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Sample records for chile desde salmonella

  1. Draft Genome Sequences of 33 Salmonella enterica Clinical and Wildlife Isolates from Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Toro, Magaly; Retamal, Patricio; Allard, Marc; Brown, Eric W.; Evans, Peter; Gonzalez-Escalona, Narjol

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica causes health problem worldwide. The relationships among strains that are from the same serotype but different hosts, countries, and continents remain elusive. Few genome sequences are available from S. enterica isolates from South America. Therefore, we sequenced the genomes of 33 strains from diverse sources isolated in Chile and determined that they were of different serotypes. These genomes will improve phylogenetic analysis of Salmonella strains from Chile and the res...

  2. VINOS EN CHILE DESDE LA INDEPENDENCIA HASTA EL FIN DE LA BELLE ÉPOQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN RICARDO COUYOUMDJIAN

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La producción, importación y consumo de vinos experimentaron cambios significativos en el período que va entre la Independencia y la víspera de la Primera Guerra Mundial. En este trabajo se estudia la introducción de nuevas cepas y los cambios en las técnicas de vinificación desde mediados del siglo XIX. El desglose de las cifras de producción anual por provincia permite apreciar la difusión de las nuevas cepas, mientras que testimonios contemporáneos advierten sobre las diferencias en las calidades del producto. Las cifras de importación para los distintos tipos y envases de vinos reflejan estos cambios. La internación de tintos a granel experimenta una caída sistemática desde la década del 1870, no así el champaña que aún no se fabricaba en Chile. Más significativa es la creciente figuración de los vinos nacionales en los menús de los banquetes oficiales y sociales en el períodoThe production, imports and consumption of wine underwent significant changes in the years between Independence and the eve of the First World War. This article studies the introduction into Chile of new varieties of vines, and changes in winemaking techniques from the middle of the 19th century onwards. Annual production figures from the different provinces show the gradual penetration of the new varieties, and contemporary sources attest to the differences in the quality of the wines. Import figures for the different types of wine reflect these changes. Imports of plain red wines, though not for champagnes, show a steady decline from the 1870s. More tellingly, Chilean wines were increasingly served in official and social banquets during this period as indicated in the corresponding menus

  3. Cultura material y migrantes peruanos en Chile: un proceso de integración desde el hogar

    OpenAIRE

    Bonhomme, Macarena

    2014-01-01

    El presente artículo busca profundizar las formas en que migrantes peruanos en Chile habitan su espacio privado desde una perspectiva de cultura material, a través del análisis de las posesiones del hogar y la comida. La cultura material del hogar encarna tanto su experiencia y trayectoria migratoria como el proceso de integración en la sociedad chilena, representando el continuo proceso de ajuste que deben enfrentar en términos culturales, sociales y materiales. Los resultados muestran que l...

  4. Horizontes de posibilidad de la mentoría en Chile: análisis de la experiencia piloto desde la perspectiva del discurso

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Gloria Núñez; Mauricio Pino; Verónica López

    2011-01-01

    A lo largo de la historia de Chile es posible identificar diversos discursos sobre la formación docente. Una reciente modalidad es la mentoría, en la cual un profesor con experiencia trabaja con un profesor que recién ingresa al sistema educativo. En este artículo presentamos un análisis discursivo desde una perspectiva foucaultiana, de la sistematización de un programa piloto realizado en dos regiones de Chile. Del análisis se concluye que los horizontes de posibilidad desde los cuales emerg...

  5. Relaciones entre los determinantes de la calidad de las universidades: un estudio exploratorio desde Chile

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    Emilio Rodríguez Ponce

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación es describir la relación entre la calidad de la docencia de pregrado, de la investigación, del postgrado, la vinculación con el medio, y la gestión institucional. Para este efecto, se trabaja con una muestra de 45 universidades chilenas, que han participado en los procesos de acreditación institucional dirigidos por la Comisión Nacional de Acreditación de Chile. Se dirigió un cuestionario con preguntas de tipo Likert con el fin de ser contestado por un miembro del equipo de gestión. La información obtenida fue procesada, en primera instancia por un análisis descriptivo de las variables y posteriormente se efectuó un análisis de correlaciones bivariadas de Pearson. Los resultados de la investigación sugieren que existe una correlación estadísticamente significativa y directa entre: docencia de pregrado, investigación, postgrado y gestión institucional. Se concluye que estos cuatro determinantes de la calidad están directa y significativamente relacionados entre sí. La vinculación con el medio se relaciona de manera significativa e inversa con la investigación.

  6. Algunas tendencias del catolicismo social en Chile: reflexiones desde la historia

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    ANDREA BOTTO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En este ensayo queremos proponer una mirada diferente a lo que se ha entendido de la relación entre catolicismo social y los grupos que lo han sustentado. En la década de 1930, por diversos motivos, surgieron desde una especial generación de jóvenes católicos chilenos vinculados al conservadurismo, diferentes grupos que interpretaron a su manera cómo llevar a la práctica las doctrinas sociales dictadas desde Roma. Esas diferentes interpretaciones generaron una división profunda en el catolicismo chileno, que trascendió hasta el mundo de la política y generaron profundos resentimientos que subsistieron por varias décadas. Se propone aquí un recorrido sobre esas posiciones que nos servirá para entender parte del proceso que ha vivido el catolicismo nacional en el siglo XX, y para comprender el origen de algunas posturas que continúan vigentes en aquel espectro católico vinculado a posturas más tradicionales y conservadoras.In this essay, the author proposes a different perspective on what has been understood up to now regarding the relationship between Social Catholicism and the groups that have sustained it. In the decade of the 1930s, for diverse motives, different groups emerged from a special generation of young Chilean Catholics linked to a hard-line conservatism. These groups interpreted in their own ways how to put into practice the social doctrines dictated by Rome. Those different interpretations generated a deep división within Chilean Catholicism which transcended into the world of politics and generated deep resentments that subsisted for several decades. A review of those positions is proposed here, serving to help us understand part of the process that national Catholicism lived out in the 20th century, and comprehend the origin of some positions that are still current in that Catholic spectrum linked to more traditional and conservative postures.

  7. Alteridad, Infancia y Delincuencia: Análisis discursivo desde programas sociales hacia infancias en Chile

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    Boris Valdenegro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue explorar los procesos de construcción de alteridad hacia las infancias a partir de los discursos de interventores sociales, considerando la multiplicidad de tensiones existentes entre las representaciones de las infancias y las prácticas de intervención. Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas a cuatro profesionales que trabajan en programas de intervención en libertad asistida, generándose un corpus textual que fue estudiado mediante Análisis de Discurso. Los resultados descriptivos muestran la emergencia de polaridades en tensión: sujeto permeable v/s duro; y sujeto autoactualizable v/s carenciado; lo que deja en evidencia la complejidad del tránsito desde una visión minorista/garantista en el aspecto sociocultural y jurídico, y la tensión en el ejercicio deconstructivo que realizan los interventores, quienes finalmente desarrollan nuevos procesos de naturalización que replican la acción de esencializar al otro en la intervención.

  8. Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The background notes on Chile provide a statistical summary of the population, geography, government, and the economy, and more descriptive text on the history, population, government, economy, defense, and foreign relations. In brief, Chile has 13.3 million Spanish Indian (Mestizos), European, and Indian inhabitants and an annual growth rate of 1.6%. 96% are literate. Infant mortality is 18/1000. 34% of the population are involved in industry and commerce, 30% in services, 19% in agriculture and forestry and fishing, 7% in construction, and 2% in mining. The major city is Santiago. The government, which gained independence in 1810, is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches. There are 12 regions. There are 6 major political parties. Suffrage is universal at 18 years. Gross domestic product (GDP) is $29.2 billion. The annual growth rate is 5% and inflation is 19%. Copper, timber, fish, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, and molybdenum are its natural resources. Agricultural products are 9% of GDP and include wheat, potatoes, corn, sugar beets, onions, beans, fruits, and livestock. Industry is 21% of GDP and includes mineral refining, metal manufacturing, food and fish processing, paper and wood products, and finished textiles. $8.3 billion is the value of exports and $7 billion of imports. Export markets are in Japan, the US, Germany, Brazil, and the United Kingdom. Chile received $3.5 billion in economic aid between 1949-85, but little in recent years. 83% live in urban centers, principally around Santiago. Congressional representation is made on the basis of elections by a unique binomial majority system. Principal government officials are identified. Chile has a diversified free market economy and is almost self-sufficient in food production. The US is a primary trading partner. 49% of Chile's exports are minerals. Chile maintains diplomatic relations with 70 countries, however, relations are strained with Argentina and Bolivia. Relations

  9. Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Chile is a long (2650 miles), narrow (250 miles at widest point) country sandwiched between the Andes mountains and the Pacific. The northern desert is rich in copper and nitrates; the temperate middle region is agricultural and supports the major cities, including Santiago, the capital, and the port of Valparaiso; and the southern region is a cold and damp area of forests, grasslands, lakes, and fjords. The country is divided into 12 administrative regions. Chile's population of 12.5 million are mainly of Spanish or Indian descent or mestizos. Literacy is 92.3%, and the national language is Spanish. Infant mortality is 18.1/1000, and life expectancy is 68.2 years. 82% of the people are urban, and most are Roman Catholics. Chile was settled by the Spanish in 1541 and attached to the Viceroyalty of Peru. Independence was won in 1818 under the leadership of Bernardo O'Higgins. In the 1880s Chile extended its sovereignty over the Strait of Magellan in the south and areas of southern Peru and Bolivia in the north. An officially parliamentary government, elected by universal suffrage, drifted into oligarchy and finally into a military dictatorship under Carlos Ibanez in 1924. Constitutional government was restored in 1932. The Christian Democratic government of Eduardo Frei (1964-70) inaugurated major reforms, including land redistribution, education, and far-reaching social and economic policies. A Marxist government under Salvador Allende lasted from 1970 to 1973 when the present military government of General Pinochet Ugarte took power, overthrew Allende, abolished the Congress, and banned political parties. It has moved the country in the direction of a free market economy but at the cost of systematic violations of human rights. A new constitution was promulgated in 1981, and congressional elections have been scheduled for October, 1989. A "National Accord for Transition to Full Democracy" was mediated by the Catholic Church in 1985. The social reforms of the

  10. Análisis comparado de la situación educativa en Chile y Argentina desde la década del 90

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    Soledad Rappoport

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la evolución de los sistemas educativos en Argentina y Chile desde la década de 1990 hasta la actualidad. Se realiza una descripción del contexto socioeconómico, histórico y educativo de ambos países y se comparan indicadores del funcionamiento de los sistemas educativos. Finalmente, se identifican convergencias y divergencias de las últimas leyes educativas implantadas para la reforma de los sistemas y se sugieren posibles cursos y consecuencias de las acciones propuestas por estas leyes.This article discusses the evolution of the education systems in Argentina and Chile since the 90s. It describes the historical context in the two countries and compares their education performance indicators. Finally, the article identifies convergences and divergences of the recent education legislation implemented in both countries and discusses their potential impact.

  11. Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    In 1985, Chile's population stood at 12 million, with an annual growth rate of 1.7%. 1984's infant mortality rate was 20/1000 live births and life expectancy was 67 years. The literacy rate was 94%. Of the work force of 3,841,000 in 1985, 15.9% were engaged in agriculture, forestry, and fishing; 31.3% were employed in industry and commerce; 38.6% were in the service sector; 8.7% worked in mining; and 4.4% were employed in construction. Chile's military junta is scheduled to be replaced by an elected legislature in 1990. The GDP was US $19.2 billion in 1984, with an annual real growth rate of 6.3%, and per capita GDP stood at US$1590. Inflation averages 23%. Industry comprises 21% of the GDP. Longterm prospects for the Chilean economy are influenced by a high debt service ratio, very low domestic savings and investment, the prospect of little or no increase in copper prices, and continuing problems in the domestic financial sector. In 1985-88, under the International Monetary Fund macroeconomic program, Chile will strive for moderate economic growth while managing its external debt servicing burden. PMID:12178144

  12. Horizontes de posibilidad de la mentoría en Chile: análisis de la experiencia piloto desde la perspectiva del discurso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Gloria Núñez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A lo largo de la historia de Chile es posible identificar diversos discursos sobre la formación docente. Una reciente modalidad es la mentoría, en la cual un profesor con experiencia trabaja con un profesor que recién ingresa al sistema educativo. En este artículo presentamos un análisis discursivo desde una perspectiva foucaultiana, de la sistematización de un programa piloto realizado en dos regiones de Chile. Del análisis se concluye que los horizontes de posibilidad desde los cuales emergen las prácticas de dicha experiencia, configuran un discurso de la formación en el cual el profesor debe ser capaz de gestionar su propio trabajo, del desarrollo docente como un emprendimiento individual. Estos horizontes de posibilidad promueven ciertas prácticas para la mentoría, como la problematización del trabajo individual docente en el aula; pero limitan otras, como la problematización colectiva de las políticas educativas.

  13. Diversidad genética de cepas de Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App aisladas desde planteles de producción intensiva de cerdos en Chile Genetic diversity of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App strains in intensive swine farms in Chile

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    V Neira-Ramírez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App es el agente etiológico de la pleuroneumonía contagiosa porcina, una de las enfermedades de etiología bacteriana de mayor relevancia en producción porcina. En el mundo se han descrito 15 serotipos de App, en Chile solo los serotipos 1 y 5. La serotipificación requiere mucho tiempo, trabajo y dinero, actualmente se encuentran herramientas moleculares para realizar una "serotipificación" mediante la genotipificación de toxinas Apx. Así, se evaluaron 60 aislados de App provenientes de nueve empresas porcinas de producción intensiva distribuidas en distintas regiones de Chile, obtenidas desde pulmones de cerdos con lesiones compatibles con pleuroneumonía contagiosa porcina. Las bacterias fueron aisladas mediante los métodos tradicionales y confirmados por API, recolectados durante los años 2007, 2008 y 2009. Los resultados identificaron los genotipos correspondientes sólo a los serotipos 4, 6 y 7, los cuales se describen por primera vez en Chile, siendo el más frecuente el serotipo 7. En las diferentes zonas estudiadas, no existió un serotipo predominante, excepto en las regiones de O'Higgins y del Biobío en las cuales fue más frecuentemente aislado el serotipo 7. El presente estudio es el primer acercamiento con el fin de conocer la distribución de serotipos de App en Chile. Con el fin de conocer la real diversidad genética y serotipos de App en los diversos planteles en Chile es necesario realizar estudios que contemplen un mayor número de aislados.Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App is the etiologic agent of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, an important bacterial disease in intensive pig production. In the world were described 15 App serotypes, in Chile serotypes 1 and 5 have been reported. The serotyping technique is slow, expensive and difficult; currently, a molecular tool named PCR is available to "serotyping" by Apx toxins genotyping, which is quick, non-expensive and easy. 60 App

  14. LA UNIVERSIDAD Y LA FORMACIÓN EN LOS ACTUALES CONTEXTOS NEOLIBERALES: UNA INTERPRETACIÓN DESDE LA HISTORIA RECIENTE DE CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez, Sara Godoy

    2013-01-01

    En Chile desde la década de los ochenta, debido a la instauración del modelo Neoliberal, la Educación Superior prepara el capital humano con los más altos niveles de calificación, para un mundo laboral previamente desigual y, se constituye a su vez, en una interesante área de la inversión de capital, por el aumento de la demanda de matrícula y de construcción de nueva infraestructura. Estos datos sobre las bases materiales en las que se inscribe la gestión de la Educación Superior se vinculan...

  15. Los significados de “ser niña y niño migrante”: conceptualizaciones desde la infancia peruana en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Pavez Soto, Iskra

    2014-01-01

    En cada contexto son diversas las formas de ser niña y niño. El objetivo de este artículo es reflexionar sobre los significados que implica el “ser migrante” para las niñas y los niños peruanos en Chile, considerando los procesos de integración social desde la perspectiva generacional y cómo cambia el concepto de infancia en contextos transnacionales. Mediante observación participante y entrevistas semiestructuradas con 16 niñas y niños peruanos, de 9 a 16 años de edad, se concluye que existe...

  16. Expansión Hare Krishna en contextos de crisis: resignificando la movilización social desde una perspectiva religiosa en Chile

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    Bahamondes González, Luis Andrés

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the expansion of the Hare Krishna movement in Santiago, Chile, analysing mobilization discourse and mechanisms adopted in the face of the social upheavals of the new millennium. It seeks to understand not only recent internal transformation of the Hare Krishna movement, but also to identify social action strategies and independent policies concerning social issues in the public arena. We will analyse the active position the religious group has embraced in a context of growing social demands and how its actions are guided by the philosophical and spiritual conception of its doctrine.La presente investigación se focalizará en la expansión del movimiento Hare Krishna en Santiago de Chile, analizando los discursos y mecanismos de movilización que desarrollan sus integrantes frente al escenario de agitación social vivido con la llegada del nuevo milenio. Con ello no solo se buscará vislumbrar las transformaciones internas acaecidas en el movimiento durante el último tiempo, sino además pretendemos identificar estrategias de acción social y políticas independientes frente a inquietudes o problemas sociales instalados en la agenda pública. De esta forma, analizaremos la manera como este grupo religioso se posiciona activamente en un escenario de demandas sociales y guía su accionar desde la particularidad filosófica y espiritual de su doctrina.

  17. Evaluando la confianza institucional en Chile: Una mirada desde los resultados LAPOP Assessing Institutional Confidence in Chile: A Look from LAPOP's Findings

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    MAURICIO MORALES QUIROGA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de que Chile ocupa lugares de vanguardia en los índices de democracia de Freedom House y Polity IV, la confianza de los ciudadanos en las distintas instituciones del sistema político, a 18 años de reinaugurada la democracia, deja en entredicho su solidez y consolidación. Esto, sumado a los bajos niveles de participación ciudadana y al preocupante incremento en la tasa de no inscritos en los registros electorales y de los abstencionistas, deja abierta una serie de preguntas en torno a la calidad de la democracia en Chile. Sobre la base de los resultados arrojados por las encuestas LAPOP 2006 y 2008, este artículo explora los niveles y determinantes de diferentes tipos de confianza institucional (definidos empíricamente hallados en los ciudadanos chilenos. El trabajo concluye que las positivas evaluaciones de los ciudadanos, respecto a los esfuerzos del gobierno para solucionar los principales problemas, están significativamente correlacionadas con el nivel de confianza hacia las instituciones democráticas. También se distinguen diferencias según identificación con coaliciones (Concertación o Alianza, participación electoral y satisfacción con la democracia, además de algunas variables sociodemográficas.Chile is comparatively placed in a very favorable position in terms of its recent experience with democracy, which resumed eighteen-years ago after an unprecedented experience with authoritarianism (Freedom House, Polity IV. However, while not unique to this case, citizen's low levels of confidence in democratic institutions as well as declining electoral participation rates, increasing blank and invalid voting, and youngsters alienation from democratic elections yield significant questions regarding the consolidation of the country's currently democratic political regime. Drawing on the LAPOP 2006 and 2008 surveys, this article explores the levels and determinants of different (empirically defined types of institutional

  18. Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Linked to Small Turtles More Reports, Publications, and Communication Materials Surveillance Salmonella Atlas MMWR Articles References Communication ... Infections Linked to Red and Black Pepper/Italian-Style Meats 2006 through 2009 Outbreaks Saintpaul Infections Linked ...

  19. Determinantes del salario en Chile. Un análisis desde el paradigma de la reproducción social

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    Rodrigo, Luis Miguel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We use the sociological paradigm of Social Reproduction, proposed by the work of Pierre Bourdieu, to explain the wage gap in Chile, in opposition to the Neoclassical economic paradigm, currently hegemonic in the analysis of wage differentials. We expose and compare both theoretical paradigms and describe the case study highlighting the peculiarities of the Chilean neoliberal model. We estimate the salary of the Chilean population in order to explain the explanatory capacity of both theoretical approaches. We estimate two statistical models using the National Socioeconomic Characterization survey (CASEN 2009, firstly, the Neoclassical model based on Mincer equations and, secondly, a model that tries to empirically capture the explanatory factors specific to the paradigm of Social Reproduction. The results indicate that, in the case of Chile, the Reproductive model has greater explanatory power than the Neoclassical model, both for the whole group of workers, and for each of the generations of this group.Frente al paradigma económico neoclásico, hegemónico en la explicación del salario, se presenta el paradigma sociológico de la Reproducción Social, a partir de la obra de Pierre Bourdieu, para dar cuenta de la diferencia salarial en Chile. Después de exponer y comparar ambos paradigmas teóricos, se describe el caso de estudio, destacando las peculiaridades del modelo neoliberal chileno. Para comparar la capacidad explicativa de ambos enfoques, se estima el salario de los chilenos mediante la encuesta de Caracterización Socioeconómica Nacional 2009 (CASEN a partir de dos modelos estadísticos, el modelo neoclásico basado en las ecuaciones de Mincer y un modelo que trata de capturar empíricamente los factores explicativos propios del paradigma de la Reproducción Social. Los resultados indican que, en el caso de Chile, el modelo Reproductivo tiene mayor capacidad explicativa que el Neoclásico, tanto para el conjunto de los asalariados

  20. Necesidades de apoyos de adultos con discapacidad intelectual institucionalizados en Chile, desde la perspectiva de los proveedores de servicios

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    Vanessa del Pilar Vega Córdova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The current qualitative study aims identifying support needs of individuals with intellectual disabilities living in medium-large facilities in Chile, according to service providers’ perspective. Data were gathered by means of three focal groups. Results showed the existence of different perceptions of support needs. Therefore, whereas direct support staff emphasized daily living supports, other professionals and center directors focused on community living support needs. The study stresses the relevance of working in service providers’ mental models, in order to develop strategic initiatives focused on users’ needs.

  1. Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella are facultative anaerobic Gram-negative non-spore forming rods belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Salmonellosis is a zoonotic and foodborne illness that is usually transmitted by the fecal-oral route estimated to be responsible for 1.4 million cases of human infections in 2009 in...

  2. La democracia real e ideal en Chile y su influencia en las políticas educativas (1990-2006). Análisis desde la perspectiva del discurso

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Salse, Ángela Ruth

    2014-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se analiza la relación existente entre la democracia y las políticas educacionales, desde la perspectiva del discurso oficial, pues es desde esta cúpula política que se intenta crear una forma de pensar común a toda la sociedad. La lógica para desarrollarlo es conceptualizar la democracia en términos de real e ideal, luego verla en su contexto histórico, Chile, para entonces conceptualizar los elementos relevantes de las políticas educativas. Todos estos eleme...

  3. Whole-Genome Sequencing Analysis of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Isolates in Chile Provides Insights into Possible Transmission between Gulls, Poultry, and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Sherry; Barreto, Marlen; Allard, Marc; Brown, Eric W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Enteritidis is a major cause of human salmonellosis worldwide; however, little is known about the genetic relationships between S. Enteritidis clinical strains and S. Enteritidis strains from other sources in Chile. We compared the whole genomes of 30 S. Enteritidis strains isolated from gulls, domestic chicken eggs, and humans in Chile, to investigate their phylogenetic relationships and to establish their relatedness to international strains. Core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) analysis showed that only 246/4,065 shared loci differed among these Chilean strains, separating them into two clusters (I and II), with cluster II being further divided into five subclusters. One subcluster (subcluster 2) contained strains from all surveyed sources that differed at 1 to 18 loci (of 4,065 loci) with 1 to 18 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), suggesting interspecies transmission of S. Enteritidis in Chile. Moreover, clusters were formed by strains that were distant geographically, which could imply that gulls might be spreading the pathogen throughout the country. Our cgMLST analysis, using other S. Enteritidis genomes available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database, showed that S. Enteritidis strains from Chile and the United States belonged to different lineages, which suggests that S. Enteritidis regional markers might exist and could be used for trace-back investigations. IMPORTANCE This study highlights the importance of gulls in the spread of Salmonella Enteritidis in Chile. We revealed a close genetic relationship between some human and gull S. Enteritidis strains (with as few as 2 of 4,065 genes being different), and we also found that gull strains were present in clusters formed by strains isolated from other sources or distant locations. Together with previously published evidence, this suggests that gulls might be spreading this pathogen between different regions

  4. Alteración del concepto de etnicidad desde la experiencia de las tejedoras mapuche del sur de Chile

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    Ramiro Gonzalez Rial

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El caso de tejedoras mapuche de la IX Región de Chile nos permite reconsiderar los fenómenos de identidad cultural y etnicidad a la luz de las tensiones y procesos de subjetividad que median la construcción de memoria cultural. Se analiza tanto un escenario microgenético de los trabajos de identidad - como un escenario macrogenético, donde los procesos identitarios, las técnicas comerciales y religiosas del contexto mapuche se relacionan entre sí en permanente transmutación. Se discute el concepto de etnicidad con el fin de contribuir a ahondar en un fenómeno que está lejos de manifestarse como simple homogeneidad. Se realiza una discusión dando cuenta de la multiplicidad de tomas de posición en la experiencia de las tejedoras, enfatizando una mirada a la etnicidad como un proceso en permanente devenir, donde la memoria social del grupo reconduce una selección interesada de tradiciones orientando la construcción de una identidad potencial de cara al porvenir.

  5. REGISTROS SOBRE LA INFANCIA: UNA MIRADA DESDE LA ESCUELA PRIMARIA Y SUS ACTORES (TARAPACÁ, NORTE DE CHILE 1880-1922

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    BENJAMÍN SILVA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El presente estudio tiene como objetivo principal desarrollar, por medio del análisis del discurso cotidiano de maestras y maestros primarios, la situación de la infancia en la Provincia de Tarapacá entre 1880-1920. Se presentan las contradicciones entre la promesa educativa encauzada desde el Estado y sus autoridades asentadas en Santiago, y la frágil estructura educacional primaria que tuvo como tarea promover la razón, inculcando los símbolos de la civilización, en un sistema de instrucción imaginario. Keywords: Infancy, School Primary System, Teachers. ABSTRACTS The main objective of this study is to develop the image of the childhood in the Tarapaca Province between 1880 and 1920. This is achived by the analysis of the teachers’ daily speech. The primary educational structure had the task of promoting the reason, inculcating the civilization symbols in an imaginary instruction system. Contradictions between the educational promise, channelled from the State and the authorities seated in Santiago, and the fragile primary educational structure, are presented. Palabras claves: Infancia, Sistema Escolar Primario, Maestros/Maestras.

  6. Farmacovigilancia en medicina veterinaria: una perspectiva desde el punto de vista internacional y situación actual en Chile Pharmacovigilance in veterinary medicine: an international perspective and the current situation in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Iragiien

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La farmacovigilancia es una actividad dirigida a la detección y estudio de las reacciones adversas a medicamentos. Una reacción adversa corresponde a una reacción nociva no intencionada y que tiene lugar a las dosis normalmente utilizadas para la profilaxis, diagnóstico o tratamiento de una enfermedad o la modificación de funciones biológicas. A nivel internacional, países como los Estados Unidos de América, la Unión Europea, el Reino Unido y Australia han instaurado sistemas de farmacovigilancia, tanto para la medicina humana como veterinaria. Estos sistemas recopilan la información de reacciones adversas mediante notificaciones espontáneas. Las agencias reguladoras de cada país analizan estos datos y adoptan las medidas necesarias, ya sea para la modificación de los registros de medicamentos o para el retiro de éstos del mercado, como ha ocurrido específicamente para la medicina humana. En Chile, desde el año 1995, existe un programa de farmacovigilancia humana a cargo del Instituto de Salud Pública. Por el contrario, en la medicina veterinaria la evaluación de la seguridad y eficacia de medicamentos sólo se considera en el registro oficial otorgado por el Ministerio de Agricultura (Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero. Como consecuencia, la frecuencia y severidad de las reacciones adversas es desconocida. La experiencia extranjera refleja la importancia de contar con un programa de farmacovigilancia y las acciones necesarias para que éstos cumplan su objetivo. En este artículo se presenta un análisis de las fortalezas y debilidades de los programas internacionales de farmacovigilancia y la situación actual en ChilePharmacovigilance is an activity that involves the detection and evaluation of adverse drug reactions. These are unintended and harmful reactions which occur at doses that are normally used in animals for the prophylaxis, diagnosis or treatment of diseases or the modification of physiological function

  7. Los variados objetos de la antropología: una relación de sentidos desde La Araucanía, Chile

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    Teresa Durán

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo gira en torno a la posibilidad de la antropología de estudiar lascondiciones de su propia existencia (Hubinger, 1997. Según entendemos, esta posibilidad significa no solo hacerse las preguntas claves relativas a sus características en tanto ciencia social sino a su vez poder otorgarse respuestas operacionales que guíen el proceso de autoanálisis desde su praxis. Creemos que el contexto de La Araucanía de Chile ha proporcionado un clima psicosocial desafiante para explorar esta posibilidad, así como para configurar respuestas provisionales, que son las que en esta oportunidad deseamos explicitar, orientadas no solo hacia la sociedad nacional, sino también a la regional y la local. La Araucanía es una denominación metafórica que representa un espacio territorial, social y cultural diverso que incuba nichos de desigualdad socioeconómica, así como variabilidades socioculturales que refieren, por un lado, a una cultura “originaria” con unatradición ancestral y, por otro, a una sociedad nacional que se auto-comprende como moderna. Espacio en que existiría una memoria que puede reconstruir historias que otorgan vida a dicho territorio y, al mismo tiempo, desconoce la historia o la pierde de vista debido a la imposición compulsiva de tendencias contemporáneas postmodernas y/o reificantes del colonialismo. Para la antropología local, este ha sido el escenario propicio para el planteamiento reiterativo de preguntas tales como ¿qué estudiar?, ¿cómo estudiar?, ¿para qué estudiar? Asimismo, ha sido un campo en el cual hemos estado ensayando un diálogo a través de nuestras prácticas profesionales, incorporando la historia donde ella está ausente (Durán, 2002; Durán y Berho, 2003; Carrasco y Eyzaguirre, 2005; Durán, 2005. El artículo especifica cada una de estas preguntas fundamentales desde el marco de la propuesta global que anida en el locus local y que aspira a ser contrarrestada y comentada por

  8. La gestión del conocimiento en los equipos directivos de las universidades y sus efectos sobre el sistema de aseguramiento de la calidad istitucional: evidencia empírica desde Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Ponce, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    La tesis doctoral denominada: "La gestión del conocimiento en los equipos directivos de las universidades y sus efectos sobre el sistema de aseguramiento de la calidad institucional: evidencia empírica desde Chile", tiene como objetivo fundamental explorar la naturaleza de la vinculación existente entre el proceso de gestión del conocimiento, en los equipos de alta dirección, de las universidades y la calidad lograda por estas instituciones. A este efecto, se realiza una revisión teórica en p...

  9. Análisis, desde la psicología positiva, de la salud mental en alumnos universitarios de primer año de Concepción (Chile)

    OpenAIRE

    Cristhian Pérez Villalobos; Carmen Bonnefoy Dibarrat; Andherys Cabrera Flores; Shila Peine Grandón; Claudette Muñoz Ruiz; Marjorie Baquedano Rodríguez; Jorge Jiménez Espinoza

    2011-01-01

    El contexto universitario es un ambiente exigente ycambiante para los alumnos que ingresan en él, loque puede afectar su salud mental y su desempeñoen el sistema. Debido a ello, el presente estudiobuscó analizar la salud mental de los alumnos deprimer año de una universidad privada de Chile,aproximándose al fenómeno desde la psicologíapositiva. Para esto, se encuestó a 554 alumnosmatriculados en el 2009, evaluando tres variables(autoestima, satisfacción con la vida y optimismo),junto con cara...

  10. Un ejemplo de evolución. La política exterior de Chile hacia Canadá desde la vuelta a la democracia

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    Joël Lambert

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Studying the Chilean foreign policy in its historical and international context, it stands out that the arrival of democracy in Chile allowed its successful international reintegration. An essential tool to obtain this result was the subscription of Free Trade Agreements (FTA, of which the FTA between Chile and Canada is a good example of how this type of agreement can impel a bilateral relation. Nowadays, the deepening of the cooperation between Chile and Canada in a great variety of subjects, not only economical, became a relevant objective of the Chilean foreign policy. This is the result of their foreign policy convergences and the necessity for a weaker State to associate himself with more powerful fellows to influence the world politics.

  11. La enseñanza básica en Chile desde 1970 hasta 2009. Continuidades, cambiantes paradigmas e influencia extranjera en la escuela básica chilena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cancino, Rita

    La enseñanza básica en Chile desde 1970 hasta 2009: Continuidades, cambiantes paradigmas e influencia extranjera en la escuela básica chilena. Palabras clave: Filosofía educacional, enseñanza básica pública, paradigmas, pedagogía Resumen: En esta ponencia nos proponemos analizar la enseñanza básica...... diferentes dimensiones como planes de estudios, contenidos y orientaciones pedagógicas. En definitiva, nos interesaría averiguar cuáles son los paradigmas extranjeros que han sido la inspiración para las políticas oficiales con respecto a la escuela básica pública....

  12. Entre la paz social y la lucha revolucionaria: discursos sociales desde la prensa católica en Tarapacá, Chile (1911-1926

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    CAROLINA FIGUEROA CERNA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia la prensa católica publicada en la provincia de Tarapacá, Chile, particularmente los semanarios La Luz y Las Cuestiones Sociales, buscando establecer una aproximación a los discursos sociales de la Iglesia regional tarapaqueña, entre 1911 y 1926. Se sostiene que la preocupación por los constantes problemas sociales que afectaron a la región, derivados de los ciclos de extracción salitrera, orientó la acción pastoral al asentamiento de las bases del desarrollo de la paz social y del reconocimiento del obrero y sus demandas como símbolos del papel de la Iglesia en la zona. El objetivo fue consolidar un discurso que vinculara a los obreros a la institución eclesiástica en cuanto que baluarte de sus derechos y promotora del equilibrio entre el capital y el trabajo.

  13. Desde el Colegio Máximo a la Biblioteca Nacional: usos y resignificación de una biblioteca en Chile (1767-1813

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    Eduardo Gutiérrez Ramírez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available En el siguiente artículo se busca realizar un seguimiento a la biblioteca que perteneció a la Compañía de Jesús en el Santiago colonial, la cual fue ampliamente utilizada durante la presencia de la Orden en Chile, y tras su expulsión sería objeto de distintas políticas y acciones por parte de la Corona, y luego por parte de los primeros gobiernos republicanos chilenos. De esta forma, la biblioteca se conformaría como base de la cultura chilena.

  14. La oferta de educación superior de pregrado en Chile desde la perspectiva territorial: inequidades y asimetrías en el mercado

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    Sebastián Donoso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available UNDERGRADUATE HIGHER EDUCATION SUPPLY IN CHILE FROM A TERRITORIAL PERSPECTIVE: INEQUITIES AND ASYMMETRIES IN THE MARKET*Sebastián Donoso, Óscar Arias, Macarena Weason, Claudio FritesABSTRACTThis article is aimed to analyze the distribution of higher education from a territorial perspective based on data about vacant places in all academic programs of year 2011. To this end, it examines vacant places available in each type of institution, in each area of knowledge and type of career. With this data, about region and municipality, it reviews supply in terms of complexity and forms of distribution, setting a typology that describes them along with the territorial component. It presents final considerations about the evolution of the supply in higher education and highlights the market weaknesses to address development policies on human capital in synergy with improvement strategies and territorial aptitudes.

  15. Caracterización de estudiantes desde sus potencialidades y Talentos Académicos en la región de Antofagasta, Chile / Students Characterization from their Potential and Academic Talent in Antofagasta, Chile

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    Maria Caridad García Cepero

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La coyuntura actual de políticas educativas de cobertura, calidad, equidad y diversidad imponen desafíos a los establecimientos educacionales, especialmente a los municipales, los cuales deben desarrollar estrategias orientadas a satisfacer las necesidades de los estudiantes que se encuentran en sus aulas, capitalizando sus fortalezas. Esta investigación es de naturaleza exploratoria con una metodología mixta explicativa. Se presentan los resultados de la primera fase del estudio que corresponde al análisis de proyectos educativos y a la caracterización de estudiantes sobresalientes. Se analizaron los resultados obtenidos de 1.536 estudiantes provenientes de 18 establecimientos educacionales de las comunas de Antofagasta y Calama (Chile. A partir del análisis y de acuerdo a indicadores de talento académico, la muestra fue caracterizada en cuatro grupos de estudiantes: estudiantes sobresalientes, sub-nominados, sobre-exigidos y promedio. La categoría de estudiantes subnominados plantea cuestionamientos referentes a la metodología de identificación de estudiantes con talento en los programas chilenos, fuertemente cimentada en la nominación docente. Se advierte la necesidad de generarrutas alternativas, como la autonominación. Para concluir, se hacen algunas sugerencias alrededor de las políticas públicas en relación con la educación para estudiantes sobresalientes en particular para Chile, pero pueden ser en buena medida transferidas a otros casos a través de Iberoamérica.

  16. Análisis, desde la psicología positiva, de la salud mental en alumnos universitarios de primer año de Concepción (Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhian Pérez Villalobos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El contexto universitario es un ambiente exigente ycambiante para los alumnos que ingresan en él, loque puede afectar su salud mental y su desempeñoen el sistema. Debido a ello, el presente estudiobuscó analizar la salud mental de los alumnos deprimer año de una universidad privada de Chile,aproximándose al fenómeno desde la psicologíapositiva. Para esto, se encuestó a 554 alumnosmatriculados en el 2009, evaluando tres variables(autoestima, satisfacción con la vida y optimismo,junto con características sociodemográficas y problemasde salud mental. Los resultados muestranuna evaluación positiva de sí mismo, su vida y sufuturo entre los encuestados, y relaciones entre estasevaluaciones y la edad, establecimiento de origen,religión, depresión y ansiedad en los alumnos.La sistemática relación encontrada entre estas fortalezasde la salud mental y su relación inversa conlos problemas más prevalentes en el área subrayanla importancia que estas tres variables pueden teneren la definición de estrategias preventivas y remedialesque promuevan el bienestar del alumnado.

  17. DESPLAZAMIENTO Y VIGENCIA DEL MAPUDUNGÚN EN CHILE: UN ANÁLISIS DESDE EL DISCURSO REFLEXIVO DE LOS HABLANTES URBANOS LANGUAGE SHIFT AND MAINTENANCE OF MAPUDUNGÚN IN CHILE: AN INSIGHT FROM URBAN SPEAKERS' REFLEXIVE DISCOURSE

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    FERNANDO WITTIG G

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La migración urbana propicia nuevos procesos de construcción de la identidad étnica en la comunidad mapuche en Chile. Con esta consideración, proponemos una nueva mirada a las condiciones de uso y transmisión del mapudungún en contexto urbano, en el escenario de desplazamiento lingüístico que afecta a esta lengua en su condición de lengua dominada o idioma oprimido. La base empírica de la investigación proviene de entrevistas semi-estructuradas con hablantes urbanos de Santiago, Temuco y Concepción durante 2006 y 2007. Las representaciones sobre episodios autobiográficos permiten configurar un itinerario de análisis que se centra en: los espacios sociales favorables para el uso del mapudungún, y las nuevas experiencias de adquisición y recuperación de la lengua. A través de la reflexión y el testimonio de los hablantes es posible constatar eventuales procesos de cambio sociocultural y resistencia étnica que buscan compensar el modelo diglósico imperante que limita las opciones de uso del mapudungún en el contexto urbano chileno.Urban migration triggers new processes of ethnic identity among mapuche people in Chile. Given this, we propose a new approach towards the conditions that rules the use and transmission of mapudungun among urban speakers in the context of a general linguistic shift process. The empirical base of the investigation was obtained in semi-structured interviews with urban speakers of mapudungun in Santiago, Temuco and Concepción, between 2006 and 2007. The representations about autobiographic episodes make possible to follow an analytical path that focuses on the social spaces identified for the use of mapudungun, and the new experiences of acquisition and re-use of the language. We state that through the speakers' testimony it is possible to reveal processes of socio-cultural change and ethnic resistance that seeks to counterbalance the diglossic model that rules the use options of mapudungun in the

  18. Salmonella enterocolitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonellosis; Nontyphoidal salmonella; Food poisoning - salmonella; Gastroenteritis - salmonella ... Salmonella infection is one of the most common types of food poisoning . It occurs when you swallow ...

  19. CO2 and N2O emissions from an Andisol in Chile under a no-till system using non-fixed closed chambers Emisiones de CO2 y N2O desde un Andisol de Chile bajo sistema de cero labranza usando cámaras cerradas no-fijas

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    Cristina Muñoz

    2011-06-01

    realizado todavía en Chile. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo determinar los flujos de emisiones in situ de CO2 y N2O desde un suelo derivado de cenizas volcánicas bajo diferentes prácticas de manejo agronómico determinando su variación estacional. Las muestras gaseosas fueron obtenidas desde el espacio aéreo de cámaras cerradas no-fijas en una rotación anual de cultivos bajo sistema de cero labranza en un Andisol del Sur de Chile (36° S. Dos fuentes de N (NH4+ y NO3- y fertilización amoniacal más dos dosis de encalado (0.5 y 1 Mg ha-1 fueron considerados como tratamientos. Los flujos de CO2 y N2O fueron determinados periódicamente en un período de 1 año y variables de suelo tales como temperatura, contenido de agua, y N mineral fueron registrados. Los resultados muestran que los flujos de CO2 responden a patrones de estacionalidad. No fue evidenciado un efecto cuando fue considerada la práctica de manejo del cultivo, con un máximo de 53.2 ± 8.5 kg CO2-C ha-1 d-1 en la estación húmeda de otoño, y un mínimo de 9.7 ± 2.1 kg CO2-C ha-1 d-1 para verano, estación seca de otoño e invierno. El flujo de N2O fue altamente variable en el año y no muestra influencia de tratamientos o estacionalidad, con un promedio de 2.6 ± 0.6 g N2O-N ha-1 d-1. Variaciones de N mineral del suelo no están relacionadas a los flujos de GHG como una variable sola. Los resultados indican que un Andisol bajo sistema de cero labranza en el Sur de Chile tiene un bajo potencial de emisiones de N2O, y las mayores emisiones de CO2 son producidas principalmente en estaciones húmedas (otoño húmedo y/o primavera.

  20. Salmonella Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Salmonella Reading and Salmonella Abony Infections linked to Alfalfa Sprouts Advice to Consumers & Retailers Case Count Maps ... Signs & Symptoms Key Resources Salmonella Infections Linked to Alfalfa Sprouts from One Contaminated Seed Lot Advice to ...

  1. La escucha de la tortura desde el Estado: la experiencia de los profesionales de la Comisión Nacional sobre Prisión Política y Tortura en Chile / The State’s Listening of Torture: The Experience of Professionals in the Chilean National Commission on Political Imprisonment and Torture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Cornejo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una investigación cualitativa cuyo objetivo fue comprender el impacto que tuvo para los profesionales que trabajaron en la Comisión Nacional sobre Prisión Política y Tortura realizada en Chile entre 2003 y 2004, escuchar el testimonio de víctimas de tortura. Se realizaron relatos de vida con 22 profesionales que trabajaron en esta Comisión, a partir de 3 encuentros con cada uno de ellos. Los resultados muestran que el impacto de esta experiencia articula procesos elaborativos desde diferentes dimensiones (emocional, biográfica-narrativa e institucional entendidas como coordenadas por donde circulan estos procesos, los que se revelan como profundamente influidos por las significaciones y sentidos que los profesionales construyen acerca de sus historias personales y familiares y de su historia social.

  2. El rol de la prensa escrita en la reproducción de la violencia en el conflicto entre Chile y Perú. Propuestas de paz desde la comunicación

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    Alex Iván Arévalo Salinas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The following article describes the role of the written press of Chile and Peru in the development of some conflictive relations between these countries. The analysis indicates that there are three discursive strategies to legitimize mutual rejection, such as the negative representation of otherness, the exaltation of competition for economic success, and the promotion of national identity based on the values attributed to the military of the Pacific War. The conclusions propose two measures to transform these discourses: the development of social publicity campaigns and the creation of a code of ethics that establishes recommendations for appropriate journalistic treatment of the relations between these countries.

  3. Salmonella: Salmonellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Hansen, Trine; Maurischat, Sven;

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella remains one of the most important zoonotic pathogenic bacteria and is the causative agents of salmonellosis. The aim of this article is to give an overview of Salmonella and salmonellosis, starting by describing the characteristics of the microorganism Salmonella, including biochemical...

  4. El subsistema Seguridades y Oportunidades del Ingreso Ético Familiar de Chile desde un enfoque de derechos: análisis de su trayectoria y de sus desafíos futuros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Hernán Vargas Faulbaum

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El Subsistema Seguridades y Oportunidades del Ingreso Ético Familiar de Chile fue aprobado en el año 2012 y comenzó su operación efectiva el año 2013. A lo largo de los últimos años ha beneficiado a alrededor de 150.000 hogares entregando transferencias monetarias condicionadas y no condicionadas. Asimismo, se complementa con la implementación de acompañamientos familiares de tipo psicosocial y sociolaboral que buscan mejorar las relaciones internas de las familias, la empleabilidad de las personas mayores de edad y la vinculación del hogar con el resto de los programas sociales. Sin embargo, su implementación no ha estado exenta de problemas debido a que cumple de manera parcial con los requerimientos propios del enfoque de derechos económicos, sociales y culturales. El artículo finaliza con un conjunto de observaciones que revelan la existencia de desafíos para mejorar el diseño y la implementación del IEF, que van de la mano con una aplicación adecuada de los principios que componen un enfoque basado en derechos humanos.

  5. Entrevista : Carlos Honorato Comandari (ProChile)

    OpenAIRE

    Comandari, Carlos Honorato

    2013-01-01

    Ingeniero Comercial de la Universidad Finis Terrae y MBA de Babson College (Estados Unidos). En 2010, asumió como Subdirector Internacional de ProChile, desde donde lideró la creación del programa de apoyo a la internacionalización de la innovación chilena, CONTACTChile. Fue nombrado Director de ProChile en mayo de 2013, con la responsabilidad de conducir las más de 50 oficinas comerciales de la institución en el mundo y las 15 oficinas regionales dentro del país. En este período ha intensifi...

  6. Utilización de recursos faunísticos y materias primas líticas durante el Holoceno tardío en la cordillera de Chile central: un enfoque integrador desde Caletón Los Queltehues Use of faunal resources and lithic raw materials during the late Holocene in the cordillera of central Chile: an integrative approach from Caletón los Queltehues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Labarca Encina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo evalúa, desde una perspectiva tecnológica y conductual, tendencias a largo plazo de cambio y continuidad en las estrategias de aprovechamiento de recursos faunísticos y líticos en contextos de cazadores-recolectores cordilleranos de Chile central. Para esto, tomamos los datos procedentes de un contexto ubicado en la cuenca superior del río Maipo: Caletón Los Queltehues, y escogimos, de su secuencia ocupacional, los componentes Arcaico IV y Alfarero temprano (5000 a 1000 AP. Los resultados de los análisis no arrojaron mayores variaciones entre ambos períodos en términos de taxones explotados, frecuencia de partes esqueletarias, modificaciones culturales y fragmentación de los restos óseos. De manera similar, las materias primas, las categorías morfofuncionales y los tipos de desechos líticos se observaron relativamente constantes. Sólo se registraron cambios en la tasa de la depositación, la frecuencia de modificaciones naturales y la diversidad de actividades de uso/descarte lítico, las que son interpretadas como una tendencia hacia una variación en la recurrencia e intensidad de la ocupación, pero no en cuanto a su funcionalidad.This article evaluates long-term trends in change and continuity of lithic and faunal use strategies in hunter-gatherer contexts in the central Chilean cordillera from technological and behavioral perspectives. The main objective of the analysis is to articulate both lines of evidence from a behavioral and technological perspective in order to infer unknown elements of the function and organization of activities in this kind of archaeological context. As an initial example, the Archaic IV and Early Ceramic (5000-1000 BP components from a classic site located in the upper valley of the Maipo river, Caletón Los Queltehues, were analyzed in detail. The results do not show significant variation between the periods in exploited taxa, skeletal part frequencies, cultural modifications, or

  7. EL RACISMO AMBIENTAL EN CHILE

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    MATÍAS MEZA-LOPEHANDÍA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El problema de la desigualdad en Chile ha sido abordado desde diferentes puntos de vista como la cuestión de la distribución de la riqueza o el acceso a los derechos sociales. Es este trabajo se observa el mismo problema pero desde la perspectiva recientemente esbozada por los movimientos sociales: la del racismo ambiental o la desigual distribución de los deshechos del desarrollo y el consumo. De esta manera se revisan sucintamente los principales conflictos que han surgido en el último tiempo a lo largo del país entre empresas públicas y privadas y comunidades locales y originarias. Así mismo se examinan las formas de organización que estas últimas han asumido y el estado actual de articulación entre ellas. De la revisión de la situación se concluye que estamos ante el surgimiento de un actor de nuevo tipo, que surge de las contradicciones del Chile neoliberal y que se diferencia del movimiento ecologista por vincular sus reivindicaciones a la defensa del territorio y al derecho a la autodeterminación de los pueblos.

  8. Movilidad en los Suburbios Dispersos y el Nuevo Urbanismo en los Estados Unidos de América: ¿importación irreflexiva desde Chile? / Mobility in Suburban Sprawl and the New Urbanism in the USA: introduction of a foreign model in Chile?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawromatis P., Constantino

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Intentando soslayar la convencional confrontación dialéctica entre el Modernismo y el Post-Modernismo por parecer insuficiente y hoy sólo académica, este artículo refiere cuatro modelos que más que históricos son paradigmáticos, de modo de develar la coyuntura del presente de la arquitectura ante la paradoja del pasado redescubierto que vuelve a ser una nueva propuesta./Suburban sprawl has been the most widely used model in the United States during the 20th century. This manner of planning has greatly influenced the mobility within the metropolitan areas in the U. S. creating an increasing demand for new infrastructure thus diminishing the standard of living of the inhabitants. Because of this there has been new propositions that suggest to work with neo-traditional planning. In Chile the suburban expansion that has been taking place during the last two decades, mainly due to the posible profits of real estate investments, can be seen as thoughtless attempt to import a foreign model, thus setting aside negative consequences that might affect the future development of our urban settlements.

  9. Fenotipo atípico de Vibrio ordalii, bacteria altamente patogénica aislada desde salmón del Atlántico cultivado en las costas marinas del sur de Chile Atypical phenotype of Vibrio ordalii, a highly pathogenic bacteria isolated from Atlantic salmon reared on the marine coast of southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Bohle

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante invierno y primavera de 2003, salmones del Atlántico cultivados en las costas marinas del sur de Chile fueron afectados por brotes de una enfermedad. El análisis patológico reveló la presencia de lesiones en piel, úlceras hemorrágicas, mientras que los signos internos incluyeron pericarditis, peritonitis y focos necróticos múltiples en el hígado. En todos los casos, los cultivos bacterianos puros fueron aislados de las lesiones externas y órganos internos. La bacteriología convencional mostró como sospechoso a Vibrio sp como causante de la enfermedad. La identificación final de la bacteria fue llevada a cabo por análisis filogenético por la comparación de la secuencia casi total del gen que codifica el RNAr 16s. Este análisis reveló que las bacterias sospechosas pertenecen al grupo de los V. ordalii. Fenotípicamente, estas bacterias mostraron diferencias morfológicas, fisiológicas, bioquímicas, enzimáticas y antigénicas a los V. ordalii de referencia. Por esta razón, las cepas de campo podrían ser consideradas como un biotipo o fenotipo atípico de V. ordalii, aunque para ello es necesario más estudios comparativos entre los genomas completos de estas bacterias.During the winter and spring of 2003, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar reared a sea farms along the marine coast of southern Chile, were affected by outbreaks of disease. The pathological analysis of the affected fish were characterized by the presence of skin lesions, haemorrhaging ulcers and mortality, while the internal signs included pericarditis, peritonitis, multiple necrotic foci in the liver and signs of systemic septicaemia. In all cases, pure cultures of bacteria were isolated from the lesions and internal organs. The isolated bacteria were characterized by means of conventional bacteriological identification assays, and a Vibrio sp. was suspected to be the agent of the disease. The final identification of the bacterial isolates was made after

  10. Chile Puede

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Gárate

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Ya desde el nombre podemos imaginar que estamos frente a un filme localista, que por su título nos apela a la imagen que tienen los chilenos de sí mismos y cómo creen ser percibidos en el exterior. Pero el análisis no debe detenerse ahí, pues tras un guión bastante simple, se esconden imágenes sobre la guerra, el terrorismo, Estados Unidos e incluso sobre el fundamentalismo árabe. Es en este sentido que rescatamos una película de humor y fantasía dentro de esta sección sobre las producciones...

  11. Osteomielitis por salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Velázquez Pérez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una paciente femenina de color blanco y dos años de edad, con diagnóstico prenatal de sicklemia, que desde edades tempranas tiene problemas de la enfermedad. Ingresó en esta ocasión por una de las complicaciones infecciosas que ocasiona este padecimiento, una osteomielitis del húmero izquierdo, aislándose el germen en el hemocultivo realizado, una salmonella. Necesitó de tratamiento enérgico y prolongado; se obtuvo un resultado satisfactorio en la evolución de la enfermedad y se sigue sistemáticamente por consulta externa en la actualidad

  12. Reflexiones desde la Trinchera

    OpenAIRE

    Verónica Valenzuela; Ana B. Uribe; Karla Y. Covarrubias; Ma. Guadalupe Chávez Méndez; María Teresa Quinto; Ana Josefina Cuevas

    2007-01-01

    El hilo conductor de los textos de esta sección está formado por las reflexiones de colaboradoras estrechas de la revista, desde sus mismas entrañas y recovecos. Verónica Valenzuela, primera coordinadora editorial de ESCC, rememora la aventura (y la hazaña) de iniciar una revista académica hace dos décadas desde Colima. Ana B. Uribe recupera sus experiencias como segunda coordinadora editorial para repensar su formación académica al interior del Programa Cultura. Karla Y. Co...

  13. Nitrogen sediment fluxes in an upwelling system off central Chile (Concepción Bay and adjacent shelf during the 1997-1998 El Niño Flujos de compuestos nitrogenados desde los sedimentos, en un sistema de surgencia de Chile central (Bahía Concepción y plataforma adyacente durante El Niño 1997-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRAXEDES MUÑOZ

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Two stations representing coastal and shelf environments (bay of Concepción and adjacent shelf, respectively were sampled in order to assess benthic nitrogen fluxes. During the study period anomalously high oxygen bottom waters conditions were observed, coinciding with the 1997-1998 El Niño event. From both sites, intact sediment cores were collected for incubation experiments to directly estimate total ammonium fluxes. Pore-water chemistry was also assessed to estimate diffusive fluxes of nitrogen compounds (NH4+, NO3- and NO2-. The NH4+ flux from incubation experiments ranged from 0.55 to 2.18 mmol m-2 day-1 in the inner bay and from 1.84 to 2.14 mmol m-2 day-1 on the shelf. NO3- diffusive fluxes to the sediments were observed in the bay in March (-17 x 10-2 mmol m-2 day-1and on the shelf in November (-2.7 x 10-2 mmol m-2 day-1, associated with the lowest NH4+ diffusive fluxes and coincident with a stronger gradient of Eh in the first centimeters of the sediments. Besides, total NH4+ fluxes lower than in normal periods were observed, suggesting the influence of less reducing conditions, consequence in turn of the lower fluxes of particulated organic material and higher dissolved oxygen in the bottom waters. These conditions were probably imposed by the El Niño event. On the other hand, and relative to previous reports, an increase of irrigation coefficients (DI was estimated. Thus, the flux extension of other nitrogen compounds could have acquired relevance in relation to NH4+ fluxes during the study periodSe analizaron los flujos de compuestos nitrogenados desde los sedimentos en dos áreas representativas de condiciones costeras y de plataforma (Bahía Concepción y plataforma adyacente, respectivamente. Durante el período de muestreo las aguas de fondo presentaron un anómalamente alto contenido de oxígeno disuelto, coincidente con el evento El Niño 1997-1998. De ambos sitios, se incubaron testigos de sedimento intactos para

  14. Salmonella Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Salmonella Reading and Salmonella Abony Infections linked to Alfalfa Sprouts Advice to Consumers & Retailers Case Count Maps ... Signs & Symptoms Key Resources Salmonella Infections Linked to Alfalfa Sprouts from One Contaminated Seed Lot Advice to ...

  15. Reptiles, Amphibians, and Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Reptiles, Amphibians, and Salmonella Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... live. How do people get Salmonella infections from reptiles and amphibians? Reptiles and amphibians might have Salmonella ...

  16. Nuevos inmigrantes en Chile: Los determinantes de su actividad emprendedora

    OpenAIRE

    Mancilla, Claudio; de Lima, Philomena

    2014-01-01

    En Chile es poca la literatura que estudia a los inmigrantes desde una perspectiva económica, y menos la que aborda su actitud emprendedora (a pesar de que son proporcionalmente más emprendedores que los habitantes locales). El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar los factores que influyen en el emprendimiento de los in - migrantes sudamericanos en Chile. Se utilizó un modelo logit ajustado para even - tos extraños para determinar el impacto sobre la probabilidad de emprendimiento individual....

  17. Chile: los mapuches y el Bicentenario Chile: Mapuches e do Bicentenario Chile: Mapuche and the Bicentennial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bengoa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El Bicentenario de la República de Chile se conmemoró en el mes de septiembre del año 2010. Además de marcar un importante hito histórico, coincidió con un cambio político en el Gobierno del país, el que pasó de la Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia a la Alianza de partidos formada por la derecha chilena. Se cumplieron por tanto 20 años desde que en el año 1990 cambiara el Gobierno militar presidido por el general Pinochet. Ese largo tiempo, dos décadas, coincide con un período de políticas que el Estado ha implementado hacia los Pueblos Indígenas. El Proyecto “Conmemoraciones y Memorias Subalternas” ha realizado durante el año 2010 un conjunto de investigaciones de terreno y documentales tendientes a comprender del modo más objetivo y científico lo ocurrido en el período y por tanto la situación actual de las sociedades mapuches en sus complejas relaciones con la chilena.O Bicentenario da República do Chile comemorou-se no mês de Setembro do ano 2010. Junto com transformar-se num marco histórico, coincidiu com uma mudança política no Governo do país, que passou da Concertação de Partidos pela Democracia (centro-esquerda à Aliança de partidos formada pela direita chilena. Cumpriram-se por tanto 20 anos desde que em 1990 mudasse o Governo militar presidido pelo general Pinochet. Esse longo tempo, duas décadas, coincide com um período de políticas que o Estado implementou para com os Povos Indígenas. O Projeto “Comemorações e Memórias Subalternas” realizou durante o ano 2010 um conjunto de pesquisas de campo e documentais tendentes a compreender do modo mais objetivo e científico o ocorrido no período e, por tanto, a situação atual das sociedades mapuches em suas complexas relações com a chilena.The conmeration of the 200 years of the Independence of Chile was in September 2010. This year was also the political change from the Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia to the right

  18. El estado de la seguridad ciudadana en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    de Rementería, Ibán

    2012-01-01

    Este artículo desarrolla, desde una perspectiva crítica, un detallado “estado del arte” de la temática de “seguridad ciudadana” en Chile, delineando cómo esta problemática obedece más bien a una percepción de inseguridad instalada en la ciudadanía desde los medios de comunicación, y legitimada por los expertos interesados en asegurar la sostenibilidad de sus servicios en el emergente “mercado de la seguridad.” Se sostiene en el ensayo que en Chile la situación de seguridad ciudadana es la mej...

  19. Copper Bioleaching in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Gentina; Fernando Acevedo

    2016-01-01

    Chile has a great tradition of producing and exporting copper. Over the last several decades, it has become the first producer on an international level. Its copper reserves are also the most important on the planet. However, after years of mineral exploitation, the ease of extracting copper oxides and ore copper content has diminished. To keep the production level high, the introduction of new technologies has become necessary. One that has been successful is bioleaching. Chile had the first...

  20. Marine Energy in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Levy

    2012-01-01

    This is the first issue of a new series dedicated to deliver concise information on energy innovation published by the Energy Innovation Center at the IDB. This issue offers a primer on the potential for marine energy in Chile. The ocean is increasingly recognized as a viable source of renewable energy, and Chile, with its long coastline, powerful waves and tidal currents, has captured the attention of marine energy proponents. While harvesting this source of energy would increase sustainabil...

  1. 78 FR 42526 - Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Salmonella Contamination of Dry Dog Food; Withdrawal of...) entitled ``Sec. 690.700 Salmonella Contamination of Dry Dog Food.'' This CPG is obsolete. DATES: The.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: FDA issued the CGP entitled ``Sec. 690.700 Salmonella Contamination of Dry Dog...

  2. desde su cultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Ángela Argote O.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Para explorar las prácticas sobre protección y cuidado durante la transición del climaterio a la menopausia se llevó a cabo un estudio en mujeres colombianas afrodescendientes que viven en el Distrito de Aguablanca, Cali, Colombia, a fin de evaluar los factores socioculturales que influyen en su cuidado. Se siguió la etnoenfermería con el objeto de averiguar la perspectiva femenina étnica, e identificar las prácticas beneficiosas y de riesgo para su salud. La investigación tuvo como participantes claves a 17 mujeres. En la consolidación de la muestra se aplicaron los criterios de saturación de datos. En los resultados se evidenció la relación de las mujeres con su propio cuerpo, su defensa y fortificación desde la menarquia como fase preparatoria de sus funciones reproductivas, hasta cuando aparece la menopausia. De acuerdo con su cultura, si no tienen en cuenta estas prácticas tradicionales, sufrirán diversas dolencias en la etapa final de su periodo de procreación. Los cuidados sobresalientes se relacionan con el significado de la sangre, así como con el ejercicio de la sexualidad, la limpieza, la alimentación especial y el equilibrio que se debe guardar entre el calor y el frío. Las entrevistadas atribuyen a la menopausia cambios en su cuerpo, en sus diferencias emocionales de conducta y en las expectativas de la sexualidad. Para el presente estudio estos hallazgos se agruparon en tres temas principales: sentir los profundos cambios en la vida: el cuerpo; sentir los cambios en los estados de ánimo; y vivir la sexualidad.

  3. LA NOVELA DE LA DICTADURA EN CHILE The novel of the dictatorship's period in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Lulo C

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Para un sector de la crítica y de la academia chilena, la gran novela de la Dictadura es una asignatura pendiente. En este artículo se problematiza este tema mediante la formulación de una hipótesis según la cual una serie de novelas aparecidas en Chile entre 1977 y 2006 cumplen con la función de narrar -desde su fragmentariedad- las causas y consecuencias del 11 de septiembre de 1973. Así, busca plantear las bases epistemológicas e históricas que posibiliten llevar a cabo una investigación de mayor alcance acerca del problema del papel de la novela durante y después de la Dictadura.For many critics and scholars the great novel of the dictatorship's period in Chile still remains a pending matter. This article, on the contrary, hypothesizes on the existence of a significant number of novéis published in Chile between 1977 and 2006, which out of their fragmentary character and peculiarity give a proper account of the causes and consequences of the coup d'état held on September llth 1973. The article seeks to set a preliminary basis for an epistemological discussion and further major research about the role of the Chilean novel, in the historical context of post modernity, during and after the dictatorship's era.

  4. [Domestic violence in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Tomás; Grez, Marcela; Prato, Juan Andrés; Torres, Rafael; Ruiz, Sergio

    2014-08-01

    According to recent surveys, there is a high prevalence of domestic violence (DV) in Chile. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed, Scielo, and Lilacs with the MesH terms "Chile", "Mental Health", "Health", "Domestic Violence", to explore the impact of DV on health in Chile. Eleven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Two studies were prospective, exploring the influence of DV on maternal-infant health. Nine studies explored the influence of DV on mental health in adults. DV was associated with deranged mental health indicators specially anxiety and depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Similar results were observed among mothers who were victims of violence and their children. It is concluded that DV is a complex phenomenon with serious effects on health. However the number of studies on the subject is low and new follow up studies are required. Predictive models for DV and effective preventive measures are urgently needed. PMID:25424674

  5. Copper Bioleaching in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Gentina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chile has a great tradition of producing and exporting copper. Over the last several decades, it has become the first producer on an international level. Its copper reserves are also the most important on the planet. However, after years of mineral exploitation, the ease of extracting copper oxides and ore copper content has diminished. To keep the production level high, the introduction of new technologies has become necessary. One that has been successful is bioleaching. Chile had the first commercial operation in the world exclusively via bioleaching copper sulfides. Nowadays, all bioleaching operations run in the country contribute to an estimated 10% of total copper production. This article presents antecedents that have contributed to the development of copper bioleaching in Chile.

  6. TRANSPARENCIA Y LEYES SECRETAS EN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Contreras V.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El autor analiza el problema de constitucionalidad de las leyes secretas en Chile, en razón de las modificaciones introducidas a la Constitución en el 2005. Primero, describe brevemente el fundamento sobre la publicidad de la ley en el Estado Democrático. Luego, se analiza el nuevo principio constitucional de publicidad establecido en el artículo 8º de la Constitución. Adicionalmente, se examina la constitucionalidad de las leyes secretas desde dos puntos de vista: confrontando la compatibilidad con el principio general de transparencia -como base de la institucionalidad- y analizando la afectación en el contenido esencial del derecho fundamental de acceso a la información pública.

  7. Chile's Madam President

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    After becoming the first female to win a presidential election in the socially conservative country, Chilean President-elect Michelle Bachelet created history again when unveiling a cabinet that was absolutely gender-balanced on January 30. Following similar breakthroughs of women politicians in Liberia and Germany, what happened in Chile is considered another case of women gaining power worldwide.

  8. The Geology of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera, Lluís; Calafat, A.; Gimeno, D.; Liesa, M.; Proenza, J.; Sàbat, F.; Sáez, Alberto; Santanach, Pere

    2008-01-01

    6 páginas.-- Book review of "The Geology of Chile", by Teresa Moreno and Wes Gibbons (eds.) (2007). Geological Society. London (United Kingdom). 414 pages, 286 figures including maps, charts and pictures; 27, 5 x 21 cm, ISBN 978-1- 86239-219-9 (hardback) and ISBN 978-1-86239-220-5 (softback).

  9. Nuevos inmigrantes en Chile: Los determinantes de su actividad emprendedora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio MANCILLA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En Chile es poca la literatura que estudia a los inmigrantes desde una perspectiva económica, y menos la que aborda su actitud emprendedora (a pesar de que son proporcionalmente más emprendedores que los habitantes locales. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar los factores que influyen en el emprendimiento de los in - migrantes sudamericanos en Chile. Se utilizó un modelo logit ajustado para even - tos extraños para determinar el impacto sobre la probabilidad de emprendimiento individual. Algunos resultados indican que el tiempo de residencia, forma legal de ingreso al país, nivel educacional y experiencia previa de emprendimiento, influyen en la probabilidad de crear una actividad empresarial.

  10. La reinvención neoliberal de la inequidad en Chile: el caso de la salud Neoliberal reinvention of inequality in Chile: the case of the health sector

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Eliana Labra

    2002-01-01

    El artículo expone los principales cambios en el sistema de salud de Chile desde los años 20 hasta la actualidad, señalando las contradicciones, las limitaciones y los avances en cada coyuntura política. Tomando como eje el tema de la equidad, la exposición examina las decisiones tomadas desde mediados de 1920 hasta 1973 para avanzar en dirección a la socialización de la medicina y la abrupta interrupción de ese proceso con el golpe militar de 1973. En seguida, se aborda el conjunto de medida...

  11. Chile exploits LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    Simultaneously with its exploitation of offshore hydrocarbon reservoirs Chile is developing the production and selling of LNG. Chile produces a large quantity of associated gas from its reservoirs at Megallanes and processes it at the Manantiales, Cullen and Posesion plants recovering propane, butane and natural gas liguids. The stripped gas is reinjected for pressure maintenance operations. With the completion of the LNG program full use of the gas will be achieved. It will totally meet the needs of combustible liquids for the central and northern parts of the country, a volume of 2200 million cu m/yr. For its treatment natural gas is sent through gas pipelines to the LNG plant at Cabo Negro. By means of a cooling process, the gas is cooled to -160 C where it becomes a liquid and its volume is reduced by a factor of 600. It is then stored in tanks at atmospheric pressure.

  12. Spent Fuel in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The government has made a complete and serious study of many different aspects and possible road maps for nuclear electric power with strong emphasis on safety and energy independence. In the study, the chapter of SFM has not been a relevant issue at this early stage due to the fact that it has been left for later implementation stage. This paper deals with the options Chile might consider in managing its Spent Fuel taking into account foreign experience and factors related to safety, economics, public acceptance and possible novel approaches in spent fuel treatment. The country’s distinctiveness and past experience in this area taking into account that Chile has two research reactors which will have an influence in the design of the Spent Fuel option. (author)

  13. Lejos de NYC: El hip-hop en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Rainer Quitzow

    2005-01-01

    En este artículo se abordan las manifestaciones concretas de una forma cultural urbana exportada desde Occidente a los países en desarrollo. A través de una reconstrucción de la historia de la cultura hip hop en Chile, se han intendado esbozar algunas conclusiones sobre su influencia en la formación de una identidad cultural urbana, tratando además de relacionar el desarrollo histórico del movimiento y de las prácticas actuales de la juventud en Santiago con tendencias más amplias en la socie...

  14. Genomics of Salmonella Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canals, Rocio; McClelland, Michael; Santiviago, Carlos A.; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene

    Progress in the study of Salmonella survival, colonization, and virulence has increased rapidly with the advent of complete genome sequencing and higher capacity assays for transcriptomic and proteomic analysis. Although many of these techniques have yet to be used to directly assay Salmonella growth on foods, these assays are currently in use to determine Salmonella factors necessary for growth in animal models including livestock animals and in in vitro conditions that mimic many different environments. As sequencing of the Salmonella genome and microarray analysis have revolutionized genomics and transcriptomics of salmonellae over the last decade, so are new high-throughput sequencing technologies currently accelerating the pace of our studies and allowing us to approach complex problems that were not previously experimentally tractable.

  15. Citizenship ‘from Above’? The Case of Chile, 1964-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard van der Ree

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last fifty years, citizenship in Chile has been re-interpreted and reformulated in different ways. By combining top-down and bottom-up approaches towards citizenship, this article argues that the reformulation of citizenship in Chile has been brought about through both state-initiated projects and civil society responses, which have interacted over time. State projects have been based on ideological doctrines in order to resolve problems emanating from ‘below’, while civil society responses have come from the ways in which the state have sought to implement its projects. Even though this historical process has produced both periods of rapid expansion and radical restriction of citizenship, in the end it produced a stable but asymmetric model of citizenship in Chile.Resumen: ¿Ciudadanía ‘desde arriba’? El caso de Chile, 1964-2010Durante los últimos cincuenta años, la ciudadanía en Chile ha sido re-interpretada y reformulada de diferentes modos. Combinando las aproximaciones descendentes y ascendentes, en este artículo se defiende que la reformulación de la ciudadanía en Chile fue provocada tanto por proyectos iniciados por el estado como por respuestas de la sociedad civil, que, con el tiempo, han llegado a interactuar. Los proyectos estatales se han basado en doctrinas ideológicas para resolver problemas que emanaban desde ‘abajo’, mientras que las respuestas de la sociedad civil han sido provocadas por las maneras en que el estado ha intentado implementar sus proyectos. Aunque el proceso histórico ha producido tanto periodos de rápida extensión como de radicales restricciones de la ciudadanía, al final resultó en Chile un modelo estable, aunque asimétrico.

  16. Chile: segundo tiempo Chile: Half-time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERT L FUNK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo examina el año político chileno, ofreciendo un análisis crítico del concepto de 'segundo tiempo' autoimpuesto por la presidenta Michelle Bachelet a comienzos del 2008. Resumiendo algunas de las políticas implementadas, el trabajo cuestiona si se logró marcar una linea y dejar atrás los dos primeros y difíciles años del cuarto gobierno de la Concertación. Analizando las medidas tomadas y las encuestas de opinión pública, se encuentra que el reenfoque de las prioridades del gobierno y una complicada coyuntura externa ayudó a levantar los niveles de apoyo de la presidenta y su gobierno.The article examines the political year in Chile, offering a critical analysis of the concept of 'Second Period' which President Michelle Bachelet defined at the beginning of 2008. Summarising some of the policies implemented, the piece asks whether the government was able to draw a line, leaving behind the first, difficult two years of the Concertación s fourth government. Analyzing the measures taken and public opinion polls, the paper finds that a re-focussing of the government's priorities together with a complicated external environment helped to raise support for the president as well as her government.

  17. [Salmonella pathogenicity islands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sırıken, Belgin

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella species are facultative intracellular pathogenic bacteria. They can invade macrophages, dendritic and epithelial cells. The responsible virulence genes for invasion, survival, and extraintestinal spread are located in Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs). SPIs are thought to be acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Some of the SPIs are conserved throughout the Salmonella genus, and some of them are specific for certain serovars. There are differences between Salmonella serotypes in terms of adaptation to host cell, virulence factors and the resulting infection according to SPA presence and characteristics. The most important Salmonella virulence gene clusters are located in 12 pathogenicity islands. Virulence genes that are involved in the intestinal phase of infection are located in SPI-1 and SPI-2 and the remaining SPIs are required for intracellular survival, fimbrial expression, magnesium and iron uptake, multiple antibiotic resistance and the development of systemic infections. In addition SPIs, Sigma ss (RpoS) factors and adaptive acid tolerance response (ATR) are the other two important virulence factors. RpoS and ATR found in virulent Salmonella strains help the bacteria to survive under inappropriate conditions such as gastric acidity, bile salts, inadequate oxygen concentration, lack of nutrients, antimicrobial peptides, mucus and natural microbiota and also to live in phagosomes or phagolysosomes. This review article summarizes the data related to pathogenicity islands in Salmonella serotypes and some factors which play role in the regulation of virulence genes.

  18. Primary Medical Care in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.

    Primary medical care in Chile: accessibility under military rule [Front Cover] [Front Matter] [Title Page] Contents Tables Figures Preface Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: The Restructuring of Medical Care Financing in Chile Chapter 3: Inflation and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 4: Help...

  19. La reinvención neoliberal de la inequidad en Chile: el caso de la salud

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Eliana Labra

    2002-01-01

    El artículo expone los principales cambios en el sistema de salud de Chile desde los años 20 hasta la actualidad, señalando las contradicciones, las limitaciones y los avances en cada coyuntura política. Tomando como eje el tema de la equidad, la exposición examina las decisiones tomadas desde mediados de 1920 hasta 1973 para avanzar en dirección a la socialización de la medicina y la abrupta interrupción de ese proceso con el golpe militar de 1973. En seguida, se aborda el conjunto de medida...

  20. Chile rural electrification cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The author describes a joint program to use renewables for rural electrification projects in Chile. The initial focus was in a limited part of the country, involving wind mapping, pilot project planning, training, and development of methodologies for comparative evaluations of resources. To this point three wind hybrid systems have been installed in one region, as a part of the regional private utility, and three additional projects are being designed. Additional resource assessment and training is ongoing. The author points out the difficulties in working with utilities, the importance of signed documentation, and the need to look at these programs as long term because of the time involved in introducing such new technologies.

  1. Chile: Transantiago recargado Chile: Transantiago Reloaded

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGO MARDONES Z

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El 2007 fue el segundo año del gobierno de Michelle Bachelet. Se trató de un año sin elecciones; con un buen desempeño económico, a pesar de una inflación creciente en los últimos meses; y marcado por la discusión sobre escándalos de corrupción. Sin embargo, lo que más afectó al Gobierno fue la desastrosa puesta en marcha de la reforma al sistema de transporte público de la capital: Transantiago. Este puso un velo sobre los importantes avances en materias previsionales y educacionales, cuestionando no sólo la capacidad ejecutiva del Gobierno, sino que profundizando un flanco de indisciplina al interior de la coalición oficialista (Concertación; síntoma de su desgaste después de 17 años ocupando la Presidencia de Chile.The year 2007 was the second in Michelle Bachelet’s presidencial term. It was a year free of elections, exhibiting a fairly good economic performance, despite the high rate of inflation shown during the last months. Public discussion on corruption escandals was frequent; however, the most important issue was the disestrous beginning of the reform on the public transportation system of the country’s capital: Transantiago. This has placed a veil over the important achievements on the pension system and education, questioning not only the government’s capacity, but also opening and edge of indiscipline within the ruling coalition (Concertación, which is a symtom of its erosion after 17 years in the presidential office.

  2. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chiles Valley. 9.154... Chiles Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chiles Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Chiles...

  3. Programa Cultura desde la memoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. González

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Los textos que cierran nuestro número especial de aniversario rescatan distintas reflexiones sobre el origen, el desarrollo, la plenitud y la actualidad del Programa Cultura. Jesús Galindo habla desde una perspectiva generacional sobre sus percepciones sobre el desarrollo del grupo de investigación, su vínculo con su propio trabajo profesional y su movimiento en diversos escenarios geográficos del país. Jorge A. González habla sobre su experiencia de trabajo en la revista, así como algunas dificultades por las que ha pasado la producción de la publicación, destacando el lugar que ocupa la revista dentro del campo de la Ciencias sociales en México y fuera de México. Finalmente, Angélica Rocha, corazón imprescindible del Programa Cultura, relata su visión afectiva desde sus labores logísticas.

  4. Evaluación de la estrategia de rehabilitación de base comunitaria (RBC) desde la perspectiva de la comunidad y los equipos locales de rehabilitación

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Guajardo-Córdoba; Eladio Recabarren-Hernández; Domingo Asún-Salazar; Cristian Zamora-Astudillo; Pablo Cottet-Soto

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes. La Rehabilitación Basada en Comunidad, en el caso de Chile, destaca por ser una política pública, de carácter estatal y asumida directamente por instancias gubernamentales, tales como el Ministerio de Salud de Chile-MINSAL y el Sistema Nacional de Discapacitados-SENADIS. De esta forma, la evaluación de la estrategia de RBC en Chile es necesaria desde el punto de vista programático por su impacto nacional o regional. Por lo anterior, y considerando que la estrategia de RBC en Chi...

  5. Eso's Situation in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    ESO, the European Southern Observatory, in reply to questions raised by the international media, as well as an ongoing debate about the so-called "Paranal case" in Chilean newspapers, would like to make a number of related observations concerning its status and continued operation in that country [1]. THE ESO OBSERVATORY SITES IN CHILE The European Southern Observatory, an international organisation established and supported by eight European countries, has been operating more than 30 years in the Republic of Chile. Here ESO maintains one of the world's prime astronomical observatories on the La Silla mountain in the southern part of the Atacama desert. This location is in the Fourth Chilean Region, some 600 km north of Santiago de Chile. In order to protect the La Silla site against dust and light pollution from possible future mining industries, roads and settlements, ESO early acquired the territory around this site. It totals about 825 sq. km and has effectively contributed to the preservation of its continued, excellent "astronomical" quality. Each year, more than 500 astronomers from European countries, Chile and elsewhere profit from this when they come to La Silla to observe with one or more of the 15 telescopes now located there. In 1987, the ESO Council [2] decided to embark upon one of the most prestigious and technologically advanced projects ever conceived in astronomy, the Very Large Telescope (VLT). It will consist of four interconnected 8.2-metre telescopes and will become the largest optical telescope in the world when it is ready. It is safe to predict that many exciting discoveries will be made with this instrument, and it will undoubtedly play a very important role in our exploration of the distant universe and its many mysteries during the coming decades. THE VLT AND PARANAL In order to find the best site for the VLT, ESO performed a thorough investigation of many possible mountain tops, both near La Silla and in Northern Chile. They showed

  6. Fires in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    On February 5, 2002, the dense smoke from numerous forest fires stretched out over the Pacific Ocean about 400 miles south of Santiago, Chile. This true-color Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the fires, which are located near the city of Temuco. The fires are indicated with red dots (boxes in the high-resolution imagery). The fires were burning near several national parks and nature reserves in an area of the Chilean Andes where tourism is very popular. Southeast of the fires, the vegetation along the banks of the Rio Negro in Argentina stands out in dark green. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  7. urbana desde la densidad habitacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Bascuñán Walker

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo presentado fue reformular la relación de área construida y área verde Chilena según los estándares internacionales Europeos. Se estudio la mecánica actual de determinación de superficie de área verde en Chile y se comparó con los estándares españoles, elaborando una nueva formula que relaciona directamente la densidad habitacional con la superficie de área verde requerida. El estudio mostró que los resultados de superficies de área verde son de tal envergadura que requieren asociarse a parques comunales e intercomunales. Basados en los resultados del estudio se concluye que para cumplir con las superficies requeridas según la densidad habitacional los loteos nuevos deben contemplar su participación en proyectos de parques urbanos o comunales para garantizar el derecho de áreas verdes de los nuevos habitantes.

  8. El abate Juan Ignacio Molina: una vida dedicada a la historia natural y civil del reino de Chile Abbot Juan Ignacio Molina: A life devoted to the natural and civil history of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Reynaldo Charrier; Francisco Herv

    2011-01-01

    Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829) naci cerca de Talca, Chile, y falleci en Bolonia, Italia. Es el primer cientfico chileno. Desde pequeo se interes por la naturaleza. Se educ con la Compaa de Jess en diversos lugares de Chile central, lo que le permiti conocer su geografa, fauna, flora y poblacin. Con 15 aos ingres a la Compaa. En 1767, abandon el pas al ser expulsada esta orden de espaa y sus dominios. Se radic en los Estados Pontificios, donde se orden de sacerdote y permaneci hasta su muerte...

  9. Salmonella enteritidis in Quail Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Erdoğrul, Özlem Turgay

    2002-01-01

    The presence of Salmonella enteritidis was investigated in 123 liquid whole quail eggs. Salmonella strains were identified and sero-grouped by coagglutination test and slide agglutination test. Seven (5.69%) of 123 whole quail eggs were in group D1 and were sero-typed as Salmonella enteritidis. It was found that in phage-typing of Salmonella enteritidis, three of 7 strains were Salmonella enteritidis PT4 , two of them were PT1, one of them was PT7, and one of them was indefinite.

  10. Live attenuated vaccines for invasive Salmonella infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Sharon M; Levine, Myron M

    2015-06-19

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi produces significant morbidity and mortality worldwide despite the fact that there are licensed Salmonella Typhi vaccines available. This is primarily due to the fact that these vaccines are not used in the countries that most need them. There is growing recognition that an effective invasive Salmonella vaccine formulation must also prevent infection due to other Salmonella serovars. We anticipate that a multivalent vaccine that targets the following serovars will be needed to control invasive Salmonella infections worldwide: Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi A, Salmonella Paratyphi B (currently uncommon but may become dominant again), Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Choleraesuis (as well as other Group C Salmonella). Live attenuated vaccines are an attractive vaccine formulation for use in developing as well as developed countries. Here, we describe the methods of attenuation that have been used to date to create live attenuated Salmonella vaccines and provide an update on the progress that has been made on these vaccines.

  11. Escondida Mine, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Full resolution visible and near-infrared image (1.4 MB) Full resolution shortwave infrared image (1.6 MB) This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image covers 30 by 23 km (full images 30 x 37 km) in the Atacama Desert, Chile, and was acquired on April 23, 2000. The Escondida copper, gold, and silver open-pit mine is at an elevation of 3050 m, and began operations in 1990. Current capacity is 127,000 tons/day of ore; in 1999 production totaled 827,000 tons of copper, 150,000 ounces of gold, and 3.53 million ounces of silver. Primary concentrate of the ore is done on-site; the concentrate is then sent to the coast for further processing through a 170 km long, 9-inch pipe. Escondida is related geologically to three porphyry bodies intruded along the Chilean West Fissure Fault System. A high grade supergene cap overlies primary sulfide ore. The top image is a conventional 3-2-1 (near infrared, red, green) RGB composite. The bottom image displays shortwave infrared bands 4-6-8 (1.65um, 2.205um, 2.33um) in RGB, and highlights the different rock types present on the surface, as well as the changes caused by mining. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  12. Country watch: Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya Leiva, M

    1996-01-01

    Servicio Paz y Justicia (SERPAJ) is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) established in Chile in 1977. It supports fundamental human dignity and rights by fighting discrimination and exclusion based upon individual differences. SERPAJ promotes training, organization, and the political participation of community members as part of the democratic process, working mainly with the at risk women, street children, and youth of Santiago's working-class neighborhoods. Groups participate in workshops and training courses on human rights and development, civic education, and methods of non-violent community action. In 1987, SERPAJ-Sur Oriente began to include the topic of sexuality and AIDS/STDs in courses training working-class women as community human rights agents. The NGO is therefore one of the first mainstream Chilean human rights organizations to incorporate HIV/AIDS issues. A basic facts brochure was developed, followed by a pilot education project developed in one neighborhood which was then systematically replicated in other neighborhoods. The comments of some people who have participated in SERPAJ workshops are presented.

  13. complejidad en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alejandro Bustamante-Ubilla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tiene por objetivo caracterizar el clima organizacional al interior de 2 hospitales dealta complejidad de Chile, determinando las dimensiones más y menos influyentes. Para su desarrollose aplicó un cuestionario que consta de 71 variables agrupadas en 14 dimensiones a una muestra de561 funcionarios. La interpretación de los resultados se realizó a través del análisis del valor prome-dio estandarizado y su confiabilidad ratificada mediante el alfa de Cronbach. A partir de lo anterior, sedeterminó que las dimensiones que influyen por encima del promedio fueron: identidad, motivaciónlaboral y responsabilidad; en tanto que las dimensiones que muestran un nivel de impacto por debajodel promedio resultaron ser: equipo y distribución de personas y material, administración del conflictoy comunicación.© 2015 Universidad ICESI. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. Este es un artículo Open Access bajo lalicencia CC BY (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

  14. Cell lines and Salmonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge R de; Hendriks H; Garssen J; Universteit Utrecht, afdeling; MGB; LPI

    2001-01-01

    In human gastrointestinal disease caused by Salmonella, transepithelial migration of neutrophils follows the attachment of bacteria to epithelial tissue. This migration of neutrophils is stimulated by the release of chemokines, including interleukin-8 (Il -8), from the epithelial cells. We have dev

  15. Iron ERRs with Salmonella

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Ferric C.; Weiss, Günter

    2014-01-01

    The hormone hepcidin promotes iron sequestration by macrophages. A recent study by Kim et al (2014) implicates the orphan receptor ERRγ in the regulation of hepcidin production and suggests that targeting the ERRγ-hepcidin axis may be beneficial during infection with the facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella.

  16. Modernitet og forbrugskultur i Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristoffanini, Pablo Rolando

    2012-01-01

    I de sidste årtier er Chile blevet et egentligt forbrugersamfund. Udbredelsen af forbrugskulturen og forbrugerismen er centrale fænomener i chilenernes dagligliv og har nået et omfang, som har konsekvenser for de borgere, der ikke kan deltage fuldt ud heri, noget som er typisk for et samfund med en...... ujævn økonomisk udvikling og med store sociale forskelle. Denne proces er ikke et produkt af en stille, fredelig og naturlig samfundsudvikling, således som magteliten og de toneangivende intellektuelle i Chile har fremstillet det. Som jeg vil vise, er skabelsen af et egentlig forbrugssamfund knyttet til...... til i dag. Ifølge disse er Chile blevet et moderne samfund netop i kraft af, at Chile er et ægte forbrugersamfund med alt, hvad dette indebærer, såvel materielt som symbolsk. For det tredje er billedet af Chile som en ”supermoderne” nation i den latinamerikanske kontekst en udbredt forestilling hos...

  17. El Informe Valech y la tortura masiva y sistemática como crimen contra la humanidad cometido en Chile durante el régimen militar. Su enjuiciamiento desde la perspectiva del derecho penal internacional: Apuntes a propósito de la obra del Prof. Dr. Kai Ambos, Der Allgemeine Teil des Völkerstrafrechts, 2 ed., Duncker und Humblot, Berlín 2004, 1058 páginas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Pierre Matus A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se reseña el texto del Prof. Dr. Kai Ambos, Der Allgemeine Teil des Völkerstrafrechts y, al mismo tiempo, se propone la aplicación de los principales resultados de esa obra para un eventual enjuiciamiento de la tortura masiva y sistemática aplicada en Chile entre 1973 y 1990, tal y como se describe en el Informe de la Comisión Nacional de Prisión Política y Tortura (Informe Valech. Así, se comienza describiendo y analizando la sistematización propuesta por Ambos para una parte general del derecho penal internacional, luego se analiza la tortura como crimen contra la humanidad, sujeto a las reglas del derecho penal internacional. En este apartado se determinan sus elementos principales (el carácter masivo y sistemático, el Tribunal competente en Chile para conocer de estas causas y el procedimiento aplicable. A continuación se describen los hechos, tal y como se dieron a conocer en el Informe Valech, que permiten concluir que en Chile se aplicó la tortura de manera masiva y sistemática durante el régimen militar, favorecida por éste, mediante el establecimiento de una "maquinaria" de represión "legalizada". Enseguida, se determina la existencia de una responsabilidad penal internacional individual derivada de estos hechos, para, a continuación, pasar a analizar los principales problemas de la parte general del derecho penal internacional que se presentarían en el caso de juzgarse tales responsabilidades individuales, siguiendo el esquema de análisis en dos niveles propuesto por Kai Ambos, a saber, discutiendo primero los presupuestos objetivos y subjetivos de esa responsabilidad, para finalizar analizando las principales defensas que podrían oponerse por los eventuales acusados.This article reviews Prof. Dr. Kai Ambos' book, Der Allgemeine Teil des Völkerstrafrechts, and proposes the application of the main results of this book to the possible trial of the acts of massive and systematic torture carried out

  18. It Pays to Invest in Chile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2011-01-01

    @@ Chile is the first country to establish coopera-tive relations with China in South America, and also the first one to support China's ac-cession to the World Trade Organization.In 2005, Chile and China signed a free trade agreement.After that, China has become Chile's largest trad-ing partner, and Chile become China's second largest partner in South America.

  19. La provisión de servicios de salud en Chile: aspectos históricos, dilemas y perspectivas The provision of health services in Chile: historical aspects, dilemmas and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Carlos de Azevedo

    1998-01-01

    Se hace un breve análisis histórico del Sistema de Salud en Chile, desde el Sistema Nacional de Salud, con énfasis a las reformas ocurridas a partir de 1980, durante el régimen militar y los cambios introducidos desde 1990 por los gobiernos democráticos. Se compara la oferta actual de servicos por el subsistema público com aquella del privado utilizando como indicadores por mil beneficiarios: la tasa de consultas, de exámenes de laboratorio, de hospitalizaciones, de altas y de cirugías y la s...

  20. Síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus Andes en Chile CARDIOPULMONARY SYNDROME DUE TO ANDES VIRUS IN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANZA CASTILLO H.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde 1993 han ocurrido 204 casos de Síndrome Cardiopulmonar por Hantavirus (SCPH en Chile. Los brotes epidémicos comenzaron en el sur y avanzan hacia el norte del país. Los más afectados son varones jóvenes, obreros agrícolas o forestales. En Chile, el SCPH es causado por el virus Andes, cuyo reservorio es el Oligorizomys longicaudatus (ratón de cola larga, que se distribuye desde la III Región al sur. El cuadro clínico es similar al descrito en EE.UU., caracterizado por una fase prodrómica que simula un estado gripal o cuadro gastrointestinal febril y que agrava por la aparición de edema pulmonar agudo e inestabilidad hemodinámica (fase cardiopulmonar. Sin embargo, cursa con mayores alteraciones hemorragí-paras y compromiso renal. La mortalidad inicial fue sobre 50% y actualmente es de alrededor del 33,3%. La presente revisión incluye: historia de la enfermedad, reservorio, modos de transmisión, patogenia, cuadro clínico, diagnóstico, tratamiento y medidas de prevenciónSince 1993, 204 cases of Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS occurred in Chile. Epidemic began in the south and moved thereafter to the northern regions. The disease affected predominantly young males, who worked in agricultural labours or as timber workers. The HCPS in Chile is caused by the Andes virus. The reservoir is the wild rat Oligoryzomis longicaudatus distributed from the III to the XII Region. The clinical features are similar to those described for Sin Nombre Virus. The disease has a prodromal stage characterised by fever, muscular pain, with or without gastrointestinal manifestations, followed by the rapid onset of respiratory insufficiency and haemodynamic unstability. Andes virus courses more often with haemorrhagic disorders and overt renal failure, than Sin Nombre Virus. The initial mortality was over 50% and declined to 33,3% in the last year. History of hantavirus-diseases, reservoir, and mode of contagion, pathogenesis, clinical

  1. China and Chile Signing Free Trade Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen; Danyang

    2005-01-01

      Mr. Bo Xilai, Minister of Commerce of China, and Mr.Walker, Foreign Minister of Chile, signed the China-Chile FTA on behalf of their respective government on November 18, 2005. Chinese President Hu Jintao and Chile President Lagos attended the signing ceremony, according to a press release on the website of Network Center of MOFCOM.……

  2. China and Chile Signing Free Trade Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Danyang

    2005-01-01

    @@ Mr. Bo Xilai, Minister of Commerce of China, and Mr.Walker, Foreign Minister of Chile, signed the China-Chile FTA on behalf of their respective government on November 18, 2005. Chinese President Hu Jintao and Chile President Lagos attended the signing ceremony, according to a press release on the website of Network Center of MOFCOM.

  3. Dilemas éticos y jurídicos a propósito del aborto en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Palavecino Cáceres, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    El drama de dos niñas de 13 y 11 años que han quedado embarazadas tras ser violadas por sus padres ha reinstalado con fuerza en Chile el debate sobre el aborto. Al respecto puede observarse que la discusión se ha desenvuelto en dos planos. Desde una perspectiva subjetiva, se cuestiona la moralidad de la decisión de interrumpir un embarazo. Desde una perspectiva objetiva, cuál es la legislación y política pública más adecuada para regular el aborto inducido. En este trabajo se abordan las prin...

  4. La provisión de servicios de salud en Chile: aspectos históricos, dilemas y perspectivas

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Azevedo Antonio

    1998-01-01

    Se hace un breve análisis histórico del Sistema de Salud en Chile, desde el Sistema Nacional de Salud, con énfasis a las reformas ocurridas a partir de 1980, durante el régimen militar y los cambios introducidos desde 1990 por los gobiernos democráticos. Se compara la oferta actual de servicos por el subsistema público com aquella del privado utilizando como indicadores por mil beneficiarios: la tasa de consultas, de exámenes de laboratorio, de hospitalizaciones, de altas y de cirugías y la s...

  5. MOVILIDAD SUSTENTABLE EN CHILE: OPORTUNIDADES, EXPERIENCIAS LOCALES Y REFERENCIAS GLOBALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Díaz Tejeda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo propone Premisas Conceptuales, Premisas Metodológicas y el desarrollo de Aspectos Estratégicos para la implementación de soluciones a la Movilidad Urbana. Se inspira en las ideas, experiencias e investigaciones de diversas personas quienes abordan desde lógicas puntuales aspectos temáticos específicos en el marco de la Planificación Urbana en general y de las aplicaciones en Transporte en particular. Chile atraviesa por una oportunidad histórica, quizás paradójicamente, a partir de un evento de catástrofe ocurrido en Febrero del 2010; esta oportunidad es la de re-plantear el proceso de Planificación Urbana bajo los alcances del Desarrollo Sustentable.

  6. Neo-liberalismo y trabajadores en Chile: panorama desde la cumbre APEC, 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Samaniego Mesías

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se analiza la evolución del mundo del trabajo chileno a lo largo de los últimos años, partiendo de la experiencia dictatorial del régimen pinochetista. Años que han estado marcados por la implantación del modelo neo-liberal, con las consiguientes repercusiones sociales y económicas sobre las clases más desfavorecidas, exponiendo cómo la pobreza y la injusticia social se reproducen conforme a la lógica capitalista de las modernizaciones.______________________ABSTRACT:In the present article, the evolution of Chilean world of work throughout the last years, starting from the dictatorial experience of Pinochet's regime, is analyzed. Years, those, that have been marked by the implantation of the neoliberal model, with social and economic repercussions on disadvantaged classes, exposing how poverty and social injustice reproduce according to the capitalist logic of modernization.  

  7. Nuevas estrategias de formación profesional para la modernización del Estado en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Díaz P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde comienzos de la década de los 90 en Chile se observa un interés creciente del Estado por modernizarse. Este proceso ha sido expresado en diferentes políticas, programas e instituciones, que en conjunto pueden articularse en políticas públicas de modernización, que han sido promovidas entre los funcionarios del Estado, relevando de este modo el papel clave que los recursos humanos juegan en el éxito del proceso. En otro esfuerzo convergente hacia la modernización del Estado, algunas Universidades Públicas en Chile han desarrollado programas de formación profesional de trabajadores del sector público, dirigidos a desarrollar competencias y habilidades profesionales a funcionarios de la administración pública en casi todas las regiones de Chile.

  8. Women and Politics in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, Julieta

    1983-01-01

    Political parties in Chile of both the left and right have focused more on drawing women into their ideologies than on considering what political issues mean to women. A look at feminist thought shows how political life for women includes not only the traditional political arena but also domestic life. (IS)

  9. The biomethane potential in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the last decade natural gas gained considerable importance in Chile. The contribution of natural gas within the energy system will increase in the future by predicted 3.6% annually until the year 2015. Due to limited resources within its own country, the energy system of Chile depends on natural gas imports preferential from Argentina. Therefore, the aim of several stakeholders from policy and industry is to reduce the share of imported primary energy within the overall energy system. In order to reach this goal, the use of domestic resources and particularly the utilisation of biomass as one of the most important renewable sources of energy in Chile could play an important role. Against this background, the goal of this paper is the analysis of the technical potentials of biomethane as a substitute for natural gas. For the production of biomethane the anaerobic or bio-chemical (i.e. Biogas) as well as the thermo-chemical conversion pathways (i.e. Bio-SNG) are considered. The results of this analysis show that biomass converted to biomethane is a promising energy provision option for Chile and it contributes to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

  10. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Chile

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Chile's equity market is fairly large and successful. The market capitalization of the 249 listed firms represented 89 percent of GDP at year-end, 2001. Corporate ownership is concentrated and pyramid structures are common. Business groups/conglomerates are the predominant corporate form. Institutional investors, especially pension funds, are active equity investors. The Securities Market ...

  11. EL ACTO DE NOMBRARSE MISTRAL EN POEMA DE CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Sepúlveda Eriz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available La viajera espectral de Poema de Chile reflexiona sobre la adopción del nombre Mistral. Los fundamentos de esta elección van desde retornar a una intimidad anterior, la escena primigenia del campo, hasta el rechazo a la sociedad urbana. Este acto moderno de autonominarse constituye una atribución consciente frente al menoscabo y a los insultos recibidos en una posición representativa anterior. En vista de lo cual, la fantasma reclama los lugares, las palabras, los bienes y exige la recomposición de los cuerpos despedazados por el discurso blanco y etnocéntrico.The travelling spectrum of Poema de Chile reflects on the adoption of the name Mistral. The causes of this choice gofrom coming back to a previous intimacy -the original scene of the country- to the rejection of the urban society. The name she gives herself is a conscious act and therefore, a modern one, which is used as a response to the damage she received when she was in a previous situation. As a result, the ghost calls for the places, the language and the goods that were stolen, and she demands to recover the bodies that were torn by the white and ethnocentric discourse.

  12. Waardevermindering pluimveevlees besmet met Salmonella enteritidis en Salmonella typhymurium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horne, van P.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    De doelstelling van het onderzoek is om de waardevermindering van met Salmonella enteritidis (S.e.) en Salmonella typhymurium (S.t.) besmet pluimveevlees van vleeskuikens te bepalen. Hoe hoog is de opbrengstenderving en hoe hoog zijn de extra kosten van maatregelen voor de slachterij of uitsnijderij

  13. Movimiento estudiantil chileno de 2011 y su influencia en las reivindicaciones ciudadanas desde los márgenes regionalistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ramos Galleguillos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los conflictos sociales más significativos del año 2011 en Chile, fue el movimiento estudiantil, que en conjunto con diversos actores sociales, promovieron la consigna de una educación pública, democrática y de calidad. Bajo este argumento, la presente ponencia pretende analizar y describir de qué manera el Movimiento Estudiantil chileno iniciado en 2011, gatilla un empoderamiento ciudadano contra el régimen político y económico en favor de un Estado de Bienestar transversal a los distintos sectores sociales. Se indaga además, en las repercusiones que tuvo este Movimiento para la formulación de nuevas demandas desde los márgenes regionalistas, con el fin de interpretar el creciente descontento ciudadano y su necesidad de organización orientado a romper con la brecha de desigualdad existente en Chile.

  14. Detection of Salmonella in Meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Hansen, Flemming; Mansdal, Susanne;

    2012-01-01

    Cost-effective and rapid monitoring of Salmonella in the meat production chain can contribute to food safety. The objective of this study was to validate an easy-to-use pre-PCR sample preparation method based on a simple boiling protocol for screening of Salmonella in meat and carcass swab samples...

  15. Fragmentos para una historia del cuerpo en Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Aravena Hernández

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Sin duda la historia del cuerpo es la historia de un gran olvido; un olvido silencioso, casi cotidiano por convención, pero, sobre todo, uno que se ha ido forjando en Occidente por medio de la implicancia tanto desde la tensión situada en el credo cristiano entre el pecado y la redención como por la noción epistemológica tradicional asumida de la pertenencia estricta del cuerpo al mundo de la naturaleza y no al de la cultura. Ante lo anterior, Fragmentos para una historia del cuerpo en Chile se presenta como un conjunto de trabajos y visiones historiográficas que tienen al cuerpo como su eje conector, así mismo, como su objeto central de estudio en sus diversas perspectivas analíticas. Significados, representaciones, percepciones, continuidades y transformaciones referidas al cuerpo se presentan en esta obra dando cuenta, no sólo de una suerte de intento historiográfico nacional de saldar cuentas con la ausencia histórica de la corporalidad, sino más bien como una forma que, desde el acercamiento historiográfico a través del cuerpo, abre nuevas entradas y condiciones de posibilidad para la (una historia; una historia atravesada esta vez, no sólo de ideas y aconteceres, sino también, de tactos y roces, de carnes y huesos.

  16. Chile: el género como gancho político de la modernidad posible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana CIORINO NAVARRO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La autora analiza la situación social y política de las mujeres en Chile durante el proceso de transición a la democracia. Cuestiona el papel que se atribuye a los planteamientos de género, desde los espacios políticos institucionalizados. Describe los procesos que están viviendo los diversos sectores del Movimiento Feminista y plantea una serie de objetivos para la profundización de un proyecto político feminista.ABSTRACT: The author analyses the social and politic situation of the women in Chile, during democratic transition. She discusses the roles atributted to genre aspects, from stablished political spaces. She describes the process that diferente sectors of the Feminist Movement are living and set several objetives for a political feminist proyect.

  17. A novel Salmonella serovar isolated from Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) nestlings in Sweden: Salmonella enterica enterica serovar Pajala (Salmonella Pajala)

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, Jorge; Lindberg, Peter; Waldenström, Jonas; Drobni, Mirva; Olsen, Björn

    2012-01-01

    A novel Salmonella serovar was isolated from Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) nestlings in northern Sweden in 2006. Three isolates of the same clone was retrieved from three falcon siblings and characterized as Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica: O-phase 13, 23:-: e, n, z 15 and the H-phase was not present. We propose the geographical name Salmonella enterica, sub-species entericaserovar Pajala to this novel Salmonella.Keywords: Salmonella; epidemiology; ecology; peregrine falcon; no...

  18. Acuicultura Insostenible en Chile (Unsustainable aquaculture in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommer, Marcos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa acuicultura en Chile sólo será alternativa a la pesca si se consigue llevar su producción a parámetros de sostenibilidad, no solamente económica sino, fundamentalmente, ambiental. Con un esfuerzo dirigido hacia medidas legislativas y de control, e investigación aplicada, podríamos acercarnos a una acuicultura ambientalmente sostenible.

  19. Tenth CRL-Salmonella interlaboratory comparison study on typing of Salmonella spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver H; Maas HME; Ward LR; Mevius DJ; Mooijman KA; MGB

    2006-01-01

    Het tiende ringonderzoek voor de typering van Salmonella werd in maart 2005 georganiseerd door het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, Nederland) in samenwerking met de Health Protection Agency (HPA, Londen, Verenigd Koninkrijk) en het Centraal Instituut

  20. Eleventh CRL-Salmonella interlaboratory comparison study on typing of Salmonella spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk PA; Maas HME; de Pinna E; Mooijman KA; MGB

    2006-01-01

    Het elfde ringonderzoek voor de typering van Salmonella werd in maart 2006 georganiseerd door het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, Nederland) in samenwerking met de Health Protection Agency (HPA, Londen, Verenigd Koninkrijk). 26 Nationale Referentie L

  1. Socialisme i Chile efter Pinochet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristoffanini, Pablo Rolando

    2008-01-01

    Chile bliver ofte præsenteret som et paradigme for resten af det latinamerikanske kontinent: Et land med høj økonomisk vækst og politisk stabilitet. Landet har endda haft to socialistiske præsidenter siden 2000, den sidste den første kvindelige præsident. Succeshistorien har en bagside: De...... socialistiske regeringer har accepteret et begrænset demokrati og videreført en nyliberal økonomisk politik, der har bragt dem på konfrontationskurs med massebevægelserne og isoleret Chile fra de andre lande i regionen, der søger integration og gensidig støøte. Udgivelsesdato: Februar...

  2. [The epidemiological transition in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalá, C; Vio, F; Robledo, A; Icaza, G

    1993-12-01

    Aiming to describe the place that Chile has in the epidemiological transition, a descriptive study of the changes in demographic and epidemiological profiles of the country during the last 30 years is presented. The important decrease in general and child mortality rates, that has lead to an increase in life expectancy and ageing of the population, is emphasized. A 82% reduction in the proportion of deaths among less than one year old children and a 62% increase in mortality among people 65 years or older is observed. In agreement with these changes, non transmissible chronic diseases appear as the principal cause of mortality (65% of all deaths). However, regarding morbidity, an increase in digestive infectious and sexually transmitted diseases and a decrease in immuno-preventable diseases, excepting measles, is noted. It is concluded that, according to mortality, Chile is in a post transition stage, but there is persistence of some infectious diseases, typical of a pre-transition stage. PMID:8085073

  3. Miedo y represionpolitica en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Amado M. Padilla; Lillian Comas Díaz

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a human rights fact-finding mission to Chile concerned with the use of psychological techniques employed in offlcia- Uy sactioned torture and repressíon, Meetings and interviews were conducted with representatives of many organízatíons working with víctima of governrnental repression including the Chílean Psychological Assocíation. Fear and repression wene found to be widespread among all socioeconomic segments of the population. Physical and psychologic...

  4. del territorio desde la red viaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Madiedo Ruz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se propone una metodología para la cuantificación del impacto visual que produciría un elemento antrópico en el medio natural percibido desde la red viaria. Partimos de la premisa de que el impacto visual no es tan sólo inversamente proporcional a la distancia objeto impactanteobservador impactado, sino que existen unos umbrales de distancia que determinan impactos de igual valor. Por otra parte se ha tenido en consideración las peculiaridades del visionado dinámico (en movimiento, desde la carretera.

  5. FÍSICA: SU TRAYECTORIA EN CHILE (1800-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIO GUTIÉRREZ GALLARDO

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta el desarrollo de la Física en Chile desde los comienzos de la República hasta 1960, poniendo énfasis en el desarrollo interno de la disciplina, la evolución de su concepción y la transmisión de su saber. El trabajo enfrenta el mito de la inexistente tradición científica en Chile, mostrando que en el caso de la Física ha habido un largo y sostenido desarrollo. En este desarrollo de la Física se distinguen cuatro etapas: (1 como capítulo de la Filosofía Escolástica; (2 como ciencia útil o indistinguible de la ingeniería; (3 como ciencia cultural y centro de una concepción científica del mundo; y (4 como disciplina con problemas propios, donde la investigación deviene parte central de su desarrollo. Para el historiador de la ciencia la novedad es que su desarrollo sigue una lógica donde los parámetros locales tienen una influencia muy significativa en comparación con aquellos determinados por el desarrollo mundial de la disciplinaThis paper presents the development of Physics in Chile from the beginnings of the Republic until the year 1960, emphasizing the internal development of the discipline, the evolution of its conception and the transmission of its body of knowledge. This work faces the myth of the non-existent scientific tradition in Chile by showing in the case of Physics a long and sustained development. In this development we distinguish four stages of Physics: (1 As a chapter of Scholastic Philosophy; (2 As a discipline closely related to engineering and real-life problems; (3 As cultural science and base of a scientific view of the world; (4 As a discipline with its own problems, where research becomes a central part of its development. For the science historian the novelty is that this development follows a logic where the local parameters have strong influence as compared to those determined by the universal development of the discipline

  6. El abate Juan Ignacio Molina: una vida dedicada a la historia natural y civil del reino de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Charrier

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829 naci cerca de Talca, Chile, y falleci en Bolonia, Italia. Es el primer cientfico chileno. Desde pequeo se interes por la naturaleza. Se educ con la Compaa de Jess en diversos lugares de Chile central, lo que le permiti conocer su geografa, fauna, flora y poblacin. Con 15 aos ingres a la Compaa. En 1767, abandon el pas al ser expulsada esta orden de espaa y sus dominios. Se radic en los Estados Pontificios, donde se orden de sacerdote y permaneci hasta su muerte. All ense ciencias naturales y produjo su obra cientfica: Compendio de la historia geogrfica, natural y civil del reino de Chile de 1776, una versin aumentada, Ensayo sobre la historia natural de Chile de 1782 y una segunda en 1810. En ellas, abord aspectos climticos, botnicos, geolgicos, zoolgicos, mineralgicos y geogrficos del territorio. Describi el terremoto de Concepcin, las erupciones del Villarrica y Peteroa, e hizo referencia a recursos minerales. Diferenci cuatro unidades litoestratigrficas para Chile central. Clasific plantas y animales siguiendo los criterios de Linneo. En una de sus 14 memorias, Analogas menos observadas de los tres reinos de la Naturaleza, sin podrselo calificar de evolucionista, se destaca su intento de integracin entre los "seres" de los tres reinos, y en Sobre la propagacin del gnero humano en las diversas partes de la tierra, propuso tres vas diferentes para el poblamiento de Amrica. En 1802, ingres a la Academia de Ciencias de Bolonia.

  7. Phylogenetic relationships of Salmonella based on rRNA sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, H.; Nordentoft, Steen; Olsen, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    To establish the phylogenetic relationships between the subspecies of Salmonella enterica (official name Salmonella choleraesuis), Salmonella bongori and related members of Enterobacteriaceae, sequence comparison of rRNA was performed by maximum-likelihood analysis. The two Salmonella species were...

  8. II. Derecho desde arriba y desde abajo: Physis y Nomos69

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    El ancestral debate entre las dos maneras de ver el mundo, desde arriba o desde abajo, ha tomado en la filosofía y el derecho la forma de dos conceptos paralelos, la naturaleza y la ley, physis y nomos. Desde Platón y Epicúreo, o la filosofía y la retórica entre los griegos, hasta el naturalismo y el historicismo, pasando por el conflicto entre la escolástica y el humanismo en el Renacimiento, se pueden distinguir dos visiones antagónicas, la una centrada en el universo, su estructura y sus t...

  9. Sistema de salud de Chile The health system of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Becerril-Montekio; Juan de Dios Reyes; Annick Manuel

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Chile, incluyendo su estructura, financiamiento, beneficiarios y recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone. Este sistema está compuesto por dos sectores, público y privado. El sector público está formado por todos los organismos que constituyen el Sistema Nacional de Servicios de Salud y cubre aproximadamente a 70% de la población, incluyendo a los pobres del campo y las ciudades, la clase media baja y los jubilados, así como ...

  10. Salmonella Control Programs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Hald, Tine; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo;

    2003-01-01

    We describe Salmonella control programs of broiler chickens, layer hens, and pigs in Denmark. Major reductions in the incidence of foodborne human salmonellosis have occurred by integrated control of farms and food processing plants. Disease control has been achieved by monitoring the herds...... and flocks, eliminating infected animals, and diversifying animals (animals and products are processed differently depending on Salmonella status) and animal food products according to the determined risk. In 2001, the Danish society saved U.S.$25.5 million by controlling Salmonella. The total annual...... Salmonella control costs in year 2001 were U.S.$14.1 million (U.S.$0.075/kg of pork and U.S.$0.02/kg of broiler or egg). These costs are paid almost exclusively by the industry. The control principles described are applicable to most industrialized countries with modern intensive farming systems....

  11. Salmonella control programs in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Henrik C; Hald, Tine; Lo Fo Wong, Danilo; Madsen, Mogens; Korsgaard, Helle; Bager, Flemming; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Mølbak, Kåre

    2003-07-01

    We describe Salmonella control programs of broiler chickens, layer hens, and pigs in Denmark. Major reductions in the incidence of foodborne human salmonellosis have occurred by integrated control of farms and food processing plants. Disease control has been achieved by monitoring the herds and flocks, eliminating infected animals, and diversifying animals (animals and products are processed differently depending on Salmonella status) and animal food products according to the determined risk. In 2001, the Danish society saved U.S.$25.5 million by controlling Salmonella. The total annual Salmonella control costs in year 2001 were U.S.$14.1 million (U.S.$0.075/kg of pork and U.S.$0.02/kg of broiler or egg). These costs are paid almost exclusively by the industry. The control principles described are applicable to most industrialized countries with modern intensive farming systems.

  12. Salmonella in Sheep in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnarsson E

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1995 several outbreaks of food poisoning in humans occurred in Iceland, that were traced to salmonella contamination of singed sheep heads. This prompted us to study the prevalence of salmonella infection in sheep and to trace where and how infection might have occurred. Faecal, intestinal contents and tonsillar samples were collected in the spring and autumn from sheep on 50 farms in the southwestern part of the country, where salmonellosis had been detected and from 5 farms in the northwestern part of the country. All faecal samples from the southwest were negative, whereas samples from 3 farms obtained in the autumn in the northwest were positive. Tonsillae taken in the autumn were positive in sheep from 3 farms in the southwest and 2 in the northwest. Our results show that salmonella infection is rare in Icelandic sheep but healthy carriers may harbour the bacteria in tonsillae. Salmonella was not detected in drainage from slaughterhouses nor in singed sheep heads.

  13. Psicología comunitaria y políticas sociales en Chile Psicologia comunitaria e políticas sociais no Chile Community psychology and social policies in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Alfaro Inzunza

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo analizamos la relación entre Psicología Comunitaria y políticas sociales, estableciendo la influencia de las políticas sociales sobre el desarrollo contemporáneo de la Psicología Comunitaria en Chile. Sostenemos que su consolidación como profesión se asocia estrechamente a la implementación de políticas sociales a partir de la década de los noventa y su conformación actual está condicionada y tensionada por las orientaciones de estas políticas. Se examina la evolución tanto de las políticas sociales como de la Psicología Comunitaria en Chile, los puntos de encuentro y las tensiones, de las que derivamos una serie de desafíos y proyecciones que examinamos en el presente artículo, con el objetivo de avanzar en la comprensión de esta relación.Este artigo investigou a relação entre a Psicologia Comunitária e as políticas sociais, estabelecendo a influência das políticas sociais sobre o desenvolvimento contemporâneo da Psicologia Comunitária no Chile. Afirmamos que a sua consolidação como profissão está intimamente associada à implementação de políticas sociais desde a década de noventa e sua formação atual está condicionada e tensionada pelas diretrizes dessas políticas. O estudo analisa a evolução das políticas sociais e da psicologia comunitária no Chile, os pontos de encontro e de tensão, dos quais se deriva uma série de desafios e projeções discutidos neste artigo com o objetivo de fazer avançar a compreensão desta relação.In this article we analyze the evolution of community psychology in Chile, and the influences of social policies in its development. We hold that its consolidation as a profession is closely associated to the implementation of social policies since the nineties, and its present conformation is determined and tightened by the orientation of these policies. From the evolution of social policies and Community Psychology in Chile we have come up with a series

  14. Prevalence of salmonella in captive reptiles from Croatia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella

    2015-01-01

    arizonae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica diarizonae 15.4%, and Salmonella enterica salamae 3.8%. The 14 different serovars isolated included several rarely occurring serovars such as Salmonella Apapa, Salmonella Halle, Salmonella Kisarawe, and Salmonella Potengi. These findings confirm that the prevalence...

  15. Prevalence of Salmonella serovars from captive reptiles from Croatia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella

    2015-01-01

    arizonae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica diarizonae 15.4%, and Salmonella enterica salamae 3.8%. The 14 different serovars isolated included several rarely occurring serovars such as Salmonella Apapa, Salmonella Halle, Salmonella Kisarawe, and Salmonella Potengi. These findings confirm that the prevalence...

  16. Chile : Household Risk Management and Social Protection

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2004-01-01

    This report is part of the World Bank's advisory and analytical assistance to the Government of Chile. The report examines whether Chile has a social protection "system" - broadly defined to include policy interventions, public institutions, and the regulation of private institutions that lower the welfare costs of adverse shocks to income from job loss and extended unemployment, health ep...

  17. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have…

  18. Fruta podrida: La reivindicación de la vida y de la muerte desde un cuerpo enfermo, desechado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Fallas Arias

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Enfrentada a la desmemoria y al olvido, Lina Meruane recrea en la novela Fruta podrida, el drama vivido en Chile con la implementación salvaje de la economía de mercado, sistema que atacó, de manera siniestra, los campos y los cuerpos de los chilenos. En esta obra Meruane desmonta los dispositivos violentos y coercitivos sobre los cuerpos, reivindicando el derecho a la vida y a la muerte, conjetura desde la que se explora esta novela, a partir de las perspectivas teóricas de Michel Foucault y Judith Butler sobre el poder y la desigual valoración de los cuerpos. Crítica de la memoria oficial que absolvió a los culpables de la deScomposición de la sociedad chilena, Meruane se atreve a decir lo indecible desde un cuerpo enfermo que denuncia la red de poderes deshumanizantes del sistema neoliberal-dictatorial-patriarcal, red que controla el territorio y los cuerpos, haciendo de Chile un gran galpón desmemoriado.

  19. Sistema de salud de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Becerril-Montekio; Juan de Dios Reyes; Annick Manuel

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Chile, incluyendo su estructura, financiamiento, beneficiarios y recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone. Este sistema está compuesto por dos sectores, público y privado. El sector público está formado por todos los organismos que constituyen el Sistema Nacional de Servicios de Salud y cubre aproximadamente a 70% de la población, incluyendo a los pobres del campo y las ciudades, la clase media baja y los jubilados, así como ...

  20. [Antimicrobial susceptibility in Chile 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains.

  1. A novel Salmonella serovar isolated from Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus nestlings in Sweden: Salmonella enterica enterica serovar Pajala (Salmonella Pajala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Hernández

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel Salmonella serovar was isolated from Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus nestlings in northern Sweden in 2006. Three isolates of the same clone was retrieved from three falcon siblings and characterized as Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica: O-phase 13, 23:-: e, n, z 15 and the H-phase was not present. We propose the geographical name Salmonella enterica, sub-species enterica serovar Pajala to this novel Salmonella.

  2. Inhibitory Effects of Several Essential Oils towards Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella paratyphi A and Salmonella paratyphi B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Mazhar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant essential oils are natural products extracted from plants and because of their antimicrobial properties can be used as natural additives in foods. They are also useful for decontamination of food-borne pathogens and can be a safe additive in foods. The antimicrobial activities of essential oils belonging to Saturiea hortensis, Thymus vulgaris, Mentha polegium, Cuminum cyminum, Lavandula officinalis and Mentha viridis L. (spearmint were investigated at different concentrations (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10%v/v against Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella paratyphi A and Salmonella paratyphi B by using the agar well diffusion method. Essential oils showed inhibitory effect on Salmonella spp. in the agar well diffusion assay. In addition, the capability of essential oils for decontamination of minced row beef, ground beef, minced raw chicken and minced raw fish inoculated with Salmonella spp. at 0.1 and 0.5%v/v were assessed. Reduction of the Salmonella spp. population was observed following the inoculation of the cultures with 0.1 and 0.5%v/v essential oils.

  3. Cobre labrado, alambique y aguardiente. Chile y Argentina, 1586-1850

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Lacoste

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio examina el desarrollo de la producción, transporte y distribu- ción de cobres labrados y alambiques para elaborar aguardiente en Chile y el oeste de la actual Argentina, desde el primer alambique registrado (1586 hasta mediados del siglo XIX. Se detecta que el principal polo de manufactura de estos artefactos se encontraba en el Norte Chico de Chile, entre Huasco y La Serena. Desde allí, el uso de los alambiques se difundió por un amplio espacio. La ruta del alambique y el cobre labrado se extendió por 5.000 kilómetros, llegando a Guayaquil, Trujillo, Callao, Cinti, Jujuy y Salta por el norte; y a Valdivia y Chiloé por el sur, a ambos lados de la cordillera de los Andes. Floreció así un intenso proceso de integración socioeconómica regional, a la vez que se fortaleció el desa- rrollo agroindustrial con la posibilidad de destilar aguardientes. De esta manera se sentaron las bases para el surgimiento de varios productos típicos.

  4. Miedo y represionpolitica en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amado M. Padilla

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a human rights fact-finding mission to Chile concerned with the use of psychological techniques employed in offlcia- Uy sactioned torture and repressíon, Meetings and interviews were conducted with representatives of many organízatíons working with víctima of governrnental repression including the Chílean Psychological Assocíation. Fear and repression wene found to be widespread among all socioeconomic segments of the population. Physical and psychological abuses directed at individuals are díscussed, Psychological techníques used in the control of social groups such as intimidation, control of information, and community destabilization are also described. It is concluded that violations of human rigths are a reality in Chile. Ways to support the work of Chilean psychologists must be sought sínce the damaging eonsequences of officially sanctioned repressíon are wid.espread, and resources are minimal.

  5. Chile's energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-11-18

    In recent years, a new emphasis has been placed on increasing solid fuel availability in Chile, to reach the northern mining operations where demand for power is soaring. The south of the country is well served by hydroelectric power plants (2.3 million kW). The coal industry has doubled its capacity to cope with increased copper production - the Tocopilla power plant at the Chuquicamata copper mine has been converted from oil to coal - and there has been a major investment programme in the steel industry. In 1986, 1.4 million tons of coal was mined, mostly from the Provinces of Concepcion and Arauco, the remainder from Valdivia. Since then, 70 million US dollars has been invested by COCAR SA in the Pecket deposit near Punta Arenas. Coal from Pecket should cost around 26 dollars/t compared with 60 dollars/t for underground coal. It should support an expanded coal market in Chile and may also be able to compete in the Brazilian and Argentine markets. Reserves are estimated at over 200 Mt. Petroleum reserves in Tierra del Fuego are nearly exhausted; seismic surveys in the Atacama desert are promising.

  6. President of Chile at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The President of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, in the ATLAS cavern with, from left to right, Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesman, Vivian Heyl, CONICYT President, and Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General. Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General, and Vivian Heyl, CONICYT President, signing a cooperation agreement between CERN and Chile’s Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT).The President of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, paid a visit to CERN during her three-day tour of Switzerland. The charismatic Michelle Bachelet and her large delegation were greeted by the CERN Director-General and then taken to see the ATLAS experiment and the LHC. She also took time to meet the Chilean community working at CERN, comprising several physicists in the Theory Group and the ATLAS experiment. The meeting was followed by the signing of a cooperation agreement between CERN and Chile’s Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científi...

  7. Revisión y estudio de los restos fósiles de mastodontes de Chile (Gomphotheriidae: Cuvieronius hyodon, Pleistoceno superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberdi, M. T.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Mastodont fossil remains from Chile are described and discussed from a taxonomic point of view. A single species must be considered: Cuvieronius hyodon (Fischer for the Late Pleistocene of Chile. Some of its characteristics are analyzed and compared with those of other mastodons from different localities in South America. Paleoecological considerations are revised and potential migration routes from the north, towards the Chilean territory, are also discussed.Se describen y sitúan taxonómicamente los restos de mastodontes de las localidades chilenas. Se identifica una sola forma: Cuvieronius hyodon (Fischer para el Pleistoceno superior en Chile. Se analizan sus características y se comparan con aquellas de mastodontes de otras localidades de América del Sur. Asimismo se revisan consideraciones de tipo paleoecológico, y se discuten sus probables vías de migración desde el norte hacia el territorio chileno.

  8. Screening for Salmonella in backyard chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Johanna; Gole, Vaibhav; Chousalkar, Kapil

    2015-06-15

    Salmonellosis is a significant zoonotic disease which has a considerable economic impact on the egg layer industry. There is limited information about the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in backyard chickens. The current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in backyard chickens, and the associated virulence of any serovars identified. Hundred and fifteen pooled samples from 30 backyard flocks in South Australia were screened. Four flocks tested positive for Salmonella spp. The overall Salmonella isolation rate in the current study was 10.4%. The estimated prevalence at individual bird level was 0.02% (95% CI 0.025-0.975). The serovars isolated were Salmonella Agona, Salmonella subsp 2 ser 21:z10:z6 (Wandsbek) and Salmonella Bovismorbificans. All Salmonella isolates tested positive for the prgH, orfL and spiC genes. The Salmonella subsp 2 ser 21:z10:z6 (Wandsbek) had the most antibiotic resistance, being resistant to ampicillin and cephalothin and having intermediate resistance to florphenicol. All of the Salmonella Agona had intermediate resistance to the ampicillin, while the Salmonella Bovismorbificans were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. With the increased interest of keeping backyard chickens, the current study highlights the zoonotic risk from Salmonella spp. associated with home flocks.

  9. Screening for Salmonella in backyard chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Johanna; Gole, Vaibhav; Chousalkar, Kapil

    2015-06-15

    Salmonellosis is a significant zoonotic disease which has a considerable economic impact on the egg layer industry. There is limited information about the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in backyard chickens. The current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in backyard chickens, and the associated virulence of any serovars identified. Hundred and fifteen pooled samples from 30 backyard flocks in South Australia were screened. Four flocks tested positive for Salmonella spp. The overall Salmonella isolation rate in the current study was 10.4%. The estimated prevalence at individual bird level was 0.02% (95% CI 0.025-0.975). The serovars isolated were Salmonella Agona, Salmonella subsp 2 ser 21:z10:z6 (Wandsbek) and Salmonella Bovismorbificans. All Salmonella isolates tested positive for the prgH, orfL and spiC genes. The Salmonella subsp 2 ser 21:z10:z6 (Wandsbek) had the most antibiotic resistance, being resistant to ampicillin and cephalothin and having intermediate resistance to florphenicol. All of the Salmonella Agona had intermediate resistance to the ampicillin, while the Salmonella Bovismorbificans were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. With the increased interest of keeping backyard chickens, the current study highlights the zoonotic risk from Salmonella spp. associated with home flocks. PMID:25899620

  10. Suicidio y producto interno bruto (PIB en Chile: hacia un modelo predictivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Moyano Díaz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se examina el suicidio desde una perspectiva psicosocial y económica. En contraste con cifras relativamente bajas de suicidio en Latinoamérica respecto de países de la ex URSS y otros europeos, este fenómeno registra un crecimiento sostenido y progresivo en Chile, especialmente entre personas de 15 a 34 años. El análisis de las tasas de suicidio en el país para 1981 a 2003muestra un curva accidentada ascendente, y correlacionada con algunos resultados económicos tales como la curva del PIB (r = 0,874, proponiéndose un modelo predictivo que alcanza un ajuste satisfactorio (error de 3,8%. El modelo globalizado de economía social de mercado en Chile produce crecimiento económico pero no mejora las condiciones de salud mental de la población al considerar el suicidio como indicador de ésta, observándose inequidad económica y de salud, precarización laboral, desconfianza interpersonal y debilitamiento de las redes sociales. Se evidencian variadas dificultades metodológicas para el análisis del suicidio y de su evolución; no disponibilidad de bases de datos actualizadas para países latinoamericanos y, para Chile, dificultad de acceso a fichas de registro individual del suicida, las que tampoco registran siempre datos epidemiológicamente relevantes relativos al nivel educativo u otros. Se recomienda analizar el suicidio desde una perspectiva psicosocial y económica en América latina, realizando esfuerzos por completar, actualizar y hacer accesibles las bases de datos de los países que la conforman

  11. Is Mining Still the Wage of Chile?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Valenzuela

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available – Historia de la minería del hierro en Chile, by Augusto Millán. Santiago: Editorial Universitaria, 1999. – Capital transnacional y trabajo. El desarrollo minero en Chile, by Rafael Agacino, Cristián González and Jorge Rojas. Santiago: Lom Ediciones, 1998. – Dilemas y debates en torno al cobre, by Patricio Meller. Santiago: Dolmen, 2002. – Royalty. Regalía o renta minera. Lo que solo Chile no cobra, by Jorge Lavandero Illanes. Santiago: Ediciones Lafken, 2003.

  12. [Use of bacteriphages against Salmonella Enteritidis: a prevention tool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Cristina; Marín, Clara; Catalá-Gregori, Pablo; Soriano, Jose Miguel

    2015-06-01

    Introducción: la salmonelosis es una enfermedad de alta prevalencia, siendo la búsqueda de herramientas preventivas para evitar la contaminación una prioridad a nivel de salud pública. Objetivo: en el presente trabajo se evaluó el efecto in vitro de bacteriófagos frente a Salmonella enteritidis como una herramienta de prevención. Método: se realizaron dos pruebas con tres concentraciones de bacteriófagos frente a dos cepas de Salmonella enteritidis inoculadas en muestras de heces frescas de gallinas ponedoras, y el correspondiente control positivo. Así, se testaron cuatro grupos en cada una de las dos pruebas. Cada grupo experimental contó con dos réplicas, y en cada réplica se incubaron tres placas. Las concentraciones ensayadas fueron tres: solución comercial (5 × 107 pfu/mL), y dos diluciones de la misma (1/10 y 1/30). Una de las cepas testada fue la cepa CECT 4300, cepa certificada de la Colección Española de Cultivo Tipo, y la otra una cepa de campo aislada en una explotación de ponedoras sacrificadas. Ambas cepas se inocularon en muestras de heces a la dosis de 1,3 × 105 ufc/g de heces en cada uno de los cuatro grupos. Se procedió con el aislamiento e identificación de la bacteria por ISO 6579 a varios tiempos desde la inoculación: 1 minuto, 24 h y 7 días. Resultados: en la primera prueba, con la cepa certificada, se aisló Salmonella en todos los grupos a tiempo 1 minuto. A las 24 h se aisló Salmonella en todos los grupos excepto en una de las réplicas tratada con la dilución 1/10 de bacteriófagos, en una de las placas de la otra réplica tratada con la dilución 1/10, y en dos placas de cada una de las dos réplicas tratadas con la solución comercial. A partir de los 7 días ya no se aisló la bacteria de ninguno de los grupos experimentales. En la segunda prueba, con la cepa de campo, se aisló Salmonella en todos los grupos a tiempo 1 minuto. A las 24 h se aisló Salmonella en todos los grupos excepto en una de las r

  13. Estado del conocimiento y principales amenazas de los humedales boscosos de agua dulce de Chile Knowledge status and principal threats to freshwater forested wetlands of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO CORREA-ARANEDA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Los humedales boscosos de agua dulce son áreas naturalmente inundadas o saturadas, que sustentan vegetación boscosa hidrófila, están presentes en todo el mundo, y en Chile son conocidos como "pitrantos, hualves o hualhues". El presente estudio entrega el estado del conocimiento de estos humedales en Chile, mediante una descripción de sus características biológicas, fisicoquímicas e hidrodinámicas, identificando las principales amenazas para su conservación y las principales necesidades de investigación. Estos ambientes pueden presentar inundación permanente o temporal, dependiendo de un conjunto de procesos microclimáticos, biológicos y edafológicos. Su vegetación, del tipo hidrófila boscosa, es dominada por especies de la familia Myrtaceae. Tanto el comportamiento hídrico como la estructura vegetacional destacan dentro de los aspectos que determinan directamente las características fisicoquímicas del agua y los patrones de distribución de las comunidades biológicas. Los humedales boscosos de Chile han sido ampliamente estudiados desde un punto de vista vegetacional y florístico, pero carecen de estudios limnológicos, hidrológicos o faunísticos básicos, de lo cual deriva un total desconocimiento en relación a su funcionamiento a nivel ecosistémico y los efectos que pueden tener las actividades humanas en sus cuencas (e.g., agrícola, ganadera, forestal sobre sus componentes hídricos y biológicos. A pesar de ser ecosistemas de gran relevancia cultural y ecológica, se identifican importantes falencias en cuanto a su estado de conservación, al no encontrarse protegidos por las actuales herramientas de conservación existentes en el país. Por lo tanto, emergen como ecosistemas únicos, de relevancia mundial, prácticamente desconocidos en Chile y de gran interés para el desarrollo de numerosas líneas de investigación, aunque su alta susceptibilidad ante perturbaciones de origen antrópico amenaza su permanencia

  14. Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae in Chile from a Cytogenetic Perspective Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae en Chile Bajo una Perspectiva Citogenética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M Baeza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae is an endemic genus of South America with two major distribution centers in the continent: Chile and Brazil. In Chile the genus is distributed from the North, near Iquique (20º13’ S, 70º09’ W to the Chilean and Argentine Patagonia (53º10’ S, 70º54’ W. The central zone of Chile presents the highest number of species. A. presliana Herb. grows from Curicó (34º59’ S, 71º14’ W to Cautín (38º45’ S, 72º34’ W in Chile and Neuquén (36º50’ S, 71º05’ W, Argentina. A comparative karyotype study was made between a population of A. presliana subsp. presliana and a population of A. presliana subsp. australis Ehr. Bayer. Both populations presented asymmetric karyotypes, with 2n = 2x = 16 chromosomes, but with different chromosome formulae: A. presliana subsp. presliana has a haploid formula with 4m + 1sm-sat + 1st-sat + 2t, i.e., four pairs ofmetacentric chromosomes, one submetacentric pair with satellite, one subtelocentric pair with satellite, and two telocentrics pairs. A. presliana subsp. australis has a formula with 2m + 1m-sat + 1sm + 4t chromosomes, i.e., two pairs of metacentric chromosomes, one metacentric pair with satellite, one submetacentric pair, and four telocentrics chromosomes. These results indicated that the karyotype of the subspecies is very different, and it would be possible to recognize A. presliana subsp. australis as a new species.Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae es un género endémico de Sudamérica y presenta dos grandes centros de distribución: Chile y Brasil. En Chile se distribuye desde el norte, cerca de Iquique (20º13’ S, 70º09’ O hasta la Patagonia (53º10’ S, 70º54’ O. La zona central del país presenta el mayor número de especies. A. presliana Herb. crece con una distribución que va desde Curicó (34º59’ S, 71º14’ O a Cautín (38º45’ S, 72º34’ O en Chile y en la Provincia de Neuquén (36º50’ S, 71º05’ O, Argentina. Se hizo un

  15. Metropolizaciones Colombia-Chile: Experiencias de Bogotá, Medellín, Santiago y Concepción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Ángela Silva Álvarez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available El libro Metropolizaciones Colombia-Chile: Experiencias de Bogotá, Medellín, Santiago y Concepción surge en el marco de la alianza entre dos grupos de investigación de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia: el Grupo de Estudios sobre la Problemática Urbano-Regional en Colombia (Geourbe del Departamento de Geografía, sede Bogotá; y el de Dinámicas Urbano-Regionales de la Facultad de Arquitectura, sede Medellín. Posteriormente, la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile se sumó a la alianza con la organización del seminario Dinámicas Metropolitanas Colombia-Chile, diálogo entre Bogotá, Medellín, Santiago y Concepción, en noviembre de 2012 en la ciudad de Santiago. Los trabajos allí presentados fueron la base para la edición y materialización de esta interesante obra que contiene diecisiete textos, en los que se examina el proceso de metropolización en cuatro ciudades de Colombia y Chile desde diferentes perspectivas, donde el término ‘metropolizaciones’, en plural, sugiere la riqueza de aportes y enfoques tanto teóricos como metodológicos, expuestos para estudiar las metrópolis en cuanto a sus particularidades, formas y dinámicas resultantes.

  16. Serotipos de Salmonella identificados en los servicios de salud de México Salmonella serotypes isolated in Mexico's health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucina Gutiérrez-Cogco

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Dar a conocer las variaciones de los serotipos de cepas de Salmonella aislados en diversos laboratorios públicos y privados de la República mexicana, así como en el del Instituto de Diagnóstico y Referencia Epidemiológicos (InDRE. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizaron los serotipos de 24 394 cepas de Salmonella aisladas de diversas fuentes por los laboratorios de salud pública y privados de México, entre 1972 y 1999, 15 843 (64.9% de origen humano y 8 551(35.1% de origen no humano siguiendo el esquema de Kauffmann-White y utilizando antisueros producidos en el InDRE, de acuerdo con los lineamientos del Centro de Control y Prevención de Enfermedades, Atlanta (GA, de los Estados Unidos de América. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron 199 serotipos, el más frecuente en muestras clínicas fue S. Typhimurium (20.4% y, en segundo lugar, S. Enteritidis (18.3%. En este trabajo se muestra como S. Enteritidis tuvo un aumento gradual y desplazó a S. Typhimurium en los aislamientos desde 1991, y a la fecha es el serotipo que más se aísla. En cambio, en muestras no humanas el serotipo aislado con mayor frecuencia fue S. Derby (13.8%, seguido por S. Anatum (8.5%. CONCLUSIONES: Los serotipos más frecuentes en México, tanto en muestras humanas como no humanas son: S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Derby, S. Agona y S. Anatum. Desde el punto de vista epidemiológico es necesario conocer cuáles son los serotipos circulantes y los de nueva introducción para poder determinar las acciones de prevención requeridas para los casos.OBJECTIVE: To identify the different Salmonella strain serotypes isolated at public and private laboratories in Mexico and at the Institute for Epidemiologic Diagnosis and Referral (InDRE. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 24 394 Salmonella strains collected from 1972 to 1999 in public and private health laboratories of Mexico were analyzed with the Kauffmann-White method, using antisera produced by InDRE, according to

  17. Village microgrids: The Chile project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a village application in Chile. The objective was to demonstrate the technical, economic and institutional viability of renewable energy for rural electrification, as well as to allow local partners to gain experience with hybrid/renewable technology, resource assessment, system siting and operation. A micro-grid system is viewed as a small village system, up to 1200 kWh/day load with a 50 kW peak load. It can consist of components of wind, photovoltaic, batteries, and conventional generators. It is usually associated with a single generator source, and uses batteries to cover light day time loads. This paper looks at the experiences learned from this project with regard to all of the facets of planning and installing this project.

  18. 2010 Chile Earthquake Aftershock Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barientos, Sergio

    2010-05-01

    The Mw=8.8 earthquake off the coast of Chile on 27 February 2010 is the 5th largest megathrust earthquake ever to be recorded and provides an unprecedented opportunity to advance our understanding of megathrust earthquakes and associated phenomena. The 2010 Chile earthquake ruptured the Concepcion-Constitucion segment of the Nazca/South America plate boundary, south of the Central Chile region and triggered a tsunami along the coast. Following the 2010 earthquake, a very energetic aftershock sequence is being observed in an area that is 600 km along strike from Valparaiso to 150 km south of Concepcion. Within the first three weeks there were over 260 aftershocks with magnitude 5.0 or greater and 18 with magnitude 6.0 or greater (NEIC, USGS). The Concepcion-Constitucion segment lies immediately north of the rupture zone associated with the great magnitude 9.5 Chile earthquake, and south of the 1906 and the 1985 Valparaiso earthquakes. The last great subduction earthquake in the region dates back to the February 1835 event described by Darwin (1871). Since 1835, part of the region was affected in the north by the Talca earthquake in December 1928, interpreted as a shallow dipping thrust event, and by the Chillan earthquake (Mw 7.9, January 1939), a slab-pull intermediate depth earthquake. For the last 30 years, geodetic studies in this area were consistent with a fully coupled elastic loading of the subduction interface at depth; this led to identify the area as a mature seismic gap with potential for an earthquake of magnitude of the order 8.5 or several earthquakes of lesser magnitude. What was less expected was the partial rupturing of the 1985 segment toward north. Today, the 2010 earthquake raises some disturbing questions: Why and how the rupture terminated where it did at the northern end? How did the 2010 earthquake load the adjacent segment to the north and did the 1985 earthquake only partially ruptured the plate interface leaving loaded asperities since

  19. Biomonitoring air pollution in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Chile, in general, and Santiago, its capital city, in particular, has serious air pollution problems mainly in winter time when the pollutants could reach dangerous levels which might be detrimental to older people and children. A project was undertaken within the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. The present paper describes the activities carried out within this CRP. The lichens, collected in clean areas (native forests), were transplanted to selected sites in Santiago and exposed during three and six months. At a second stage, samples of Tillandsia recurvata were collected in the Metropolitan Area. All samples were carefully cleaned, using only clean plastic materials, milled at liquid nitrogen temperature, freeze dried, re-homogenized and stored at low temperature until analysis. The samples were mainly analysed by INAA, RNAA SS-AAS and ASV. As part of the routine QA/QC programme, analytical laboratories involved in the project participated in intercomparison runs organized by the IAEA for the determination of trace and minor elements in two lichens samples. From the data and its subsequent mapping over the area under study, it was possible to identify places exposed to higher amounts of some elements. Of interest are also the correlations between several elements, perhaps indicating a given source of pollutants. The results indicate the usefulness of biomonitoring air pollution using lichens and Tillandsias, which, jointly with multielemental analytical techniques, such as NAA, open the possibility to study extensive areas without the infrastructure needed for conventional APM sample collection and at reduced costs. (author)

  20. Report on the ESO Chile Science Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Michael

    2008-03-01

    Science Days in Santiago are an annual gathering of ESO's geographically dispersed team in Chile to learn more about each other's research, to celebrate scientific achievements of the past year and to encourage new collaborations.

  1. Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, in extreme southern Chile. WMO station ID 85934. Period of record 1896-1954. The original forms were scanned at the Museo...

  2. 1960 Puerto Montt, Valdivia, Chile Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On May 22, 1960, a Mw 9.5 earthquake, the largest earthquake ever instrumentally recorded, occurred in southern Chile. The series of earthquakes that followed...

  3. CULTURA POLITICA: ACERCAMIENTO CONCEPTUAL DESDE AMERICA LATINA

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia Millán La Rivera

    2008-01-01

    Este artículo analiza el concepto de cultura política planteado por los autores Almond y Verba, entregando una breve contextualización del término, para luego centrarse en ciertas críticas surgidas desde Europa y América Latina. A partir de lo anterior, se invita a la reflexión sobre la problemática del concepto de Cultura Política en América Latina, cuestionándose su pertinencia literal, debido al origen ajeno a nuestra realidad. Luego de este análisis, se describen algunos elementos que deb...

  4. Enterprise Surveys : Chile Country Profile 2010

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2011-01-01

    The Country Profile for Chile is based on data from the Enterprise Surveys conducted by the World Bank. The benchmarks include the averages for the group of countries in Latin America & Caribbean and the Chile income group. The enterprise surveys focus on the many factors that shape the decisions of firms to invest. These factors can be accommodating or constraining and play an important r...

  5. Música, etnicidad e identidad mapuche. Una mirada crítica al Chile multicultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gustavo Núñez Olguín

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo es aproximarse, desde una perspectiva etnomusicológica, a las estrategias de reproducción identitaria del Pueblo mapuche, en un contexto actual y bajo la lógica multicultural imperante en Chile. Para esto, revisaremos algunos sucesos que condicionan la actual relación entre el Estado chileno y el Pueblo mapuche, y centraremos el análisis de las manifestaciones culturales y musicales en los conceptos de etnicidad y relevancia social. De esta manera, y escapando de cualquier presupuesto idealista, intentaré sugerir una reflexión basada en el grado de conexión entre música y cultura, analizando usos y funciones, en casos concretos y en contextos específicos.Palabras Clave: Pueblo Mapuche, Chile, multiculturalismo, música, etnicidad, identidad______________________________Abstract:The objective of this work is to outline, from an ethnomusicologic perspective, the strategies of identity reproduction of the Mapuche people in the present context under the prevailing multicultural logic in Chile. For this, we will review some events that condition the present relation between the Chilean State and the Mapuche people and will carry out the analysis of the cultural and musical manifestations based on the ethnicity and social relevance concepts. In this way, by analyzing uses and functions in particular cases and specific contexts and avoiding any idealisation of data, I will suggest that a discussion of the present issue should be based on the degree of connection between music and culture.Keywords: Mapuche people, Chile, multiculturalism, music, ethnicity, identity

  6. El Chile de las regiones: una historia inconclusa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arenas, Federico

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean regions have a history that dates back several decades since the first attempts to establish regionalization in the fifties, until the Regional Governments were installed in 1993. Nevertheless, the critical reading of the regionalization process and decentralization show that beyond many advances, we are still far from representing a country with a unitary decentralized state model. In this work, the most important milestones of the Chilean institutional development are revised at a regional scale, in order to establish the level of advance and the overdue challenges on this subject in the country.

    Las regiones chilenas tienen una historia que se remonta a varias décadas, desde los primeros intentos de establecer una regionalización en Chile en los años cincuenta, hasta la instalación de los denominados Gobiernos Regionales el año 1993. Sin embargo, la lectura crítica del proceso de regionalización y sobre todo de la descentralización, muestra que más allá de los innumerables avances, todavía estamos lejos de representar como país, un modelo de estado unitario desconcentrado. En este trabajo se revisan los hitos más importantes del desarrollo institucional chileno a la escala regional, con el fin de establecer el nivel de avance y los desafíos pendientes del país en esta materia.

  7. Apuntes sobre el renacer de la huelga obrera en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Núñez Arancibia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza un conjunto de manifestaciones indicativas del resurgimiento de la huelga obrera en Chile, con especial atención en el marco de las condiciones políticas en que evolucionaron las organizaciones obreras, desde finales de la dictadura hasta la reciente era neoliberal. Además se examina la reaparición de expresiones reivindicativas de los trabajadores, que se han dado a pesar de algunas medidas dirigidas a despolitizar las luchas laborales y de varias reformas legales que redujeron el espacio de actuación de las organizaciones obreras. Estos variados esfuerzos organizativos han tenido lugar en sectores primarios, en donde se confrontan las nuevas condiciones de flexibilización y precariedad que el empresariado chileno ha impulsado. En contra de las perspectivas estructuralistas, en este análisis se sustenta la importancia que los subcontratistas y los trabajadores tercerizados han tenido en dichos procesos, y la apelación a huelgas extralegales en tanto hechos significativos en relación con la actual crisis de las clásicas identidades ligadas a la vida fabril y al trabajo normal

  8. Dinámica trófica del jurel (Trachurus symmetricus murphyi) en el norte de Chile Trophic dynamic of jack mackerel (Trachurus symmetricus murphyi) in northern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Marianela Medina; Hugo Arancibia

    2002-01-01

    Se determinó la dinámica trófica del jurel Trachurus symmetricus murphyi capturado frente a las costas de la zona norte de Chile, desde la primavera de 1993 hasta el invierno de 1994. Se consideró la importancia relativa de las presas, la identificación de unidades ontogenéticas tróficas y la selectividad de presas por tamaño. Las muestras se obtuvieron de las líneas de descarga de las plantas pesqueras en los puertos de Arica, Iquique, Tocopilla y Mejillones. En el laboratorio se identificar...

  9. Diversidad de la familia Carabidae (Coleoptera en Chile Diversity of the family Carabidae (Coleoptera in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO ROIG-JUÑENT

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Carabidae constituye dentro de los coléopteros chilenos, la cuarta familia en importancia por su cantidad de especies. El presente trabajo incluye una breve compilación acerca de la historia de la familia y de las primeras expediciones realizadas en Chile. También se realizan comparaciones de la diversidad de carábidos chilenos con respecto a otros países y el Neotrópico. Para Chile, se conocen 21 tribus, con 95 géneros y 365 especies, que representan el 38,8, 28,8 y 7,9 % de la fauna del Neotrópico, respectivamente. Chile posee un bajo número de tribus comparado con otros países, sin embargo, constituye un área importante por la presencia de seis tribus relictuales, principalmente pangeicas o gondwánicas. Chile posee 18 géneros endémicos (18,5 % de su fauna de Carabidae, 28 cuya distribución está restringida a Chile y Argentina y seis restringidos a Chile, Argentina y Uruguay. La cantidad de especies presentes en Chile es inferior a la que poseen otros países de América del Sur, pero la cantidad de especies endémicas es muy alta (204 y representa el 55,8 % de su fauna de carábidos. El alto grado de endemismo que posee Chile con respecto a otros países de América del Sur puede deberse a su condición de aislamiento, siendo las barreras más importantes la región desértica del norte y la cordillera de Los Andes. Este hecho también se vislumbra por la ausencia de importantes tribus neotropicales como Galeritini, Scaritini y Brachinini. También se incluyen en este trabajo claves para la identificación de todas las tribus y géneros presentes en Chile, como así también una breve descripción acerca de la diversidad y ambientes en los que se encuentra cada géneroThe family Carabidae is the fourth largest Coleoptera family in Chile. The present work includes a brief compilation on the taxonomic history of the family and the first expeditions to Chile. In addition, knowledge of carabid diversity in Chile is compared with

  10. Seroepidemiology of human toxoplasmosis in Chile Seroepidemiología de la toxoplasmosis en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del C. Contreras

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of already published and unpublished seroepidemiological surveys for toxoplasmosis, carried out in Chile in 1982-1994, is reviewed, expanded and analyzed. The surveys included 76,317 apparently healthy individuals of different ages (0.57% of the country's total population, from 309 urban and rural-periurban localities. Urban groups were integrated by blood donors, delivering mothers and middle grade schoolchildren, while rural-periurban individuals corresponded to unselected family groups. Blood samples were collected in filter paper. The presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was determined by the indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT, titers > 16 were considered positive. The test resulted positive in 28,124 (36.9% of the surveyed people. Two hundred and six (0.3% individuals presented IHAT titers > 1000, probably corresponding to acute or reactivated infections. A progressive increase of positive IHAT from northern to southern regions of the country was noted, phenomenom probably related to geographical conditions and to a higher production and consumption of different types of meat in the latter regions. It is postulated that ingestion of T. gondii cysts by humans is epidemiologically as important as ingestion of oocysts. The results presented stress the epidemiological importance of toxoplasmosis in humans, and warn about eventual implications in immunocompromised patients and in transplacental transmission, organ transplants and transfusions.En este trabajo se revisa, se amplía y se analiza en conjunto una serie de encuestas seroepidemiológicas sobre toxoplasmosis efectuadas en Chile entre 1982 y 1994, utilizando la reacción de hemaglutinación indirecta (RHAI. El estudio incluyó 76.317 personas aparentemente sanas de diferentes edades (0,57% de la problación total del país, procedentes de 309 localidades urbanas y rural-periurbanas. Los grupos urbanos estuvieron constituídos por donantes de sangre, parturientas y

  11. Where Do Mexico and Chile Stand on Inclusive Education? Short Title: Inclusion in Mexico and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cedillo, Ismael; Romero-Contreras, Silvia; Ramos-Abadie, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the background, current situation and challenges of educational integration and inclusive education in Mexico and Chile. These countries obtained similar low results on the academic achievement of their students (Mexico last and Chile second last) among OECD countries; and above average scores, among Latin-American countries.…

  12. Efectos de la privatización de servicios públicos en Chile: Casos sanitario, electricidad y telecomunicaciones

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald Fischer; Pablo Serra

    2004-01-01

    Este estudio analiza las privatizaciones de los servicios de saneamiento, electricidad y telecomunicaciones en Chile. Se evalúa la evolución de los servicios públicos desde su privatización, y por lo tanto el estudio excluye el proceso mismo de privatización. El análisis supone que los objetivos que se persiguieron al privatizar fueron financiar la expansión de servicios que el Estado no estaba en condiciones de realizar y aumentar la eficiencia de las empresas. Los autores llegan a la conclu...

  13. Turismo y transporte urbano: Circuitos patrimoniales para vehículos motorizados en Concepción, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    M. Isabel López; Hernán Ascuí Fernández; Jorge Díaz Tejada

    2015-01-01

    En Chile, como en muchos países del mundo, el sistema público de transporte ha sido históricamente concebido desde un punto de vista estrictamente utilitario. Es decir, en términos de su eficiencia para enlazar el hogar y el trabajo; el hogar con el lugar de estudios, etc. Estre criterio - que se explica fundamentalmente por la necesidad de optimizar los recursos públicos - deja sin embargo de lado la oportunidad de que el transporte se constituya también en un medio para fortalecer la cultur...

  14. Prácticas pedagógicas y competencias ciudadanas: El caso del docente de historia en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Labraña, Carlos; Martínez Rodríguez, Rosendo

    2015-01-01

    En el presente artículo exponemos los resultados obtenidos sobre las prácticas pedagógicas y las competencias ciudadanas en una investigación financiada por el Centro de Investigación Avanzada en Educación (CIAE). En él analizamos algunas de las estructuras comunicativas presentes en la intervención didáctica del docente de Historia, Geografía y Ciencias Sociales de quinto a octavo año de Educación Básica en la ciudad de Concepción (Chile), desde donde se atiende la forma como estas interfier...

  15. Salmonella Infection and Water Frogs

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-01-12

    This podcast, featuring lead investigator Shauna Mettee, discusses the first known outbreak of Salmonella in people due to contact with water frogs.  Created: 1/12/2010 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 1/12/2010.

  16. Salmonella radicidation of poultry carcasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, R.W.A.W.

    1982-01-01

    Validity of methodsExperiments were carried out In which it was assessed which Salmonella isolation method is the most productive one In the examination of broiler carcasses. Refrigerated, refrigerated and radiated (2.50 kGy), frozen and frozen and radiated (2.50 kGy) samples of broile

  17. Cellulitis Due to Salmonella infantis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish R Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the genus Salmonella are highly adapted for the growth in both humans and animals and cause a wide spectrum of disease. The growth of Serotypes S. typhi and S. paratyphi is restricted to human hosts, in whom these organisms cause enteric (typhoid fever. The remaining Serotypes (non typhoidal Salmonella or NTS can colonize the gastrointestinal tracts of the broad range of animals, including mammals, reptiles, birds and insects. The usual clinical presentation of non-typhoidal salmonellae (NTS infection is self limited gastroenteritis; however bacteremia and focal extra intestinal infection may occur. However salmonella localization to the skin presenting as cutaneous ulceration is regarded as a rare event. Rates of morbidity and mortality associated with NTS are highest among the elderly, infants, and immunocompromised individuals, including those with hemoglobinopathies, HIV infection, or infections that cause blockade of the reticuloendothelial system. We isolated S.infantis in 50 years old man with left leg cellulitis. The serotype was confirmed at Central Research Institute, Kasauli.

  18. Salmonella – A Brief Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurmi Esko

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Salmonellosis is the main cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis in most European countries. Infections with Salmonella is usually subclinical, whereas clinical cases show symptoms with a wide range of severity. Infection is most commonly associated with the consumption of meat, especially poultry or pork, and eggs and their products. Salmonella can enter the food chain at any point throughout its length. The principal reservoir of Salmonellae is the gastrointestinal tract of mammals and birds, but Salmonellae are able to survive and even multiply in many external environments. In Norway, Sweden and Finland cost effective prevention methods have been used for several years to prevent and control Salmonellea infections. In addition, competitive exclusion (CE and vaccination might be relevant as biological methods to prevent colonisation of bird intestines by enteropathogens, especially Salmonella. Antibiotic drug resistance has been a problem since the start of the antibiotic era. The cause for anxiety is that more and more bacteria are becoming resistant, often to a whole range of antibiotics. The debate on the use of antimicrobials in veterinary medicine and animal production dates back almost as long as the use itself. There is a clear evidence to show that antibacterial agents given to animals for growth promotion, prophylactic purposes or treatment induce a rise in the number of antibiotic resistant strains isolated from the animals. These bacteria may be transmitted to humans by several possible routes. There are thus strong arguments for preventive efforts which have to be directed towards identifying real critical control points (HACCP throughout the whole food chain, which starts from the farm and ends at the consumer's table.

  19. The Genus Austroleptis from South Chile and Patagonia (Diptera, Rhagionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    NAGATOMI, Akira; NAGATOMI, Hisako; ナガトミ, アキラ; ナガトミ, ヒサコ; 永冨, 昭; 永冨, 尚子

    1988-01-01

    The genus Austroleptis from South Chile and Patagonia is revised and three new species are added. So, there are eight known species, five of which are from South Chile and Patagonia and three from Australia and Tasmania.

  20. Linux desde código fuente

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin Bungarzan, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Compilación e instalación de un sistema operativo Linux desde código fuente. El resultado final es una versión de Linux mínima con interfaz gráfica y con algunas utilidades y librerías para realizar tareas de auditoría en redes y en el sistema. Compilació i instal·lació d'un sistema operatiu Linux des de codi font. El resultat final és una versió de Linux mínima amb interfície gràfica i amb algunes utilitats i llibreries per realitzar tasques d'auditoria en xarxes i en el sistema....

  1. Construir la equidad desde los derechos sociales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Arzate Salgado

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el fin de la revolución y con la redacción de la Constitución de 1917 el estado mexicano ha tratado de construir un sistema de bienestar social, no obstante el esfuerzo grandes contingentes de población en todas las entidades de la federación continúan al margen de este sistema de bienestar; por lo que es necesario reflexionar sobre la necesidad de construir un sistema más incluyente para el caso del Estado de México, lo cual es el objeto de este trabajo: por esta razón se proponen una serie de fundamentos conceptuales para diseñar una Ley de Desarrollo Social para el Estado de México. En el trabajo son dos los ejes teóricos articuladores de la argumentación: la equidad y los derechos sociales.

  2. CULTURA POLITICA: ACERCAMIENTO CONCEPTUAL DESDE AMERICA LATINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Millán La Rivera

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el concepto de cultura política planteado por los autores Almond y Verba, entregando una breve contextualización del término, para luego centrarse en ciertas críticas surgidas desde Europa y América Latina. A partir de lo anterior, se invita a la reflexión sobre la problemática del concepto de Cultura Política en América Latina, cuestionándose su pertinencia literal, debido al origen ajeno a nuestra realidad. Luego de este análisis, se describen algunos elementos que debiesen tenerse en cuenta para adecuar el concepto a la realidad latinoamericana, a fin de hacer más pertinente su uso.

  3. Desde el compromiso de las transferencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonet Bertomeu, Josep María

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available En Enero de 2002, los Servicios Sanitarios gestionados por el INSALUD fueron transferidos a las diez Comunidades Autónomas que todavía no los habían recibido. Se completó así el mapa territorial de Servicios de Salud Autonómicos, si exceptuamos Ceuta y Melilla que siguen gestionados por la Administración Central. Habiendo transcurrido más de tres años desde aquella fecha se puede ver con cierta perspectiva aquel proceso, algunos de sus componentes y aportar así algo al momento que vive nuestro sistema, siempre con ánimo de enriquecer el debate.…

  4. Salmonella Radicidation of Dry Mixed Feeds and Feed Ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feed components contaminated with salmonellae act as vehicles in the transmission of these bacteria to slaughter animals and hence to meat and poultry. Terminal decontamination of ingredients or mixed feed seems required because sanitary improvements in processing, bagging and storage do not always appear effective in considerably reducing salmonella contamination rates. Experiments were carried out to assay the decontamination effect of pelletization of mixed feed. Enumeration of enterobacteriaceae was used as the analytical criterion. It appeared that a temperature over 80°C generally led to five decimal reductions in enterobacteriaceae counts; however, also currently used lower temperatures may bring about two decimal reductions only. Following earlier experiments with fish meal, range finding tests on the decontamination of mixed feed with 60Co gamma rays were also performed. To achieve five decimal reductions in the counts of the most resistant enterobacteriaceae which were encountered about 0.5 Mrad was required; survival curves were generally not linear, so that overall effective dose had to be used as a parameter. Feeding experiments with rats, using 35% fish meal irradiated at 0.8 Mrad in the diet for two years, demonstrated that neither losses of nutritive value nor the occurrence of orally toxic factors is effected by such an irradiation treatment. It is recommended that pilot plant tests be carried out. In these tests an attempt should be made to combine improved sanitation and pelletizing with a terminal radiation treatment of the bagged material with the lowest dose required. Such tests should preferably be carried out in suitable areas of countries like Peru or Chile. A brief outline is given of the development work and training of scientific and technical staff that should be carried out during the installation of such a pilot plant. (author)

  5. Helicobacter pylori infection in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, G; Acuña, R; Troncoso, M; Portell, D P; Toledo, M S; Valenzuela, J

    1997-11-01

    This article summarizes studies designed to evaluate the role of Helicobacter pylori infection in Chile, described in 21 reports from nine centers in various Chilean regions published between 1985 and 1995. According to their data, H. pylori infection is quite frequent among patients with a variety of gastric conditions, including adults (43%-92%) and children (6%-100%). Levels of specific IgG antibodies to H. pylori are also elevated among patients with duodenal ulcers (100%) and gastritis (86%) as well as asymptomatic adults (75%). Combination therapy with three (but not two) drugs has been proved effective, with clinical improvement, ulcer cure, and H. pylori eradication occurring in well-controlled studies. Available evidence suggests that antibiotic resistance is not a major problem in treatment. The H. pylori reinfection rate is low (4.2% per year), suggesting that combination therapy with three drugs constitutes a cost-effective alternative for treating colonized symptomatic patients. Concurrent preliminary studies revealed that antibodies to VacA but not CagA proteins correlate with disease severity in Chilean patients. It can be concluded that local research assists local administrators of health resources to implement adequate policies to prevent, control, and treat H. pylori-related pathologies.

  6. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetovic, Alexander, E-mail: alexander@galetovic.cl [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile. Av. San Carlos de Apoquindo 2200, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Munoz, Cristian M., E-mail: cmunozm@aes.com [AES Gener and Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Catolica de Chile (Chile)

    2011-10-15

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: > We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. > Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. > Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. > Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. > We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  7. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: → We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. → Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. → Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. → Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. → We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  8. DESDE EL PARADIGMA DE LA COMPLEJIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Alvarado Cordero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo busca brindar un aporte a la disciplina de Orientación al proponer una forma de incorporar el paradigma de la complejidad al quehacer profesional. Se incluye una revisión de la injerencia de diferentes teorías en el desarrollo histórico de esta disciplina y se ejemplifica la aplicación de los principios de auto organización, interdependencia y sustentabilidad a la práctica de la Orientación. Sustentada en estos fundamentos teóricos, se diseñó e implementó una propuesta pedagógica en un centro educativo de Educación Primaria. Se realizó un trabajo de campo con 22 docentes y 380 estudiantes de una escuela pública en donde, durante un mes, se generaron espacios de participación y expresión creativa, con acciones a nivel de aula y de institución. En las acciones realizadas se subrayó constantemente la importancia de iniciar con el cambio individual en pequeños actos, como el ahorro energético, el manejo de desechos, la armonía en las relaciones interpersonales, se desplegó un abanico de posibilidades que emergió de las personas participantes. Los resultados y conclusiones evidencian importantes alcances y aportes que realiza la Orientación a la calidad de vida personal y social desde el contexto educativo, desde donde se convierte en una experiencia pedagógica exitosa, que puede ser homologada en otros contextos.

  9. Immune Reaction and Survivability of Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Infantis after Infection of Primary Avian Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Braukmann; Ulrich Methner; Angela Berndt

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella serovars are differentially able to infect chickens. The underlying causes are not yet fully understood. Aim of the present study was to elucidate the importance of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and -2) for the virulence of two non-host-specific, but in-vivo differently invasive, Salmonella serovars in conjunction with the immune reaction of the host. Primary avian splenic macrophages were inoculated with Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica serovar (S.) Typhim...

  10. Imagen país de Colombia desde la perspectiva extranjera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echeverri Cañas, Lina María

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Colombia is a country with a negative historical positioning in international markets. Despite efforts by governments and influencers to improve its image, the perception of foreigners remains polarized, being associated with coffee and drug trafficking. This article is the result of a qualitative research conducted on foreign visitors from eight countries in the Americas with the largest number of visitors to Colombia in 2013: The United States, Venezuela, Ecuador, Argentina, Peru, Brazil, Mexico and Chile. The study found that the image of Colombia is not one-dimensional, but multidimensional. It identifies five dimensions that influence country image: knowledge of the country, the industrial orientation, visitor attitudes, perceptions of prospects and preferences and finally interests associated with its image.Colombia es un país con un posicionamiento histórico negativo en mercados internacionales. Si bien los gobiernos y los prescriptores han dedicado esfuerzos por mejorarla, la percepción del extranjero se mantiene polarizada, es decir, todavía el país es asociado con el café y con el narcotráfico. El presente artículo es el resultado de una investigación cualitativa realizada a extranjeros procedentes de ocho países que registran el mayor número de visitantes en Colombia en el 2013 desde el continente americano: Estados Unidos, Venezuela, Ecuador, Argentina, Perú, Brasil, México y Chile. Como resultado del estudio se encontró que la imagen de Colombia no es unidimensional, es multidimensional. Se logran identificar cinco dimensiones que influyen en la imagen país: el conocimiento del país, la orientación industrial, las actitudes de los visitantes, las percepciones de los prospectos y las preferencias e intereses asociado a su imagen.

  11. [Beginning of the Microbiology education in Chile: formation centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Carlos

    2015-08-01

    The first Chair of Microbiology in Chile was created in the School of Medicine of the Cañadilla at the University of Chile in 1892. Dr. Alejandro del Río Soto Aguilar was its first Professor. For almost three decades it was the only educational center for microbiologists in Chile. Among them were the first Professors of the new School of Medicine of the Catholic University of Chile and of the University of Concepción.

  12. Isolation and Evaluation Virulence Factors of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis in Milk and Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Shaigan nia

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: To our best knowledge the present study is the first prevalence report of Salmonella spp., Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium in raw sheep and goat samples in Iran. Consumption of pasteurized milk and dairy products can reduce the risk of salmonellosis.

  13. ¿Es Chile un país católico? Polémica en torno a un libro del padre Hurtado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pedro Espinosa Santander

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cuando a fines de 1941 el Padre Alberto Hurtado publicó su libro "¿Es Chile un País Católico?", invitaba especialmente a los jóvenes de la Acción Católica a conocer el país real: ¿cómo era de verdad Chile y su Iglesia? Alberto Hurtado con su mirada de apóstol miró a Chile desde la mirada de Jesús y remeció conciencias e incomodó a muchos con su denuncia de los males que corroían el alma nacional: miseria, injusticias, vicios, salarios miserables, falta de educación del pueblo, viviendas indignas, y junto con esto, la lejanía de los pobres de la Iglesia y la escasez de sacerdotes. Para él había una tarea pendiente que muchos esquivaban: conquistar Chile para Cristo. El libro y la invitación fueron acogidos con gran entusiasmo, por los jóvenes especialmente; pero las cr��ticas arreciaron de parte del clero y laicado conservadores. Para ellos, la visión de Hurtado era peligrosamente amarga y desconocía la labor que la Iglesia, desde la Colonia, hacía en el país formando el "alma de Chile". La polémica de fondo era una sorda crítica a Hurtado, asesor nacional de los jóvenes de la Acción Católica. El artículo muestra la polémica en torno al libro y a su autor, los diferentes actores que intervinieron y la significación eclesial de todo el proceso: ¿Era Chile un país católico?When at the end of 1941 Father Alberto Hurtado Publisher his book, "¿Es Chile un País Católico?" ("Is Chile a Catholic Country?", he especially invited the youth of Catholic Action (Acción Católica to become acquainted with the real country: What was Chile and its Church really like? Alberto Hurtado, with his characteristic view of an apostle, looked upon Chile with the gaze of Jesus and shook consciences, making many people uncomfortable with his condemnation of the evils corroding the national soul: the misery, injustices, vices, paltry salaries, lack of education, undignified living conditions and, together with all this, the

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata Blanco), and tangerines (Citrus reticulata Blanco) may be imported into the United States from Chile,...

  15. SPECIFIC CONTROL OF SALMONELLA IN POULTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimenov N.V.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Scientifically based and clinically validated new tools and methods to combat Salmonella infection in poultry, allowing to ensure the safety and health safety products - eggs and poultry meat. The method of selective decontamination involves the use of bivalent bacteriophage that is based on highly selected phages Phagum Salmonella typhimurium and Phagum Salmonella enteritidis, as well as probiotic laktobifadola. The developed tools and methods of selective decontamination followed by immunization with inactivated vaccine associated "Virosalm" allows you to eliminate salmonella infection in poultry.

  16. Los patelogastrópodos intermareales de Chile y Perú Intertidal limpets of Chile and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN ESPOZ

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se entrega un sistema de clasificación que refleja las relaciones de parentesco, inferidas a partir del análisis de la región 16S de ADN mitocondrial, de los patelogastrópodos que habitan en la zona intermareal a lo largo de la costa rocosa de Chile y Perú. Además, se incluye el análisis comparativo de estos patelogastrópodos en relación con la estructura, la morfología y los patrones de color de la concha, los dientes de la rádula y la anatomía corporal. Adicionalmente, se entrega información respecto de la distribución y ecología para todos los miembros de este grupo. Los resultados muestran que la fauna Lottiidae de Chile y Perú consiste en al menos nueve especies de patelogastrópodos intermareales. Esto es, ocho especies de patelogastrópodos agrupadas dentro del clado monofilético Scurria (S. variabilis, S. zebrina, S. viridula, S. plana, S. scurra, S. araucana, S. ceciliana y una especie no determinada y un "taxón problemático" asignado preliminarmente dentro del género Lottia (Lottia orbignyi. El grupo está presente entre los 5º S y 54º S, registrándose en los niveles intermareales superior, medio e inferior, desde zonas expuestas a protegidas del oleaje. A nivel intraespecífico, los resultados nos permiten proponer la sinonimia de S. parasitica con S. variabilis, y de S. ceciliana con S. boehmita. Según esto, S. variabilis presentaría al menos tres ecofenotipos: (1 en sustratos rocosos a lo largo de todo su rango geográfico, (2 sobre las conchas de Fissurella crassa y F. limbata principalmente en Chile centro-sur y (3 sobre las placas del chitón Enoplochiton niger en el norte de Chile y sur del Perú. Por su parte, S. ceciliana es una especie de patelogastrópodo que presenta un patrón morfológico y de coloración de la concha altamente variable. En general, la alta variabilidad del patrón de color y morfología de la concha sitúa a estos patelogastrópodos entre los más complejos y

  17. Expedition Atacama - project AMOS in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, J.; Kaniansky, S.

    2016-01-01

    The Slovak Video Meteor Network operates since 2009 (Tóth et al., 2011). It currently consists of four semi-automated all-sky video cameras, developed at the Astronomical Observatory in Modra, Comenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia. Two new generations of AMOS (All-sky Meteor Orbit System) cameras operate fully automatically at the Canary Islands, Tenerife and La Palma, since March 2015 (Tóth et al., 2015). As a logical step, we plan to cover the southern hemisphere from Chile. We present observational experiences in meteor astronomy from the Atacama Desert and other astronomical sites in Chile. This summary of the observations lists meteor spectra records (26) between Nov.5-13, 2015 mostly Taurid meteors, single and double station meteors as well as the first light from the permanent AMOS stations in Chile.

  18. [Typhoid fever in Chile 1977-1990: an emergent disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, F; Springer, A D

    1997-04-01

    The emergence of old and new communicable diseases is becoming an important public health problem in industrialized and developing countries worldwide. Chile experienced, at the end of the seventies and during the eighties, epidemics of several emergent communicable infectious diseases whose relevance as public health problems had steadily decreased in the previous 25 years. The most striking of these epidemics was a severe outbreak of typhoid fever that lasted at least 10 years. The majority of the cases occurred in the urban setting of Santiago. Several investigators suggested, in light of apparently good sanitation statistics, that factors responsible for this outbreak of typhoid were an increase in the number of chronic carriers of Salmonella typhi, the lack of microbiological food controls and the consumption of vegetables irrigated with waste water contaminated with S typhi. However, there is a dearth of epidemiological information and field work confirming the role of these factors in this typhoid outbreak. Moreover, the sudden, massive and urban characteristics of this epidemic, coupled to contemporary information regarding shortcomings on the preparation of drinking water and on decreased availability of drinking water to the population in Santiago regardless of good sanitation statistics, suggest that this outbreak may have been partially waterborne. The beginning of this typhoid outbreak also coincided with increased rain fall, with rapidly deteriorating economic and social conditions manifested in high rates of unemployment, and with decreased government investment on social services, including sanitation and health. All these factors are known to influence the epidemiology of typhoid and other emergent diseases worldwide. PMID:9460291

  19. Genetic diversity of Salmonella pathogenicity islands SPI-5 and SPI-6 in Salmonella Newport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guojie; Allard, Marc; Strain, Errol; Stones, Robert; Zhao, Shaohua; Brown, Eric; Meng, Jianghong

    2014-10-01

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Newport is one of the common serotypes causing foodborne salmonellosis outbreaks in the United States. Salmonella Newport consists of three lineages exhibiting extensive genetic diversity. Due to the importance of Salmonella pathogenicity islands 5 and 6 (SPI-5 and SPI-6) in virulence of pathogenic Salmonella, the genetic diversity of these two SPIs may relate to different potentials of Salmonella Newport pathogenicity. Most Salmonella Newport strains from North America belong to Salmonella Newport lineages II and III. A total 28 Salmonella Newport strains of lineages II and III from diverse sources and geographic locations were analyzed, and 11 additional Salmonella genomes were used as outgroup in phylogenetic analyses. SPI-5 was identified in all Salmonella Newport strains and 146 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected. Thirty-nine lineage-defining SNPs were identified, including 18 nonsynonymous SNPs. Two 40-kb genomic islands (SPI5-GI1 and SPI5-GI2) encoding bacteriophage genes were found between tRNA-ser and pipA. SPI5-GI1 was only present in Salmonella Newport multidrug-resistant strains of lineage II. SPI-6 was found in all strains but three Asian strains in Salmonella Newport lineage II, whereas the three Asian strains carried genomic island SPI6-GI1 at the same locus as SPI-6 in other Salmonella. SPI-6 exhibited 937 SNPs, and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that clustering of Salmonella Newport isolates was a reflection of their geographic origins. The sequence diversity within SPI-5 and SPI-6 suggests possible recombination events and different virulence potentials of Salmonella Newport. The SNPs could be used as biomarkers during epidemiological investigations.

  20. Educational Ethics and the DESD: Considering Trade-Offs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlottmann, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The United Nation's Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) aims to prepare students for pressing economic and environmental problems. In this article, I argue that an exclusive emphasis on an ambiguous goal, sustainable development, raises important questions for educational ethics. Specifically, I argue that DESD mission…

  1. El poblamiento temprano de la costa norte de Chile

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    Varela, Héctor Hugo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La costa Norte de Chile estuvo habitada por lo menos desde 10000 AP por pequeños grupos humanos que subsistían de los recursos del mar y la costa. Ellos estaban asociados con la cultura Chinchorro, caracterizada por el tratamiento artificial que le daban a sus muertos. El sitio Caleta Huelén 42 se encuentra ubicado en la desembocadura del río Loa en el Norte de Chile. Constituye una importante conexión hacia el sur, vinculada con la expansión de los grupos de pescadores arcaicos semejantes a Morro 1 y Morro 1-6 y que continúa hacia Punta de Teatinos y El Cerrito. La presente experiencia tiene como objetivo establecer las relaciones biológicas de Caleta Huelén 42 con otros grupos arcaicos costeros. La colección está constituida por 33 individuos y los fechados conocidos la ubican entre el 4780 y el 3780 AP. Las afinidades biológicas con grupos semejantes (Morro 1, Morro 1/6, Morro Uhle, El Cerrito y Punta de Teatinos se analizan mediante el empleo de 29 caracteres métricos del cráneo y la aplicación de diferentes técnicas de análisis multivariado. Se demostró la existencia de dos conglomerados biológicos uno constituido por las muestras del Norte Árido (Morro Uhle, Morro 1, Morro1/6 y Caleta Huelén 42 y el otro por las series del Norte Semiárido (El Cerrito y Punta de Teatinos. Los fundadores de Caleta Huelén 42 son el resultado de la migración hacia el sur de una pequeña banda de cazadores recolectores arcaicos, que conservaron parte de genoma original y características culturales que los conecta con la tradición Chinchorro. Además, es posible que hayan recibido el aporte genético de grupos arcaicos proveniente del interior del continente a través del río Loa.

  2. Hacia un planteamiento de arquitectura docente, en Chile

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    Mac Clure Alamos, Oscar

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available On this pages the author expound the different architectural Solutions adopted for school projects from his professional experience: 22 years (1959-1981 in the Construction Society of Educational Establishments in Santiago de Chile, as well as the execution -four years at the Santiago University (late State Technical University- of the modified project for the Planetarium which had been projected by the Construction Society. He also expound briefly a number of constructions of educational character carried out through the practicing of his profession. Taking as a base these experiences, he offers some suggestions and conclusions that will be useful for future programmes intended to solve the problems of the school buildings. From a critical and objective position he tries to show the actual situation on the educational architecture in this country.En estas páginas se pretende dar a conocer diferentes soluciones arquitectónicas adoptadas en los proyectos escolares, a través de mi experiencia profesional, durante 22 años (1959 - 1981 en la Sociedad Constructora de Establecimientos Educacionales en Santiago de Chile. También la ejecución, durante 4 años (1981 - 1985, en la Universidad de Santiago (ex Universidad Técnica del Estado del proyecto modificado y la construcción del edificio para el Planetario, que había realizado en la Sociedad Constructora. En forma breve expondré, además, algunas obras de carácter educacional, realizadas en el ejercicio privado de mi profesión. En base a estas experiencias procuraré entregar algunas sugerencias y conclusiones que podrían ser útiles en futuros programas destinados a resolver los problemas de las construcciones docentes. Desde una posición crítica y objetiva intentaré también dar a conocer la situación actual de la arquitectura educacional en el país.

  3. Procesos de significación mediados por una plataforma de aprendizaje colaborativo desde los protagonistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Arancibia Herrera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El uso de tecnologías de la comunicación (TIC en el aula escolar requiere la creación de propuestas contextualizadas que fomenten la colaboración y el uso de recursos cercanos a los estudiantes. El presente artículo muestra los resultados asociados a los procesos de significación, que profesores y estudiantes construyeron desde su participación en un proyecto en el que se implementaron diseños didácticos colaborativos con uso de TIC, en particular de redes sociales. Se efectuaron grupos focales con 102 estudiantes y entrevistas en profundidad a 21 profesores, en dos momentos (pre y post, quienes participaron de 21 experiencias didácticas ejecutadas en 12 colegios en el sur austral de Chile. Los principales resultados revelan que existe una alta valoración de la experiencia vinculada principalmente a los efectos motivadores que provocan las tecnologías y redes sociales en los estudiantes, el cambio en la interacción didáctica al interior de las aulas, el interés ante la posibilidad de colaborar con estudiantes de otros contextos escolares geográficamente distantes, el desconocimiento, por parte de profesores, de los recursos de la Web 2.0 y aprensiones ante el uso indebido de los recursos que provee Internet. En conclusión, la investigación permitió levantar desde los procesos de significación de sus protagonistas, información cualitativa relevante en torno a las implicancias didácticas, tecnológicas y logísticas de la ejecución de experiencias de aprendizaje colaborativo mediadas por una plataforma virtual de aprendizaje.

  4. Ethanolamine utilization in Salmonella typhimurium.

    OpenAIRE

    Roof, D M; Roth, J R

    1988-01-01

    Ethanolamine can serve as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen for Salmonella typhimurium if vitamin B12 is present to serve as a cofactor. The pathway for ethanolamine utilization has been investigated in order to understand its regulation and determine whether the pathway is important to the selective forces that have maintained the ability to synthesize B12 in S. typhimurium. We isolated mutants that are defective in ethanolamine utilization (eut mutants). These mutants defined a cluster...

  5. Income Inequality in Chile: 1990-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Hourton

    2012-01-01

    The entrance of Chile to the Organization for the Economic Cooperation and Development, as the first South American country and second after Mexico in Latin America, sets a landmark in the development path that since the beginning of the 1990s decade has seemed to lead this country to a privileged position in the region. Given the reforms taken by the military regime in the 1980s, Chile is one of the most market-oriented countries in Latin America, with Free Trade Agreements and Economical Pa...

  6. Reseña de Libro: Inmigrantes internacionales: Emprendimientos en barrios comerciales de Iquique, Gran Valparaíso y Santiago de Chile (2014 Camilo Arriagada L. (ed. Ceibo Ediciones, Santiago de Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix González

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El libro es el resultado de la investigación elaborada bajo el proyecto FONDECYT Regular 1120914, donde se aborda el fenómeno de la inmigración internacional en Chile. La ciudad global, ya sea desde la exportación, centros financieros o de servicios se transforma en un sector atractivo para nuevos habitantes urbanos en los que se integra el inmigrante. Las estrategias de movilidad de los inmigrantes internacionales urbanos permiten introducirnos a los diversos problemas de la integración social y económica de los migrantes internacionales en grandes ciudades chilenas. El objetivo de este libro es a partir de un análisis estadístico, cartográfico y de entrevistas conocer el fenómeno de la inmigración internacional en ciudades metropolitanas de chile, aportando nuevas miradas desde el enfoque urbano de la segregación y gentrificación, así como el de la vulnerabilidad social, la exclusión y el paradigma de sociedad intercultural.

  7. Reiter's syndrome after salmonella infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čanović Predrag S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Two patients with Reiter's syndrome, after Salmonella infection were treated on the Infections disease ward at Clinical hospital center in Kragujevac. In the first patient, ten days after the onset of Salmonella infection, signs of edema and pain in the right ankle occurred, accompanied by expressed conjunctivitis. Within next two months consecutive metatarsophalanges changes joint of the right foot have appeared. In the second patient, two weeks after the onset of Salmonella infection, edema of the left hand joints and a week later edema of the right hand and right ankle joints appeared. In both patients inflammatory syndrome was expressed (high erythrocyte sedimentation rates, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein along with negative rheumatoid factors and positive antigen HLA-B27. Outcome of the disease in both cases was favorable upon receiving nonsteroid antirheumatic therapy. Signs of arthritis disappeared after three months. No signs of recurrent arthritis have been seen during the next four years in the first and next two years in the second patient.

  8. Procalcitonin levels in salmonella infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Procalcitonin (PCT as a diagnostic marker for bacteremia and sepsis has been extensively studied. We aimed to study PCT levels in Salmonella infections whether they would serve as marker for early diagnosis in endemic areas to start empiric treatment while awaiting blood culture report. Materials and Methods: BACTEC blood culture was used to isolate Salmonella in suspected enteric fever patients. Serum PCT levels were estimated before starting treatment. Results: In 60 proven enteric fever patients, median value of serum PCT levels was 0.22 ng/ml, values ranging between 0.05 and 4 ng/ml. 95% of patients had near normal or mild increase (<0.5 ng/ml, only 5% of patients showed elevated levels. Notably, high PCT levels were found only in severe sepsis. Conclusion: PCT levels in Salmonella infections are near normal or minimally increased which differentiates it from other systemic Gram-negative infections. PCT cannot be used as a specific diagnostic marker of typhoid.

  9. Nuevos migrantes, viejos racismos: Los mapas parlantes y la niñez migrante en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Dery Lorena Suárez-Cabrera

    2015-01-01

    (descriptivo): El objetivo en este texto es exponer cómo la niñez migrante está siendo configurada como un nuevo sujeto problemático de los fenómenos migratorios en Chile, a partir de una focalización sobre la niñez proveniente del Perú y de la invisibilización de otros sujetos infantiles, señalando cuándo la migración es concebida como una amenaza desde diferentesescenarios sociales. En este sentido se expone una reflexión epistemológica y metodológica que lleva hacia otros senderos de las c...

  10. LAS RELACIONES ENTRE CHILE Y CANADÁ DURANTE LA SEGUNDA GUERRA MUNDIAL: LAS PRIMERAS EXPERIENCIAS DE LOS DIPLOMÁTICOS CHILENOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ DEL POZO

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Basado en los informes diplomáticos chilenos, este artículo analiza el tema de las relaciones entre Chile y Canadá, en el período en que esos países avanzaron hacia el intercambio de embajadas, entre 1941 y 1944. En él se explica que hasta antes de esos años, Canadá solo tenía un interés comercial en América Latina, mientras que para Chile era más importante el plano diplomático, a causa de su interés en reforzar su posición internacional, un tanto debilitada desde comienzos del siglo XX. Las razones que llevaron a ambos países a tomar esa decisión estuvieron directamente relacionadas con el contexto de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Una vez instaladas las embajadas, se comentan las impresiones que tuvieron los primeros representantes de Chile en Ottawa acerca de lo que era Canadá, lo que muestra las dificultades en comprender el funcionamiento de un país bastante distinto a Chile. El artículo concluye que el establecimiento de embajadas no trajo un incremento significativo a corto plazo en las relaciones entre ambos países, ni a nivel comercial ni políticoBased on the reports of the Chilean foreign mission in Canada, this article deals with the relations between Chile and Canada during the period in which both countries decided to exchange embassies. It explains that before those years, Canada was interested in Latin America mainly in commercial topics, while Chile showed more interest on the diplomatic side. This difference is due to the fact that Chile found itself in a rather vulnerable position before 1939. The Second World War was the main reason that led to the establishment of embassies in both countries. The article analyzes also the first impressions of the Chilean representatives in Ottawa, showing that it was not easy for Chilieans to understand the nature of a country like Canada. It ends saying that in the short term, the establishment of embassies did not lead to an increase in the commercial or the political

  11. FAKTOR VIRULENSI Salmonella enterica SEROVAR TYPHI

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    Marvy Khrisna Pranamartha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Demam tifoid disebabkan oleh bakteri Salmonella typhi, dengan gejala umum berupa demam tinggi dan nyeri perut. Tifoid adalah penyakit infeksi yang disebabkan oleh bakteri Salmonella typhi, yang masuk ke dalam tubuh melalui mulut dan saluran cerna.1 Untuk bisa memahami patogenesis dari demam tifoid sampai ke tingkat selular dan molekular, ada 5 hal penting yang harus digaris bawahi, yaitu: 1.\tTipe 3 Sistem Sekresi (T3SS 2.\tVirulence Genes dari Salmonella yang mengkode 5 SIP (Salmonella Invasion Protein SIP A, B, C, D, dan E. 3.\tToll R2 dan toll R3 yang merupakan lapisan luar dari makrofag. 4.\tSistem imun lumen usus sampai ke organ dalam 5.\tFungsi endotelial sel dalam inflamasi. Infeksi Salmonella dapat berakibat fatal kepada bayi, balita, ibu hamil dan kandungannya serta orang lanjut usia. Hal ini disebabkan karena kekebalan tubuh mereka yang menurun. Virulensi salmonella tidak lepas dari peranan SPI, yang terletak di dalam kromosom dan plasmid bakteri. Dimana SPI 1 dan SPI 2 telah dikaji cukup mendalam karena keterkaitannya dengan T3SS, dan berperan sangat penting pada invasi awal serta siklus hidup intrasel dari bakteri Salmonella. Kontaminasi Salmonella dapat dicegah dengan mencuci tangan dan menjaga kebersihan makanan yang dikonsumsi. Selalu menjaga kebersihan lingkungan hidup kita agar terhindar dari kontaminasi dengan bakteri Salmonella typhi. Agar mewaspadai sejak dini pencegahan dan pengobatan penyakit typhus. Studi mendalam perlu dilakukan agar kita mampu lebih memahami proses kompleks antara patogen dan sel inang. Mengingat dari 15 SPI yang sudah diketahui, hanya SPI 1 dan SPI 2 yang sudah dikaji secara mendalam. Kata Kunci: Salmonella, Salmonella Invasion Protein, Typhi.

  12. Propuestas alternativas desde la historiografia israeli

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    Pietro Morocutti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available La narración histórica del pasado tiene consecuencias profundas sobre la auto representación y la memoria colectiva de los grupos humanos, especialmente en situaciones de conflicto. Analizaremos la evolución de las narraciones históricas alternativas propuestas por la academia israelí desde la fundación del estado en 1948. A pesar de los fuertes tabúes sociales y políticos presentes en la academia israelí algunas de estas propuestas tienen el potencial para abrir un debate más libre sobre el pasado del estado de Israel y crear las condiciones para la reconciliación entre comunidades en lucha en Palestina/Israel. Palabras clave: Historia, Israel, Palestina, memoria colectiva, historiografía. _____________________ The historical narration of the past has deep ramifications in the self representation and the collective memory of human groups, especially in conflict situations. We will analyze the evolution of alternative historical narratives proposed by the Israeli academia since the foundation of the state in 1948. Despite the deep social and political taboos present in the Israeli society and academia some of these proposals have a great potential to open the debate and create the conditions for reconciliation between the embattled communities in Palestine/Israel. Keywords: History; Israel; Palestine; Collective Memory; Historiografy.

  13. Desde el proyecto 6x4

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    Diana Soto Arango

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El Proyecto 6X4 tiene por objeto estudiar seis profesiones desde cuatro ejes de análisis bajo los lineamientos del denominado Proceso de Bolonia de la Unión Europea, en este caso, en concordancia con América Latina y el Caribe. En el proyecto general participan 60 universidades de América Latina y de Europa. En nuestro continente se localizan 12 países y actualmente, la dirección del Proyecto 6X4 está liderada por ASCUN en Colombia. Este trabajo presenta la situación actual en la formación de la carrera de “Historia” y de Ciencias Sociales en pregrado y postgrado, con el eje de análisis de “investigación e innovación” en el citado Proyecto 6X4. Específicamente, se presentan las competencias en el citado eje de análisis. Al final, se toma la experiencia de RUDECOLOMBIA, para replantear la formación en Maestrías y Doctorados. dentro de esta Red académica.

  14. Polen y esporas de la Formación Navidad, Neógeno de Chile Pollen and spores of the Navidad Formation, Neogene from Chile

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    VIVIANA BARREDA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El análisis palinológico de la Formación Navidad en afloramientos de la Cordillera de la Costa, Chile central, brindó asociaciones dominadas por leños, cutículas, algas de agua dulce, esporas y granos de polen (elementos de origen continental con muy escasa participación de quistes de dinoflagelados, acritarcos y cubiertas internas de foraminíferos arenáceos (componentes marinos indicando que estas asociaciones se habrían acumulado en un ambiente marino. Las asociaciones de polen y esporas indican el desarrollo de una vegetación de bosque con participación de elementos gondwánicos (Podocarpaceae, Araucariaceae, Nothofagaceae y neotropicales (Sapotaceae, Malphigiaceae, Arecaceae, Chloranthaceae, Tiliaceae/Bombacaceae -Paleoflora Mixta- apoyando hipótesis previas basadas en las megafloras. En las márgenes de los bosques se habrían desarrollado parches con vegetación esclerófila con AAnacardiaceae y Fabaceae como componentes principales. Sobre suelos arenosos o marismas salinos se habrían desarrollado elementos herbaceo-arbustivos, xerofíticos y halofíticos, como Chenopodiaceae y Calyceraceae. Se destaca el primer registro de taxones endémicos de las familias Calyceraceae y Asteraceae (Barnadesioideae para la palinoflora de Chile. Estas comunidades vegetales se habrían desarrollado bajo condiciones de clima subtropical, cálido y húmedo. Desde el punto de vista cronoestratigráfico las asociaciones esporopolínicas sustentan una edad neógena para la Formación Navidad.Palynological assemblages recovered from the Navidad Formation in outcrops of the Cordillera de la Costa, central Chile, are dominated by wood remains, cuticles, spores and pollen grains and fresh water algae (continental elements with scarce dinoflagellate cysts, acritarchs, foraminiferal linnings marine palynomorphs indicating that these assemblages would have been accumulated in a marine environment. Spore-pollen assemblages indicate a forest vegetation

  15. POR UNA LEGISLACIÓN SOCIAL EN CHILE: EL MOVIMIENTO DE LOS PANADEROS (1888-1930

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    Juan Carlos Yáñez Andrade

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo estudia la evolución del movimiento de panaderos en Chile, desde fines del siglo XIX hasta 1930. En especial se hace referencia a la etapa de movilizaciones para la eliminación del trabajo nocturno en las panaderías durante 1923 y 1924. Se plantea como tesis central que el movimiento de panaderos estaba en un proceso de transición organizativa desde la modalidad de sociedad de resistencia hacia una organización sindical proclive a institucionalizar sus demandas y aceptar la legislación, aspecto que explica la demanda en pro de la eliminación del trabajo nocturno. El mejoramiento en las condiciones de trabajo supuso modernizar el mercado laboral y generar nuevas modalidades de control de la mano de obra.This article studies the evolution of the bakers' movement in Chile, from the beginning of the nineteenth century to the 1930s. Special reference is made to the demonstrations organized to elimínate night work in the bakeries in 1923 and 1924. The main argument is that the bakers' movement was in a transitional period of organization from a resistance society to a labour-union organization. As a result there was an attempt to institutionalize their demands and accept legislation, which explains their demand in order to elimínate night work. The improvement of working conditions implied the modernization of the labour market and the generation of new forms of labour control.

  16. Hallazgo de Ehrlichia canis en Chile, informe preliminar Ehrlichia canis in Chile; preliminary report

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    J. LÓPEZ

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el primer caso de Ehrlichiosis canina detectado en Chile, causado por la rickettsia Ehrlichia canis y transmitida por el vector Rhipicephalus sanguineus. El diagnóstico clínico fue confirmado en Alemania por Inmunofluorescencia Indirecta (IFATThe first case of canine ehrlichiosis detected in Chile is described. It is caused by the rickettsia Ehrlichia canis and carried by the vektor Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed in Germany using the Immunofluorescent Antibody Test (IFA

  17. Antibacterial Activity, Antioxidant Effect and Chemical Composition of Propolis from the Región del Maule, Central Chile

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    Nélida Nina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is commercialized in Chile as an antimicrobial agent. It is obtained mainly from central and southern Chile, but is used for the same purposes regardless of its origin. To compare the antimicrobial effect, the total phenolic (TP, the total flavonoid (TF content and the phenolic composition, 19 samples were collected in the main production centers in the Región del Maule, Chile. Samples were extracted with MeOH and assessed for antimicrobial activity against Gram (+ and Gram (− bacteria. TP and TF content, antioxidant activity by the DPPH, FRAP and TEAC methods were also determined. Sample composition was assessed by HPLD-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. Differential compounds in the samples were isolated and characterized. The antimicrobial effect of the samples showed MICs ranging from 31.5 to > 1000 µg/mL. Propolis from the central valley was more effective as antibacterial than those from the coastal area or Andean slopes. The samples considered of interest (MIC ≤ 62.5 µg/mL showed effect on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp., Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella enteritidis. Two new diarylheptanoids, a diterpene, the flavonoids pinocembrin and chrysin were isolated and elucidated by spectroscopic and spectrometric means. Some 29 compounds were dereplicated by HPLC-MS and tentatively identified, including nine flavones/flavonol derivatives, one flavanone, eight dihydroflavonols and nine phenyl-propanoids. Propolis from the Región del Maule showed large variation in antimicrobial effect, antioxidant activity and composition. So far the presence of diarylheptanoids in samples from the coastal area of central Chile can be considered as a marker of a new type of propolis.

  18. Cephalosporin and Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Salmonella, Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Jing-Jou; Chiou, Chien-Shun; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling Yang; Tsai, Shu-Huei; Wu, Jiunn-Jong

    2005-01-01

    We report the prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella strains resistant to ciprofloxacin and extended-spectrum cephalosporins in Taiwan from January to May 2004. All isolates resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins carried bla CMY-2, and all ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis isolates were genetically related.

  19. Salmonella Typhimurium infection in the porcine intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schauser, Kirsten; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Larsson, Lars-Inge

    2005-01-01

    The normal intestinal epithelium is renewed with a turnover rate of 3-5 days. During Salmonella infection increased cell loss is observed, possibly as a result of programmed cell death (PCD). We have, therefore, studied the effects of Salmonella Typhimurium infection on three elements involved in...

  20. Nuclear public information activities in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear plans and developing programs in developing and developed countries are facing-in a higher or lower degree- opposition from public opinion. The objectives and contents of the public education program on nuclear energy in Chile are dealt with in this paper

  1. DEZVOLTAREA CONTEMPORANĂ A TURISMULUI DIN CHILE

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    Maria-Mihaela Győri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary development of the Chilean Tourism sector is analyzed mainly on thebasis of data supplied by the National Service of Tourism in Chile. Figures on inboundtourism, domestic tourism, lodging, employment, receipts, as well as the existing structurewithin the sector, were taken into consideration for the investigated period of 1999-2006.

  2. Museos de Santiago de Chile. Directorio

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo, Andrea; Funes, Catherine; Heredia, Constanza; Herrera, Daniela; Suárez, Víctor

    2012-01-01

    Directory of the museums in Santiago of Chile categorized by subject, such as Art, Archaeology, Historic house, Science and technology, Natural science and Natural history, Specialized, Ethnography and Anthropology, History, Site museum and Other. It comprehends basic information about name, creation date, collections, services, contact info, social network accounts, website and entrance fee of the museums.

  3. A Decade of Environment Management in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Ruthenberg, Ina-Marlene

    2001-01-01

    This publication presents an evaluation of the Environmental Institutions Development Project in Chile, selected by Bank management to be part of an intensive learning process in final project evaluation, given its contributing factor to the Bank's knowledge base on environmental institutional development projects. The first part of the publication focuses on the project as catalyst for cu...

  4. Clima y sociedad en Argentina y Chile durante el periodo colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Gascón

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza las principales fluctuaciones climáticas globales en algunos territorios, que actualmente pertenecen a las repúblicas de Argentina y de Chile, durante el periodo colonial. Las colonias involucradas son Santiago, en Chile; y Mendoza, Córdoba y Buenos Aires, en Argentina. El periodo colonial inicia con la Pequeña Edad Glacial y sus condiciones de mayor frío y humedad; a mediados del siglo XVII fue notorio el Mínimo de Maunder; y, finalmente, en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII, se registró el Remonte Termal, caracterizado por el calor y la sequía. Prestamos atención a El Niño Oscilación del Sur (ENOS en sus diferentes efectos locales. El objetivo principal es enriquecer las interpretaciones del pasado desde finales del siglo XVI hasta principios del siglo XIX, al aportar elementos referidos a la historia del clima. El eje del análisis es que el clima afecta los ambientes y los recursos naturales disponibles, la vida urbana y las rutas, de modo que no puede estar ausente de las diversas explicaciones del pasado colonial.

  5. Sistema de salud de Chile The health system of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Becerril-Montekio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Chile, incluyendo su estructura, financiamiento, beneficiarios y recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone. Este sistema está compuesto por dos sectores, público y privado. El sector público está formado por todos los organismos que constituyen el Sistema Nacional de Servicios de Salud y cubre aproximadamente a 70% de la población, incluyendo a los pobres del campo y las ciudades, la clase media baja y los jubilados, así como los profesionales y técnicos. El sector privado cubre aproximadamente a 17.5% de la población perteneciente a los grupos sociales de mayores ingresos. Un pequeño sector de la población, perteneciente a la clase alta, realiza pagos directos de bolsillo a proveedores privados de servicios de atención a la salud. Alrededor de 10% de la población está cubierta por otras agencias públicas, fundamentalmente los Servicios de Salud de las Fuerzas Armadas. Recientemente el sistema se reformó creando el Régimen General de Garantías en Salud, que establece un Sistema Universal con Garantías Explícitas que se tradujo, en 2005, en el Plan de Acceso Universal con Garantías Explícitas (AUGE, que garantiza el acceso oportuno a servicios de calidad para 56 problemas de salud, incluyendo cáncer en niños, cáncer de mama, trastornos isquémicos del corazón, VIH/SIDA y diabetes.This paper describes the Chilean health system, including its structure, financing, beneficiaries, and its physical, material and human resources. This system has two sectors, public and private. The public sector comprises all the organisms that constitute the National System of Health Services, which covers 70% of the population, including the rural and urban poor, the low middle-class, the retired, and the self-employed professionals and technicians.The private sector covers 17.5% of the population, mostly the upper middle-class and the high-income population. A small

  6. La refundación del capitalismo y la transición a la democracia en Chile (1973-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Goicovic Donoso

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La transición política en Chile ha sido objeto de exhaustivos análisis por parte de las ciencias sociales, tanto en Chile como en el exterior. No obstante los historiadores han permanecido al margen del análisis de los fenómenos que definen las peculiaridades de la transición chilena y, en consecuencia, no se han hecho cargo de los debates que ello ha provocado. En este artículo nos proponemos analizar el proceso histórico de larga duración que deviene en la transición, desde una perspectiva socio-política, a objeto de identificar los antecedentes y dinámicas que se encuentran en la base de la transformación del Estado y del régimen político en Chile.____________________ABSTRACT:The political transition in Chile has been deeply investigated by the social sciences as much inChile than in others countries. But the historians did not integrate the analisis of the factors defining the particularities of the chilean transition, and, as a result, did not assume the debates generated by this. In this article, we will propose an analisis of the historical proces of very long duration concluying with the transition, from a social-political perpective, in order to identify the origins and dynamics present in the base of the transformation of the state and of the political regime in Chile.

  7. 9 CFR 113.120 - Salmonella Typhimurium Bacterin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salmonella Typhimurium Bacterin. 113... REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.120 Salmonella Typhimurium Bacterin. Salmonella Typhimurium Bacterin shall be prepared from a culture of Salmonella typhimurium which has been inactivated and...

  8. Significance of salmonella in pork production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabasil Neđeljko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Animals, feed, meat and meat products are often transported across long distances, being an important part of international trade, which enables a dissemination of salmonella, including even of some resistant strains. Pigs are animals which are difficult to manipulate because of their temperament, build, sharp teeth, irritability, good sense of smell, bad sight and their sensitivity to stress. Animals coming from different farms should be separated in stock yards to prevent both contamination with pathogens such as salmonella and their irritation and aggressiveness caused by contacts with other pigs. These animals are usually a significant reservoir of salmonella which are 'inside' the gastrointestinal tract and gut associated lymph tissue. In contrast to our country, in the EU, even countries which have always had low salmonella prevalence, e.g. Finland, have a control program. The program has to be based on a guarantee that all relevant factors will participate in the prevention of salmonella contamination.

  9. Interactions of Salmonella with animals and plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès eWiedemann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica species is a Gram negative bacterium, which is responsible for a wide range of food- and water-borne diseases in both humans and animals, thereby posing a major threat to public health. Recently, there has been an increasing number of reports, linking Salmonella contaminated raw vegetables and fruit with food poisoning. Many studies have shown that an essential feature of the pathogenicity of Salmonella is its capacity to cross a number of barriers requiring invasion of a large variety of cells and that the extent of internalization may be influenced by numerous factors. However, it is poorly understood how Salmonella successfully infects hosts as diversified as animals or plants. The aim of this review is to describe the different stages required for Salmonella interaction with its hosts: (i attachment to host surfaces; (ii entry processes; (iii, multiplication; (iv suppression of host defence mechanisms ; and to point out similarities and differences between animal and plant infections.

  10. Pathogenesis of Salmonella-induced enteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L. Santos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections with Salmonella serotypes are a major cause of food-borne diseases worldwide. Animal models other than the mouse have been employed for the study of nontyphoidal Salmonella infections because the murine model is not suitable for the study of Salmonella-induced diarrhea. The microbe has developed mechanisms to exploit the host cell machinery to its own purpose. Bacterial proteins delivered directly into the host cell cytosol cause cytoskeletal changes and interfere with host cell signaling pathways, which ultimately enhance disease manifestation. Recently, marked advances have been made in our understanding of the molecular interactions between Salmonella serotypes and their hosts. Here, we discuss the molecular basis of the pathogenesis of Salmonella-induced enteritis.

  11. Riesgo de introducción de la enfermedad de Newcastle a Chile por la importación de avestruces Risk of introduction of Newcastle disease in Chile through import of ostriches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Burbano

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Chile ha estado libre de de la enfermedad de Newcastle del tipo PMV-1 desde 1977; por consiguiente, el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el riesgo de introducción de la enfermedad de Newcastle asociado a la importación de avestruces. Se utilizó un modelo de simulación de tipo estocástico, para lo cual se consideraron los siguientes procesos: los relacionados previos a la importación en el país de origen, aquellos que corresponden al proceso mismo de importación y los realizados en la cuarentena en el país de destino. De acuerdo a los reportes de enfermedad en cada uno de los países exportadores de avestruces, se categorizó a los países en dos niveles: aquel donde la enfermedad de Newcastle no ha sido reportada y el de un país endémico. Las probabilidades de las entradas del modelo de simulación fueron obtenidas de fuentes bibliográficas e información sanitaria publicada por organismos de sanidad animal. Se ejecutó un análisis de sensibilidad, para lo cual se usó el coeficiente de correlación de rango a fin de identificar las variables que ejercen mayor influencia en el modelo, siendo éstas: la probabilidad de brote y la cantidad de avestruces importadas. Esta información sirvió para el diseño de cuatro escenarios que incluyeron valores extremos de la presentación de la enfermedad basados en la situación endémica, así como el uso de una mejor prueba diagnóstica. El número de avestruces positivos que ingresarían a Chile resultó fuertemente relacionado al número de brotes en el país endémico y al número de avestruces importadas del país endémico; el valor fue de 2.2 x 10-5, con un límite de confianza superior del 90% de 8.5*10-5 por año. El riesgo de introducción de la enfermedad de Newcastle a Chile asociado a la importación de avestruces fue muy bajo, incluso en los peores escenarios.Chile has been free of Newcastle disease (ND of type PMV- 1 since 1977. The objective of this study was to

  12. Nuevos migrantes, viejos racismos: Los mapas parlantes y la niñez migrante en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dery Lorena Suárez-Cabrera

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available (descriptivo: El objetivo en este texto es exponer cómo la niñez migrante está siendo configurada como un nuevo sujeto problemático de los fenómenos migratorios en Chile, a partir de una focalización sobre la niñez proveniente del Perú y de la invisibilización de otros sujetos infantiles, señalando cuándo la migración es concebida como una amenaza desde diferentesescenarios sociales. En este sentido se expone una reflexión epistemológica y metodológica que lleva hacia otros senderos de las ciencias sociales y del “conocimiento como emancipación”, para retomar los mapas parlantes de la “Investigación Acción Participativa”; esto se hace con el fin de poner en relieve tales discursos estigmatizantes y visibilizar a la niñez migrante como sujeto de la experiencia desde sus narrativas identitarias.

  13. Las tablas de lo sagrado: un comentario sobre el libro "Antología crítica de la dramaturgia anarquista en Chile", de Sergio Pereira

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    Miguel Alvarado Borgoño

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se comenta de manera crítica el libro "Antología crítica de la dramaturgia anarquista en Chile" del estudioso chileno Sergio Pereira. El análisis está centrado en entender, desde la lectura de este libro, al drama anarquista como un rito que se relaciona con un mito cuyo origen y estrategias se vinculan inconscientemente con el barroco hispanoamericanoIn this I articulate comments of critical way the book "Critical Anthology of the Dramatic art Anarchist in Chile" of the Chilean student Sergio Pereira. The analysis this trim in understanding, from the reading of this book, to the drama anarchist like a rite that is related to a myth whose origin and strategies tie unconsciously with the baroque Hispano-American

  14. La resitencia anti-española y el rol de las fortalezas indígenas en Chile central, 1536-1545

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    Leonardo León

    Full Text Available La entrada de los españoles a Chile Central en 1536 y 1540 ocurrió sin que mediaran grandes ni sangrientos confrontociones con los nativos. Desde el Perú hasta Santiago, los peninsulares recibieron el apoyo de los tercios irrperiales incaicos estacionados en el área y de sus aliados nativos, quienes les proporcionaron apoyo mterial, político o militar. La conquisto de Chile prometía ser un evento que se conseguiría sin mayores costos ni sacrificios. Las viejas leyendas sobre los belicosos Promaucaes parecían ser no más que leyendas. Sin embargo, lo que hasta allí había sido una expansión  relativamente fácil fue súbitamente detenida al sur de Santiago y sus alrededores acausa de la obstinado resistencia indígena local.

  15. Trabajo Social en Chile (1925-2015). Noventa años de historia e impronta en latinoamérica.

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Aguilera, Paulina

    2015-01-01

    En 1925 se fundó en Chile la primera Escuela de Servicio Social, pionera no sólo en el país sino también a nivel latinoamericano. Son ya noventa años de historia, casi un siglo a estas alturas. El presente artículo brinda una visión sobre dicha historia, pero no en la forma de un relato cronológico y aproblemático de acontecimientos. Lo que se busca es, en primer lugar, ofrecer una reconstrucción histórica respecto del devenir del Trabajo Social en Chile desde la fundación de aque...

  16. Managing hazardous pollutants in Chile: arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancha, Ana María; O'Ryan, Raul

    2008-01-01

    Chile is one of the few countries that faces the environmental challenge posed by extensive arsenic pollution, which exists in the northern part of the country. Chile has worked through various options to appropriately address the environmental challenge of arsenic pollution of water and air. Because of cost and other reasons, copying standards used elsewhere in the world was not an option for Chile. Approximately 1.8 million people, representing about 12% of the total population of the country, live in arsenic-contaminated areas. In these regions, air, water, and soil are contaminated with arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. For long periods, water consumed by the population contained arsenic levels that exceeded values recommended by the World Health Organization. Exposure to airborne arsenic also occurred near several large cities, as a consequence of both natural contamination and the intensive mining activity carried out in those areas. In rural areas, indigenous populations, who lack access to treated water, were also exposed to arsenic by consuming foods grown locally in arsenic-contaminated soils. Health effects in children and adults from arsenic exposure first appeared in the 1950s. Such effects included vascular, respiratory, and skin lesions from intake of high arsenic levels in drinking water. Methods to remove arsenic from water were evaluated, developed, and implemented that allowed significant reductions in exposure at a relatively low cost. Construction and operation of treatment plants to remove arsenic from water first began in the 1970s. Beginning in the 1990s, epidemiological studies showed that the rate of lung and bladder cancer in the arsenic-polluted area was considerably higher than mean cancer rates for the country. Cancer incidence was directly related to arsenic exposure. During the 1990s, international pressure and concern by Chile's Health Ministry prompted action to regulate arsenic emissions from copper smelters. A

  17. Prediction of Salmonella carcass contamination by a comparative quantitative analysis of E. coli and Salmonella during pig slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, Maarten; Barfod, Kristen; Hald, Tine;

    2013-01-01

    carcass contamination with Salmonella, when the distribution of Salmonella concentrations in faeces is known. Paired pig sample data (faecal samples and carcass swabs) were obtained from five slaughterhouses and analysed for prevalence and concentrations of E. coli and Salmonella. A simple model...... extensive data set showed that other factors than the observed faecal carriage of Salmonella by the individual animals brought to slaughter, play a more important role in the Salmonella carcass contamination of pork....

  18. VITICULTURA Y POLÍTICA INTERNACIONAL: EL INTENTO DE REINCORPORAR A MENDOZA Y SAN JUAN A CHILE (1820-1835

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO LACOSTE

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre 1830 y 1835 algunos dirigentes de Mendoza y San Juan, provincias vitivinícolas, trataron de separarse de la República Argentina y regresar a Chile, tal como en la época colonial. Durante más de dos siglos, Mendoza y San Juan fueron parte del Corregimiento de Cuyo del Reino de Chile. Esta situación cambió desde 1776 con la creación del Virreinato del Río de la Plata. Después de la Revolución de 1810, Mendoza y San Juan formaron parte de la República Argentina. Pero algunos años después de la independencia, un grupo descontento con la acción y decisiones del gobierno de Buenos Aires, inició acciones orientadas a la secesión. Este artículo investiga las razones y motivaciones socioeconómicas de este grupoBetween 1830 and 1835 some leaders of Mendoza and San Juan, wine industry oriented provinces, attempted to withdrawal from Argentina Republic, and come back to Chile such as in colonial times. During more than two centuries, Mendoza and San Juan were members of Cuyo Province in Chile's Kingdom. This situation changed since 1776 because the creation of the River Plate Viceroyalty. After Revolution of 1810, Mendoza and San Juan took part of Argentina Republic. But some years after the independence, a group discontented with de action and decision of Buenos Aires government begun the action oriented to secession. This paper explores the socioeconomic reasons and motivation of this group

  19. SALMATcor: microagglutination for Salmonella flagella serotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte Martínez, Francisco; Sánchez-Salazar, Luz Marina; Acuña-Calvo, María Teresa; Bolaños-Acuña, Hilda María; Dittel-Dittel, Isis; Campos-Chacón, Elena

    2010-08-01

    Salmonella is a complex bacterial group with more than 2400 serovars widely distributed in nature; they are considered zoonotic because they can infect a variety of animals and be transmitted to humans. Usually, they cause alimentary acquired diseases such as gastroenteritis, typhoid fever, and others that can lead to severe complications and death. Serotyping is useful to differentiate among Salmonella, because it shows an important correlation with their clinical and epidemiological patterns; consequently, it is of high value for public health, animal health, agriculture, and industry. To characterize all known Kauffmann-White Salmonella serovars, over 250 antisera are required. Due to this and to high prices antisera, many laboratories worldwide have limitations in establishing Salmonella surveillance. Therefore, we developed and validated a Salmonella flagella microagglutination test (SALMATcor) that significantly reduces laboratory requirements of antisera. SALMATcor is based on scaling down, by fivefold, the antigen:antiserum volumes actually required for the reference method: flagella standard tube agglutination technique (STAT). Antigen preparation, temperatures, and incubation periods remained as established for STAT. The SALMATcor was validated according to ISO/DIS 16140:1999 protocol, which included 1187 comparisons of flagella determinations conducted by SALMATcor and STAT, on 141 Salmonella isolates of 12 common serotypes and the use of antiserum recommended for STAT. SALMATcor concordance was excellent (Cohen's kappa index 0.9982), obtaining relative accuracy >99.9% and relative specificity >99.9%. Additionally, SALMATcor has been used by CNRB-INCIENSA since 2004 to respond to all 40 Salmonella proficiency testing strains, provided by World Health Organization-Global Salmonella Surveillance Network, obtaining 100% concordance on serovar identification. On the basis of the results achieved with SALMATcor and considering that it also significantly

  20. Occurrence of Salmonella sp in laying hens

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    Gama NMSQ

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the presence of Salmonella sp in flocks of white laying hens. In different farms, the transport boxes of twelve flocks were inspected at arrival for the presence of Salmonella. Four positive (A, B, L and M and one negative (I flocks were monitored at each four weeks using bacteriological examination of cecal fresh feces up to 52 weeks. Birds were also evaluated at 52 weeks, when 500 eggs were taken randomly, and at 76 weeks, after forced molt. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and S. enterica rough strain were isolated from the transport boxes of the four positive flocks (flocks A, B, L and M. Salmonella sp was not isolated from the transport boxes or from the feces after 76 weeks-old in flock I. Salmonella sp was isolated in the 1st, 11th, 34th, 42nd and 76th weeks from flock A; in the 1st, 4th, 11th and 76th weeks from flock B; in the first week and in the 17th to 52nd weeks from flock L; and in the 1st and 76th weeks from flock M. S. Enteritidis, S. enterica rough strain and Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis were isolated from the four positive flocks. Besides, Salmonella enterica serovar Javiana was isolated from flocks B and L, and Salmonella enterica serovar Mbandaka was isolated from flock L. Eggs produced by flock A and by flock L were contaminated with S. Enteritidis and S. enterica rough strain. According to these results, Salmonella-infected flocks may produce contaminated eggs.

  1. Salmonella radicidation of poultry carcasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis reports investigations using gamma-radiation to decontaminate poultry carcasses. The application to foods of doses of ionizing radiation sufficient to reduce the number of viable specific non-sporeforming pathogenic microorganisms so that none is detectable in the treated food by any standard method is termed radicidation. The doses used in this study were at such a level that no undesirable or unfavourable side-effects occurred. The effects of these doses were studied on salmonellae and other microorganisms present in, or associated with poultry carcasses and in liquid and on solid culture media as well. Decimal reduction (D10) values were estimated. These represent the dose (kGy) required to achieve a reduction in initial colony count from N0 to 0.1 N0. Together with the estimation of the numbers of Salmonella present per carcass the data were used to predict the effect of an ionizing radiation treatment of poultry. Data on the effect of ionizing radiation on the total microflora of poultry carcasses were also collected. (Auth.)

  2. Pleural Empyema due to Group D Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. Kam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-typhi Salmonella normally presents as a bacteremia, enterocolitis, and endovascular infection but rarely manifests as pleuropulmonary disease. We present a case of a 66-year-old female with underlying pulmonary pathology, secondary to an extensive smoking history, who presented with a left-sided pleural effusion. The causative agent was identified as being group D Salmonella. Decortication of the lung was performed and the patient was discharged on antibiotics with resolution of her symptoms. This case helps to support the inclusion of Salmonella group D as a possible etiological agent of infection in the differential causes of exudative pleural effusions.

  3. Pleural Empyema due to Group D Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Jennifer C.; Abdul-Jawad, Sami; Modi, Chintan; Abdeen, Yazan; Asslo, Fady; Doraiswamy, Vikram; DePasquale, Joseph R.; Spira, Robert S.; Baddoura, Walid; Miller, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Non-typhi Salmonella normally presents as a bacteremia, enterocolitis, and endovascular infection but rarely manifests as pleuropulmonary disease. We present a case of a 66-year-old female with underlying pulmonary pathology, secondary to an extensive smoking history, who presented with a left-sided pleural effusion. The causative agent was identified as being group D Salmonella. Decortication of the lung was performed and the patient was discharged on antibiotics with resolution of her symptoms. This case helps to support the inclusion of Salmonella group D as a possible etiological agent of infection in the differential causes of exudative pleural effusions. PMID:23056966

  4. Salmonella bongori provides insights into the evolution of the Salmonellae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fookes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The genus Salmonella contains two species, S. bongori and S. enterica. Compared to the well-studied S. enterica there is a marked lack of information regarding the genetic makeup and diversity of S. bongori. S. bongori has been found predominantly associated with cold-blooded animals, but it can infect humans. To define the phylogeny of this species, and compare it to S. enterica, we have sequenced 28 isolates representing most of the known diversity of S. bongori. This cross-species analysis allowed us to confidently differentiate ancestral functions from those acquired following speciation, which include both metabolic and virulence-associated capacities. We show that, although S. bongori inherited a basic set of Salmonella common virulence functions, it has subsequently elaborated on this in a different direction to S. enterica. It is an established feature of S. enterica evolution that the acquisition of the type III secretion systems (T3SS-1 and T3SS-2 has been followed by the sequential acquisition of genes encoding secreted targets, termed effectors proteins. We show that this is also true of S. bongori, which has acquired an array of novel effector proteins (sboA-L. All but two of these effectors have no significant S. enterica homologues and instead are highly similar to those found in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC. Remarkably, SboH is found to be a chimeric effector protein, encoded by a fusion of the T3SS-1 effector gene sopA and a gene highly similar to the EPEC effector nleH from enteropathogenic E. coli. We demonstrate that representatives of these new effectors are translocated and that SboH, similarly to NleH, blocks intrinsic apoptotic pathways while being targeted to the mitochondria by the SopA part of the fusion. This work suggests that S. bongori has inherited the ancestral Salmonella virulence gene set, but has adapted by incorporating virulence determinants that resemble those employed by EPEC.

  5. Comparison of the environmental survival characteristics of Salmonella Dublin and Salmonella Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Miranda J; Liebana, Ernesto; McLaren, Ian; Clifton-Hadley, Felicity A; Wales, Andrew D; Davies, Robert H

    2012-10-12

    To examine possible correlations in bovine Salmonella isolates between environmental survival and serovar-associated epidemiological patterns, bovine field isolates of Salmonella serovars Typhimurium and Dublin (two each) were inoculated into bovine faeces slurry and tested monthly by culture for survival during a six-month period of storage at a variable ambient temperature in a disused animal transporter. Low moisture conditions, where the slurry was dried onto wooden dowels, increased detectable survival of a low-level inoculum by up to five months, compared with wet slurry. A more modest increase of survival time was seen with storage of wet slurry under refrigeration at 4°C. Under both dry and wet conditions, the concentration of culturable Salmonella Typhimurium declined at a slower rate than did that of Salmonella Dublin. Salmonella that was naturally contaminating bovine faeces from farms with Salmonella Typhimurium did not show superior survival times compared with Salmonella Typhimurium that had been artificially inoculated into samples. The differing survival characteristics of the two serovars that was observed in environmental faeces may complement their different modes of infection in cattle. Salmonella Dublin, being a bovine host-adapted strain that establishes chronic infection in some animals, may have less need to survive for a prolonged period outside of its host than does Salmonella Typhimurium.

  6. Evaluation of a CHROMagar Salmonella Medium for the Isolation of Salmonella Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yesim cekin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Salmonella infections are the leading cause of food-borne infections and can cause gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. Salmonella species is defined as inability to lactose fermentation, using citrate as a carbon source, using lysine as nitrate source and forming Hydrogen sulfide (H2S in TSI agar. However, confirmation of false positive results is time consuming and lead to increased costs. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of CHROMagar Salmonella (CHROMagar Microbiology, France which is developed for isolation and detection of Salmonella species. Material and Method: For this purpose, among a total of 148 isolates which were isolated from various clinical specimens and stocked at the Central Laboratory of Akdeniz University Hospital, 65 were Salmonella spp., 10 were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 10 were E. coli, 10 were Acinetobacter baumannii, 10 were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 18 were Morganella morganii, 11 were Citrobacter spp., 5 were Providencia spp., 4 were Aeromonas spp., 5 were Proteus spp. were included in this study. All of the 65 Salmonella spp. isolates apperared with mauve colonies at the CHROMagar Salmonella. Results: E. coli and Klebsiella pnemoniae species were seen as blue, Providencia species were seen as pale-blue; Morganella morganii species were seen as pale-pink, mauve; and Pseudomonas aeruginosa species were seen as pale. Acinebacter baumannii and Aeromonas spp. species were also seen as mauve colonies. Dicussion: CHROMagar Salmonella medium can detect Salmonella species with %100 sensitivity, however there is a need to biochemical or serological confirmation.

  7. Conditioning of radium sources in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process experimented in Chile to conditioning Ra-226 sources arising as waste from medical uses in Chile is described. The IAEA offered to participate in the Project for Conditioning Radium Sources in order to place all the radium sources in the country under an internationally accepted standard. These sources hare those that have been used in medical applications for many years. The CCHEN made its own modifications to the project's execution by using its own infrastructure and scientific and technical skill in this field. For this purpose, the CCHEN uses the human resources and facilities of the Radioactive Waste Management Unit (UGDR) and acquires materials that are commercially available in the country. IAEA assistance focused on quality assurance, so they supply all expensive items which the UGDR, cannot access, plus they certify the quality of the conditioned products. This assistance is achieved through the approval of procedures and methodologies based on those that are recommended

  8. Bibliothekswesen in Südamerika - Chile im Jahr 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Schultheis, Alexander H. T.

    2014-01-01

    Librarianship in South America - Chile in 2014 (translation of the title). The historian and librarian Alexander H.T. Schultheis is living since nine years in Santiago de Chile and he is observing the Chilean librarianship. Although Chile is doing well economically, no improvement can be seen in the field of culture and education. On the contrary, the public libraries are still poorly equipped. Chance can be seen as small bright spots on the horizon, for example, the new opened cultural cente...

  9. Disminución de la pobreza, conservación de las desigualdades y terremotos en el chile de la concertación

    OpenAIRE

    Jedlicki, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    Chile muestra desde el retorno a la democracia, en 1990, una importante reducción de la pobreza gracias a un crecimiento económico vigoroso, que duplicó el PIB por habitante en dos décadas. Sin embargo, la distribución del ingreso no ha mejorado significativamente después del deterioro que experimento durante la dictadura. En 2010, el país no sólo exhibe más desigualdades que la mayoría del resto de los países del continente latinoamericano, pero también con respecto a lo que era antes ...

  10. La mediación familiar obligatoria: una crítica a la regulación y funcionamiento en Chile Alejandro Paredes Zieballe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Paredes Zieballe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Como una forma de descongestionar los tribunales de familia, la Ley 20.286 establece en Chile, entre otras medidas, la mediación obligatoria previa a la interposición de la demanda en determinadas materias de familia. Esta investigación contempla un estudio de la mediación como una forma alternativa de resolución de conflictos en derecho de familia desde diversas perspectivas y pretende efectuar un análisis crítico del mecanismo de mediación obligatoria en nuestra legislación.

  11. Luis Muñoz Maluschka: un miembro de la "Akademie für Raumforschung und Landesplanung" en el Ministerio de Obras Públicas de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavez Reyes, María Isabel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evoca la labor de un profesional chileno, el arquitecto y urbanista Luis Muñoz Maluschka (1896-1974, en el marco de un período de cincuenta años de aportes relevantes en planificación urbana y ordenamiento territorial realizados desde el Ministerio de Obras Públicas de Chile./The work of a Chilean professional architect and city planner, Luis Muñoz Maluschka (1896-1974 is commented. In fifty years he has made important contributions to urban planning and land arrangement from the Ministerio de Obras Publicas (Ministry of Public Works.

  12. EL PARTIDO COMUNISTA DE CHILE Y SUS POLÍTICAS ALIANCISTAS: DEL FRENTE POPULAR A LA UNION NACIONAL ANTIFASCISTA, 1935-1943

    OpenAIRE

    Hernán Venegas Valdebenito

    2011-01-01

    RESUMEN Desde mediados de la década de 1930 el PCCh definió una alternativa de su propuesta política para alcanzar la revolución en Chile, por etapas y gradualmente. Esta transformación fundamental en el devenir de la organización derivó, en el largo plazo, en un conjunto de fricciones dentro de la izquierda chilena en la década de los treinta. El PCCh desarrolló la convicción de que un cambio social significativo sería el resultado de avances cualitativos en un proceso de modificaciones demo...

  13. Ética intercultural y reconocimiento dialógico. Una mirada a la dignidad del otro: conflicto entre el Estado de Chile - Pueblo Mapuche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Araya Anabalón

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo configura una búsqueda de soluciones posibles al conflictointerétnico vigente entre el pueblo Mapuche y el Estado de Chile desde unaperspectiva del reconocimiento y de relaciones dialógicas que conduzcan a unconsenso intercultural, cuyo objetivo es desarrollar los fundamentos teóricos yprácticos necesarios para delinear una mirada ética del conflicto, que puedaplasmar una comunidad humana sin humillación, degradación, no reconocimiento,evitando el daño y la crueldad.

  14. Crecimiento del área metropolitana de Concepción (Chile) y su relación con los planes metropolitanos, 1962-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Bustamante, Leonel; Azócar García, Gerardo; Flores Jofré, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    El presente estudio compara, desde una perspectiva histórica, las previsiones de crecimiento consideradas en los planes que han regido el crecimiento del Área Metropolitana de Concepción, Chile (AMC) con el crecimiento real que ha tenido esta área urbana –la segunda del país- mediante el análisis de fotografías aéreas históricas. Para lograrlo se ha partido de una simple interrogante: ¿cuánto han orientado los Planes Reguladores Metropolitanos (PRMC) el crecimiento del Área Metropolitana de ...

  15. Teoría y práctica del aseguramiento privado de salud en Chile: brechas, consistencia y reforma pendiente

    OpenAIRE

    Cesar Humberto GATTINI; Arteaga, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Este artículo revisa el rol que cumplen los seguros privados de salud en Chile, comparado con los principios y recomendaciones internacionales sobre seguridad social en salud. El objetivo fue revisar la situación actual desde la perspectiva de salud pública, los sistemas de salud, protección social, y los derechos y necesidades de la población. Creados en 1981, estos seguros han logrado un sólido desarrollo institucional, pero mantienen problemas e inconsistencias que limitan el acceso adecua...

  16. La unidad como componente de la Independencia: precursores de la integración latinoamericana en Santiago de Chile (1810-1813

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán A. de la Reza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo analizamos los primeros escritos independentistas difundidos en Santiago de Chile entre 1810 y 1813 desde la perspectiva de su aporte a la creación de las bases ideológicas que facilitarán la participación del país en posteriores iniciativas confederales hispanoamericanas. Las conclusiones de nuestra investigación refrendan la importancia de la idea del congreso general durante el periodo de la Patria Vieja y matizan la hipótesis sobre el monopolio del proyecto protonacional defendida por la historiografía mayoritaria.

  17. Movilidad intrageneracional del ingreso en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio, Sapelli

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates the different intra-generational mobility indicators for Chile on the basis of the Casen panel. Conclusions from the literature are evaluated in light of results that are based mainly on a discussion of the transition matrix. It is concluded that there is a mistaken interpretation of the data in part of the literature. A simulation is made that demonstrates that the Chilean transition matrix could be the consequence of random shocks to the effective distribution of income...

  18. Unmarried cohabitation among deprived families in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Ramm Santelices, Alejandra Margarita

    2013-01-01

    It is clear that unmarried cohabitation is increasing in Chile. It is less clear what unmarried cohabitation is and why is it rising. In Latin America cohabitation is common among low income groups, and has been described as a surrogate marriage for the disadvantaged. Cohabitation in the region entails conventional gender roles and having children. It has been explained by colonial dominance, poverty, kinship, and machismo. The evidence amassed here indicates that although in practice cohabit...

  19. Registro nuevo de Amphipyrinae en Chile A new record of Amphipyrinae from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania S. Olivares

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se registra por primera vez en Chile la especie Agrotisia subhyalina Hampson, entre las latitudes 18° 29' S 70° 20' O hasta 29° 54' S 71° 16' O (I-IV regiones en Chile. Se redescriben los genitales del macho y de la hembra y se presentan algunos aspectos taxonómicos de la especie.The species Agrotisia subhyalina Hampson is recorded for the first time from Chile (18° 29' S 70° 20' W to 29° 54' S 71° 16' W, I to IV Chilean regions. Redescriptions of male and female are presented, along with some taxonomic aspects of the species.

  20. PREVALENCE OF SALMONELLA IN CAPTIVE REPTILES FROM CROATIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella

    2015-06-01

    Salmonellosis transmitted by pet reptiles is an increasing public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella strains from captive reptiles in Croatia. From November 2009 to November 2011 a total of 292 skin, pharyngeal, cloacal, and fecal samples from 200 apparently healthy reptiles were tested for Salmonella excretions by bacteriologic culture and serotyping. These 200 individual reptiles included 31 lizards, 79 chelonians, and 90 snakes belonging to private owners or housed at the Zagreb Zoo, Croatia. Salmonella was detected in a total of 13% of the animals, among them 48.4% lizards, 8.9% snakes, and 3.8% turtles. Representatives of five of the six Salmonella enterica subspecies were identified with the following proportions in the total number of isolates: Salmonella enterica enterica 34.6%, Salmonella enterica houtenae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica arizonae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica diarizonae 15.4%, and Salmonella enterica salamae 3.8%. The 14 different serovars isolated included several rarely occurring serovars such as Salmonella Apapa, Salmonella Halle, Salmonella Kisarawe, and Salmonella Potengi. These findings confirm that the prevalence of Salmonella is considerable in captive reptiles in Croatia, indicating that these animals may harbor serovars not commonly seen in veterinary or human microbiologic practice. This should be addressed in the prevention and diagnostics of human reptile-transmitted infections.

  1. Inactivation of Salmonella Senftenberg, Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Tennessee in peanut butter by 915 MHz microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Won-Jae; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a 915 MHz microwave with 3 different levels to inactivate 3 serovars of Salmonella in peanut butter. Peanut butter inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and S. enterica serovar Tennessee were treated with a 915 MHz microwave with 2, 4 and 6 kW and acid and peroxide values and color changes were determined after 5 min of microwave heating. Salmonella populations were reduced with increasing treatment time and treatment power. Six kW 915 MHz microwave treatment for 5 min reduced these three Salmonella serovars by 3.24-4.26 log CFU/g. Four and two kW 915 MHz microwave processing for 5 min reduced these Salmonella serovars by 1.14-1.48 and 0.15-0.42 log CFU/g, respectively. Microwave treatment did not affect acid, peroxide, or color values of peanut butter. These results demonstrate that 915 MHz microwave processing can be used as a control method for reducing Salmonella in peanut butter without producing quality deterioration.

  2. Inactivation of Salmonella Senftenberg, Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Tennessee in peanut butter by 915 MHz microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Won-Jae; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a 915 MHz microwave with 3 different levels to inactivate 3 serovars of Salmonella in peanut butter. Peanut butter inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and S. enterica serovar Tennessee were treated with a 915 MHz microwave with 2, 4 and 6 kW and acid and peroxide values and color changes were determined after 5 min of microwave heating. Salmonella populations were reduced with increasing treatment time and treatment power. Six kW 915 MHz microwave treatment for 5 min reduced these three Salmonella serovars by 3.24-4.26 log CFU/g. Four and two kW 915 MHz microwave processing for 5 min reduced these Salmonella serovars by 1.14-1.48 and 0.15-0.42 log CFU/g, respectively. Microwave treatment did not affect acid, peroxide, or color values of peanut butter. These results demonstrate that 915 MHz microwave processing can be used as a control method for reducing Salmonella in peanut butter without producing quality deterioration. PMID:26678129

  3. El abate Juan Ignacio Molina: una vida dedicada a la historia natural y civil del reino de Chile Abbot Juan Ignacio Molina: A life devoted to the natural and civil history of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Charrier

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829 naci cerca de Talca, Chile, y falleci en Bolonia, Italia. Es el primer cientfico chileno. Desde pequeo se interes por la naturaleza. Se educ con la Compaa de Jess en diversos lugares de Chile central, lo que le permiti conocer su geografa, fauna, flora y poblacin. Con 15 aos ingres a la Compaa. En 1767, abandon el pas al ser expulsada esta orden de espaa y sus dominios. Se radic en los Estados Pontificios, donde se orden de sacerdote y permaneci hasta su muerte. All ense ciencias naturales y produjo su obra cientfica: Compendio de la historia geogrfica, natural y civil del reino de Chile de 1776, una versin aumentada, Ensayo sobre la historia natural de Chile de 1782 y una segunda en 1810. En ellas, abord aspectos climticos, botnicos, geolgicos, zoolgicos, mineralgicos y geogrficos del territorio. Describi el terremoto de Concepcin, las erupciones del Villarrica y Peteroa, e hizo referencia a recursos minerales. Diferenci cuatro unidades litoestratigrficas para Chile central. Clasific plantas y animales siguiendo los criterios de Linneo. En una de sus 14 memorias, Analogas menos observadas de los tres reinos de la Naturaleza, sin podrselo calificar de evolucionista, se destaca su intento de integracin entre los "seres" de los tres reinos, y en Sobre la propagacin del gnero humano en las diversas partes de la tierra, propuso tres vas diferentes para el poblamiento de Amrica. En 1802, ingres a la Academia de Ciencias de Bolonia.Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829, born next to Talca, Chile, and dead in Bologna, Italy, is the first Chilean scientist. His education in establishments of the Society of Jesus, in several localities of central Chile, allowed him to learn about its geography, flora, fauna, and population. At 15 years old he entered the Society. In 1767, he left Chile when the Jesuits were expelled from the spanish territories. In Bologna he produced his scientific contribution. Molina published in 1776 the first

  4. Acalculous cholecystitis due to Salmonella enteritidis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Lourdes Ruiz-Rebollo; Gloria Sánchez-Antolín; Félix García-Pajares; Maria Antonia Vallecillo-Sande; Pilar Fernández-Orcajo; Rosario Velicia-Uames; Agustín Caro-Patón

    2008-01-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) is defined as an acute inflammation of the gallbladder in the absence of stones. We herein report a case of a young man who developed AAC after a Salmonella enteritidis gastroin-testinal infection.

  5. The Salmonella enterica Pan-genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Annika; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller;

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is divided into four subspecies containing a large number of different serovars, several of which are important zoonotic pathogens and some show a high degree of host specificity or host preference. We compare 45 sequenced S. enterica genomes that are publicly available (22......, and the core and pan-genome of Salmonella were estimated to be around 2,800 and 10,000 gene families, respectively. The constructed pan-genomic dendrograms suggest that gene content is often, but not uniformly correlated to serotype. Any given Salmonella strain has a large stable core, whilst...... there is an abundance of accessory genes, including the Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs), transposable elements, phages, and plasmid DNA. We visualize conservation in the genomes in relation to chromosomal location and DNA structural features and find that variation in gene content is localized in a selection...

  6. Seroincidence of non-typhoid Salmonella infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, H-D; Simonsen, J; Jørgensen, C S;

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of reported infections of non-typhoid Salmonella is affected by biases inherent to passive laboratory surveillance, whereas analysis of blood sera may provide a less biased alternative to estimate the force of Salmonella transmission in humans. We developed a mathematical model...... that enabled a back-calculation of the annual seroincidence of Salmonella based on measurements of specific antibodies. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroincidence in two convenience samples from 2012 (Danish blood donors, n = 500, and pregnant women, n = 637) and a community-based sample...... of healthy individuals from 2006 to 2007 (n = 1780). The lowest antibody levels were measured in the samples from the community cohort and the highest in pregnant women. The annual Salmonella seroincidences were 319 infections/1000 pregnant women [90% credibility interval (CrI) 210-441], 182/1000 in blood...

  7. A carbon nanotube immunosensor for Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell B. Lerner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibody-functionalized carbon nanotube devices have been suggested for use as bacterial detectors for monitoring of food purity in transit from the farm to the kitchen. Here we report progress towards that goal by demonstrating specific detection of Salmonella in complex nutrient broth solutions using nanotube transistors functionalized with covalently-bound anti-Salmonella antibodies. The small size of the active device region makes them compatible with integration in large-scale arrays. We find that the on-state current of the transistor is sensitive specifically to the Salmonella concentration and saturates at low concentration (<1000 cfu/ml. In contrast, the carrier mobility is affected comparably by Salmonella and other bacteria types, with no sign of saturation even at much larger concentrations (108 cfu/ml.

  8. Perú-Chile: imágenes mutuas (Perú-Chile: mutual images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro González Riesle

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: A partir de los enfoques sobe Expansionismo-Revanchismo de Elizondo y las Imágenes en Espejo de Scott, se analizaron los contenidos de blogs referentes a imágenes mutuas entre Perú y Chile, comprendidos a partir de la fecha (16-01-2008 de presentación por parte del Perú de la Demanda ante el Tribunal de la Haya para la solución del Diferendo Limítrofe con Chile, hasta el 30-03-2011. Se han registrado intensas y variadas manifestaciones de hostilidad mutua, que respaldan la vigencia de la dinámica Expansionismo-Revanchismo en las imágenes mutuas entre Chile y Perú en los blogs analizados. Paralelamente, se detectaron contenidos correspondientes a actitudes integracionistas entre ambos países. Los resultados fundamentan la utilidad del enfoque de las Imágenes en Espejo como instrumento para el análisis de contenido de blogs portadores de mensajes de hostilidad e integración entre ambos países. Se propone una estrategia psicosocial binacional para desactivar la dinámica Expansionismo- revanchismo que contribuiría a producir catastróficas consecuencias para las generaciones actuales y futuras de ambos países; y, promover la integración fronteriza entre Tacna (Perú y Arica (Chile. ABSTRACT: The contents of blogs relating to mutual images between Peru and Chile were analyzed from the approaches about Expansionism – Revanchism of Elizondo, and The images on the mirror of Scott, included the date of the presentation (January 16th, 2008 by Peru of the demand before the International Court of Justice at the Hague for the solution of the border dispute with Chile until March 30th, 2011. There have been intense and varied manifestations of mutual hostility that support the validity of Expansionism-Revanchism dynamics in the mutual images between Chile and Peru in the analyzed blogs. At the same time, it was detected content corresponding to integrationist attitudes between the two countries. The results underlie the utility

  9. lac repressor is an antivirulence factor of Salmonella enterica: its role in the evolution of virulence in Salmonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeepa M Eswarappa

    Full Text Available The genus Salmonella includes many pathogens of great medical and veterinary importance. Bacteria belonging to this genus are very closely related to those belonging to the genus Escherichia. lacZYA operon and lacI are present in Escherichia coli, but not in Salmonella enterica. It has been proposed that Salmonella has lost lacZYA operon and lacI during evolution. In this study, we have investigated the physiological and evolutionary significance of the absence of lacI in Salmonella enterica. Using murine model of typhoid fever, we show that the expression of LacI causes a remarkable reduction in the virulence of Salmonella enterica. LacI also suppresses the ability of Salmonella enterica to proliferate inside murine macrophages. Microarray analysis revealed that LacI interferes with the expression of virulence genes of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2. This effect was confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Interestingly, we found that SBG0326 of Salmonella bongori is homologous to lacI of Escherichia coli. Salmonella bongori is the only other species of the genus Salmonella and it lacks the virulence genes of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2. Overall, our results demonstrate that LacI is an antivirulence factor of Salmonella enterica and suggest that absence of lacI has facilitated the acquisition of virulence genes of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 in Salmonella enterica making it a successful systemic pathogen.

  10. Salmonella typhimurium abscess of the chest wall

    OpenAIRE

    Tonziello, Gilda; Valentinotti, Romina; Arbore, Enrico; Cassetti, Paolo; Luzzati, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Male, 73 Final Diagnosis: Salmonella typhimurium abscess of the chest wall Symptoms: — Medication: Ciprofloxacin Clinical Procedure:— Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Non-typhoid Salmonella extra-intestinal infections usually develop in infants and in adult patients with pre-existing predisposing conditions. Blood stream infections and urinary tract infections are the most common clinical presentations, but other sites of infection may be ...

  11. Long term prognosis of reactive salmonella arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Leirisalo-Repo, M; Helenius, P; Hannu, T; Lehtinen, A; Kreula, J; Taavitsainen, M; Koskimies, S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Reactive joint complications triggered by salmonella gastroenteritis are increasingly reported, but the outcome and long term prognosis of the patients is incompletely known. This study looked at the prognosis of salmonella arthritis in patients hospitalised in 1970-1986.
METHODS—Hospital records from two hospitals in southern Finland were screened for patients with the discharge diagnosis of salmonellosis or reactive, postinfectious arthritis or Reiter's disease. For the patients ...

  12. Salmonella in beef and produce from honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiaga, Martha; Miller, Mark F; Thompson, Leslie; Pond, Ansen; Gragg, Sara E; Echeverry, Alejandro; Garcia, Lyda G; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella continues to cause a considerable number of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The sources of outbreaks include contaminated meat and produce. The purpose of this study was to establish an initial investigation of the burden of Salmonella in produce and beef from Honduras by sampling retail markets and abattoirs. Retail produce samples (cantaloupes, cilantro, cucumbers, leafy greens, peppers, and tomatoes; n = 573) were purchased in three major cities of Honduras, and retail whole-muscle beef (n = 555) samples were also purchased in four major cities. Additionally, both hide and beef carcass (n = 141) samples were collected from two Honduran abattoirs. Whole-muscle beef samples were obtained using a sponge hydrated with buffered peptone water, and 10 ml of the buffered peptone water rinsate of each produce sample was collected with a dry sponge and placed in a bag to be transported back to the United States. Salmonella was detected using a commercially available, closeplatform PCR system, and positive samples were subjected to culture on selective media to obtain isolates. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples, based on PCR detection in Honduras (n = 555) retail beef was 10.1% (95% confidence interval = 7.8, 12.9), whereas 7.8% (n = 141) of beef carcass and hides samples were positive in both beef plants. The overall Salmonella prevalence for all produce samples (n = 573) collected was 2.1% (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.6). The most common serotypes identified in Honduras were Salmonella Typhimurium followed by Derby. These results provide an indication of Salmonella contamination of beef and produce in Honduras. Developing a Salmonella baseline for Latin America through an initial investigation like the one presented here contributes to a broader global understanding of the potential exposure through food, thus providing insight into the needs for control strategies. PMID:25719872

  13. Salmonella in beef and produce from honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiaga, Martha; Miller, Mark F; Thompson, Leslie; Pond, Ansen; Gragg, Sara E; Echeverry, Alejandro; Garcia, Lyda G; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella continues to cause a considerable number of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The sources of outbreaks include contaminated meat and produce. The purpose of this study was to establish an initial investigation of the burden of Salmonella in produce and beef from Honduras by sampling retail markets and abattoirs. Retail produce samples (cantaloupes, cilantro, cucumbers, leafy greens, peppers, and tomatoes; n = 573) were purchased in three major cities of Honduras, and retail whole-muscle beef (n = 555) samples were also purchased in four major cities. Additionally, both hide and beef carcass (n = 141) samples were collected from two Honduran abattoirs. Whole-muscle beef samples were obtained using a sponge hydrated with buffered peptone water, and 10 ml of the buffered peptone water rinsate of each produce sample was collected with a dry sponge and placed in a bag to be transported back to the United States. Salmonella was detected using a commercially available, closeplatform PCR system, and positive samples were subjected to culture on selective media to obtain isolates. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples, based on PCR detection in Honduras (n = 555) retail beef was 10.1% (95% confidence interval = 7.8, 12.9), whereas 7.8% (n = 141) of beef carcass and hides samples were positive in both beef plants. The overall Salmonella prevalence for all produce samples (n = 573) collected was 2.1% (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.6). The most common serotypes identified in Honduras were Salmonella Typhimurium followed by Derby. These results provide an indication of Salmonella contamination of beef and produce in Honduras. Developing a Salmonella baseline for Latin America through an initial investigation like the one presented here contributes to a broader global understanding of the potential exposure through food, thus providing insight into the needs for control strategies.

  14. Salmonellae and salmonellosis in captive reptiles.

    OpenAIRE

    Onderka, D K; Finlayson, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    In a survey of 150 pet reptiles submitted for necropsy, 51% of snakes, 48% of lizards and 7% of turtles were infected with Salmonella. About one third of the positive animals had died due to various manifestations of salmonellosis. Thirty-one Salmonella serotypes were identified including three isolates new to Canada. The public health implications are discussed in view of the restricted popularity of reptiles and their possible infection from domestic agricultural products.

  15. Ergociudad: concepción modélica de la calidad de vida urbana desde la perspectiva de la ergonomía y el diseño urbano

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Roquefort, Rebeca J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Este documento corresponde a la Tesis para optar al grado de Doctor en Arquitectura y Urbanismo en el marco del Programa de Doctorado conjunto de la Universidad Politécnica de Madrid y la Universidad de Chile. La investigación realizada es de carácter exploratorio-descriptivo con el propósito de establecer y relacionar conceptualmente las teorías y principios de la ergonomía y del diseño urbano, para proponer desde un enfoque sistémico criterios de confort en el diseño de la ciudad, que contr...

  16. Toename Salmonella en Campylobacter bij slacht : Campylobacter in pluimveesector constant, Salmonella sterk gedaald

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Asselt, van E.D.

    2009-01-01

    In vrijwel alle schakels van de pluimveevleesketen is de besmetting met Salmonella in de periode van 2002 tot 2005 gedaald. Campylobacter werd in diezelfde periode juist vaker in slachthuizen aangetroffen. Tijdens het slachten nam de besmetting met beide pathogenen toe, voor Salmonella gold dit voor

  17. Chile: Una Vision Politica, Economica y Social (Chile: A Political, Economic, and Social View).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Hwang, Adriana

    1972-01-01

    This address seeks to explain in brief the historical background and political, economic, and social conditions leading to the democratic election of a Marxist president in Chile. A historical sketch of Chilean government from independence in 1810 is provided with a description of the situation just before Salvador Allende's election in 1969. Some…

  18. The Mass Media and Political Socialization: Chile, 1970-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Amy R.

    2005-01-01

    This project seeks to determine the effect of the mass media on political attitudes and behaviors in Chile between the years 1970 and 2000. The relationship between the media and "political socialization" is just now gaining recognition in scholarly research, and Chile offers an excellent case study. This paper traces these two variables during…

  19. Chile, Latin America, and the Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Wilhelmy

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Text of a presentation in the Colloquium Chile and the World, organized by the Princeton University Program in Latin American Studies, May 6, 2005, in honor of Professor Paul E.Sigmund. The views expressed have not been reviewed or endorsed by the Chile Pacific Foundation. Manfred Wilhelmy holds a Ph.D. in Politics (1973 from Princeton University

  20. Chile - Institutional Design for an Effective Education Quality Assurance

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this report is to present the Government of Chile with policy options related to the institutional distribution of roles and responsibilities for effective quality assurance in education. Following the introduction, the report is structured as follows. Chapter II presents background information on the evolution of Chile's education system since 1980. This information,...

  1. Childcare in Chile. The role of ethnicity and socioeconomic inequalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cárcamo Leiva, Rodrigo Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Chile has embarked on a road that must lead to the reduction of inequality gaps for the population. A public policy called Chile Growths With You has focused on an increase in the breadth of coverage of non-maternal care through childcare centers to provide equal opportunities in early childhood and

  2. Honors in Chile: New Engagements in the Higher Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skewes, Juan Carlos; Sampaio, Carlos Alberto Cioce; Conway, Frederick J.

    2012-01-01

    Honors programs are rare in Latin America, and in Chile they were unknown before 2003. At the Universidad Austral de Chile, an interdisciplinary group of scholars linked to environmental studies put forward a pilot project for implementing a new experience in higher education. Challenged by an educational environment where (i) apathy and…

  3. Critical Perspectives on Adolescent Vocational Guidance in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; McWhirter, Benedict T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the lens of critical psychology is applied to adolescent career development and vocational guidance in Chile. The authors describe and critique the status of adolescent vocational guidance in Chile, the reproduction of extant social inequities in Chilean education, and offer recommendations for enhancing vocational guidance…

  4. Comparative Virulotyping of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elemfareji, Omar Ismail; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2013-12-01

    Members of Salmonella enterica are important foodborne pathogens of significant public health concern worldwide. This study aimed to determine a range of virulence genes among typhoidal (S. typhi) and non-typhoidal (S. enteritidis) strains isolated from different geographical regions and different years. A total of 87 S. typhi and 94 S. enteritidis strains were tested for presence of 22 virulence genes by employing multiplex PCR and the genetic relatedness of these strains was further characterized by REP-PCR. In S. typhi, invA, prgH, sifA, spiC, sopB, iroN, sitC, misL, pipD, cdtB, and orfL were present in all the strains, while sopE, agfC, agfA, sefC, mgtC, and sefD were present in 98.8, 97.7, 90.8, 87.4, 87.4 and 17.2 %, of the strains, respectively. No lpfA, lpfC, pefA, spvB, or spvC was detected. Meanwhile, in S. enteritidis, 15 genes, agfA, agfC, invA, lpfA, lpfC, sefD, prgH, spiC, sopB, sopE, iroN, sitC, misL, pipD, and orfL were found in all S. enteritidis strains 100 %, followed by sifA and spvC 98.9 %, pefA, spvB and mgtC 97.8 %, and sefC 90.4 %. cdtB was absent from all S. enteritidis strains tested. REP-PCR subtyped S. typhi strains into 18 REP-types and concurred with the virulotyping results in grouping the strains, while in S. enteritidis, REP-PCR subtyped the strains into eight profiles and they were poorly distinguishable between human and animal origins. The study showed that S. typhi and S. enteritidis contain a range of virulence factors associated with pathogenesis. Virulotyping is a rapid screening method to identify and profile virulence genes in Salmonella strains, and improve an understanding of potential risk for human and animal infections.

  5. Comparative Virulotyping of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elemfareji, Omar Ismail; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2013-12-01

    Members of Salmonella enterica are important foodborne pathogens of significant public health concern worldwide. This study aimed to determine a range of virulence genes among typhoidal (S. typhi) and non-typhoidal (S. enteritidis) strains isolated from different geographical regions and different years. A total of 87 S. typhi and 94 S. enteritidis strains were tested for presence of 22 virulence genes by employing multiplex PCR and the genetic relatedness of these strains was further characterized by REP-PCR. In S. typhi, invA, prgH, sifA, spiC, sopB, iroN, sitC, misL, pipD, cdtB, and orfL were present in all the strains, while sopE, agfC, agfA, sefC, mgtC, and sefD were present in 98.8, 97.7, 90.8, 87.4, 87.4 and 17.2 %, of the strains, respectively. No lpfA, lpfC, pefA, spvB, or spvC was detected. Meanwhile, in S. enteritidis, 15 genes, agfA, agfC, invA, lpfA, lpfC, sefD, prgH, spiC, sopB, sopE, iroN, sitC, misL, pipD, and orfL were found in all S. enteritidis strains 100 %, followed by sifA and spvC 98.9 %, pefA, spvB and mgtC 97.8 %, and sefC 90.4 %. cdtB was absent from all S. enteritidis strains tested. REP-PCR subtyped S. typhi strains into 18 REP-types and concurred with the virulotyping results in grouping the strains, while in S. enteritidis, REP-PCR subtyped the strains into eight profiles and they were poorly distinguishable between human and animal origins. The study showed that S. typhi and S. enteritidis contain a range of virulence factors associated with pathogenesis. Virulotyping is a rapid screening method to identify and profile virulence genes in Salmonella strains, and improve an understanding of potential risk for human and animal infections. PMID:24426144

  6. Comunicación social desde contextos de encierro

    OpenAIRE

    López, Yemina

    2015-01-01

    “Comunicación Social desde los contextos de encierro. Desafíos y representaciones de acceder a una carrera de grado desde el penal” es una investigación de grado que desarrolé entre los años 2014 y 2015, con el fin de analizar las representaciones sociales que se dan a partir del Programa Educación Superior en Cárceles de la Facultad de Periodismo y Comunicación Social. En el devenir de este tiempo busqué recoger y analizar los discursos procedentes de los/as estudiantes que, privados/as de l...

  7. ANÁLISIS DOGMÁTICO DEL DERECHO PENAL AMBIENTAL CHILENO, A LA LUZ DEL DERECHO COMPARADO Y LAS OBLIGACIONES CONTRAÍDAS POR CHILE EN EL ÁMBITO DEL DERECHO INTERNACIONAL: CONCLUSIONES Y PROPUESTA LEGISLATIVA FUNDADA PARA UNA NUEVA PROTECCIÓN PENAL DEL MEDIO AMBIENTE EN CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Pierre Matus Acuña; Marcos Orellana Cruz; Marcelo Castillo Sánchez; M Cecilia Ramírez Guzmán

    2003-01-01

    El presente artículo corresponde al Informe Final del Proyecto FONDECYT 1010206­2001, sobre tratamiento penal de los delitos contra el medio ambiente en Chile. Sus conclusiones se exponen en siete partes: la primera aborda la cuestión de la necesidad de un derecho penal protector del medio ambiente, ante los riesgos a que se encuentra sometido en las sociedades contemporáneas; la segunda, la necesidad de su regulación desde el punto de vista del Derecho Internacional y las obligaciones contra...

  8. Depositación atmosférica de nitrógeno en un transecto valle longitudinal-cordillera de Los Andes, centro-sur de Chile Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen in a transect from the Central Valley to Cordillera de Los Andes, south-central Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Oyarzún, Carlos E; ROBERTO GODOY; SERGIO LEIVA

    2002-01-01

    El aumento de las actividades agrícolas y ganaderas en el centro-sur de Chile puede producir elevadas emisiones de nitrógeno hacia la atmósfera (mayormente NH3). El amoniaco es transportado por corrientes de aire y depositado en el suelo y vegetación. El presente estudio evalúa la depositación atmosférica de compuestos nitrogenados (NO3- y NH4+) en la química de las precipitaciones en un transecto altitudinal de 66 km, desde los alrededores de la ciudad de Osorno (40º 35' S, 72º 57' O, 55 m d...

  9. Representación visual de la movilización estudiantil en Chile: las fotografías de las marchas como espacios de narración, actuación e identificación política (Visual representation of the student mobilization in Chile: the photographs of marches as spaces of narrative, action and political identification)

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Cárdenas Neira

    2014-01-01

    El artículo explora la representación visual de las marchas estudiantiles suscitadas en Chile durante el 2011, con el propósito de describir los actores e identidades grupales simbolizadas, así como las acciones sociales y los modos como son legitimadas o deslegitimadas en la interacción. Se analiza un corpus fotográfico del libro "Marchas" (Yutronic y Ortiz, 2012), desde un marco teórico-metodológico que considera aportaciones de los Estudios Críticos del Discurso y la Semiótica Social. S...

  10. Nuevos registros de Balistes polylepis (Balistidae), Sphoeroides lobatus (Tetraodontidae), Mola mola y M. ramsayi (Molidae) en San Antonio, Chile (Pisces, Tetraodontiformes) New records of Balistes polylepis (Balistidae), Sphoeroides lobatus (Tetraodontidae), Mola mola and M. ramsayi (Molidae) from San Antonio, Chile (Pisces, Tetraodontiformes)

    OpenAIRE

    José L. Brito

    2003-01-01

    El hallazgo de tres ejemplares de Balistes polylepis Steindachner, 1876; un ejemplar de Sphoeroides lobatus Steindachner, 1870 y un ejemplar de Mola mola Linnaeus, 1758, en la costa de San Antonio y tres ejemplares de M. ramsayi (Giglioli, 1833), permite aumentar la distribución geográfica conocida de estas especies desde el norte hasta la costa central de Chile. La presencia de estas especies está asociada con los efectos de los fenómenos El Niño 1982-83 y 1997-98The finding of three specime...

  11. Enjoying Homemade Ice Cream without the Risk of Salmonella Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contaminants Buy, Store & Serve Safe Food Enjoying Homemade Ice Cream without the Risk of Salmonella Infection Share Tweet ... it Email Print August 2004 Every year homemade ice cream causes several outbreaks of Salmonella infection with up ...

  12. China and Chile Are to Be Free-Trade Partners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In line with the words "We hope that Chile's Next Partner is China", Chile is believed to choose China as the new negotiation party of Free Trade Agreements after signing respectively free trade agreements with Canada, the United States, EU and ROK. On January 24, Chile's trade delegation composed of 20 members led by Kaiross Feirch, the Head of economy general department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs paid the first visit to China to launch first five-day round of mutual trade negotiation.Kaiross Feirch, the Head of economy general department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Chile and Barbirlo Kafuleirla, Chile's Ambassador to China received special visit of reporters about this round.

  13. Test results of Salmonella typing by the National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella in the Member States of the European Union and the EnterNet Laboratories - Collaborative study VII on typing of Salmonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver H; Maas HME; Ward LR; Wannet WJB; Henken AM; MGB; LIS

    2003-01-01

    Het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, Nederland) organiseerde in samenwerking met Public Health Laboratory Services (PHLS), London, Verenigd Koninkrijk een zevende ringonderzoek aangaande de typering van Salmonella. Zeventien Nationale Referentie L

  14. La prueba PISA: una mirada alternativa desde la Teoría del Actor-Red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Paredes Suzarte

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available En el marco de la proliferación de las evaluaciones estandarizadas, inscritas en lo que ha sido conceptualizado por la literatura como políticas de accountability o de rendición de cuentas, se ofrece por medio de este artículo una línea de pensamiento y discusión alternativa sobre la prueba PISA. Utilizando como enfoque la Teoría del Actor-Red (TAR de Bruno Latour, se presentan ejercicios de traslación epistémica de la prueba PISA desde un modelo de pensamiento positivista moderno, a uno materialista pragmático en el que se privilegia una descripción constructivista y analítica de los componentes que la constituyen. En base al seguimiento y análisis de noticias sobre la prueba PISA desplegadas en diarios electrónicos en Chile y Argentina, más la revisión de fuentes secundarias, se exponen algunas de las controversias suscitadas en torno a la evaluación y se discute sobre su posible impacto en nuestras percepciones sobre educación y calidad. También se problematiza el carácter neutral y objetivo de la prueba, y se levanta la pregunta acerca de su posible agencia en la cristalización de las relaciones de centro-periferia entre países que, en el marco del enfoque de la TAR, tiene sentido explorar. 

  15. La Calidad de las Aguas en el Curso Superior y Medio del Río Traiguén: IX Región-Chile Superior and Medium Water Quality in Traiguén River: IX Region-Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson R Rivera; Francisco Encina; Rodrigo Palma; Patricia Mejias

    2009-01-01

    En este trabajo se establece la calidad de agua del curso superior y medio del río Traiguén ubicado en la IX Región de la Araucanía en Chile. La caracterización fisicoquímica y microbiológica se efectuó fijando seis estaciones de muestreo, desde un lugar cercano a la naciente del río hasta el límite comunal de la ciudad de Victoria con Traiguén. Los valores mas bajos en los parámetros evaluados, los presentan las aguas de las estaciones 1 y 2 ubicadas fuera del límite urbano, contrariamente a...

  16. Frecuencia de micobacterias ambientales en Chile en el año 2008 Frequency of environmental mycobacterium in Chile. 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Scappaticcio B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Conocer la frecuencia de aislamientos de micobacterias ambientales en Chile en el año 2008. Material y Métodos: Se recibieron 600 cultivos desde 22 laboratorios de Bacteriología de la Tuberculosis de los distintos Servicios de Salud de la red que comprende el Programa de Control de la Tuberculosis del país, durante un período de cuatro meses del año 2008. Quinientos cuarenta y cinco (90,8% correspondieron a localización pulmonar y 55 (9,2% a extrapulmonar. Se confirmó la alcohol-ácido resistencia por tinción de Ziehl Neelsen y para la identificación de especies o complejos micobacterianos se utilizaron pruebas tradicionales y bioquímicas de acuerdo al criterio de clasificación de Runyon, sondas genéticas y análisis de patrones de restricción (PRA. Resultados: De los 600 cultivos recibidos, 585fueron aptos para ser incluidos en el estudio. De éstos, en el 91,3% (n = 534 de los casos se aisló Mycobacterium tuberculosis, en un 0,3% Mycobacterium bovis subespecie BCG (n = 3 y un 8,4% (n = 48 correspondió a micobacterias ambientales. De estas últimas, Mycobacterium kansasii (2,6%, Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (1,5% y Mycobacterium chelonae (1,0% fueron las más comúnmente aisladas. Conclusiones: De acuerdo a las cifras obtenidas en este estudio y comparadas con estudios de años anteriores (1988 y 1998 se concluye que el número de aislamientos de micobacterias ambientales permaneció relativamente constante esta última década, como también las especies más comúnmente aisladas.Objective: To know the frequency of environmental mycobacterium isolations in Chile in the year 2008. Methods: 600 AFB (acid fast bacilli positive cultures from 22 laboratories of Tuberculosis Bacteriology of the different Network Health Services that constitute the Tuberculosis Control Program of the country were studied, during four months at 2008. 545 (90.8% were pulmonary and 55 (9.2% extra pulmonary. Acidfast bacilli smears were

  17. Chile's pension reform after twenty years

    OpenAIRE

    Acuna R., Rodrigo; Iglesias P., Augusto

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the 1980 Chilean pension reform and to present its main results and economic impact. It is mainly descriptive; however we have tried to emphasize the lessons that may be learned and that may be of interest to other countries in different circumstances. In particular, we focus on potential areas for regulatory improvements. In Section II, a brief description of the AFP system and its place within Chile's social security system is presented. Also, the main c...

  18. Financiamiento de la vivienda en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Morandé, Felipe G.; Garcia, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    El financiamiento a la vivienda en Chile ha alcanzado en los últimos 20 años un grado de desarrollo muy importante. Para esto ha sido fundamental: a) la eliminación del efecto de la inflación sobre el valor de las deudas de largo plazo, primero, mediante el desarrollo de una unidad de cuenta indexada a la inflación creíble y transparente (la UF), y posteriormente, con el abatimiento de la inflación como fenómeno macroeconómico; b) la reforma provisional de comienzos de los años 80, que fue cl...

  19. Chile Successfully Halts Rise in Childhood Obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity in Latin America has become a cause for concern. The IAEA has worked closely with the Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA) at the University of Chile since 1997 to address the problem of malnutrition in the country. In Santiago, the Laboratory of Energy Metabolism and Stable Isotopes was established in 1998 with the help of the IAEA to provide an isotope ratio mass spectrometer and training in the use of stable isotope techniques to assess body composition, infant feeding practices and total daily energy expenditure

  20. La atencion preescolar en Chile: desafios para la redemocratizacion (Preschool Care in Chile: Challenges for Redemocratization. Discussion Paper No. 13).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filp, Johanna; Undurrage, Consuelo

    This paper examines the current status of programs for preschool children in Chile. Section 1 of the paper provides an overview of the situation of preschool children in Chile. The country's population includes more than 1.6 million children between the ages of 0 and 5 years 11 months, and in urban areas, 18.4 percent of children between the ages…

  1. Detection and classification of salmonella serotypes using spectral signatures collected by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spectral signatures of Salmonella serotypes namely Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Kentucky were collected using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). About 5-10 µL of Salmonella suspensions with concentrations of 1...

  2. HA TRAÍDO HASTA NOSOTROS DESDE TERRITORIO ENEMIGO, EL ALUD DE LA GUERRA: CONFISCACIÓN DE MAQUINARIAS Y APROPIACIÓN DE BIENES CULTURALES DURANTE LA OCUPACIÓN DE LIMA, 1881-1883

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Godoy Orellana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la confiscación de maquinarias y la apropiación de bienes culturales durante la ocupación chilena de Lima. Ambos temas en la producción historiográfica de la Guerra del Pacífico no han sido trabajados en profundidad, siendo negados o soslayados, aun considerando la evidencia documental existente en Chile. Basándose principalmente en estos repositorios documentales, los temas señalados son el motivo central del presente artículo, analizando la situación peruana, la participación de oficiales y representantes del Estado chileno durante la ocupación y la respuesta en Chile frente a la llegada de los barcos con bienes culturales -libros, estatuas u ornamentos para espacios públicos-, que varió desde el encubrimiento mediante el eufemismo, hasta la crítica de la prensa nacional y el rotundo rechazo por parte de la Cámara de Diputados de Chile.This article analyzes the confiscation of machinery and the appropriation of cultural goods during the occupation of Lima. Both themes have not been explored in depth by the War of the Pacific historiography, being neglected or ignored even considering the documented evidence that exists in Chile. Based mainly on those documents the article analyzes the Peruvian situation, the participation of Chilean officials and State representatives during the occupation, the answer in Chile facing the arrival of ships with cultural goods -books, statutes and ornaments for public spaces- that varied from the covering up through euphemism, to the critique from the national press and the categorical rejection on the part of the Chilean House of Representatives.

  3. Serotipos de Salmonella identificados en los servicios de salud de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez-Cogco Lucina

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Dar a conocer las variaciones de los serotipos de cepas de Salmonella aislados en diversos laboratorios públicos y privados de la República mexicana, así como en el del Instituto de Diagnóstico y Referencia Epidemiológicos (InDRE. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizaron los serotipos de 24 394 cepas de Salmonella aisladas de diversas fuentes por los laboratorios de salud pública y privados de México, entre 1972 y 1999, 15 843 (64.9% de origen humano y 8 551(35.1% de origen no humano siguiendo el esquema de Kauffmann-White y utilizando antisueros producidos en el InDRE, de acuerdo con los lineamientos del Centro de Control y Prevención de Enfermedades, Atlanta (GA, de los Estados Unidos de América. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron 199 serotipos, el más frecuente en muestras clínicas fue S. Typhimurium (20.4% y, en segundo lugar, S. Enteritidis (18.3%. En este trabajo se muestra como S. Enteritidis tuvo un aumento gradual y desplazó a S. Typhimurium en los aislamientos desde 1991, y a la fecha es el serotipo que más se aísla. En cambio, en muestras no humanas el serotipo aislado con mayor frecuencia fue S. Derby (13.8%, seguido por S. Anatum (8.5%. CONCLUSIONES: Los serotipos más frecuentes en México, tanto en muestras humanas como no humanas son: S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Derby, S. Agona y S. Anatum. Desde el punto de vista epidemiológico es necesario conocer cuáles son los serotipos circulantes y los de nueva introducción para poder determinar las acciones de prevención requeridas para los casos.

  4. La conducta antisocial desde una psicopedagogia positiva (una aproximación desde la logoterapia y la resiliencia)

    OpenAIRE

    Nuévalos Ruiz, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    En el presente estudio analizamos la plena correspondencia entre el concepto de resiliencia y la logoterapia, teoría psicológica de Víctor Frankl. Ambos conceptos suponen un nuevo paradigma en la comprensión y tratamiento de la conducta antisocial, ya que proponen trabajar desde una antropología positiva y desde la construcción del sentido de la vida y del sufrimiento. Una consecuencia que puede extraerse tras el recorrido llevado a cabo por nosotros por la literatura especializada y los estu...

  5. 75 FR 10846 - The Chile Fund, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... COMMISSION The Chile Fund, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application March 2, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange.... Applicants: The Chile Fund, Inc. (``Chile Fund''), Aberdeen Australia Equity Fund (``Australia Fund,'' together with the Chile Fund, the ``Current Funds''), Aberdeen Asset Management Asia Limited...

  6. Salmonella enteritidis from a case of fever with thrombocytopenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shamma Arora; Naveen Gupta; Ashwani Kumar; IR Kaur

    2011-01-01

    Non typhoidalSalmonella species are thought to be potentially infectious to humans. We isolated Salmonella enteritidis from a 10-year-old boy with fever and thrombocytopenia. We reviewed the literature concerning infections caused bySalmonella but we could not find any such case report from India.

  7. 21 CFR 866.3550 - Salmonella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salmonella spp. serological reagents. 866.3550... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3550 Salmonella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Salmonella spp. serological reagents are devices...

  8. 9 CFR 113.30 - Detection of Salmonella contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of Salmonella contamination... REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.30 Detection of Salmonella contamination. The test for detection of Salmonella contamination provided in this section shall be conducted when such a test is prescribed in...

  9. [Reflections about the historical development of biomedical sciences in Chile and the role of Revista Médica de Chile: an homage on 130-years old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Fernández, Luis

    2002-12-01

    When Revista Médica de Chile turns to be 130 years old, the author reflects about the difficulties that scientific and technological creativity faces in Chile, considering that there was a 70 years gap between its historical origin in Chile compared to developed countries. The scientific progress erases the boundaries between Biomedicine and science and technology. This progress has resulted in an improvement in the quality of scientific publications in Revista Medica de Chile. The editorial work has also contributed to this improvement. Revista Medica de Chile has obtained international recognition and stands in a good position as a medical journal in Latin America and Chile.

  10. Crisis vital desde una perspectiva de género

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Eva; Flores López, Olga

    2004-01-01

    A continuación se presenta el caso de una mujer de 55 años que presenta una crisis de identidad, abordado desde una perspectiva de género y un modelo explicativo y terapéutico que incluye elementos del análisis transaccional y la terapia constructivista.

  11. SPSS: Importar desde hoja de cálculo

    OpenAIRE

    González Such, José

    2014-01-01

    S'ilustra la forma d'importar dades des de una fulla de càlcul a SPSS Se indica la forma de importar datos a SPSS desde una hoja de cálculo It is described the way for import data from an Excell Sheet

  12. Salmonella capture using orbiting magnetic microbeads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Drew; Ballard, Matthew; Mills, Zachary; Hanasoge, Srinivas; Hesketh, Peter; Alexeev, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    Using three-dimensional simulations and experiments, we examine capture of salmonella from a complex fluid sample flowing through a microfluidic channel. Capture is performed using orbiting magnetic microbeads, which can easily be extracted from the system for analysis after salmonella capture. Numerical simulations are used to model the dynamics of the system, which consists of a microchannel filled with a viscous fluid, model salmonella, magnetic microbeads and a series of angled parallel ridges lining the top of the microchannel. Simulations provide a statistical measure of the ability of the system to capture target salmonella. Our modeling findings guide the design of a lab-on-a-chip experimental device to be used for the detection of salmonella from complex food samples, allowing for the detection of the bacteria at the food source and preventing the consumption of contaminated food. Such a device can be used as a generic platform for the detection of a variety of biomaterials from complex fluids. This work is supported by a grant from the United States Department of Agriculture.

  13. Salmonella and Eggs: From Production to Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Whiley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.

  14. Cambios en las formas de consumo en las sociedades tradicionales y conflictos con el mercado de trabajo. Osorno, Chile (1880-1905

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Muñoz Sougarret

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En 1905 se daba por terminado el experimento agro industrial más arriesgado del diecinueve chileno, nacido de la comunión de colonos germanos y un terreno desatendido por el Estado nacional. La frontera sur araucana reunió intereses, potencialidades y capitales que le permitieron desarrollarse fuera del marco tradicional del Chile central; instituciones y personas naturales se sorprendían y maravillaban al momento de presenciar la complejidad y racionalidad del modelo fabril erigido por los germano-descendientes en la frontera sur de Chile. Para contemporáneos e historiadores, la abrupta crisis y desaparición del experimento puede ser reducida a un factor, la entrada del Estado chileno a la región. Sin méritos de desestimar tal hipótesis, nos hemos de centrar en el estudio de la crisis desde el ámbito laboral, aquello nos permitiría relocalizar su estudio desde los factores externos, a las condiciones, y condicionantes, internos de la fábrica. Posibilitándonos insertar al trabajador en un mercado de consumo en expansión que colisionaba con las políticas laborales y salariales utilizadas por tales manufacturas. Escenario que fraccionó a la industria y la debilitó frente a la aparición de un tercer sujeto, el Estado.

  15. ¿De dónde surge la autoridad de los profesores chilenos? Análisis desde las perspectivas de los estudiantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Zamora-Poblete

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente la autoridad del profesor ya no reposa exclusivamente en la institución escolar; también debe ser construida por el propio maestro y reconocida por sus estudiantes. En esta línea, el presente artículo de investigación aborda un estudio que tiene el objetivo de caracterizar a los profesores con mayor autoridad desde las perspectivas de los estudiantes de enseñanza secundaria de distintos grupos socioeconómicos. Se recoge información mediante un cuestionario aplicado a 936 jóvenes de la ciudad de Santiago de Chile. Los resultados indican que los profesores reconocidos por su autoridad son aquellos que enseñan un saber altamente valorado, son respetuosos y proactivos.

  16. Construcción politica de reformas curriculares: El caso de Chile en los noventa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Cox

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El autor es un experto implicado en el proceso de diseño curricular vivido en Chile desde la promulgación del LOCE en 1990. El artículo, Basándose en esta experiencia, el artículo describe con detalle este proceso. Muestra las claves, circunstancias y momentos del proceso de construcción y desarrollo de una reforma curricular. Da cuenta de los procesos y contextos que intervienen en ello. Señala que tiene un proceso de construcción política. Pero no sólo se deben a este tipo de decisiones (como marco ideológico y social de decisiones y poder. Los procesos reflexivos que acompañan la toma de decisiones y los cursos de acción generados son importantes. Como también lo es la historia. Incluso los lineamientos curriculares y las presiones hacia el cambio que se den globalmente pueden influir bastante. Así muestra como en Chile, a pesar de partir de una política educativa en la que no había entrado la idea de currículum, ésta empieza a emerger conforme se va construyendo su desarrollo práctico y curricular. De todas las lecciones aprendidas en el proceso destaca que son componentes clave del proceso la participación y la innovación. Argumenta que hay razones sustantivas y políticas para ello. La primera es clave para que el profesorado se apropie de la propuesta de reforma y la haga posible. Por último, destaca que se produce un desarrollo de las capacidades institucionales de diseño y desarrollo curricular en la medida que se ponen en marcha y acumulan procesos de este tipo.

  17. Test results of Salmonella serotyping in the Member States of the European Union. (Collaborative study III amongst the National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt N; Maas HME; Leeuwen WJ van; Henken AM; MGB

    1998-01-01

    Het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium (CRL) voor Salmonella heeft een derde ringonderzoek voor de serotypering van Salmonella georganiseerd. Alle Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRLs) voor Salmonella van de Europese Unie deden aan het onderzoek mee. Het belangrijkste doel was het vergelijke

  18. Molecular characterization of Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ and Salmonella Heidelberg from poultry and retail chicken meat in Colombia by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ variant (also termed Salmonella Java) and Salmonella Heidelberg are human pathogens frequently isolated from poultry. As a step towards implementing the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistant Surveillance (COIPARS), this study characterized molecular patt...

  19. Contributions to the mammalogy of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Ronald H.; Miller, Sterling D.; Schamberger, Mel L.

    1979-01-01

    Collections of mammals were made during more than three years of biological investigations in Chile sponsored by the Corporación Nacional Forestal under the aegis of the Peace Corps (Smithsonian Environmental Program). Genera and species hitherto unreported for that country were taken and many useful data concerning distributional patterns of other (mostly little-known) species were gathered. These collections have also proved valuable in better understanding Chilean mammals from a taxonomic point of view and contribute knowledge of the species' natural history. Specimens are to be deposited in the (United States) National Museum of Natural History (USNM) or are to be retained by the Corporación Nacional Forestal, Avda, Bulnes 285, Depto. 401, Santiago. Numbers provided below are field numbers. A final division of specimens between the two institutions has not yet been made. A number of specimens reported here were not taken by Peace Corps personnel but have been obtained by the National Museum of Natural History from other sources. Specimens in the Field Museum of Natural History (FMNH) were used in making comparisons. Some of Fulk's (GWF) specimens are at Texas Tech University. Other are at the Servicio Agricola y Ganadero in Santiago (as are specimens of some introduced species taken by Schamberger). Reise's (DF) are at the Universidad de Chile-Concepción and in his personal collection.

  20. Anticuerpos séricos contra la enfermedad de Newcastle e Influenza Aviar en aves rapaces de Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel González-Acuña

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Detectar la presencia de anticuerpos séricos sanguíneos contra los virus de la Enfermedad de Newcastle (ENC e Influenza aviar (IA, para comprender la contribución de las aves silvestres en la transmisión de estos virus en Chile. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron 63 aves pertenecientes a los órdenes Falconiformes y Strigiformes desde centros de rehabilitación de aves de las zonas central y sur de Chile. Se realizaron las pruebas de inhibición de la hemoaglutinación (IHA para detectar anticuerpos contra el virus ENC e inmunodifusión en gel agar (IDGA y ELISA para IA. Resultados. Se detectaron 14 aves positivas (22.2% para anticuerpos séricos contra el virus de la ENC. En cambio, no se registraron anticuerpos séricos sanguíneos para el virus de la IA. Conclusiones. La presencia de aves rapaces positivas en los centros de rescate a los anticuerpos séricos contra el virus de la ENC puede ser explicada por el consumo de carne de pollos que han sido vacunados contra ENC o consumo de aves que han adquirido directamente el virus vacunal a través de los distintos procedimientos de administración (aerosoles, bebederos de la vacuna o por el ingreso a los centros de rescate de aves rapaces migratorias, las que podrían facilitar la diseminación de la infección desde los países de origen, hecho que debe ser investigado.

  1. Salmonella enteritidis and other Salmonella in laying hens and eggs from flocks with Salmonella in their environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Poppe, C; Johnson, R. P.; Forsberg, C M; Irwin, R J

    1992-01-01

    Seven Canadian layer flocks with Salmonella enteritidis in their environment were investigated to determine the numbers of hens infected with S. enteritidis, the localization of S. enteritidis in organs of infected hens and the numbers of S. enteritidis-infected eggs produced by two affected flocks. By a microagglutination test (MAT) using S. pullorum antigens, these flocks had more seropositive hens (mean 51.9 +/- 16.9%) than two Salmonella-free flocks (mean 13.0 +/- 4.2%). Culture of tissue...

  2. ESO and Chile: 10 Years of Productive Scientific Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    ESO and the Government of Chile launched today the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe", written by the beneficiaries of the ESO-Chile Joint Committee. This annual fund provides grants for individual Chilean scientists, research infrastructures, scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. In a ceremony held in Santiago on 19 June 2006, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) and the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs marked the 10th Anniversary of the Supplementary Agreement, which granted to Chilean astronomers up to 10 percent of the total observing time on ESO telescopes. This agreement also established an annual fund for the development of astronomy, managed by the so-called "ESO-Chile Joint Committee". ESO PR Photo 21/06 ESO PR Photo 21/06 Ten Years ESO-Chile Agreement Ceremony The celebration event was hosted by ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of Special Policy for the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ambassador Luis Winter. "ESO's commitment is, and always will be, to promote astronomy and scientific knowledge in the country hosting our observatories", said ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "We hope Chile and Europe will continue with great achievements in this fascinating joint adventure, the exploration of the universe." On behalf of the Government of Chile, Ambassador Luis Winter outlined the historical importance of the Supplementary Agreement, ratified by the Chilean Congress in 1996. "Such is the magnitude of ESO-Chile Joint Committee that, only in 2005, this annual fund represented 8 percent of all financing sources for Chilean astronomy, including those from Government and universities", Ambassador Winter said. The ESO Representative and Head of Science in Chile, Dr. Felix Mirabel, and the appointed Chilean astronomer for the ESO-Chile Joint Committee, Dr. Leonardo Bronfman, also took part in the

  3. Unveiling ubiquitinome rearrangements induced by Salmonella infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bionda, Tihana; Behrends, Christian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ubiquitination plays a critical role in the activation of host immune responses to infection and serves as a signal for pathogen delivery to phagophores along the xenophagy pathway. We recently performed systematic ubiquitination site profiling of epithelial cells infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. Our findings specifically highlight components of the NFKB, membrane trafficking pathways and RHO GTPase systems as ubiquitination hubs during infection. In addition, a broad spectrum of bacterial effectors and several outer membrane proteins are ubiquitinated in infected cells. This comprehensive resource of ubiquitinome dynamics during Salmonella infection enables further understanding of the complex host-pathogen interplay and may reveal novel targets for the inhibition of Salmonella invasion and inflammation. PMID:27467224

  4. Crisis de las hegemonías en América latina: los casos de Bolivia y Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Albero Vivero Arriagada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es comprender y distinguir cómo se manifiesta, la ruptura o crisis de la hegemonía de las clases dominantes, cómo se presentan los procesos y posibilidades de reconfiguración de las clases sociales y las correlaciones de las fuerzas políticas entre las élites dominantes y los sectores excluidos. Se toma como referencia los casos de Bolivia y Chile en el período comprendido entre los años 2006 y 2012 ya que permite tener como referencia los triunfos electorales de Evo Morales en Bolivia y en el caso de Chile el primer gobierno de Michelle Bachelet y el triunfo de Sebastián Piñera. Desde una perspectiva hermenéutica crítica se realiza una revisión y análisis interpretativo de las obras de Antonio Gramsci y de otros referentes del pensamiento crítico latinoamericano que nos aporta un marco teórico que ilumina el análisis interpretativo. Se concluye que los conflictos y las contradicciones presentes en estos países dan cuenta de la posibilidad de construcción de nuevas relaciones sociales y políticas a partir de las luchas contra hegemónicas que han venido protagonizando las clases excluidas.

  5. Inactivation of Salmonellae in Frozen Catfish by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation on salmonellae viability in frozen catfish was investigated using fresh cut of catfish artificially contaminated with stationary phase cells of salmonellae, frozen at-18 οC and irradiated with does ranging from 0.0 to 2.4 kGy. The D10 values for ten serovars of salmonellae ranged from 0.47 to 0.77 kGy. Salmonella Enteritidis was the most resistant serovars found in frozen catfish. Dosage at 2.5 kGy would be sufficient to kill 103.2 Salmonella Enteritidis that may occasionally present in frozen catfish

  6. Septic arthritis of the ankle due to Salmonella enteritidis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dineen, Patrick F

    2011-06-01

    Salmonella septic arthritis in healthy, immunocompetent patients is extremely rare. We present the case of a 70-year-old man who presented with a one-day history of painful swelling of his ankle from which was aspirated pus which subsequently grew Salmonella enteritidis. There was no history of trauma or symptoms consistent with Salmonella enterocolitis. Our patient recovered fully after two weeks on intravenous ceftriaxone and six weeks on oral ciprofloxacin. Salmonella is a notifiable disease in the European Union and the United States of America, and is associated with outbreaks as a result of food contamination. The nature of Salmonella arthritis and its appropriate management are outlined.

  7. El Parque Portal Bicentenario en Santiago de Chile / Portal Bicentennial Park in Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beach Lobos, Myriam;

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta los principios que orientaron el diseño del Parque Portal Bicentenario, un parque de 50 hás. que será el eje principal de la nueva urbanización “Ciudad Parque Bicentenario”, actualmente en construcción en los terrenos del ex aeropuerto de Los Cerrillos en Santiago de Chile.The following text was submitted to the Architecture Competition together with the project drawings. It presents the principles that leaded the design. The 123 acres park will be the main axis of a new urban development in Santiago “Ciudad Parque Bicentenario” at present under construction on the area occupied by the former Cerrillos Airport, Santiago de Chile.

  8. CASO DE ESTUDIO: LA FUNDACION COCA-COLA CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    JORGE HERRERA

    2006-01-01

    This case gives an overview of the Coca-Cola System in Chile and focuses on the Coca-Cola Chile Foundation (CCFCH), a non-profit organization dedicated to education. Created in 1992 with donations from Coca-Cola de Chile S.A. (CCCH) and the bottling companies Embotelladora Andina S.A., Coca-Cola Embonor S.A. and Coca-Cola Polar S.A., the foundation now faces an expansion dilemma in its most important program, the TAVEC Laboratories. Under this program the CCFCH donated interactive scientific ...

  9. [Ecology and health in Chile: present and future development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, M

    1997-09-01

    In response to the progressive environmental deterioration, the Ecological Society of America has made a proposal, called "Sustainable Biosphere Initiative", to do research, teaching and decision making processes on biodiversity, global change and the effects of human activities on environment. The goal of appropriate environmental protection and welfare for mankind includes health and quality of life. Presently, Chile faces a number of environmental problems such as pollution, excessive urban growth, loss of agricultural areas, disposal of solid waste and species extinction. The lack of education and information in Chile, on these problems, is worrisome. The role of universities to overcome this deficit should be crucial in the future sustainable development of Chile.

  10. Occurrence of Salmonella sp in laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Gama NMSQ; Berchieri Jr A; SA Fernandes

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the presence of Salmonella sp in flocks of white laying hens. In different farms, the transport boxes of twelve flocks were inspected at arrival for the presence of Salmonella. Four positive (A, B, L and M) and one negative (I) flocks were monitored at each four weeks using bacteriological examination of cecal fresh feces up to 52 weeks. Birds were also evaluated at 52 weeks, when 500 eggs were taken randomly, and at 76 weeks, after forced molt. Salmo...

  11. Molecular Detection of Salmonella Serovar Isolated from Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monadi, M. (MSc

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Salmonellosis is the most common type of food poisoning in developed and developing countries that is caused by Salmonella serotype. Hence, we aimed to identify the Salmonella serovars in eggs obtained from Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad province and to evaluate antibiotic resistance of the isolated strains. Material and Methods: In this study, 210 eggs were collected from Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad Province. The bacteria were isolated and identified using biochemical tests. After extraction of genomic DNA, Salmonella gender, Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium were investigated by invA, fliC and sefA primers, respectively, using Multiplex PCR method. Results: Of 210, 14 (6.66% were contaminated with Salmonella. Of these, 12 (5.71% were Salmonella typhimurium and 2 (0.95% were related to Salmonella spp. None of the samples were contaminated with Salmonella enteritidis. The highest resistance was related to penicillin (100% and neomycin (78.57%. Conclusion: Salmonella typhimurium is the predominant serovar causing contamination in the eggs of this Province. Given the wide spread of antibiotic resistance in different serotypes of Salmonella, we recommend avoiding of indiscriminate use of antibiotics in livestock and poultry

  12. Salmonella in broiler flocks in the republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Montserrat; Fanning, June; Murphy, Anne; Murray, Gerardine; Griffin, Margaret; Flack, Alma; Leonard, Nola; Egan, John

    2009-01-01

    In order to obtain an estimation of the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in flocks of broilers in the Republic of Ireland, a study was conducted in 2006 in a total of 362 broiler flocks associated with four integrated companies. Salmonella spp. was isolated from 27.3% of flocks, and eight Salmonella serovars were identified, none of which were Salmonella Enteritidis or Salmonella Typhimurium. The most prevalent serovar was Salmonella Mbandaka, followed by Salmonella Kentucky, which respectively accounted for 61.6% and 27.0% of positive samples. Notable differences were observed among the flocks associated with different integrated companies, both in the Salmonella spp. prevalence and in the serovar distribution. Results from routine official Salmonella testing in broiler production in 2006 showed similar serovar distribution within each integrated company from the associated hatchery and factory samples. In our study, differences in the prevalence of Salmonella at farm level did not correlate with differences in the percentages of positive chicken carcasses officially tested, which were low, for all the four companies investigated. Given the high prevalence of Salmonella Mbandaka, all human isolates obtained in the Republic of Ireland from 2003 to 2006 were compared to a subset of poultry isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, but an epidemiological link between the animal and the human strains could not be established. Finally the antimicrobial resistance analysis indicated a low proportion of resistant strains among the broiler flock isolates. PMID:19061369

  13. Alleviating extreme poverty in Chile: The short term effects of Chile Solidario

    OpenAIRE

    Galasso, Emanuela

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of an anti-poverty program, Chile Solidario, during its first two years of operation. We find that the program tends to increases significantly their take-up of cash assistance programs and of social programs for housing and employment, and to improve education and health outcomes for participating households. There is no evidence that the participation to employment program translates into improved employment or income outcomes in the short term. Finally, we p...

  14. Source attribution of human Salmonella cases in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, H.; Andersson, Y.; Plym-Forshell, L.;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the sources of sporadic domestic Salmonella cases in Sweden and to evaluate the usefulness of a source-attribution model in a country in which food animals are virtually free from Salmonella. The model allocates human sporadic domestic Salmonella cases...... to different sources according to distribution of Salmonella subtypes in the different sources. Sporadic domestic human Salmonella cases (n=1086) reported between July 2004 and June 2006 were attributed to nine food-animal and wildlife sources. Of all Salmonella cases, 82% were acquired abroad and 2.9% were...... associated with outbreaks. We estimated that 6.4% were associated with imported food, 0.5% with food-producing animals, and 0.6% with wildlife. Overall, 7.7% could not be attributed to any source. We concluded that domestic food-producing animals are not an important source for Salmonella in humans in Sweden...

  15. Report on the seventh workshop organised by CRL-Salmonella. Ploufragan (France), 28 May 2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver H; Raamsdonk EC van; Henken AM; MGB

    2002-01-01

    At 28 May 2002 a workshop was organised by the Community Reference Laboratory for Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella) in Ploufragan, France. All National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella (NRLs-Salmonella) of the EU Member States, with the exception of the Greek and the Northern-Ireland NRLs-Salmonella,

  16. Cinco milenios de evolucion en Arica (Chile)

    OpenAIRE

    Cocilovo, José Alberto; Varela, Héctor Hugo

    2005-01-01

    Una serie de trabajos realizados durante la última década, en Arica y Valle de Azapa, empleando variables métricas y no métricas, prueban la existencia de diferencias significativas entre los antiguos habitantes de la costa y del valle, desde 4000 aC hasta 1450 dC. Esto fue explicado por un incremento gradual del parentesco local, moderado por migraciones de rango medio y amplio. Posibles corrientes de poblamiento altiplánicas y transaltiplánicas, fueron establecidas por evidencias craneométr...

  17. Paradigm Diagnostics Salmonella Indicator Broth (PDX-SIB) for detection of Salmonella on selected environmental surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstein, Alan; Griffith, Leena; Feirtag, Joellen; Pearson, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    The Paradigm Diagnostics Salmonella Indicator Broth (PDX-SIB) is intended as a single-step selective enrichment indicator broth to be used as a simple screening test for the presence of Salmonella spp. in environmental samples. This method permits the end user to avoid multistep sample processing to identify presumptively positive samples, as exemplified by standard U.S. reference methods. PDX-SIB permits the outgrowth of Salmonella while inhibiting the growth of competitive Gram-negative and -positive microflora. Growth of Salmonella-positive cultures results in a visual color change of the medium from purple to yellow when the sample is grown at 37 +/- 1 degree C. Performance of PDX-SIB has been evaluated in five different categories: inclusivity-exclusivity, methods comparison, ruggedness, lot-to-lot variability, and shelf stability. The inclusivity panel included 100 different Salmonella serovars, 98 of which were SIB-positive during the 30 to 48 h incubation period. The exclusivity panel included 33 different non-Salmonella microorganisms, 31 of which were SIB-negative during the incubation period. Methods comparison studies included four different surfaces: S. Newport on plastic, S. Anatum on sealed concrete, S. Abaetetuba on ceramic tile, and S. Typhimurium in the presence of 1 log excess of Citrobacter freundii. Results of the methods comparison studies demonstrated no statistical difference between the SIB method and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-Bacteriological Analytical Manual reference method, as measured by the Mantel-Haenszel Chi-square test. Ruggedness studies demonstrated little variation in test results when SIB incubation temperatures were varied over a 34-40 degrees C range. Lot-to-lot consistency results suggest no detectable differences in manufactured goods using two reference Salmonella serovars and one non-Salmonella microorganism.

  18. De la investigación social a la técnica profesional: una crónica histórica del ARS en Chile (1995-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Gaete Fiscella

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El principal objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una crónica sobre la historia del Análisis de Redes Sociales (ARS en Chile en los últimos 20 años, partiendo de un estudio bibliográfico de su desarrollo, sobre todo de la producción académica y científica, que, como se verá, evidencia ciertos patrones. El punto de partida del ARS en Chile se encuentra en el interés por llevar a cabo análisis de realidades sociales y comunitarias particulares; pasando posteriormente a la expansión en diferentes ámbitos (político, urbano, informático, etc. y, en la etapa más reciente, la consolidación de diferentes líneas de investigación; pero sobre todo, el desarrollo de un importante proceso de profesionalización. Lo anterior, se evidencia en el cambio de foco o de interés del ARS en Chile, ya que evoluciona desde el análisis comunitario y social en sectores marginados hasta, preferentemente, el análisis de redes y comunidades virtuales. Teniendo en cuenta esto, se proyectan posibles líneas futuras de desarrollo del ARS en Chile a partir de su potencialidad, tanto en el ámbito profesional como en el académico.

  19. RAPID DETECTION OF Salmonella IN SHRIMP BY POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION [Deteksi Cepat Salmonella pada Udang dengan Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulfah Amalia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp is an important non-oil commodity for foreign trade in Indonesia. However, rejection of shrimp exports by the importing countries is still commonly encountered. In 2011, the USFDA recorded two cases of Salmonella spp. contamination in shrimp products from two shrimp processing companies in Indonesia. Analysis of Salmonella spp. in seafood is generally performed using a conventional method which takes at least 5 days. The objective of the study is to get a Salmonellae rapid detection method in shrimp by PCR. In this study, optimization of PCR protocol method to detect Salmonella invA gene was conducted using six different annealing temperatures (59, 59.5, 60.8, 62, 64 and 64.5°C. The results showed that 64°C was the optimum annealing temperature to detect the 284 bp fragment of Salmonella invA gene. The PCR based detection method has a DNA detection limit of 27.81ug/mL and 10°CFU/mL of viable salmonellae with 100% specificity. The PCR protocol is capable of detecting six different Salmonella serovars (S. Enteritidis, S. Hadar, S. Heidelberg, S. Kentucky, S. Paratyphi and S. Typhimurium but none of the non salmonellae isolates. Application of the PCR assay on Salmonella in shrimp after the selective enrichment step suggested that all 16 samples were positive for Salmonella. At the same time, the conventional method could only detected 3 samples for Salmonella positive.

  20. Epidemiology of Vibrio parahaemolyticus outbreaks, southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harth, Erika; Matsuda, Luis; Hernández, Cristina; Rioseco, Maria L; Romero, Jaime; González-Escalona, Narjol; Martínez-Urtaza, Jaime; Espejo, Romilio T

    2009-02-01

    Disease outbreaks caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Puerto Montt, Chile, began in 2004 and reached a peak in 2005 at 3,600 clinical cases. Until 2006, every analyzed case was caused by the serovar O3:K6 pandemic strain. In the summer of 2007, only 475 cases were reported; 73% corresponded to the pandemic strain. This decrease was associated with a change in serotype of many pandemic isolates to O3:K59 and the emergence of new clinical strains. One of these strains, associated with 11% of the cases, was genotypically different from the pandemic strain but contained genes that were identical to those found on its pathogenicity island. These findings suggest that pathogenicity-related genes were laterally transferred from the pandemic strain to one of the different V. parahaemolyticus groups comprising the diverse and shifting bacterial population in shellfish in this region. PMID:19193258

  1. Privatization And Vouchers In Colombia And Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Alberto

    2004-07-01

    The voucher model of financing schooling is becoming increasingly common throughout Latin America, with at least 12 countries using vouchers or voucher-like schemes. The present study focuses on the voucher models of Colombia and Chile, which have the most extensive programs of this type and those of the longest standing in the region. Using empirical evidence, the author compares the two models along four evaluative dimensions: educational quality, segregation, choice and socialization. After weighing the successes and weaknesses of each system, he concludes that, among other characteristics, the most effective and equitable voucher model features: (a) a flexible interpretation of educational quality; (b) financial grants which target solely the poor; (c) vouchers which cover the entire cost of tuition; (d) open enrolment at participating schools; (e) the participation of both secular and religious private schools; (f) accessible and meaningful information to parents; and (g) strong systems of accountability.

  2. Three halls for music performance in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannoy, Jaime; Heuffemann, Carolina; Ramirez, Daniel; Galvez, Fernando

    2002-11-01

    The primary purpose of this work was to investigate about the present acoustic conditions of used architectonic spaces in Santiago of Chile for orchestras of classic music performance. The studied halls were three: Aula Magna Universidad de Santiago, Teatro Municipal de Nunoa, and Teatro Baquedano. The used methodology was based on studies made by L. Beranek, M. Barron, among others, in concert halls worldwide. As it guides, for the measurement procedure, physical parameters RT, EDT, C50, C80, LF, BR, G, U50 were evaluated according to norm ISO 3382. On the other hand, it has been defined, to proposal way, a questionnaire of subjective valuation directed to musicians, specialized conductors, and listeners.

  3. A DRONE FLIGHT OVER PARANAL, CHILE

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Aerial clip (shot using a drone and a Go pro) describing ESO's astronomical observatory facilities in the Atacama desert, Northern Chile. Locations covered by the drone flight include Cerro Paranal, with the Residencia (external and internal views) and the Very Large Telescope facility on Cerro Paranal, from above and with a peek into Unit Telescope 1 and its 8,2 m diameter mirror; final image on Cerro Armazones, the site chosen for building ESO's next telescope, the E-ELT (European Extremely Large Telescope). With a 39-metre main mirror, it will be the largest optical/near-infrared telescope in the world. The Argentinian Codillera with the Llullaillaco volcano are visible in the background.

  4. Low-oxygen tensions found in Salmonella-infected gut tissue boost Salmonella replication in macrophages by impairing antimicrobial activity and augmenting Salmonella virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennewein, Jonas; Matuszak, Jasmin; Walter, Steffi; Felmy, Boas; Gendera, Kathrin; Schatz, Valentin; Nowottny, Monika; Liebsch, Gregor; Hensel, Michael; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich; Gerlach, Roman G; Jantsch, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    In Salmonella infection, the Salmonella pathogenicity island-2 (SPI-2)-encoded type three secretion system (T3SS2) is of key importance for systemic disease and survival in host cells. For instance, in the streptomycin-pretreated mouse model SPI-2-dependent Salmonella replication in lamina propria CD11c(-)CXCR1(-) monocytic phagocytes/macrophages (MΦ) is required for the development of colitis. In addition, containment of intracellular Salmonella in the gut critically depends on the antimicrobial effects of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase (PHOX), and possibly type 2 nitric oxide synthase (NOS2). For both antimicrobial enzyme complexes, oxygen is an essential substrate. However, the amount of available oxygen upon enteroinvasive Salmonella infection in the gut tissue and its impact on Salmonella-MΦ interactions was unknown. Therefore, we measured the gut tissue oxygen levels in a model of Salmonella enterocolitis using luminescence two-dimensional in vivo oxygen imaging. We found that gut tissue oxygen levels dropped from ∼78 Torr (∼11% O2) to values of ∼16 Torr (∼2% O2) during infection. Because in vivo virulence of Salmonella depends on the Salmonella survival in MΦ, Salmonella-MΦ interaction was analysed under such low oxygen values. These experiments revealed an increased intracellular replication and survival of wild-type and t3ss2 non-expressing Salmonella. These findings were paralleled by blunted nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and reduced Salmonella ROS perception. In addition, hypoxia enhanced SPI-2 transcription and translocation of SPI-2-encoded virulence protein. Neither pharmacological blockade of PHOX and NOS2 nor impairment of T3SS2 virulence function alone mimicked the effect of hypoxia on Salmonella replication under normoxic conditions. However, if t3ss2 non-expressing Salmonella were used, hypoxia did not further enhance Salmonella recovery in a PHOX and NOS2-deficient situation. Hence, these data suggest that

  5. Una aproximación al caso Karadima desde las estrategias de discurso político

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Araya Seguel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Los abusos sexuales a menores por parte de sacerdotes de la Iglesia Católica desataron gran preocupación en muchos países del mundo en los últimos años. En Chile, específicamente, el tema develó los vínculos existentes entre distintos ámbitos de poder de las élites a través del denominado caso Karadima. Este artículo se enmarca en el ámbito del Análisis Crítico del Discurso y en él se examinan -desde la perspectiva de las estrategias o funciones del discurso político- proposiciones tomadas de doce episodios de una entrevista y en ellas se explora el comportamiento discursivo de la principal autoridad de la Iglesia Católica en el contexto de dicho caso y a quien además le correspondió recibir e investigar las primeras denuncias, el Cardenal Errázuriz. El estudio busca develar qué estrategias discursivas emplea el hablante y cómo éstas son funcionales a los propósitos de protección de la institución que representa. Del análisis se advierte un intento por desacreditar las acusaciones de las víctimas y validar las acciones emprendidas por su institución y algunos de sus representantes.

  6. Turismo y transporte urbano: Circuitos patrimoniales para vehículos motorizados en Concepción, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Isabel López

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available En Chile, como en muchos países del mundo, el sistema público de transporte ha sido históricamente concebido desde un punto de vista estrictamente utilitario. Es decir, en términos de su eficiencia para enlazar el hogar y el trabajo; el hogar con el lugar de estudios, etc. Estre criterio - que se explica fundamentalmente por la necesidad de optimizar los recursos públicos - deja sin embargo de lado la oportunidad de que el transporte se constituya también en un medio para fortalecer la cultura, el deporte y la salud de las personas; a través del esparcimiento y de la actividad física. Esto se lograría por ejemplo, concibiendo -o adaptando -las infraestructuras de transporte público para que enlacen lugares atractivos desde el punto de vista turístico y recreativo. Utilizando el caso de la ciudad de Concepción, el artículo analiza el potencial de esta ciudad para incorporar el paisaje a la experiencia urbana a través de un sistema de ciclo-rutas turístico/patrimoniales aptas para vehículos livianos no motorizados (tipo pedicabs.

  7. Brechas territoriales de género en la Región Metropolitana de Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Ubilla Bravo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En Chile, el tema de género ha sido abordado conceptualmente desde la academia por las ciencias sociales (como el caso de PNUD, y por el Estado a través de medidas de acción de políticas públicas impulsadas a partir la década de 1990. Desde la perspectiva del análisis territorial del género ha habido un escaso desarrollo del conocimiento respecto del comportamiento de diferentes variables en comunas y regiones (SUBDERE, 2012. De esta manera, la presente investigación muestra resultados sobre la dinámica de las brechas género en las comunas de la Región Metropolitana de Santiago (RMS considerando variables de tipo social, económica, de localización y gobernabilidad, dando cuenta de las disparidades territoriales presentes, así como de las relaciones que existen entre éstas. En cuanto a los hallazgos, se observa que sólo una de las diez variables analizadas tiene una predominancia femenina, que la escolaridad constituye el de menor inequidad y que los patrones espaciales están fuertemente determinados por el ingreso y estatus de la población.

  8. Improving the effectiveness of rural development policy in Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter Leal, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    In Chile, agriculture remains a key economic factor for rural development. Accordingly, the Chilean government, through the Agricultural Development Institute (INDAP), provides financial support for fostering entrepreneurship among small farmers to enable them to become more competitive in global ma

  9. Análisis comparativo de las políticas energéticas de la Unión Europea y Chile, en el sector de la electricidad

    OpenAIRE

    Olivares Gallardo, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    La tesis doctoral tiene por objeto el estudio de la energía desde una perspectiva jurídica. En particular, se lleva a cabo un estudio comparado de las políticas energéticas de la Unión Europea y Chile. Se plantea como hipótesis que la Unión europea ha realizado un trabajo de mayor envergadura que Chile, en el establecimiento de una política energética con objetivos concretos, que han dirigido todas las acciones, programas y legislación de la Unión, dando solidez a su estrategia energética a ...

  10. Anthony Giddens. Un caso de estudio desde una perspectiva institucional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Bialakowsky

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la trayectoria intelectual de Giddens desde una perspectiva institucional. La centralidad de este autor en la sociología contemporánea no puede comprenderse únicamente desde una mirada “cognitiva”, por las características de su teoría. Se requiere, también, profundizar en la dimensión institucional de su “éxito” (desde un estudio de tradiciones, ecologías institucionales, redes de influencia, estrategias, liderazgos, etc.. Para ello, primero, se reconstruye la marginalidad de la sociología en Inglaterra y su tardía institucionalización hacia 1960. Segundo, se indaga cómo Giddens desarrolló su trayectoria en la época en la cual tal institucionalización se llevó a cabo, y en la cual él fue un agente decisivo. Tercero, a pesar de que Giddens atribuye al azar las direcciones de su carrera, se rastrean sus estrategias para ocupar un lugar central en la sociología: su “viaje iniciático” a Estados Unidos, su postulación de la sociología inglesa como “intermediación” entre Estados Unidos y Europa Continental y su intervención en la institucionalización de la sociología en Cambridge y en el mercado editorial anglosajón. Quinto, se señala cómo, en la última etapa de su vida, su desplazamiento desde la sociología hacia el campo político podría revelar cierto agotamiento de tal proceso de institucionalización en Inglaterra.

  11. Prevalence and Characterization of Salmonella enterica and Salmonella Bacteriophages Recovered from Beef Cattle Feedlots in South Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yicheng; Savell, Jeffrey W; Arnold, Ashley N; Gehring, Kerri B; Gill, Jason J; Taylor, T Matthew

    2016-08-01

    Asymptomatic Salmonella carriage in beef cattle is a food safety concern, and the beef feedlot environment may function as a reservoir of this pathogen. The goal of this study was to identify and isolate Salmonella and Salmonella bacteriophages from beef cattle feedlot environments in order to better understand the microbial ecology of Salmonella and identify phages that might be useful as anti-Salmonella beef safety interventions. Three feedlots in south Texas were visited, and 27 distinct samples from each source were collected from dropped feces, feed from feed bunks, drinking water from troughs, and soil in cattle pens (n = 108 samples). Preenrichment, selective enrichment, and selective/differential isolation of Salmonella were performed on each sample. A representative subset of presumptive Salmonella isolates was prepared for biochemical identification and serotyping. Samples were pooled by feedlot and sample type to create 36 samples and enriched to recover phages. Recovered phages were tested for host range against two panels of Salmonella hosts. Salmonella bacteria were identified in 20 (18.5%) of 108 samples by biochemical and/or serological testing. The serovars recovered included Salmonella enterica serovars Anatum, Muenchen, Altona, Kralingen, Kentucky, and Montevideo; Salmonella Anatum was the most frequently recovered serotype. Phage-positive samples were distributed evenly over the three feedlots, suggesting that phage prevalence is not strongly correlated with the presence of culturable Salmonella. Phages were found more frequently in soil and feces than in feed and water samples. The recovery of bacteriophages in the Salmonella-free feedlot suggests that phages might play a role in suppressing the Salmonella population in a feedlot environment.

  12. Water Frogs, Aquariums, and Salmonella -- Oh My!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-12-09

    This CDC Kidtastics podcast discusses how people can get Salmonella from water frogs and aquariums.  Created: 12/9/2009 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 12/9/2009.

  13. Serovars of Salmonella from captive reptiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Lassen-Nielsen, Anne Marie; Nordentoft, Steen;

    2009-01-01

    The distribution on serovars of 60 Salmonella isolates from reptiles kept in captivity in Denmark during the period 1995–2006 was investigated. The isolates were all recovered from clinical specimens submitted to the National Veterinary Institute. A majority of the samples were from reptiles...

  14. Salmonella typhi time to change empiric treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, C.; Engberg, J.; Weis, N.

    2008-01-01

    In the present case series report we describe seven recent cases of typhoid fever. All the patients were travellers returning from Pakistan, where typhoid is endemic. Salmonella typhi isolated from the patients by blood culture were reported as intermediary susceptible to fluoroquinolones in six...

  15. Colicinogeny in Salmonella serovars isolated in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Carvalho Campos

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of colicinogeny was made in 748 strains of Salmonella (97 serovars isolated from different sources; human (291, animal (119, environmental (141, food (102 and animal feed (95. Colicin production was detected in 64 strains (8.6%, particularly isolated from foods (30.4%. Col. E1 (53 and Ia (44 were the most frequently observed, especially in S. agona for environment and food sources. Col V production was identified in 5 strains of S. typhimurium within 8 producer cultures isolated from humans. Its relationship with the sources and serovars of Salmonella are discussed.Investigou-se a produção de colicina em 748 amostras de Salmonella (97 sorovares advindas de díferentes fontes: humana (291, animal (119, ambiental (141, de alimentos (102 e rações (95. Detectaram-se 64 amostras (8,6% colicinogênicas, particularmente isoladas de alimentos (30,4%. ColE1 (53 e Ia (44 foram as mais freqüentes, especialmente no sorovar S, agona, de origem ambiental e de alimentos. Identificou-se também a produção de col V em 5 amostras de S. typhimurium dentre 8 culturas produtoras de origem humana. Discute-se a relação entre a capacidade colicinogênica e as fontes e sorovares de Salmonella.

  16. Attachment of Salmonella spp. to pork meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine; Riber, Leise; Löfström, Charlotta;

    2011-01-01

    Five strains of Salmonella, one wildtype and four knock-out mutants (the prg, flhDC, yhjH and fliC genes) were investigated based on their probability to attach and subsequently detach from a surface of pork fillet. The attachment followed by detachment was measured and modelled for two different...

  17. Experimental Salmonella typhimurium infections in rats. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Jensen, E T; Klausen, B

    1989-01-01

    The course of experimentally induced Salmonella typhimurium infection was studied in three groups of inbred LEW rats: homozygous +/+, athymic rnu/rnu and isogeneic thymus-grafted rnu/rnu rats. In the first experiment the animals were inoculated intraperitoneally with 10(8) bacteria and all animals...

  18. Virulence factors of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is one of the major etiologic agents of human food-borne gastrointestinal infections. Efforts to control the number of serovar Enteritidis infections have had a limited success, in part because of the lack of knowledge of the molecular mechanisms that contribu

  19. Persistence of salmonella typhimurium in nopal cladodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh produce associated outbreaks have increased in the last few years. E.coli O157:H7 and Salmonella have been causative agents of infection in these outbreaks. Fresh produce is consumed raw, and in the absence of terminal kill treatment, it is imperative to understand sources of contamination o...

  20. Persistence of salmonella Typhimurium in Nopal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Having documented information available on the capability of Salmonella to remain in the cladode tissue it is important to understand the role of nopal on the lifecycle of enteropathogenic bacteria in humans, as well as for management and control programs of theses pathogens in plants. Because of th...

  1. Research training in dental undergraduate curriculum in Chile.

    OpenAIRE

    Ximena Moreno

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Research plays a central role in professional training in dentistry. There is a clear recommendation to include a minimum training in biomedical research at undergraduate level. In Chile, there is no standardized curriculum structure including research training for undergraduate students. Objective: To describe the presence of research courses in the undergraduate dental curriculum in Chile during 2014. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study. The curriculum for all Chilean...

  2. Beyond Income: A Study of Multidimensional Poverty in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Bronfman, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Using the latest nationally representative household survey for Chile, this paper empirically assesses multidimensional poverty both at the national and subnational level. Based on the Alkire-Foster method and focusing on four dimensions of well-being –education, health, income and living standard– this study estimates the level and depth of multidimensional poverty for Chile in 2011. At national level, the results show that fewer individuals are subject to multidimensional poverty compared t...

  3. LA PSICOLOGÍA EN LA UNIVERSIDAD DE CHILE: Una propuesta de estudio para comprender la Historia de la Psicología en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Ligüeño Espinoza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La Psicología en la Universidad de Chile ha estado presente desde la conformación misma de la institución, en 1842, ligada a la Filosofía. Poster iormente, hacia fines del siglo XIX comienza a constituirse como un campo disciplinar propio con l a creación del Instituto Pedagógico (1889. Es ente mismo establecimiento, en 1908, que se instala el l aboratorio de Psicología Experimental, dirigido por Guillermo Mann. Hasta la década de 1940, se puede e nunciar que el aporte inicial de la Psicología estu vo ligado a la necesidad de aplicación en la Educación , la Salud Mental y el Derecho. El presente artículo se encarga de analizar los hit os antes consignados, así como el desarrollo de la carrera de Psicología a partir del año 1947 (el pri mer programa de pregrado en Latinoamérica, y los vaivenes ligados a la Reforma Universitaria de 1968 , el Golpe de Estado de 1973, las reformas privatizadoras de la Educación Superior en la décad a de los ’80, finalizando la presente revisión con el término de la dictadura. El análisis se basa en entrevistas a personajes rel evantes del período, así como en documentos históri cos. La conclusión basal es que la Psicología en la Univ ersidad se ha visto más ligada a acontecimientos de la realidad nacional que a la influencia de las corrie ntes psicológicas tradicionales. Asimismo, propone mos el estudio de la Psicología en la Universidad de Ch ile como un período que puede aportar a constituir lo específico nacional de la Psicología como disciplin a, debiéndose complementar con otros hitos, tanto d e otras universidades como del Colegio de Psicólogos y otras asociaciones, lo que permitiría ver el pres ente de la Psicología en Chile con una cierta identidad particular.

  4. Educación en Chile: ¿Inclusión o exclusión? / Education en Chile: Inclusion or exclusion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Pinedo Henríquez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El interés por esta exposición surge desde el estado actual de la educación en Chile. El sistema educacional chileno vive un momento de crisis, entendida como oportunidad y cambio en un intento de mejorar la calidad y equidad de ésta. El cuestionamiento del sistema educacional chileno, por parte de la sociedad en su conjunto, se refleja en el debate nacional de los últimos tiempos, lo que ha cambiado la agenda política del gobierno de turno y puesto el tema de la educación en las primeras páginas de los medios de comunicación. El mayor grado de politización del tema, respecto a otras épocas, es principalmente una consecuencia de los movimientos sociales, dada su transversalidad social no partidista, que manifiestan su decepción con el sistema educativo que refleja segmentación social y baja calidad de la enseñanza. Segmentación y calidad son consideradas las verdaderas causas por la cual la educación chilena no es aún el verdadero motivo de desarrollo social. Donde los movimientos, vinculados a la educación, apuntarán a resignificar la educación como el pilar fundamental de la sociedad, como motor de cambio y de proyección del querer ser como país.Abstract: The interest for this paper arises from the current condition of education in Chile. The educational Chilean system is living a crisis, understanding it as an opportunity as well as a change in an attempt of improving its quality and equity. The society’s concern about the educational Chilean system reflects itself in the current national debate changing the government’s political agenda and putting the topic of education in the first pages of the mass media. The major degree of politicization of the topic, with regard to other epochs, is principally a consequence of the social movements, which demonstrate their disappointment with the educational system, which reflects social segmentation and low quality in education. Segmentation and quality are considered

  5. Conservation biology in Chile: Are we fulfilling our social contract? Conservación biológica en Chile: ¿Estamos cumpliendo nuestro contrato social?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER A SIMONETTI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation needs to be informed by science. On this regard, scientific efforts ought to be allocated to tackle research priorities; offer sound and explicit advice, and results ought to be translated into conservation plans and programs. If such conditions are met, scientists would be fulfilling their social contract, sensu Lubchenco. In this brief essay I analyze the fulfillment of such a contract in Chile. In general, the scarce priorities set for addressing conservation issues are not considered, only a third of scientific publications in conservation-related issues offer explicit advice and a minor fraction of relevant scientific information is considered in the preparation of conservation plans. Current mismatch between conservation science and practice weakens longstanding efforts to achieve an effective conservation of the Chilean biota. Suggestions are advanced to close the gap.La conservación de la biodiversidad requiere apoyo científico. En este sentido, desde el ámbito científico se deberían destinar esfuerzos para abordar las prioridades de investigación, ofrecer recomendaciones explícitas, y los resultados de la investigación científica deberían ser incorporados a los planes y programas de investigación. De cumplirse estos pasos, los científicos estarían satisfaciendo su contrato social, sensu Lubchenco. En este breve ensayo analizo el cumplimiento de tal contrato en Chile. En general, el escaso conjunto de prioridades existente no ha sido abordado, solamente un tercio de las publicaciones científicas en temas de conservación biológica ofrecen consejo explícito y una fracción menor de la información relevante y pertinente es considerada en la elaboración de planes y programas de conservación. El desacople entre la ciencia y la práctica de la conservación debilita esfuerzos de larga data tendientes a lograr una efectiva conservación de la biota chilena. Para intentar cerrar esta brecha, ofrezco

  6. Inmigrantes en territorios de frontera: La ciudad de los otros. Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Márquez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se aborda la construcción y génesis de territorios de frontera por parte de inmigrantes en Santiago de Chile, específicamente en La Chimba, al norte del río Mapocho. Se analiza este habitar de frontera desde evidencias de la historia, la sociología, georreferenciación y etnografía. La tesis central dice que el habitar de frontera se crea y se transforma en fuente de poder y ejercicio ciudadano, cuando la configuración de los territorios que cobijan a los inmigrantes es capaz de alimentar y ensanchar el campo de lo posible, más allá de la sobrevivencia. Se concluye que en La Chimba, la realización de la vita activa en los migrantes se levanta sobre una paradoja: cobijo y arraigo (condición de comunidad y redes de protección; itinerancia y movimiento (condición de translocalidad y conectividad. Esta paradoja resguarda la identidad de los habitantes en la multiculturalidad, pero a su vez abre la conectividad más allá de las fronteras del barrio, de la ciudad y la nación.

  7. LOS FANTASMAS DEL COMUNISMO Y MARX EN CHILE EN LA DÉCADA DE 1870

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS ORTEGA MARTÍNEZ

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available La instalación y el trágico fin de la Comuna de París a comienzos de 1871 fueron cubiertos con particular atención por la prensa de Valparaíso y Santiago. Ese interés no fue sólo el de espectadores distantes ante un suceso de por sí dramático. Sus reportajes fueron vinculados a las transformaciones en el ámbito productivo que había comenzado a experimentar la sociedad chilena desde la década de 1850, que paulatinamente comenzaron a generar un mundo de asalariados en las principales ciudades del país. Conjuntos de trabajadores cada vez más numerosos se formaron en la construcción ferroviaria y de otras obras civiles; también ello se verificó en las nuevas actividades productivas, en particular en la industria fabril y la producción de carbón. Los reportajes acerca de los sucesos de París fueron un llamado de atención de la prensa a la élite, pues en Chile poco a poco se comenzaba formar el mundo de los trabajadores. Con ello, el fantasma del Comunismo y del propio Karl Marx comenzaban a asomarse en el hasta entonces bucólico horizonte chileno.

  8. Calidad de la democracia y voto voluntario en Chile: un debate necesario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximo Quitral Rojas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente trabajo se ocupará de analizar el impacto que tendrá la aplicación del voto voluntario en la calidad de la democracia en Chile bajo dos dimensiones. Por una parte, mostrar la variedad polisémica asumida por la calidad de la democracia dentro de la ciencia política y como segundo punto, reflexionar si la voluntariedad del voto provocaría un debilitamiento en ella. Desde un punto de vista metodológico se aplicó el análisis documental y de análisis prospectivo (revistas, datos estadísticos, registros oficiales, trabajos científicos. La aplicación del voto voluntario influirá en que haya menos interés por participar en los procesos electorales, elitizará el voto y debilitará la calidad de la democracia. Todo lo anterior tiene como principal fundamento teórico, el concepto de poliarquía de Robert A. Dahl.

  9. PROCESOS ÉTNICOS Y CULTURA EN LOS PUEBLOS INDÍGENAS DE CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Gundermann K.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Durante las últimas dos décadas las culturas de los pueblos originarios del país quedan inscritas en el corazón de las movilizaciones étnicas y de la política indígena de los recientes gobiernos democráticos y, con ello, experimentan una nueva dinámica e importantes transformaciones. La cultura es a la vez el fundamento y objeto estratégico de acción en la emergencia indígena desarrollada en el periodo. Su conformación como sujetos colectivos se establece desde el recurso a la cultura propia, que les otorga especificidad. También se constituye en objeto de una política cultural y de diversos cursos de acción. Participan de ello agentes culturales indígenas, agencias públicas especializadas y grupos e instituciones de la sociedad civil. De su concurrencia se gesta un proceso nuevo de construcción social de lo cultural indígena, cuya estructuración toma la forma de un dominio o campo de lo cultural indígena en Chile.

  10. EL DERECHO COMPARADO FRENTE A LAS REFORMAS LEGISLATIVAS. EL CASO DE CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Carbonell

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde la perspectiva de la importancia del Derecho comparado para analizar el desarrollo de los sistemas jurídicos contemporáneos, este artículo se ocupa de la reforma del sistema de justicia chileno. Este proceso de transformación en material penal se distingue particularmente de otros similares por dos características: a finales de la década de los noventa, el sistema penal chileno era uno de los sistemas con mayor cercanía al modelo inquisitivo puro; y también era uno de los últimos sistemas en la región en iniciar su proceso de transformación hacia un sistema acusatorio y oral. Se destaca en este contexto la participación de la sociedad civil en las reformas y se analiza la forma en que se aprueba el cambio de sistema penal en Chile por uno acusatorio y oral, así como los seis principales elementos de la reforma. Los problemas que ha acarreado la implementación gradual de la reforma, merecen asimismo la atención de los autores. Finalmente, se estudian los retos venideros.

  11. Thermal inactivation of Salmonella spp. in pork burger patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurman, P M; Ross, T; Holds, G L; Jarrett, R G; Kiermeier, A

    2016-02-16

    Predictive models, to estimate the reduction in Escherichia coli O157:H7 concentration in beef burgers, have been developed to inform risk management decisions; no analogous model exists for Salmonella spp. in pork burgers. In this study, "Extra Lean" and "Regular" fat pork minces were inoculated with Salmonella spp. (Salmonella 4,[5],12,i:-, Salmonella Senftenberg and Salmonella Typhimurium) and formed into pork burger patties. Patties were cooked on an electric skillet (to imitate home cooking) to one of seven internal temperatures (46, 49, 52, 55, 58, 61, 64 °C) and Salmonella enumerated. A generalised linear logistic regression model was used to develop a predictive model for the Salmonella concentration based on the internal endpoint temperature. It was estimated that in pork mince with a fat content of 6.1%, Salmonella survival will be decreased by -0.2407log10 CFU/g for a 1 °C increase in internal endpoint temperature, with a 5-log10 reduction in Salmonella concentration estimated to occur when the geometric centre temperature reaches 63 °C. The fat content influenced the rate of Salmonella inactivation (P=0.043), with Salmonella survival increasing as fat content increased, though this effect became negligible as the temperature approached 62 °C. Fat content increased the time required for patties to achieve a specified internal temperature (P=0.0106 and 0.0309 for linear and quadratic terms respectively), indicating that reduced fat pork mince may reduce the risk of salmonellosis from consumption of pork burgers. Salmonella serovar did not significantly affect the model intercepts (P=0.86) or slopes (P=0.10) of the fitted logistic curve. This predictive model can be applied to estimate the reduction in Salmonella in pork burgers after cooking to a specific endpoint temperature and hence to assess food safety risk.

  12. Identification of genes to differentiate closely related Salmonella lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Hua Zou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Salmonella are important human and animal pathogens. Though highly related, the Salmonella lineages may be strictly adapted to different hosts or cause different diseases, from mild local illness like gastroenteritis to fatal systemic infections like typhoid. Therefore, rapid and accurate identification of Salmonella is essential for timely and correct diagnosis of Salmonella infections. The current identification methods such as 16S rRNA sequencing and multilocus sequence typing are expensive and time consuming. Additionally, these methods often do not have sufficient distinguishing resolution among the Salmonella lineages. METHODOLOGIES/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared 27 completely sequenced Salmonella genomes to identify possible genomic features that could be used for differentiation of individual lineages. We concatenated 2372 core genes in each of the 27 genomes and constructed a neighbor-joining tree. On the tree, strains of each serotype were clustered tightly together and different serotypes were unambiguously separated with clear genetic distances, demonstrating systematic genomic divergence among the Salmonella lineages. We made detailed comparisons among the 27 genomes and identified distinct sets of genomic differences, including nucleotide variations and genomic islands (GIs, among the Salmonella lineages. Two core genes STM4261 and entF together could unambiguously distinguish all Salmonella lineages compared in this study. Additionally, strains of a lineage have a common set of GIs and closely related lineages have similar sets of GIs. CONCLUSIONS: Salmonella lineages have accumulated distinct sets of mutations and laterally acquired DNA (e.g., GIs in evolution. Two genes entF and STM4261 have diverged sufficiently among the Salmonella lineages to be used for their differentiation. Further investigation of the distinct sets of mutations and GIs will lead to novel insights into genomic evolution of Salmonella and

  13. Publicación de artículos originales en revistas biomédicas provenientes de congresos estudiantiles de medicina de Chile 2009-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Olmos-de-Aguilera Aedo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Resulta frecuente que los estudiantes de medicina participen activamente en congresos científicos estudiantiles mediante la presentación de trabajos científicos; sin embargo, al momento de analizar dicha participación en revistas biomédicas resulta una cifra muy inferior. Son precisamente estas publicaciones las que son consideradas como indicadores reales de productividad científica. Objetivo: Cuantificar la publicación de trabajos científicos presentados en congresos científicos estudiantiles de medicina de Chile en revistas biomédicas entre el 2009-2011. Material y Método: Estudio bibliométrico retrospectivo de los mejores trabajos científicos presentados en congresos científicos nacionales de estudiantes de medicina ANACEM Chile 2009-2011 (n=59. Se realizó una búsqueda de éstos cuantificando aquellos que fueron publicados en revistas biomédicas, basándose en: PubMed, SciELO y Google Scholar. La búsqueda fue según título y nombre de los autores, en español e inglés, analizando la afiliación de los autores y la revista donde fueron publicados. Se usó Excel® 2010 para el análisis estadístico. Resultados: De los 59 trabajos analizados, 11 fueron publicados en la Revista ANACEM Chile. La afiliación de los autores correspondió a las universidades: de Chile, de los Andes, Nacional Andrés Bello, de Concepción, de Antofagasta, de la Frontera, de Valparaíso y Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. Diez trabajos correspondieron a artículos originales y uno a caso clínico. Discusión: Existe un cierto grado de participación en revistas biomédicas por parte de los estudiantes de medicina de Chile pero ésta se realiza en baja proporción. A modo de mejorar esto se deberían plantear proyectos que incentiven la publicación de artículos científicos desde el pregrado.

  14. Comparing human-Salmonella with plant-Salmonella protein-protein interaction predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia eSchleker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonellosis is the most frequent food-borne disease world-wide and can be transmitted to humans by a variety of routes, especially via animal and plant products. Salmonella bacteria are believed to use not only animal and human but also plant hosts despite their evolutionary distance. This raises the question if Salmonella employs similar mechanisms in infection of these diverse hosts. Given that most of our understanding comes from its interaction with human hosts, we investigate here to what degree knowledge of Salmonella-human interactions can be transferred to the Salmonella-plant system. Reviewed are recent publications on analysis and prediction of Salmonella-host interactomes. Putative protein-protein interactions (PPIs between Salmonella and its human and Arabidopsis hosts were retrieved utilizing purely interolog-based approaches in which predictions were inferred based on available sequence and domain information of known PPIs, and machine learning approaches that integrate a larger set of useful information from different sources. Transfer learning is an especially suitable machine learning technique to predict plant host targets from the knowledge of human host targets. A comparison of the prediction results with transcriptomic data shows a clear overlap between the host proteins predicted to be targeted by PPIs and their gene ontology enrichment in both host species and regulation of gene expression. In particular, the cellular processes Salmonella interferes with in plants and humans are catabolic processes. The details of how these processes are targeted, however, are quite different between the two organisms, as expected based on their evolutionary and habitat differences. Possible implications of this observation on evolution of host-pathogen communication are discussed.

  15. ¿De qué y de quiénes narra la gente cuando relata narraciones de experiencia personal?: Un análisis variacionista del español hablado en Santiago de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Silvana Maricel Guerrero González

    2015-01-01

    En el marco del enfoque variacionista laboviano, en esta investigación se analizan los temas y los protagonistas en una muestra de 192 narraciones de experiencia personal del español hablado en Santiago de Chile. Específicamente, nos proponemos comprobar si existe variación entre los factores sociodemográficos -sexo, edad y grupo socioeconómico de los hablantes- y el uso de dichos recursos, desde el punto de vista cuantitativo y cualitativo de análisis. El análisis de los datos demuestra que ...

  16. Dimensiones culturales en el proceso de atención primaria infantil: perspectivas de las madres Cultural dimensions of the childhood primary health care delivery from the mothers' perceptions in the Araucania-Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Ana María Alarcón-Muñoz; Aldo Conrado Vidal-Herrera

    2005-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Explorar las dimensiones culturales en el proceso de atención primaria infantil desde la perspectiva de las madres que acuden a centros de salud primaria en la región de la Araucania, Chile. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio cualitativo realizado durante el año 2003 en la zona de mayor índice de etnicidad del país. Los participantes fueron 94 madres mapuches y no mapuches a quienes se le aplicó una entrevista en profundidad. RESULTADOS: Tres dimensiones culturales surgieron del análisis: ...

  17. Análisis de textos literarios infantiles: avanzando en la desconstrucción de códigos patriarcales Analysis of young writers' literary texts: towards the de-construction of patriarchal codes in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvia Contreras Salinas; Mónica Ramírez Pavelic

    2011-01-01

    Este artículo presenta una reflexión realizada desde la perspectiva del feminismo como teoría crítica que intenta visibilizar distorsiones en la perspectiva de género. Para ello se analizaron los textos ganadores del primer concurso infantil de literatura con enfoque de género, realizado y coordinado por el Ministerio de Educación de Chile en el año 2008. Las preguntas que orientaron nuestro trabajo fueron: ¿Qué dicen niños y niñas sobre las relaciones de géneros en sus creaciones literarias?...

  18. The fruit fly programme in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: country. In fact, no species of the genera Ceratitis, Bactrocera, Anastrepha, Dacus and Toxotrypana exist in the country. This programme uses the Fruit fly National Detection System, which includes detection of the pest by trapping and fruit sampling in different areas located between the I and XI Regions of the country. This system is approved by the Chilean trade partners on the basis of the fruit fly-free recognition. For the Chilean fresh fruit exports, this is an important advantage, because there is no need to apply quarantine treatments or any other restriction measure. Chile has also a huge fruit industry, whose export revenues last season reached USD 1,900 million. This fact has permitted to undertake continuously a big effort to maintain that phytosanitary condition. Since Chile is the only fruit-fly free Latin American country, it has to face a continuous biological pressure of fruit flies, mainly C. capitata, to invade its territory. But the country has also some important advantages to prevent flies migrating due to its natural isolation. These natural barriers are the Los Andes ranges in the east, thousands of kilometers of desert in the north, the Pacific Ocean in the west and finally an extremely cold, sub polar climate in the south. This isolation has led to the NPPO officials to believe that the passive spread, through smuggling and hidden fruit in passenger's baggage, to be the most likely source of fruit fly entries. Because of that, Chile has a very strict quarantine system with border control stations at every point of entry. The only exception to the mentioned isolation is Arica Province on the border with Peru. There, SAG applies an area-wide preventative approach through the rearing and release of sterile insects, as well as bait spraying in the border area, which is mainly desert, but has some 'green spots' that allow the fly to alight for resting and feeding. Additionally, through bi-national agreements, common activities are

  19. Epidemiology and control measures for Salmonella in pigs and pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Hald, Tine; Wolf, P. J. van der;

    2002-01-01

    In order to effectively manage the problem of human salmonellosis attributable to pork and pork products, control measures should be taken simultaneously at all levels of production. These measures require an understanding of the epidemiology of Salmonella within and between links of the production...... chain. Two major factors of pre-harvest Salmonella epidemiology are the introduction and subsequent transmission of infection within and between herds. Stress imposed by transportation and the associated handling can significantly increase the number of pigs excreting Salmonella upon arrival...... at the abattoir and during lairage, exposing negative pigs to Salmonella. Positive pigs carry Salmonella on the skin, in the gastro-intestinal system or in the mouth. The (cross-)contamination of carcasses is basically a matter of redistributing the Salmonella bacteria from the positive pigs during the various...

  20. Chasing Salmonella Typhimurium in free range egg production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chousalkar, Kapil; Gole, Vaibhav; Caraguel, Charles; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2016-08-30

    Free range production systems are becoming a major source of egg production in Australia and worldwide. This study investigated shedding and ecology of Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella species in a free range layer flock, wild birds and foxes in the vicinity of the free range farm in different seasons. Shedding of Salmonella was significantly higher in summer. Within the shed, overall, Salmonella prevalence was highest in dust. Corticosterone level in faeces was highest in spring and lowest in winter. There was no direct association between the Salmonella shedding (MPN/gm) and corticosterone levels in faeces. Salmonella Typhimurium MLVA types isolated from fox and wild birds were similar to MLVA types isolated from layer flock and reported during human food borne illness. Wild birds and foxes appear to play an important role in S. Typhimurium ecology and food safety. Environmental factors could play a role in evolution of S. Typhimurium in free range environment. PMID:27527766

  1. La Medialuna: un edificio para Chile/The Crescent, a building for Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Recchione, Alberto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se refiere los antecedentes históricos sobre la escuela ecuestre de la jineta y su introducción en las faenas agrícola-ganaderas chilenas. Se reseña el nacimiento del rodeo como deporte nacional chileno y los requerimientos del complejo espacio de la “fiesta del rodeo”: un problema arquitectónico y también urbanístico./ The equestrian school of "La Jineta" in Chile, and the architecture for the national holiday of "rodeo."

  2. Prolonged inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis abolishes Salmonella invasion.

    OpenAIRE

    MacBeth, K J; Lee, C. A.

    1993-01-01

    We have found that prolonged inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis abolishes the ability of Salmonella typhimurium to enter HEp-2 cells. Our results suggest that an essential invasion factor has a functional half-life that is seen as a gradual loss of invasiveness in the absence of protein synthesis. Therefore, Salmonella invasiveness appears to be a transient phenotype that is lost unless protein synthesis is maintained. This finding may explain why salmonellae grown to stationary phase ...

  3. Ludwig′s angina by Salmonella Typhi: A clinical dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Mahajan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhi has rarely been associated with focal abscesses; and in literature, there is no evidence of its association with abscesses in the neck spaces. Ability of Salmonella Typhi to invade and localise in the neck spaces not only poses a diagnostic challenge but also underscores the necessity to understand the mechanisms that facilitate Salmonella Typhi to establish infections at sites completely non-traditional to the organism.

  4. Salmonella induces prominent gene expression in the rat colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosing Susanne

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella enteritidis is suggested to translocate in the small intestine. In vivo it induces gene expression changes in the ileal mucosa and Peyer's patches. Stimulation of Salmonella translocation by dietary prebiotics fermented in colon suggests involvement of the colon as well. However, effects of Salmonella on colonic gene expression in vivo are largely unknown. We aimed to characterize time dependent Salmonella-induced changes of colonic mucosal gene expression in rats using whole genome microarrays. For this, rats were orally infected with Salmonella enteritidis to mimic a foodborne infection and colonic gene expression was determined at days 1, 3 and 6 post-infection (n = 8 rats per time-point. As fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS affect colonic physiology, we analyzed colonic mucosal gene expression of FOS-fed versus cellulose-fed rats infected with Salmonella in a separate experiment. Colonic mucosal samples were isolated at day 2 post-infection. Results Salmonella affected transport (e.g. Chloride channel calcium activated 6, H+/K+ transporting Atp-ase, antimicrobial defense (e.g. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein, Defensin 5 and phospholipase A2, inflammation (e.g. calprotectin, oxidative stress related genes (e.g. Dual oxidase 2 and Glutathione peroxidase 2 and Proteolysis (e.g. Ubiquitin D and Proteosome subunit beta type 9. Furthermore, Salmonella translocation increased serum IFNγ and many interferon-related genes in colonic mucosa. The gene most strongly induced by Salmonella infection was Pancreatitis Associated Protein (Pap, showing >100-fold induction at day 6 after oral infection. Results were confirmed by Q-PCR in individual rats. Stimulation of Salmonella translocation by dietary FOS was accompanied by enhancement of the Salmonella-induced mucosal processes, not by induction of other processes. Conclusion We conclude that the colon is a target tissue for Salmonella, considering the abundant changes in

  5. Discursos en torno al sufragio femenino en chile1865-1949

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIERA ERRÁZURIZ TAGLE

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El sufragio femenino no fue un tema que interesara solo a las mujeres, sino que involucró a todos los sectores de la vida política nacional, convirtiéndose en un hito de la historia política de Chile. Este trabajo analiza los discursos femeninos y masculinos en torno al tema, desde finales del siglo XIX hasta mediados del siglo XX (1865-1949. Hemos podido constatar que el voto de la mujer se transformó en un asunto de real importancia para las organizaciones femeninas cuando se dan cuenta de que, sin participar de la esfera política, poco podrían hacer por sus reivindicaciones civiles. En ese sentido, el discurso femenino evoluciona de un claro rechazo al sufragio, expresado hacia 1865 en El Eco de las Señoras de Santiago, a su apasionada reivindicación, en las décadas de 1930 y 1940. El discurso masculino también evoluciona de un silencio (que podemos considerar como negación a discutir el tema a lo largo del silgo XIX y en las primeras décadas del XX, a una unánime aceptación hacia la década de 1940, cuando se ve que el problema del sufragio femenino está atentando contra la imagen democrática de Chile, al tener excluida de la política a la mitad de la población por razones de género. Es por esto que consideramos que los discursos son fuentes importantes de análisis, ya que permiten observar la evolución que sufre la sociedad chilena en este período. Los argumentos que se esgrimen a favor o en contra del sufragio femenino nos hablan de una determinada forma de ver el mundo, a la mujer y a la política en el Chile de esos años, formas que tendrán que ser redefinidas y repensadas a la luz de los procesos de modernización y democratizaciónThis paper presents a study of the evolving discourse surrounding women's sufragge from the time debate on the subject began in the 1860s to the time it was finally granted in 1949. The primary question is why did it take as long as it took for women to obtain the right to vote in

  6. Faecal Salmonella shedding in fattening pigs in relation to the presence of Salmonella antibodies in three pig production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marianne Kjær; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2012-01-01

    Human salmonellosis originating from pork is an important zoonotic disease, and the production of outdoor pigs may increase the risk of contaminating the food chain with Salmonella from environmental sources. The prevalence of faecal Salmonella shedding has therefore been compared in organic...... was 5.4% with no significant differences between systems. Pigs with Salmonella shedding on farm were more likely to also be shedding Salmonella at slaughter (P<0.001). The serological test result was a significant predictor of Salmonella shedding at slaughter in indi-vidual pigs from conventional......, conventional outdoor and indoor finishing pig herds in a Danish survey with participation of 34 herds. Individual faecal samples were collected from 30 to 50 pigs per herd before and after transport to slaughter and analysed for the presence of Salmonella. Further meat juice samples were collected from the...

  7. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in raw chicken meat at retail markets in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thung, T Y; Mahyudin, N A; Basri, D F; Wan Mohamed Radzi, C W J; Nakaguchi, Y; Nishibuchi, M; Radu, S

    2016-08-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the major food-borne diseases in many countries. This study was carried out to determine the occurrence of Salmonella spp., Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Typhimurium in raw chicken meat from wet markets and hypermarkets in Selangor, as well as to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profile of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium. The most probable number (MPN) in combination with multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) method was used to quantify the Salmonella spp., S. Enteritidis, and S. Typhimurium in the samples. The occurrence of Salmonella spp., S. Enteritidis, and S. Typhimurium in 120 chicken meat samples were 20.80%, 6.70%, and 2.50%, respectively with estimated quantity varying from retail chicken meat could be a source of multiple antimicrobial-resistance Salmonella and may constitute a public health concern in Malaysia. PMID:27118863

  8. Prevention of Salmonella contamination of finished soybean meal used for animal feed by a Norwegian production plant despite frequent Salmonella contamination of raw soy beans, 1994–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Wierup, Martin; Kristoffersen, Thor

    2014-01-01

    Background Salmonella contaminated animal feed is a major source for introducing Salmonella into the animal derived food chain. Because soybeans frequently are contaminated with Salmonella, soybean meal used as animal feed material, a by-product of a “crushing plant” which produces oil from soybeans, can be important source of Salmonella in the animal feed. We report the successful control of Salmonella from 1994 to 2012 in a Norwegian crushing plant producing soybean meal from imported soy b...

  9. DETEKSI Salmonella PADA NASI GORENG YANG DISEDIAKAN OLEH RESTORAN KERETA API KELAS EKONOMI [Detection of Salmonella on Fried Rice Served in Restaurant of Economic Class Train

    OpenAIRE

    Srianta; Elisa Rinihapsari

    2003-01-01

    Salmonella is a group of infective pathogenic bacteria for human being that cause many food borne disease outbreaks. Human, animal and some animal-based food products are whicle for Salmonella. Public transportation i.e. train/railway, often serve foods that potentially contaminated with Salmonella. Study on Salmonella detection on fried rice served in economic class train restaurant is necessary for controlling its safety and quality. Standard method was used to detect Salmonella on fried ri...

  10. Salmonella and Campylobacter: Antimicrobial resistance and bacteriophage control in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Ar'Quette; Hashem, Fawzy; Parveen, Salina

    2016-02-01

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are major causes of foodborne related illness and are traditionally associated with consuming undercooked poultry and/or consuming products that have been cross contaminated with raw poultry. Many of the isolated Salmonella and Campylobacter that can cause disease have displayed antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Although poultry producers have reduced on-the-farm overuse of antimicrobials, antimicrobial resistant Salmonella and Campylobacter strains still persist. One method of bio-control, that is producing promising results, is the use of lytic bacteriophages. This review will highlight the current emergence and persistence of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella and Campylobacter recovered from poultry as well as bacteriophage research interventions and limitations.

  11. Modeling salmonella Dublin into the dairy herd simulation model Simherd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudahl, Anne Braad

    2010-01-01

    of the simulations will therefore be used for decision support in the national surveillance and eradication program against Salmonella Dublin. Basic structures of the model are programmed and will be presented at the workshop. The model is in a phase of face-validation by a group of Salmonella......Infection with Salmonella Dublin in the dairy herd and effects of the infection and relevant control measures are currently being modeled into the dairy herd simulation model called Simherd. The aim is to compare the effects of different control strategies against Salmonella Dublin on both within...

  12. Detection of salmonellae from fish in a natural river system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, James; Wheeler, Phil E; Obafemi, Shola; Valdez, Jessica; Forstner, Michael R J; Bonner, Timothy H; Hahn, Dittmar

    2008-09-01

    Sediment, water, and fish gut samples taken at three sites near the headwaters of the San Marcos River, Texas, were analyzed for salmonellae Salmonella spp. by culture and molecular techniques. While enrichment cultures from sediment and water samples from the two uppermost sites were negative for salmonellae in polymerase chain reaction analyses, both sediment and water samples were positive at the downstream site. At all sites, salmonellae were present in the guts of different fishes (e.g., largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, common carp Cyprinus carpio, and suckermouth catfish Hypostomus plecostomus). The highest percentage of detection (33% of analyzed fish) occurred at the downstream site, whereas detection percentages at the upper two sites were 18% and 17%. Detection of salmonellae was usually limited to one segment of the gut (i.e., upper or lower part). Serovars were highly variable among individuals and differed between the upper and lower gut in the only individual (a common carp) that had salmonellae in both gut segments. In situ hybridization demonstrated that salmonellae were normally associated with particulate material in the gut and occurred in highly variable numbers ranging from an occasional organism to a majority of the gut microbe population. These results demonstrate the presence of different serovars of potentially human pathogenic salmonellae among four ecologically distinct fishes within natural environments. They also suggest that salmonellae are not components of the indigenous microbial community in fish intestines but rather are ingested with particulate material.

  13. Immunity to intracellular Salmonella depends on surface-associated antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somedutta Barat

    Full Text Available Invasive Salmonella infection is an important health problem that is worsening because of rising antimicrobial resistance and changing Salmonella serovar spectrum. Novel vaccines with broad serovar coverage are needed, but suitable protective antigens remain largely unknown. Here, we tested 37 broadly conserved Salmonella antigens in a mouse typhoid fever model, and identified antigen candidates that conferred partial protection against lethal disease. Antigen properties such as high in vivo abundance or immunodominance in convalescent individuals were not required for protectivity, but all promising antigen candidates were associated with the Salmonella surface. Surprisingly, this was not due to superior immunogenicity of surface antigens compared to internal antigens as had been suggested by previous studies and novel findings for CD4 T cell responses to model antigens. Confocal microscopy of infected tissues revealed that many live Salmonella resided alone in infected host macrophages with no damaged Salmonella releasing internal antigens in their vicinity. In the absence of accessible internal antigens, detection of these infected cells might require CD4 T cell recognition of Salmonella surface-associated antigens that could be processed and presented even from intact Salmonella. In conclusion, our findings might pave the way for development of an efficacious Salmonella vaccine with broad serovar coverage, and suggest a similar crucial role of surface antigens for immunity to both extracellular and intracellular pathogens.

  14. Salmonella enterica induces and subverts the plant immune system

    KAUST Repository

    García, Ana V.

    2014-04-04

    Infections with Salmonella enterica belong to the most prominent causes of food poisoning and infected fruits and vegetables represent important vectors for salmonellosis. Although it was shown that plants raise defense responses against Salmonella, these bacteria persist and proliferate in various plant tissues. Recent reports shed light into the molecular interaction between plants and Salmonella, highlighting the defense pathways induced and the means used by the bacteria to escape the plant immune system and accomplish colonization. It was recently shown that plants detect Salmonella pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as the flagellin peptide flg22, and activate hallmarks of the defense program known as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Interestingly, certain Salmonella strains carry mutations in the flg22 domain triggering PTI, suggesting that a strategy of Salmonella is to escape plant detection by mutating PAMP motifs. Another strategy may rely on the type III secretion system (T3SS) as T3SS mutants were found to induce stronger plant defense responses than wild type bacteria. Although Salmonella effector delivery into plant cells has not been shown, expression of Salmonella effectors in plant tissues shows that these bacteria also possess powerful means to manipulate the plant immune system. Altogether, these data suggest that Salmonella triggers PTI in plants and evolved strategies to avoid or subvert plant immunity. 2014 Garca and Hirt.

  15. Lo escrito desde el análisis del discurso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cassany

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es sintetizar las principales aportacionesque se han realizado desde el ámbito lingüístico (pragmática,análisis del discurso, lingüística del texto, sociolingüística; ver Lavandera1985 y etnográfico {estudio de comunidades orales y escritas;ver Saville-Troike 1989, para orientar tanto la tarea investigadoradel linguista y del psicopedagogo de la lectoescritura como laactividad didáctica del docente en el aula.

  16. El barroco visto desde la historia intelectual japonesa

    OpenAIRE

    Falero Folgoso, Alfonso

    2004-01-01

    [ES] El término "barroco" en la historia cultural e intelectual japonesa es importado desde la lexicología europea. Por tanto más allá de posibles fenómenos estéticos paralelos que puedan haberse dado en los siglos XVII-XVIII en Japón, y en particular la historia del teatro kabuki o de la arquitectura de Nikko, este ensayo hace una revisión semiótica del uso del término "barroco" en los discursos que configuran la intelectualidad japonesa del siglo XX, y explora la heterogeneidad de su incide...

  17. Lo escrito desde el análisis del discurso

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Cassany

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo de este artículo es sintetizar las principales aportacionesque se han realizado desde el ámbito lingüístico (pragmática,análisis del discurso, lingüística del texto, sociolingüística; ver Lavandera1985) y etnográfico {estudio de comunidades orales y escritas;ver Saville-Troike 1989), para orientar tanto la tarea investigadoradel linguista y del psicopedagogo de la lectoescritura como laactividad didáctica del docente en el aula.

  18. Concretar respuestas desde el trabajo comunitario-1. parte

    OpenAIRE

    Barbero, Josep Manel; Jornada INMODELS-UV: Nuevos desafíos sociales, nuevos modelos de intervención. Valencia, Abril 2011

    2011-01-01

    Aproximación al Trabajo Social desde una perspectiva metodológica, cuyo objetivo es la transformación de situaciones sociales, mediante una estrategia de organización colectiva. El Trabajo Comunitario se enfrenta al reto de constituir y sostener grupos motor, elaborar diagnósticos colectivos, y de proyectos de desarrollo social (generar nuevos grupos y nuevas relaciones entre grupos, intensificar la vida social), y la evaluación de su aplicación, con objetivos de proceso y objetivos de habil...

  19. El alcoholismo desde la perspectiva de género

    OpenAIRE

    Janette Góngora Soberanes; Marco Antonio Leyva Piña

    2005-01-01

    Es evidente que ser mujer y presentar un consumo problemático de alcohol reta a los estereotipos sociales y culturales de una sociedad sexista. Se cree que, en relación con los hombres, las mujeres con problemas de alcohol tienen la tendencia a experimentar un estigma doloroso que destruye la imagen que tienen de ellas ante los demás, a diferencia de ellos. Así, además del estigma asociado a ser mujer enfer-ma para toda su vida desde su espacio privado, es mal juzgada en el ejercicio de surol...

  20. Las necesidades humanas desde la psicología moral

    OpenAIRE

    Martí Vilar, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    En este texto se presentan las aportacionesde la psicología del desarrollo moral y de la prosocialidad a la reflexión sobre las necesidades humanas, especialmente en el contexto presente, haciendo especial hincapié en propuestas psicoeducativas con una solución positiva a la situación actual. La delimitación conceptual que se plantea pretende ayudar a entender aquellos términos que más se utilizan y que se consideran una buena aportación desde la psicología moral a las necesidades humanas. AB...

  1. De la Historia moral a la Historia civil en el Compendio de la Historia Civil del Reyno de Chile (1787 del abate Juan Ignacio Molina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Hachim Lara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El jesuíta Juan Ignacio Molina escribió el Compendio de la Historia Geográfica, Natural y Civil deIReynodeChile (1776 y el Compendio de la HistoriaCivil del ReynodeChile (1787 en el exilio italiano. En los estudios sobre los jesuítas, sus Historias naturales no han sido exploradas en cuanto a la importancia cultural, literaria y crítica que implican. En este trabajo se tratarán algunos rasgos de la escritura de la Historia que constituyen el discurso de la ciencia y que muestran el desarrollo que va desde la Historia naturaly moral -que desde Aristótelesy Plinio representa la ciencia clásica- a los nuevos modos de conocer que representa el modelo de ciencia de la Ilustración. En consecuencia, el aporte del Abate Molina en su Compendio de la Historia Civil consiste en incorporar la concepción de progreso en los usos y costumbres de los indígenas, aportando una visión de integración diferente a la civilidad. Sabemos que con posterioridad al siglo dieciocho el aporte de muchos astrónomos, médicos y científicos jesuítas -en América- construyeron las bases de la ciencia moderna y progresiva, representando la continuidad más que la regresión en el desarrollo científico tal como lo concebimos actualmente.TheJesuit Juan Ignacio Molina vimte the Compendiode la Historia Geográfica, natural y Civil del Reyno de Chile (1776 y el Compendio de la Historia Civil del Reyno de Chile (1787 in exile in Italy. In relation to criticism, the thinking of the naturalist of the company in the transition -some see opposition-from the model of traditional and scholastic science to the paradigm of modern and enlightened science was importantThis assignment will consider some of the characteristics of the writing of history, which constitute the discourse of science and show the development from the moral and natural history -the classical science of Aristotle and Plinio- to the new forms of knowledge that represent the model of science of the enlight

  2. Coupling between the environment and the pelagic resources exploited off northern Chile: ecosystem indicators and a conceptual model Acoplamiento entre el ambiente y los recursos pelágicos explotados en el norte de Chile: un modelo conceptual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleuterio Yáñez

    2008-01-01

    pesquería de anchoveta (Engraulis ringens; en tanto, desde mediado de los 70's los desembarques de sardina (Sardinops sagax aumentan notablemente. Un segundo cambio de régimen se observa a finales de los 80's, representado principalmente por la notable recuperación de anchovy y disminución de sardina. Se presenta un modelo conceptual integrador de los diferentes fenómenos locales y de gran escala que afectan el ambiente marino del norte de Chile, y la distribución y abundancia de recursos pelágicos. El modelo considera análisis de datos ambientales y bio-pesqueros a distintas escalas, y describe como las fluctuaciones interdecadales (asociadas a cambios de régimen e interanuales (asociadas a los eventos El Niño del Pacífico Ecuatorial se manifiestan en el Pacífico Sur Oriental y por tanto en la zona norte de Chile, afectando el ciclo anual, la dinámica de las ondas atrapadas a la costa y la surgencia costera. En este marco, las fluctuaciones interdecadales estarían jugando un rol importante en la secuencia del reemplazo anchoveta-sardina-anchoveta.

  3. Artemia (Crustacea, Anostraca in Chile: a review of basic and applied biology Artemia Crustacea, Anostraca en Chile: revisión de la biología básica y aplicada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio De los Rios-Escalante

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The brine shrimp Artemia in Chile has been studied since the 1980s, initially on populations inhabiting shallow coastal and inland mountain ponds, and saltworks in northern and central Chile. Based on morphometric and molecular evidence, these populations were identified as A. franciscana. In the 1990s, A. persimilis was recorded from southern Patagonia, a species previously considered endemic to Argentina. Recently, two new populations of A.franciscana have been recorded, from one saline coastal pond in northern Chile and from a saltwork in central Chile. The scope for further research to increase both understanding of the strain characterization and basic population ecology descriptions of the Chilean brine shrimps and improve their conservation status is discussed. It is suggested that future studies should investigate first the management of local brine shrimp population for local aquaculture or conservation resources, other direction would be the effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR exposition that is notoriously high in brine shrimp habitats. This last factor is very important because the UVR is an important mutagen on the genetic structure of the populations. In this scenario, it is suggest a carefully management for introduced brine shrimp populations for local aquaculture for avoid alterations in native populations that due their genetic isolation would need conservation procedures for avoid local extinctions.El camarón de salmuera o Artemia ha sido estudiado en Chile desde la década de 1980, las primeras descripciones de poblaciones fueron para lagunas someras en zonas costeras y de montana, y en salinas artificiales en la zona central y norte de Chile. Sobre la base de evidencias morfométricas y moleculares estas poblaciones fueron descritas como A. franciscana. En la década de 1990, se describió la presencia de A. persimilis en la zona sur de la Patagonia, lo cual fue una ampliación del rango de distribución significativa

  4. ALMA communication backbone in Chile goes optical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, G.; Ibsen, J.; Jaque, Sandra; Liello, F.; Navarro, C.

    2014-07-01

    High-bandwidth communication has become a key factor for scientific installations as Observatories. This paper describes the technical, organizational, and operational goals and the level of completion of the ALMA Optical Link Project. The project focus is the creation and operation of an effective and sustainable communication infrastructure to connect the ALMA Observatory, located in the Atacama Desert, in the Northern region of Chile, with the point of presence in ANTOFAGASTA, about 400km away, of the EVALSO infrastructure, and from there to the Central Office in the Chilean capital, Santiago. This new infrastructure that will be operated in behalf of ALMA by REUNA, the Chilean National Research and Education Network, will use state of the art technologies, like dark fiber from newly built cables and DWDM transmission, allowing extending the reach of high capacity communication to the remote region where the Observatory is located. When completed, the end-to-end Gigabit-per-second (Gbps) capable link will provide ALMA with a modern, effective, robust, communication infrastructure capable to cope with present and future demands, like those coming from fast growing data transfer to rapid response mode, from remote monitoring and engineering to virtual presence.

  5. Macroeconomic fluctuations and bank behavior in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Restrepo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze bank behavior in Chile over time, looking at how their balance sheets and performance move both in the short and long run, and how they react to macroeconomic shocks. The evolution of banking aggregates over an 18 year period (1989-2006, using quarterly data is examined. Techniques common in the real business cycle literature are applied to establish empirical patterns. Robustness tests using several filters are performed. The effects of macro shocks on banking variables are analyzed, both by means of an event study, and by estimating impulse responses with VARs. The results show that credit lags the cycle, demand deposits lead it, both being procyclical, while the capital adequacy ratio (CAR is countercyclical. In addition, a shock to interest rates reduces loans (total, commercial, consumption, and increases non performing loans (NPL and the capital adequacy ratio (CAR. A shock to GDP growth has a positive effect on loans, return over equity (ROE, and a negative impact on NPL and CAR.

  6. [Nutritive value of shellfish consumed in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, N; Vera, G; Araya, H

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the protein quality and digestibility of shellfish commonly consumed in Chile, and to estimate its contribution to the protein needs of the Chilean population. The shellfish studied were chorito (Mytilus edulis chilensis), macha (Mesodesma donacium), loco (Concholepas concholepas), cholga (Aulacomya ater), erizo (Loxechinus albus) and almeja (no specific variety). The NPU method was used to determine protein quality. The percentage of protein adequacy for adult rations was calculated according to FAO/WHO 1973. The contribution of shellfish to the protein availability according to the family income of the Santiago population, was also calculated. Most of the shellfish presented NPU values of about 70; the lowest values were found for loco (54.9) and macha (63.3). The apparent and true digestibility gave an average of 83.6 and 90.4, respectively. The percentage of protein adequacy of habitual rations ranged between 27% (erizo) and 58% (loco). The availability of shellfish protein in relation to total protein increased from 0.4 to 2.5% when income increased. It is concluded therefore, that shellfish protein is, in general, of good quality. Nevertheless, it might be considered of poor influence insofar as fulfilling the protein needs of the population studied, whatever its socioeconomic level. PMID:3834878

  7. Social Networks and Political Parties in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adler Lomnitz, Larissa

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the origin and evolution of two Chilean political parties (the Radical Party and the Christian Democrat Party through the analysis of the social networks that originated and composed them. The aim of this study is to propose a model of national political cultures on the basis of the structure of social networks related to power and of the symbol system, which legitimizes it. The structure of social networks, horizontal and vertical, are based on reciprocal or redistributive forms of exchange, on what is being exchanged and on the articulation between networks. In every society there are symmetrical and asymmetrical exchanges, which produce horizontal and vertical networks. These networks interact among themselves to form the social fabric. The dominance of some over others and how they combine, delineate the character of the political culture (authoritarian vs. egalitarian. Chile is a multiparty country within which there are cohorts of horizontal groups of friends, who informally exercise a central control over their members and create invisible boundaries setting them apart from others, in which leadership is under constrains. The result is both a strong presidential system based on an almost fanatic legitimacy, combined with factionalism and a strong parliamentary system.

  8. [Nutritive value of shellfish consumed in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, N; Vera, G; Araya, H

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the protein quality and digestibility of shellfish commonly consumed in Chile, and to estimate its contribution to the protein needs of the Chilean population. The shellfish studied were chorito (Mytilus edulis chilensis), macha (Mesodesma donacium), loco (Concholepas concholepas), cholga (Aulacomya ater), erizo (Loxechinus albus) and almeja (no specific variety). The NPU method was used to determine protein quality. The percentage of protein adequacy for adult rations was calculated according to FAO/WHO 1973. The contribution of shellfish to the protein availability according to the family income of the Santiago population, was also calculated. Most of the shellfish presented NPU values of about 70; the lowest values were found for loco (54.9) and macha (63.3). The apparent and true digestibility gave an average of 83.6 and 90.4, respectively. The percentage of protein adequacy of habitual rations ranged between 27% (erizo) and 58% (loco). The availability of shellfish protein in relation to total protein increased from 0.4 to 2.5% when income increased. It is concluded therefore, that shellfish protein is, in general, of good quality. Nevertheless, it might be considered of poor influence insofar as fulfilling the protein needs of the population studied, whatever its socioeconomic level.

  9. Anaerobiosis induced virulence of Salmonella typhi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapoor, Sarika; Singh, R D; Sharma, P C;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Anaerobic conditions are frequently encountered by pathogens invading the gastrointestinal tract due to low/limiting oxygen conditions prevalent in the small intestine. This anaerobic stress has been suggested to enhance the virulence of gut pathogens. In the present study......, we examined the effect of anaerobiosis on the virulence of Salmonella Typhi, a Gram negative bacteria which invades through the gut mucosa and is responsible for typhoid fever. METHODS: Salmonella Typhi (ty2) was cultured in aerobic and anaerobic conditions to compare its virulence by rabbit ileal...... loop assay, hydrophobicity assay, expression of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) and antioxidant enzymes assay. RESULTS: Anaerobically grown S. Typhi showed significantly higher cell surface hydrophobicity as compared to aerobic bacteria. In vivo toxin production by rabbit ileal loop assay also showed...

  10. Salmonella Dublin kan give store tab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Dahl; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Kudahl, Anne Margrethe Braad;

    2012-01-01

    Store besætninger lider størst økonomisk tab ved infektion med Salmonella Dublin. Selv i en veldrevet besætning kan tabet løbe op i mellem 1,3 og 3,3 millioner kr. over en tiårs periode. Ved uhensigtsmæssige hygiejne- og managementrutiner kan tabet nemt blive meget højere.......Store besætninger lider størst økonomisk tab ved infektion med Salmonella Dublin. Selv i en veldrevet besætning kan tabet løbe op i mellem 1,3 og 3,3 millioner kr. over en tiårs periode. Ved uhensigtsmæssige hygiejne- og managementrutiner kan tabet nemt blive meget højere....

  11. Renal abscess caused by Salmonella Typhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarjeet Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella typhi is a true pathogen, which is capable of causing both intestinal and extraintestinal infections. Unusual presentations of Salmonella should always be kept in mind as this organism can cause disease in almost any organ of the body. S. typhi has been reported to cause the life-threatening infections such as meningitis, endocarditis, myocarditis, empyema, and hepatic abscess. Renal involvement by S. typhi is a relatively rare presentation. We report a case of renal abscess caused by S. typhi in an afebrile, 10-year-old child who did not have any clinical history of enteric fever. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of isolation of S. typhi from the renal abscess, and interestingly this isolate was found to be resistant to quinolones.

  12. Whole Genome Epidemiological Typing of Salmonella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas

    . Technological advances and effective price in high throughput genome sequencing are making whole genome sequencing (WGS) available as a routine tool for bacterial typing. Typing of Salmonella, especially sub-typing within the same serotype or even the same clone, the genetic variation of the target genes being...... used for typing is crucial for successful discrimination. The core genes or the genes that are conserved in all members of a genus or species are potentially good candidates for investigating genomic variation in phylogeny and epidemiology. A total of 2,882 core genes have been observed among 73...... available Salmonella enterica genomes (accessed in April 2011). A consensus tree based on variation of the core genes gives better resolution than 16S rRNA and MLST that rarely provide separation between closely related strains. The performance of the pan-genome tree which is based on the presence...

  13. Prevalence of Nontyphoidal Salmonella and Salmonella Strains with Conjugative Antimicrobial-Resistant Serovars Contaminating Animal Feed in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Cheng; Poole, Toni L; Runyon, Mick; Hume, Michael; Herrman, Timothy J

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize 365 nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica isolates from animal feed. Among the 365 isolates, 78 serovars were identified. Twenty-four isolates (7.0%) were recovered from three of six medicated feed types. Three of these isolates derived from the medicated feed, Salmonella Newport, Salmonella Typhimurium var. O 5- (Copenhagen), and Salmonella Lexington var. 15+ (Manila), displayed antimicrobial resistance. Susceptibility testing revealed that only 3.0% (12) of the 365 isolates displayed resistance to any of the antimicrobial agents. These 12 isolates were recovered from unmedicated dry beef feed (n = 3), medicated dry beef feed (n = 3), cabbage culls (n = 2), animal protein products (n = 2), dry dairy cattle feed (n = 1), and fish meal (n = 1). Only Salmonella Newport and Salmonella Typhimurium var. O 5- (Copenhagen) were multidrug resistant. Both isolates possessed the IncA/C replicon and the blaCMY-2 gene associated with cephalosporin resistance. Plasmid replicons were amplified from 4 of 12 resistant isolates. Plasmids (40 kb) were Salmonella Montevideo and Salmonella Kentucky. Conjugation experiments were done using 7 of the 12 resistant isolates as donors. Only Salmonella Montevideo, possessing a plasmid and amplifying IncN, produced transconjugants. Transconjugants displayed the same antimicrobial resistance profile as did the donor isolate. Three isolates that amplified replicons corresponding to IncA/C or IncHI2 did not produce transconjugants at 30 or 37°C. The results of this study suggest that the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella contaminating animal feed is low in Texas. However, Salmonella was more prevalent in feed by-products; fish meal had the highest prevalence (84%) followed by animal protein products (48%). Ten of the 35 feed types had no Salmonella contamination. Further investigation is needed to understand the possible role of specific feed types in the dissemination of antimicrobial

  14. [The evolution theory in the medical sciences in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Coke, R

    1994-02-01

    The evolutionist ideas of Lamarck, Darwin and Haeckel entered the country through the arrival of their books. "On the origin of Species" arrived in Chile in 1869. The most outstanding immigrant european physicians that discussed these ideas were Rodulfo A Phillippi (1808-1904) and Juan José Brunner (1825-1899). Both discussed Darwin's ideas in their books and conferences as academics of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Chile. The first Chilean physicians that read and discussed the validity of evolution theory were Adolfo Valderrama (1834-1902) and Pedro Candia Salgado. Both wrote articles about this matter in Revista Médica de Chile in 1872 and 1874. The professor of general biology, Juan Noé Crevani, italian physician and zoologist that arrived in Chile in 1912, was the first to teach directly the concepts of the evolution theory until his death in 1947. Professor Noé founded the great biological school of the twentieth century in Chile and his disciples introduced the concepts of Mendelian theory and neodarwinism in the decade of fifties. The theory of evolution was taught as a chapter of general biology in the Faculty of Medicine between 1913 and 1947, but its practical applications to medicine were introduced with the birth of medical genetics in the decade of fifties and the foundation of Chilean Genetics society in 1964, under the direction of professors Danko Brncic and Gustavo Hoecker, both awarded with the National Sciences Prize.

  15. [Mental health in Chile and Finland: Challenges and lessons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamal C, Pedro; Markkula, Niina; Peña, Sebastián

    2016-07-01

    This article analyses and compares the epidemiology of mental disorders and relevant public policies in Chile and Finland. In Chile, a specific mental health law is still lacking. While both countries highlight the role of primary care, Finland places more emphasis on participation and recovery of service users. Comprehensive mental health policies from Finland, such as a successful suicide prevention program, are presented. Both countries have similar prevalence of mental disorders, high alcohol consumption and high suicide rates. In Chile, the percentage of total disease burden due to psychiatric disorders is 13% and in Finland 14%. However, the resources to address these issues are very different. Finland spends 4.5% of its health budget on mental health, while in Chile the percentage is 2.2%. This results in differences in human resources and service provision. Finland has five times more psychiatric outpatient visits, four times more psychiatrists, triple antidepressant use and twice more clinical guidelines for different psychiatric conditions. In conclusion, both countries have similar challenges but differing realities. This may help to identify gaps and potential solutions for public health challenges in Chile. Finland’s experience demonstrates the importance of political will and long-term vision in the construction of mental health policies. PMID:27661557

  16. First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor A. Vargas; Gerardo Lamas

    2011-01-01

    First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) in Chile. The presence of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) is reported for the first time in Chile, from the Azapa valley, Arica.Primeiro registro de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) no Chile. A presença de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera; Pieridae) é mencionada pela primeira vez para o Chile, no vale de Azapa, Arica.

  17. Targeted Cancer Therapy Using Engineered Salmonella typhimurium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jin Hai

    2016-01-01

    Obligate or facultative anaerobic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium, Clostridium, Salmonella, or Escherichia coli specifically colonize and proliferate inside tumor tissues and inhibit tumor growth. Among them, attenuated Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) has been widely studied in animal cancer models and Phase I clinical trials in human patients. S. typhimurium genes are easily manipulated; thus diverse attenuated strains of S. typhimurium have been designed and engineered as tumor-targeting therapeutics or drug delivery vehicles that show both an excellent safety profile and therapeutic efficacy in mouse models. An attenuated strain of S. typhimurium, VNP20009, successfully targeted human metastatic melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma in Phase I clinical trials; however, the efficacy requires further refinement. Along with the characteristics of self-targeting, proliferation, and deep tissue penetration, the ease of genetic manipulation allows for the production of more attenuated strains with greater safety profiles and vector systems that deliver designable cargo molecules for cancer diagnosis and/or therapy. Here, we discuss recent progress in the field of Salmonellae-mediated cancer therapy. PMID:27689027

  18. Electrochemical immunosensors for Salmonella detection in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Airis Maria Araújo; Alexandre, Dalila L; Furtado, Roselayne F; Borges, Maria F; Figueiredo, Evânia Altina T; Biswas, Atanu; Cheng, Huai N; Alves, Carlúcio R

    2016-06-01

    Pathogen detection is a critical point for the identification and the prevention of problems related to food safety. Failures at detecting contaminations in food may cause outbreaks with drastic consequences to public health. In spite of the real need for obtaining analytical results in the shortest time possible, conventional methods may take several days to produce a diagnosis. Salmonella spp. is the major cause of foodborne diseases worldwide and its absence is a requirement of the health authorities. Biosensors are bioelectronic devices, comprising bioreceptor molecules and transducer elements, able to detect analytes (chemical and/or biological species) rapidly and quantitatively. Electrochemical immunosensors use antibody molecules as bioreceptors and an electrochemical transducer. These devices have been widely used for pathogen detection at low cost. There are four main techniques for electrochemical immunosensors: amperometric, impedimetric, conductometric, and potentiometric. Almost all types of immunosensors are applicable to Salmonella detection. This article reviews the developments and the applications of electrochemical immunosensors for Salmonella detection, particularly the advantages of each specific technique. Immunosensors serve as exciting alternatives to conventional methods, allowing "real-time" and multiple analyses that are essential characteristics for pathogen detection and much desired in health and safety control in the food industry. PMID:27138197

  19. Targeted Cancer Therapy Using Engineered Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jin Hai; Min, Jung-Joon

    2016-09-01

    Obligate or facultative anaerobic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium, Clostridium, Salmonella, or Escherichia coli specifically colonize and proliferate inside tumor tissues and inhibit tumor growth. Among them, attenuated Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) has been widely studied in animal cancer models and Phase I clinical trials in human patients. S. typhimurium genes are easily manipulated; thus diverse attenuated strains of S. typhimurium have been designed and engineered as tumor-targeting therapeutics or drug delivery vehicles that show both an excellent safety profile and therapeutic efficacy in mouse models. An attenuated strain of S. typhimurium, VNP20009, successfully targeted human metastatic melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma in Phase I clinical trials; however, the efficacy requires further refinement. Along with the characteristics of self-targeting, proliferation, and deep tissue penetration, the ease of genetic manipulation allows for the production of more attenuated strains with greater safety profiles and vector systems that deliver designable cargo molecules for cancer diagnosis and/or therapy. Here, we discuss recent progress in the field of Salmonellae-mediated cancer therapy. PMID:27689027

  20. Targeted Cancer Therapy Using Engineered Salmonella typhimurium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jin Hai

    2016-01-01

    Obligate or facultative anaerobic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium, Clostridium, Salmonella, or Escherichia coli specifically colonize and proliferate inside tumor tissues and inhibit tumor growth. Among them, attenuated Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) has been widely studied in animal cancer models and Phase I clinical trials in human patients. S. typhimurium genes are easily manipulated; thus diverse attenuated strains of S. typhimurium have been designed and engineered as tumor-targeting therapeutics or drug delivery vehicles that show both an excellent safety profile and therapeutic efficacy in mouse models. An attenuated strain of S. typhimurium, VNP20009, successfully targeted human metastatic melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma in Phase I clinical trials; however, the efficacy requires further refinement. Along with the characteristics of self-targeting, proliferation, and deep tissue penetration, the ease of genetic manipulation allows for the production of more attenuated strains with greater safety profiles and vector systems that deliver designable cargo molecules for cancer diagnosis and/or therapy. Here, we discuss recent progress in the field of Salmonellae-mediated cancer therapy.

  1. Immune reaction and survivability of salmonella typhimurium and salmonella infantis after infection of primary avian macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Braukmann

    Full Text Available Salmonella serovars are differentially able to infect chickens. The underlying causes are not yet fully understood. Aim of the present study was to elucidate the importance of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and -2 for the virulence of two non-host-specific, but in-vivo differently invasive, Salmonella serovars in conjunction with the immune reaction of the host. Primary avian splenic macrophages were inoculated with Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica serovar (S. Typhimurium and S. Infantis. The number and viability of intracellular bacteria and transcription of SPI-1 and -2 genes by the pathogens, as well as transcription of immune-related proteins, surface antigen expression and nitric oxide production by the macrophages, were compared at different times post inoculation. After infection, both of the Salmonella serovars were found inside the primary macrophages. Invasion-associated SPI-1 genes were significantly higher transcribed in S. Infantis- than S. Typhimurium-infected macrophages. The macrophages counteracted the S. Infantis and S. Typhimurium infection with elevated mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, interleukin (IL-12, IL-18 and lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha factor (LITAF as well as with an increased synthesis of nitric oxide. Despite these host cell attacks, S. Typhimurium was better able than S. Infantis to survive within the macrophages and transcribed higher rates of the SPI-2 genes spiC, ssaV, sifA, and sseA. The results showed similar immune reactions of primary macrophages after infection with both of the Salmonella strains. The more rapid and stronger transcription of SPI-2-related genes by intracellular S. Typhimurium compared to S. Infantis might be responsible for its better survival in avian primary macrophages.

  2. Immune reaction and survivability of salmonella typhimurium and salmonella infantis after infection of primary avian macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braukmann, Maria; Methner, Ulrich; Berndt, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella serovars are differentially able to infect chickens. The underlying causes are not yet fully understood. Aim of the present study was to elucidate the importance of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and -2) for the virulence of two non-host-specific, but in-vivo differently invasive, Salmonella serovars in conjunction with the immune reaction of the host. Primary avian splenic macrophages were inoculated with Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica serovar (S.) Typhimurium and S. Infantis. The number and viability of intracellular bacteria and transcription of SPI-1 and -2 genes by the pathogens, as well as transcription of immune-related proteins, surface antigen expression and nitric oxide production by the macrophages, were compared at different times post inoculation. After infection, both of the Salmonella serovars were found inside the primary macrophages. Invasion-associated SPI-1 genes were significantly higher transcribed in S. Infantis- than S. Typhimurium-infected macrophages. The macrophages counteracted the S. Infantis and S. Typhimurium infection with elevated mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin (IL)-12, IL-18 and lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha factor (LITAF) as well as with an increased synthesis of nitric oxide. Despite these host cell attacks, S. Typhimurium was better able than S. Infantis to survive within the macrophages and transcribed higher rates of the SPI-2 genes spiC, ssaV, sifA, and sseA. The results showed similar immune reactions of primary macrophages after infection with both of the Salmonella strains. The more rapid and stronger transcription of SPI-2-related genes by intracellular S. Typhimurium compared to S. Infantis might be responsible for its better survival in avian primary macrophages. PMID:25811871

  3. EL LENGUAJE DESDE LA BIOLOGÍA DEL AMOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ DE LA FUENTE

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se intenta una lectura descriptiva, sistemática y analítica del aporte del biólogo Humberto Maturana sobre su invitación teórica a la biología del conocimiento y además correlatos conceptuales remitidos al lenguaje desde la biología del amor. Su planteamiento "conspirativo" es ontológico, fundado en la conversación y en la democracia. Cuando se pierde la congruencia entre nosotros y el medio, simplemente no somos. En esta teoría aparecen íntimamente ligadas las nociones de lenguaje, lenguajear, conversar, emocionar, observar y autopoiesis. Se reseña a la persona y al investigador y se esbozan controversias, se precisa qué es la biología del amor, el lenguaje, los sistemas de convivencia y dominios, la relación del lenguaje con la realidad, la observación desde los caminos explicativos de la objetividad sin paréntesis y de la objetividad en paréntesis, la importancia de la experiencia estética y se sugiere qué mundo nos espera a partir de la educación

  4. Assessment of serological response of chickens to Salmonella Gallinarum and Salmonella Pullorum by Elisa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GH de Oliveira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to assess an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to detect chicken serological response against Salmonella enterica serotypes Gallinarum and Pullorum. The assays have used soluble bacterial proteins of Salmonella Gallinarum strain 9 (AgSG as detecting antigen and peroxidase and alkaline phosphatase conjugates. According to the results, the antigen, sera and conjugate concentrations were optimized. In addition, the assay using alkaline phosphatase and peroxidase conjugates was helpful to distinguish positive serological reaction to serotypes Gallinarum and Pullorum from Enteritidis.

  5. Patogenia de Salmonella enteritidis FT 13a y Salmonella enteritidis biovar Issatschenko en pollos de engorda

    OpenAIRE

    Griselda Ruiz Flores; Fernando Constantino Casas; José Antonio Quintana López; Carlos Cedillo Peláez; Odette Urquiza Bravo

    2008-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la patogenia de Salmonella enteritidis fagotipo 13a (SE FT 13a) y de Salmonella enteritidis biovar Issatschenko fagotipo 6a (SI) en pollitos de engorda de cuatro días de edad. Veintiocho aves por tratamiento fueron inoculadas con dosis de 1 × 108 (SE FT 13a) y 1 × 109 (SI), respectivamente, y 14 pollitos fueron inoculados con solución salina fi siológica (SSF), como testigos negativos. Se tomaron muestras de hígado, bazo, corazón, pulmón, buche,...

  6. 77 FR 22663 - Importation of Pomegranates From Chile Under a Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... Chile Under a Systems Approach AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final... continental United States of pomegranates from Chile, subject to a systems approach. Under this systems... plant protection organization of Chile and certified as having a low prevalence of Brevipalpus...

  7. 19 CFR 10.490 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Chile. 10.490 Section 10.490 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.490 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules which apply...

  8. 77 FR 12903 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Chile Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Chile Environmental Cooperation Agreement ACTION: Notice of preparation of the 2012-2014 U.S.-Chile Environmental Cooperation Work Program... suggestions regarding items for inclusion in a new work program for implementing the U.S.-Chile...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-23 - Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Chile. 319.56-23 Section 319.56-23 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... and Vegetables § 319.56-23 Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. (a... from Chile in accordance with this section and all other applicable provisions of this subpart. 3 3...

  10. CHILE: An Evidence-Based Preschool Intervention for Obesity Prevention in Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sally M.; Sanders, Sarah G.; FitzGerald, Courtney A.; Keane, Patricia C.; Canaca, Glenda F.; Volker-Rector, Renee

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a major concern among American Indians and Hispanics. The Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) is an evidence-based intervention to prevent obesity in children enrolled in 16 Head Start (HS) Centers in rural communities. The design and implementation of CHILE are described. Methods: CHILE uses a…

  11. 77 FR 64106 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Policy Mission to Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Policy Mission to Chile AGENCY... (RE&EE) Trade Policy Mission to Santiago, Chile from April 15-16, 2013. The mission is designed to be... conducive to growth in Chile's RE&EE market; and (2) introducing U.S. RE&EE exporters to key...

  12. Study of Salmonella Typhimurium infection in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil eChousalkar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Members of Salmonella enterica are frequently involved in egg and egg product related human food poisoning outbreaks worldwide. In Australia, Salmonella Typhimurium is frequently involved in egg and egg product related foodborne illness and Salmonella Mbandaka has also been found to be a contaminant of the layer farm environment. The ability possessed by Salmonella Enteritidis to colonise reproductive organs and contaminate developing eggs has been well described. However, there are few studies investigating this ability for Salmonella Typhimurium. The hypothesis of this study was that the Salmonella Typhimurium can colonise the gut for a prolonged period of time and that horizontal infection through feces is the main route of egg contamination. At 14 weeks of age hens were orally infected with either S. Typhimurium PT 9 or S. Typhimurium PT 9 and Salmonella Mbandaka. Salmonella shedding in feces and eggs was monitored for 15 weeks post infection. Egg shell surface and internal contents of eggs laid by infected hens were cultured independently for detection of Salmonella spp. The mean Salmonella load in feces ranged from 1.54 to 63.35 and 0.31 to 98.38 most probable number/g (MPN/g in the S. Typhimurium and S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka group respectively. No correlation was found between mean fecal Salmonella load and frequency of egg shell contamination. Egg shell contamination was higher in S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka infected group (7.2% Typhimurium, 14.1% Mbandaka compared to birds infected with S. Typhimurium (5.66% however, co-infection had no significant impact on egg contamination by S. Typhimurium. Throughout the study Salmonella was not recovered from internal contents of eggs laid by hens. Salmonella was isolated from different segments of oviduct of hens from both the groups, however pathology was not observed on microscopic examination. This study investigated Salmonella shedding for up to 15 weeks p.i which is a longer period of

  13. Study of Salmonella Typhimurium Infection in Laying Hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Vivek V.; Devon, Rebecca L.; Sharma, Pardeep; McWhorter, Andrea R.; Chousalkar, Kapil K.

    2016-01-01

    Members of Salmonella enterica are frequently involved in egg and egg product related human food poisoning outbreaks worldwide. In Australia, Salmonella Typhimurium is frequently involved in egg and egg product related foodborne illness and Salmonella Mbandaka has also been found to be a contaminant of the layer farm environment. The ability possessed by Salmonella Enteritidis to colonize reproductive organs and contaminate developing eggs has been well-described. However, there are few studies investigating this ability for Salmonella Typhimurium. The hypothesis of this study was that the Salmonella Typhimurium can colonize the gut for a prolonged period of time and that horizontal infection through feces is the main route of egg contamination. At 14 weeks of age hens were orally infected with either S. Typhimurium PT 9 or S. Typhimurium PT 9 and Salmonella Mbandaka. Salmonella shedding in feces and eggs was monitored for 15 weeks post-infection. Egg shell surface and internal contents of eggs laid by infected hens were cultured independently for detection of Salmonella spp. The mean Salmonella load in feces ranged from 1.54 to 63.35 and 0.31 to 98.38 most probable number/g (MPN/g) in the S. Typhimurium and S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka group, respectively. No correlation was found between mean fecal Salmonella load and frequency of egg shell contamination. Egg shell contamination was higher in S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka infected group (7.2% S. Typhimurium, 14.1% S. Mbandaka) compared to birds infected with S. Typhimurium (5.66%) however, co-infection had no significant impact on egg contamination by S. Typhimurium. Throughout the study Salmonella was not recovered from internal contents of eggs laid by hens. Salmonella was isolated from different segments of oviduct of hens from both the groups, however pathology was not observed on microscopic examination. This study investigated Salmonella shedding for up to 15 weeks p.i which is a longer period of time

  14. Survival of Salmonella during baking of peanut butter cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Amanda A; Taylor, Tiffany; Schnepf, James

    2014-04-01

    Peanuts and peanut-based products have been the source of recent Salmonella outbreaks worldwide. Because peanut butter is commonly used as an ingredient in baked goods, such as cookies, the potential risk of Salmonella remaining in these products after baking needs to be assessed. This research examines the potential hazard of Salmonella in peanut butter cookies when it is introduced via the peanut-derived ingredient. The survival of Salmonella during the baking of peanut butter cookies was determined. Commercial, creamy-style peanut butter was artificially inoculated with a five-strain Salmonella cocktail at a target concentration of 10(8) CFU/g. The inoculated peanut butter was then used to prepare peanut butter cookie dough following a standard recipe. Cookies were baked at 350 °F (177 °C) and were sampled after 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 min. Temperature profiles of the oven and cookies were monitored during baking. The water activity and pH of the inoculated and uninoculated peanut butter, raw dough, and baked cookies were measured. Immediately after baking, cookies were cooled, and the survival of Salmonella was determined by direct plating or enrichment. After baking cookies for 10 min, the minimum reduction of Salmonella observed was 4.8 log. In cookies baked for 13 and 14 min, Salmonella was only detectable by enrichment reflecting a Salmonella reduction in the range of 5.2 to 6.2 log. Cookies baked for 15 min had no detectable Salmonella. Results of this study showed that proper baking will reduce Salmonella in peanut butter cookies by 5 log or more.

  15. Survival of Salmonella during baking of peanut butter cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Amanda A; Taylor, Tiffany; Schnepf, James

    2014-04-01

    Peanuts and peanut-based products have been the source of recent Salmonella outbreaks worldwide. Because peanut butter is commonly used as an ingredient in baked goods, such as cookies, the potential risk of Salmonella remaining in these products after baking needs to be assessed. This research examines the potential hazard of Salmonella in peanut butter cookies when it is introduced via the peanut-derived ingredient. The survival of Salmonella during the baking of peanut butter cookies was determined. Commercial, creamy-style peanut butter was artificially inoculated with a five-strain Salmonella cocktail at a target concentration of 10(8) CFU/g. The inoculated peanut butter was then used to prepare peanut butter cookie dough following a standard recipe. Cookies were baked at 350 °F (177 °C) and were sampled after 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 min. Temperature profiles of the oven and cookies were monitored during baking. The water activity and pH of the inoculated and uninoculated peanut butter, raw dough, and baked cookies were measured. Immediately after baking, cookies were cooled, and the survival of Salmonella was determined by direct plating or enrichment. After baking cookies for 10 min, the minimum reduction of Salmonella observed was 4.8 log. In cookies baked for 13 and 14 min, Salmonella was only detectable by enrichment reflecting a Salmonella reduction in the range of 5.2 to 6.2 log. Cookies baked for 15 min had no detectable Salmonella. Results of this study showed that proper baking will reduce Salmonella in peanut butter cookies by 5 log or more. PMID:24680076

  16. The Unexpected Awakening of Chaitén Volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carn, Simon A.; Pallister, John S.; Lara, Luis; Ewert, John W.; Watt, Sebastian; Prata, Alfred J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Villarosa, Gustavo

    2009-06-01

    On 2 May 2008, a large eruption began unexpectedly at the inconspicuous Chaitén volcano in Chile's southern volcanic zone. Ash columns abruptly jetted from the volcano into the stratosphere, followed by lava dome effusion and continuous low-altitude ash plumes [Lara, 2009]. Apocalyptic photographs of eruption plumes suffused with lightning were circulated globally. Effects of the eruption were extensive. Floods and lahars inundated the town of Chaitén, and its 4625 residents were evacuated. Widespread ashfall and drifting ash clouds closed regional airports and cancelled hundreds of domestic flights in Argentina and Chile and numerous international flights [Guffanti et al., 2008]. Ash heavily affected the aquaculture industry in the nearby Gulf of Corcovado, curtailed ecotourism, and closed regional nature preserves. To better prepare for future eruptions, the Chilean government has boosted support for monitoring and hazard mitigation at Chaitén and at 42 other highly hazardous, active volcanoes in Chile.

  17. Desigualdad Geográfica en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A. Agostini

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite success in reducing poverty over the last twenty years, inequality in Chile has remained virtually unchanged, making Chile one of the least equal countries in the world. High levels of inequality have been shown to hamper further reductions in poverty as well as economic growth and local inequality has been shown to affect such outcomes as violence and health. The study of inequality at the local level is thus crucial for understanding the economic well-being of a country. Local measures of inequality have been difficult to obtain, but recent theoretical advances have enabled the combination of survey and census data to obtain estimators of inequality that are robust at disaggregated geographic levels. In this paper, we employ this methodology to produce consistent estimators of inequality for every county in Chile. We find a great deal of variation in inequality, with countylevel Gini coefficients ranging from 0.41 to 0.63.

  18. Biogeografía marina de Chile continental Marine biogeography of continental Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIO A. CAMUS

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Por casi un siglo, varios autores han analizado los patrones de distribución de la fauna y flora marina del Pacífico de Sudamérica y de la costa de Chile en particular, con el propósito de establecer el número de las unidades biogeográficas presentes. Si bien los patrones generales actuales son relativamente bien conocidos, la mayoría de los estudios se ha enfocado en las discontinuidades distribucionales y en propuestas de clasificación más que en los factores y procesos dinámicos que han formado las unidades espaciales identificadas. Aun en el caso de las clasificaciones, las conclusiones publicadas se basan principalmente en el análisis de uno o pocos grupos seleccionados, y presentan diferencias importantes en los criterios de selección de los grupos, el número de especies involucrado y la metodología usada. Por otra parte, las discrepancias entre estudios específicos tienden a obscurecer un fenómeno relevante y de mayor escala como es la dinámica de las biotas, uno de los aspectos biogeográficos menos conocidos en Chile. En tal contexto, este trabajo presenta una revisión de literatura sobre la biogeografía marina de Chile y sus aspectos asociados, con los siguientes objetivos: (a resumir las características oceanográficas, climáticas y geomorfológicas de la costa continental de Chile; (b discutir 27 clasificaciones biogeográficas publicadas para la costa chilena, analizando los criterios y procedimientos usados por los autores, sus conclusiones principales, y la concordancia entre los estudios; (c evaluar los procesos dispersivos y vicariantes asociados a los desplazamientos y modificaciones de las biotas de la región, en función de los antecedentes disponibles sobre las condiciones existentes y los principales eventos ocurridos durante los períodos Terciario y Cuaternario; y (d proponer un escenario de cambio biogeográfico basado en determinantes históricas y su influencia en la formación, carácter y din

  19. T-2 toxin induced Salmonella Typhimurium intoxication results in decreased Salmonella numbers in the cecum contents of pigs, despite marked effects on Salmonella-host cell interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verbrugghe Elin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The mycotoxin T-2 toxin and Salmonella Typhimurium infections pose a significant threat to human and animal health. Interactions between both agents may result in a different outcome of the infection. Therefore, the aim of the presented study was to investigate the effects of low and relevant concentrations of T-2 toxin on the course of a Salmonella Typhimurium infection in pigs. We showed that the presence of 15 and 83 μg T-2 toxin per kg feed significantly decreased the amount of Salmonella Typhimurium bacteria present in the cecum contents, and a tendency to a reduced colonization of the jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and colon contents was noticed. In vitro, proteomic analysis of porcine enterocytes revealed that a very low concentration of T-2 toxin (5 ng/mL affects the protein expression of mitochondrial, endoplasmatic reticulum and cytoskeleton associated proteins, proteins involved in protein synthesis and folding, RNA synthesis, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and regulatory processes. Similarly low concentrations (1-100 ng/mL promoted the susceptibility of porcine macrophages and intestinal epithelial cells to Salmonella Typhimurium invasion, in a SPI-1 independent manner. Furthermore, T-2 toxin (1-5 ng/mL promoted the translocation of Salmonella Typhimurium over an intestinal porcine epithelial cell monolayer. Although these findings may seem in favour of Salmonella Typhimurium, microarray analysis showed that T-2 toxin (5 ng/mL causes an intoxication of Salmonella Typhimurium, represented by a reduced motility and a downregulation of metabolic and Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 genes. This study demonstrates marked interactions of T-2 toxin with Salmonella Typhimurium pathogenesis, resulting in bacterial intoxication.

  20. Analysis and projections of physics in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, an assessment of the Physics research capacity in Chile is presented. For this, the period between 2000 and June 2005 has been studied. In this period almost 200 physicists have contributed to scientific production in terms of ISI publications. Amongst these 200, ∼160 correspond to theoretical physicists and only ∼40 to experimental physicists; ∼178 are men and only ∼22 are women. A more detailed analysis shows that ∼160 physicists have at least one appearance in ISI publications per year considering the last 3 years. Ten years ago, a similar criteria (at least one appearance per year in ISI articles, considering mobile three-year periods), the number of active physicists in the Chilean community was estimated at 70. Therefore, the Chilean active physicists' community has doubled in 10 years. There exist 20 centres in which scientific research is developed: 18 university centres, a government institute and a private institute. As regards scientific productivity, both as related to disciplines or research areas, and well as in relation to research centres, it is found that, generally, scientific production, in a particular area in Physics or in a research centre, is directly related to the number of corresponding researchers; that is to say, the percentage of the national productivity in an area or research centre corresponds to its share in the total number of physicists in the country. A geographical analysis shows that 50% of the productivity corresponds to Santiago and 50% to the rest of the country. The impact of the different funds for research is assessed, also: FONDECYT, Presidential Chairs and large projects and centres of excellence. According to Physics researchers opinion, Fondo Nacional de Ciencia y TecnologIa (FONDECYT, National Fund fro Science and Technology) has become the best instrument to support researchi activities in Chile. However, the amount of projects awarded has practically not been increased, which is

  1. Las reglas del juego político en Chile: incentivos y restricciones para la gobernabilidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco MORENO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El propósito del artículo es explorar las instituciones y reglas del juego que rigen el comportamiento y las relaciones entre los actores políticos chilenos desde una perspectiva de gobernabilidad democrática. Se examina en qué forma las instituciones y reglas del juego –formales e informales– contribuyen positiva o negativamente a la gobernabilidad democrática en Chile. Se centrará la atención primero en las instituciones políticas de carácter formal y después, en las de carácter informal. Al examinar las instituciones de carácter formal se distinguirá a aquellas que se vinculan más estrechamente con la forma de gobierno, los mecanismos de pesos y contrapesos, el sistema electoral y el sistema de partidos. En las informales se repasarán brevemente aquellas más visibles: clientelismo, circuitos extrainstitucionales del poder y captura del Estado. El punto de partida para este análisis recoge la idea de que un criterio clave para determinar el nivel de la consolidación democrática en un país es el que resulta de una adecuación razonablemente cercana entre reglas formales y comportamientos y prácticas de los actores.ABSTRACT: The intention of this article is to explore the institutions and rules of the game that govern the behavior of and relations between Chilean political actors from a perspective of democratic governability. It examines the ways in which the institutions and rules of the game –both formal and informal– contribute positively or negatively to democratic governability in Chile. It first focuses its attention on formal political institutions and later examines those that are informal in nature. When examining formal institutions, a special emphasis is put on those most closely linked to the form of government, the mechanisms of weights and counterweights, the electoral system and the party system. The examination of informal institutions concentrates on the most visible such institutions

  2. GANANCIA GENÉTICA ESPERADA EN Acacia mangium EN LOS CHILES, ZONA NORTE DE COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjam\\u00EDn Pavlotzky-Blank

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ganancia genética esperada en Acacia mangium en Los Chiles, zona norte de Costa Rica. Con el objetivo de seleccionar los materiales de mayor crecimiento y calidad de fuste en Acacia mangium, se evaluó un ensayo de progenie de Acacia mangium Willd. conformado por veinticinco familias. El ensayo fue establecido en Los Chiles, zona norte de Costa Rica, en 2006 con evaluaciones en el 2007 y en 2010. Se utilizó material genético seleccionado por la Cooperativa de Conservación y Mejoramiento Genético Forestal "GENFORES", en Costa Rica y Colombia. Cada familia estuvo representada por 48 progenies, plantadas en cuatro parejas distribuidas en forma aleatoria dentro de cada uno de los seis bloques del ensayo. Se evaluó el diámetro a la altura de pecho "DAP", incremento en DAP, adaptabilidad al sitio, número de trozas comerciales, bifurcación, altura de bifurcación, calidad de las primeras cuatro trozas. Se determinó el volumen de madera comercial por árbol y hectárea. Los datos fueron analizados por medio del software SELEGEN de EMBRAPA para obtener los parámetros genéticos. Todos los caracteres registraron valores de heredabilidad media familiar superiores a 0,68. Si se seleccionaran los dos mejores individuos dentro de las mejores doce familias, se obtendría una ganancia genética del 40,8% en volumen comercial/ha a los cuatro años de edad. Esta ganancia corresponde a un volumen comercial de 91,65 m3/ha, a una tasa de 22,9 m3/ha/año. Las dos procedencias derivadas de Colombia son signifi cativamente superiores a los demás materiales evaluados. El análisis de correlación genética entre caracteres muestra que la tasa de crecimiento diamétrico se expresa desde temprana edad en esta especie, lo que podría ser utilizado a futuro en una selección a menor edad.

  3. Densidades de carga utilizadas para el transporte de bovinos destinados a matadero en Chile Stocking densities used to transport cattle to slaughter in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Gallo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron las densidades de carga empleadas en el transporte de 413 cargas (camionadas de bovinos, que comprendieron un total de 12.931 animales, recibidos en dos plantas faenadoras en Chile durante el año 2002, una en la X Región y la otra en la Región Metropolitana. Para las cargas recibidas en la planta de la X Región, las densidades de carga registradas fluctuaron entre 106 y 693 kg/m² (promedio 457 ± 6,6 kg/m² y en la Región Metropolitana fluctuaron entre 268 y 632 kg/m² (promedio 453 ± 9,7 kg/m². En ambas regiones se observó una tendencia a que las densidades de carga usadas en los vehículos de mayor tamaño (camiones simples y con carro fueran mayores; la mayoría de las cargas animales eran transportadas en este tipo de vehículo. Las densidades de carga encontradas para los viajes más largos no difirieron de aquellas usadas para los viajes cortos en el caso de la Región Metropolitana; sin embargo, en el caso de las cargas recibidas en la X Región se observó que en general los animales transportados por distancias más largas viajaron a densidades de carga mayores. En general, 32,4% de las 413 cargas revisadas, que correspondieron a 35,6% de todos los bovinos, sobrepasaron el límite de densidad de carga permitido por la legislación vigente (500 kg/m². Considerando que la literatura indica que el ganado bovino transportado a muy altas densidades, particularmente sobre 500 kg/m², sufre mayor estrés y produce inferior calidad de carne, especialmente en términos de mayor incidencia de contusiones, y que, además, en Chile las canales con contusiones que afectan el tejido muscular sufren una degradación en cuanto a la categoría de tipificación, reduciendo su valor económico, se recomienda, tanto desde el punto de vista de bienestar animal como de calidad de carne, al menos respetar el límite máximo de densidad de carga establecido para el transporte de ganado bovino en ChileThe stocking densities employed in

  4. Competitividad de las exportaciones de chile seco mexicano

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alberto Flores Sánchez; Alejandro Mungaray Lagarda

    2015-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se estudia el comportamiento de la competitividad que ha mostrado México, en cuanto a sus exportaciones de chile seco, durante el periodo de 1993 a 2009, mediante la obtención del índice de ventaja relativa de exportaciones y aplicando el método de análisis de participación constante de mercado, los resultados que se obtuvieron muestran que las exportaciones de chile seco de México han crecido fuertemente, con una tendencia de crecimiento muy variable, por otro lado los...

  5. The economic and financial gains from water markets in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Hearne, Robert R.; Easter, K. William

    1997-01-01

    Chile is one of the few countries that has encouraged the use of markets in water resource management. In order to assess the impact of water markets and transactions costs in Chile, four river valleys, the Maipo, Elqui, Limari, and the Azapa were selected as case studies. Transactions from the Elqui and Limari valleys, during the years 1986 to 1993, were analyzed to determine the gains-from-trade from market transfers. In the economic and financial analysis of water markets, crop budgets wer...

  6. [Measles: the disease, epidemiology, history and vaccination programs in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpiano, Luis; Astroza, Leonor; Toro, Jorge

    2015-08-01

    Measles, one of most important inmuno-preventable diseases, remains as a worldwide concern issue with an important morbidity and mortality. Particularly in the America region declared free of measles in 2010 by WHO, they still appear imported cases that origin outbreaks of variable magnitude in susceptible subjects usually none vaccinated which is the current situation in Santiago, the capital city of Chile. In this review we present characteristics of the etiological agent, the disease, epidemiological aspects with national historical focus, impact of immunization programs and outbreaks in Chile, in order to contribute to knowledge and management of this always present public health problem. PMID:26436786

  7. Bacteriophage therapy to reduce salmonella colonization of broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atterbury, R.J.; Bergen, van M.A.P.; Ortiz, F.; Lovell, M.A.; Harris, J.A.; Boer, de A.G.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Allen, V.M.; Barrow, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Acute enteric infections caused by salmonellas remain a major public health burden worldwide. Poultry, particularly chickens, are known to be the main reservoir for this zoonotic pathogen. Although some progress has been made in reducing Salmonella colonization of broiler chickens by using biosecuri

  8. Genetic mapping of the Salmonella typhimurium pepB locus.

    OpenAIRE

    Green, L; Miller, C G

    1980-01-01

    Transposon technology has been used to map the pepB locus of Salmonella typhimurium. This locus is cotransducible by phage P22 with glyA and strB at min 56 on the Salmonella genetic map. The gene order is strB pepB glyA.

  9. Evaluation of gallium maltolate on fecal Salmonella shedding in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella is a major cause of foodborne illness in humans and causes over a third of all cases of gastroenteritis in the United States. Human foodborne outbreaks due to Salmonella have been traced to milk, beef, pork, and poultry. Fecal contamination of the carcass and hide is thought to be a maj...

  10. Survival of Salmonella spp. In Waste Egg Wash Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    The survival of salmonellae under various environmental conditions has been subject of numerous research studies. Due to low densities of these organisms in natural samples, laboratory or clinical cultures were used to ensure that the initial density of salmonellae was sufficien...

  11. Salmonella induces PD-L1 expression in B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Medina, Marcela; Perez-Lopez, Araceli; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia; Ortiz-Navarrete, Vianney

    2015-10-01

    Salmonella persists for a long time in B cells; however, the mechanism(s) through which infected B cells avoid effector CD8 T cell responses has not been characterized. In this study, we show that Salmonella infects and survives within all B1 and B2 cell subpopulations. B cells are infected with a Salmonella typhimurium strain expressing an ovalbumin (OVA) peptide (SIINFEKL) to evaluate whether B cells process and present Salmonella antigens in the context of MHC-I molecules. Our data showed that OVA peptides are presented by MHC class I K(b)-restricted molecules and the presented antigen is generated through proteasomal degradation and vacuolar processing. In addition, Salmonella-infected B cells express co-stimulatory molecules such as CD40, CD80, and CD86 as well as inhibitory molecules such as PD-L1. Thus, the cross-presentation of Salmonella antigens and the expression of activation molecules suggest that infected B cells are able to prime and activate specific CD8(+) T cells. However, the Salmonella infection-stimulated expression of PD-L1 suggests that the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway may be involved in turning off the cytotoxic effector response during Salmonella persistent infection, thereby allowing B cells to become a reservoir for the bacteria.

  12. 40 CFR 79.68 - Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... consulted. (1) 40 CFR 798.5265, The Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation asay. (2) Ames, B.N., McCann, J... recommendations as specified under 40 CFR 79.60, the following specific information shall be reported: (i... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salmonella typhimurium...

  13. 75 FR 48973 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Prevention of Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ...-1493. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of July 9, 2009 (74 FR 33030... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry: Prevention of Salmonella... availability of a draft guidance entitled ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs...

  14. 21 CFR 118.4 - Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... National Poultry Improvement Plan's standards for “U.S. S. Enteritidis Clean” status (9 CFR 145.23(d)) or... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures....4 Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures. You must follow the SE prevention measures...

  15. Differences in attachment of Salmonella to fresh produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella outbreaks have been associated with the consumption of fresh produce. The produce may be contaminated with Salmonella at any point throughout the food continuum. To develop effective strategies to minimize the risk of foodborne disease caused by this organism, it is essential to examine i...

  16. Orange peel products can reduce Salmonella populations in ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella can live undetected in the gut of food animals and be spread to humans directly and indirectly. Diet can impact intestinal populations of foodborne pathogens, including Salmonella spp. Orange juice production results in a waste product, orange peel and orange pulp, which has a high nutr...

  17. Serotyping of Salmonella Isolates from Broiler Vertical Integrations in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study analyzed 106 Salmonella isolates from different points in broiler vertical integrations of two important poultry areas of Colombia. It was possible to identify the presence of Salmonella in five categories: breeder farm (17.9%), hatchery (6.6 %), broiler farm (38.7 %), processing plant (9...

  18. Modeling of Salmonella Contamination in the Pig Slaughterhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, A.N.; Evers, E.G.; Simons, R.L.L.; Swanenburg, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we present a model for Salmonella contamination of pig carcasses in the slaughterhouse. This model forms part of a larger QMRA (quantitative microbial risk assessment) on Salmonella in slaughter and breeder pigs, which uses a generic model framework that can be parameterized for E

  19. Salmonella serotype distribution in the Dutch broiler supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, van E.D.; Thissen, J.T.N.M.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella serotype distribution can give insight in contamination routes and persistence along a production chain. Therefore, it is important to determine not only Salmonella prevalence but also to specify the serotypes involved at the different stages of the supply chain. For this purpose, data fr

  20. Development of bioluminescent Salmonella strains for use in food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey R Hartford

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella can reside in healthy animals without the manifestation of any adverse effects on the carrier. If raw products of animal origin are not handled properly during processing or cooked to a proper temperature during preparation, salmonellosis can occur. In this research, we developed bioluminescent Salmonella strains that can be used for real-time monitoring of the pathogen's growth on food products. To accomplish this, twelve Salmonella strains from the broiler production continuum were transformed with the broad host range plasmid pAKlux1, and a chicken skin attachment model was developed. Results Salmonella strains carrying pAKlux1 constitutively expressed the luxCDABE operon and were therefore detectable using bioluminescence. Strains were characterized in terms of bioluminescence properties and plasmid stability. To assess the usefulness of bioluminescent Salmonella strains in food safety studies, we developed an attachment model using chicken skin. The effect of washing on attachment of Salmonella strains to chicken skin was tested using bioluminescent strains, which revealed the attachment properties of each strain. Conclusion This study demonstrated that bioluminescence is a sensitive and effective tool to detect Salmonella on food products in real-time. Bioluminescence imaging is a promising technology that can be utilized to evaluate new food safety measures for reducing Salmonella contamination on food products.

  1. Split marketing: A risk factor for Salmonella in market pigs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to determine if split marketing affects Salmonella prevalence in market pigs, by comparing the Salmonella prevalence in the first group of pigs selected for slaughter (i.e., “First pull”) versus the last group of pigs selected for slaughter (i.e., “Close out”) from typical co...

  2. Organic acids for control of Salmonella in different feed materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyuncu, Sevinc; Andersson, Mats Gunnar; Löfström, Charlotta;

    2013-01-01

    Background Salmonella control in animal feed is important in order to protect animal and public health. Organic acids is one of the control measures used for treatment of Salmonella contaminated feed or feed ingredients. In the present study, the efficacy of formic acid (FA) and different blends...

  3. Scenarios for wind power in Brazil, Argentina and Chile; Cenarios para a energia eolio eletrica no Brasil, Argentina e Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedecca, Joao Gorestein; Nogueira, Larissa Goncalves; Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martino [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], emails: jdedecca@fem.unicamp.br, larissa@fem.unicamp.br, januzzi@fem.unicamp.br; Gomes, Rodolfo Dourado [International Energy Initiative-Latin America (IEI-LA), Campinas, SP (Brazil)], email: rodolfo@iei-la.org

    2010-07-01

    The Chilean, Argentinean and Brazilian power matrixes presented in the last two decades a growth of the non-renewable energy sources share, especially fossil sources, mainly in installed capacity and in a lesser degree in energy production. Greenpeace and the European Renewable Energy Council have elaborated a reference energy scenario together with a scenario analyzing the institution of ample measures for the promotion of renewable energy sources. Feed-in tariffs and auction or bidding mechanisms implemented in Brazil and Argentina and the renewable portfolio standard implemented in Chile allied with the wind industry state in these countries indicate that Chile and Argentina will fulfill the 2020 wind power installed capacity predicted in the reference scenarios, while Brazil will reach the energy revolution scenario prediction. Important energy policy changes are required if the Chile and Argentina energy revolution scenarios wind power installed capacity are to become a reality in 2020. (author)

  4. Isolation and characterization of Salmonella enterica in day-old ducklings in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Kamelia M; Marouf, Sherif H; Zolnikov, Tara R; AlAtfeehy, Nayerah

    2014-01-01

    Importing day-old ducklings (DOD) unknowingly infected with non-typhoid Salmonella (NTS) may be associated with disease risk. Domestic and international trade may enhance this risk. Salmonella enterica serovars, their virulence genes combinations and antibiotic resistance, garner attention for their potentiality to contribute to the adverse health effects on populations throughout the world. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of imported versus domestic DOD as potential carriers of NTS. The results confirm the prevalence of salmonellosis in imported ducklings was 18·5% (25/135), whereas only 12% (9/75) of cases were determined in the domestic ducklings. Fourteen serovars (Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella kisii, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella gaillac, Salmonella uno, Salmonella eingedi, Salmonella shubra, Salmonella bardo, Salmonella inganda, Salmonella kentucky, Salmonella stanley, Salmonella virchow, Salmonella haifa, and Salmonella anatum) were isolated from the imported ducklings, whereas only S. enteritidis, S. typhimurium, S. virchow, and S. shubra were isolated from the domestic ducklings. The isolated Salmonella serovars were 100% susceptible to only colistin sulphate and 100% resistant to lincomycin. The 14 Salmonella serovars were screened for 11 virulence genes (invA, avrA, ssaQ, mgtC, siiD, sopB, gipA, sodC1, sopE1, spvC, and bcfC) by PCR. The invA, sopB, and bcfC genes were detected in 100% of the Salmonella serovars; alternatively, the gipA gene was absent in all of the isolated Salmonella serovars. The 11 virulent genes were not detected in either of S. stanley or S. haifa serovars. The results confirm an association between antibiotic resistance and virulence of Salmonella in the DOD. This study confirms the need for a country adherence to strict public health and food safety regimes.

  5. Reconocimientos, trayectos y engaños: reflejos literarios de la emergencia del cine en Santiago de Chile (1900-1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javiera Lorenzini Raty

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se rastrearán las huellas "imaginarias" de la emergencia del cine en Santiago de Chile en tres textos literarios de la época: Casa Grande, de Luis Orrego Luco; la serie de crónicas "Un roto va al cine" y "La visita del cowboy", de Joaquín Edwards Bello. Desde el marco metodológico aportado por la historia cultural urbana, el análisis de estas obras pretende constatar el modo en que el impacto representacional del fenómeno cinematográfico en Santiago de inicios de siglo xx permite entrever un espacio público cruzado por ambigüedades y tensiones discursivas.

  6. Análisis social multicriterio: reflexiones en torno a la institucionalidad ambiental en la región de Valparaíso, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Arellano Escudero

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Una revisión del sistema de gestión ambiental muestra que la relevancia de los espacios de participación ciudadana es aún limitada, según se desprende del análisis de las evaluaciones ambientales en la Región de Valparaíso, Chile, en el periodo 2005-2009. Una mirada a esta realidad, desde las deniciones de la ciencia posnormal y del análisis social multicriterio —ASM—, permite indagar en las eventuales contribuciones del Trabajo Social a diversas situaciones de conflicto socioambiental. El artículo propone que la profesión, con su capacidad articuladora, debiera apostar de manera contundente por una incursión en el tópico de la sustentabilidad.

  7. The eleventh CRL-Salmonella workshop, 9 May 2006, Saint Malo, France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooijman KA; MGB

    2006-01-01

    De elfde workshop georganiseerd door het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella) werd gehouden op 9 mei 2006 in Saint Malo, Frankrijk. Deelnemers waren vertegenwoordigers van de nationale Referentie Laboratoria voor Salmonella (NRLs-Salmonella) van de lidstaten van de

  8. The tenth CRL-Salmonella workshop; 28 and 29 April 2005, Bilthoven, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooijman KA; MGB

    2006-01-01

    De tiende workshop georganiseerd door het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella) werd gehouden op 28 en 29 April 2005 in Bilthoven, Nederland. Deelnemers betroffen vertegenwoordigers van de Nationale Referentie Laboratoria voor Salmonella (NRLs-Salmonella) van de lids

  9. Evaluation of different analysis and identification methods for Salmonella detection in surface drinking water sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Bing-Mu, E-mail: bmhsu@ccu.edu.tw [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Kuan-Hao; Huang, Shih-Wei [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tseng, Kuo-Chih [Department of Internal Medicine, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Su, Ming-Jen [Department of Clinical Pathology, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Wei-Chen; Ji, Dar-Der [Research and Diagnostic Center, Centers for Disease Control, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shih, Feng-Cheng; Chen, Jyh-Larng [Department of Environmental Engineering and Health, Yuanpei University of Science and Technology, HsinChu, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kao, Po-Min [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2011-09-15

    The standard method for detecting Salmonella generally analyzes food or fecal samples. Salmonella often occur in relatively low concentrations in environmental waters. Therefore, some form of concentration and proliferation may be needed. This study compares three Salmonella analysis methods and develops a new Salmonella detection procedure for use in environmental water samples. The new procedure for Salmonella detection include water concentration, nutrient broth enrichment, selection of Salmonella containing broth by PCR, isolation of Salmonella strains by selective culture plates, detection of possible Salmonella isolate by PCR, and biochemical testing. Serological assay and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) can be used to identify Salmonella serotype and genotype, respectively. This study analyzed 116 raw water samples taken from 18 water plants and belonging to 5 watersheds. Of these 116, 10 water samples (8.6%) taken from 7 water plants and belonging to 4 watersheds were positive for a Salmonella-specific polymerase chain reaction targeting the invA gene. Guided by serological assay results, this study identified 7 cultured Salmonella isolates as Salmonella enterica serovar: Alnaby, Enteritidis, Houten, Montevideo, Newport, Paratyphi B var. Java, and Victoria. These seven Salmonella serovars were identified in clinical cases for the same geographical areas, but only one of them was 100% homologous with clinical cases in the PFGE pattern. - Research highlights: {yields} A new Salmonella detecting procedure for environmental water is developed. {yields} Salmonella isolates are identified by serological assay and PFGE. {yields} A total of seven Salmonella serovars is isolated from environmental water.

  10. Prevalence of Salmonella in wild snakes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Toshiro; Ishihara, Tomoe; Furukawa, Ichiro; Okatani, Alexandre Tomomitsu; Kato, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    A total of 87 wild snakes of 6 species in 2 families collected in Japan were examined for the presence of Salmonella. The prevalence of Salmonella was 58.6%, and that of Salmonella enterica subspecies I, which includes most human pathogenic serotypes, accounted for 12.6%. S. enterica subspecies I was isolated from Japanese grass snakes and Japanese four-striped snakes, and the isolates belonged to 6 serotypes: S. enterica subspecies enterica serotypes Eastbourne, Mikawashima, Narashino, Newport, Saintpaul, and Thompson. The prevalence of S. enterica subspecies IIIb was higher (41.4%) than that of S. enterica subspecies I, and it was isolated from 4 snake species. The prevalence of Salmonella enterica subspecies and isolation of serotypes that are commonly detected in reptiles and human salmonellosis suggest that wild snakes may become a source of Salmonella infection.

  11. Salmonella serotypes in reptiles and humans, French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Noellie; Le Hello, Simon; Weill, François-Xavier; de Thoisy, Benoit; Berger, Franck

    2014-05-14

    In French Guiana, a French overseas territory located in the South American northern coast, nearly 50% of Salmonella serotypes isolated from human infections belong to serotypes rarely encountered in metropolitan France. A reptilian source of contamination has been investigated. Between April and June 2011, in the area around Cayenne, 151 reptiles were collected: 38 lizards, 37 snakes, 32 turtles, 23 green iguanas and 21 caimans. Cloacal swab samples were collected and cultured. Isolated Salmonella strains were identified biochemically and serotyped. The overall carriage frequency of carriage was 23.2% (95% confidence interval: 16.7-30.4) with 23 serotyped strains. The frequency of Salmonella carriage was significantly higher for wild reptiles. Near two-thirds of the Salmonella serotypes isolated from reptiles were also isolated from patients in French Guiana. Our results highlight the risk associated with the handling and consumption of reptiles and their role in the spread of Salmonella in the environment.

  12. Functional and phenotypic profiling of innate immunity during Salmonella infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke Brandt; Pedersen, Susanne Brix

    Salmonellae are food borne pathogens, typically acquired by the oral ingestion of contaminated food or water, causing disease in both healthy and immunocompromised individuals. To gain insight into early immune regulation events caused by Salmonella as well as inflammatory signatures induced...... in Peyer’s patches 24 hours after murine oral Salmonella challenge and while Mφ and mDC exhibited dose-related cellular atrophy, pDC were less susceptible to bacteria-induced cell death, suggesting a role for pDC in early stage Salmonella containment. Furthermore, we identified a number of both DC and Mφ....... The results presented in this thesis add to the current knowledge about innate immunity to Salmonella, suggest new host immune cell subsets important for bacterial containment and provide a basic understanding of bacteria-induced DC inflammatory programs. The two latter could prove important in regard...

  13. Salmonella enterica Serotype Arizonae Meningitis in a Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wubishet Lakew

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Typhoidal and nontyphoidal salmonella infections are common causes of gastroenteritis in the community. However, salmonella only rarely causes invasive infections like meningitis. We report a 13-day-old female neonate with signs and symptoms of meningitis whose cerebrospinal fluid (CSF culture showed Salmonella enterica serotype Arizonae that was sensitive to ceftriaxone. She presented with fever and failure to feed for 2 days. Despite prompt treatment with ampicillin, gentamicin, and ceftriaxone, she developed communicating hydrocephalus, frequent seizures, and coma that progressed to death after 2 weeks of hospitalization. Salmonella enterica serotype Arizonae is a rare cause of human infection known to leading to meningitis symptoms similar to those caused by other salmonella species. This is the first report of it as a cause of meningitis in a child under one month of age. Therefore, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of Gram-negative bacillary meningitis in immunocompromised children, neonates, and those with contacts with reptiles.

  14. Effects of propolis from Brazil and Bulgaria on Salmonella serovars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. O. Orsi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis shows biological properties such as antibacterial action. This bee product has a complex chemical composition, which depends on the local flora where it is produced. Salmonella serovars are responsible for human diseases that range from localized gastroenteritis to systemic infections. The aim of the present study was to investigate the susceptibility of Salmonella strains, isolated from food and infectious processes, to the antibacterial action of Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis, as well as to determine the behavior of these bacteria, according to the incubation period, in medium plus propolis. Dilution of ethanolic extract of propolis in agar was the used method. Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis showed an antibacterial action against all Salmonella serovars. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC of propolis were similar, although they were collected in different geographic regions. Salmonella typhimurium, isolated from human infection, was more resistant to propolis than Salmonella enteritidis.

  15. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in pet turtles and their environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Du-San; Shin, Gee-Wook; Wendt, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Pet turtles are known as a source of Salmonella infection to humans when handled in captivity. Thirty four turtles purchased from pet shops and online markets in Korea were examined to determine whether the turtles and their environment were contaminated with Salmonella spp. Salmonella spp. were isolated from fecal samples of 17 turtles. These isolates were identified as S. enterica through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolation rate of Salmonella spp. from the soil and water samples increased over time. We concluded that a high percentage of turtles being sold in pet shops were infected with Salmonella spp., and their environments tend to become contaminated over time unless they are maintained properly. These results indicate that pet turtles could be a potential risk of salmonellosis in Korea. PMID:27729933

  16. Monitoring the northern Chile megathrust with the Integrated Plate boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, Bernd; Asch, Günter; Cailleau, Beatrice; Diaz, Guillermo Chong; Barrientos, Sergio; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Oncken, Onno

    2010-05-01

    The oceanic Nazca plate subducts beneath the continental South American plate by recurrent rupture of large segments of its interface. The resulting earthquakes are among the largest and most frequent on Earth. Along the Chilean and southern Peruvian margin, all sizeable segments have ruptured at least once in the past 150 years for which there exist historic and/or instrumental records. The one segment that is most mature for re-rupture stretches for more than 500 km along the northernmost Chilean coast between roughly -23° and -18° latitude. It last broke in 1877 in a magnitude ~8.5 earthquake, triggering a major Tsunami. From the historical record, it has been known to have a recurrence cycle of approximately 110 years. The adjoining segments to the south and north broke rather recently in 1995 and 2001 in M>8 earthquakes and an M 7.7 earthquake intruded into the southern part of the seismic gap in 2007 between Antofagasto and Tocopilla. This makes northern Chile a unique natural laboratory to observe a subduction megathrust at various stages of its seismic cycle. For that purpose, installation of long-term observatories started in 2006 in a close cooperation of the Universidad de Chile (Santiago, Chile), the Universidad Catolica del Norte (Antofagasta, Chile), the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (France), and the GFZ German research Centre for Geosciences (Germany). Currently we are operating 17 modern seismological stations equipped with STS-2 broadband seismometers and accelerometers (EPI sensor). At least two more stations will be installed in the near future. Continuous GPS, tilt, creep, climate and magnetotellurics measurements are complementing the seismological part. A majority of the sites provide data near real-time. We will present results of seismic monitoring including analysis of the 2007 M7.7 Tocopilla earthquake sequence that was recorded during the installation stage of the observatory. We relocated the mainshock and about a one

  17. Production and consumption of energy in Chile 1987. Produccion y consumo de energia en Chile 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    Presents information, at a national level, on production and consumption of various types of energy, including statistical data on commercial deals (hydrocarbons, coal) and the activities of the companies (hydromechanical energy, vegetable wastes for power generation and biogas). Electrical energy is described in detail. The first chapter presents an energy overview of the country and its energy sources, evaluating each one in order to obtain the total energy produced in Chile. The second chapter deals with electric power in the country, classifying power installed, generated and consumed by category of producer, consumer and generating type. The third chapter discusses the planned capacity of the Zonas Electricas, and the fourth chapter reviews the characteristics of the installations, production statistics, consumption and operation of the grid.

  18. CHILE'S RUSH TO FREE TRADE AGREEMENTS El frenesí de Chile por los Tratados de Libre Comercio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LESLIE WEHNER

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the reasons for Chile's aggressive Free Trade Agreement (FTA policy. Assessing both how the Chilean government has converged with the export sector and how the government has been able to co-opt, soften and divide those on the losing side of any FTA policy, are key to understanding Chile's vast number of FTAs. However, FTAs are also a constitutive part of a country's foreign policy, which converts these accords into a vehicle for the achievement of state goals dealing with economic issues and power configurations and expectations. It is the interplay between domestic groups' interests and the state's foreign policy goals that explain Chile's rush to FTAs.Este artículo analiza las razones que llevan a Chile a implementar una política agresiva de Tratados de Libre Comercio (TLC. Para comprender el porqué del frenesí y del número de acuerdos se evalúa cómo el gobierno de Chile logra converger con el sector exportador, y cómo coopta, divide y disminuye a los grupos perdedores de esta política. Sin embargo, los TLC son además parte de la política exterior de un país; lo que hace de estos acuerdos un vehículo para alcanzar objetivos estratégicos para el Estado. Es la interrelación entre los intereses de grupos domésticos y los objetivos de política exterior del Estado los que explican el porqué del frenesí de Chile por alcanzar un alto número de TLC.

  19. Grape varieties in Chile and Argentina (1550-1850. Genealogy of torrontés Variedades de uva en Chile y Argentina (1550-1850. Genealogía del torrontés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Lacoste

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From the eighteenth century until today Cuyo and central Chile have been the main viticulture centers in Latin America and one of the most developed in the world. Their wine and spirits making have had important social, economic, politic and cultural implications in the region. Behind this, there has been viticulture, intensive and specialized farm-working, and viticulturists, who have had key roles. This article, based on originals and unpublished documents from Santiago, Mendoza, and San Juan notaries and court archives, examines varieties cultivated in the region. At the end, a document corpus was generated with 3.5 million plants in order to identify time of entry, adaptation, and propagation of grape varieties from Spanish colonization until French strains entered the region during mid nineteenth century. In particular, coexistence of Pais grape and Italia grape (muscat of Alexandria is examined, which had direct influence over the appearance of the Torrontes variety. The latest is the only high value wine-making Creole variety that prevails until today and is the most important in white-wine-making in Argentina.Cuyo y Chile central constituyen, desde el siglo XVIII hasta hoy, el principal polo vitivinícola de América Latina y uno de los con mayor desarrollo del mundo. Su producción de vinos y aguardientes ha tenido fuertes implicancias sociales, económicas, políticas y culturales en la región. En la base de este proceso se encuentra el cultivo de la vid, trabajo agrícola intensivo y especializado, en el cual los vidueños tienen una relevancia central. Este artículo examina las variedades cultivadas en la región a partir de documentos originales inéditos, sobre todo de fondos notariales y judiciales de archivos de Santiago, Mendoza y San Juan. Sobre esta base se conformó un corpus documental de 3,5 millones de plantas, con vistas a identificar el proceso de ingreso, adaptación y propagación de las variedades de vid, desde la

  20. El "régimen dual" en Israel desde 1967

    OpenAIRE

    Lev Grinberg

    2008-01-01

    Este artículo aborda el establecimiento del peculiar régimen de dominación dual de Israel desde 1967, argumentando que la estructura de este régimen convierte a las élites militares en un actor político crucial. El régimen dual se basa en la separación geográfi ca entre dos regímenes diferentes de control y legitimación. Argumentaré aquí que la guerra de 1967 fue un parteaguas histórico, ya que acarreó un desdibujamiento de las fronteras israelíes y la llegada de un régimen ...

  1. Desarrollo sostenible: enfoques desde las ciencias económicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Vergara Tamayo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available El concepto de desarrollo sostenible ha sido objeto de gran discusión y controversia durante décadas, de cuestionamientos y debates teórico–prácticos en el ámbito disciplinar económico. Las teorías que soportan esta diversidad conceptual permiten identificar en el tiempo no solo la construcción del concepto, sino también la transformación que este sufre, ya sea por parte de enfoques disciplinares o también multidisciplinares, como una diversidad de posturas frente a la evolución del mismo. A partir de allí surge la necesidad de relacionar algunos elementos clave, así como los diferentes puntos del desarrollo sostenible, dadas las condiciones que dieron origen a este desde la economía como ciencia social.

  2. Detailed Axial Morphology of the Chile Rise as it Approaches the Chile Triple Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, D. K.; Henig, A. S.; Barroso, E.; Grevemeyer, I.; Thurber, A. R.; German, C. R.; Inspire Cruise Participants, T.

    2010-12-01

    New bathymetric mapping along the two southernmost Chile Rise spreading segments shows axial volcanic structure that had not been evident in prior data. On the first segment extending north from the triple junction, where the basement is not obscured by sediment, a narrow line of volcanic structures appears to track the center of the rift valley. However, the next segment north, which is offset almost 50 km along a transform fault, has axial volcanic features that vary in position within the rift valley. In the northern ~half of this segment, lineated small volcanic structures hug the eastern scarp of the rift whereas in the south they are apparent only along the western part of the valley floor. A classic ridge-transform intersection (RTI) nodal deep occurs at this southern end of the segment. The position of the basin is asymmetric relative to the axis, toward the ‘inside corner’ on the eastern side of the rift valley. It is intriguing that the nodal deep, which is often modeled as the result of viscous mantle upwelling and plate stresses at an RTI, is centered on the opposite side of the rift valley from where the most recent volcanic activity occurred. Presumably this reflects interplay between local magma plumbing and tectonic stresses. In addition to the local ridge-transform forces, regional factors associated with subduction along the edge of the Cocos plate may affect mantle flow, melting, and detailed plate kinematics. We will present maps that combine the new Simrad EM122 swath sonar data, obtained during cruise MV1003 aboard R/V Melville, with pre-existing German and Chilean bathymetric grids. We will also discuss some of the tectonic and magmatic implications of the observed detailed morphologic patterns. As one of the few areas on the globe where active subduction and spreading occur in close proximity, the southernmost Chile rise presents a natural laboratory for studying the manifestations of interaction between these processes.

  3. La provisión de servicios de salud en Chile: aspectos históricos, dilemas y perspectivas The provision of health services in Chile: historical aspects, dilemmas and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Azevedo

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Se hace un breve análisis histórico del Sistema de Salud en Chile, desde el Sistema Nacional de Salud, con énfasis a las reformas ocurridas a partir de 1980, durante el régimen militar y los cambios introducidos desde 1990 por los gobiernos democráticos. Se compara la oferta actual de servicos por el subsistema público com aquella del privado utilizando como indicadores por mil beneficiarios: la tasa de consultas, de exámenes de laboratorio, de hospitalizaciones, de altas y de cirugías y la satisfación usuaria. Se analizan los principales dilemas del sistema de salud y las perspectivas de solución a la luz de las principales medidas tomadas en el presente. Hay buenas perpectivas de que el subsistema público mantenga su liderazgo histórico en la conducción y oferta de servicios en Chile debido a la rigurosa lógica geográfica y demográfica en la oferta de servicios, la disponibilidad estable de recursos financieros, una red de servicios suficiente y además, la considerable motivación de sus recursos humanos. Son mencionados aspectos innovadores que pueden ser útiles a otros sistemas, especialmente en América Latina, tales como: organización y gestión de servicios regionales de salud; metodologías innovadoras de pago de servicios; sistema de vigilancia sanitaria y la regulamentación estatal del financiamento privado en salud.Realiza-se breve análise histórica do sistema de saúde no Chile, a partir do Serviço Nacional de Saúde, com ênfase nas reformas ocorridas desde 1980,durante o regime militar, e as mudanças introduzidas a partir de 1990 pelos governos democráticos. Compara a oferta atual de serviços pelo sistema público com a do setor privado utilizando como indicadores por mil beneficiários: a taxa de consultas, de exames de laboratório, de hospitalização, de altas e de cirurgias e a satisfação dos usuários. Analisa os principais dilemas do sistema de saúde e suas perspectivas à luz das medidas

  4. Antibiotic resistance, integrons and Salmonella genomic island 1 among non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vo, An T T; Duijkeren, Engeline van; Fluit, Ad C; Wannet, Wim J B; Verbruggen, Anjo J; Maas, Henny M E; Gaastra, Wim

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance patterns, integron characteristics and gene cassettes as well as the presence of Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) in non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) isolates from human and animal origin. Epidemiologically unrelated Dutch N

  5. Detection of Salmonella spp, Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium in naturally infected broiler chickens by a multiplex PCR-based assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paião, F.G.; Arisitides, L.G.A.; Murate, L.S.; Vilas-Bôas, G.T.; Vilas-Boas, L.A.; Shimokomaki, M.

    2013-01-01

    The presence of Salmonella in the intestinal tract, on the chickens skin and among their feathers, may cause carcasses contamination during slaughtering and processing and possibly it is responsible by the introduction of this microorganism in the slaughterhouses. A rapid method to identify and monitor Salmonella and their sorovars in farm is becoming necessary. A pre-enriched multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR) assay employing specific primers was developed and used to detect Salmonella at the genus level and to identify the Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) in broiler chicken swab samples. The method was validated by testing DNA extract from 90 fresh culture cloacal swab samples from poultry chicken cultured in phosphate buffer peptone water at 37 °C for 18 h. The final results showed the presence of Salmonella spp. in 25% of samples, S. Enteritidis was present in 12% of the Salmonella-positive samples and S. Typhimurium in 3% of the samples. The m-PCR assay developed in this study is a specific and rapid alternative method for the identification of Salmonella spp. and allowed the observation of specific serovar contamination in the field conditions within the locations where these chickens are typically raised. PMID:24159281

  6. Presence of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Gallinarum in commercial laying hens diagnosed with Fowl Typhoid Disease in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    : A severe outbreak of salmonellosis in commercial brown table egg layers first occurred in Colombia in 2006. From 2008 to 2012, 35 samples collected from commercial layers farms in the states of Cundinamarca, Santander, Bolivar and San Andres, were positive to Salmonella enterica. Salmonella (S) wa...

  7. Salmonella in slaughter pigs: the effect of logistic slaughter procedures of pigs on the prevalence of salmonella on pork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swanenburg, M.; Wolf, van der P.J.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Snijders, J.M.A.; Knapen, van F.

    2001-01-01

    A substantial part of the finishing pigs in the Netherlands is infected with Salmonella. Infection of pigs with Salmonella can occur already on the farm. Pigs can also get infected or contaminated during transport, lairage or slaughter. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of separating

  8. Imaginarios sociales en torno al comportamiento ciudadano docente: una mirada desde la formación inicial docente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cárcamo Vásquez, Héctor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analizan los imaginarios sociales que se configuran en el ejercicio docente desde la mirada de los estudiantes de las carreras de pedagogía de una Universidad Pública de la Región del Bío-Bío en Chile. La metodología del estudio fue de carácter cualitativa, la información se recolectó mediante grupos de discusión según carreras. El análisis de contenido se sustentó en la estrategia temática con base en la semántica estructural y en la acción situación. Además, se utilizaron las dimensiones del comportamiento ciudadano docente desarrolladas y la Teoría de los Imaginarios Sociales. Dentro de los resultados relevantes se encuentra que un docente que sustenta su actuar en la ciudadanía promueve, según los estudiantes, un clima adecuado en la formación inicial; por cuanto genera desafíos y motivación extra en el desarrollo de las asignaturas. A modo de conclusión, se logra establecer que el comportamiento ciudadano docente es influido por las dimensiones teóricas, cortesía docente y praxis pedagógica; lo cual presenta una valoración positiva por parte de los estudiantes, puesto que influye la formación inicial y su quehacer docente.

  9. Energy from the Andes. The hydropower plant La Confluencia in Chile; Energie aus den Anden. Die Wasserkraftanlage La Confluencia in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Mathias [Hochschule Regensburg (Germany). Bauingenieurwesen

    2012-11-01

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the hydropower plant La Confluencia situated nearly 150 km south of Santiago de Chile (Chile). La Confluencia is a project development of a Norwegian-Australian joint venture of SN Power utilities (Oslo, Norway) and Pacific Hydro (Melbourne, Australia). Constructora Hochtief Tecsa (Santiago, Chile) took over the order to construct the plant completely including planning, construction, equipment and operation. The system concept was developed in collaboration with Poeyry Energy (Zurich, Switzerland). The plant design was devised in cooperation with Intertechne (Curitiba, Brazil), EDIC Ingenieros (Santiago, Chile) and Geocontrol (Madrid, Spain).

  10. Subduction zone guided waves in Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garth, Thomas; Rietbrock, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Guided wave dispersion is observed in subduction zones as high frequency energy is retained and delayed by low velocity structure in the subducting slab, while lower frequency energy is able to travel at the faster velocities associated with the surrounding mantle material. As subduction zone guided waves spend longer interacting with the low velocity structure of the slab than any other seismic phase, they have a unique capability to resolve these low velocity structures. In Northern Chile, guided wave arrivals are clearly observed on two stations in the Chilean fore-arc on permanent stations of the IPOC network. High frequency (> 5 Hz) P-wave arrivals are delayed by approximately 2 seconds compared to the low frequency (wave arrivals. Full waveform finite difference modelling is used to test the low velocity slab structure that cause this P-wave dispersion. The synthetic waveforms produced by these models are compared to the recorded waveforms. Spectrograms are used to compare the relative arrival times of different frequencies, while the velocity spectra is used to constrain the relative amplitude of the arrivals. Constraining the waveform in these two ways means that the full waveform is also matched, and the low pass filtered observed and synthetic waveforms can be compared. A combined misfit between synthetic and observed waveforms is then calculated following Garth & Rietbrock (2014). Based on this misfit criterion we constrain the velocity model by using a grid search approach. Modelling the guided wave arrivals suggest that the observed dispersion cannot be solely accounted for by a single low velocity layer as suggested by previous guided wave studies. Including dipping low velocity normal fault structures in the synthetic model not only accounts for the observed strong P-wave coda, but also produces a clear first motion dispersion. We therefore propose that the lithospheric mantle of the subducting Nazca plate is highly hydrated at intermediate depths by

  11. Immediate differentiation of salmonella-resembling colonies on brilliant green agar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2000-01-01

    A rapid biochemical system (OBIS) based on immediate enzymatic differentiation of Citrobacter, Proteus, Providencia, Hafnia and Morganella spp. from Salmonella on brilliant green agar was evaluated A total of 96 field isolates from various Salmonella serotypes, 18 Citrobacter freundii and 25...... isolates of other Enterobacteriaceae were tested All Salmonella isolates were identified correctly by the kit, and none of the Enterobacteriaceae isolates were identified as Salmonella. The results indicate complete specificity for Salmonella colonies on brilliant green agar....

  12. Implications of the Structural Change in Dairy Products Trade on Milk Price Paid to Producers in Chile Implicancias del Cambio Estructural en el Mercado de Productos Lácteos Sobre el Precio de Leche Pagado a Productor en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Engler

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 1990 row milk production has exhibited a rapid increase from 890 million liters in 1990 to 1,818 million in 2006. The excess production has allowed for the expansion of the export sector, converting Chile in a net exporter in 2001. A relevant question in this new market scenario is how this structural change can affect milk prices paid to producers in Chile. The consequences of this structural change were explored in this study using a Vector Error Correction (VEC model and cointegration analysis. The results indicated that the domestic, CIF (Cost, Insurance, Freight and FOB (Free On Board prices were cointegrated, implying that changes in the import and export prices are transmitted to the domestic market affecting the milk price paid to producers. Prior to 2001, the import price (CIF was the relevant reference dictating the movements of the domestic price. After 2001, the export price (FOB became the reference, whereas the CIF price was no longer significant. The parameters of the VEC model suggest that the cointegrating relation between CIF and domestic prices for the first period under analysis (1990-2000 was clearer than that between FOB and domestic prices for the second period (2001-2007/3. The price elasticity for the FOB-domestic price vector had a large confidence interval, which is why it is difficult to draw strong conclusions regarding the impact of future FOB fluctuations on the milk price paid to producers in Chile after 2001.Desde 1990 la producción de leche ha experimentado un rápido incremento, pasando de 890 millones de litros en 1990 a 1.818 millones de litros en 2006. El exceso de producción de leche ha permitido la expansión comercial, transformando a Chile en exportador neto a partir del año 2001. En este nuevo escenario de mercado, una pregunta relevante es cómo este cambio estructural puede afectar el precio de leche pagado a productor. En este estudio se aborda esta interrogante, utilizando un Modelo de

  13. Hábitos de higiene oral en estudiantes de odontología de la Universidad de Chile Oral health habits in dental students at the University of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Espinoza Santander

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Los estudiantes de odontología son agentes involucrados en la educación de los cuidados bucodentales. No se han publicado estudios nacionales que describan sus hábitos de higiene oral. Objetivo: Describir la proporción de estudiantes de odontología de la Universidad de Chile con hábitos de higiene oral saludables según sexo, nivel socioeconómico y años de estudios. Material y método: Estudio transversal descriptivo. Se seleccionaron, por muestreo aleatario simple con afijación proporcional 150 estudiantes entre 1er- 4to año. Se aplicó un cuestionario sobre hábitos de higiene oral, que incluía uso y frecuencia de cepillado, seda dental y enjuagatorio bucal, tiempo transcurrido desde la última visita al dentista y variables sociodemográficas. Se construyó un índice Hábitos de Higiene Oral que incluía cepillado por lo menos dos veces al día, uso de seda dental diariamente y visita al dentista por lo menos una vez por año. Resultados: Un 98% se cepillaba los dientes por lo menos dos veces al día, 37% usaba seda dental diariamente y 74% había acudido al dentista por lo menos una vez en el último año. Sólo un 30% presentó un resultado positivo para el índice Hábitos de Higiene Oral. No se detectaron diferencias significativas según sexo, nivel socioeconómico y años de estudios. Conclusiones: Los estudiantes de odontología de la Universidad de Chile presentan alta frecuencia de cepillado dental y consultan frecuentemente al dentista, sin embargo, el uso de seda dental es bajo. Estudios futuros deberían analizar otras variables involucradas en un mejor cuidado de la salud bucal en este grupo.Dental students are agents involved in the education of oral care. There are no published studies that describe their oral hygiene habits in Chile. Objective: To describe the proportion of dental students at the University of Chile with healthy oral hygiene habits by sex, socioeconomic status and years of study. Material and

  14. Acordos bilaterais de comércio como estratégia de inserção regional e internacional do Chile Bilateral trade agreements as Chile's strategy for regional and international insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Rossetto Lopes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho analisa a mudança na estratégia de inserção regional e internacional do Chile no começo dos anos 1990, com ênfase em acordos comerciais bilaterais, depois de ter praticado a abertura comercial generalizada desde meados da década de 1970. A opção por acordos bilaterais foi adotada pelo primeiro governo democrático, como parte da orientação de manter e aprofundar a abertura externa empreendida pela ditadura, e conseguiu ampliar as vendas externas e diversificar produtos e destinos. As exportações têm papel decisivo na economia chilena, aberta e pequena, e os 24 acordos bilaterais de comércio com diferentes países e regiões, além de outros em negociação, podem ser explicados pelo esgotamento das possibilidades de ampliar o comércio por meio de reduções adicionais da tarifa externa unilateral, hoje em 6% para quase todos os produtos. A formação de uma rede de acordos bilaterais ampla e diversificada, contudo, tem também interesses políticos, estratégicos e de segurança em relação a vizinhos e a países próximos, além de evitar que o Chile precise se integrar, como membro pleno, a blocos regionais para garantir seus interesses, o que amplia as possibilidades de lidar com diferentes e importantes parceiros no âmbito internacional.The paper analysis the change of Chile's regional and international strategy of insertion through bilateral trade agreements in the beginning of the 90s, after a generalized trade opening since the middle of the 70s. The bilateral trade agreements strategy was set up by the democratic governments as part of the direction of maintaining and deepening the unilateral trade liberalization undertaken by the dictatorship, enlarging exports and diversifying products and markets. Exports have a decisive role in Chile's economy, open and small. The 24 bilateral trade agreements already signed with different countries and regions (besides others under negotiation can be explained by the

  15. Análisis de la conectividad externa de los puertos de Chile como un factor de competitividad External connectivity analysis of the ports of Chile as a factor of competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Salgado Oportus

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Los puertos son un nodo dentro de la cadena de transporte, por lo que evaluar y determinar la conectividad externa de los puertos de Chile con los principales socios económicos del país es una de las piezas fundamentales para determinar y analizar su competitividad portuaria dado el creciente desarrollo comercial que ha llevado nuestro país. Esta investigación está basada en el contenido de los lineamientos de investigación sobre conectividad externa de países de la UNCTAD. En el caso de este estudio, esta metodología fue modificada y aplicada para medir la conectividad externa de los puertos que transfieren contenedores en Chile. Se seleccionaron siete puertos utilizando el criterio de la participación en el mercado de este tipo de carga, para los cuales se determinaron nueve tasas que conforman el Índice de Conectividad Externa Portuaria (ICEP definido en este trabajo. Los resultados obtenidos arrojaron que los puertos de Iquique, San Vicente y Valparaíso brindan mayores oportunidades a los exportadores de acceder a cadenas logísticas más adecuadas a sus productos o acceder a distintos mercados desde un mismo puerto. Sin embargo, en las vecindades portuarias de la Quinta y Octava regiones se encontró que los puertos del sur poseen mejores condiciones de accesibilidad marítima, pudiendo atraer más compañías navieras a dicha zona. Los puertos de la zona central no presentan mayores diferencias de conectividad externa para los exportadores. En cambio para los puertos del sur los exportadores tienen mejores alternativas de acceso a mercados a través del puerto de San Vicente.Ports are a node within the transport chain, so that to determine and evaluate the external connectivity of Chilean ports with Chile's main commercial partners is a key element in analyzing port competitiveness with regards to Chile's increasing foreign trade. This research is based on the UNCTAD research guidelines concerning the external connectivity of

  16. Phosphate starvation regulon of Salmonella typhimurium.

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, J. W.; Spector, M P

    1986-01-01

    Several phosphate-starvation-inducible (psi) genetic loci in Salmonella typhimurium were identified by fusing the lacZ gene to psi promoters by using the Mu d1 and Mu d1-8 bacteriophages. Although several different starvation conditions were examined, the psi loci responded solely to phosphate deprivation. A regulatory locus, psiR, was identified as controlling the psiC locus. The psiR locus did not affect the expression of the Escherichia coli phoA locus or any of the other psi loci described.

  17. Great Chile Earthquake of May 22, 1960 - Anniversary Edition

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On May 22, 1960 (19:11 UTC), a Mw 9.5 earthquake occurred in southern Chile (39.5 S, 74.5 W). This was the largest earthquake ever instrumentally recorded. (It was...

  18. How Young Teachers Experience Their Professional Work in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, Beatrice; Aylwin, Pilar

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents results from a qualitative study of 15 neophyte teachers in Chile who were part of a survey of 242 teachers in two geographical regions of the country. They were studied on the basis of questionnaires, interviews, observations and focus groups, all of which served to examine their teaching contexts and working conditions, how…

  19. Radiation doses in neuroangiography for a clinical hospital in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to estimate the levels of radiation to the patient in neuroangiography procedures diagnostic and therapy in a Chile's Hospital, using a biplane angiographic system Siemens model ArtisZee. This research was conducted under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the support of their radiation protection programs for patients

  20. Transit Search from Antarctica and Chile - Comparison and Combination

    CERN Document Server

    Fruth, T; Csizmadia, Sz; Dreyer, C; Eigmüller, P; Erikson, A; Kabath, P; Pasternacki, T; Rauer, H; Titz-Weider, R; Abe, L; Agabi, A; Gonçalves, I; Guillot, T; Mékarnia, D; Rivet, J -P; Crouzet, N; Chini, R; Lemke, R; Murphy, M

    2014-01-01

    Observing sites at the East-Antarctic plateau are considered to provide exceptional conditions for astronomy. The aim of this work is to assess its potential for detecting transiting extrasolar planets through a comparison and combination of photometric data from Antarctica with time series from a midlatitude site. During 2010, the two small aperture telescopes ASTEP 400 (Dome C) and BEST II (Chile) together performed an observing campaign of two target fields and the transiting planet WASP-18b. For the latter, a bright star, Dome C appears to yield an advantageous signal-to-noise ratio. For field surveys, both Dome C and Chile appear to be of comparable photometric quality. However, within two weeks, observations at Dome C yield a transit detection efficiency that typically requires a whole observing season in Chile. For the first time, data from Antarctica and Chile have been combined to extent the observational duty cycle. This approach is both feasible in practice and favorable for transit search, as it i...