de fazer avançar a compreensão desta relação.In this article we analyze the evolution of community psychology in Chile, and the influences of social policies in its development. We hold that its consolidation as a profession is closely associated to the implementation of social policies since the nineties, and its present conformation is determined and tightened by the orientation of these policies. From the evolution of social policies and Community Psychology in Chile we have come up with a series

  6. AFLP analysis reveals a clonal population of Phytophthora pinifolia in Chile. (United States)

    Durán, Alvaro; Gryzenhout, Marieka; Drenth, André; Slippers, Bernard; Ahumada, Rodrigo; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J


    Phytophthora pinifolia is the causal agent of the recently discovered needle disease of Pinus radiata in Chile, referred to as "Daño Foliar del Pino" (DFP). The genetic structure of the pathogen population is unknown, which hinders our understanding of its appearance and spread in Chile since 2004. In this study, a population of 88 cultures of P. pinifolia isolated from P. radiata at several localities in Chile was evaluated for genotypic diversity using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). Results of the AFLP analyses showed that the P. pinifolia population in Chile consists of two near identical genotypes but with no genetic differentiation based on geography, year of isolation or the part of the tree from which the isolates were obtained. Mating experiments did not lead to the production of gametangia suggesting that the organism is sterile. The fact that a single clonal genotype dominates the population of P. pinifolia in Chile supports the hypothesis that P. pinifolia was recently introduced into this country and that its impact is due to a new and susceptible host encounter. Copyright © 2010 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Maternity protection vs. maternity rights for working women in Chile: a historical review. (United States)

    Casas, Lidia; Herrera, Tania


    Maternity leave in Chile has been a social right since 1919, when the International Labour Organization set the first global standards. From its inception, Chile's labour legislation focused on protecting motherhood and the family. The length of maternity leave has been extended several times since then but its main aim remains the protection of infant health. In 1931, Chile's first Labour Code required anyone employing 20 or more women to provide day care services and facilitate childcare and paid breastfeeding time for all mothers of children under one. Labour laws began to play an important role in accommodating the care of infants within working conditions, though not always effectively. In spite of job protection during pregnancy and breastfeeding, women can be dismissed on grounds other than pregnancy. It was only under Salvador Allende and again in the past two decades that Chile has enfranchised women as holders of health rights. However, many unresolved tensions remain. Chile promotes motherhood, but often considers that working women who demand employment protection abuse the system. Motherhood is a magic wand that represents the selflessness of women, but society throws a blanket of mistrust over women who wish to exercise their maternity rights and to determine the number and spacing of their children. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


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    Pablo Camus


    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza las relaciones entre los seres humanos y su ambiente, a partir de la historia de la aclimatación y posterior invasión de conejos en Chile, constatando que, en el largo plazo, las acciones humanas tienen efectos e impactos insospechados sobre el medio natural. En efecto, si bien inicialmente los conejos fueron vistos como una oportunidad de desarrollo económico a partir del aprovechamiento de su piel y su carne, pronto esta especie se convirtió en una plaga difícil de controlar en diversas regiones del país, como Chile central, Tierra del Fuego e islas Juan Fernández. Así, con el paso del tiempo, el conejo se ha terminado por transformar en nuestro país en un verdadero "convidado de piedra".This work analyses the relationship between human beings and their environment taking into consideration the adjustment and eventual invasión of rabbits in Chile. It argües that in the long run, human actions have unsuspected effects upon the environment. In fact rabbits were seen initially as an opportunity for economic development because of the exploitation of their meat and skin. Later, rabbits became a plague in different áreas of Central Chile, Tierra del Fuego and Juan Fernández islands, which was difficult to control. Over the years rabbits became unwelcome guests in Chile.

  9. Transformaciones del modelo territorial de Santiago de Chile./ Transformations in the territorial model of Santiago de Chile.

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    Jonás Figueroa Salas


    Full Text Available La identificación de las tendencias morfológicas, como expresiones espaciales del crecimiento físico del Área Metropolitana de Santiago de Chile, sirve para reflexionar acerca de las diferentes y variadas contradicciones -negaciones y discontinuidades- que operan eventualmente entre el modelo territorial propuesto por los instrumentos de ordenamiento y la planta final resultante. Junto a ello, esta reflexión nos brinda la oportunidad de identificar las tendencias registradas por una urbanística de escala metropolitana, cuyo signo de los tiempos es el todo urbanizable, dejando de lado otras maneras y modos de encarar el crecimiento físico de la ciudad. En tal sentido, el diseño de una armadura de escala provincial, como factor de reequilibrio entre un débil sistema regional de ciudades y un área metropolitana excedida, constituye la segunda parte del escrito./The urban growth of Santiago, and it morphology, is the starting point in the study of the contradictions between the plans for Santiago and its results. The author also notes that the differences between the scales of planning is also an issue in the attempt to perform a better regional and local planning.

  10. Racismo en Chile. La piel como marca de la inmigración (María Emilia Tijoux)


    Gonzalo Díaz Letelier


    Racismo en Chile. La piel como marca de la inmigración Editora: María Emilia TIJOUX — Editorial: Universitaria. Santiago, Chile. Año: 2016 Páginas: 284 ISBN: 978-956-11-2502-5 Autor de la reseña: Gonzalo DÍAZ LETELIER

  11. Development of a Pilot Process for the Production of c-Phycocyanin from Spirulina sp. in Northern Chile.


    Villagra Gil, Diego Andrés


    Descripción del desarrollo de un proceso piloto para la extracción de c-ficocianina a partir de biomasa Spirulina sp. en base a operaciones unitarias sencillas y escalables. Centro Interdisciplinario de Líquidos Iónicos, Universidad de Chile Escuela de Ingeniería Industrial, Universidad de Tarapacá, Chile

  12. The Republic of Chile: An Upper Middle-Income Country at the Crossroads of Economic Development and Aging (United States)

    Gitlin, Laura N.; Fuentes, Patricio


    Chile is a developing country with a rapidly expanding economy and concomitant social and cultural changes. It is expected to become a developed country within 10 years. Chile is also characterized as being in an advanced demographic transition. Unique challenges are posed by the intersection of rapid economic development and an aging population,…

  13. Mauricio Onetto Pavez (2017. Temblores de tierra en el jardín del Edén. Desastre, memoria e identidad. Chile, siglos XVI-XVIII

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    Melina López Calvo


    Full Text Available Reseña bibliográfica: Mauricio Onetto Pavez (2017. Temblores de tierra en el jardín del Edén. Desastre, memoria e identidad. Chile, siglos XVI-XVIII. Ediciones de la Dirección de Bibliotecas, Archivos y Museos. 2017. Santiago, Chile. El patrimonio de Chile. Centro de investigaciones Diego Barros Arana

  14. Estado del conocimiento y principales amenazas de los humedales boscosos de agua dulce de Chile Knowledge status and principal threats to freshwater forested wetlands of Chile

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    Full Text Available Los humedales boscosos de agua dulce son áreas naturalmente inundadas o saturadas, que sustentan vegetación boscosa hidrófila, están presentes en todo el mundo, y en Chile son conocidos como "pitrantos, hualves o hualhues". El presente estudio entrega el estado del conocimiento de estos humedales en Chile, mediante una descripción de sus características biológicas, fisicoquímicas e hidrodinámicas, identificando las principales amenazas para su conservación y las principales necesidades de investigación. Estos ambientes pueden presentar inundación permanente o temporal, dependiendo de un conjunto de procesos microclimáticos, biológicos y edafológicos. Su vegetación, del tipo hidrófila boscosa, es dominada por especies de la familia Myrtaceae. Tanto el comportamiento hídrico como la estructura vegetacional destacan dentro de los aspectos que determinan directamente las características fisicoquímicas del agua y los patrones de distribución de las comunidades biológicas. Los humedales boscosos de Chile han sido ampliamente estudiados desde un punto de vista vegetacional y florístico, pero carecen de estudios limnológicos, hidrológicos o faunísticos básicos, de lo cual deriva un total desconocimiento en relación a su funcionamiento a nivel ecosistémico y los efectos que pueden tener las actividades humanas en sus cuencas (e.g., agrícola, ganadera, forestal sobre sus componentes hídricos y biológicos. A pesar de ser ecosistemas de gran relevancia cultural y ecológica, se identifican importantes falencias en cuanto a su estado de conservación, al no encontrarse protegidos por las actuales herramientas de conservación existentes en el país. Por lo tanto, emergen como ecosistemas únicos, de relevancia mundial, prácticamente desconocidos en Chile y de gran interés para el desarrollo de numerosas líneas de investigación, aunque su alta susceptibilidad ante perturbaciones de origen antrópico amenaza su permanencia

  15. Black carbon and other light-absorbing impurities in the Andes of Northern Chile (United States)

    Rowe, P. M.; Cordero, R.; Warren, S. G.; Pankow, A.; Jorquera, J.; Schrempf, M.; Doherty, S. J.; Cabellero, M.; Carrasco, J. F.; Neshyba, S.


    Black carbon (BC) and other light-absorbing impurities in snow absorb solar radiation and thus have the potential to accelerate glacial retreat and snowmelt. In Chile, glaciers and seasonal snow are important sources of water for irrigation and domestic uses. In July 2015 (Austral winter) we sampled snow in the western Andes in a north-south transect of Chile from 18 S to 34 S. Most of the sampled snow had fallen during a single synoptic event, during 11-13 July. The snow was melted and passed through 0.4 micrometer nuclepore filters. Preliminary estimates indicate that (1) the ratio of BC to dust in snow increases going south from Northern to Central Chile, and (2) in snow sampled during the two weeks following the snowstorm, the impurities were concentrated in the upper 5 cm of snow, indicating that the surface layer became polluted over time by dry deposition.

  16. The Mining Sectors in Chile and Norway, ca. 1870–1940

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranestad, Kristin


    Chile and Norway are two ‘natural resource-intensive economies’, which have had different development trajectories, yet are closely similar in industrial structure and geophysical conditions. This paper seeks to contribute to the debate about how and why some economies based on natural resource...... in development. More knowledge was developed and accumulated in Norway than in Chile, which indicates that there was a knowledge gap between the two countries. Mining instructions were similar, but there were striking differences when it came to (1) number of graduates, (2) number of travel arrangements...... of education, scholarships and the National Geological Survey. In Chile, these key knowledge organizations were given lower priority by political decision-makers....

  17. A drone flight over ESO’s experimental sites in Chile

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin


    Paola Catapano, a member of CERN’s Communication Group, and Mike Struik, a member of the TE Department, were invited to visit ESO’s experimental sites – the ALMA observatory and the Very Large Telescope in Paranal, Chile. Enjoy some of the beautiful images they sent to the Bulletin.   Image courtesy Paola Catapano and Mike Struik. The 66 radio astronomy antennas of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observatory at 5,000 m altitude on the Chajnantor highland in Chile. The ALMA array specialises in the cold, invisible Universe, catching radiation from millimetre and submillimetre radiowaves night and day. ALMA is an international partnership between the European Southern Observatory (ESO), the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan, together with NRC (Canada), NSC and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile.   Image cour...

  18. Clinical and Demographical Characteristics of Patients with Medication Overuse Headache in Argentina and Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shand, Beatriz; Goicochea, Maria Teresa; Valenzuela, Raul


    BACKGROUND: Data on the characteristics of Medication Overuse Headache (MOH) in Latin American (LA) are scarce. Here we report the demographic and clinical features of the MOH patients from Argentina and Chile enrolled in the multinational COMOESTAS project in the period 2008-2010. METHODS: The LA...... population was formed by 240 MOH subjects, 110 from Chile and 130 from Argentina, consecutively attending the local headache centres. In each centre, specifically trained neurologist interviewed and confirmed the diagnosis according to the ICHD-II criteria. A detailed history was collected on an electronic......, where it affects mostly women, in the most active decades of life. Some differences emerge as regards the demographic and clinical characteristics of MOH in this population as compared to Europe or Northern America. What seems more worrying about MOH in Argentina and Chile is that most patients overuse...

  19. Symmetry and tendency judgment of Ms ≥ 8.0 strong earthquakes in Chile

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    Jin Junfang


    Full Text Available The Ms ≥8.0 strong earthquakes occurring in Chile since 1800 were analyzed using the ternary, quaternary, and quinary commensurability methods and the butterfly structure diagram, and it was believed that the earthquake signal in Chile in 2014 is relatively strong, a large earthquake is likely to occur in Chile in 2014. An analysis of spatial epicenter migrations showed that the longitudinal and latitudinal epicenter migrations have symmetry and synchronism, and there were five obvious northward migrations and four southward migrations. The symmetry axis of the longitudinal migrations is at about 71. 7° W and that of the latitudinal migrations is at about 30° S; these spatial symmetry axes are located at the subduction zone on the western margin of South America, where two major plates (the Nazca Plate and the South American Plate converge.

  20. Santiago de Chile, ¿ejemplo de una reestructuración capitalista global?

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    Luis Fuentes


    Full Text Available Términos como "ciudad global", "ciudad difusa", "ciudad dual", entre otros, merecen ser rediscutidos y contrastados con el proceso de transformaciones experimentado por Santiago de Chile producto de la reestructuración capitalista. En este sentido, este trabajo pretende discutir acerca de la conveniencia de otorgar a la capital de Chile éstos y otros adjetivos frecuentemente utilizados en la literatura urbanística internacional.Terms like "global city", "diffuse city", "dual city", among others, deserve to be discussed and contrasted with urban processes that are been taking part in Santiago de Chile in the last decades. This article attempts to discuss the convenience of grant to Chile’s capital city these and others adjectives, commonly used in the urban literature

  1. Hydrogeomorphic Investigation of the 2015 Atacama Floods, Northern Chile (United States)

    Wilcox, A. C.; Escauriaza, C. R.; Agredano, R., Jr.; Mignot, E.; Gironas, J. A.; Cienfuegos, R.; Mao, L.


    In March 2015 unusual atmospheric conditions over the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, the driest area on Earth outside of Antarctica, produced many years worth of rainfall in a 24-hour period. The resulting sediment-rich floods caused dozens of deaths and/or disappearances, over $1 billion in estimated damage, and widespread geomorphic change. Here we describe the hydrologic and geomorphic drivers and responses to the 2015 Atacama floods, including characterization of the hydrologic forcing, water and sediment routing from source areas in the upper watershed to the outlet at the Pacific Ocean, and urban flooding impacts of this event. In a region where few direct measurements of precipitation and discharge during these events are available, we combined hydrologic and hydraulic modeling with field and aerial photograph interpretation of sediment sources and geomorphic change. A remarkable element of the flood, particularly with respect to its effects on urban areas, was its high sediment load. Despite widespread hillslope erosion in the form of rilling and gullying initiated by overland flow, sediment from these sources typically did not reach valley bottoms, and only limited, small-scale mass wasting was observed. Field observations indicated that the sediment load was primarily derived from dramatic erosion of channel bed, bank, and floodplain material (i.e., valley fill). In the coastal city of Chañaral, flooding of the Salado River produced maximum water depths over 6 m, meters-thick mud deposition in buildings and along city streets, flow velocities larger than 8 m/s, and coastal erosion. Broader implications of studying the Atacama flooding include hazard reduction, the history of copper mining and more than five decades of contamination in many of the affected watersheds, and the Atacama's status as a terrestrial analog for Mars.

  2. Smartphone-Based Earthquake and Tsunami Early Warning in Chile (United States)

    Brooks, B. A.; Baez, J. C.; Ericksen, T.; Barrientos, S. E.; Minson, S. E.; Duncan, C.; Guillemot, C.; Smith, D.; Boese, M.; Cochran, E. S.; Murray, J. R.; Langbein, J. O.; Glennie, C. L.; Dueitt, J.; Parra, H.


    Many locations around the world face high seismic hazard, but do not have the resources required to establish traditional earthquake and tsunami warning systems (E/TEW) that utilize scientific grade seismological sensors. MEMs accelerometers and GPS chips embedded in, or added inexpensively to, smartphones are sensitive enough to provide robust E/TEW if they are deployed in sufficient numbers. We report on a pilot project in Chile, one of the most productive earthquake regions world-wide. There, magnitude 7.5+ earthquakes occurring roughly every 1.5 years and larger tsunamigenic events pose significant local and trans-Pacific hazard. The smartphone-based network described here is being deployed in parallel to the build-out of a scientific-grade network for E/TEW. Our sensor package comprises a smartphone with internal MEMS and an external GPS chipset that provides satellite-based augmented positioning and phase-smoothing. Each station is independent of local infrastructure, they are solar-powered and rely on cellular SIM cards for communications. An Android app performs initial onboard processing and transmits both accelerometer and GPS data to a server employing the FinDer-BEFORES algorithm to detect earthquakes, producing an acceleration-based line source model for smaller magnitude earthquakes or a joint seismic-geodetic finite-fault distributed slip model for sufficiently large magnitude earthquakes. Either source model provides accurate ground shaking forecasts, while distributed slip models for larger offshore earthquakes can be used to infer seafloor deformation for local tsunami warning. The network will comprise 50 stations by Sept. 2016 and 100 stations by Dec. 2016. Since Nov. 2015, batch processing has detected, located, and estimated the magnitude for Mw>5 earthquakes. Operational since June, 2016, we have successfully detected two earthquakes > M5 (M5.5, M5.1) that occurred within 100km of our network while producing zero false alarms.

  3. Memoria Colectiva del Golpe de Estado de 1973 en Chile

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    Jorge Manzi


    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se muestran resultados de una investigación cualitativa sobre memoria colectiva acerca de los hechos acontecidos el 11 de Septiembre de 1973 en Chile, sus causas y sus consecuencias. Sobre la base de datos provenientes de 44 entrevistas semiestructuradas, se realizó un análisis cualitativo de contenidos y uno lingüístico. Los resultados muestran diferencias en cuanto a coincidencias y discrepancias en los contenidos de la memoria colectiva en función de la posición política de los entrevistados y dependiendo de si estos contenidos están referidos a los hechos acontecidos el 11 de Septiembre, a sus causas o a sus consecuencias. Mientras en relación con los hechos predominan los contenidos compartidos, variando casi exclusivamente las valoraciones de éstos, en las causas aparecen diferencias entre las personas de derecha y las de centro e izquierda, que se acentúan en la temática de las consecuencias. Por su parte, el análisis lingüístico muestra que existen principalmente cuatro tipos de discursos que se distinguen en cuanto a contenidos y en función del grado de certeza que los entrevistados manifiestan en relación a los contenidos de la memoria. La posición política distingue contenidos en tanto conlleva una distinta valoración de los sucesos del 11 de Septiembre en personas de derecha y de centro e izquierda. Por su parte, las personas con mayor implicación política, tanto de derecha como de izquierda, comparten la característica de la certeza, mientras los de menor implicación política poseen un grado mayor de incertidumbre

  4. Public health policies in Chile: seeking to regain trust

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    Cristóbal Cuadrado


    Full Text Available Resumen La salud es un ámbito central en las agendas públicas. En el caso de Chile, este lugar central en las demandas ciudadanas ha venido de la mano de una creciente crítica al sistema de salud, sus actores e instituciones, al mismo tiempo en que se desenvuelve una crisis democrática y de legitimidad mayor dentro de la sociedad. El punto de partida de este análisis es la vinculación entre el escenario de crítica y descontento generalizado en la sociedad con lo que sucede en el sector salud, planteándose la interdependencia y el paralelismo entre estos distintos niveles de crisis. El análisis se articula en torno a las dimensiones de confianza y legitimidad, como elementos con potencial canalizador, tomando como marco de análisis la matriz sociopolítica. Para ello, se revisan algunos elementos conceptuales en torno a las ideas de confianza y legitimidad en las políticas públicas. El artículo se enfoca en ejemplos recientemente acaecidos relacionados con las dinámicas del sistema de salud chileno, la emergencia de las Instituciones de Salud Previsional y las lógicas de mercado en salud, pasando por la fallida reforma a la salud de la década pasada, los conflictos de interés en las políticas públicas, la pérdida de legitimidad de la autoridad sanitaria y el papel de los profesionales de salud en estos procesos. Finalmente, se plantea una discusión sobre la búsqueda de la confianza perdida como asunto central para el desarrollo futuro y la sustentabilidad de las políticas de salud.

  5. Corporal Punishment and Youth Externalizing Behavior in Santiago, Chile (United States)

    Ma, Julie; Han, Yoonsun; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela


    Objectives Corporal punishment is still widely practiced around the globe, despite the large body of child development research that substantiates its short- and long-term consequences. Within this context, this paper examined the relationship between parental use of corporal punishment and youth externalizing behavior with a Chilean sample to add to the growing empirical evidence concerning the potential relationship between increased corporal punishment and undesirable youth outcomes across cultures. Methods Analysis was based on 919 adolescents in Santiago, Chile. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the extent to which parents’ use of corporal punishment and positive family measures were associated with youth externalizing behavior. Furthermore, the associations between self-reported externalizing behavior and infrequent, as well as frequent, use of corporal punishment were investigated to contribute to understanding how varying levels of parental use of corporal punishment were differently related to youth outcomes. Results Both mother’s and father’s use of corporal punishment were associated with greater youth externalizing behavior. Additionally, increases in positive parenting practices, such as parental warmth and family involvement, were met with decreases in youth externalizing behavior when controlling for youth demographics, family socioeconomic status, and parents’ use of corporal punishment. Finally, both infrequent and frequent use of corporal punishment were positively associated with higher youth problem behaviors, though frequent corporal punishment had a stronger relationship with externalizing behavior than did infrequent corporal punishment. Conclusions Parental use of corporal punishment, even on an occasional basis, is associated with greater externalizing behavior for youth while a warm and involving family environment may protect youth from serious problem behaviors. Therefore, findings of this study add

  6. Integrated geophysical characteristics of the 2015 Illapel, Chile, earthquake (United States)

    Herman, Matthew W.; Nealy, Jennifer; Yeck, William; Barnhart, William; Hayes, Gavin; Furlong, Kevin P.; Benz, Harley M.


    On 16 September 2015, a Mw 8.3 earthquake ruptured the subduction zone offshore of Illapel, Chile, generating an aftershock sequence with 14 Mw 6.0–7.0 events. A double source W phase moment tensor inversion consists of a Mw 7.2 subevent and the main Mw 8.2 phase. We determine two slip models for the mainshock, one using teleseismic broadband waveforms and the other using static GPS and InSAR surface displacements, which indicate high slip north of the epicenter and west-northwest of the epicenter near the oceanic trench. These models and slip distributions published in other studies suggest spatial slip uncertainties of ~25 km and have peak slip values that vary by a factor of 2. We relocate aftershock hypocenters using a Bayesian multiple-event relocation algorithm, revealing a cluster of aftershocks under the Chilean coast associated with deep (20–45 km depth) mainshock slip. Less vigorous aftershock activity also occurred near the trench and along strike of the main aftershock region. Most aftershocks are thrust-faulting events, except for normal-faulting events near the trench. Coulomb failure stress change amplitudes and signs are uncertain for aftershocks collocated with deeper mainshock slip; other aftershocks are more clearly associated with loading from the mainshock. These observations reveal a frictionally heterogeneous interface that ruptured in patches at seismogenic depths (associated with many aftershocks) and with homogeneous slip (and few aftershocks) up to the trench. This event likely triggered seismicity separate from the main slip region, including along-strike events on the megathrust and intraplate extensional events.

  7. HLA genetic profile of Mapuche (Araucanian) Amerindians from Chile. (United States)

    Rey, Diego; Parga-Lozano, Carlos; Moscoso, Juan; Areces, Cristina; Enriquez-de-Salamanca, Mercedes; Fernández-Honrado, Mercedes; Abd-El-Fatah-Khalil, Sedeka; Alonso-Rubio, Javier; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio


    Amerindian Mapuche (Araucanians) are now living in Chile and Argentina at both sides of Andean Mountains. They are anthropologically and genetically different from southernmost South America Patagonian Amerindians. Most of the HLA alleles found in our Mapuche sample are frequent or very frequent in North and South America Amerindians: (1) Class I: A*02:01, A*03:01, A*68:01, B*39:09, B*51:01, (2) Class II: DRB1*03:01, DRB1*04:03, DRB1*07:01, DRB1*08:02, DRB1*14:02, DRB1*16:02. One of the nine most frequent extended haplotypes seems to be from European origin, suggesting the existence of a degree of admixture with Europeans in our Mapuche sample. It has been calculated of about 11 % admixture. Three of the extended haplotypes are also found in other Amerindians and five of them are newly found in Mapuche Amerindians: A*68:01-B*39:09-DRB1*08:02-DQB1*04:02; A*68:01-B*51:01-DRB1*04:03-DQB1*03:02; A*29:01-B*08:01-DRB1*03:01-DQB1*02:01; A*02:01-B*15:01-DRB1*04:03-DQB1*03:02; A*33:01-B*14:02-DRB1*07:01-DQB1*03:03. The medical importance of calculating HLA profile is discussed on the diagnostic (HLA and disease) and therapeutical bases of HLA pharmacogenomics and on the construction of a virtual transplantation HLA list profile. Also, anthropological conclusions are drawn.

  8. Utilisation of cancer screening services by disabled women in Chile. (United States)

    Sakellariou, Dikaios; Rotarou, Elena S


    Research has shown that women with disabilities face additional challenges in accessing and using healthcare services compared to non-disabled women. However, relatively little is known about the utilisation of cancer screening services for women with disabilities. This study addresses this gap by examining the utilisation of the Papanicolaou test and mammography for disabled women in Chile. We used cross-sectional data, taken from a 2015 nationally-representative survey. Initially, we employed logistic regressions to test for differences in utilisation rates for the Papanicolaou test (66,281 observations) and the mammogram (35,294 observations) between disabled and non-disabled women. Next, logistic regressions were used to investigate the demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related factors affecting utilisation rates for cancer screening services for disabled women (sample sizes: 5,823 observations for the Papanicolaou test and 5,731 observations for the mammogram). Disabled women were less likely to undergo screening tests than non-disabled women. For the Papanicolaou test and mammography, the multivariable regression models showed that living in rural areas, having higher education, being affiliated with a private health insurance company, giving a good health self-assessment score, and being under medical treatment for other illnesses were associated with higher utilisation rates. On the other hand, being single, inactive with regard to employment, and having a better income were linked with lower utilisation. While utilisation rates for both disabled and non-disabled women have increased since 2006, the utilisation disparity has slightly increased. This study shows the influence of various factors in the utilisation rates of preventive cancer screening services for disabled women. To develop effective initiatives targeting inequalities in the utilisation of cancer screening tests, it is important to move beyond an exclusively single-disease approach and

  9. Plagioclase Crystal Populations in Lavas from Calbuco Volcano, Chile (United States)

    McKelvey, T.; Hickey-Vargas, R.


    Calbuco Volcano in Southern Chile is regionally unique in that it is predominantly andesitic, whereas surrounding volcanic centers are basaltic in composition. Lava from Calbuco is also hornblende-bearing, phenocryst-rich, and it contains crystal clots that are interpreted as cumulate minerals entrained in the magma. The phenocryst assemblage of the lava, and the mineral assemblage of the crystal clots, is: plagioclase, hornblende, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, olivine and oxide minerals. Three different species of plagioclase crystals are found in Calbuco andesite: zoned phenocrysts in the lava, unzoned grains in the crystal clots, and high-An megacrysts. The phenocrysts are predominantly anhedral and normally zoned with An mol% in the core ranging from An68-91, and at the rim from An58-82. Most of these crystals range in size from 50 to 700 microns, with rare grains larger, and nearly all contain melt inclusions. Plagioclase grains within the crystal clots are not zoned and have An mol% of An70-93, which overlaps the An mol% of the zoned phenocryst cores. These grains range in size from 100 to 500 microns. Megacrysts are 2000 microns and larger in size, and are unzoned, except for the rim of the grains. They have very high An mol% of An88-92 in the core. The 10-60 micron rims are normally zoned. Based on the overlapping An mol% contents of zoned plagioclase cores and the plagioclase from crystal clots, it is probable these two populations of crystals have formed as phenocrysts, crystallizing directly from the basaltic andesite to andesite magma. The origin of the megacrysts is more puzzling. Periodic replenishment by a more mafic magma and magma mixing could introduce these large An-rich plagioclase crystals, or they could be cumulate crystals that formed from a more mafic magma and were later entrained in andesitic magma. In either case, the narrow rim of normal zoning suggests a relatively short time span between entrainment and eruption.

  10. Bionenergy potential of radiata pine platantions in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acuna, E.; Espinosa, M.; Cancino, J.; Rubilar, R.; Munoz, F. [Facultad de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Correo 3, Concepcion (Chile)


    The bioenergy potential for electricity and ethanol production of Pinus radiata D. Don plantations in Chile was modeled in a regional basis using inventory data by age class. Specific gravity equations by age and growing region, wood moisture content variability, and efficiency of a hypothetical power plant were used to estimate the amount of electricity produced by biomass at harvesting age including logging residues. Ethanol production was obtained using laboratory derived conversion equations from material collected from plantations at different ages. Uncertainty analyses of bioenergy production were obtained using probabilistic distribution functions and assumptions of 2.0 million radiata pine plantations by year 2030. Parameters used to run uncertainty analyses included rotation length, growth rates, annual planting, logging residues production by harvesting age, and power plant efficiency. Simulations were obtained for 25 years, from 2006 until 2030. Our results suggest that in year 2030, power generation may reach 1160 PJ using current harvesting practices, however use of logging residues may provide additional 290.34 PJ. Estimates of production for year 2010 would be able to supply full non-industrial power demand. Estimates of ethanol production were 6,22 x 107 L in 2006 and 39,82 x 107 L by year 2030 for stem harvesting, and 1,5 x 107 L in year 2006 and 9,95 x 107 L by year 2030 for logging residues. Ethanol generated by forest residues would be enough to meet fuel transportation government's requirement of 2% ethanol use by year 2010 in the Chilean Metropolitan Region.

  11. Selenium concentration in compartments of aquatic ecosystems in Central Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinochet, H.; Gregori, I. de; Cavieres, M.F. [Catholic University of Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile). Chemical Institute


    A study was conducted during 1995-96 to evaluate Se concentration in water, sediment, and plants from aquatic ecosystems of central Chile, an area particularly affected by mining activities. Samples were collected from Panquehue, Chagres, and Ocoa along the Acongua River (presumably receives discharges from a copper refinery and a copper mine). Samples were also collected from one site on the Puchuncavi Stream (directly contaminated by both a coal power plant and a copper refinery). In addition, samples were also collected from one site on the Limache Stream (an urban area with no Se-contaminating sources). The sediment and plant samples collected in Puchuncavi had higher Se levels, which were statistically different to the concentration in samples from other sites. Sediments from Puchuncavi and Ocoa had the highest levels of Se (520 plus or minus 46 and 440 plus or minus 10 {mu} g/kg, respectively) while the plant (Jussiaea repens (Ludwigia repens)) collected in Puchuncavi had an Se concentration 6.5 times higher than the sample collected in Panquehue (116 plus or minus 154 and 182 plus or minus 54 {mu} g/kg, respectively). Puchuncavi water had more acidic pH than water from the other sites thus decreasing Se solubility. Se concentrations in sediment and water collected in Chagres were lower than the concentration determined in sediment and water from either Ocoa or Panquehue. Plant/water and plant/sediment accumulation factors and a sediment/water distribution factor were similar for all sampling sites, except Puchuncavi (accumulation and distribution factors are higher than at the other sites). Hydrocotyle ranunculoides had practically the same plant/sediment accumulation factor at all sites while the accumulation factor for J. repens varied according to site. The samples collected in the Limache stream had Se at equal or even higher concentration than the other samples collected from presumably contaminated sites (except Puchuncavi). 19 refs.

  12. Aproximaciones a la deserción universitaria en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Arancibia Carvajal


    Full Text Available Resumen La educación universitaria vespertina, en Chile, ha presentado en los últimos años, un acentuado crecimiento en su matrícula. Sin embargo, la interrupción de los estudios de quienes estudian en este horario de 19 a 23 horas (vespertino ha sobrepasado la cifra promedio de deserción del sistema universitario chileno. Estos estudiantes se caracterizan por combinar responsabilidades familiares, laborales y académicas, presentando mayores niveles de deserción que los estudiantes que ingresan a la modalidad universitaria diurna, debido a las particularidades y situaciones que les rodean. En este contexto, esta investigación se propuso indagar sobre los factores que intervienen en las decisiones de abandono de los estudiantes universitarios con características no tradicionales, que asisten a programas de estudios vespertinos. Metodológicamente se optó por un diseño de investigación cualitativo de tipo exploratorio debido a la escasa investigación en la temática en el país. Para ello, se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas a diez estudiantes desertores vespertinos. Una vez sistematizada la información, se obtuvo cuatro dimensiones emergentes de análisis, que sintetizaron las lógicas y significados que intervienen en el fenómeno que afecta a este grupo específico. Los hallazgos sobre la decisión de abandono de los estudiantes vespertinos de características no tradicionales dan cuenta de los siguientes factores, según relevancia, condiciones y características personales, capital y desempeño académico, imprevistos y circunstancias adversas y experiencias con la oferta institucional.

  13. Seismicity Structure of the Downgoing Nazca Slab in Northern Chile (United States)

    Sippl, C.; Schurr, B.


    We applied an automatized earthquake detection and location algorithm to 8 years of continuous seismic data from the IPOC network in Northern Chile, located in the forearc between about 18.5°S and 24°S. The resulting seismicity catalog contains more than 113k double-difference relocated earthquake hypocenters and features a completeness magnitude around 2.8. Despite the occurrence of two megathrust earthquakes with vigorous aftershock seismicity in the studied time period (the 2007 Tocopilla and the 2014 Iquique earthquakes), >60% of the retrieved seismicity is located in a highly active band of intermediate-depth earthquakes (80-120 km deep) within the downgoing Nazca slab.We obtain a triple seismic zone in the updip part of the slab, with the three parallel dipping planes corresponding to the plate interface, the oceanic Moho (ca. 8 km below the interface) and a third band in the mantle lithosphere 26-28 km beneath the slab top. The plate interface seismicity terminates abruptly at a depth of 55 km. At about 80-90 km depth, the remaining two planes of seismicity then merge into the single, 20 km thick cluster of vigorous seismicity mentioned above, which terminates at 120 km depth. This cluster is located directly beneath the volcanic arc and shows a pronounced kink in the slab dipping angle. Intra-slab seismicity is most likely related to metamorphic dehydration reactions, hence our high-resolution earthquake distribution can be considered a map of metamorphic reactions (although a possibly incomplete one, since not all reactions necessarily invoke seismicity). By correlating this distribution with isotherms from thermal models as well as geophysical imaging results from previous studies, we attempt to get a glimpse at the processes that produce the different patches of intraslab seismicity at intermediate depths.

  14. The contribution of distance education to health promotion in Chile. (United States)

    Salinas, Judith; Muñoz, Carolina; Albagli, Andrea; Araya, Gloria; Vio, Fernando


    The objective of this paper is to present the distance education's contribution to developing health promotion in Chile, through evaluation of a postgraduate certificate program for professionals, and a training course for nurse technicians working in primary healthcare, with an 8-month follow-up after program completion. The program methodology was participatory, interactive and reflective, with mentoring support, exercises, group work and discussions as well as content pertinent to the needs of practice. The evaluation was quali-quantitative with an analysis of the student profile, the implementation process, outcomes at the end of the training and impacts on workplace changes. The results showed a high rate of student approval (87 and 76%), good academic performance and a high level of satisfaction with the methodology and knowledge delivered. The participants' final projects were adapted to local work places realities and were implemented by 62.6% of technicians and 43% of professionals, in addition to changes in work practices that favor health promotion. The level of fulfillment of participants' expectations was very high and the most frequent barriers to implementing the final project were lack of time and personnel, along with minimal support from management and low prioritization of health promotion. This study shows the effectiveness of a distance training model for professionals and technicians that can reach the most remote parts of the country, where there is no access to presencial training, with an educational program centered on work activities and current health challenges. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  15. Values profile of health career students from Southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Véliz Burgos


    Full Text Available Objective: Higher education institutions must include curricular strategies that enable students to make decisions according to the values and principles related to their professions. The objective of this study was to determine the values profile expressed by health career students from Southern Chile. Materials and methods: This is a quantitative cross-sectional descriptive study with a purposive sample of 242 (M = 20.1 years old nursing, psychology and kinesiology students to whom the Schwartz Value Survey was applied. Software SPSS 20.0 was used to perform a hierarchical clustering analysis and verify the values dimensions associated with each other. One-way ANOVA with post-hoc tests were conducted to verify the means differences among the scores of the values subscales. Results: Two large homogeneous clusters of values were identified. One consisted of the dimensions of Conformity, Security, Achievement, Tradition and Benevolence, and the other one of the dimensions of Hedonism and Stimulation. During the analysis of means, significant statistical differences were observed between the groups in the dimensions of Universalism, Power, Self-Direction, Benevolence, Conformity, Tradition and Achievement (p < 0.01. The most outstanding means differences were those between psychology and nursing students. In the dimensions of Power, Conformity and Tradition, kinesiology and nursing students showed higher means than psychology students (p < 0.01. Conclusions: The results reveal health career students’ values profile. The next step should be to compare those profiles with the values profile of graduates from each discipline, in order to contribute to the strengthening of the dimensions which students from each career consider important for their professional performance.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Williamson


    Full Text Available Este artículo trata de una investigación académica y una investigación+desarrollo (I+D llevadas a cabo por la Universidad de la Frontera, en varias regiones de Chile, orientadas a descubrir, sistematizar y describir como la investigación en sala de clases con encuesta de opinión, según la metodología del Proyecto Nuestra Escuela Pregunta Su Opinión-NE PSO. Dicha encuesta se desarrolla en distintas modalidades de organización del curriculum, en 15 establecimientos de educación básica, media y de educación de personas jóvenes y adultas, entre los años 2008 y 2012. Se concluye en la versatilidad de la meto dología propuesta, coherente con sus principios curriculares, de investigación, pedagógicos y didácticos para desarrollarse en los múltiples y variados contextos, niveles educacionales y modalidades curriculares, en que se organiza la educación del país. Esta metodología responde a las necesidades actuales de mejorar la calidad de los aprendizajes y las prácticas pedagógicas para resolver la crisis de la educación pública. Es necesario experimentar y proponer nuevos conceptos, metodologías, didácticas y cu rrículos viables y efectivos, que contribuyan a una relación pedagógica cooperativa entre profesores(as y estudiantes para que puedan alcanzar los logros de aprendizajes buscados por los programas oficiales y proyectos educativos de los establecimientos, tomando en cuenta diversos contextos curriculares y socioculturales.

  17. Miocene Vetigastropoda and Neritimorpha (Mollusca, Gastropoda) of central Chile (United States)

    Nielsen, Sven N.; Frassinetti, Daniel; Bandel, Klaus


    Species of Vetigastropoda (Fissurellidae, Turbinidae, Trochidae) and one species of Neritimorpha (Neritidae) from the Navidad area, south of Valparaı´so, and the Arauco Peninsula, south of Concepción, are described. Among these, the Fissurellidae comprise Diodora fragilis n. sp., Diodora pupuyana n. sp., two additional unnamed species of Diodora, and a species resembling Fissurellidea. Turbinidae are represented by Cantrainea sp., and Trochidae include Tegula (Chlorostoma) austropacifica n. sp., Tegula (Chlorostoma) chilena n. sp., Tegula (Chlorostoma) matanzensis n. sp., Tegula (Agathistoma) antiqua n. sp., Bathybembix mcleani n. sp., Gibbula poeppigii [Philippi, 1887] n. comb., Diloma miocenica n. sp., Fagnastesia venefica [Philippi, 1887] n. gen. n. comb., Fagnastesia matanzana n. gen. n. sp., Calliostoma mapucherum n. sp., Calliostoma kleppi n. sp., Calliostoma covacevichi n. sp., Astele laevis [Sowerby, 1846] n. comb., and Monilea riorapelensis n. sp. The Neritidae are represented by Nerita (Heminerita) chilensis [Philippi, 1887]. The new genus Fagnastesia is introduced to represent low-spired trochoideans with a sculpture of nodes below the suture, angulated whorls, and a wide umbilicus. This Miocene Chilean fauna includes genera that have lived at the coast and in shallow, relatively warm water or deeper, much cooler water. This composition therefore suggests that many of the Miocene formations along the central Chilean coast consist of displaced sediments. A comparison with different fossil and Recent faunas from around the Pacific and South America indicates that the vetigastropod and neritid fauna from the Miocene of Chile has only minor affinities with taxa living near New Zealand, Argentina, and the tropical eastern Pacific at that time.

  18. Blueberry production in Chile: current status and future developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge B. Retamales


    Full Text Available Chile has become a major actor in the blueberry industry as the most important supplier of off-season fresh fruit for the northern hemisphere. Blueberry exports passed from US$ 30 million (around 4,000 tons in 2000 to US$ 380 million (94,000 tons in 2011. The characteristics of the major blueberry growing regions (North, Central, South-central and South are presented in terms of acreage, varieties, management practices, extension of the harvest season, and soil and climatic conditions. Most fruit is from highbush varieties, picked by hand and exported fresh by boat to United States. Largest proportion of fruit is exported from mid December to late January, which coincides with lowest prices. The south-central region (latitudes 34º50' to 38º15' S was in 2007 the most important one with 5,075 ha (51.1% of area planted. Among the challenges for the Chilean blueberry industry in the near future are: 1. Lower profitability due to lower rates of currency exchange and higher costs, 2 - Greater scarcity and higher cost of labor, 3.- Need for higher productivity and sustainable production practices, 4- Fruit of high and consistent quality, and 5.- Greater investment in research. As a case study the article presents three approaches that can help identify areas with low availability of labor and improve its efficiency. The article shows the use of geomatic tools to establish labor availability, application of growth regulators to reduce crop load, increase fruit size and improve harvest efficiency, and the use of shakers to harvest fresh fruit for long distance markets. More research is needed to improve yields, reduce costs and give greater economical and ecological sustainability to the Chilean blueberry industry.

  19. Immigrant health workers in Chile: is there a Latin American "brain drain"? (United States)

    Cabieses, Baltica; Tunstall, Helena


    Most research on the phenomenon of "brain drain" (one-way flow of highly skilled/educated individuals) has focused on movement between the least developed and most highly developed countries. Therefore, the significance of patterns of migration to middle-income countries such as those in Latin America is less clear. The aim of this study was to outline key features of international health worker "brain drain" to Chile to promote discussion and further research on this phenomenon as it pertains to the Latin American region. The study compared immigrant health workers living in Chile to both Chilean-born health workers and other immigrants living in Chile using a qualitative nationwide dataset (the results of Chile's 2009 National Socioeconomic Characterization Survey). Demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related variables were included in the analyses, which were weighted by population to obtain nationally representative estimates. In 2009, immigrant health workers represented 2.2% of all health personnel and 2.6% of all resident immigrants in the country. While most immigrant health workers had a universitylevel education, about 25% had only a high school-level education or less. There was no statistically significant difference between the distribution of immigrant health workers' household income and that of Chilean-born health workers. A significantly higher proportion of the immigrant group reported no entitlement to health care provision. While the results of this study do not indicate a significant international health worker "brain drain" to Chile, they do suggest distinctive patterns of migration within the Latin American region. Future studies in Chile could confirm the validity of these results, using a larger sample of immigrant health workers.

  20. Immigrant health workers in Chile: is there a Latin American "brain drain"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltica Cabieses


    Full Text Available Most research on the phenomenon of "brain drain" (one-way flow of highly skilled/educated individuals has focused on movement between the least developed and most highly developed countries. Therefore, the significance of patterns of migration to middle-income countries such as those in Latin America is less clear. The aim of this study was to outline key features of international health worker "brain drain" to Chile to promote discussion and further research on this phenomenon as it pertains to the Latin American region. The study compared immigrant health workers living in Chile to both Chilean-born health workers and other immigrants living in Chile using a qualitative nationwide dataset (the results of Chile's 2009 National Socioeconomic Characterization Survey. Demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related variables were included in the analyses, which were weighted by population to obtain nationally representative estimates. In 2009, immigrant health workers represented 2.2% of all health personnel and 2.6% of all resident immigrants in the country. While most immigrant health workers had a universitylevel education, about 25% had only a high school-level education or less. There was no statistically significant difference between the distribution of immigrant health workers' household income and that of Chilean-born health workers. A significantly higher proportion of the immigrant group reported no entitlement to health care provision. While the results of this study do not indicate a significant international health worker "brain drain" to Chile, they do suggest distinctive patterns of migration within the Latin American region. Future studies in Chile could confirm the validity of these results, using a larger sample of immigrant health workers.

  1. Chile Confronts its Environmental Health Future After 25 Years of Accelerated Growth. (United States)

    Pino, Paulina; Iglesias, Verónica; Garreaud, René; Cortés, Sandra; Canals, Mauricio; Folch, Walter; Burgos, Soledad; Levy, Karen; Naeher, Luke P; Steenland, Kyle


    Chile has recently been reclassified by the World Bank from an upper-middle-income country to a high-income country. There has been great progress in the last 20 to 30 years in relation to air and water pollution in Chile. Yet after 25 years of unrestrained growth, there remain clear challenges posed by air and water pollution, as well as climate change. The aim of this study was to review environmental health in Chile. In late 2013, a 3-day workshop on environmental health was held in Santiago, Chile, bringing together researchers and government policymakers. As a follow-up to that workshop, here we review the progress made in environmental health in the past 20 to 30 years and discuss the challenges of the future. We focus on air and water pollution and climate change, which we believe are among the most important areas of environmental health in Chile. Air pollution in some cities remains among the highest in the continent. Potable water is generally available, but weak state supervision has led to serious outbreaks of infectious disease and ongoing issues with arsenic exposure in some regions. Climate change modeling in Chile is quite sophisticated, and a number of the impacts of climate change can be reasonably predicted in terms of which areas of the country are most likely to be affected by increased temperature and decreased availability of water, as well as expansion of vector territory. Some health effects, including changes in vector-borne diseases and excess heat mortality, can be predicted. However, there has yet to be an integration of such research with government planning. Although great progress has been made, currently there are a number of problems. We suspect that the Chilean experience in environmental health may be of some use for other Latin American countries with rapid economic development. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme in Chile, 1981-1991. Country programme evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Agency support for nuclear activities in Chile dates back to the early 1960s. During the last ten years, the period covered by this evaluation, this support has considerably expanded. In the period 1981-1991, 62 Agency projects with allotments amounting to over $7 million were completed or are under implementation. Through this co-operation Chile has received 360 man-months of expert services, $3.4 million worth of equipment, and 105 fellowships for some 390 man-months of training. In addition, 262 Chileans attended 219 Agency regional and interregional training courses, and Chilean institutions were awarded 40 research contracts worth over $325,000. This evaluation covers ten years of Agency technical co-operation with Chile, during which 35 projects were completed and 27 are still being implemented. Eight major sectors received assistance: general atomic energy development; nuclear physics; nuclear raw materials; nuclear engineering and technology; nuclear techniques in agriculture; nuclear medicine; hydrology; and nuclear safety. The evaluation concluded that, overall, the Agency's technical co-operation activities have, in keeping with the national priorities concerning peaceful nuclear applications, contributed substantially to the establishment of Chile's nuclear scientific and technical infrastructure, and played a major role in Chile's efforts to introduce nuclear applications in a number of sectors of the economy, with many benefits for broader national development objectives. Another strength of the Agency's programme with Chile is the high level of commitment and dedication that was noted in the great majority of recipient institutions, and in particular at the Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, CChEN. Mention should also be made of the fact that bureaucracy appears to be less severe than in some other developing countries, and that constraints that frequently affect other countries, such as insufficient counterpart commitment and lack of continuity of

  3. [Prevalence of primary antiretroviral resistance among HIV infected patients in Chile]. (United States)

    Afani, Alejandro; Beltrán, Carlos; María Gallardo, Ana; Roessler, Patricia; Acevedo, William; Vásquez, Patricia


    The main cause of virological failure during AIDS treatment is the resistance to antiretroviral medications (ARV). To search for mutations associated with ARV resistance in recently HIV-1 infected patients naïve to treatment, in Chile. Patients over 18 years old with HIV-1 infection, naïve to anti-retroviral drugs before the study were included. Patients with CD4 cell counts less than 200 cells/mm3, viral load below 2000 copies/mL or any condition indicative of advanced AIDS were excluded. Criteria for diagnosis of recent infection (Chile. Therefore, a genotyping test before starting antiretroviral therapy is not necessary.



    León Gin,Camila


    El siguiente artículo examina la trayectoria de peruanos y peruanas en el mercado del trabajo chileno de acuerdo a los hitos críticos o puntos de inflexión en su recorrido, para luego explorar sus efectos en el trayecto laboral ascendente de estos inmigrantes. Se indaga en los discursos, percepciones y significaciones que surgen de la experiencia en el trabajo en Chile a través de la realización de 32 relatos de vida a hombres y mujeres con una trayectoria laboral ascendente en Chile. Este tr...

  5. Distribution and prevalence of crown rot pathogens affecting wheat crops in southern Chile


    Ernesto Moya-Elizondo; Nolberto Arismendi; María Paz Castro; Herman Doussoulin


    Crown rot pathogens are associated with higher losses for wheat crop farmers, but information about the distribution and prevalence of these pathogens in Chile is inadequate. Distribution and prevalence of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crown rot pathogens were examined in a survey of 48 commercial fields from December 2011 to February 2012 in southern Chile. These fields were located between Collipulli (37°56'00" S; 72°26'39" W) and Purranque (40°50'30" S; 73°22'03" W). Severity of crown rot d...

  6. Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) analysis of Flavobacterium psychrophilum from salmonids in Chile and Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apablaza, Patricia; Brevik, Oyvind J.; Mjos, Svein


    isolates of this bacterium could play an important role in the development of good management strategies. The aim of this study was to identify genetic markers for discrimination between isolates. A selection of eight VNTRs from 53 F. psychrophilum isolates from Norway, Chile, Denmark and Scotland were...... compared to those from Norway, which suggests a more homogenous reservoir in Norway. Transgenerational transmission of F. psychrophilum from other countries, exporting salmon embryos to Chile, may explain the differences in diversity. The same transmission mechanisms could also explain the wide...

  7. Exploring the Genomic Traits of Non-toxigenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strains Isolated in Southern Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo Bermúdez, Daniel Elías; Pérez-Reytor, Diliana; Plaza, Nicolás


    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood-borne gastroenteritis worldwide. As reported in other countries, after the rise and fall of the pandemic strain in Chile, other post-pandemic strains have been associated with clinical cases, including strains lacking the major toxins TDH......V. parahaemolyticusof strains of southern Chile. The phylogenetic tree based on the core genome showed low genetic diversity but the analysis of the pan-genome revealed that all strains harbored genomic islands carrying diverse virulence and fitness factors or prophage-like elements that encode toxins like Zot and RTX...

  8. Hábitos alimentarios y bienestar subjetivo en estudiantes universitarios del sur de Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta; Denegri, Marianela; Miranda, Horacio


    Aim: To distinguish typologies of university students in southern Chile on the basis of their level of satisfaction with life and food-related life, and to characterize them according to their eating habits inside and outside the place of residence, aspects associated with health and demographic...... characteristics. Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 347 students at the Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile. The instruments for collecting information included the SWLS (Satisfaction with Life Scale), SWFL (Satisfaction with Food-related Life...

  9. El ahorro en Chile: ¿Qué salió bien?


    Felipe G. Morandé


    (Disponible en idioma inglés únicamente) Algunos analistas consideran a China como la única economía latinoamericana que se puede describir como bien encaminada o en desarrollo. En cierto sentido, el perdurable éxito de Chile y su comprobado aislamiento del efecto tequila se deben a su elevado nivel de ahorro interno. ¿A qué se debe que el nivel de ahorro en Chile sea tan elevado? ¿Qué políticas claves se han aplicado? ¿Tienen algo que ver las reformas estructurales y la apertura de finales d...

  10. Stressful life events in countries of differing economic development: Nicaragua, Chile, and Spain. (United States)

    Vazquez, José Juan; Panadero, Sonia; Rincón, Paulina Paz


    the aim was to describe a study involving 481 psychology students in the last courses of their degrees (M age = 21.9 yr., SD=4.2; 94 men and 386 women) from Nicaragua, Chile, and Spain. The study examined the potential risk of experiencing certain stressful life events, the number of stressors, and their characteristics. Also were analyzed the strength of their relation to social class and stressful life events experienced. Greater presence of stressful life events were reported among people from less developed countries, Chile and Nicaragua, and among people belonging to lower social class.





    La investigación que presento a continuación es el recorrido de dos años de trabajo en la Maestría de Estudios Políticos y Sociales de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. El recorrido tiene su origen en Santiago de Chile, en el año 2008, con el anuncio por parte del gobierno de Chile de la acogida y reasentamiento de un grupo de refugiados palestinos que se encontraban en un campamento de refugiados en la frontera entre Iraq y Siria, como parte del Programa de Reasentam...





    La investigación que presento a continuación es el recorrido de dos años de trabajo en la Maestría de Estudios Políticos y Sociales de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. El recorrido tiene su origen en Santiago de Chile, en el año 2008, con el anuncio por parte del gobierno de Chile de la acogida y reasentamiento de un grupo de refugiados palestinos que se encontraban en un campamento de refugiados en la frontera entre Iraq y Siria, como parte del Programa de Reas...

  13. Creating Three New Bike Tours in Santiago de Chile Case Study: Huaso Tours & Bike Rental


    Heino, Jenni


    The purpose of this Bachelor´s thesis was to create new bike tour services for the thesis case company Huaso Tours & Bike Rental, based in Santiago de Chile. The idea for the thesis was perceived from a free time activity of mountain biking in Santiago de Chile´s popular tourist attraction San Cristobal hill. This park draws thousands of bikers monthly to enjoy the green areas of the city, however, there is no mountain bike service offered to visit this hill. By conducting a small pre-researc...

  14. Os Bancos Centrais do Brasil e do Chile 1974-2005 : um estudo comparado


    Albuquerque, Claudia Ponte de


    Esta tese compara a evolução institucional de bancos centrais e outros reguladores bancários no Brasil, Chile, nos últimos trinta anos. Para tanto, sistematiza as políticas monetárias e de supervisão bancária, principalmente as do Chile e do Brasil, para explicar a diferença na qualidade institucional e na percepção interna dos bancos comerciais chilenos comparados aos brasileiros acerca da evolução das habilidades institucionais e da percepção externa quanto a reputação. A pesquisa mostrou: ...

  15. El pasado vivo de Chile en el año del Informe sobre la Tortura


    Pérotin-Dumon, Anne


    El pasado reciente de Chile, el de la dictadura (1973-1990), es como una sombra tendida sobre el presente. Ese pasado está saturado de la experiencia de quienes lo vivieron y lo recuerdan. El espacio en el cual nos movemos está habitado por las cosas ocurridas entonces y develadas de manera incidental, al azar de una conversación o una lectura. Dicho esto, desde 1993, fecha en que nos instalamos en Chile, fuimos testigos de un cambio considerable en la memoria social de la dictadura. La gente...

  16. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Neospora caninum in small dairy farms in central Chile


    Luis Hervé-Claude1; Alan Lavado A; Dacil Rivera O; María Navarrete-Talloni; Christopher Hamilton-West M


    Objetivos. Proveer información sobre la seroprevalencia y factores de riesgo asociados a la infección por Neospora caninum en bovinos en Chile central. Materiales y métodos. La población estudiada corresponde a pequeñas lecherías que son parte de un programa gubernamental de Asistencia Técnica (SAT), en la región de O´Higgins en Chile central. Muestras de suero fueron recolectadas desde vacas en lactancia y analizadas mediante un kit comercial ELISA. Además, se aplicó un cuestionario a los du...

  17. Germinación en semilla de chile piquín (Capsicum annuum var. aviculare).


    Cano Vázquez, Anaid


    El chile piquín es una planta silvestre que presenta ciertos mecanismos para asegurar la perpetuación de la especie. Dentro de estos mecanismos se encuentra la latencia de sus semillas. La germinación de las semillas de chile piquín presenta problemas para siembras intensivas comerciales. En este trabajo se planteó: 1) comparar diversas colectas en cuanto a su capacidad germinativa; 2) indagar si la baja germinación se debe a impermeabilidad en la semilla o a alguna característica estructura...

  18. Política educativa y profundizacion de la desigualdad en chile


    Oliva,María Angélica


    La desigualdad educativa se profundizó durante la dictadura militar en Chile. Después de 17 años del retorno a la democracia, la situación no ha remontado. Ello merece un análisis que, en este trabajo, es realizado desde la óptica deontológica, enfatizando tres aspectos: de la incidencia del conflicto entre Estado Docente y Libertad de Enseñanza y la desigualdad educativa en Chile; el rol del Estado subsidiario, una fractura en la educación como bien público y, finalmente, la Constitución de ...

  19. Explaining judicial corruption in the courts of Chile, Peru and Ecuador

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    Santiago Basabe-Serrano


    Full Text Available This article identifies the main variables that explain judicial corruption in Chile, Peru, and Ecuador. Improving the current methodological strategies used to measure judicial corruption and incorporating endogenous and exogenous variables in the model, this article argues that legal training of the judges, respect for the judicial career, and the fragmentation of political power explain different degrees of judicial corruption. Through a comparative diachronic and synchronic research design of Chile, Peru and Ecuador, the article shows institutional designs with more legal steps will be more inclined to illegal payments or other types of judicial corruption.

  20. Subastas de cierre en los mercados de renta variable de Colombia, Perú y Chile


    Posada Posada, Esteban


    Con la integración de los mercados de acciones de Colombia, Perú y Chile se dio paso al mercado integrado latinoamericano (MILA) que más allá de agrupar los tres mercados, le proporcionó a los inversionistas la posibilidad de acceder a nuevos emisores internacionales -- Analizar la subasta de cierre en los mercados de renta variable en Colombia, Perú y Chile es el objetivo de este trabajo, profundizando en cada uno de los criterios de subasta para definir el precio de cierre de las acciones l...

  1. Chile: un mercado potencial para tapones de corcho natural español


    Cabruja Avendaño, Maitane; Jang, Soocheol; Núñez Sánchez, Marta; Ramírez Bravo, Pía; Sanchis Sierra, M. Amparo


    Desarrollo del proyecto de comercio exterior sobre exportación de España a Chile de tapones de corcho para vino con la finalidad de promover el uso del tapón de corcho de alta calidad en la industria vitivinícola. Se constituyo la empresa Corchivex, S.L., como empresa que se dedica a la comercialización y distribución de tapones de corcho natural originarios de España, cuyas operaciones se basan en la exportación de tapones de corcho a países como Chile y Argentina.


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    Full Text Available Chile has participated in peacekeeping operations since 1935, before the creation of the United Nations Organization, but its participation has increased since 1991 and stronger from 2004 on occasion of the deployment of a Light Battalion as part of the Multinational Interim Force for Haiti (MIFH and later with its participation at MINUSTAH. All of this, combined with the change of the nature of the world recently, indicates that Chile will address new futures challenges in the context of the National Defense and Foreign Policy of the State.

  3. Mujeres rurales y trabajo en Chile central. Actitudes, factores y significaciones


    Fawaz-Yissi, M. J.; Rodríguez-Garcés, C.


    A pesar de la creciente incorporación de la mujer al mercado laboral, Chile registra una tasa baja departicipación femenina, comparada con países latinoamericanos y con países de la OECD. Bajo la premisade que las actitudes influyen en la decisión de trabajar, el artículo analiza los factores asociados con actitudesfavorables o desfavorables hacia el trabajo femenino en el campo, que va en aumento de forma sostenida,a partir de una encuesta a mujeres rurales de la provincia de Ñuble, Chile ce...

  4. Vida Chile 1998-2006: resultados y desafíos de la política de promoción de la salud en Chile The Vida Chile program: results and challenges with health promotion policy in Chile, 1998-2006


    Judith Salinas; Anselmo Cancino; Sergio Pezoa; Fernando Salamanca; Marina Soto


    La prioridad política otorgada por el Gobierno de Chile a la promoción de la salud se expresa en el desarrollo alcanzado por el Consejo Vida Chile y su Plan Nacional de Promoción de la Salud (PNPS). En este artículo se presenta el modelo evaluativo del PNPS chileno y sus principales resultados preliminares en el ámbito técnico y económico en el período 1998-2006. Para medir los resultados de las metas de proceso se utilizaron indicadores de cobertura (número de personas, de espacios promotore...

  5. CHILD MIGRATION: the rights to family reunification of peruvian children in Chile


    Pavez Soto, Iskra


    This article aims to analyze the ways migrant Peruvian children in Santiago, Chile experience family reunification. The article considers the various ways in which the multi-national socio-juridical structure influences and, somehow, determines child participation in this process, given children as subjects of rights and social actors. In addition, this paper aims to contribute to the debate that currently exists around the development of a new “immigration policy” in Chile. Recently, the gov...

  6. ¿Es el Chile de la post-dictadura feminista? Is post-dictatorial Chile feminist?

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    Verónica Feliu


    Full Text Available Este ensayo presenta las nuevas tendencias de los feminismos en Chile y analiza cómo pasaron a ser parte del texto social. El trabajo discute el hecho de que los discursos feministas, luego de la dictadura (1973-1990, continúan sin cuestionar la categoría "mujeres", que generaliza y suprime las diferencias de clase y raza entre ellas mismas. Tal presupuesto es analizado frente al acuerdo de los gobiernos democráticos chilenos con los intereses de la oligarquía y de la iglesia católica en la manutención del status quo.Parte de este compromiso viene restringiendo los discursos feministas a la estructura familiar nuclear, de forma que temas como clase, raza y sexualidad no alcanzan a ser enteramente problematizadas. En la medida en que las feministas chilenas no están cuestionando su lugar de enunciación, problemas como derecho reproductivo o el acceso de las mujeres al espacio público continúan siendo vistos desde una perspectiva privilegiada, que anula las discriminaciones existentes entre las mujeres.This essay is about the new trends on Chilean feminisms and how they have become part of the social text. The paper discusses how feminist discourses after dictatorship (1973-1990 remain without putting into question the category of "women" as a generalization that erases class and racial differences among women. This is analyzed in the context of the compromise made by Chilean democratic governments with the interests of oligarchy and the Catholic Church in order to maintain the status quo. Part of this compromise has constrained feminist discourses to the nuclear family frame, within which class, race and sexuality cannot be fully problematized. Since Chilean feminists are not questioning their place of enunciation, problems such as reproductive rights or women access to the public space continue to be seen from a privileged perspective that obliterates the existing discriminations among women.

  7. Interdisciplinary study of the Mw8.3 Illapel earthquake (Chile): Rheology and frictional property of the central Chile megathrust (United States)

    Poli, Piero; Frank, William; Maksymowicz, Andrei; Ruiz, Sergio; Perfettini, Hugo


    We present an interdisciplinary study for the magnitude 8.3 Illapel earthquake, which stroke the central Chile in September 2015. Our work includes historical seismicity, geological, geodetic and seismological information, and aim at deriving a quantitative seismotectonic model for the study area. We first analyze the historical seismicity, magnetic data, the bathymetry and geodetic coupling, to recognize creeping areas, located all around the M8.3 asperity. The comparison of the recognized creeping zones with earthquake swarm activity and repeating earthquakes occurring before and after the main shock, suggests that several slow slip episodes took place in the 20 years before the main shock. The same areas are recognized as barrier for the propagation of the Illapel earthquake, and accommodated the large afterslip. By combination of geological and seismological data, we recognize these creeping areas as being fluid saturated fracture zones, thus posing constrains on the rheology of the plate interface. We then perform a detailed study of aftershocks activity, to study the postseismic slip. We first build a high-resolution aftershock catalog, by using template-matching technique. We then make use of the rate and state formalism to fit the spatiotemporal evolution of aftershocks, and thus deriving quantitative information about the frictional properties of the plate interface. This novel approach is validated with GPS data, and reveals strong variation of frictional properties along the plate interface, in agreement with the presence of fluid saturated regions. These regions modulated the stress evolution before and after the main shock, and controlled the dynamic propagation the Illapel earthquake. Our study reveals the importance of interdisciplinary study of subduction zones, in providing detailed information about small-scale coupling, which can offer fundamental insights about the earthquake cycle and hazard.

  8. Rockeras en Chile: negación de la reivindicación Women Rock Musicians in Chile: Negation of Self-Assertion

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    Guadalupe Becker


    Full Text Available A través de un estudio comparativo de algunas rockeras nacionales, el presente trabajo busca reflexionar críticamente acerca del rol adjudicado a la mujer dentro de los círculos fuertemente masculinos que circundan este movimiento musical, junto con examinar cómo se refleja en performances y atributos musicales que responden a otros paradigmas simbólicos.Based on a comparative study of some women rock musicians from Chile, this article presents a critical reflection about the roles cast on women within the predominantly male rock circuits in Chile. Besides, an analysis is presented of the relationships of these roles with performances and musical attributes pertaining to other symbolic paradigms.

  9. A new species of Lioptilodes Zimmerman (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae from northern Chile Uma nova espécie de Lioptilodes Zimmerman (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae do norte do Chile

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    Héctor A. Vargas


    Full Text Available Male and female adults of a new species of Lioptilodes Zimmerman (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae are described and illustrated. Immature stages are associated with Baccharis scandens (Ruiz & Pav. Pers. (Asteraceae. The species was collected in two localities of northern Chile: near sea level in the Azapa valley, in the coastal desert of Arica Province and at 3000 m elevation in Socoroma, Parinacota Province.Os adultos macho e fêmea de uma nova espécie de Lioptilodes Zimmerman (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae são descritos e ilustrados. Os estágios imaturos estão associados com Baccharis scandens (Ruiz & Pav. Pers. (Asteraceae. A espécie foi coletada em duas localidades do norte do Chile: vale de Azapa, perto do nível do mar, no deserto litoral da Província de Arica, e aos 3000 m de altitude em Socoroma, na Província de Parinacota.

  10. How efficient are pension fund managers in Chile? Quão eficientes são os administradores de fundos de pensão no Chile?

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    Armando Barrientos


    Full Text Available The paper measures and evaluates technical efficiency among pension fund managers in Chile. Recent pension reform has established pension fund management market in nine countries in Latin America. The new pension providers compete for affiliates on the basis of fees, rates of return, and quality of service, and are subject to extensive regulation. Applying data envelopment analysis to data from Chile 1982-1999, the paper examines issues of efficiency, competition, and regulation. The analysis concludes that pension fund managers operate below the estimated "efficiency frontier", and there is no evidence of a sustained upward trend in technical efficiency over time.Este artigo se propõe a avaliar e medir a eficiência técnica dos administradores de fundos de previdência privada no Chile. A recente reforma sofrida pela previdência deu lugar a um mercado de gestão de fundos de aposentadoria em nove países da América Latina. Esses novos gestores de fundos de pensão competem por investidores através do custo de suas tarifas, dos índices de rendimento oferecidos e da qualidade do serviço prestado, estando sujeitos a uma regulamentação rigorosa. Aplicando a análise por envoltória de dados (DEA aos dados obtidos para o Chile entre 1982 e 1999, examinamos aqui as questões de eficiência, competitividade e regulamentação. Nossa análise conclui que os administradores de fundos de previdência privada operam abaixo do nível de eficiência desejado, e não há previsão de que venha a ocorrer nenhuma melhora consistente na eficiência técnica desses fundos num futuro próximo.

  11. Insects associated with chicken manure in a breeder poultry farm of Central Chile Insectos asociados a fecas de pollo en una avícola de Chile Central


    J Retamales; F Vivallo; J Robeson


    Insects are common in poultry facilities and different biosecurity measures are enforced to prevent their spread due to the fact that they may carry pathogenic agents. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to know what insects are commonly present in poultry sheds to optimize control protocols. Since information on this subject is scarce, this investigation aimed to determine the main insect taxa present in chicken manure on a major poultry farm in Central Chile. Samples of hen manure were co...

  12. Holocene distribution of Octodontid rodents in central Chile Distribución holocénica de roedores octodóntidos en Chile central




    We describe the Holocene distribution of the Octodontids Aconaemys fuscus, Octodon bridgesi, O. degus, O. lunatus, O. pacificus and Spalacopus cyanus from Central Chile. We compared ancient and present day ranges. The Holocene pattern was inferred from zooarchaeological records. Octodon degus, O. lunatus, O. bridgesi, and Aconaemys fuscus showed a reduction in their geographic range. Although specific mechanisms remain to be tested, human disturbance seems to be the distal factor that explain...

  13. Género y protección social: las transferencias condicionadas de ingresos en Chile = Gender and social protection: conditional cash transfers in Chile

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    Tabbush, Constanza


    Full Text Available Este artículo pone de manifiesto las preguntas que le plantea a una perspectiva de género, las nuevas formas de pensar la protección social en la región. Para ello, se toma como ejemplo las transferencias condicionadas de ingresos (TCI puestas en marcha en Chile. Basándose en el ejemplo del programa Puente, la estrategia inicial del sistema de protección social denominado Chile Solidario, el objetivo de este trabajo es analizar cómo estas formas de protección apelan a la participación de las mujeres para salir de la pobreza. Los hallazgos indican que la política de lucha contra la pobreza en Chile se enmarca en una visión multidimensional de la pobreza que, sin embargo, termina posicionando a las mujeres como responsables de lograr el bienestar de todos los miembros de sus hogares. Este artículo concluye proponiendo que el escenario chileno constituye un extremo ejemplo de la extensión de las responsabilidades individuales de las mujeres en la gestión de pobreza, sin proporcionarles ningún componente comunitario o colectivo

  14. Privatización de los servicios de salud: las experiencias de Chile y Costa Rica Health services privatization: the experiences of Chile and Costa Rica

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    N. Homedes


    Full Text Available El trabajo cuestiona los argumentos que justifican la privatización neoliberal de la financiación, gestión y prestación de servicios de salud, y analiza el significado y estrategias de privatización. Comparamos la privatización en Costa Rica y Chile, y en la discusión se sugiere que el modelo costarricense de privatización selectiva, limitada y concebida autóctonamente de Costa Rica lleva a un sistema de salud más solidario, equitativo, eficiente y satisfactorio para los usuarios que el modelo importado de privatización chileno.This study questions the premises that justify the neoliberal privatization of financing, managing and delivering health services. It also analyses the meaning of privatization and its strategies. We compare privatization in Chile and Costa Rica and suggest that the more limited, selective and locally designed privatization process in Costa Rica has resulted in a more equitable, and efficient health system than the imported privatization model introduced in Chile. The Costa Rican system also produces greater patient satisfaction and at the same time preserves the solidarity principle.

  15. Identidades y memorias en Londres 38, Paine y Chacabuco (Chile

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    Gloria Alejandra Ochoa Sotomayor


    Full Text Available Este artículo estudia la relación entre identidad y memoria, entendida esta última en una doble dimensión: como continuadora de identidad y como constructora de identidad. Desde esta perspectiva, el texto indaga la relación identidad-memoria en cuatro organizaciones que denuncian la violación de los derechos humanos y el terrorismo de Estado en Chile luego del golpe militar de 1973. Se analiza la relación entre la manifestación pasada de estos grupos y su expresión presente y la identidad, que se define como una sutura y un posicionamiento estratégico que permite historizar las expresiones de memoria y reflexionar respecto a ellas más allá de una aproximación contingente. A través de la memoria militante de Londres 38, la memoria campesina de Memorial Paine y la comunidad hecha memoria en el caso de Chacabuco, se postula la doble dimensión que se mencionó y se explica cómo esta permite entender las distintas aproximaciones a un hecho aceptado por las organizaciones analizadas. Así, sus características y sus particularidades, su acción y su devenir llevan a reconocer las diferencias, manifestaciones y posibilidades de estas organizaciones para mantenerse en el espacio de las narrativas sociales sobre el pasado y el presente y, principalmente, sobre las identidades de las que son expresión. Por ello, en este trabajo se señala la relevancia de reconocer la doble dimensión de la memoria. Al mismo tiempo, invita a reflexionar e indagar sobre la relación identidad-memoria mayormente aceptada y acerca de la manifestación de esta en el espacio discursivo de los nuevos contextos sociales en los que se produce y a los que cada grupo debe hacer frente.

  16. Aerosol composition and source apportionment in Santiago de Chile

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    Artaxo, Paulo; Oyola, Pedro; Martinez, Roberto


    Santiago de Chile, Sao Paulo and Mexico City are Latin American urban areas that suffer from heavy air pollution. In order to study air pollution in Santiago area, an aerosol source apportionment study was designed to measure ambient aerosol composition and size distribution for two downtown sampling sites in Santiago. The aerosol monitoring stations were operated in Gotuzo and Las Condes during July and August 1996. The study employed stacked filter units (SFU) for aerosol sampling, collecting fine mode aerosol (dp 10 mass of particles smaller than 10 μm) and black carbon concentration were also measured. Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was used to measure the concentration of 22 trace elements at levels below 0.5 ng m -3 . Quantitative aerosol source apportionment was performed using Absolute Principal Factor Analysis (APFA). Very high aerosol concentrations were observed (up to 400 μg/m 3 PM 10 ). The main aerosol particle sources in Santiago are resuspended soil dust and traffic emissions. Coarse particles account for 63% of PM 10 aerosol in Gotuzo and 53% in Las Condes. A major part of this component is resuspended soil dust. In the fine fraction, resuspended soil dust accounts for 15% of fine mass, and the aerosols associated with transportation activities account for a high 64% of the fine particle mass. Sulfate particle is an important component of the aerosol in Santiago, mainly originating from gas-to-particle conversion from SO 2 . In the Gotuzo site, sulfates are the highest aerosol component, accounting for 64.5% of fine mass. Direct traffic emissions are generally mixed with resuspended soil dust. It is difficult to separate the two components, because the soil dust in downtown Santiago is contaminated with Pb, Br, Cl, and other heavy metals that are also tracers for traffic emissions. Residual oil combustion is observed, with the presence of V, S and Ni. An aerosol components from industrial emissions is also present, with the presence of

  17. Seismic imaging of the subduction zone in Southern Central Chile (United States)

    Buske, Stefan; Gross, Kolja; Shapiro, Serge; Wigger, Peter


    We present the results of a three-component reflection seismic survey across the seismogenic coupling zone in the area of the 1960 Valdivia earthquake in Southern Central Chile (38.2 deg S). This data set has been acquired within the framework of project TIPTEQ (from The Incoming Plate to megaThrust Earthquake Processes) which aimed at deriving the structural and petrophysical properties of the hypocentral area as well as the surrounding crust and mantle. Our main focus was on the application of advanced seismic imaging techniques in order to obtain a high-resolution structural image. We have applied Kirchhoff-Prestack-Depth-Migration (KPSDM) and Fresnel-Volume-Migration (FVM) to enhance the structural image as well as Reflection-Image-Spectroscopy (RIS) to characterize the subsurface in terms of its scattering properties. The KPSDM and FVM sections show varying reflectivity along the subducting Nazca plate. Below the coast the plate interface can be observed at 25 km depth as the sharp lower boundary of a 2-5 km thick, highly reflective region which we interpret as a subduction channel. The plate interface itself can be traced down to depths of 50-60 km where we observe strong reflectivity along the plate interface as well as in the continental mantle wedge above it. The sections show a segmented forearc crust and major features in the accretionary wedge like the Lanalhue fault zone can be identified. At the eastern end of the profile a bright west-dipping reflector appears almost perpendicular to the plate interface. The same processing sequence has been applied to the horizontal wavefield components of the seismic reflection data set. The S-wave image (SS) shows basically the same features as the P-wave image (PP) with only slightly more diffuse reflectivity. The subduction channel appears in both images at almost the same depth with a similar thickness along the plate interface. The application of RIS distinguishes between the frequency-selective seismic

  18. Local democracy and Participation in Post-Authoritarian Chile

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    Herwig Cleuren


    Full Text Available Since the democratic restoration in 1990, Chilean  politics are marked by political stability, macroeconomic prosperity, and a dramatic reduction of  poverty. The government has realized these successes without creating real participatory mechanisms or citizens’ involvement. That is a unique  case in the Latin American context and challenges  the widespread conviction that citizens’ active  participation is a necessary tool to deepen democracy and to include the poor in society. This article explores a series of historical, sociological,  and political factors that can help to understand  why the current Chilean democracy has not created such channels of citizens’ participation. The  Chilean case illustrates that participatory governance is only one way of achieving the goals of a  democratic society and that citizens’ participation  may be inappropriate if there is a risk of political  destabilization and if it is unwanted by a majority  of the population. Resumen: Democracia  local y participación en el Chile post-autoritarioDesde el retorno de la democracia en 1990, la  política chilena se ha caracterizado por la estabilidad política, la prosperidad macroeconómica y  una fuerte reducción de la pobreza. El gobierno ha  logrado estos tres éxitos sin crear ningún mecanismo de participación real o de participación  ciudadana. Este es un caso único en el contexto  latinoamericano y pone en cuestión la difundida  creencia de que la participación activa de los  ciudadanos es una herramienta necesaria para  profundizar la democracia e integrar a los pobres  en la sociedad. Este artículo explora una serie de  factores históricos, sociológicos y políticos que  pueden ayudar a entender porqué la actual democracia chilena no ha creado esos canales de participación ciudadana. El caso chileno ilustra que la  gobernabilidad participativa es sólo un modo de  alcanzar los objetivos de una sociedad democr

  19. Oxidation capacity of the city air of Santiago, Chile

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    Y. F. Elshorbany


    Full Text Available The oxidation capacity of the highly polluted urban area of Santiago, Chile has been evaluated during a summer measurement campaign carried out from 8–20 March 2005. The hydroxyl (OH radical budget was evaluated employing a simple quasi-photostationary-state model (PSS constrained with simultaneous measurements of HONO, HCHO, O3, NO, NO2, j(O1D, j(NO2, 13 alkenes and meteorological parameters. In addition, a zero dimensional photochemical box model based on the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCMv3.1 has been used to estimate production rates and total free radical budgets, including OH, HO2 and RO2. Besides the above parameters, the MCM model has been constrained by the measured CO and volatile organic compounds (VOCs including alkanes and aromatics. Both models simulate the same OH concentration during daytime indicating that the primary OH sources and sinks included in the simple PSS model predominate. Mixing ratios of the main OH radical precursors were found to be in the range 0.8–7 ppbv (HONO, 0.9–11 ppbv (HCHO and 0–125 ppbv (O3. The alkenes average mixing ratio was ~58 ppbC accounting for ~12% of the total identified non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs. During the daytime (08:00 h–19:00 h, HONO photolysis was shown to be the most important primary OH radical source comprising alone ~55% of the total initial production rate, followed by alkene ozonolysis (~24% and photolysis of HCHO (~16% and O3 (~5%. The calculated average and maximum daytime OH production rates from HONO photolysis was 1.7 ppbv h−1 and 3.1 ppbv h−1, respectively. Based on the experimental results a strong photochemical daytime source of HONO is proposed. A detailed analysis of the sources of OH radical precursors has also been carried out.

  20. Redes sociales y partidos políticos en Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adler Lomnitz, Larissa


    Full Text Available En este estudio se describe el origen y la evolución de dos partidos políticos chilenos (el Partido Radical y el Partido Demócrata Cristiano por medio del análisis de las redes sociales que los originaron y que los componen. Se propone un modelo teórico que consiste en la combinación de un análisis estructural basado en el estudio de redes sociales y en la descripción del sistema simbólico que las retroalimenta. La estructura y función de las redes sociales depende de la dirección en la que se dan los intercambios -redes horizontales y redes verticales-, de lo que se intercambia, y de la articulación que se da entre las redes. En toda sociedad se dan intercambios simétricos y asimétricos, que van conformando redes horizontales y verticales. Estas redes se van articulando entre sí, conformando el tejido social. El predominio de unas sobre otras y su combinación dan el carácter a la cultura política (ejemplo, autoritaria vs. igualitaria. En el caso de Chile encontramos que se trata de una sociedad horizontalmente estructurada en clases sociales, al interior de las cuales se advierten redes sociales informales que eventualmente y por razones ideológicas se van formalizando en partidos políticos. Estos grupos igualitarios de amigos ejercen informalmente control sobre sus propios miembros creando barreras invisibles que los distinguen de los demás, y aunque si bien es cierto que en ellos surgen líderes “naturales”, su liderazgo es condicional lo que permite el surgimiento de tendencias y facciones que a su vez pueden llegar a constituirse en nuevos partidos. Por ende, el sistema depende de negociaciones horizontales permanentes mediadas por un fuerte presidencialismo dentro de un sistema parlamentario fuerte y apoyado por una legitimidad casi fanática.

  1. Evaluation of a New Mexico Landrace and Two Commercial Chile (Capsicum annuum Cultivars under Four Furrow Irrigation Schedules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Joukhadar


    Full Text Available Commercial and landrace chile (Capsicum annuum cultivars are cultivated under furrow irrigation systems in Northern New Mexico. Yield and physiological differences between commercial and landrace chile cultivars under furrow irrigation systems have not been evaluated. In 2011 and 2012 two commercial chiles, ‘Sandia’ and ‘NuMex Big Jim’, with one landrace chile, ‘Chimayo’, were evaluated under four irrigation schedules, with irrigation once every 7, 9, 11, and 13-days. These four schedules represent possible water availability for farmers in Northern New Mexico. In 2011 there were inconsistent yield patterns; fresh red chile yield of ‘Chimayo’ at the seven-day interval was 90% more than at the nine-day interval. ‘Sandia’ had 138% better yields at the seven- than at the nine-day interval. ‘Chimayo’ fresh green chile yields at the nine-day interval were 47% better than the seven-day interval. ‘NuMex Big Jim’ fresh green yields were 40% greater at the seven-day interval than the 13-day interval. In 2012 no yield components were statistically different for cultivars across irrigation intervals. This data shows commercial green and landrace chile cultivars can be furrow irrigated as water becomes available on 7, 9, 11, or 13-day intervals with no yield effect.

  2. [Epidemiological situation of foodborne diseases in Santiago, Chile in 1999-2000]. (United States)

    Prado, Valeria; Solari, Verónica; Alvarez, Isabel M; Arellano, Carolina; Vidal, Roberto; Carreño, Mónica; Mamani, Nora; Fuentes, David; O'Ryan, Miguel; Muñoz, Víctor


    Foodborne diseases are becoming an important cause of morbidity in Chile. In the Metropolitan Region of Chile, the Environmental Health Service started a surveillance program for foodborne diseases in 1994. In 2000, this program was complemented with an etiologic study of individuals involved in outbreaks. To report the incidence of foodborne outbreaks in the Metropolitan Region of Chile and its causative agents. One hundred ninety outbreaks of foodborne diseases were reported in 1999 and 260 in 2000. The Southern Metropolitan health service had the higher incidence rates (7.5 in 1999 and 8.2 in 2000). The mean attack rates were 25% in both periods, affecting 1248 individuals in 1999 and 1774 in 2000. In 18% of outbreaks, a pathogen was identified; the most frequent agents were Salmonella Spp, Staphylococcus aureus and Shigella. In 15% of subjects, the cause was histamine or chemical agents. In the rest of the cases, the cause was not identified. The foods with higher risk of causing foodborne diseases were hot prepared dishes, home made goat cheese and meats. The incidence rates of foodborne disease in Metropolitan Area of Chile are high and maybe underestimate, only in a low rate of outbreaks was possible to have samples for etiologic studies. For a better understanding of this problem, timely notification of foodborne diseases must be encouraged and educational campaigns about the proper manipulation of food items must be implemented.

  3. Una forma moderna de sociabilidad: inicio de la Masonería en Chile (1862

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Mauricio Parada Ulloa


    Full Text Available El presente estudio es un análisis heurístico e interpretativo y tiene como propósito analizar los antecedentes fundacionales de la masonería en Chile durante la segunda mitad del siglo XIX. Para ello, se identifican las vías de ingreso de los extranjeros en territorio Latinoamericano y nacional que fue a partir de los puertos del pacífico lo que permitió la fundación de logias. En el caso de Chile el ingreso de la masonería fue a través de los puertos de Valparaíso y Talcahuano, gracias a la movilidad de comerciantes, artesanos y profesionales de origen británico, francés y norteamericano, lo que permitió la llegada de la Orden a las ciudades de Concepción y Copiapó. La institucionalización de la masonería en Chile fue con la fundación de la Gran Logia de Chile en 1862, lo que favoreció la consolidación de la Orden en el país, la fundación de logias en distintas ciudades y la iniciación de chilenos durante las siguientes décadas.

  4. Phosphorus and uranium in fossils of Bahia Inglesa, Chile. Comparison with actual pieces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo L, M.


    In the phosphoric ore deposit of Bahia Inglesa, Chile, several fossils of selaqueous teeth and cetaceous bones have been recognized. Whales and sharks fossil and their present equivalent parts were submitted to chemical analysis and compared regarding some elements. A discussion about the deposit's origin, is presented. (M.C.K.)

  5. The Women of Villa Paula Jaraquemada: Building Community in Chile's Transition to Democracy. (United States)

    Finn, Janet L.


    Women participating in grassroots community development in Chile received financial aid, training, and technical assistance in housing, repair and community organization. Relationships and gender played a powerful role in community change. However, their experiences illustrated the constraints on local action. (Contains 31 references.) (SK)

  6. Determinants of Persistence and the Role of Financial Aid: Lessons from Chile (United States)

    Santelices, María Verónica; Catalán, Ximena; Kruger, Diana; Horn, Catherine


    This article explores the determinants of persistence in the Chilean higher education system, considering academic and socio-demographic factors as well as the role of financial aid. The financial aid policy for students in Chile has undergone major changes over the last decade, which has allowed individuals from usually underrepresented income…

  7. A gendered look at workplace mental health in Chile | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A team of Canadian and Chilean researchers examined workplace mental health in Chile. Chilean and Canadian researchers joined forces to investigate the impacts of paid and unpaid work on the mental health of Chilean workers, paying particular attention to gender issues. The researchers worked to encourage the ...

  8. Transboundary protected area proposals along the Southern Andes of Chile and Argentina: Status of current efforts (United States)

    Peter Keller


    An evolving network of protected areas along the southern Andes of Chile and Argentina-the heart of Patagonia-are in various stages of evaluation and potential Transboundary Protected Area designations. This paper examines three such efforts. The first proposal is the North Andean-Patagonia Regional Eco-Corridor, which was the subject of a recent bilateral meeting...

  9. Analyzing the cost effectiveness of Santiago, Chile's policy of using urban forests to improve air quality (United States)

    Francisco J. Escobedo; John E. Wagner; David J. Nowak; Carmen Luz De la Maza; Manuel Rodriguez; Daniel E. Crane


    Santiago, Chile has the distinction of having among the worst urban air pollution problems in Latin America. As part of an atmospheric pollution reduction plan, the Santiago Regional Metropolitan government defined an environmental policy goal of using urban forests to remove particulate matter less than 10 µm (PM10) in the Gran...

  10. 77 FR 22663 - Importation of Pomegranates From Chile Under a Systems Approach (United States)


    ... associated with the importation of pomegranates from Chile. E-Government Act Compliance The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service is committed to compliance with the E-Government Act to promote the use of the... Government information and services, and for other purposes. For information pertinent to E-Government Act...





    Esta investigación de sociología comprensiva descansa sobre una encuesta de terreno conducida en 22 escuelas secundarias municipales. subvencionadas y particulares. de Santiago de Chile entre 2002 y 2005. El sentido de la violencia constituye su objeto. L 147p.

  12. Top educacion policy in chile: between la calidad, fairness and curriculum innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Verónica Leiva Guerrero


    Full Text Available This is a discussion about the academic reality of Chile from 1981. The expansion and diversification of the level of higher education as a product of public policy of Chile from the year 1981 of the twentieth century, continues acentudanda during the last decades in the 3 types of institutions of education: university, professional institutes and technical training centers that are structured in called'sistema superior' from the profound legislative changes in the military government in the 80s the aim of the debate is presented to analyze this policy of higher education discussing quality, equity and curriculum innovation in three models of higher education existing in Chile. Higher Education Institutions are defined as centers of excellence, oriented research, teacher training; at the intermediate level are in professional institutes responsible for vocational training to higher education and basic technical training centers, in charge of technical training. The process of expansion of higher education in Chile has had 14% of 18-24 year olds in 1990; 24% in 2000 and 29% in 2010.

  13. Partners assume risks, lower finance costs of delayed coker-cogeneration project in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alveal, E.D. [Petrox SA Refineria de Petroleo, Concepcion (Chile); Karpenski, M.J. [Foster Wheeler Power Systems Inc., Clinton, NJ (United States)


    Foster Wheeler Power Systems Inc., and its partners--Petrox SA Refineria de Petroleo and Empresa Nacional de Petroleo (ENAP), the Chilean national oil company--closed on the financing of Petropower Energia Limitada, a $237 million financed combination delayed coker-cogeneration facility. The facility is now under construction adjacent to Petrox`s 84,000 b/d Talcahuano refinery, near Concepcion. In addition to the low interest rate of 7.36%--only 170 basis points over the 10 year US Treasury yield--the project was rated investment-grade by Standard and Poor`s. The Petropower project also has the distinction of having the longest term--18 years--for any project financing in Latin America. The project is unique in other ways: it is the Republic of Chile`s first public/private partnership and also the first project to combine petroleum coking technology with cogeneration technology in a single project financing. The paper discusses risk assumption, the Petropower project, organization, delayed coker facility, hydrotreater unit, cogeneration facility, environmental assessment, Chile`s changing market, and project benefit.

  14. Gender Systems and Women's Labor Force Participation in the Salmon Industry in Chiloe, Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramirez, E.; Ruben, R.


    This paper, which follows the emergence of the salmon industry in the 1990s in Chiloe, Chile, demonstrates that factors restricting women's participation in labor force and wage differences between women and men are related to the gender systems operating in Chiloe. Results indicate that these

  15. Propensity of University Students in the Region of Antofagasta, Chile to Create Enterprise (United States)

    Romani, Gianni; Didonet, Simone; Contuliano, Sue-Hellen; Portilla, Rodrigo


    The authors aim to discuss the propensity or intention to create enterprise among university students in the region of Antofagasta, Chile, and to analyze the factors that influence the step from desire to intention. 681 students were surveyed. The data were analyzed by binary logistical regression. The results show that curriculum is among the…

  16. Population study of the filamentous sulfur bacteria Thioploca spp. off the Bay of Concepcion, Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, HN; Strotmann, B.; Gallardo, VA


    A population of filamentous sulfur bacteria Thioploca spp. living in the Bay of Concepcion, Chile, and the adjoining shelf area was sampled for 14 mo at 4 to 6 wk intervals to investigate the influence of seasonal variations in upwelling intensity and oxygen concentrations on the population...

  17. Bayesian inference on the effect of density dependence and weather on a guanaco population from Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zubillaga, Maria; Skewes, Oscar; Soto, Nicolás


    on a time series of 36 years of population sampling of guanacos in Tierra del Fuego, Chile. The population density varied between 2.7 and 30.7 guanaco/km², with an apparent monotonic growth during the first 25 years; however, in the last 10 years the population has shown large fluctuations, suggesting...

  18. The shallow-water chitons (Mollusca, Polyplacophora of Caldera, Region of Atacama, northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Araya


    Full Text Available The Molluscan species of the northern littoral of Chile have been sparsely studied. This work reviews for the first time the diversity of polyplacophoran molluscs around the port of Caldera, in the Region of Atacama (26°45’49”S; 70°45’17”W to 27°20’23”S; 70°56’46”W, northern Chile. Eleven species were found in this study: Acanthopleura echinata (Barnes, 1824; Callistochiton pulchellus (Gray, 1828; Calloplax vivipara (Plate, 1899, Chaetopleura peruviana (Lamarck, 1819; Chiton cumingsii Frembly, 1827; Chiton granosus Frembly, 1827; Chiton magnificus Deshayes, 1827; Enoplochiton niger (Barnes, 1824, Radsia barnesii (Gray, 1828, Tonicia atrata (G. B. Sowerby II, 1840 and Tonicia chilensis (Frembly, 1827. All of the species occurring in the area have distributions in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, from Ecuador to central Chile, and three of them are species endemic to the Chilean coasts (Calloplax vivipara, Radsia barnesii, and Tonicia atrata. This diversity of species is comparable to that of better surveyed faunas of central and southern Chile or Patagonia. Of the eleven species recorded, the geographic distribution records for Callistochiton pulchellus, Radsia barnesii and Tonicia atrata are extended, and Calloplax vivipara is found alive again after 40 years, filling a gap in its known distribution. Illustrations of living specimens in their habitat, distribution records and a taxonomic key for all the studied taxa are also provided.

  19. Family eating habits, family support and subjective well-being in university students in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta; Höger, Yesly; Orellana, Ligia


    Aim: To characterize typologies of university students according to the perception of their families’ eating habits. Material and method: A questionnaire was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 372 students of both genders at the Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile. The instrument...

  20. Sistemas de producción de carne bovina en el sur de Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toro-Mujica, P. M.; Vera, R.; Vargas-Bello-Peréz, E.


    Beef cattle production systems in a major pastoral area of Southern Chile are identified and characterized based on groups of land use combinations. The objective of this study was to identify, characterize and describe the evolution of beef cattle production systems in the Araucania region...

  1. Education in Translation: Being an Experiential Environmental Educator in Chile. Perspectives. (United States)

    Silberman, Alejandra


    A young woman educated in North America who came to Chile to teach experiential environmental education realized that she would have to reconcile her educational ideals with the reality of Chilean culture, which does not support questioning, critical thinking, gender equality, democratic participation, or self-directed learning--the underpinnings…

  2. First record of the German cockroach Blattella germanica Linnaeus, 1767 in Coquimbo, Coquimbo Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Pérez


    Full Text Available This study describes the first formal record of the German cockroach in Coquimbo and La Serena, Coquimbo Region, northern Chile. Here, I also briefly discussed the sanitary implications that the occurrence of this insect could have in the Coquimbo Region.

  3. An empirical analysis of primary and secondary pharmaceutical patents in Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Abud

    Full Text Available We analyze the patent filing strategies of foreign pharmaceutical companies in Chile distinguishing between "primary" (active ingredient and "secondary" patents (patents on modified compounds, formulations, dosages, particular medical uses, etc.. There is prior evidence that secondary patents are used by pharmaceutical originator companies in the U.S. and Europe to extend patent protection on drugs in length and breadth. Using a novel dataset that comprises all drugs registered in Chile between 1991 and 2010 as well as the corresponding patents and trademarks, we find evidence that foreign originator companies pursue similar strategies in Chile. We find a primary to secondary patents ratio of 1:4 at the drug-level, which is comparable to the available evidence for Europe; most secondary patents are filed over several years following the original primary patent and after the protected active ingredient has obtained market approval in Chile. This points toward effective patent term extensions through secondary patents. Secondary patents dominate "older" therapeutic classes like anti-ulcer and anti-depressants. In contrast, newer areas like anti-virals and anti-neoplastics (anti-cancer have a much larger share of primary patents.

  4. Effects of volcanic and hydrologic processes on forest vegetation: Chaitén Volcano, Chile (United States)

    Frederick J. Swanson; Julia A. Jones; Charles M. Crisafulli; Antonio. Lara


    The 2008-2009 eruption of Chaiten Volcano (Chile) involved a variety of volcanic and associated hydrologic processes that damaged nearby forests. These processes included coarse (gravel) and fine (silt to sand) tephra fall, a laterally directed blast, fluvial deposition of remobilized tephra, a variety of low-temperature mass-movement processes, and a pyroclastic flow...

  5. Chile : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: WATER DISTRIBUTION, Natural Resources, WATER UTILIZATION, WATER SUPPLY, LAND REFORM, DATA COLLECTING, INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH, Capacity building. Région: Chile, South America, North and Central ... Date de début : 23 mars 2012. End Date: 23 septembre 2014. Sujet: TOBACCO ...

  6. Reflecting on the Japan-Chile Task-Based Telecollaboration Project for Beginner-Level Learners (United States)

    Dunne, B. Greg


    Using O'Dowd and Ritter's (2006) Inventory of Reasons for Failed Communication in Telecollaborative Projects as a barometer, this article details the considerations and procedures followed in a task-based, asynchronous email telecollaboration project between EFL (English as a Foreign Language) learners in Japan and Chile. In a climate where…

  7. [First report of Montagnea arenaria (D.C.) Zeller (Agaricales) in Chile]. (United States)

    Madrid Lorca, Hugo; Muñoz, Mélica


    Montagnea arenaria (D.C.) Zeller (Agaricales), an interesting basidiomycete adapted to arid environments is recorded for the first time from a sample collected on sandy soil in the northern zone of Chile. Its mature fruiting body is described. Taxonomic and ecological comments are also addressed.

  8. 2017 Valparaíso earthquake sequence and the megathrust patchwork of central Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nealy, Jennifer L.; Herman, Matthew W.; Moore, Ginevra L.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Benz, Harley M.; Bergman, Eric A.; Barrientos, Sergio E.


    In April 2017, a sequence of earthquakes offshore Valparaíso, Chile, raised concerns of a potential megathrust earthquake in the near future. The largest event in the 2017 sequence was a M6.9 on 24 April, seemingly colocated with the last great-sized earthquake in the region—a M8.0 in March 1985.

  9. Christian Education in Chile: Is the Seventh-Day Adventist System at Risk? (United States)

    Grajales G., Tevni; Leon V., Vicente H.; Elias, Galiya


    Diverse perspectives with respect to Christian Education constitute a potential path for misunderstanding and contradictions; this study considers this situation in the context of a Seventh-day Adventist Christian system with students and parents from different religious perspectives in Chile. The parents/sponsors of the eighth graders were…

  10. [Nontraumatic deaths associated with a natural catastrophe. The experience of the earthquake in Chile 1985]. (United States)

    Carrasco, R; González, J; Cumsille, F; Concha, M; de la Fuente, M; Spencer, P; Verdejo, G


    We analyzed causes of death before and after the March 1985 earthquake in Valparaíso, Chile. Causes of death were obtained from death certificates. Apart from death directly due to trauma during the earthquake, a significant increase was observed in deaths due to accidents (+51), cardiovascular disease (+38), malnutrition (+13) and psychiatric disorders (+13). Retired males over age 65 were most affected.

  11. Aftershocks of Chile's Earthquake for an Ongoing, Large-Scale Experimental Evaluation (United States)

    Moreno, Lorenzo; Trevino, Ernesto; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Mendive, Susana; Reyes, Joaquin; Godoy, Felipe; Del Rio, Francisca; Snow, Catherine; Leyva, Diana; Barata, Clara; Arbour, MaryCatherine; Rolla, Andrea


    Evaluation designs for social programs are developed assuming minimal or no disruption from external shocks, such as natural disasters. This is because extremely rare shocks may not make it worthwhile to account for them in the design. Among extreme shocks is the 2010 Chile earthquake. Un Buen Comienzo (UBC), an ongoing early childhood program in…

  12. Governmental Use of Cartoons in Chile as a Means of Informing and Persuading Voters. (United States)

    Schnell, Jim

    In an electoral process in 1988 and 1989, voters replaced General Augusto Pinochet as leader of Chile. The use of political cartoons by both pro- and anti-Pinochet forces is explored in this paper. Cartoons have long been recognized as a form of mass communication. In the Chilean elections cartoons played an important role in the battle for the…

  13. Indigenous Schooling Grants in Chile: The Impacts of an Integrationist Affirmative Action Policy among Mapuche Pupils (United States)

    Webb, Andrew


    This article assesses the extent to which indigenous grants administered to school pupils and university students in Chile can be considered affirmative action towards social justice. Drawing on Fraser's framework for parity of participation, I question whether the grants are able to provide both redistribution and recognition for indigenous…

  14. A snapshot of cancer in Chile: analytical frameworks for developing a cancer policy. (United States)

    Jimenez de la Jara, Jorge; Bastias, Gabriel; Ferreccio, Catterina; Moscoso, Cristian; Sagues, Sofia; Cid, Camilo; Bronstein, Eduardo; Herrera, Cristian; Nervi, Bruno; Corvalan, Alejandro; Velasquez, Ethel V; Gonzalez, Pamela; Castellon, Enrique; Bustamante, Eva; Oñate, Sergio; McNerney, Eileen; Sullivan, Richard; Owen, Gareth I


    The South American country Chile now boasts a life expectancy of over 80 years. As a consequence, Chile now faces the increasing social and economic burden of cancer and must implement political policy to deliver equitable cancer care. Hindering the development of a national cancer policy is the lack of comprehensive analysis of cancer infrastructure and economic impact. Evaluate existing cancer policy, the extent of national investigation and the socio-economic impact of cancer to deliver guidelines for the framing of an equitable national cancer policy. Burden, research and care-policy systems were assessed by triangulating objective system metrics--epidemiological, economic, etc.--with political and policy analysis. Analysis of the literature and governmental databases was performed. The oncology community was interviewed and surveyed. Chile utilizes 1% of its gross domestic product on cancer care and treatment. We estimate that the economic impact as measured in Disability Adjusted Life Years to be US$ 3.5 billion. Persistent inequalities still occur in cancer distribution and treatment. A high quality cancer research community is expanding, however, insufficient funding is directed towards disproportionally prevalent stomach, lung and gallbladder cancers. Chile has a rapidly ageing population wherein 40% smoke, 67% are overweight and 18% abuse alcohol, and thus the corresponding burden of cancer will have a negative impact on an affordable health care system. We conclude that the Chilean government must develop a national cancer strategy, which the authors outline herein and believe is essential to permit equitable cancer care for the country.

  15. Fostering Innovation in Chile: OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 454 (United States)

    Benavente, Jose-Miguel; de Mello, Luiz; Mulder, Nanno


    A good framework for investment in innovation can contribute to increasing Chile's growth potential. Spending on R&D is currently low in relation to GDP and heavily reliant on government financing. Innovation activity in the business sector is also limited by insufficient seed and venture capital and human capital constraints. This is despite…

  16. Paulo Freire in Chile, 1964-1969: "Pedagogy of the Oppressed" in Its Sociopolitical Economic Context (United States)

    Holst, John D.


    In this article, John Holst presents findings of his historical research on Paulo Freire's educational work in Chile from 1964 to 1969. Freire's "Education as the Practice of Freedom", which was written in 1965 from notes he brought from Brazil, was informed by a liberal developmentalist outlook. In contrast, his "Pedagogy of the…

  17. Financial liberalization and financial fragility : the experiences of Chile and Indonesia compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpt, van Ingmar; Visser, Hans


    The far-reaching liberalization process introduced in Chile after the overthrow of the Allende regime first met with reasonable success, but in theearly 1980s a foreign-exchange crisis and a banking crisis appeared to mark the end of the experiment. Liberalization was resumed in 1985 and has notbeen

  18. Chile's High Growth Economy: Poverty and Income Distribution, 1987-1998. A World Bank Country Study. (United States)

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    Chile has an outstanding record in reducing poverty, having cut the poverty rate in half in the 11 years ended 1998. Poverty is a multi-dimensional concept, including both income and access to social services and education, as well as such intangibles as empowerment and social capital. This study presents a quantitative assessment of…

  19. The adaptive capacity of institutions in Canada, Argentina, and Chile to droughts and floods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurlbert, M.; Gupta, J.

    The increasing evidence of global warming calls on all states to enhance their adaptive capacity to deal with climate change. This paper compares the adaptive capacity of two Canadian provinces, the province of Mendoza, Argentina and the administrative region of Coquimbo, Chile in relation to the

  20. Quality Assurance for Postgraduate Programs: Design of a Model Applied on a University in Chile (United States)

    Careaga Butter, Marcelo; Meyer Aguilera, Eduardo; Badilla Quintana, María Graciela; Jiménez Pérez, Laura; Sepúlveda Valenzuela, Eileen


    The quality of Education in Chile is a controversial topic that has been in the public debate in the last several years. To ensure quality in graduate programs, accreditation is compulsory. The current article presents a model to improve the process of self-regulation. The main objective was to design a Model of Quality Assurance for Postgraduate…