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Sample records for chile costa rica

  1. Privatización de los servicios de salud: las experiencias de Chile y Costa Rica Health services privatization: the experiences of Chile and Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Homedes

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo cuestiona los argumentos que justifican la privatización neoliberal de la financiación, gestión y prestación de servicios de salud, y analiza el significado y estrategias de privatización. Comparamos la privatización en Costa Rica y Chile, y en la discusión se sugiere que el modelo costarricense de privatización selectiva, limitada y concebida autóctonamente de Costa Rica lleva a un sistema de salud más solidario, equitativo, eficiente y satisfactorio para los usuarios que el modelo importado de privatización chileno.This study questions the premises that justify the neoliberal privatization of financing, managing and delivering health services. It also analyses the meaning of privatization and its strategies. We compare privatization in Chile and Costa Rica and suggest that the more limited, selective and locally designed privatization process in Costa Rica has resulted in a more equitable, and efficient health system than the imported privatization model introduced in Chile. The Costa Rican system also produces greater patient satisfaction and at the same time preserves the solidarity principle.

  2. Privatización de los servicios de salud: las experiencias de Chile y Costa Rica Health services privatization: the experiences of Chile and Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    N. Homedes; A. Ugalde

    2002-01-01

    El trabajo cuestiona los argumentos que justifican la privatización neoliberal de la financiación, gestión y prestación de servicios de salud, y analiza el significado y estrategias de privatización. Comparamos la privatización en Costa Rica y Chile, y en la discusión se sugiere que el modelo costarricense de privatización selectiva, limitada y concebida autóctonamente de Costa Rica lleva a un sistema de salud más solidario, equitativo, eficiente y satisfactorio para los usuarios que el model...

  3. Privatización de los servicios de salud: las experiencias de Chile y Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homedes N.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo cuestiona los argumentos que justifican la privatización neoliberal de la financiación, gestión y prestación de servicios de salud, y analiza el significado y estrategias de privatización. Comparamos la privatización en Costa Rica y Chile, y en la discusión se sugiere que el modelo costarricense de privatización selectiva, limitada y concebida autóctonamente de Costa Rica lleva a un sistema de salud más solidario, equitativo, eficiente y satisfactorio para los usuarios que el modelo importado de privatización chileno.

  4. Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    The Republic of Costa Rica is one of the most stable and strongest countries in Central America. It is bordered by Nicaragua and Panama to the north and south and the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific ocean to the east and west and has a total land size slightly smaller than West Virginia. Costa Ricans enjoy a high life expectancy and literacy rate. As well, schools have an attendance rate of nearly 100%. The predominant ethnic group is white, and the predominant spoken language is Spanish. The work force is divided up as follows: 32% agriculture, 25% industry and commerce, 38% services and government, and 5% finance and banking. The country's climate is tropical and subtropical, and the geography of Costa Rica is composed of rugged terrain, mountains, large forest areas, some lowlands and 3 volcanic mountain ranges. The great majority of Costa Ricans are of European descent with only small numbers of the indigenous Indian population surviving today. The government of Costa Rica is democratic, holding periodic elections. The electoral process is monitored by the Supreme Electoral Tribunal. Other bodies of government include the Supreme Court of Justice and the Legislative Assembly. The National Liberation Party has been in power since 1948 and represents socialist ideals. Many factors such as: an influx of enlightened leaders and officials, flexible class lines, economic prosperity and the absence of military force have allowed Costa Rica to progress and maintain a stable economy and government amidst an unstable region. Costa Rica's relations with other countries and international organizations are excellent. PMID:12177991

  5. GANANCIA GENÉTICA ESPERADA EN Acacia mangium EN LOS CHILES, ZONA NORTE DE COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjam\\u00EDn Pavlotzky-Blank

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ganancia genética esperada en Acacia mangium en Los Chiles, zona norte de Costa Rica. Con el objetivo de seleccionar los materiales de mayor crecimiento y calidad de fuste en Acacia mangium, se evaluó un ensayo de progenie de Acacia mangium Willd. conformado por veinticinco familias. El ensayo fue establecido en Los Chiles, zona norte de Costa Rica, en 2006 con evaluaciones en el 2007 y en 2010. Se utilizó material genético seleccionado por la Cooperativa de Conservación y Mejoramiento Genético Forestal "GENFORES", en Costa Rica y Colombia. Cada familia estuvo representada por 48 progenies, plantadas en cuatro parejas distribuidas en forma aleatoria dentro de cada uno de los seis bloques del ensayo. Se evaluó el diámetro a la altura de pecho "DAP", incremento en DAP, adaptabilidad al sitio, número de trozas comerciales, bifurcación, altura de bifurcación, calidad de las primeras cuatro trozas. Se determinó el volumen de madera comercial por árbol y hectárea. Los datos fueron analizados por medio del software SELEGEN de EMBRAPA para obtener los parámetros genéticos. Todos los caracteres registraron valores de heredabilidad media familiar superiores a 0,68. Si se seleccionaran los dos mejores individuos dentro de las mejores doce familias, se obtendría una ganancia genética del 40,8% en volumen comercial/ha a los cuatro años de edad. Esta ganancia corresponde a un volumen comercial de 91,65 m3/ha, a una tasa de 22,9 m3/ha/año. Las dos procedencias derivadas de Colombia son signifi cativamente superiores a los demás materiales evaluados. El análisis de correlación genética entre caracteres muestra que la tasa de crecimiento diamétrico se expresa desde temprana edad en esta especie, lo que podría ser utilizado a futuro en una selección a menor edad.

  6. Actitudes del profesorado de chile y costa rica hacia la inclusión educativa Chilean and Costa Rican teacher's attitudes towards inclusive education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Sanhueza Henríquez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio analiza las actitudes de profesores de Chile (N = 92 y Costa Rica (N = 126 hacia la educación inclusiva. Para ello, plantea como objetivos: a. identificar las medidas que favorecen la educación inclusiva en ambos colectivos de profesorado; b. conocer los recursos y apoyos con que cuenta el profesorado para favorecer la educación inclusiva; y c. valorar los principios de la educación inclusiva que subyacen a sus prácticas docentes. Adoptamos un enfoque cuantitativo a través de un diseño descriptivo de tipo encuesta. Los resultados indican que, en general, los profesores participantes presentan una actitud positiva hacia la inclusión, incorporando diferentes medidas para atender las necesidades educativas especiales del alumnado. Los recursos materiales y el tiempo continúan siendo percibidos por el profesorado como una limitante para el desarrollo de prácticas inclusivas.This study analyses the attitude of teachers from Chile (N = 92 and Costa Rica (N = 126 towards inclusive education. For that purpose, it establishes the following objectives: a. identify those measures facilitating inclusive education with both teachers groups; b. get to know the resources teacher count on to make inclusive education possible; and c. value the principles of inclusive education underlying their teaching practice. We adopted a quantitative approach through a descriptive design consisting of a survey. Results show that in general teachers of this study have a positive attitude towards the inclusion of different measures to attend the students Special Educative Needs. Resources and time continue to be perceived by teachers as restraining the development of inclusive practices.

  7. Estabilización automática y seguridad social: Brasil, México, Costa Rica y Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloy Fisher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta un modelo empírico que estima las propiedades de estabilización automática de sistemas de seguridad social para países selectos de América Latina (Brasil, México, Costa Rica y Chile y con ello, mide su impacto como palancas contra-cíclicas a nivel de políticas públicas. Nuestra estimación encuentra cierta contra-ciclicidad por el lado de las contribuciones, si bien el desembolso de beneficios no tiene efectos significativos. A nivel neto, efectos inflacionarios significativos se cancelan entre sí. Sin duda, mantener un enfoque macroeconómico prudencial también es garantía de bienestar para crecientes números de pensionados y por ello, se hace imperativo fortalecer estos programas como parte de una batería de políticas públicas que no sólo sirvan para eliminar la pobreza entre grupos vulnerables, sino que también aseguren importantes propiedades macroeconómicas no reconocidas.

  8. Biodiversidad en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Wenker

    2009-01-01

    Presentación (en español) Con una naturaleza rica y diversificada, Costa Rica se presenta hoy en día como un país modelo a nivel mundial por lo que a preservación del medio ambiente y de la biodiversidad se refiere. Tatiana Wenker elaboró una documentación audiovisuel variada que aborda la problemática mundial de preservación del medio ambiente, poniendo de relieve las iniciativas costarricenses sobre el particular. Nos lleva a uno de los parques naturales más grandes de América Central y a l...

  9. Educacion Fisica in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Donna

    1980-01-01

    The goal of Costa Rica's Department of Physical Education and Sports is the "utilization of sport, physical education, and recreation as instruments of socialization and contribution to the improved health of Costa Ricans." (JN)

  10. San Jose, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    San Jose, capital city of Costa Rica, fills the valley between two steep mountain ranges. In this image made from data collected by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite, visible, shortwave, and near-infrared wavelengths of light that the sensor observed have been combined to produce a false-color version of the scene in which vegetation is red, urban areas are silvery gray, water is dark blue, and clouds are white. The image was captured on February 8, 2007. San Jose is in the center of the image. The Rio Torres winds through downtown San Jose. Cartago, the much smaller colonial capital, sits in the lower right corner, while the city of Alajuela appears across the river, northwest of San Jose. The cities' manmade surfaces contrast sharply with the lushly vegetated landscape surrounding the city. Greenhouses are common in the region, and their glass roofs may be the brilliant white spots around the outer edges the cities. The long, straight runway of the Tobias Bolanos International Airport is visible as a dark line southeast of Alajuela. The landscape around the two cities shown here is rugged. Steep mountain peaks cast dark shadows across their leeward slopes. Patches of dark red vegetation on the mountains north of San Jose may be rainforest. Coffee plantations also cover the slopes of the mountains around the city. February is the dry season in Costa Rica. During the rainy season, from about April to November, clouds usually block the satellite's view of this tropical location. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of Asaf Ullah and Tim Gubbels, SERVIR project.

  11. Universidad de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Blanco Solís

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La formación inicial del grupo de profesionales en educación, exige hoy más que nunca de servicios efectivos de Orientación en la comunidad universitaria, puesto que los cambios económicos, las transformaciones sociales, las demandas del mercado de trabajo y los requerimientos de las profesiones, plantean un futuro difícil para la población estudiantil universitaria. Ante esta realidad, se realizó una investigación para dar respuesta al siguiente problema. De acuerdo con las percepciones de un grupo de estudiantes de la Escuela de Formación Docente de la Universidad de Costa Rica, ¿qué necesidades de orientación se encuentran asociadas a su formación inicial para enfrentar constructivamente los cambios, demandas y desafíos del Sistema Educativo Costarricense? El paradigma de investigación utilizado comprende la investigación social cualitativa. Para aplicar esta metodología se utilizó como técnica de recolección de la información, los grupos de discusión y el análisis de contingencias como técnica de análisis de la información. El logro de los objetivos de la investigación permitió identificar las siguientes necesidades de orientación en la población estudiada: autoafirmación profesional, habilidades de vida y madurez vocacional.

  12. Mesotelioma pleural en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    José Alberto Maineri-Hidalgo; Vladimir Putvinsky; Giovanna Mainieri-Breedy

    2006-01-01

    El mesotelioma es una neoplasia originada en las membranas serosas que tapizan las cavidades celómicas y recubren las vísceras que contienen, cuyo desarrollo se ha relacionado con la exposición al asbesto. El presente estudio describe las características de los casos de mesotelioma pleural diagnosticados en los 3 hospitales nacionales de adultos de Costa Rica. Se revisaron los archivos de patología de los 3 hospitales nacionales generales del Seguro Social de Costa Rica y se encontraron 29 ca...

  13. Producción más limpia en las Américas: Manejo del recurso energético. Casos de estudio: Chile, Costa Rica y Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Melanny Zúñiga-Araya

    2014-01-01

    La presente investigación resalta la importancia que tiene el uso eficiente de Energía en la temática de Producción más Limpia, identificando acciones que se han realizado en Nicaragua, Costa Rica y Chile. Se muestra la situación energética de cada país, evidenciado la importancia de la eficiencia energética, además de resaltar la legislación y la institucionalidad de esta temática. Igualmente, se presentan datos generales del contexto de cada país, lo que permite comprender su situación glob...

  14. Producción más limpia en las Américas: Manejo del recurso energético. Casos de estudio: Chile, Costa Rica y Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanny Zúñiga-Araya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación resalta la importancia que tiene el uso eficiente de Energía en la temática de Producción más Limpia, identificando acciones que se han realizado en Nicaragua, Costa Rica y Chile. Se muestra la situación energética de cada país, evidenciado la importancia de la eficiencia energética, además de resaltar la legislación y la institucionalidad de esta temática. Igualmente, se presentan datos generales del contexto de cada país, lo que permite comprender su situación global.

  15. Oil in Costa Rica; El petroleo en Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa de la Portilla, Gloria [Direccion Sectorial de Energia, Ministerio del Ambiente y Energia (Costa Rica)

    1997-07-01

    Costa Rica is a rich country in natural resources that can be taken in advantage for power aims, specially the hydraulic and biomass. Nevertheless its development has been based on the oil derivatives, resource that they do not have. The power resources of this country, the oil supply, the demand of oil derivatives are mentioned, the installed capacity and an evaluation is made of the prices of fuels in this country. [Spanish] Costa Rica es un pais rico en recursos naturales que pueden ser aprovechados con fines energeticos, especialmente los hidraulicos y los biomasicos. Sin embargo su desarrollo se ha basado en los derivados del petroleo, recurso que no poseen. Se mencionan los recursos energeticos de este pais, la oferta petrolera, la demanda de derivados del petroleo, la capacidad instalada y se hace una evaluacion de los precios de combustibles en este pais.

  16. residentes nativos de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Herring

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando datos del Registro Nacional de defunciones de los años 1996-2005 se calcularon las tasas de mortalidad estandarizadas por edad para personas nacidas en Nicaragua versus personas nacidas en Costa Rica. Así mismo, utilizando modelos de regresión binomial se determinaron los riesgos relativos de mortalidad de los inmigrantes nicaragüenses versus personas nativas de Costa Rica con ajustes por edad, urbanización, desempleo, pobreza, educación y segregación residencial. Los hombres y mujeres nacidos en Nicaragua tuvieron un riesgo reducido de mortalidad de 32% y 34% respectivamente con relación a sus contrapartes nacidas en Costa Rica. Se notó que los riesgos de mortalidad por enfermedades infecciosas, cáncer, enfermedades crónicas pulmonares, enfermedades cardiovasculares, y enfermedades crónicas del hígado eran significativamente reducidos entre los inmigrantes nacidos en Nicaragua. El exceso significativo de mortalidad por homicidios se encontró entre los hombres nacidos en Nicaragua (RT = 1,35, 95% IC: 1,19; 1,53 y en mujeres (RT = 1,41, 95% IC: 1,02; 1,95. El riesgo relativo de causas de mortalidad de origen de tipo exógeno entre los inmigrantes nicaragüenses fue más grande entre los grupos de edad joven en áreas de baja densidad de inmigrantes nicaragüenses. La población nacida en Nicaragua residiendo en Costa Rica tiene un riesgo reducido de mortalidad por causas generales versus las personas nacidas en Costa Rica en los años entre 1996-2005. Esto se debe a una mortalidad por enfermedad reducida, la cual es bastante marcada. El homicidio es un una razón de mayor mortalidad entre los inmigrantes nacidos en Nicaragua versus los nativos costarricenses. Hay una gran necesidad de llevar acabo investigaciones adicionales sobre el rol de la migración, estatus socioeconómico y comportamientos entorno a la salud para poder explicar más a fondo los patrones de mortalidad diferenciales entre los inmigrantes nicarag

  17. Peperitas en Costa Rica Costa Rican peperites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Soto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo describe petrográfica y genéticamente, una serie de hallazgos de peperitas como ejemplos de coexistencia espacial y temporal del magmatismo con la sedimentación en Costa Rica. Los casos se presentan en complejos ígneos básicos (ofiolitas variando desde mezclas incompletas (megabloques de radiolaritas con diabasas en el Complejo de Nicoya hasta mezclas completas en varios grados de calizas pelágicas del Maastrictiano-Paleoceno (Formación Golfito o del Paleoceno con basaltos (Subcomplejo Quepos o Formación Tulín para dar peperitas brechoides y bulbosas. Dentro del arco Oligo-Mioceno, se tienen ejemplos a lo largo de la cordillera de Talamanca y sus estribaciones, así como en las llanuras de Sarapiquí, representados por peperitas brechoides, fluidales y bulbosas en cuerpos de lava latiandesíticos (Formación Pacacua o chimeneas peperíticas brechoides en ignimbritas (Miembro Mata de Limón, o posibles peperitas brechoides en los depósitos de flujos de lava del prospecto minero de Crucitas (Formación Cureña, o simples posibles peperitas brechoides en flujos de lava andesíticas (Formación Pacacua en Talamanca, o como brechas hidroclásticas con fragmentos de composición dacítica de Carbonal en Guanacaste, justamente entre las playas Cabuyal y Naranjo. Todas ellas serían los equivalentes proximales del vulcanismo explosivo, efusivo y subvolcánico (domos endógenos y criptodomos y su concomitancia con la sedimentación fluvial. En el Cuaternario, un ejemplo se da en la base de la Formación Tiribí al contacto con el lacustre de Palmares. Se incluyen en el presente trabajo, además, casos posibles o potenciales. Se espera que la descripción e interpretación de este tipo de rocas ayude a su identificación en otras regiones de Costa Rica y Centroamérica en general, así como una fuente potencial para la prospección de metales valiosos.This paper describes petrographically and genetically, a number of

  18. Mercury Contamination in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekamp, J. C.; Haynes, A.; Balcom, P. H.

    2012-12-01

    Recent measurements of Hg in air in the central valley of Costa Rica produced some remarkably high values (up to 700 ng Hg/m3;Castillo et al., 2011), raising concerns for public health. We made a broad assessment of Hg as an environmental contaminant in Costa Rica, and sampled and analyzed lake and wetland sediment and soils to derive atmospheric Hg deposition rates. We also measured Hg(0) in air in three locations, and sampled local fish that were analyzed for Hg. We set up a sampling program of Hg in hair of Costa Ricans, sampling hair from a broad crossection of the population, in combination with dietary and personal information. The lake sediments had Hg concentrations between 34 and 316 ppb Hg, with several lakes at common natural background concentrations (20-100 ppb Hg). Some lakes showed a Hg contamination component with concentrations well above simple background values. These sediments also were very rich in organic matter, and the high Hg concentrations may be a result of Hg focusing from the watersheds into the lake depositional environments. Deduced atmospheric deposition rates of Hg range from 0.16-0.25 ng Hg/cm2 per year, which is at the low end of the global range of measured wet atmospheric deposition rates. The observed Hg concentrations in sediment and soils thus can be characterized as natural background to mildly contaminated, but nothing that would indicate Hg inventories as expected from the reported high Hg air burdens. Some of our Hg(0) in air measurements were done at the same locations as those done earlier and yielded values between 0.6-4.2 ng Hg/m3; these values are similar to the low range measurements of Castillo et al. (their night time values), but we found no evidence in 2011 for their high daytime values. The range of a few ng Hg/m3 in air is compatible with global Hg dispersion modeling. Fish tissue of Trout and Tilapia gave a range of 68-112 ppb Hg (wet weight base), well below the 300 ppb Hg EPA alert level. Overall, these

  19. Gobierno Corporativo en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto E. Arce; Edgar Robles C.

    2005-01-01

    (Disponible en idioma inglés únicamente) En este trabajo se analizan las prácticas de conducción empresarial en Costa Rica. En primer lugar, se calculan las medidas de conducción empresarial constitutivas empleando datos específicos de 87 compañías costarricenses, y se analizan sus efectos en su desempeño; aquí, la media de la conducción empresarial constitutiva de compañías cotizadas en bolsa es igual a 56. 14. En segundo lugar, se presentan nuevos elementos de juicio sobre las medidas const...

  20. Costos de Transacciones en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Leon, Jorge; Rodríguez, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    In this study we carry out the first formal estimation of the social cost of transactions in Costa Rica. The estimation considers transactions in cash and cards, covers the 2008- 2011 years and is based on the methodology applied by Bergman, Guibourg and Segendorf (2007) for Sweden, with adaptations specific for Costa Rica. We estimate that the social cost of transactions has remained relatively stable as a share of GDP during the years included. We assess that the importance of costs s...

  1. Costs of transactions in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Leon, Jorge; Rodríguez, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    In this study we carry out the first formal estimation of the social cost of transactions in Costa Rica. The estimation considers transactions in cash and cards, covers the 2008- 2011 years and is based on the methodology applied by Bergman, Guibourg and Segendorf (2007) for Sweden, with adaptations specific for Costa Rica. We estimate that the social cost of transactions has remained relatively stable as a share of GDP during the years included. We assess that the importance of costs stemmin...

  2. Ecotourism and Sustainable Development in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Buchsbaum, Bernardo Duha

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a synopsis of the current issues facing ecotourism in Costa Rica; critically examine the impacts and challenges of ecotourism; analyze the potential of ecotourism as a strategy for sustainable development; look at ways in which ecotourism and sustainable development can be evaluated; and suggest ways to improve current ecotourism practices and policies for Costa Rica. What are the impacts and challenges of ecotourism? What are the possible benefits tha...

  3. Pleural mesothelioma in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mesothelioma is a neoplasia originated in the serous membranes that drape the cellomic cavities and there cover the visceras that they contain, whose development has related to the exhibition to the asbestos. The present study describes the characteristics of the cases of mesothelioma pleural diagnosed in 3 adults hospitals in Costa Rica. 29 cases of pleural mesothelioma were found between 1972 and 2002 after reviewing the pathology service archives of the 3 national general hospitals of the Costa Rican social security health system. The incidence rate in 2002 was 1 case per 2 million; there were 15 females and 14 males, with a mean age of 54 years. Twenty cases presented with pleural effusion being dyspnea, chest pain, cough, fever and weight loss the most frequent symptoms. The disease was detected in all the cases because of an abnormal chest X-ray. The method used to obtain tissue for histological diagnosis was thoracotomy for 15 cases, pleural biopsy in 8, thoracoscopy in 4 and autopsy in 2. The histological diagnosis in 16 cases was fibrous mesothelioma, 10 malignant and 6 benign, 11 were epithelial (all malignant) and 2 were malignant mixed mesothelioma. The treatment in all the benign cases was surgical resection and none recurred. Two of the malignant lesions were resected, 1 had an extrapleural pneumonectomy along with pericardial and diaphragmatic resection, but the survival was not better than the rest of the malignant cases, with an average survival rate for all of them of only 6 months. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy showed no additional benefit. (author)

  4. Single mothers and poverty in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Gindling, T H; Oviedo, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Despite increasing average real family incomes in Costa Rica in the late 1990s and early 2000s, poverty rates did not fall. In this paper, we argue that during this period economic growth in Costa Rica did not translate into reduced poverty because of changes in family structure and in the labor market, and that these changes had an important gender dimension. Specifically, an increase in the proportion of Costa Rican households headed by single mothers led to an increase in the number of wom...

  5. Enfermedad cardiovascular en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizzie M. Castillo S

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available En Costa Rica la enfermedad cardiovascular cobra en promedio 6 vidas por día, lo cual representa un aumento escalonado en los últimos años, debido en su mayoría a cambios en el estilo de vida del costarricense. Además, llama la atención, que factores de riesgo para enfermedad cardiovascular como son el fumado, obesidad infantil, alcoholismo, diabetes, dislipidemia e hipertensión han mostrado un incremento en su incidencia. Por lo tanto,se pretende realizar una revisión de los programas de detección y de atención temprana a nivel institucional, en lo que respecta a la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social como ente responsable de llevar a cabo los mismos. El adecuado conocimiento y uso de los programas pretende una disminución en la morbimortalidad de la misma,y su aplicación se hace obligatoria para el manejo de pacientes en atención primaria.

  6. Metates and Hallucinogens in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Jones

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Metates are grinding stones on which corn and other substances are ground with hand-held stones called manos. A clue that grinding stones were associated with mushroom rituals is, for example, provided by a tripod metate from NW Costa Rica belonging to the period of the 2nd or 3rd century AD.

  7. First report of Orange Rust of Sugarcane Caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Costa Rica and Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms of orange rust of sugarcane were observed in Costa Rica at Coopeagri Sugar Mill located in Pérez Zeledón, San José, during July 2007 on (a complex hybrid of Saccharum L. species) cultivar, SP 71-5574, and at Providencia Sugar Mill near Muelle and at Cutris Sugar Mill near Los Chiles, in Aug...

  8. [Costa Rica mangroves: the north Pacific].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Trejos, Priscilla; Cortés, Jorge

    2009-09-01

    Costa Rica has mangrove forests on both the Caribbean and Pacific coasts. The Pacific side has 99% of the mangrove area of the country. In this review we compile available information on the mangroves of the north Pacific coast of Costa Rica, from Bahía Salinas, on the border with Nicaragua, to the tip of the Peninsula de Nicoya at Cabo Blanco. We provide information on the location of the mangroves and all available information for each mangrove forest. These mangrove communities are smaller in extension and tree sizes, and have lower diversity compared to the mangroves on the southern section of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The dominant species are Rhizophora mangle and Rhizophora racemosa along the canal edges, backed by Avicennia germinans, and farther inland Avicennia bicolor, Laguncularia racemosa and Conocarpus erectus. At Potrero Grande a healthy population of Pelliciera rhizophorae, a rare species, has been reported. We recognized 38 mangrove communities in this part of the country, based on the National Wetland Inventory, published papers, field observations, theses, technical reports, and the national topographic maps (1:50,000, Instituto Geográfico Nacional). Relatively detailed information could be found for only five mangrove forests, for 14 more only prelimary and incomplete lists of plants and in some cases of animal species are available, for nine there is even less information, and for nine more only their location is known, which in some cases was not correct. Detail mapping, characterization of the vegetation and fauna, physiological studies, analyses of biogeochemical and physical processes, economic valuations, and determination of the health status of the mangrove of the northern Pacific coast, as well as for the rest of Costa Rica, are neccesary and urgent. PMID:19928448

  9. Biovisualizador: Visualizando los anfibios de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Hernández Castro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El Biovisualizador es una novedosa herramienta con una interfaz tridimensional, orientada al público en general, para presentar información sobre especies de Costa Rica mediante el uso de árboles de conos. El Biovisualizador es producto de investigaciones llevadas a cabo conjuntamente en el (ITCR Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica y en el (INBio Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, dentro del marco de la cátedra UNESCO en Bioinformática, en el tema específico de diseño de interfaces tridimensionales para visualización científica. En este artículo se describe la herramienta en función de una aplicación particular que consiste en un ambiente tridimensional interactivo para visualizar y hacer informes sobre todos los anfibios de Costa Rica.

  10. Costa Rica - An Army-less Nation Facing External Threats

    OpenAIRE

    Dall, Nana; Hammer Holm, Lasse; Kaas-Claesson, Kristina; McCay Martinez, Eamonn

    2013-01-01

    This project aims to explain how Costa Rica deal with external threats. Having abolished their military in 1948, the small state of Costa Rica situated in the conflict-ridden region of Central America, is internationally portrayed as an inspirational nation upholding peace and high morality. This has raised questions in regards to how Costa Rica upholds security in the event of threat. The project applies the International Relations theories of neo-liberalism and neo-realism to two cases: the...

  11. Estudio comparativo de los planes de actuación frente al riesgo volcánico (Chile, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Ecuador, España, México y Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ona Corominas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio hace una comparativa de actuación frente el riesgo volcánico entre varios países con la intención que sea una muestra de América Latina y España. El objetivo es comprobar si el nivel socioeconómico de un país se corresponde con la eficacia de los sistemas de prevención del riesgo volcánico que utilizan, analizar los motivos y los métodos en la medida de lo posible y aprender de los sistemas de trabajo para hacer frente a este riesgo, los cuales probablemente podrían ser aplicables a la prevención de otros riesgos. Se analizan 4 aspectos principales: 1 información general sobre el conocimiento del riesgo, 2 planes de prevención y vigilancia, 3 planes de emergencia y gestión y 4 planes educativos. El análisis comparativo final nos indica que el primer punto del estudio es directamente proporcional al nivel socioeconómico de los países, quedando España y México como los países con mayor conocimiento del riesgo, seguidos de Chile, Costa Rica y Ecuador. No obstante, en cuanto a los planes educativos, Nicaragua y el Salvador se sitúan en las primeras posiciones, siendo los países con menor índice de desarrollo humano, según ranking de las Naciones Unidas.

  12. GPS Monitoring of Subduction Zone Deformation in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Paul

    1997-01-01

    The subduction of the Cocos plate beneath Costa Rica is among the highest convergence rates in the world. The high subduction rate and nearness of the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica to the Middle America Trench (MAT) provide a unique opportunity to map variations in interseismic strain of the crust above the seismogenic zone in response to variations in seismic coupling.

  13. Femicidio en Costa Rica: balance mortal

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Carcedo Cabañas; Monserrat Sagot Rodríguez

    2002-01-01

    Para muchas mujeres y niñas la familia es el grupo social más violento y el hogar el lugar más peligroso. Si se compara los soldados americanos muertos en la guerra de Vietnam 57685, contra mas de 70000 mujeres asesinadas en los hogares de Vietnam en el mismo periodo se comprende la magnitud de lo que estamos hablando. En Costa Rica, país de paz, de las mujeres que han acudido a pedir ayuda a CEFEMINA, 15% han sido atacadas con armas de fuego, 31 % con arma blanca, 24% con otros objetos. El r...

  14. Ehrlichiosis y anaplasmosis en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Gaby Dolz; Leyda Ábrego; Luis E Romero; Liliana Campos-Calderón; Laura Bouza-Mora; Ana E Jiménez-Rocha

    2013-01-01

    La ehrlichiosis y la anaplasmosis son enfermedades infecciosas producidas por bacterias de la familia Anaplasmataceae y transmitidas por garrapatas. Ambas afectan, entre otras especies, al hombre, ocasionando sintomatología que puede ser asociada a un resfriado común o con signos clínicos compatibles con el dengue hemorrágico, patología que se presenta frecuentemente en Costa Rica. Tanto la ehrlichiosis como la anaplasmosis son consideradas también enfermedades de importancia en Medicina Vete...

  15. Marine biodiversity of Costa Rica: the phyla Sipuncula and Echiura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, H K

    2001-12-01

    Fourteen species of Sipuncula belonging to 9 genera have been reported from Costa Rican waters, mostly from the Pacific coast. Three of these species are new records for Costa Rica (Phascolion strombus (Montagu 1804), Aspidosiphon (Aspidosiphon) muelleri Diesing 1851, and Aspidosiphon (Aspidosiphon) gracilis schnehageni (W. Fisher 1946)). One species of Echiura, Thalassema steinbecki Fisher 1946, in the order Echiuroinea, has been reported from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. PMID:15264522

  16. Ehrlichiosis y anaplasmosis en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaby Dolz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available La ehrlichiosis y la anaplasmosis son enfermedades infecciosas producidas por bacterias de la familia Anaplasmataceae y transmitidas por garrapatas. Ambas afectan, entre otras especies, al hombre, ocasionando sintomatología que puede ser asociada a un resfriado común o con signos clínicos compatibles con el dengue hemorrágico, patología que se presenta frecuentemente en Costa Rica. Tanto la ehrlichiosis como la anaplasmosis son consideradas también enfermedades de importancia en Medicina Veterinaria. A continuación se brinda una revisión sobre los hallazgos obtenidos en investigaciones realizadas en el país para determinar la presencia y distribución de Ehrlichia y Anaplasma en Costa Rica. Ehrlichia canis se encuentra ampliamente distribuida en el país y es la especie predominante en perros y garrapatas (Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Adicionalmente, se ha detectado, aunque en menor porcentaje, la presencia de Anaplasma platys y Anaplsma phagocytophilum en perros y sus garrapatas. También se ha determinado la presencia de A. phagocytophilum en un venado cola blanca, y de E. canis en humanos donadores de bancos de sangre mediante técnica serológica y molecular.

  17. (ananas comosus l. en costa rica

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    Steven Brenes-Prendas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconocimiento taxonómico de arvenses y descripción de su manejo, en cuatro fincas productoras de piña (Ananas comosus L. en Costa Rica. El estudio se realizó en el mes de marzo del 2006, en cuatro fincas productoras de piña ubicadas en tres provincias de Costa Rica. Se realizaron levantamientos de arvenses presentes en cada finca; se describen también las prácticas de manejo que se usan para el control de estas arvenses. Se encontraron 58 especies de arvenses distribuidas en 19 familias botánicas. Se analizó el uso de herbicidas y ciclos de aplicación utilizados para el control de malezas y desecación de residuos de cosecha. Se consideró urgente el desarrollo de alternativas para el control de arvenses y el manejo de los residuos de cosecha en piña.

  18. Radiological dosimetry measurements in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, M.; Santos, F.

    2016-07-01

    The main cause of human exposure to artificial radiation corresponds to medical applications, so it is essential to reduce the dose to patients, workers and consequently the entire population [1]. Although there is no dose limit for patients, is necessary to reduce it to a minimum possible while still getting all the necessary diagnostic information, taking economic and social factors into account [2]. Based on this proposal, agencies such as the International Atomic Energy Agency has been dedicated to providing guidelines levels, whose function is to serve as standards for the optimization of the medical exposure [3]. This research was created as a preliminary survey with the claim of eventually determine the guidance levels in Costa Rica for three different studies of general radiology: Lumbar Spine-AP, Chest - PA and Thoracic Spine - AP (for screens with speeds of 400 and 800), and cranio-caudal study in mammography, applied to Costa Rica's adult population, perform properly in the institutions of Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social (CCSS).

  19. Historia de la dermatología en Costa Rica History of dermatology in Costa Rica

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    Orlando Jaramillo Antillón

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: En la historia de la medicina, la dermatología tiene grandes contribuciones, sin embargo, para nuestro país existen pocos datos que documenten los apartes de estos excelentes dermatólogos en la salud pública costarricense. Se realizó este estudio, con el objetivo de presentar una revisión histórica del desarrollo de la dermatología en Costa Rica. Materiales y métodos: Se realizaron entrevistas personales y a familiares de los que se mencionan en el documento. Se revisaron memorias de congresos y publicaciones de revistas nacionales e internacionales. Resultados: La dermatología clínica en Costa Rica,se inició en el Hospital San Juan de Dios. El Dr. Emilio Echeverría y Aguilar fue el primer dermatólogo en Costa Rica. El que más influencia tuvo en el desarrollo de la dermatología tropical fue el Dr. Antonio Peña Chavarría. El Dr. Julio César Ovares Arias se destacó como primer Presidente del Colegio de Médicos y Cirujano y primer Director Médico de la Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social. El Dr. Elfrén Solano Aguilar fue el primer profesor de dermatología, en la Universidad de Costa Rica. El Dr. Orlando Jaramillo Antillón creó el primer programa de posgrado en dermatología. Conclusiones: La dermatología ha cambiado mucho, se inició luchando contra las enfermedades tropicales y nutricionales, actualmente luchamos con el alarmante aumento del cáncer de la piel, enfermedades autoinmunes, síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida y enfermedades iatrogénicas medicamentosas. Hemos aprendido de aquellos que nos precedieron en esta especialidad y debemos aprender para poder practicar la ciencia y el arte de la dermatología modernaIntroduction: Throughout medical history, dermatology has made great contributions, although for our country there is little data concerning the contributions made by the excellent dermatologists in Costa Rican public health care. Materials and methods: In order to obtain this

  20. Femicidio en Costa Rica: balance mortal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carcedo Cabañas

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Para muchas mujeres y niñas la familia es el grupo social más violento y el hogar el lugar más peligroso. Si se compara los soldados americanos muertos en la guerra de Vietnam 57685, contra mas de 70000 mujeres asesinadas en los hogares de Vietnam en el mismo periodo se comprende la magnitud de lo que estamos hablando. En Costa Rica, país de paz, de las mujeres que han acudido a pedir ayuda a CEFEMINA, 15% han sido atacadas con armas de fuego, 31 % con arma blanca, 24% con otros objetos. El riesgo de muerte es parte de la vivencia cotidiana de muchas mujeres, 58% han sentido peligro de morir en manos de su agresor, 47% han pensado suicidarse, 48% ha tenido que dejar su hogar por miedo de morir. En el presente estudio se detectan 44 homicidios de mujeres (Femicidio, que no aparecen en los anuarios del Organismo de Investigación Judicial, haciendo del subregistro de agresiones otra forma de hacer violencia contra las mujeres.For many women and young girls, the family circle is the most violent and harmful enviroment to be in. Contrasting more than 70000 women died in their own homes to the 57685 american soldiers who died in Vietnan during the war, we realize this is a big issue. In Costa Rica, land of peace, from all the women to go to CEFEMINA for help, 15% were harmed with gums, 31 % with knifes, 24% with others objects. The risk of dying is part of the daily life of many women, 58% have felt the danger of dying in the hands of their aggressor, 47% consider suicide, 48% have lo leave their homes from fear of dying. In this study we detect 44 cases of homicide of women (Femicide which were not inciuded in the yearbook of the Organismo de lnvestigacion Judicial, thus, making this subregistry, another way to make violence against women.

  1. A new genus of Smiliini (Hemiptera: Membracidae) from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new genus and species, Smilirhexia naranja, is described from Costa Rica, the southern limit of the tribe Smiliini, and represents a strong divergence from the morphology of the oak-feeding genera prevalent in North America....

  2. The 2008 Trade Fairs of China in Costa Rica Opens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 2008 Trade Fairs of the People's Republic of China in Costa Rica, host-ed by China Council for the Promotion of International Trade, opened grandly on September 11 local time in San Jose International Confer-ence Center.

  3. Ecotourism and Interpretation in Costa Rica: Parallels and Peregrinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wayne E.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the ecotourism industry in Costa Rica and some of the problems faced by its national park system, including megaparks, rapid increase in tourism, and interpretive services. Suggests alternatives for the problems. (MKR)

  4. los parques nacionales de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Aguirre

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El Parque Nacional Volcán Poas es el más visitado de Costa Rica, dado su fácil acceso, cercanía relativa a los grandes centros de población del país y buenas carreteras. Entre Marzo y Abril del 2006 producto de unas erupciones intra-cratéricas el parque tuvo que ser cerrado por tres semanas. El estudio reportado estima el impacto económico del cierre del parque en los negocios que sirven a los turistas en las comunidades vecinas, durante las tres semanas que el parque permaneció cerrado. Los resultados presentados son producto de un censo económico efectuado a los 28 negocios directamente afectados. Esta clase de información y metodología permite a las comunidades que pasará en términos de impacto económico en pequeñas comunidades y así evitar frustraciones en las mismas en materia de beneficios económicos esperados y no materializados.

  5. Birthspacing and fertility decline in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Gómez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEste trabajo utiliza datos de las Encuestas Comparativas de Fecundidad de América Latina, así como de la Encuesta Mundial de Fecundidad para estudiar las tendencias y diferenciales en el espaciamiento de los nacimientos entre las mujeres alguna vez casadas en Costa Rica durante el período 1945-1974. Una buena parte de la atención se pone en el ritmo de la fecundidad en las etapas umbral, temprana y tardía de la disminución de la fecundidad que este país experimentó durante los años sesenta y principios de los setenta. Los resultados muestran bastante similitud en el tempo de la reproducción en los diferentes niveles paridez y áreas geográficas. Sin embargo, un análisis de las variables del entorno que afectan espaciamiento de los nacimientos muestra diferencias entre las zonas urbanas y rurales. Por último, se postula que el reciente estancamiento en las tasas de período puede ser una consecuencia de los cambios en el tempo de construcción de la familia, con mujeres de baja paridez que postergan los nacimientos, lo que contrarresta las tendencias de descenso que generan las mujeres de mayor paridez quienes aún pueden estar restringiendo su reproducción.ABSTRACTThis paper uses data from the Latin American Comparative Fertility Surveys as well as from the World Fertility Survey to study trends and differentials in birthspacing among ever married women in Costa Rica during the period 1945-1974. A good deal of attention is placed on the pace of fertility in threshold, early and late stages of the fertility decline that this country experienced during the sixties and early seventies. The results show a good deal of similarity in the tempo of reproduction across parities and geographical areas.However, an analysis of the background variables affecting birthspacing shows differences between urban and rural zones. Finally, it is postulated that the recent plateau in period rates may be a consequence of changes in the tempo of

  6. Costa Rica's SINEM: A Perspective from Postcolonial Institutional Ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosabal-Coto, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    In this article I suggest that SINEM--the Costa Rican version of Venezuela's El Sistema--articulates a development discourse which legitimates neoliberal policies that govern the twenty-first-century international market, in which Costa Rica figures only as a subaltern. I contend that such articulation contributes to perpetuating notions and…

  7. El primer equipo interdisciplinario de Costa Rica

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    Pablo David Navarro Villalobos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available El abuso sexual es un conjunto de actitudes de un sujeto que realiza en detrimento de otro, generalmente menor, para su autosatisfacción. Las estadísticas de los diferentes países apuntan a que se está convirtiendo en una epidemia que nos está asfixiando. La prevención de la revictimización, una política establecida en el Poder Judicial de Costa Rica desde hace más de diez años, dio como fruto la conformación de los equipos interdisciplinarios. Al inicio, estos abarcaron una serie de disciplinas tan disímiles entre sí, que comprendían tanto el derecho, como la medicina, la psicología, el trabajo social y la psiquiatría. Con el paso de los años los equipos se fueron reduciendo hasta quedar conformados por el psicólogo, el trabajador social y el médico forense, que asiste a una reunión semanal con ellos y en donde se discuten las diferentes conclusiones de las tres disciplinas. Hoy en día son equipos establecidos prácticamente en todas las cabeceras de provincia de nuestro país con funciones periciales muy específicas en el tratamiento legal de las causas de los delitos sexuales.Sexual Abuse is series of actitudes of a subject, Which he realize in detriment of other, usually younger, for his self satisfaction. The statistics of differents countries shows that this issue is torning into epidemics amounts ant its suffocating us. Prevention in revictimation is a policy established in Costa Rica for over a decade and for this we has had form interdisciplinary teams. In early times those temas had a lot of uncompatible disciplines soch as team is formed by only three members: the forensic doctor, the psychologist and the social worker, ehom attent to a weekly metting to analize the different conclusions of each especiallist. Actually there are teams established in almost all head of province in our country with percial function well established in the legal treatment of the causes of these crimes.

  8. Cultivo protegido de hortalizas en Costa Rica

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    Carlos Ramírez Vargas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La horticultura en Costa Rica se ha desarrollado principalmente a campo abierto y se ha concentrado en el Valle Central donde predominan las actividades de expansión urbanística y comercial. Muchos de los problemas asociados a la producción hortícola se centran en la alta presencia de plagas y enfermedades que obligan al productor a utilizar plaguicidas químicos con consecuencias nocivas para el ambiente: la horticultura a campo abierto se vuelve muy contaminante e insostenible. Una alternativa productiva pueden ser los sistemas de cultivos protegidos, en los que se usan estructuras, materiales y equipo; posibilitan la producción de hortalizas en climas adversos y facilitan el control de plagas y enfermedades. Estos sistemas se han usado ampliamente a nivel mundial con gran éxito, pero a nivel del trópico es necesaria la investigación en este campo con el objetivo de implementar o modificar el sistema para que favorezca la producción sostenible de hortalizas.

  9. Alimentos balanceados para perros en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Vargas

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnóstico de la comercialización de alimentos balanceados para perros en Costa Rica. Para ampliar los reportes oficiales de la comercialización de alimentos para perros se creó una base de datos que incluyó cantidad, costo, empaque y formulación durante el período 1998 a agosto del 2000. De 1995 a 1998 y de 1996 a 1999 la producción nacional incrementó un 90,4% y la importación un 42,56% respectivamente, ocupando los alimentos nacionales un 72% del tonelaje y un 70% del valor en dólares americanos. No fue posible determinar cuál es el empaque más comercializado, pero si que los alimentos extrusados son los que ocupan el primer lugar y que los alimentos recomendados para cachorros y adultos son los que más se comercializan. La ausencia de datos en las declaraciones sugiere la necesidad de incrementar el control en las mismas en caso de requerirse un estudio de mercado, ya que contrariamente a esta situación el mayor número de garantías inscritas corresponden separadamente para las fases de cachorros y adultos. Merece también atención que las garantías indican mayores porcentajes de proteína cruda que los recomendados por la AAFCO y que al menos 36 fórmulas son recomendadas para estados sanitarios específicos (p.e. para perros con problemas de alergias, cálculos renales, pérdidas de pelo, etc. sin que oficialmente se encuentre registrada ninguna fórmula medicada

  10. Maps of ultraviolet radiation in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultraviolet radiation (UV) has contributed relatively little energy to the solar spectrum; but is important, because it is biologically active. The software Surfer 8 has created maps designed of the territory of Costa Rica to assess the maximum levels of solar UV radiation on a horizontal plane. The data were used in creating the maps, were predicted at local noon in eighty-three locations scattered across the country, with a spectral atmospheric model which is physically established. The model has used as input data: the date and time, the location identified by latitude, longitude and height of land above sea level, the value of the vertical column ozone, surface albedo and atmospheric turbidity parameters. The estimate differs by 3% of the measurements made in situ, which agrees with the experimental data. The model has used the data estimation of UV radiation, clear sky conditions, which is the condition where you get the maximum energy possible in each locality. This is of fundamental importance when assessing the adverse effects on human health, leads the maximum intensity in this important solar spectrum band. A larger increase of 23% has presented in the UV radiation with altitude obtaining the hills and mountains the highest rates and places located at sea level and the lowest cost, the indices. The annual variation analysis has revealed an increase greater than 27% from the month of lowest UV radiation (December) and the month of greatest UV radiation (April). The issue is of particular interest because of the increasing number of people moving at different times of the year, altitudes over 2000 m altitude, in activities relating to tourism and employment. These individuals are significant increases in levels of UV solar radiation under conditions of clear skies. (author)

  11. LA TUTELA SUPRACONSTITUCIONAL DE LOS DERECHOS HUMANOS EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Armijo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza la posición de los derechos fundamentales y la recepción de los derechos humanos en el ordenamiento jurídico de Costa Rica, considerando la eficacia de los instrumentos internacionales sobre la materia y la jurisprudencia de la Comisión y la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos. El artículo analiza especialmente la jurisprudencia de la Sala Constitucional de la Corte Suprema de Costa Rica.This article analyzes the place of human rights and their reception in the Costa Rican legal system, considering the effectiveness of international treaties on the subject and the decisions of the Inter-American Commission and Court on Human Rights. The decisions of the Constitutional Chamber of the Costa Rican Supreme Court are also commented.

  12. Program of payments for forest environmental services in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Malavasi, E.

    2002-01-01

    The Payments for Environmental Services Program (PESP) implemented in Costa Rica is an alternative approach to halt environmental degradation derived from deforestation in low income nations. In this system, land owners are contracted for the ecological services they produce when they adopt land uses and forest management activities that do not affect negatively the environment and maintain people's life quality. The Costa Rican program of environmental services aims to protect primary forest...

  13. Anthoathecatae and Leptothecatae hydroids from Costa Rica (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmo, Francisco; Vargas, Rita

    2002-06-01

    This paper is the first taxonomic account of the hydroid orders Anthoathecatae and Leptothecatae from the Caribbean and Pacific coast of Costa Rica. All specimens are currently stored at the reference collection of the Museo de Zoología, Escuela de Biología, Universidad de Costa Rica. Sixteen hydroid species are recorded: Eudendrium carneum, Pennaria disticha, Acryptolaria longitheca, Plumularia floridana, Halopteris polymorpha, Aglaophenia dubia, Aglaophenia latecarinata, Lytocarpia tridentata, Macrorhynchia phillipina, Macrorhynchia sp., Clytia gracilis, Cnidoscyphus marginatus, Thyroscyphus ramosus, Dynamena disticha, Sertularella diaphana, and Tridentata distans. An extensive synonymy has been given for each species. A simplified taxonomic key is included, and illustrations and descriptions are provided for each species.

  14. Engineering of the Stellarator of Costa Rica: SCR-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, J.; Vargas, V. I.; Otarola, C.; Piedra, C.; Jimenez, W.; Esquivel, L.; Esquivel, R.; Sanchez, K.; Gonzalez, J.; Asenjo, J.; Fonseca, L.

    2015-03-01

    This Paper aims at briefly describing the challenge of the design and construction of the Stellarator of Costa Rica 1 (SCR-1) [1]. The SCR-1 is a small modular Stellarator for magnetic confinement of plasma (Ro=0.238 m, =0.059 m, Ro/a>4.0, expected plasma volume ≈ 0.016 m3, 10 mm thickness 6061-T6 aluminum vacuum vessel) developed by the Plasma Laboratory for Fusion Energy and Applications of the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica (ITCR).

  15. in National Parks, Costa Rica, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Aguirre

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El Parque Nacional Volcán Poás, ubicado en el valle central de Costa Rica, es el parque más importante y que recibe más visitantes en el país. Entre el 24 de Marzo y el 10 de Abril del 2006, hubo una serie de erupciones que, la administración del parque prohibiera primero y restringiera después el acceso del número de visitantes al PNVP por tres semanas. El estudio examina el impacto de tales restricciones en las comunidades de Poasito y Fraijanes, las comunidades ubicadas en la entrada del parque, las cuales dependen económicamente de los gastos de los turistas que visitan el parque para sobrevivir. El estudio examina además el impacto social, de la falta información durante este tiempo en la opinión de las comunidades y los negocios sobre la gestión del desastre por parte de la administración del parque. Se encontró que para mejorar los planes para el manejo de esta clase de desastres, el parque y la comunidad deben mejorar la comunicación entre ambos, y la participación y coordinación de actividades. Para disminuir los riesgos de desastres físicos y económicos, la comunidad tiene que organizarse para pedir y obtener más información sobre las crisis generada por futuras erupciones y diversificar el tipo de turismo de que depende. La administración del Parque Nacional Volcán Poás debería iniciar actividades que ayuden el mejoramiento de la capacidad de participar de las comunidades en las actividades que el parque realiza en épocas de crisis, también debería incluir las necesidades informativas de la comunidad y de los negocios en su plan de gestión de desastres.

  16. Sistema de salud de Costa Rica The health system of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rocío Sáenz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Costa Rica, que presta servicios de salud, agua y saneamiento. El componente de servicios de salud incluye un sector público y uno privado. El sector público está dominado por la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS, institución autónoma encargada del financiamiento, compra y prestación de la mayoría de los servicios personales. La CCSS se financia con contribuciones de los afiliados, los empleadores y el Estado, y administra tres regímenes: el seguro de enfermedad y maternidad, el seguro de invalidez, vejez y muerte, y el régimen no contributivo. La CCSS presta servicios en sus propias instalaciones o contrata prestadores del sector privado con los que establece contratos denominados "compromisos de gestión". El sector privado comprende una amplia red de prestadores que ofrecen servicios ambulatorios y de especialidad con fines lucrativos. Estos servicios se financian sobre todo con pagos de bolsillo, pero también con primas de seguros privados. El Ministerio de Salud es el rector del sistema y como tal cumple con funciones de dirección política, regulación sanitaria, direccionamiento de la investigación y desarrollo tecnológico. Dentro de las innovaciones relativamente recientes que se han implantado en Costa Rica destacan la implantación de los equipos básicos de atención integral de salud (EBAIS, la desconcentración de los hospitales y clínicas públicos, la introducción de los acuerdos de gestión y la creación de las Juntas de Salud.This paper describes the Costa Rican health system which provides health, water and sanitation services. The health component of the system includes a public and a private sector. The public sector is dominated by the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS, an autonomous institution in charge of financing, purchasing and delivering most of the personal health services in Costa Rica. CCSS is financed with contributions of the

  17. Case Study: Transgenic Crop Controversy in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hague, Steve S.

    2009-01-01

    Costa Rica has rich ecological resources and has been a steady political force in turbulent Central America. Most recently, it has become a battleground between pro- and anti-genetically modified organism (GMO) political forces. This case study examines the roles of U.S.-based cotton ("Gossypium hirsutum" L.) seed companies, anti-GMO activists,…

  18. Rewriting Citizenship? Civic Education in Costa Rica and Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, David F.

    2008-01-01

    To what degree are nations "rewriting" citizenship by expanding discussions of human rights, diversity and cultural pluralism in modern civic education, and what explains variation between countries? This study addresses these issues by analysing the intended content of civic education in Costa Rica and Argentina. Over time, civic education in…

  19. Environmental Education for Democracy and Social Justice in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on how democratic values and citizenship education are promoted through environmental education in Costa Rica. Data were collected through the examination of textbook and curriculum guides and interviews with classroom teachers. The qualitative study utilized Bowers' (2001) and Gruenewald's (2003) theories of eco-justice and…

  20. [Zooplankton of the Costa Rica Dome: taxonomy and biogeography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicencio Aguilar, M E; Fernández Alamo, M A

    1996-08-01

    A list of the species and taxa of some pelagic animals from a tropical upwelling region, based on collections made off the coast of Costa Rica is presented. The list includes a total of 224 species, 53 genera and 11 subspecific forms in Cnidaria, Annelida, Mollusca, Artropoda (Crustacea), Chaetognatha and Pisces. PMID:9246370

  1. Situation of Drug Information Centers and Services in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall V

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available PAHO establishes guidelines that must be met by drug information centers (DIC and the drug information services (DIS. Objective: To describe the operations, activities, and resources of the DICs and the DISs affiliated with public institutions of Costa Rica, and their adjustment to the provisions set forth by the PAHO. Methods: Descriptive study conducted in May 2003. The officers in charge of each of the seven public DICs or DISs in Costa Rica were interviewed, and inquiries were made regarding aspects of the structure and process of their centers. Results: In Costa Rica there are seven public drug information units, that is, four DICs and three DISs. One of the DICs is located in this university, and the remaining six centers and services are in located in hospitals. Five of the centers do not have the primary sources required by the PAHO. Fifteen out of the 36 tertiary sources recommended are not available in any of the centers. 100% of the information units carry out four main activities: answering inquiries from the hospital community, answering inquiries from users outside the hospital, implementing education programs for patients and risk groups, and rotation programs for student training. Conclusions: The activities developed by the DISs and the DICs in Costa Rica are similar to each other; they respond not only to the PAHO’s guidelines, but they also have similarities with the activities and operations of other DICs worldwide. Primary, secondary, and tertiary bibliographical support must be strengthened.

  2. Tetrodotoxin: Occurrence in atelopid frogs of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y H; Brown, G B; Mosher, F A

    1975-07-11

    The potent neurotoxin tetrodotoxin, which has previously been found in puffer fish of the order Tetraordontiformes, a goby (Gobius criniger), and the California newt (Taricha torosa), has now been identified in the skins of frogs of the genus Atelopus from Costa Rica. PMID:1138374

  3. Muertes relacionadas con cocaina en Costa Rica durante 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Alfaro Albertazzi

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de cocaína en Costa Rica es un problema creciente y muchas de lasmuertes pueden ser causadas por situaciones en las cuales la droga está involucrada. En este estudio todas las autopsias médico legales hechas en 1996 en este país fueron analizadas con el objeto de determinar la mortalidad y por lo tanto el impacto que ella genera en la sociedad costarricense.The cocaine consumption in Costa Rica is a growing problem and a lot of deaths can be caused by the situations in wich the drug is involved. In this study all the medicolegal autopsies done in 1996 in this country were analized to figure out the mortality and therefore, the impact it generates in Costa Rican society.

  4. Burkholderia glumae EN EL CULTIVO DE ARROZ EN COSTA RICA

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    Andrea Quesada-Gonz\\u00E1lez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia glumae en el cultivo de arroz en Costa Rica. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la presencia de Burkholderia glumae en arroz en Costa Rica. La bacteria Burkholderia glumae está asociada al cultivo del arroz en el que provoca la enfermedad llamada añublo bacterial. Bajo condiciones ambientales favorables, la densidad bacteriana aumenta, lo que provoca que, bajo un sistema de regulación denominado quorum sensing, se expresen sus mecanismos de virulencia mediante la activación de genes responsables para la síntesis de la toxoflavina, que bloquea el flujo de nutrientes, para la biogénesis de flagelos y la respuesta quimiotáctica, y la producción de la enzima catalasa. Las plantas desarrollan la sintomatología que finalmente conlleva a un vaneamiento del grano provocando pérdidas económicas importantes. Se investigó la situación referente a la contaminación del grano de arroz causado por esta bacteria en Costa Rica durante los años 2009 y 2010, mediante un convenio entre la Corporación Nacional Arrocera y el Laboratorio de Fitopatología del Centro de Investigación en Protección de Cultivos de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Se usó la metodología de PCR de punto final recomendada por investigadores del Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical en Colombia y se reforzó la identificación, por medio de técnicas de microbiología convencional. Se obtuvieron resultados que indican la presencia de la bacteria en Costa Rica, la primera información sobre la prevalencia de un fitopatógeno bacteriano de gran importancia para el sector arrocero.

  5. Ambient Tremor, But No Triggered Tremor at the Northern Costa Rica Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiecki, Z.; Schwartz, S. Y.

    2010-12-01

    Non-volcanic tremor (NVT) has been found to be triggered during the passage of surface waves from various teleseismic events in locations around the world including Cascadia, Southwest Japan, Taiwan, and California. In this study we examine the northern Costa Rica subduction zone for evidence of triggered tremor. The Nicoya Peninsula segment of the northern Costa Rica margin experiences both slow-slip and tremor and is thus a prime candidate for triggered tremor observations. Eleven teleseismic events with magnitudes (Mw) greater than 8 occurring between 2006 and 2010 were examined using data from both broadband and short period sensors deployed on the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica. Waveforms from several large regional events were also considered. The largest teleseismic and regional events (27 February 2010 Chile, Mw 8.8 and 28 May 2009 Honduras, Mw 7.3) induced peak ground velocities (PGV) at the NIcoya stations of ~2 and 6 mm/s, respectively; larger than PGVs in other locations that have triggered tremor. Many of the earthquakes examined occurred during small episodes of background ambient tremor. In spite of this, no triggered tremor was observed during the passage of seismic waves from any event. This is significant because other studies have demonstrated that NVT is not triggered everywhere by all events above some threshold magnitude, indicating that unique conditions are required for its occurrence. The lack of triggered tremor at the Costa Rica margin can help to better quantify the requisite conditions and triggering mechanisms. An inherent difference between the Costa Rica margin and the other subduction zones where triggered tremor exists is its erosional rather than accretionary nature. Its relatively low sediment supply likely results in a drier, lower pore fluid pressure, stronger and less compliant thrust interface that is less receptive to triggering tremor from external stresses generated by teleseismic or strong local earthquakes. Another

  6. Intoxicación por estricnina en Costa Rica

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    Grettchen Flores Sandí

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available La estricnina es un alcaloide de origen vegetal, de efecto convulsivante el cual ha sido usado en Costa Rica como plaguicida y rodenticida y también como adulterante de drogas de abuso. Su utilización terapéutica ha sido rechazada. La intoxicación por este tóxico es rara debido al uso actualmente restringido en Costa Rica para la eliminación de perros callejeros por personal de salud. La sintomatología, primordialmente neurológica y cardiorrespiratoria, es de diagnostico clínico y de laboratorio, según esta revisión e la literatura reciente. Los principales hallazgos postmortem son rigidez cadavérica precoz e intensa y síndrome asfíctico. Los registros de la Sección de Patología Forense del Organismo de Investigación Judicial de Costa Rica presentan desde 1990, únicamente dos casos de muerte por intoxicación con estricnina. Se trata de mujeres, que presentaron la rigidez anotada, corroborándose por la escena de muerte y en el laboratorio. La baja frecuencia se debe a la dificultad para conseguir la estricnina.Strychinine is an alcaloid of plant origin and convulsive effect which has beenused in Costa Rica as a pesticide androdenticide, as well as adulterant in abused drugs. Its therapeutic use has been rejected. Poisoning with this substance is not common because n Costa Rica its use is currently restricted to the elimination of street dogs practiced by sanitary personnel. The symptons, basically neuroogic and cardiorespiratory, require clinical and laboratory analysis, according to the present review of recent literature. The main post-mortem findings are early rigor mortis and an asfictic syndrome. The records of the Forensic Pathology section of the Costa Rican Criminal Bureau only include, since 1990, two deaths caused by strychnine. The victims were women that presentd the mentioned rigor mortis, and the cause was corroborated by the scene of death and the laboratory. The diffculty of obtaining the substance explains the

  7. Availability, distribution, quality and perspectives of water in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Valverde

    2013-01-01

    Costa Rica is a privileged country due to its rich water availability; nonetheless, the water accessibility in terms of potable quality has become more and more scarce. Such situation implies a great challenge to guarantee its current and future supply to meet water´s increasing demands for its many purposes, considering the existing disparities among the country´s geographical regions and its different users. The current paper seeks to explore this dynamics and its future perspectives under ...

  8. The problem of digital heritage: the case of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bernal Rivas Fernández

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze the problem you are facing the production of documents in digital form, as a result of the latest trends in the e-government that poses new challenges for archives and access to information contained in this type of support. This is a brief review the case of Costa Rica, where there have already been some effects in terms of the protection of digital heritage especially by the impact of information technologies and communication.

  9. Dating Violence: Study with Adolescents from Heredia (Costa Rica)

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Avelino Fernández-Fuertes; María Begoña Orgaz-Baz; Mariana De Lima-Silva; Manuel Arturo Fallas-Vargas; José Antonio García-Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Most of human aggressive behavior occurs in the context of a romantic relationship. Adolescents are not an exception: research show a significant prevalence of dating violence, revealing the need for further study, especially in Latin America, given the lack of research on this topic. This study aims at strengthening knowledge about aggressive behavior in adolescent dating relationships in Costa Rica, taking into account different aggressive behaviors, not only physical or sexual abuse; diffe...

  10. FARMER PARTICIPATION IN REFORESTATION INCENTIVE PROGRAMS IN COSTA RICA

    OpenAIRE

    Schelhas, John W.; Lee, David R.; Thacher, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Reforestation programs are a common policy response among developing country governments in the tropics attempting to deal with environmental and economic problems caused by widespread deforestation. The objective of this paper is to examine participation by small-and medium-sized farms in two reforestation programs undertaken in recent years by one country, Costa Rica, which has been at the forefront of developing country environmental protection efforts. Analysis of a survey of 243 program ...

  11. Epidemiologic studies of cervical cancer in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero, Rolando

    1996-01-01

    A case-control study of cervical cancer was conducted in Costa Rica, Co- lombia, Mexico and Panama from 1986 to 1987, to determine risk factors operating in these traditionally high-incidence areas. The study included 759 cases and 1,430 hospital and community controls, and accomplished more than 95% participation rates for both types of participants. The ma- jor risk factors identified were: detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 or 18, increasing number of livebi...

  12. Hansen en Costa Rica: pasado, presente y futuro Leprosy in Costa Rica, Past, Present and Future

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    Orlando Jaramillo-Antillón

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir el manejo clínico y epidemiológico de la lepra, desde su aparición hasta el 2008 en Costa Rica y recomendar estrategias de control a las autoridades de salud. Materiales y métodos: Es un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo. La revisión bibliográfica permitió describir la enfermedad desde 1798 hasta 1995. El Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas y Censos proporcionó la población y el Ministerio de Salud (MS los casos para calcular tasas de prevalencia y porcentajes. Los hospitales: México y Calderón Guardia facilitaron los expedientes para clasificar los casos según tipo de lepra y compararlos con los notificados del MS. Resultados: El primer caso se documentó en 1798. En 1979, se cerró el Sanatorio Nacional de las Mercedes. Las estrategias de control implementadas por el MS lograron disminuir los casos a menos de 1x10.000 habitantes en 1995. Del 2002 al 2008, en el país, se notificaron al MS 67 casos, pero 45 no especificaron el tipo de lepra. En los 22 casos clasificados, solo el 3% fue paucibacilar. El 97% de los casos notificados al MS eran lepra multibacilar. En los hospitales Calderón Guardia y México se atendieron 35 pacientes en el mismo periodo y de ellos 28 (80% fueron del tipo lepra multibacilar. Conclusión: Dado el alto porcentaje de pacientes multibacilares, es urgente que la Seguridad Social implemente la detección temprana de los casos, la rehabilitación integral de los pacientes y participe en forma activa y coordinada, en el control clínico y epidemiológico de esta enfermedad.Background and Aim: The aims of this review are to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of leprosy from the first case documented and up to the year 2008 in Costa Rica and to advise health authorities on controlling disease strategies. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive and retrospective study concerning leprosy. The reference review allowed us to describe the disease from 1798 up to 1995

  13. Resistencia antimicrobiana de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus, Costa Rica Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus, Costa Rica

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    Víctor Hugo Alvarado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar y comparar los perfiles de resistencia de cepas de S. aureus aisladas de quesos, producidos en la Zona Sur de Costa Rica y de un centro hospitalario de la misma región. Materiales y Métodos: Se analizaron 35 muestras de queso fresco, adquiridas durante los meses de setiembre y octubre del 2010 en la zona de San Vito de Coto Brus. A cada muestra se le realizaron recuentos de coliformes totales, coliformes fecales y Staphylococcus aureus. Adicionalmente se analizó presencia/ausencia de Listeria monocytogenes en 25 gramos del producto. A las cepas identificadas como S. aureus se les realizó la prueba de sensibilidad a los antibióticos mediante el sistema automatizado Vitek y la interpretación de los datos se realizó siguiendo las pautas del Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute antimicrobial susceptibility testing 2011. Adicional a esto se recolectaron datos acerca de la sensibilidad de las cepas de S. aureus aisladas e identificadas en el Hospital de San Vito de Coto Brus en el mismo período. Resultados: El promedio obtenido para el recuento de coliformes totales fue de 9,7 X 10(6 UFC/g, para coliformes fecales de 6,7 X 10(5 y para S. aureus de 2,8 X 10(5 UFC/g, obteniéndose un 83 % de muestras positivas por esta bacteria. En cuanto a la resistencia antimicrobiana, se obtuvieron porcentajes de resistencia mayores en las cepas de origen clínico. Se encontró también que 23 de las cepas (96% provenientes de muestras clínicas, presentaban resistencia a más de un antibiótico, mientras que siete de las obtenidas a partir de queso (27% presentaban esta característica. Con respecto a los betalactamicos (ampicilina, oxacilina y penicilina se observó la existencia de una diferencia estadísticamente significativa (pObjective: determined and compared the resistance patters of S. aureus strains isolated from cheese produced in the southern zone of Costa Rica and from clinical samples isolated at the hospital center

  14. Seminario Regional para el Desarrollo de Materiales Educativos para la Paz (San Jose, Costa Rica, 27-31 de octubre de 1986). Informe Final (Regional Seminar for the Development of Educational Materials on the Theme of Peace--San Jose, Costa Rica, October 27-31, 1986. Final Report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    In conjunction with United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization's 40th anniversary, 1986 was named the International Year of Peace. During 1986, UNESCO selected the theme "peace" as an education project to be undertaken in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, and…

  15. Canine Distemper Virus in Wild Felids of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendaño, Roberto; Barrueta, Flor; Soto-Fournier, Sofía; Chavarría, Max; Monge, Otto; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A; Chaves, Andrea

    2016-04-28

    Several highly infectious diseases can be transmitted through feces and cause elevated mortality among carnivore species. One such infectious agent, canine distemper virus (CDV; Paramyxoviridae: Morbillivirus), has been reported to affect wild carnivores, among them several felid species. We screened free-ranging and captive wild carnivores in Costa Rica for CDV. Between 2006 and 2012, we collected 306 fecal samples from 70 jaguars (Panther onca), 71 ocelots ( Leopardus pardalis ), five jaguarundis (Puma yaguaroundi), 105 pumas ( Puma concolor ), five margays ( Leopardus wiedii ), 23 coyotes ( Canis latrans ), and 27 undetermined Leopardus spp. We found CDV in six individuals: one captive jaguarundi (rescued in 2009), three free-ranging ocelots (samples collected in 2012), and two free-ranging pumas (samples collected in 2007). Phylogenetic analyses were performed using sequences of the phosphoprotein (P) gene. We provide evidence of CDV in wild carnivores in Costa Rica and sequence data from a Costa Rican CDV isolate, adding to the very few sequence data available for CDV isolates from wild Central American carnivores. PMID:26967127

  16. Florecimientos de dinoflagelados nocivos en la costa Pacífica de Costa Rica Harmful blooms by noxious dinoflagellates in the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

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    Maribelle Vargas Montero

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Desde 1979 se han reportado florecimientos de especies de microalgas nocivas (FAN en la costa Pacífica de Costa Rica, reconociéndose hasta el 2005 al menos 13 taxa de dinoflagelados. En años recientes estos fenómenos se han intensificado tanto espacial como temporalmente, produciéndose discoloraciones casi ininterrumpidas que se extienden por toda la costa produciendo mortalidad de peces y fetidez en el agua. Tales FAN masivos se iniciaron con Pyrodinium bahamense en el 2000, quien perduró por más de un año y en el cual se observaron morfotipos correspondientes a las dos variedades de la especie, coexistiendo junto a Gymnodinium catenatum y ocasionando serios casos de Intoxicación Paralizante por Consumo de Mariscos (IPM. Posteriormente, de septiembre del 2003 hasta junio del 2004, Cochlodinium cf. polykrikoides produjo discoloraciones en toda la costa Pacífica, seguidas por manchas extensas de Akasiwo sanguinea y Gymnodinium instriatum. El evento más reciente se observó en junio del 2005 cuando Alexandrium monilatum produjo extensas discoloraciones con cadenas formadas por más de 100 células. Los FAN de dinoflagelados ahora son comunes en las costas de Costa Rica, posiblemente como resultado de las condiciones ambientales actuales que favorecen la proliferación masiva de especies invasivas (agresivas, las cuales incluso pueden afectar otros sitios del Pacífico americano como es el caso de P. bahamense var. compressum que puede desplazarse hasta México, a lo largo de la costa del Pacífico centroamericano a través de la Corriente Costera de Costa Rica y la Corriente Occidental Mexicana.Since 1979 has been reported harmful microalgae blooms (HAB on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, it was identified until 2005 at least 13 taxa of dinoflagellates. In recent years these phenomena have intensified both spatially and temporarily, discolorations occur almost uninterrupted; they are distributed for months and which extend along the

  17. La Universidad de Costa Rica en tránsito

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    Badilla Saxe, Eleonora

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. La Universidad de Costa Rica en Tránsito es un artículo que pretende dar cuenta del tránsito que ha iniciado la institución en su camino hacia la transdisciplinariedad. Se presenta, en primera instancia, un contexto histórico y referentes teóricos que apuntan a que la Universidad en el Siglo XXI debe iniciar un tránsito, por una parte, de regreso a reflejar el significado de su origen: UNIVERSUS-A-UM (“todo”, “entero”, “universal” superando fragmentaciones y departamentalizaciones y, por otro, hacia una visión transdisciplinar, un pensamiento complejo en sintonía con las realidades biológicas, sociales y culturales del mundo en el siglo XXI. Y, ya que la transdisciplinariedad no se puede llevar a cabo más que en la acción y en la interacción con otros, se reporta sobre una serie de estrategias interconectadas que se están promoviendo Universidad de Costa Rica para ayudar a la institución a iniciar ese tránsito.Abstract. University of Costa Rica in Transit is an article that reports on the journey the institution has started on its path towards transdisciplinarity. On one way, back to the origen: universus (all, whole, universal, overcoming fragmentation and departamentalization. On the other towards a transdisciplinary vision and complex thinking in accordance with the new biological, social and cultural realities of our world. Interactive and interrelated strategies that are currently beeing promoted to stimulate the institution towards transdisciplinarity are reported here. It is important to remember that transdisciplinarity can only be reflected in action, and in the interaction with others.

  18. Geostrophic circulation between the Costa Rica Dome and Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes, C. L.; Lavín, M. F.; Mascarenhas, Affonso S.

    2008-05-01

    The geostrophic circulation between the Costa Rica Dome and Central America is described from CTD observations collected in two surveys: (a) The Wet Cruise in September-October 1993, and the Jet Cruise in February-March 1994. Poleward coastal flow was present on both occasions, but the transition from flow around the dome to the poleward Costa Rica Coastal Current flow was quite tortuous because of the presence of mesoscale eddies. In particular, a warm anticyclonic eddy was found off the Gulf of Fonseca during both cruises, at an almost identical position and with similar dimensions (150 m deep, 250 km in diameter) and surface speed (0.5 m s -1). In the Gulf of Panama, poleward flow was also observed, weaker in February-March 1994 than in September-October 1993, when it penetrated to 600 m depth and transported 8.5 Sv. In September-October 1993, the current between the dome and the coast was mostly ˜100 m deep and weak (˜0.15 m s -1), although in its southern side it was deeper (˜450 m) and faster at 0.3 m s -1. The poleward transport between the dome and the coast was ˜7 Sv. In February-March 1994 the Costa Rica Dome was a closed ring adjacent to the continental shelf, ˜500 km in diameter, at least 400 m deep, had geostrophic surface speeds ˜0.25 m s -1, and subsurface maximum speed (0.15-0.20 m s -1) at ˜180 m depth; the associated uplift of the isotherms was ˜150 m. The flow in the south part of the dome splits into two branches, the weakest one going around the dome and the strongest one continuing east and turning south before reaching the Gulf of Panama.

  19. Hispines (Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae of La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica

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    Charles L. Staines

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Survey work from 1992–2001 identified 139 species of hispines at the lowland part of La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. The tribe Cephaloleiini was the most speciose with 58 species (41.7% followed by the Chalepini with 55 (39.5%. The fauna is most closely related to that in South America but with some genera which are more speciose in the Nearctic Region. Plant associations are known for 88 (63.3% of the species but many of these are merely collecting records, not host plant associations. The first plant associations are reported for Alurnus ornatus, A. salvini, and Acentroptera nevermanni.

  20. Trata: Esclavitud invisibilizada en Costa Rica. Estudio de cinco casos

    OpenAIRE

    Marianela Méndez-Marenco

    2013-01-01

    La trata de personas con fines de explotación sexual comercial es una problemática solapada en Costa Rica. Resulta necesario conocer este fenómeno, puesto que cada día más ciudadanos son atrapados y sometidos a una forma de esclavitud, que denigra su integridad física, psicológica, social y espiritual. A partir de las experiencias vividas como profesional en una organización sin fines de lucro (ONG) con un programa para esta población, hizo evidente el desconocimiento y los excesivos prejuici...

  1. Availability, distribution, quality and perspectives of water in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Valverde

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Costa Rica is a privileged country due to its rich water availability; nonetheless, the water accessibility in terms of potable quality has become more and more scarce. Such situation implies a great challenge to guarantee its current and future supply to meet water´s increasing demands for its many purposes, considering the existing disparities among the country´s geographical regions and its different users. The current paper seeks to explore this dynamics and its future perspectives under the predicted climate change scenarios.

  2. PERCEPCIÓN DEL IMPACTO DE LA APLICACIÓN DE MECANISMOS DE ASEGURAMIENTO DE LA CALIDAD EN LA EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR EN COSTA RICA: PROYECTO ALFA-CINDA-UNIVERSIDAD DE COSTA RICA (PERCEIVED IMPACT OF QUALITY ASSURANCE MECHANISMS ON COSTA-RICAN HIGHER EDUCATION: THE ALFA-CINDA-UNIVERSIDAD-DE-COSTA-RICA PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Guido, Elsiana

    2012-05-01

    Chile. The Costa-Rican component has been coordinated and carried out by the Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR since 2009. Sixteen Latin-American and seven European universities are participating in this project. Its general objective is to improve the quality management of higher education both on the national level, and on the individual level of each institution, as well as to generate acquaintances and mutual trust among Latin-American and European countries regarding the quality of their higher education. As a part of the activities of the project, 7 studies were made in 5 Latin-American and 2 European countries to evaluate the impact of the quality assurance processes that have been implemented in their universities. In Costa Rica, the study considered two state universities and two private ones. There, 26 interviews and 8 group sessions were carried out from October 2010 to May 2011 with the populations of interest for the study. Additionally, 652 active students and graduates from accredited careers of the selected universities were interviewed. A summary of the main results from the qualitative and quantitative interviews made in Costa Rica, are presented in this article

  3. "El sector de la economía laboral en Costa Rica (S.E.L." (The labour economy sector in Costa Rica (S.E.L.

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    Francisco Morales Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available : The author analyses the evolution of cooperatives in Costa Rica during the last 60 years. Their evolution, impact on the country’s economy, how their democratic way of operating is mirrored in Costa Rican society, etc. are subjects examined in this article.

  4. Organochlorine pesticides in the soils and atmosphere of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Gillian L; Lei, Ying D; Teixeira, Camilla; Muir, Derek C G; Castillo, Luisa E; Jantunen, Liisa M M; Wania, Frank

    2007-02-15

    A survey of the contamination of the physical environment of Costa Rica with banned organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) relied on sampling air and soil at 23 stations acrossthe country in 2004. Average annual air concentrations, determined with XAD-based passive samplers, and surface soil concentrations were generally low when compared to values reported for North and Central America, which is consistent with relatively low historical domestic use and little atmospheric inflow from neighboring countries. Statistical analysis and concentration maps reveal three types of spatial distribution: alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane and p,p'-DDD had a relatively uniform distribution across the country; other DDT-related species were greatly elevated over the national average at Manuel Antonio, a National Park on the Pacific coast; and dieldrin, lindane, and chlordane-related species had higher concentrations in Costa Rica's populated Central Valley. An altitudinal transect of stations in the Central Valley shows declining air-soil concentration ratios with elevation for lindane, likely driven by atmospheric inversions and soil organic carbon content. Enantiomeric composition of chiral OCPs in air and soil was close to racemic, with slight depletion of (-)-alpha-HCH, (-)-cis-chlordane, and (+)-trans-chlordane. Estimated air-soil fugacity fractions are highly uncertain but indicate equilibrium conditions for most OCPs, net volatilization of lindane at some sites, and net deposition for p,p'-DDE. The study demonstrates an approach for quickly evaluating the spatial distribution of OCPs in an understudied area, identifying regionally important contaminants and areas of elevated concentrations. PMID:17593709

  5. Forests of hope: Costa Rica. Restoring hope in the clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, L

    1996-01-01

    The rapid population growth in Central America has created pressure on the largest tract of cloud forest spanning the Talamanca Mountains in Costa Rica and Panama. Of immediate concern is restoring hope in the forest and improving the standard of living among local people. Such is the goal of the Amistad Conservation and Development (AMISCONDE) project in the communities of Cerro Punta, Panama, and San Rafael in Costa Rica. Through agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, environmental education, and community development, AMISCONDE aims to restore the degraded lands in the reserve's buffer zone and improve the income of the people. All the local people, the farmers, women and children have benefited from the project. Some of the activities carried out to meet its objectives include helping the farmers improve the productivity and marketability of their products by teaching them new technologies and giving agricultural credits to farmers, women, and youth groups. In addition, AMISCONDE conducts training courses to address the economic, social and educational needs of women and communities. It is assured that the community and the group will be prepared to continue on their own after the official AMISCONDE office is gone. PMID:12322449

  6. El poblamiento temprano de la costa norte de Chile

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    Varela, Héctor Hugo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La costa Norte de Chile estuvo habitada por lo menos desde 10000 AP por pequeños grupos humanos que subsistían de los recursos del mar y la costa. Ellos estaban asociados con la cultura Chinchorro, caracterizada por el tratamiento artificial que le daban a sus muertos. El sitio Caleta Huelén 42 se encuentra ubicado en la desembocadura del río Loa en el Norte de Chile. Constituye una importante conexión hacia el sur, vinculada con la expansión de los grupos de pescadores arcaicos semejantes a Morro 1 y Morro 1-6 y que continúa hacia Punta de Teatinos y El Cerrito. La presente experiencia tiene como objetivo establecer las relaciones biológicas de Caleta Huelén 42 con otros grupos arcaicos costeros. La colección está constituida por 33 individuos y los fechados conocidos la ubican entre el 4780 y el 3780 AP. Las afinidades biológicas con grupos semejantes (Morro 1, Morro 1/6, Morro Uhle, El Cerrito y Punta de Teatinos se analizan mediante el empleo de 29 caracteres métricos del cráneo y la aplicación de diferentes técnicas de análisis multivariado. Se demostró la existencia de dos conglomerados biológicos uno constituido por las muestras del Norte Árido (Morro Uhle, Morro 1, Morro1/6 y Caleta Huelén 42 y el otro por las series del Norte Semiárido (El Cerrito y Punta de Teatinos. Los fundadores de Caleta Huelén 42 son el resultado de la migración hacia el sur de una pequeña banda de cazadores recolectores arcaicos, que conservaron parte de genoma original y características culturales que los conecta con la tradición Chinchorro. Además, es posible que hayan recibido el aporte genético de grupos arcaicos proveniente del interior del continente a través del río Loa.

  7. Melioidosis en Costa Rica: Reporte del primer caso

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    Alfredo Messino Julio

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Melioidosis es una enfennedad infecciosa causada por la Burkholderia pseudomallef. Esta enfermedad es endémica en áreas tropicales de Asia y Australia y ha habido reportes aislados en Centro y Sur América. Aquí nosotros informamos del primer caso probado de melioidosis en Costa Rica, correspondiendo a un paciente sin historia de viajes a lugares endémicos. El paciente consultó por una bronconeumonía de adquisición comunitaria y sepsis. El hecho que el aislamiento bacteriano sea tan inusual en nuestro país implicó un retraso subsecuente en el inicio del tratamiento antibiótico específico en este caso, lo cual pudo influir en la evolución tan tórpida del paciente. Esto nos plantea el interrogante de si esta enfermedad debe ser incluida en el diagnóstico diferencial de sepsis de adquisición comunitaria en nuestro país.Melioidosis in an infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. This disease is endemie in areas of tropical Asia and Australia; there have been isolated reports of the disease in Central and South America. Here we report the first documented case of Melioidosis in Costa Rica in a patient without a history of traveling lo endemic areas. The patient was seen at the hospital because of sepsis and a community acquired bronchopneumonia. Due lo the rareness of this bacterial isolation in our country the corroboration of the diagnosis was delayed and subsequently the specific antibiotics were started 5 days later after the admission, this could have influenced the torpid evolution the patient had. This case should alert us and points lo the need of including this rare disease in the differential diagnosis of community acquired sepsis in our country.

  8. Trata: Esclavitud invisibilizada en Costa Rica. Estudio de cinco casos

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    Marianela Méndez-Marenco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La trata de personas con fines de explotación sexual comercial es una problemática solapada en Costa Rica. Resulta necesario conocer este fenómeno, puesto que cada día más ciudadanos son atrapados y sometidos a una forma de esclavitud, que denigra su integridad física, psicológica, social y espiritual. A partir de las experiencias vividas como profesional en una organización sin fines de lucro (ONG con un programa para esta población, hizo evidente el desconocimiento y los excesivos prejuicios sobre las víctimas en la sociedad. Se explora el hecho de que la información sobre este fenómeno en Costa Rica es escasa y el abordaje psicológico lo es aún más. La investigación tiene sus bases en la metodología cualitativa descriptiva; se propone un diseño fenomenológico que parte de la teoría humanista del Análisis Transaccional de Berne (1976 para efectuar estudio múltiple de casos. La muestra estuvo constituida por un grupo de cinco mujeres, que se encontraron en proceso de restauración en la ONG bajo las categorías de análisis “Trata de personas con fines de explotación sexual comercial nacional” (dentro de Costa Rica, “Avasallamientos” y “Desarrollo personal”. Los resultados identificaron avasallamientos, a los que fueron sometidas las mujeres de esta muestra, antes, durante y después de ser captadas en la trata. Asimismo, se analiza cómo el desarrollo de las mujeres víctimas de trata en este estudio se ve obstaculizado por dichos avasallamientos y cómo algunas lograron obtener el crecimiento personal a pesar de lo sucedido.

  9. America and the Caribbean: The case of Costa Rica

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    Andy Seidl

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este documento ilustra un enfoque económico a la comprensión de la industria de turismo de cruceros como impulsora del desarrollo económico en Costa Rica. El objetivo es describir el papel y las actividades de la industria de cruceros e identificar fuentes de costo y beneficio económico, a fin de que se puedan tomar decisiones locales de política con más información sobre el turismo de cruceros. Por ejemplo, nuestro análisis indica que la industria de turismo de cruceros compite con la industria de despacho de carga por espacio portuario a un significativo costo para los puertos de Costa Rica: la cantidad de dinero inyectada a la economía local por turista de crucero es sustancialmente más baja que para otros tipos de turismo. Los cruceros de turismo compran relativamente pocos suministros en Costa Rica y generan una gran cantidad de desechos producidos por las personas así como contaminación de agua y aire, lo que puede crear un serio peligro para la salud y costos de limpieza que no son proporcionales con otros tipos de desarrollo turístico de los que dispone el país. Quizás los encargados de tomar decisiones quieran considerar que la inversión en puertos amistosos con el turismo de crucero podría ser menos eficiente desde una perspectiva nacional que la inversión en infraestructura (por ejemplo, aeropuertos para aumentar tipos más rentables de turismo. Asimismo, quizás los líderes quieran pensar en estimular cruceros más pequeños “de bolsillo” más bien que la actual versión de turismo masivo. Este método debería ser aplicable a comunidades donde el turismo de crucero existe actualmente o se está considerando para incluirlo en la cartera de actividades económicas comunitarias.

  10. Emission inventory of criteria pollutants Costa Rica in 2011

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    Jorge Herrera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Criteria pollutant emissions were determined in Costa Rica in 2011, from the application of emission factors, measurement sources, the application of mechanistic models and material balance. A total of 1,898,591 tons of criteria pollutants which were recorded, mobile sources are the main contributions with nearly 61%, followed by the area and stationary sources, with 21 and 18 % respectively. The most abundant pollutant in weight, anthropogenically generated during 2011 was the carbon monoxide ( CO , issuing into the atmosphere about 856 264 tonnes per year, mainly for mobile sources; next in order of importance emissions of total organic gases (GOT with more than 434 777 tonnes per year, with mobile sources which generate 40 %.

  11. Authigenic Carbonates off Costa Rica Margin: Archives for Dewatering History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, X.; Suess, E.; Sahling, H.; Garbe-Schönberg, D.; Scholten, J.; Bock, B.

    2003-04-01

    Authigenic carbonates in a variety of types and shapes characterize mud diapirs and slump scarps, the major sites of fluid venting off Costa Rica margin. A regional distribution pattern of mineral and isotope compositions exists based on 76 samples analyzed so far: The Jaco Scarp, which represents a deep plow mark left by a subducted seamount, is characterized by nodules, fluid conduit concretions and chemoherms. The dominant mineral is (proto-)dolomite, except for chemoherms which are composed of aragonite. The dolomites have δ13C and δ18O compositions in the range of -40.5 to -28.3 ppm PDB and 8.1 to 6.5 ppm PDB, respectively, while those of chemoherm are lighter (δ13C = -46.0 to -51.0 ppm PDB and δ18O = 4.8 to 5.0 ppm PDB). On the mud diapirs off northern Costa Rica, the carbonates are mainly massive micrites which are dominated by calcite (MgCO_3 = 2--10 mol-%), their δ13C and δ18O are in the range of -27.4 to -53.0 ppm PDB and 5.4 to 6.3 ppm PDB, respectively. On the mud diapirs off southern Costa Rica, aragonite dominates the chemoherms (δ13C = -40.6 to -49.2 ppm PDB, δ18O = 4.4 to 6.4 ppm PDB) and high Mg-calcite dominates the seepage-associated crusts (δ13C = -51.9 to -52.7 ppm PDB; δ18O = 4.9 to 4.8 ppm PDB), while chimneys and fluid conduit concretions are composed of calcite with relatively low Mg content (δ13C = -32.4 to -41.5 ppm PDB; δ18O = 6.4 to 5.7 ppm PDB). The calcite precipitated inside chimneys is more depleted in 13C and has higher Mg-contents than the outer chimney walls, while the concretions are enriched in 13C and depleted in Mg-contents inside compared to outside layers. These trends indicate their sequences of growth. The gas hydrate-associated carbonates are unusually heavy isotopically (δ13C = -18.6 to -29.8 ppm PDB, δ18O = 6.0 to 6.8 ppm PDB) indicating a thermal origin of the methane-C as well as 18O enriched precipitating solutions. This agrees well with the C-isotope ratio of methane recovered from gas hydrates and Cl

  12. Rescue for sexually abused girls in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treguear, T; Peters, L

    1995-01-01

    In San Jose, Costa Rica, the nongovernmental organization PROCAL has established two rescue homes for sexually abused girls 10-15 years of age. One of these homes is devoted to the care of pregnant girls. In almost all cases, the perpetrator was a male relative. Since girls are taught they must obey older male relatives, they are powerless to stop the abuse. When girls become pregnant as a result of sexual abuse, they face social ostracism and are blamed for their participation in sexual activity. PROCAL counsels the girls that they are victims of their own lack of power and provides them with skills and education they need to return to society and start a new life. The stories of two young girls who became pregnant as a result of sexual abuse and were helped by PROCAL are presented. PMID:12319363

  13. MEDIDAS DE NÚCLEO INFLACIONARIO PARA COSTA RICA

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    Gabriela Saborío Muñoz

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available En este documento se elaboran y evalúan medidas alternativas de núcleo inflacionario para Costa Rica. La idea fundamental contempla al núcleo inflacionario como un indicador de la tendencia subyacente de la inflación capaz de capturar el componente del cambio total de precios común a todos los bienes y servicios, cuya persistencia se mantendría en el mediano y largo plazo y que excluye los cambios en los precios relativos de estos. La medida de núcleo inflacionario seleccionada se contrasta con el Índice de Núcleo Inflacionario (INI, indicador de inflación subyacente actualmente utilizado por el Banco Central de Costa Rica (BCCR.El Índice Subyacente de Inflación (ISI, definido como una medida de núcleo inflacionario que excluye un 30,7% del peso total del Índice de Precios al Consumidor (IPC, refleja más fielmente la tendencia subyacente de la inflación y logra capturar el movimiento más permanente del nivel general de precios, aislando las variaciones en precios relativos. Además, el ISI es fácil de calcular e interpretar lo cual ayuda a incrementar la transparencia y credibilidad de la política monetaria. También es un indicador oportuno, aumentando su valor para los que formulan la política monetaria. Por último, el ISI supera algunas de las limitaciones del INI, como son la falta de un criterio estadístico para definir el punto de corte de los bienes y servicios a excluir y el alto porcentaje del peso total del IPC eliminado. AbstractThis paper builds and evaluates several alternative measures of core inflation for Costa Rica. The chosen measure of core inflation is contrasted with the core inflation index (INI, which is the indicator of underlying inflation used today by the Central Bank of Costa Rica (BCCR. The main idea is that core inflation is a good indicator of the underlying inflation and catches the part of overall price change common to all the goods and services that is expected to persist in the

  14. Chytridiomycosis in wild frogs from southern Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lips, Karen R.; Green, D.E.; Papendick, R.

    2003-01-01

    In 1993, the amphibian fauna of Las Tablas, Costa Rica, began to decline, and by 1998 approximately 50% of the species formerly present could no longer be found. Three years later, at the Reserva Forestal Fortuna, in western Panama, a site approximately 75 km east southeast of Las Tablas, KRL encountered a mass die-off of amphibians and a subsequent decline in abundance and species richness. The epidemiological features of the anuran population declines and die-offs at both sites were similar, suggesting a similar cause. Herein we document the presence of the fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, in dead and dying wild frogs collected at Las Tablas just prior to population declines of several anuran species.

  15. Recent surface marine sediments of Cocos Island in Costa Rica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeffrey A. SIBAJA-CORDERO; Jess S. TRONCOSO; Eddy GMEZ-RAMREZ

    2014-01-01

    Subtidal sediments of Isla del Coco (Cocos Island), Costa Rica were described in their grain size, sorting, organic matter, and carbonates from 27 dredge samples (3-75 m), collected in April 2010. The organic matter range between 1.37-3.31% and carbonates presented a mean of 74±17%. The sorting was moderately or poorly. The grain size ranged between 0.1-1.1mm. The pattern is that sediment change from inner to mouth of bays. Carbonates and gravel fractions increased offshore and organic matter have high values inner the bays. Input of vegetal debris and mud was from the rivers of this island covered with rain and cloud forest.

  16. [Nutritional anemia in nursing women in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, A; Rodríguez, S; Cunningham, L

    2003-03-01

    It is reported the prevalence, magnitude and determinant factors of nutritional anaemia in a sample of nursing women (NW), collected during the National Nutrition Survey, of Costa Rica done in 1996. Nutritional anaemia was determinate through measurements of haemoglobin, and plasma ferritin, folates, cianocobalamin and retinol. Methodologies used were cianometahaemoglobin, solid phase immunoradiometric assay, solid phase radioimmunoassay and high-pressure liquid chromatography. WHO cut-off points were used. Anaemia was present in 22.1% of the women. Iron and folate deficiency were found in 48.7 and 84.2% NW, respectively. The magnitude of anaemia was mild and iron and folate deficiencies were severe. Vitamin B12 and A deficiencies were 5.3 and 4.9%, respectively and did not represent a public health problem in this group. Prevalent deficiency was mixed (iron and folates, 46.6%) followed by exclusive folates deficiency (32%). Anaemia was caused by a combined deficiency of iron and folates (61.1%) and most iron deficiencies were accompanied by folates (92%). The logistic regression analysis demonstrated that low socio-economic level of NW and their families was the principal factor determining the appearance of nutritional anaemia, and educative interventions to the mother are possibly recommended. In conclusion anaemia in NW is a moderate health problem of nutritional type, that is more important when severe folates and iron deficiencies are present in Costa Rica. These problems have remained constant throughout the last three decades; although recently, possibly an improvement has occurred because the prevalence of neural tube defects in the infant population has reduced, maybe due to food iron and folates fortification public health policies implementation.

  17. Las fiebres manchadas y su importancia en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laya Hun-Opfer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available La Fiebre Manchada de la Montañas Rocosas es una zoonosis transmitida por garrapatas y causada por una bacteria intracelular obligatoria, la Rickettsia rickettsii. Es una enfermedad sistémica, de moderada a severa, producida por la infección del endotelio vascular de pequeños vasos de la mayoría de órganos y tejidos. Es la más letal de las infecciones transmitidas por garrapatas y desde su descubrimiento, hace cerca de 100 años, todavía se presenta, aunque esporádicamente, de forma persistente, y a pesar de que se cuenta con antibióticos efectivos, la mortalidad sigue siendo de mas del 10% y los pacientes requieren terapia intensiva durante la infección si esta no es diagnosticada y tratada a tiempo. En tiempo recientemente se han descrito otras especies de garrapatas que pueden transmitir rickettsias a humanos así como nuevas especies de rickettsias que pueden producir cuadros de fiebres manchadas y aunque se ha dilucidado parte de sus mecanismos patogénicos, persisten muchas dudas respecto a su virulencia. Desde 1975 se han reportado brotes de esta enfermedad en Costa Rica y el agente etiológico causal, la Rickettsia rickettsii, fue aislada e identificada en la mayoría de los casos en el Laboratorio de Virología de la Facultad de Microbiología de la Universidad de Costa Rica.

  18. Heat exposure in sugarcane workers in Costa Rica during the non-harvest season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Crowe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This observational pilot study was carried out at three sugarcane companies in Costa Rica. Its main objective was to determine the potential for heat stress conditions for workers in one sugarcane-growing region in Costa Rica during the maintenance (non-harvest period.Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT variables were measured with a heat stress meter and threshold value limits and the Sweat Rate Indexes were calculated for each workplace. It was determined that workers in this study were in heat stress conditions. Costa Rica is likely to experience warmer temperatures and increased heat waves in the coming decades. It is therefore important to take action to decrease current and future heat-related risks for sugarcane workers in both harvest and non-harvest conditions and in all sugarcane growing regions in Costa Rica. It is also necessary to improve guidelines and occupational health standards for protecting worker health and productivity in the tropics.

  19. Enfermedad de Lyme (Borreliosis de Lyme en Costa Rica

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    Ricardo Boza-Cordero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad de Lyme o borreliosis de Lyme es una zoonosis transmitida por garrapatas del género Ixodes y producida por la espiroqueta Borrelia burgdorferi. Ha sido descrita principalmente en Norteamérica, Europa y Asia, y se caracteriza clínicamente por una presentación en tres etapas: inicial con eritema migrans que comienza alrededor de la picadura de la garrapata; infección diseminada con fiebre, ataque al estado general, artritis migratoria, linfadenopatías, alteraciones neurológicas y hepatitis; y la forma crónica, caracterizada por artritis, periostitis, encefalomielitis crónica y polirradiculopatía, entre otras manifestaciones. En Costa Rica se desconocen notificaciones de pacientes con esta patología, por lo que se presenta el caso de una mujer adulta que tras un viaje al Estado de La Florida en los Estados Unidos, presentó cuadro clínico y serológico compatible con la forma leve de la enfermedad de Lyme. Se discuten los hallazgos y se alerta sobre la posibilidad de diagnosticar esta zoonosis, dado el auge del turismo ecológico en estos días.

  20. Activities of technical cooperation in the countries of Latin America: the case of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of technical cooperation in the region of Latin America, have been promoted by the own countries, and by the International Atomic Energy Agency, since 1957. In Costa Rica from 1969, the Commission of Atomic Energy of Costa Rica, has developed an intense work in the promotion of the pacific uses of nuclear energy, as well as, the coordination and canalization of the international technical cooperation, toward the national executing institutions. (author)

  1. Presence and distribution of two sub-species of Eurema agave (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Cordoba-Alfaro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Austin (1992 reported Eurema a. agave (Cramer 1775 to the Caribbean of Costa Rica. However, he actually had found E. a. millerorum, described by Bousquets & Luis-Martinez (1987 for the Caribbean of Mexico. The presence of Eurema a. agave is confirmed on this paper with information of specimens collected in the Pacific and Atlantic slopes of Costa Rica. Aspects on distribution of both subspecies are included.

  2. Seasonal wetlands in the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and Nicaragua: environmental characterisation and conservation state.

    OpenAIRE

    Sasa, Mahmood; Armengol Díaz, Javier; Bonilla, Fabián; Mesquita Joanes, Francesc; Piculo, Rubén; Rojo García-Morato, Carmen; Rueda, Ricardo; Monrós González, Juan S.

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal wetlands in the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and Nicaragua: environmental characterisation and conservation status On the Pacific coast of Nicaragua and Costa Rica, rainfall patterns and clay-rich soils allow the development of extensive wetlands. These environments constitute unique habitats for the maintenance of aquatic biodiversity and provide significant ecological services to the surrounding seasonal dry forest. Despite these benefits, wetlands have been severely reduced in the ...

  3. The Search for Value and Meaning in the Cocoa Supply Chain in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Erin Sills; Evan Mercer; Frederick Cubbage; Jessica Haynes

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative interviews with participants in the cocoa (Theobroma cacao) supply chain in Costa Rica and the United States were conducted and supplemented with an analysis of the marketing literature to examine the prospects of organic and Fairtrade certification for enhancing environmentally and socially responsible trade of cocoa from Costa Rica. Respondents were familiar with both systems, and most had traded at least organic cocoa for some period. However, most individu...

  4. “Shifting in” migration control. Universalism and immigration in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Voorend (Koen)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWhen the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS), the flagship institution of Costa Rica’s ‘exceptional’ -solidary and universal- social policy regime, entered in financial crisis in 2011, the already difficult social integration of Nicaraguan immigrants in Costa Rica became even more

  5. Prácticas y comportamientos sexuales de los estudiantes de la Universidad de Costa Rica (Practices and sexual behaviors of students at the University of Costa Rica)

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis León-Alán; Cristina Garita-Garita; Marilyn Quesada-Cambronero; Lizeth Taylor-Castillo; Pilar Salas-Chaves

    2011-01-01

    El estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar las prácticas sexuales de los estudiantes de la Universidad de Costa Rica para adquirir la infección por VIH con el fin de promover una vida sexual sana y el mejoramiento de la calidad de vida. Se realizó una encuesta auto-administrada y anónima en la población estudiantil, durante el ciclo lectivo del año 2008 en las diferentes sedes que tiene la Universidad de Costa Rica en todo el país.Al final del trabajo de campo se logró recolectar un total de 4...

  6. El rápido descenso de la fecundidad en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Barrantes, Miguel

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Miguel Gómez Barrantes es profesor emérito de la Escuela de Estadística de la Universidad de Costa Rica con estudios de postgrado en demografía en CELADE, Santiago de Chile, y de sociología y muestreo en la Universidad de Michigan, donde fue discípulo favorito de posiblemente el muestrista más importante que ha existido en la ciencias sociales: el Profesor Leslie Kish. Pero Miguel es más que estos títulos. Es el maestro y mentor de prácticamente todos los estadísticos, muestristas, encuestadores (en el sentido de pollsters, politólogos y opinionólogos cuantitativos de Costa Rica. Y también de los demógrafos. Una época de la vida profesional de Miguel, hace como 40 años, estuvo dedicada a la investigación demográfica, en particular, al estudio de la fecundidad en el país. En 1964, por ejemplo, Miguel dirigió la primera encuesta científica poblacional que se atrevió a preguntar a una muestra de 2.000 mujeres josefinas intimidades de las que muy pocas personas se atrevían a hablar en público en ese entonces, como el uso de anticonceptivos.El manuscrito que se reproduce a continuación, que data de1970, resume algunas de las investigaciones de la fecundidad de Costa Rica que Miguel, a veces con la ayuda de sus estudiantes, efectuó en esa época. Lo presentó en el Quinto Seminario Nacional de Demografía que se llevó a cabo en ese año en el Centro de Recreación de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Miguel es un investigador extremadamente cuidadoso que por exagerado pudor dejó sin publicar mucho material de su trabajo de esa época. Este manuscrito es casi una excepción y es una suerte que haya visto la luz pública en un volumen (difícil de conseguir en la actualidad con los trabajos presentados en dicho Seminario. La Revista Población y Salud en Mesoamérica rescata este trabajo considerándolo visita obligada para investigadores que traten de entender una de las revoluciones más importantes ocurridas en Costa Rica en

  7. Costa Rica publications in the Science Citation Index Expanded: a bibliometric analysis for 1981-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Nájera, Julián; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2012-12-01

    Despite of its small size, the Central American country of Costa Rica is internationally recognized as one of the world leaders in conservation and as the Central American leader in science. There have been no recent studies on the country's scientific production. The objective of this study was to analyze the Costa Rican scientific output as represented in the Science Citation Index Expanded. All documents with "Costa Rica" in the address field from 1981 to 2010 were included (total 6 801 publications). Articles (79%) were more frequent than other types of publication and were mostly in English (83%). Revista de Biología Tropical published the most articles (17%), followed by Toxicon and Turrialba (2.5%). The New England Journal of Medicine had the highest impact factor (53.484) with nine articles. Of 5 343 articles with known institutional address, 63%were internationally collaborative articles (most with the USA) with h index 91 and citation per publication 18. A total of 81% of all articles were inter-institutionally collaborative articles, led by the Universidad de Costa Rica. This reflects research and education agreements among these countries. Universidad de Costa Rica ranked top one in inter-institutionally collaborative articles, the rank of the total inter-institutionally collaborative articles, and the rank of first author articles and corresponding author articles. Studied subjects and journals in our sample are in agreement with dominant science fields and journals in Costa Rica. Articles with the highest citation were published in New England Journal of Medicine. The largest citation of medical articles reflects the general interest and wider readership of this subject. All corresponding and first authors of the high impact articles were not from Costa Rica. In conclusion, the scientific output of Costa Rican authors is strong in the areas related to conservation but the impact is higher for biomedical articles, and Costa Rican authors need to

  8. Enfermedad de Lyme (Borreliosis de Lyme en Costa Rica Lyme disease in Costa Rica, a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Boza-Cordero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad de Lyme o borreliosis de Lyme es una zoonosis transmitida por garrapatas del género Ixodes y producida por la espiroqueta Borrelia burgdorferi. Ha sido descrita principalmente en Norteamérica, Europa y Asia, y se caracteriza clínicamente por una presentación en tres etapas: inicial con eritema migrans que comienza alrededor de la picadura de la garrapata; infección diseminada con fiebre, ataque al estado general, artritis migratoria, linfadenopatías, alteraciones neurológicas y hepatitis; y la forma crónica, caracterizada por artritis, periostitis, encefalomielitis crónica y polirradiculopatía, entre otras manifestaciones. En Costa Rica se desconocen notificaciones de pacientes con esta patología, por lo que se presenta el caso de una mujer adulta que tras un viaje al Estado de La Florida en los Estados Unidos, presentó cuadro clínico y serológico compatible con la forma leve de la enfermedad de Lyme. Se discuten los hallazgos y se alerta sobre la posibilidad de diagnosticar esta zoonosis, dado el auge del turismo ecológico en estos días.Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis is a zoonosis transmitted by the Ixodes ticks and caused by a spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. It has been reported mostly in North America, Europe and Asia and is clinically characterized by a presentation on 3 stages, starting with erythema migrans that begins around the tick bite. Disseminated infection with fever, migratory arthritis, lymphadenopathy, neurological alterations and hepatitis and the chronic phase characterized by arthritis, periostitis, chronic encephalomielitis, polyradiculopathy amongst other manifestations. In Costa Rica, we know of no reports of patients with this disease, so we herein present the case of an woman who, after a trip to the state of Florida, presented clinical and serological alterations compatible with the mild form of Lyme disease. The findings are discussed and also we alert to the possibility of diagnosing

  9. FIRST RECORD OF THE GENUS Ocyochterus FROM COLOMBIA AND NEW RECORDS OF OCHTERIDAE FROM COSTA RICA (HEMIPTERA: HETEROPTERA

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    Federico Herrera Madrigal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The first Colombian record of Ocyochterus, expanding the previously known distributional range of the genus. Additionally, records of two species of Ochterus from Costa Rica are provided. The material examined is deposited at the Zoological Museum of the University of Costa Rica (MZUCR, San José, Costa Rica.RESUMENSe registra por primera vez Ocyochterus para Colombia, con lo cual se expande el rango de distribución conocido hasta el momento. Además, se proveen registros para dos especies de Ochterus en Costa Rica. El material examinado se encuentra depositado en el Museo de Zoología de la Universidad de Costa Rica (MZUCR, San José, Costa Rica.

  10. 35 years of electron microscopy in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron microscopy has celebrated in 2009 the XXXV anniversary in Costa Rica. The history of the electron microscopy was initiated with the donation of a microscope by Japan and the establishment of the Unidad de Microscopia Electronica (UME), which later, has been consolidated as the Centro de Investigacion en Estructuras Microscopicas (CIEMic) of the Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR). This center has realized its own research and has gave support to different units of the UCR, state universities and the private sector. Currently, the CIEMic has had two transmission electron microscopes (TEM) and two scanning electron microscopes (SEM), besides of optical microscopy equipment, including a laser confocal microscope. The two fundamental types of electron microscopes (TEM and SEM) have generated different images. While the first has had a resolution that has allowed to analyze virus, usually their images have been flat; however, with some special techniques can obtain three-dimensional images. The image in the TEM is generated by electrons that have passed through the sample, and to interact with its atoms have changed its energy and trajectory. This, at the end, has impacted on a photosensitive screen that has become in flashes, whose intensity has depended on its energy and form the image. Meanwhile, in the MER, the image has been normal type, although with less resolution. The electrons in the MER are focused on a small area of the sample in which have interacted with the atoms of this, and has generated a a series of signals, including the most used were the secondary electrons and characteristic X-rays. In both cases, an electron from beam has generated in the filament a collision against an electron of the sample and has given part of its energy to the degree of release of its atom and issued out of the sample; this has been called secondary electrons. X-rays have been generated when an electron of the same atom that has lost the secondary electron, but in an

  11. Sustaining life in frontier land. Country report 2: Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott-allen, R

    1993-01-01

    The Community Development Association of the fishing village of Barra del Colorado populated by Blacks embraced the Conservation Strategy for the Sustainable Development of the Plains Tortuguero covering 419,000 hectares of lowland rain forest and wetlands along the Caribbean cost of northern Costa Rica. In 1985 the government established the Barra del Colorado Wildlife Refuge. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) team visited families and identified community problems. This resulted in the establishment of a communal bank; a community fisherman's association to help obtain a boat and fishing gear; assistance to help villagers obtain title to their land; a feasibility study of a public transport link to the rest of the country; new chairs for the school; and weekly instead of monthly visits by a doctor. The Tortuguero Strategy endeavors to establish 147,000 hectares of conservation area including the Tortuguero National Park. 5000 people live in the buffer zone and 132,000 live in the neighboring western area. The strategy strives to reverse deforestation in the buffer zone by restoring forest cover to 80% of the area by 2000. The Strategy has funded the Union of Small Agricultural Producers of the Atlantic to train people in ecotourism, forestry management, and growing and selling medicinal plants. The IUCN evaluated the environmental impact of expanding banana plantations and recommended ameliorative steps which have not been implemented. The preparation of the Tortuguero Strategy started in 1990 in concert with the Natural Resources Ministry, IUCN, and the European Community. A 1992 draft document based on biophysical, socioeconomic, and legal studies is waiting for official approval. Community strategies have been launched in 2 communities, self-sustaining financing is delayed, and a draft law setting up the conservation area awaits Costa Rican legislative authorization. The strategy is for the long term, but the experience of Barra del

  12. Monitoring coral reefs, seagrasses and mangroves in Costa Rica (CARICOMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Jorge; Fonseca, Ana C; Nivia-Ruiz, Jaime; Nielsen-Muñoz, Vanessa; Samper-Villarreal, Jimena; Salas, Eva; Martínez, Solciré; Zamora-Trejos, Priscilla

    2010-10-01

    The coral reefs, seagrasses and mangroves from the Costa Rican Caribbean coast have been monitored since 1999 using the CARICOMP protocol. Live coral cover at Meager Shoal reef bank (7 to 10 m depth) at the Parque Nacional Cahuita (National Park), increased from 13.3% in 1999, to 28.2% in 2003, but decreased during the next 5 years to around 17.5%. Algal cover increased significantly since 2003 from 36.6% to 61.3% in 2008. The density of Diadema antillarum oscillated between 2 and 7ind/m2, while Echinometra viridis decreased significantly from 20 to 0.6ind/m2. Compared to other CARICOMP sites, live coral cover, fish diversity and density, and sea urchin density were low, and algal cover was intermediate. The seagrass site, also in the Parque Nacional Cahuita, is dominated by Thalassia testudinum and showed an intermediate productivity (2.7 +/- 1.15 g/m2/d) and biomass (822.8 +/- 391.84 g/m2) compared to other CARICOMP sites. Coral reefs and seagrasses at the Parque Nacional Cahuita continue to be impacted by high sediment loads from terrestrial origin. The mangrove forest at Gandoca, within the Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Gandoca-Manzanillo (National Wildlife Refuge), surrounds a lagoon and it is dominated by the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle. Productivity and flower production peak was in July. Biomass (14 kg/m2) and density (9.0 +/- 0.58 trees/100 m2) in Gandoca were relatively low compared to other CARICOMP sites, while productivity in July in Costa Rica (4 g/m2/d) was intermediate, similar to most CARICOMP sites. This mangrove is expanding and has low human impact thus far. Management actions should be taken to protect and preserve these important coastal ecosystems. PMID:21302409

  13. Três espécies novas de Lestrimelitta Friese (Hymenoptera, Apidae da Costa Rica, Panamá e Guiana Francesa Three new species of Lestrimelitta Friese (Hymenoptera, Apidae from Costa Rica, Panama and French Guiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favízia Freitas de Oliveira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Três espécies novas de abelhas do gênero Lestrimelitta são descritas: L. danuncia sp. nov. (da Costa Rica e Panamá, L. mourei sp. nov. (da Costa Rica e L. glaberrima sp. nov. (da Guiana Francesa. Todas essas espécies foram identificadas anteriormente como Lestrimelitta limao Smith.Three new species of bees of the genus Lestrimelitta are described: L. danuncia sp. nov. (from Costa Rica and Panama, L. mourei sp. nov. (from Costa Rica and L. glaberrima sp. nov. (from French Guiana. All of these new species were previously identified as Lestrimelitta limao Smith.

  14. La infertilidad en Costa Rica debe abordarse como un problema de salud pública Infertility in Costa Rica must be tackled as a public health issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Ferrero Aymerich

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Según la Organización Mundial de la Salud, la infertilidad afecta a una de cada cuatro parejas en los países en desarrollo, en Costa Rica su incidencia se estima alrededor del 10% entre las parejas en edad fértil. En momentos en que la tasa de fecundidad en Costa Rica ha caído por debajo de su tasa de reemplazo, la infertilidad debe abordarse como un problema de salud pública prioritario. Por lo tanto, la Asamblea Legislativa de Costa Rica, en vez del inútil debate que ha sostenido por la aprobación de una técnica en particular como es la fecundación in vitro, debe enfocarse en aprobar una legislación sanitaria comprensiva que tome en cuenta el enfoque poblacional y establezca la creación de un Sistema Integrado de Atención de la Infertilidad. Este Sistema debe impulsar el abordaje interdisciplinario y la atención expedita y debe ofrecer terapias costo-efectivas que garanticen su sostenibilidad.Infertility affects one out of four couples in developing countries according to the World Health Organization, while its incidence in Costa Rica is estimated to be 10% in couples in reproductive - age. While the fertility rate in Costa Rica has fallen under the replacement rate, infertility must be approached as a public health priority. Therefore, instead of having the pointless discussion about approving a particular technique such as In vitro fertilization, the Costa Rican Legislative Assembly should focus on approving comprehensive health legislation. This legislation should be based on a population health approach and establish the creation of an Integrated System to Assist Fertility Problems. This System must thrust an interdisciplinary approach and prompt attention. It should also offer cost - effective therapies that guarantee its sustainability.

  15. Mammals of the Braulio Carrillo- La Selva Complex, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Robert M.; Wilson, Don E.; Clauson, Barbara L.; LaVal, Richard K.; Vaughan, Christopher S.

    1989-01-01

    Costa Rica's La Selva-Braulio Carrillo complex encompasses a 60-km protected corridor of Caribbean rain and cloud forest extending from 30 m at the La Selva Biological Station to 2,906 m at the top of Volcán Barva. The 52,000-ha complex covers four life zones and two transitional zones, including tropical wet forest, tropical wet forest cool-transition, tropical premontane wet-transition rain forest, tropical premontane rain forest, lower montane rain forest, and montane rain forest. Located in the northeastern part of the country, the area is representative of Central American Caribbean slope forests that extend from Mexico to Panama. The extensive elevational gradient of the complex provides protected habitat for a variety of altitudinal migrants. With support from the National Geographic Society and Rice Foundation, the Organization for Tropical Studies organized a biological survey of the complex in early 1986. The mammal team worked at six sites along the elevational transect established by the expedition: 300 m, 700 m, 1,000 m, 1,500 m, 2,050 m, and 2,600 m. We supplemented our collecting records with unpublished records made available by colleagues, records in the published literature, and specimens in museum collections. In addition, observations recorded by a variety of observers at the La Selva Biological Station are summarized. The mammal fauna of the complex comprises 142 species including 79 bats, 23 rodents, 15 carnivores, 7 marsupials, 6 edentates, 4 artiodactyls, 3 primates, 2 rabbits, 2 shrews, and 1 perissodactyl. At least 10 additional species are likely to occur there. The only species of mammal likely to have been extirpated from the area is the giant anteater. Recognizing the importance of the area to wildlife and to mankind in general, the government of Costa Rica added 13,500 ha to the complex on 13 April 1986. This area, previously known as the “Zona Protectora,” provided the mid-elevational link between the lowlands of the La Selva

  16. CADENA DEL CAFÉ DE LOS SANTOS, COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Francisco Carranza

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La operación de las actividades económicas y su competitividad, analizadas desde una perspectiva de cadenas globales de mercancías, dependen del funcionamiento de los mercados de crédito, tanto nacionales como internacionales. La operación normal de los negocios requiere crédito para fortalecer sus recursos propios y hacer las compras de materia prima, insumos, pago de salarios e inversión. En todos los casos, el crédito puede ser utilizado para mejorar el diseño de productos, impulsar el acceso a nuevos mercados y aumentar la competitividad. A los productores de la región de Los Santos en Costa Rica se les reconoce por innovadores, y al café de la zona por ser un café de altura y de gran calidad. El artículo explora las necesidades de financiamiento de productores, beneficiadores y exportadores de café de Los Santos, sus fuentes de financiamiento y el uso dado a los recursos obtenidos. Entre las necesidades orientadas al mejoramiento de la competitividad se encontraron la renovación de cafetales entre los productores, el mantenimiento de proyectos y tecnología entre los beneficios y la generación de microbeneficios y búsqueda de nichos de mercado entre los exportadores. Abstract From a global commodity chains perspective, economic activities and their competitiveness depend upon the functioning of credit markets, both international and domestic. Current businesses operations require credit to enhance their own resources in order to buy raw material and inputs, pay wages and make investment. Credit may also be used to improve product design, enter new markets and boost competitiveness as a result. High altitude grown coffee from Los Santos, Costa Rica is widely known for its quality, and their growers as innovative. This paper addresses credit needs of coffee growers, processors and exporters in Los Santos, the credit sources they have access to, and the kind of uses the credit is given. Improving competitiveness uses

  17. Rabies in Costa Rica: Documentation of the Surveillance Program and the Endemic Situation from 1985 to 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Hutter, Sabine E.; Brugger, Katharina; Sancho Vargas, Victor Hugo; González, Rocío; Aguilar, Olga; León, Bernal; Tichy, Alexander; Firth, Clair L.; Rubel, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This is the first comprehensive epidemiological analysis of rabies in Costa Rica. We characterized the occurrence of the disease and demonstrated its endemic nature in this country. In Costa Rica, as in other countries in Latin America, hematophagous vampire bats are the primary wildlife vectors transmitting the rabies virus to cattle herds. Between 1985 and 2014, a total of 78 outbreaks of bovine rabies was reported in Costa Rica, with documented cases of 723 dead cattle. Of cattle ...

  18. Estado actual de la leishmaniosis en Costa Rica Current status of Leishmaniosis in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Jaramillo-Antillón

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó esta investigación, para conocer el comportamiento epidemiológico de esta enfermedad, los vectores relacionados y las especies de leishmanias causantes. Métodos: fuentes de información fueron los boletines epidemiológicos del Ministerio de Salud del 2001 al 2007 y el Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas y Censos. Se calcularon tasas de incidencia por sexo, grupos de edad, provincia y cantón. Las tasas del último trienio se compararon con una investigación que describe la situación epidemiológica de 1973 a 1975, para identificar cambios epidemiológicos de la enfermedad. La revisión bibliográfica permitió describir las formas clínicas y la distribución geográfica de los vectores que la ocasionan. Resultados y conclusión: la incidencia aumentó de 10,5 del 2001 a 40,7 x100.000 habitantes en el 2007. Los menores de 19 años fueron los más afectados. Talamanca presentó la mayor incidencia cantonal. El agente etiológico más frecuente de la leishmaniosis cutánea es la Leishmania (Viannia panamensis, aunque también existe la L. (V. braziliensis. Los mosquitos trasmisores fueron Lutzomyia ylephiletor y L. trapidoi. Los reservorios del parásito son los perezosos: Bradypus griseus y Choloepus hoffmanni y un roedor Heteromys desmarestianus. Existe también la leishmaniosis cutánea atípica, producida por Leishmania infantum (= Leishmania chagasi, productora responsable de un caso de leishmaniosis visceral. L.longipalpis, esta asociada a la transmisión de estas dos últimas formas de leishmaniosis. Debe entrenarse al personal de salud, en la detección de esta enfermedad, y educar a la población.Justification and aim: We conducted an investigation to study the epidemiological behavior of the disease, its related vectors and the species that cause leishmania. Methods: As sources of information we used epidemiological bulletins from the Costa Rican Ministry of Health covering the years 2001 to 2007 and also those from the

  19. Remesas Sur-Sur: Importancia del Corredor Costa Rica-Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Monge-González; Oswald Céspedes-Torres; Juan Carlos Vargas-Aguilar

    2009-01-01

    El presente estudio, procura brindar un poco de luz en el campo del impacto de los flujos de remesas en América Latina, al estudiar la importancia relativa del corredor Costa Rica-Nicaragua (sur-sur) mediante el análisis de los resultados de una encuesta estadísticamente representativa a una muestra de hogares nicaragüenses receptores de remesas desde Costa Rica, comisionada por los autores durante el primer semestre del año 2009, así como contrastar estos resultados con aquellos de la litera...

  20. Que Sucede? Manual Informativo Sobre Rehabilitacion y Educacion Especial en Costa Rica (What's Happening? Informative Manual on Rehabilitation and Special Education in Costa Rica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mezerville, Gaston; And Others

    The manual, in Spanish, provides descriptions of rehabilitation, medical, and special education services; centers and institutions which offer physical and mental rehabilitation services; and lists of professionals and advocacy organizations in Costa Rica. Part 1 includes an overview of rehabilitation and special education, a short history of…

  1. Actividad Sísmica en Costa Rica Durante el 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepolt Linkimer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante el 2013 la Red Sismológica Nacional (RSN: UCR-ICE localizó 2547 sismos de los cuales 261 fueron sentidos por la población. Se percibieron en Costa Rica siete sismos con magnitud Mw ≥ 5,0. La mayoría (85% de los sismos percibidos fueron superficiales (< 30 km y el 56% tuvo una magnitud baja (Mw 3,0-3,9. El fallamiento local y regional provocó el 52% de los sismos, seguido por el proceso de subducción de la placa del Coco bajo la placa Caribe y la microplaca de Panamá que originó el 45%. La intensidad máxima observada en el 2013 fue de VI (Mercalli Modificada, MM para la zona de Sixaola (Limón debido al sismo del 27 de mayo (Mw 5,6 con epicentro en el occidente de Panamá.

  2. Perspectivas climáticas Costa Rica 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallas Sojo, Juan Carlos

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Para el año 2003 se predijo que existiría un pequeño incremento en la cantidad de lluvia que caería en Costa Rica. El presente estudio analiza el comportamiento meteorológico durante el primer semestre del año, sobre las causas del aumento en patrón lluvioso y el pronóstico para el resto de los meses. Se muestra un mapa centroamericano sobre la probabilidad de que ocurran lluvias por debajo de lo normal, normales o arriba de lo normal, generado en el Foro Climático Centroamericano, así como una tabla comparativa entre la cantidad de tormentas tropicales, huracanes y ciclones del año 2002, el primer semestre 2003 y un promedio histórico (1950-2000. Como último punto se analiza la probabilidad del desarrollo del fenómeno de La Niña y la evolución del fenómeno El Niño/Oscilación del Sur (ENOS, según las proyecciones de doce modelos climáticos de distintos centros climáticos especializados

  3. Modelo de sostenibilidad para Centros Comunitarios Inteligentes de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Chen Mok

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un modelo de trabajo que permitirá dar sostenibilidad a los Centros Comunitarios Inteligentes (CECI, con el fin de continuar con los procesos de apropiación de la tecnología por parte de las comunidades en donde se ubican, y por lo tanto disminuir la brecha digital. Antes de presentar el modelo, se ofrecen los antecedentes conceptuales que fundamentan el proyecto de CECI. Para la creación del modelo, en el 2014 se realizó un diagnóstico del funcionamiento y administración de algunos CECI existentes en el Cantón Central de Puntarenas, que se encuentran en un radio máximo de 12 km de la Sede de Pacífico de la Universidad de Costa Rica, y se indagó sobre los actores locales que podrían intervenir. Se considera que el modelo es replicable para todos los Centros Comunitarios Inteligentes existentes en todo el país, con la diferencia de las necesidades propias de cada comunidad en donde estos se encuentran.

  4. Chagas Disease in Dogs from Endemic Areas of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montenegro Victor M

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogs with the presumptive diagnosis of Chagas disease are commonly sent to our School of Veterinary Medicine by independent veterinarians. This prompted us to evaluate the prevalence of canine trypanosomiasis in some villages of the Central Valley of Costa Rica. A total of 54 dogs (21 males and 33 females from five rural villages, with ages between 3 months and 10 years old, were bled and submitted to three serological tests: indirect immunofluorescence, indirect hemagglutination and ELISA. Among all animals, 15 (27.7% revealed antibodies (6 pure bred and 9 mongrels and in 3 of them the parasite was also demonstrated by xenodiagnosis. All positive animals except 1, and 9 negative animals (control group were examined by X-rays and electrocardiography, revealing different degrees of cardiomegaly and ECG alteration, consistent with Chagas disease pathology in one dog (SA-11 of the infected ones. Examination of 50 inhabitants living in the houses where dogs and Triatoma dimidiata were found, yielded negative serological reactions. This was assumed to support the hypothesis that dogs are commonly infected by the oral route, a more effective means of infection compared with the vector transmission mechanism that occurs in humans.

  5. COSTA RICA: DESEMPEÑO MACROECONOMICO EN 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Ramirez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Durante 1996, la economía de Costa Rica mostró un estancamiento en su actividad productiva que finalmente devino en una contracción del 1% en el Producto Interno Bruto (PIB, después de un año previo de desaceleración en ese agregado nacional (2,5% de variación en 1995 y muy lejos del desempeño alcanzado en 1992 (7,7% y 1993 (6,5%.Esa contracción económica apenas si puede asociarse al cumplimiento de presuntas severas metas de estabilización macroeconómica contabilizadas en el último convenio respectivo con el Fondo Monetario Internacional (FMI.En efecto, el déficit fiscal excedió las expectativas del Gobierno y se situó en el 5,1% respecto del PIB, superando al indicador del año previo que fue del 4,4%; y el déficit en la cuenta corriente de la balanza de pagos incrementó su participación respecto del PIB (1,6%.

  6. Assessment of medical occupational radiation doses in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, P; Acuña, M

    2011-09-01

    Participation of the University of Costa Rica (UCR) in activities in an IAEA Regional Project RLA/9/066 through training, equipment and expert missions, has enabled to setting up of a national personal monitoring laboratory. Since 2007, the UCR has been in charge of monitoring around 1800 medical radiation workers of the Social Security System. Individual external doses are measured with thermoluminescent dosemeter using a Harshaw 6600 Plus reader. The service has accreditation with ISO/IEC 17025:2005. Distribution of monitored medical personnel is as follows: 83 % in diagnostic radiology, 6 % in nuclear medicine and 6 % in radiotherapy. Preliminary values for the 75 percentile of annual H(p)(10) in mSv are: radiology 0.37; interventional radiology 0.41; radiotherapy 0.53 and nuclear medicine 1.55. The service provided by the UCR in a steady and reliable way can help to implement actions to limit the doses received by the medical workers and optimise their radiation protection programs. PMID:21856694

  7. Projects of electrical energy saving in Costa Rica; Proyectos de ahorro de energia electrica en Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry Chinchilla [Compania Nacional de Luz y Fuerza, S.A., San Jose (Costa Rica)

    1999-07-01

    Costa Rica, located in Central America, is a highly electrified country, more of the 93.6% of the population, has access to the electricity, and its load curve presents two important demand peaks, one of them near noon and another one at sundown, additionally, the growth of this service is important, reason why it has been oriented to the establishment of actions focussed to the better use of the energy, in special of the electricity. The following notes are intended to show briefly the origin of the actions oriented to the energy saving, identifying the main projects that marked an important track in the national development in this sense, as well as a sample of some of the projects which have permitted to maintain throughout the last decade of this century a permanent attitude on the promotion and education of the saving and handling of the energy demand, specially of electricity, of such a way as to a suitable contribution is achieved towards the industrial competitiveness, human comfort and environmental protection. [Spanish] Costa Rica, ubicado en la America Central, es un pais altamente electrificado, mas del 93.6% de la poblacion, tiene acceso a la electricidad, y su curva de carga presenta dos importantes picos de demanda uno cercano al medio dia y otro al ocultarse el sol, junto a ello el crecimiento este servicio es importante, por lo que se ha abocado a establecer acciones que se orientan al mejor uso de la energia, en especial de la electricidad. En las siguientes notas se trata de mostrar en forma breve el origen de las acciones orientadas al ahorro de energia, identificando los principales proyectos que marcaron una huella importante en el rumbo nacional en este sentido, asi como una muestra de algunos de los proyectos que han permitido mantener a lo largo de la ultima decada de este siglo una permanente actitud de la promocion y ensenanza del ahorro y manejo de la demanda de energia, en especial de la electricidad, de tal forma que se logre con ello

  8. Las fiebres manchadas y su importancia en Costa Rica Spotted fever and their importance in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laya Hun-Opfer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available La Fiebre Manchada de la Montañas Rocosas es una zoonosis transmitida por garrapatas y causada por una bacteria intracelular obligatoria, la Rickettsia rickettsii. Es una enfermedad sistémica, de moderada a severa, producida por la infección del endotelio vascular de pequeños vasos de la mayoría de órganos y tejidos. Es la más letal de las infecciones transmitidas por garrapatas y desde su descubrimiento, hace cerca de 100 años, todavía se presenta, aunque esporádicamente, de forma persistente, y a pesar de que se cuenta con antibióticos efectivos, la mortalidad sigue siendo de mas del 10% y los pacientes requieren terapia intensiva durante la infección si esta no es diagnosticada y tratada a tiempo. En tiempo recientemente se han descrito otras especies de garrapatas que pueden transmitir rickettsias a humanos así como nuevas especies de rickettsias que pueden producir cuadros de fiebres manchadas y aunque se ha dilucidado parte de sus mecanismos patogénicos, persisten muchas dudas respecto a su virulencia. Desde 1975 se han reportado brotes de esta enfermedad en Costa Rica y el agente etiológico causal, la Rickettsia rickettsii, fue aislada e identificada en la mayoría de los casos en el Laboratorio de Virología de la Facultad de Microbiología de la Universidad de Costa Rica.Rocky Mountain Spotted fever is a tick vector disease caused by an obligated intracellular bacteria, Rickettsia rickettsii. It is a severe systemic illness caused by the infection of endothelial cells of small vessels of most organs and tissues of the human body. It is the most lethal tick-born disease and since its discovery more than 100 years ago it still appears sporadically, but persistently. Although there is treatment with effective antibiotics, mortality rates are near 10% and infected patients require intensive care when the illness is misdiagnosed and there is a delay in treatment. Other species of ticks and new species of rickettsia have been

  9. ACTIVIDADES RECREATIVAS Y SUS BENEFICIOS PARA PERSONAS NICARAGÜENSES RESIDENTES EN COSTA RICA (RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES AND THEIR BENEFITS FOR NICARAGUANS WHO LIVE IN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar Salas Carmen Grace

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Costa Rica se ha convertido en un país multicultural. Muchas personas han migrado a él en busca de mejores condiciones de vida. La mayoría de estas personas son nicaragüenses, quienes conforman alrededor de tres cuartas partes del grupo total inmigrante en el país. En el año 2007, se realizó un proyecto de investigación en la Escuela de Educación Física y Deportes de la Universidad de Costa Rica que tuvo la finalidad de estudiar cómo se recreaba esta población antes y, especialmente, después de la inmigración a Costa Rica. La investigación fue cualitativa, fenomenológica, e incluyó 13 personas nicaragüenses residentes en el Área Metropolitana. La información que se presenta en este artículo fue recolectada mediante entrevistas y observaciones de la participación en una actividad recreativa. Los datos fueron analizados en forma individual y se triangularon. Los resultados generales indican que: (1 la población investigada realizaba once tipos de actividades recreativas en Nicaragua, entre semana y fines de semana, antes de venir a Costa Rica; (2 esa misma población participaba en diez categorías de actividades recreativas en Costa Rica, entre semana y fines de semana, y (3 ese grupo percibió siete beneficios que le ofrecía la recreación.Abstract:Costa Rica has become a multicultural country. Many people immigrated to it looking for a better lifestyle. Most of these people are Nicaraguans, who are three quarters of the total amount of immigrants in Costa Rica. In 2007, the School of Physical Education and Sports at the University of Costa Rica conducted a research to study how this Nicaraguans recreated before and after they immigrated to Costa Rica. The research conducted was qualitative, phenomenological, and included 13 Nicaraguans, who lived in the Metropolitan Area. This article is the first of several papers that will report the result of the research. The information of this article was collected with

  10. Undeserving mothers? Shifting rationalities in the maternal healthcare of undocumented Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Sara Leon Spesny

    2015-01-01

    The case of Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica is emblematic of the issues that immigration generates in host countries. Undocumented Nicaraguan women seeking maternal care constitute a key challenge to the universal coverage of Costa Rica's health system. Can the long-standing commitment to universality, solidarity and equality expressed in the legislation be translated into practice? Discourses of health professionals in Costa Rica reveal a contradiction between merit and prejudice in prenatal and delivery care. Here, I present qualitative research based on semi-structured interviews with physicians and nurses at a Costa Rican National Hospital. The data show that migrant women, rejected from primary care, do find help in emergency services, but not without difficulties, as they must engage in individual negotiations centred on their bodies. The discourses of health providers reflect an ambivalence between the perceived undeservingness of undocumented migrant women and the medical realisation that two lives are at risk. While the foetus often evokes compassion, the mother commonly provokes repression, as specific and shifting rationalities reflect new moral regimes that are applied to this population. Women are perceived as being 'illegal', 'immoral' and 'irrational', and the baby, although legally Costa Rican due to jus solis policy, embodies 'the other'. Ultimately, otherness frames perceptions of deservingness of maternal care for undocumented migrant women in Costa Rica. PMID:25639299

  11. Agricultura, recursos naturales, medio ambiente y desarrollo sostenible en costa rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Morera

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultura, recursos naturales, medio ambiente y desarrollo sostenible en Costa Rica. La agricultura sostenible en Costa Rica debe reconocer la necesidad de intensificar la productividad como medio de soportar la acelerada demanda creada por el incremento poblacional, pero al mismo tiempo debe prever el mejor uso y conservación de los recursos naturales. Sin recursos naturales no hay agricultura y sin ésta no hay seguridad alimentaria. Es de esperar que Costa Rica pueda satisfacer la demanda creciente de alimentos y otros productos agrícolas; evitando el acelerado proceso de degradación que sufren nuestros suelos y bosques. El proceso de agricultura sostenible en Costa Rica y otros países de la región, presenta un incremento en la demanda de tierras y recursos naturales; lo cual suscita competencias y agudos conflictos sociales, económicos y ecológicos. Costa Rica debe plantearse una estrategia de desarrollo sostenible que contemple los efectos asociados del crecimiento demográfico, la seguridad alimentaria, la protección de la biodiversidad, la regeneración de los ecosistemas, el desarrollo de tecnologías amigables con el ambiente, la regulación sobre el acceso a los recursos naturales y la formación de capital humano

  12. PRIMER REPORTE DE Panicum repens L. COMO POTENCIAL MALEZA EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Retana-S\\u00E1nchez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue brindar información de Panicum repens como potencial maleza en Costa Rica y la taxonomía asociada a esta especie para su correcta identificación. En abril del año 2012 se recibieron en el Laboratorio de Arvenses de la Universidad de Costa Rica y en la Universidad EARTH muestras de una poácea no identificada, procedentes de una orilla de camino frente a una finca ganadera del cantón de San Carlos, Alajuela, Costa Rica. Al analizar las características taxonómicas de las espiguillas y del sistema radical, no concordaban con las especies registradas en el país. Se identificó la especie como Panicum repens L., la cual no se encuentra registrada en Costa Rica, como lo hace constar la ausencia de especímenes en el Herbario Nacional y en el Herbario de la Escuela de Biología de la Universidad de Costa Rica, así como en la literatura especializada en el tema. Se detallan las características taxonómicas de Panicum repens para su identificación.

  13. Assessment of Poa annua resistance to clethodim in Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Rodríguez-Ruiz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to check for the presence of resistance to clethodim in Poa annua populations observed in onion fields in the highlands of Cartago, Costa Rica. Two experiments were conducted; the first one was carried out, in 2007, in a greenhouse at the Fabio Baudrit Moreno Agricultural Experiment Station (EEAFBM, in Spanish, with seeds of plants from a farm where clethodim exercised good control (S population, and from another farm where clethodim showed a deficient control (R population. Both S and R populations were treated with different doses of clethodim (0.5X, 1.0X, 1.5X and 2.0X, being X the recommended commercial dose. In this experiment, control of the R population was 44% and 17% at doses of 1.5X and 2.0X, respectively, whereas control of the S population was 100% at either of those doses. The second experiment was carried out in 2009, seeds of two other P. annua populations were collected in a similar way: one population from an area where weed control was satisfactory (S, and the other population from an area of the farm where control was deficient (R. Seeds were sown, depending on the type, in plastic pots and sprayed with clethodim at doses of: 0. 1X, 2X, 4X, 8X, and 16X. There were significant differences in the reactions to clethodim of both P. annua populations The S population showed a higher percentage of control and less surviving plants than the R population. Several plants of the R population resisted up to 16X commercial doses of clethodim. Results of both experiments suggest the presence of P. annua populations resistant to clethodim.

  14. Genetic admixture and population substructure in Guanacaste Costa Rica.

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    Zhaoming Wang

    Full Text Available The population of Costa Rica (CR represents an admixture of major continental populations. An investigation of the CR population structure would provide an important foundation for mapping genetic variants underlying common diseases and traits. We conducted an analysis of 1,301 women from the Guanacaste region of CR using 27,904 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs genotyped on a custom Illumina InfiniumII iSelect chip. The program STRUCTURE was used to compare the CR Guanacaste sample with four continental reference samples, including HapMap Europeans (CEU, East Asians (JPT+CHB, West African Yoruba (YRI, as well as Native Americans (NA from the Illumina iControl database. Our results show that the CR Guanacaste sample comprises a three-way admixture estimated to be 43% European, 38% Native American and 15% West African. An estimated 4% residual Asian ancestry may be within the error range. Results from principal components analysis reveal a correlation between genetic and geographic distance. The magnitude of linkage disequilibrium (LD measured by the number of tagging SNPs required to cover the same region in the genome in the CR Guanacaste sample appeared to be weaker than that observed in CEU, JPT+CHB and NA reference samples but stronger than that of the HapMap YRI sample. Based on the clustering pattern observed in both STRUCTURE and principal components analysis, two subpopulations were identified that differ by approximately 20% in LD block size averaged over all LD blocks identified by Haploview. We also show in a simulated association study conducted within the two subpopulations, that the failure to account for population stratification (PS could lead to a noticeable inflation in the false positive rate. However, we further demonstrate that existing PS adjustment approaches can reduce the inflation to an acceptable level for gene discovery.

  15. COSTA RICA: DESEMPEÑO MACROECONÓMICO EN 1996

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    Edwin Ramírez Rodríguez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Durante 1996, la economía de Costa Rica mostró un estancamiento en su actividad productiva que finalmente devino en una contracción del 1% en el Producto Interno Bruto (PIB, después de un año previo de desaceleración en ese agregado nacional(2,5% de variación en 1995 y muy lejos del desempeño alcanzado en 1992 (7,7% y 1993 (6,5%.Esa contracción económica apenas si puede asociarse al cumplimiento de presuntas severas metas de estabilización macroeconómica contabilizadas en el último convenio respectivo con el Fondo Monetario Internacional (FMI.En efecto, el déficit fiscal excedió las expectativas del Gobierno y se situó en el 5,1% respecto del PIB, superando al indicador del año previo que fue del 4,4%; y el déficit en la cuenta corriente de la balanza de pagos incrementó su participación respecto del PIB (1,6%.El nivel de divisas en poder del Banco Central se contrajo ligeramente a contrapelo de la meta del programa de estabilización. Los precios, sin embargo, mostraron una desaceleración en su ritmo de crecimiento; así, la inflación disminuyó hasta ubicarse en un 13,9%, medida por la variación anual del índice de precios al consumidor (IPC a diciembre.

  16. Genetic diversity in cattle of eight regions in Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Cordero-Solórzano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the extent of inter-regional genetic diversity present in the cattle of Costa Rica. 1498 DNA samples were collected (year 2013 from eight different regions within the country. Allelic frequencies and major population genetic parameters were determined for eighteen microsatellite markers. An analysis of molecular variance was also carried out and genetic distances were calculated between cattle from different regions. At the national level, a high allelic diversity was found, with an average of 14.6±1.01 observed alleles and 5.6+0.37 effective alleles per marker. Observed (Ho and expected (He heterozygosities were 0.76±0.01 and 0.81±01, respectively. Polymorphic Information Content (PIC and Coefficient of Inbreeding (FIS were 0.79±0.06 and 0.06±0.004, respectively. At the regional level, Ho ranged between 0.73±0.02 in the South Central region to 0.78±0.01 in the North Huetar region. The dendrogram showed three clearly distinct groups, Metropolitan Central and West Central regions in one group, Caribbean Huetar, South Central, Central Pacific and Chorotega regions in a second group; and North Huetar and Brunca regions in a third intermediate group. Estimates of genetic differentiation (RST were significant between regions from different groups and non-significant for regions within the same group. Genetic differences between regions are related to differential proliferation of breed groups based on their adaptability to the agro-ecological conditions and production systems prevailing in each region.

  17. Compatibility, persistence and productivity of grass-legume mixtures for sustainable animal production in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibrahim, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify compatible and persistent grass-legume mixtures of high feeding value for forage improvement in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica. The study was conducted between September 1989 and October 1992 at LA)s Diamantes research station, Guápiles, Costa Rica.

  18. Tourism Chains and Pro-Poor Tourism Development: An Actor-Network Analysis of a Pilot Project in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duim, van der V.R.; Caalders, J.D.A.D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses a pilot project in Costa Rica aimed to examine and improve the market linkages of 24 small-scale tourism initiatives to tour operators in Costa Rica and the Netherlands. It links pro-poor tourism and the concept of tourism chain to actor-network theory. The analysis shows that th

  19. Plastic paradise: transforming bodies and selves in Costa Rica's cosmetic surgery tourism industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Sara L

    2010-10-01

    Long popular as a nature tourism destination, Costa Rica has recently emerged as a haven for middle class North Americans seeking inexpensive, state-of-the-art cosmetic surgery. This paper examines "cosmetic surgery tourism" in Costa Rica as a form of medicalized leisure, situated in elite private spaces and yet inextricably linked to a beleaguered national medical program. Through historical context and ethnographic analysis of activities at medical hotels and clinics, I describe how the recovery industry operates on the embodied subjectivities of visiting patients and their local caretakers. Recovery sociality and healing landscapes facilitate patients' transition through a period of post-surgical liminality and provide nostalgic transport to an imagined medical arcadia, while clinicians are attracted by a neoliberal promise of prosperity and autonomy. Ultimately, Costa Rica's transformation into a paradise of medical consumption and self-optimization is contingent on a mythology that obscures growing uncertainties and inequities in the nation's broader medical landscape. PMID:21082485

  20. First report of acariasis by Caparinia tripilis in African hedgehogs, (Atelerix albiventris), in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Andrés; Troyo, Adriana; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger

    2013-01-01

    The African hedgehog is one of the newly imported exotic pets which have been observed with increasing regularity in veterinary clinics in Costa Rica. Despite their popularity, information about their diseases is scarce. Within skin diseases of hedgehogs, mange caused by Caparinia spp. is a common diagnosis in other countries. Two adult African hedgehogs, one male and one female, were brought to a private clinic in Heredia, Costa Rica, with chronic pruritic dermatitis, scabs, nearly complete loss of spines, lethargy, dehydration, and weight loss. During physical exam, deposits of dry seborrhea were taken and processed for diagnosis. Microscopic examination revealed psoroptid mites identified as Caparinia tripilis. This is the first report of the presence of Caparinia tripilis in Costa Rica and, to the authors' knowledge, the rest of Central America. PMID:24252963

  1. Plastic paradise: transforming bodies and selves in Costa Rica's cosmetic surgery tourism industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Sara L

    2010-10-01

    Long popular as a nature tourism destination, Costa Rica has recently emerged as a haven for middle class North Americans seeking inexpensive, state-of-the-art cosmetic surgery. This paper examines "cosmetic surgery tourism" in Costa Rica as a form of medicalized leisure, situated in elite private spaces and yet inextricably linked to a beleaguered national medical program. Through historical context and ethnographic analysis of activities at medical hotels and clinics, I describe how the recovery industry operates on the embodied subjectivities of visiting patients and their local caretakers. Recovery sociality and healing landscapes facilitate patients' transition through a period of post-surgical liminality and provide nostalgic transport to an imagined medical arcadia, while clinicians are attracted by a neoliberal promise of prosperity and autonomy. Ultimately, Costa Rica's transformation into a paradise of medical consumption and self-optimization is contingent on a mythology that obscures growing uncertainties and inequities in the nation's broader medical landscape.

  2. Role of bacterial and genetic factors in gastric cancer in Costa Rica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sergio A Con; Hiroaki Takeuchi; Gil R Con-Chin; Vicky G Con-Chin; Nobufumi Yasuda; Reinaldo Con-Wong

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate several risk factors for gastric cancer (GC) in Costa Rican regions with contrasting GC incidence rate (GCIR). METHODS: According to GCIR, 191 Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori)-positive patients were classified into groups A (high GCIR, n = 101) and B (low GCIR, n = 90). Human DNA obtained from biopsy specimens was used in the determination of polymorphisms of the genes coding for interleukin (IL)-1o play a major role in GCIR variability in Costa Rica.

  3. Hydro and geothermal electricity as an alternative for industrial petroleum consumption in Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendis, M.; Park, W.; Sabadell, A.; Talib, A.

    1982-04-01

    This report assesses the potential for substitution of electricity for petroleum in the industrial/agro-industrial sector of Costa Rica. The study includes a preliminary estimate of the process energy needs in this sector, a survey of the principal petroleum consuming industries in Costa Rica, an assessment of the electrical technologies appropriate for substitution, and an analysis of the cost trade offs of alternative fuels and technologies. The report summarizes the total substitution potential both by technical feasibility and by cost effectiveness under varying fuel price scenarios and identifies major institutional constraints to the introduction of electric based technologies. Recommendations to the Government of Costa Rica are presented. The key to the success of a Costa Rican program for substitution of electricity for petroleum in industry rests in energy pricing policy. The report shows that if Costa Rica Bunker C prices are increased to compare equitably with Caribbean Bunker C prices, and increase at 3 percent per annum relative to a special industrial electricity rate structure, the entire substitution program, including both industrial and national electric investment, would be cost effective. The definition of these pricing structures and their potential impacts need to be assessed in depth.

  4. Auto-reporte de problemas de salud relacionados con nutrición en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Chinnock; Miriam León Solís

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Analizar la prevalencia de problemas de salud relacionados con nutrición auto reportados en diferentes comunidades de Costa Rica entre 1994 y 2012. Métodos: se analiza datos recolectados entre 1994 y 2012 por estudiantes de la Escuela de Nutrición, Universidad de Costa Rica. Las familias encuestadas fueron seleccionadas por muestra probabilística de tipo aleatorio simple y por medio de entrevistas a las madres u otro adulto de la familia, se recolectó datos sobre 12 problemas de sal...

  5. Los primeros pasos hacia las enseñanza especial en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Campos Vargas, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Este artículo presenta un estudio con base en fuentes documentales del Archivo Nacional de Costa Rica, que permitió conocer distintos factores que intervinieron en el surgimiento de la Enseñanza Especial en Costa Rica en el lapso 1880-1940, así como los diferentes actores que participaron en ese proceso. Además, a partir de expedientes disponibles de los estudiantes de la Escuela de Enseñanza Especial, se caracterizó a un segmento de esa población mediante algunas variables: ed...

  6. Los primeros pasos hacia la enseñanza especial en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    de Campos, M.

    2016-01-01

    Este artículo presenta un estudio con base en fuentes documentales del Archivo Nacional de Costa Rica, que permitió conocer distintos factores que intervinieron en el surgimiento de la Enseñanza Especial en Costa Rica en el lapso 1880-1940, así como los diferentes actores que participaron en ese proceso. Además, a partir de expedientes disponibles de los estudiantes de la Escuela de Enseñanza Especial, se caracterizó a un segmento de esa población mediante algunas variables: edad, fecha y mot...

  7. Costa Rica, superstar? some reflections on the global drivers and bottlenecks of the happy planet index

    OpenAIRE

    Tausch, Arno

    2011-01-01

    For some years now, the Happy Planet Organization presents the so-called ‘Happy Planet Index’ (HPI), which is an index of measuring the trade-off between ecological footprint data and life quality (Happy Life Years, HLYE). Costa Rica emerges from these comparisons as the world’s ‘best practice nation’, using a minimum amount of natural resources to achieve a maximum of human happiness. So is Costa Rica the pathway for humanity? There are shortcomings in the formula, with which the index is ca...

  8. [Monitoring of the mangrove forest at Gandoca, Costa Rica (CARICOMP site)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Ana C; Cortés, Jorge; Zamora, Priscilla

    2007-03-01

    The mangrove forest at Gandoca, Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Gandoca-Manzanillo, Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, has been monitored since 1999, following the CARICOMP protocol. The dominant species was the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle. The peak of productivity and flowering was in July. The mangrove productivity decline from 2001 to 2004 while the temperature rised. Biomass (14 kg/m2) and density (9 trees/10 m2) in Gandoca were relatively low compared to other CARICOMP sites, while productivity in July in Costa Rica (4 g/m2/day) was intermediate, similar to most CARICOMP sites. PMID:18457111

  9. INFLACIÓN E INCERTIDUMBRE INFLACIONARIA: EVIDENCIA PARA COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Solera Ramírez

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available En este documento se estima una medida de la incertidumbre inflacionaria. Un modelo de inflación señala incertidumbre cuando los errores de pronóstico son heteroscedásticos. Por medio de la especificación de una ecuación GARCH (Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity, para la varianza del término de error de un modelo de inflación, es posible estimar una proxy de incertidumbre inflacionaria. La estimación simultánea del modelo de inflación y de la ecuación GARCH, produce un nuevo modelo de inflación en el cual los errores de pronóstico son homocedásticos. Existe consenso en la literatura económica en que hay una correlación positiva entre incertidumbre inflacionaria y la magnitud de la tasa de inflación, lo cual, como lo señaló Friedman (1977, representa uno de los costos asociados con la persistencia inflacionaria. Esto es porque tal incertidumbre dificulta la toma de decisiones óptimas por parte de los agentes económicos.La evidencia empírica, para el periodo 1954:01-2002:08, apoya la hipótesis de que para el caso de Costa Rica mientras mayor es la inflación mayor es la incertidumbre respecto a esta variable. En los últimos siete años (1997-2002 la incertidumbre presenta la variación media más baja de todo el periodo. Además, se identifica un efecto asimétrico de la inflación sobre la incertidumbre inflacionaria, es decir, la incertidumbre inflacionaria tiende a incrementarse más para el siguiente periodo cuando la inflación pronosticada está por debajo de la inflación actual, que cuando la inflación pronosticada está por arriba de la tasa observada de inflación. Estos resultados tienen una clara implicación para la política monetaria. Para minimizar la dificultad que la inflación causa en la toma óptima de decisiones de los agentes económicos es necesario perseguir no solamente un nivel bajo de inflación sino que también sea estable.AbstractThis paper estimates a measure of

  10. The declining effect of sibling size on children's education in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Costa Rica experienced a dramatic fertility decline in the 1960s and 1970s. The same period saw substantial improvement in children's educational attainment in Costa Rica. This correlation is consistent with household-level quantity-quality tradeoffs, but prior research on quantity-quality tradeoff magnitudes is mixed, and little research has estimated quantity-quality tradeoff behaviors in Latin America. Objective: This study explores one dimension of the potential demographic dividend from the fertility decline: the extent to which it was accompanied by quantity-quality tradeoffs leading to higher educational attainment. Specifically, we provide the first estimate of quantity-quality tradeoffs in Costa Rica, analyzing the increase in secondary school attendance among Costa Rican children as the number of siblings decreases. Furthermore, we advance the literature by exploring how that tradeoff has changed over time. Methods: We use 1984 and 2000 Costa Rican census data as well as survey data from the Costa Rican Longevity and Healthy Aging Study (CRELES. To address endogenous family size, the analysis uses an instrumental variable strategy based on the gender of the first two children to identify the causal relationship between number of siblings and children's education. Results: We find that, among our earlier cohorts, having fewer siblings is associated with a significantly higher probability of having attended at least one year of secondary school, particularly among girls. The effect is stronger after we account for the endogeneity of number of children born by the mother. For birth cohorts after 1980 this relationship largely disappears. Conclusions: This study provides strong evidence for a declining quantity-quality (Q-Q tradeoff in Costa Rica. This result suggests one potential explanation for the heterogeneous findings in prior studies elsewhere, but more work will be required to understand why such tradeoffs might vary

  11. San Jerónimo de Moravia, Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Aguirre

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Combinar en forma sostenible el patrimonio histórico cultural, el desarrollo turístico y la calidad ambiental es sin duda alguna el reto que enfrentan muchas comunidades latinoamericanas que en años recientes han hecho toda clase de esfuerzos por atraer turistas. El estudio aquí reportado analizó las condiciones socio-económicas de tres comunidades vecinas al Parque Nacional Braulio Carrillo (PNBC, en Costa Rica, identificó los problemas ambientales de los residentes de las mismas que se podrían agravar por causa del desarrollo turístico y determinó cómo y bajo qué condiciones los habitantes de la zona querían que se realizara el desarrollo turístico de las comunidades. Se entrevistaron 123 de un total de un total de 155 casas en las tres comunidades, y se utilizó una combinación de componentes principales y análisis factorial para analizar los datos. Los resultados indican que los vecinos entrevistados desean que el desarrollo turístico sea hecho sosteniblemente, y que además, se planifique, se establezcan requisitos claros, que la comunidad sea periódicamente informada, que sus lideres comunales participen activamente en el proceso, se establezcan programas para ayudar al desarrollo de micro-empresas eco-turísticas, y que se les brinde asistencia técnica y capacite en el desarrollo de proyectos eco-turísticos. Los problemas eventuales asociados a la calidad ambiental que habría que prestarles atención preferente son: ruido y tráfico excesivo, manejo de aguas negras y deforestación. El desarrollo turístico sostenible relacionado con el primer componente implicaría que este es un requisito básico de la calidad ambiental, la conservación y el uso sostenible del patrimonio histórico.

  12. Prevalencia de lepra en Costa Rica, de 1998-2003 Prevalence of leprosy in Costa Rica between 1998 and 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azálea Espinoza Aguirre

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de prevalencia de lepra durante el período 1998 al año 2003, con el objetivo de caracterizar la distribución de esta enfermedad en el país. Los casos fueron pacientes con un diagnostico de lepra o enfermedad de Hansen confirmado por un médico, que estuviera consultando en los establecimientos de salud de la Caja Costarricense Seguro Social (CCSS durante el período de estudio y pacientes que abandonaron el tratamiento sin curarse. Se excluyeron los casos curados, fallecidos y extranjeros no residentes en el país. Mediante búsqueda activa en la CCSS se identificaron los expedientes de los pacientes de 1998 al 2003 y los reportes de laboratorio de biopsia de piel y linfa cutánea confirmados por lepra. Del Ministerio de Salud (MS se obtuvieron los casos notificados y del Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas y Censos los datos de población. Se elaboró un formulario que incluyó variables clínicas, epidemiológicas, de laboratorio y socioeconómicas. El análisis se realizó según provincia, cantón, grupos de edad y sexo. Se calculó la tasa de prevalencia, de detección de casos y porcentajes. Se identificaron, 114 expedientes en los servicios de salud pero sólo 89 casos, que representaron una prevalencia de 0,3 casos por diez mil habitantes. La enfermedad afectó a los mayores de 15 años, y a los hombres un 65% (58. Puntarenas presentó la prevalencia por provincia más alta: 0,6x10.000 habitantes (23. Todos recibieron medicamentos para el tipo lepromatoso y en el Hospital San Juan de Dios se atendieron el 60% de ellos. El 28% reingresó a los servicios. Desde 1998, el MS no había realizado investigaciones epidemiológicas de los casos, ni seguimiento a sus contactos. El personal de los servicios de salud no cuenta con protocolos, ni normas de tratamiento clínico. Costa Rica eliminó la lepra como problema de salud pública (menos de 1 caso por diez mil habitantes desde 1995. Se recomendó iniciar

  13. A new species of Cyllopsis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, Isidro; Nishida, Kenji

    2002-06-01

    Cyllopsis emilia Chacón and Nishida, a new satyrine species, is described from a single male specimen from Cerro de la Muerte, San José, Costa Rica. This new species can be distinguished from other species of Cyllopsis by its white coloration.

  14. Entrepreneurship in Culinary Arts: The Costa Rica experience with university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Aguirre G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The tourism industry of Costa Rica represents 7.5% of GNP, 21% of total exports earning and of that contribution the food and beverages subsector represents 28%. The purpose of this research was to indentify, potential elements and obstacles in young university culinary arts students in Costa Rica, largest culinary arts students. The study was conducted among culinary arts students at the Universidad Interamericana de Costa Rica, the interviews conducted were 237 the entire enrollment of the culinary arts school. The findings indicate that .Absence of tradition, culture among the young students and need of family and peers supports appear to be relevant and a source of need by the group. Lack of general business and entrepreneurship training is recognize by both groups a weakness and as a need. Coaching and support for women entrepreneurs is very relevant in both theadministrative and technical aspects of the young students of culinary arts The consideration of this information is important if we are to create with culinary arts training , the new breed of professional chefs entrepreneurs needs for the industry expansion in the years to come in Costa Rica and the region

  15. A new isidiate species of Arthonia (Ascomycota: Arthoniaceae) from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Martin; Lücking, Robert; Umaña-Tenorio, Loengrin

    2004-01-01

    The new corticolous species Arthonia isidiata is described from the Pacific lowlands of Costa Rica. A. isidiata is characterized by minute, cylindrical to coralloid isidia produced on the thallus surface. The species currently is known only from the type locality in Corcovado National Park, where it occurs abundantly in the coastal rainforest around Sirena Biological Station.

  16. Is there too much or too little natural forest in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulte, E.H.; Joenje, M.; Jansen, H.P.G.

    2000-01-01

    Deforestation rates in developing countries are often regarded as excessive, despite the lack of a satisfactory economic benchmark to evaluate this claim. This paper provides such a benchmark for a particular region in Costa Rica. The monetary value of the various functions performed by tropical rai

  17. The first record of the butterfly Memphis d. dia(Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Charaxinae in Costa Rica

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    Jim Córdoba-Alfaro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Memphis diain Costa Rica (Godman & Salvin, 1884 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Charaxinae is reported herein, based on a specimen collected El Rodeo (09 ° 54’ 76.6”N; 84 ° 16’ 89.5”W on April 4, 2012.

  18. Ecoturismo y desarrollo rural en el Parque Nacional La Cangreja, Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Díaz González, E.; Koppen, van C.S.A.; Breitling, J.; Camino, de R.

    2005-01-01

    El ecoturismo se viene perfilando como un elemento conciliador entre las estrategias de conservación de la naturaleza y el desarrollo rural comunitario. Costa Rica, por su parte, emerge en la esfera latinoamericana y mundial como un líder en esta faceta de la industria turística, particularmente deb

  19. A Historical Analysis of the Educational Modalities of Inequalities Management in Costa Rica, Cuba and Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulot, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a historical and comparative study of the role that management of inequalities has played in the formation and evolution of educational institutions in three countries: Costa Rica, Cuba and Guatemala. This particular focus shows that this function has played a determining role, even if its organization has varied deeply in…

  20. A new species of Cyllopsis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, Isidro; Nishida, Kenji

    2002-06-01

    Cyllopsis emilia Chacón and Nishida, a new satyrine species, is described from a single male specimen from Cerro de la Muerte, San José, Costa Rica. This new species can be distinguished from other species of Cyllopsis by its white coloration. PMID:12298296

  1. Respiratory, allergy and eye problems in bagasse-exposed sugar cane workers in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gascon, M.; Kromhout, H.; Heederik, D.; Eduard, W.; van Wendel de Joode, B.N.

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate bagasse (sugar cane fibres) and microbiological exposure among sugar cane refinery workers in Costa Rica and its relationships with respiratory, allergy and eye problems. METHODS: Ventilatory lung function and total serum IgE were measured in 104 sugar cane workers in five departme

  2. Preliminary study of river- and beach processes in the Matina region of Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Boer, V.J.E.; Joosten, D.A.W.; Melman, F.C.R.; Post, S.

    2009-01-01

    The starting point for this project are the severe erosion problems at the Pacuare Nature Reserve, situated on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. The Reserve’s installations are situated next to a lagoon which is separated from the open sea by a barrier beach. The lagoon is connected on the landward

  3. BIOGENIC VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM A LOWLAND TROPICAL WET FOREST IN COSTA RICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty common plant species were screened for emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCS) at a lowland tropical wet forest site in Costa Rica. Ten of the species. examined emitted substantial quantities of isoprene. These species accounted for 35-50% of the total bas...

  4. Free-living nematodes from nature reserves in Costa Rica. 4. Cephalobina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holovachov, O.V.; Esquivel, A.; Bongers, A.M.T.

    2003-01-01

    Four species of Cephalobina: Geraldius bakeri, Diastolaimus croca, Trualaimus culeatus and Tricirronema tentaculatum are described and illustrated on the basis of material collected in Costa Rica. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) study of G. bakeri is given for the first time. Diastolaimus croca

  5. South-South Remittances: Importance of the Costa Rica-Nicaragua Corridor

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Monge-González; Oswald Céspedes-Torres; Juan Carlos Vargas-Aguilar

    2009-01-01

    Report commissioned by MIF and produced by consultant Ricardo Monge-González: First Study on Remittance senders and recipients from Costa Rica to Nicaragua. It includes size of remittances and economic assesment on the impact on the Economy and poverty reduction of Nicaragua .

  6. Evaluating bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) diversity using malaise traps in coffee landscapes of Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even though Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica Linnaeus, Rubiaceae) can self-pollinate, bees are important pollinators, without which there is lower fruit quality and yield. We studied bee diversity in coffee agroecosystems in Costa Rica during two coffee flowering seasons (2005 and 2006). Malaise traps...

  7. Reproductive cycle of the salmon-bellied racer, Mastigodryas melanolomus (Serpentes, Colubridae, from Costa Rica

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    Stephen R. Goldberg

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present new information on the reproductive cycle of M. melanolomus from Costa Rica based onhistological examination of gonadal material from museum specimens. The first information on the timing of the testicular cycle is alsopresented.

  8. Pesticide exposure and respiratory health of indigenous women in Costa Rica.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fieten, K.B.; Kromhout, H.; Heederik, D.J.J.; van Wendel de Joode, B.N.

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2007 to evaluate the relation between pesticide exposure and respiratory health in a population of indigenous women in Costa Rica. Exposed women (n = 69) all worked at plantain plantations. Unexposed women (n = 58) worked at organic banana plantations or othe

  9. Diary of an Edu-Tourist in Costa Rica: An Autoethnographical Account of Learning Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotherington, Heather

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an autoethnographical account of my foray into Spanish immersion education in Costa Rica as a professor of multilingual education at a university in Canada. This language-learning journey was inspired by curiosity about the growing trend for Internet marketing of second-language learning as a form of tourism, which I label…

  10. (abstract) GPS Monitoring of Crustal Deformation and the Earthquake Cycle in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Paul R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper will discuss the objectives, approach, and anticipated results of a study of earthquakes in Costa Rica. GPS measurements will be taken and field surveys will be made. Assessments of seismic strain accumulation and post-seismic deformation will be made in an effort to understand the effect these processes have on regional tectonic models.

  11. A Qualitative and Quantitative Structural Landscape Analysis Case Study in Monteverde, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Wyser, Nathalie

    2003-01-01

    Forest fragmentation translates a geographical isolation process and has been shown to influence the abundance, the movements and persistence of many species. The structure of the highly fragmented forests of Monteverde, Costa Rica, may exercise a relevant influence on the species richness and individual abundance of many forest-dwelling understory bird species.

  12. Land use zones and land use patterns in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huising, E.J.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes an approach to land use inventory at the sub-regional scale in the Guacimo-Rio Jiménez-Siquirres (GRS) area in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica. Therefore, the concept of "land use zones" is introduced. The land use zone (LUZ) plays a central role in the definition of an observa

  13. A seasonal model of contracts between a monopsonistic processor and smallholder pepper producers in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sáenz Segura, F.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Schipper, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    We model the contractual arrangements between smallholder pepper (Piper nigrum L.) producers and a single processor in Costa Rica. Producers in the El Roble settlement sell their pepper to only one processing firm, which exerts its monopsonistic bargaining power by setting the purchase price of fres

  14. 75 FR 3179 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements-Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... the interim rule issued on July 29, 2009 (74 FR 37650) to a final rule without change. The interim... amending 48 CFR parts 225 and 252, which was published at 74 FR 37650 on July 29, 2009, is adopted as a... Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements--Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS Case 2008-D046) AGENCY:...

  15. Situation Report--Bahamas, Bermuda, Bolivia, China, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Hong Kong, Liberia, Mexico, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 11 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Bermuda, Boliva, China, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Hong Kong, Liberia, Mexico, and Panama. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

  16. Using Social Networks to Educate Seismology to Non-Science Audiences in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lücke, O. H.; Linkimer, L.

    2013-12-01

    Costa Rica has a very high rate of seismicity with 63 damaging earthquakes in its history as a nation and 12 felt earthquakes per month on average. In Costa Rica, earthquakes are part of everyday life; hence the inhabitants are highly aware of seismic activity and geological processes. However, formal educational programs and mainstream media have not yet addressed the appropriate way of educating the public on these topics, thus myths and misconceptions are common. With the increasing influence of social networks on information diffusion, they have become a new channel to address this issue in Costa Rica. The National Seismological Network of Costa Rica (RSN) is a joint effort between the University of Costa Rica and the Costa Rican Institute of Electricity. Since 1973, the RSN studies the seismicity and volcanic activity in the country. Starting on January 2011 the RSN has an active Facebook Page, in which felt earthquakes are reported and information on Seismology, geological processes, scientific talks, and RSN activities are routinely posted. Additionally, RSN gets almost instantaneous feedback from RSN followers including people from all rural and urban areas of Costa Rica. In this study, we analyze the demographics, geographic distribution, reach of specific Facebook posts per topic, and the episodic growth of RSN followers related to specific seismic events. We observe that 70 % of the RSN users are between ages from 18 to 34. We consistently observe that certain regions of the country have more Facebook activity, although those regions are not the most populated nor have a high connectivity index. We interpret this pattern as the result of a higher awareness to geological hazards in those specific areas. We notice that educational posts are as well 'liked' as most earthquake reports. For exceptional seismic events, we observe sudden increments in the number of RSN followers in the order of tens of thousands. For example, the May 2013 Sixaola earthquake (Mw

  17. Nuevas especies de Surazomus Reddell & Cokendolpher, 1995 (Schizomida: Hubbardiidae de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. de Armas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen tres especies nuevas de esquizómidos de Costa Rica que pertenecen al género Surazomus Reddell & Cokendolpher, 1995: una de la Estación Biológica La Selva, provincia Heredia; las otras dos, de la Estación Biológica Las Cruces, Coto Brus, provincia Puntarenas. Con estos nuevos aportes, se elevan a 16 los miembros del género y a nueve las especies de esquizómidos formalmente descritas de este país centroamericano.Three new species of Costa Rican schizomids belonging to the genus Surazomus Reddell & Cokendolpher, 1995, are described from Biological Station La Selva, Heredia province, and Biological Station Las Cruces, Coto Brus, Puntarenas province. Those additions raise to 16 the known nominal species of this genus and to nine the schizomid species recognized from Costa Rica.

  18. Etnomatemática en Costa Rica: Un acercamiento a su perspectiva socio-histórica

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    Ana-Patricia Vásquez-Hernández

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is the result of socio-historical research on the development of ethnomathematics in Costa Rica, with an emphasis on the description of events over time, which tries to order the information along a temporal referent. This research is part of the results of the FUNDER Ethnomathematical project of the Regional Section Huetar North and Caribbean (Campus Sarapiqui of the National University of Costa Rica. The methodology is mainly qualitative in its approach and the narrative is subdivided into theme-based topics. The results demonstrate the work that has been developed in this country to delve into ethnomathematics as a line of research from the various areas of human knowledge and work developed around it.

  19. Legislación para el uso de animales de laboratorio en Costa Rica

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    Jorge Granados Zúñiga

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Los animales de laboratorio se usan como análogos a las enfermedades humanas, tanto en gnotobiología, investigación dental, embriología y teratología, oncología, gerontología, investigación cardiovascular, inmunolog��a, parasitología, virología, nutrición, genética y farmacología. Aunque en Costa Rica, la ciencia de animales de laboratorio es apenas incipiente, no existe información sobre los animales, la cantidad y para qué deberían de usarse. En Costa Rica rige desde el 13 de diciembre de 1994 la "Ley de Bienestar de los Animales", pero sin embargo esta Ley deja sin definir importantes aspectos técnicos y de control del uso de los animales de experimentación. Debería de existir un manual de referencia, aprobado por una Autoridad Nacional competente, sobre el manejo y uso de animales de laboratorio y, principalmente, cursos sobre ética y técnica del uso de este reactivo biológico dirigido a los investigadores. La legislación sobre el uso de animales de laboratorio en algunos países como los Estdos Unidos, Inglaterra, Canadá, Suecia, Colombia, Australia y Alemania son más estrictas. Sin embargo en Costa Rica desde 1992 se presentó un proyecto de Ley que pretendía regular los derechos de los animales proclamados en la Declaración Universal de los derechos del animal, pero en la actualidad se encuentra archivado. Sin embargo en 1993 fue publicado en la Gaceta No 242 del 20 de diciembre de 1993 el proyecto "Ley de Bienestar y Etiología de los Animales", que no tiene ningún antecedente directo en realción al uso de animales de laboratorio en Costa Rica pero desarrolla el marco jurídico de la Declaración Universal de los Derechos del Animal, proclamada por las Ligas Nacionales afiliadas a la ONU y aun no suscrita por Costa Rica.Laboratory animals are used like analogs to the human diseases, just as much in gnotobiology, dental investigation, embriology and teratology, oncology, gerontology, cardiovascular

  20. Enhancing Outreach using Social Networks at the National Seismological Network of Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkimer, L.; Lücke, O. H.

    2014-12-01

    Costa Rica has a very high seismicity rate and geological processes are part of everyday life. Traditionally, information about these processes has been provided by conventional mass media (television and radio). However, due to the new trends in information flow a new approach towards Science Education is necessary for transmitting knowledge from scientific research for the general public in Costa Rica. Since 1973, the National Seismological Network of Costa Rica (RSN: UCR-ICE) studies the seismicity and volcanic activity in the country. In this study, we describe the different channels to report earthquake information that the RSN is currently using: email, social networks, and a website, as well as the development of a smartphone application. Since the RSN started actively participating in Social Networks, an increase in awareness in the general public has been noticed particularly regarding felt earthquakes. Based on this trend, we have focused on enhancing public outreach through Social Media. We analyze the demographics and geographic distribution of the RSN Facebook Page, the growth of followers, and the significance of their feedback for reporting intensity data. We observe that certain regions of the country have more Facebook activity, although those regions are not the most populated nor have a high Internet connectivity index. We interpret this pattern as the result of a higher awareness to geological hazards in those specific areas. We noticed that the growth of RSN users on Facebook has a strong correlation with the seismic events as opposed to Twitter that displays a steady growth with no clear correlations with specific seismic events. We see the Social Networks as opportunities to engage non-science audiences and encourage the population to participate in reporting seismic observations, thus providing intensity data. With the increasing access to Internet from mobile phones in Costa Rica, we see this approach to science education as an opportunity

  1. LA DOLARIZACIÓN PARCIAL EN COSTA RICA

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    Eduardo Méndez Quesada

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio examina la magnitud, la evolución y explora las causas de la creciente preferencia hacia activos financieros en moneda extranjera como depósito de valor (sustitución de activos y en algún grado como medio de pago (sustitución monetaria en una economía de inflación moderada, sin antecedentes cercanos de crisis ni experiencias de confiscación de depósitos como es Costa Rica.La magnitud de la sustitución por parte del dólar estadounidense de las funciones que desempeña tradicionalmente la moneda local se aproxima a través de varios indicadores basados en razones de depósitos en moneda extranjera con respecto a sus similares en moneda local con frecuencia mensual de 1990 al 2002. Además, se identifican los factores que explican la demanda relativa de los depósitos bancarios según su grado de liquidez y se buscan evidencias de irreversibilidad del proceso (histéresis mediante variables de tipo “ratchet”.Como factores explicativos del fenómeno, se plantean la probable influencia de elementos institucionales y de los estímulos económicos derivados de la globalización de la economía y de los diferenciales de rendimientos financieros. Pero se sostiene también que las políticas monetaria y cambiaria han tenido efectos en el nivel de dolarización alcanzado por la economía costarricense; por una parte, la política deencajes llevada a cabo desde 1996 favoreció la constitución de depósitos en moneda extranjera (y la intermediación de esos fondos ha debido generar la expansión secundaria de esos recursos y, por otra, el ajuste cambiario siempre alcista bajo el régimen de minidevaluaciones ha estimulado la sustitución de activos.Se concluye en general que la dolarización de depósitos bancarios ha alcanzado niveles muy elevados (50% del total y la significancia de la variable “ratchet” da indicios de que el proceso es de difícil reversión por lo que es de esperar que se mantenga en el futuro la

  2. Determinantes de la utilización de servicios de salud en Costa Rica Determinants of health care utilization in Costa Rica

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    Melvin Morera Salas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Realizar una primera aproximación a los determinantes de la utilización de consultas médicas en Costa Rica. Método: Los datos proceden de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud para Costa Rica 2006. En el análisis econométrico se utilizó un modelo binomial negativo estándar ligado al enfoque de producción de salud de Grossman y un modelo en dos partes congruente con el enfoque agente-principal. Resultados: Los factores determinantes de la utilización de consultas médicas fueron el nivel educativo, el estado de salud percibida, el número de enfermedades crónicas declaradas y la región de residencia. Conclusiones: El hecho de que las variables de necesidad de salud expliquen de forma significativa la probabilidad de contacto con las consultas médicas y que, además, no se registren diferencias significativas de utilización entre quintiles de ingreso y situación de seguro, es un resultado esperable y deseable en un sistema público solidario y casi universal como el costarricense. No se obtienen resultados concluyentes de la influencia del médico en la frecuencia de utilización de las consultas que postula el modelo de agente-principal.Objective: To analyze the determinants of health care utilization (visits to the doctor in Costa Rica using an econometric approach. Methods: Data were drawn from the National Survey of Health for Costa Rica 2006. We modeled the Grossman approach to the demand for health services by using a standard negative binomial regression, and used a hurdle model for the principal-agent specification. Results: The factors determining healthcare utilization were level of education, self-assessed health, number of declared chronic diseases and geographic region of residence. Conclusion: The number of outpatient visits to the doctor depends on the proxies for medical need, but we found no multivariate association between the use of outpatient visits and income or insurance status. This result suggests that

  3. Especies nuevas de Lonchocarpus (Millettieae: Leguminosae para Costa Rica y Panamá: lectotipificación de la sect. Densiflori Benth New species of Lonchocarpus (Millettieae: Leguminosae from Costa Rica and Panama: lectotypification of sect. Densiflori Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sousa S.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran cuatro especies de Lonchocarpus (Millettieae, Papilionoideae, L. haberi, L. latisiliquus, L. megacarpus y L. monteviridis, dos endémicas de Costa Rica, una de Panamá y la otra habita en ambos países. De las especies nuevas, tres pertenecen a la sect. Densiflori Benth., a la cual se le lectotipifica aquí, y se elaboró una clave de esta sección para Costa Rica y Panamá.Four new species of Lonchocarpus (Millettieae, Papilionoideae, L. haberi, L. latisiliquus, L. megacarpus and L. monteviridis, are described and illustrated; two are endemic to Costa Rica, one to Panama and one is found in both countries. Of these new species, three belong to sect. Densiflori Benth., which is herein lectotypified; a key to the section for Costa Rica and Panama is provided.

  4. CREADS, a Teacher Training Course on ESD in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Elizondo, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    After the Costa Rican government signed a commitment to implement the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD), the challenge was how to put the commitment into action. Fortunately, an opportunity presented itself with an initiative called Peace with Nature (Iniciativa Paz con la Naturaleza-IPN), under which a teacher training…

  5. The salt content of products from popular fast-food chains in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Blonval, Katrina; Blanco-Metzler, Adriana; Montero-Campos, Marielos; Dunford, Elizabeth K

    2014-12-01

    Salt is a major determinant of population blood pressure levels. Salt intake in Costa Rica is above levels required for good health. With an increasing number of Costa Ricans visiting fast food restaurants, it is likely that fast-food is contributing to daily salt intake. Salt content data from seven popular fast food chains in Costa Rica were collected in January 2013. Products were classified into 10 categories. Mean salt content was compared between chains and categories. Statistical analysis was performed using Welch ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer HSD tests. Significant differences were found between companies; Subway products had lowest mean salt content (0.97 g/100 g; p sauces had 2.16 g/100 g (p < 0.05). Wide variation in salt content was also seen within food categories. Salt content in sandwiches ranged from 0.5 to 2.1 g/100 g. The high levels and wide variation in salt content of fast food products in Costa Rica suggest that salt reduction is likely to be technically feasible in many cases. With an increasing number of consumers purchasing fast foods, even small improvements in salt levels could produce important health gains.

  6. Costa Rica después del TLC: ¿LA CALMA QUE SIGUE A LA TEMPESTAD? Costa Rica after CAFTA: The Calm that Follows the Storm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUDOVICO FEOLI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La resolución del conflicto político alrededor de la ratificación del Tratado de Libre Comercio con los Estados Unidos, Centroamérica, y la República Dominicana (DR-CAFTA representó una importante oportunidad política para Costa Rica en el 2008. No obstante, el gobierno no logró aprovechar la coyuntura para avanzar en problemas de fondo más allá de la Agenda de Implementation del Tratado. Su incapacidad de establecer un espacio de encuentro con la oposición, aunada a la debilidad de su mandato y a los obstáculos estructurales del sistema político, coartaron la posibilidad de construir consensos. En suma, la ausencia de una conducción estratégica hizo del año una oportunidad perdida para alcanzar logros políticos sustantivos.The end of the political conflict surrounding the ratification of the Dominican Republic and Central American Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA presented significant political opportunities for Costa Rica in 2008. But the government was unable to seize the initiative and establish a constructive political dialogue. Coupled with the structural limitations of the political system and its weak political mandate, this hindered its ability to advance in hey areas beyond CAFTA. In all, the absence of a strategic vision made theyear a lost opportunity for substantive political progress.

  7. First report of acariasis by Caparinia tripilis in African hedgehogs, (Atelerix albiventris), in Costa Rica Primeiro relato de acariasis por Caparinia tripilis em ouriços Africanos, (Atelerix albiventris), na Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Moreira; Adriana Troyo; Olger Calderón-Arguedas

    2013-01-01

    The African hedgehog is one of the newly imported exotic pets which have been observed with increasing regularity in veterinary clinics in Costa Rica. Despite their popularity, information about their diseases is scarce. Within skin diseases of hedgehogs, mange caused by Caparinia spp. is a common diagnosis in other countries. Two adult African hedgehogs, one male and one female, were brought to a private clinic in Heredia, Costa Rica, with chronic pruritic dermatitis, scabs, nearly complete ...

  8. Geochemical Atlas of the San Jose and Golfito quadrangles, Costa Rica. Atlas Geoquimico de los cuadrangulos de San Jose y Golfito, Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-07-01

    The Geochemical Atlas of the San Jose and Golfito 1:200,000-scale quadrangles, Costa Rica, was produced to help stimulate the growth of the Costa Rican mining industry and, thus, to benefit the economy of the country. As a result of the geochemical data presented in the Atlas, future exploration for metallic minerals in Costa Rica can be focused on specific areas that have the highest potential for mineralization. Stream-sediment samples were collected from drainage basins within the two quadrangles. These samples were analyzed for 50 elements and the results were displayed as computer-generated color maps. Each map shows the variation in abundance of a single element within the quadrangle. Basic statistics, geological and cultural data are included as insets in each map to assist in interpretation. In the Golfito quadrangle, the geochemical data do not clearly indicate undiscovered gold mineralization. The areas known to contain placer (alluvial) gold are heavily affected by mining activity. Statistical treatment of the geochemical data is necessary before it will be possible to determine the gold potential of this quadrangle. In San Jose quadrangle, gold and the pathfinder elements, arsenic and antimony, are indicators of the gold mineralization characteristic of the Costa Rican gold district located in the Tilaran-Montes del Aguacate Range. This work shows that high concentrations of these elements occur in samples collected downstream from active gold mines. More importantly, the high concentrations of gold, arsenic, and antimony in sediment samples from an area southeast of the known gold district suggest a previously unknown extension of the district. This postulated extension underlain by Tertiary volcanic rocks which host the gold deposits within the gold district. The geochemical data, displayed herein, also indicate that drainage basins north of Ciudad Quesada on the flanks of Volcan Platanar have high gold potential.

  9. Hyperparasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Trigonalidae) reared from dry forest and rain forest caterpillars of Area de Conservacion, Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five species of Trigonalidae, hyperparasites of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) and Tachinidae (Diptera) that parasitize caterpillars (Lepidoptera), have been reared during the ongoing caterpillar inventory of Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), Guanacaste Province, northwestern Costa Rica: Lycogaste...

  10. COSTA RICA 2009: ENFRENTANDO LA CRISIS INTERNACIONAL EN PLENA CAMPAÑA ELECTORAL Costa Rica: Facing the International Crisis in an Electoral Year

    OpenAIRE

    EVELYN VILLARREAL F; STEFFAN GÓMEZ A

    2010-01-01

    La dinámica política de Costa Rica en el 2009 estuvo concentrada en tres grandes arenas: el impacto de la crisis económica internacional y por los procesos electorales con miras a los comicios nacionales de febrero del 2010 y el seguimiento y nuevas manifestaciones de casos de corrupción de altos jerarcas. Primero, las políticas públicas se concentraron en la implementación del Plan anticrisis, denominado Plan Escudo, aunque el gobierno se vio obligado a dirigir importantes esfuerzos a evento...

  11. Estado nutricional de bailarinas de ballet clásico, area metropolitana de Costa Rica Nutritional status of classical ballet dancers, metropolitan area of Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Madrigal Rojas; Ana Rocío González Urrutia

    2008-01-01

    El principal objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el estado nutricional de bailarinas de ballet clásico de las tres academias más importantes de ballet localizadas en el Área Metropolitana de Costa Rica. Se trabajó con 24 bailarinas adultas (18 a 30 años) de niveles avanzados de ballet. Se registró el consumo de alimentos durante tres días. Se tomaron medidas de talla, peso y pliegues cutáneos. Se recolectaron muestras de sangre para análisis bioquímicos. Se evaluó además la densidad...

  12. Inversión extranjera directa, movilidad laboral y derrames de conocimiento en Costa Rica Foreign direct investment, labor mobility and knowledge spillovers in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Monge González; Juan Carlos Leiva Bonilla; Juan Antonio Rodríguez Álvarez

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo busca determinar la existencia e importancia de los derrames de conocimiento asociados con la movilidad laboral desde las multinacionales (MNCS) que operan bajo el régimen de zonas francas (ZF) en Costa Rica; es decir, el impacto de tales derrames de conocimiento sobre el desempeño de las empresas locales que contratan ex empleados de MNCS. Se observó que, de un total de 41 149 empleados de MNCS que dejaron de laborar para estas empresas entre el 2001 y el 2007, un tercio se tras...

  13. Aspectos médico legales del suicidio en Costa Rica: Epidemiología del suicidio en Costa Rica, del 2000 al 2004 Medical legal aspects of suicide in Costa Rica: Epidemiology of suicide in Costa Rica. Epidemiology of suicide in Costa Rica, from 2000-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Gerardo Castro Trejos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Trata del análisis de la estadística del Anuario Policial del 2004 (departamento de planificación, sección estadística, con respecto a los casos de suicidio ocurridos en Costa Rica durante los años 2000 al 2004. La prevalencia de casos muestra una media de 251,8 casos por año. El mayor porcentaje de casos que se produjo en la población, lo cometieron individuos de nacionalidad costarricense, con un 88% del total. Predominó el sexo masculino con 1242 casos (86.9%. El femenino con 186 casos (13%. El rango de edad en que se presentó el mayor número de casos se dio entre los 20-24 años con 208 casos (14.5%. La mayor incidencia de casos fue en el 2003 con un total de 329 casos (23%. La modalidad más frecuente de suicidio fue la suspensión con 516 casos (36.1%; seguido de envenenamiento con 483 casos (33.8%; la tercera en importancia fue muerte por proyectil por arma de fuego con 321 casos (22.4%.It is about a statistical analysis from the Policial Yearbook 2004, (Planification Department, statistics section, about the suicide cases that happened in Costa Rica during the years 2000 to 2004. The prevalence of cases shows an average of 251,8 cases per year. The highest percentage of cases that happened in the population was committed by Costa Rican, with an 88% of the total. Men had a higher prevalence, with 1.242 cases (86.9%, than women, with 186 cases (13%. The age with the highest percentage was between 20 and 24 years of age, with 208 cases (14,5%. The highest incidence was in 2003 with 329 cases (23%. The most frequent modality of death was hanging with 516 cases (36,1%, followed by poisoning with 483 cases (33,8%, the third in importance was death by firearm projectile with 321 cases 22,4%.

  14. Representations of Race, Entanglements of Power: Whiteness, Garveyism, and Redemptive Geographies in Costa Rica, 1921-1950

    OpenAIRE

    Leeds, Asia

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation explores the making of race and the politics of belonging in Costa Rica between 1921 and 1950, during a period of shifting racial borders and entangled terrains of power. While the idea of "racial democracy" and official discourses of mestizaje (racial mixing) predominate in Latin America, Costa Rica has been long held as a unique country in Central America with an exceptional social geography characterized by "whiteness" and homogeneity. Employed in the United Fruit Compa...

  15. Comunidades y arrecifes coralinos del Parque Nacional Marino Ballena, costa del Pacífico de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron las comunidades y arrecifes coralinos del Parque Nacional Marino Ballena (PNMB, en el Pacífico sur de Costa Rica, mediante tres transectos por sitio, de 10 m de largo cada uno y paralelos a la costa, utilizando una cuadrícula de 1 m2. Se encontró un total de 15 especies de corales (11 hermatípicas y 4 ahermatípicas, las que sumadas a informes previos para el parque hacen un total de 18 especies. El coral Porites lobata presentó la mayor cobertura coralina (36.5 ± 3.7% y fue el único presente en todos los sitios. Las otras especies de coral presentaron bajas coberturas (<10% y sólo fueron observadas en pocos sitios. El porcentaje de coral muerto fue de 1.8 ± 0.6% y el porcentaje de blanqueamiento (0.7 ± 0.2% está dado por P. lobata en un solo sitio. El PNMB y la Isla del Caño poseen el mayor número de especies de coral (18 especies de la región sur de Costa Rica; sin embargo, difieren en su composición. La baja diversidad y la baja cobertura coralina de varios sitios del parque se atribuyen al impacto del fenómeno de El Niño en los últimos años, a la sedimentación y a la dilución de las aguas en época de lluvias. Se sugiere la necesidad de realizar un monitoreo a largo plazo sobre estos ecosistemas y determinar futuras estrategias de manejo y conservación.

  16. Wild common bean in the Central Valley of Costa Rica: ecological distribution and molecular characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa In\\u00E9s Gonz\\u00E1lez Torres

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Frijol silvestre en el Valle Central de Costa Rica: distribución ecológica y caracterización molecular. Este trabajo presenta una actualización sobre la distribución de las formas silvestres de fríjol común en Costa Rica, su ecología y su caracterización molecular. Ala fecha 22 poblaciones fueron encontradas en cuatro cuencas alrededor del Valle Central, generalmente en vegetaciones ruderales (frecuentemente bordes de cafetales, con estatuto de conservación variable (desde protegido a amenazado. Su caracterización molecular indica su pertenencia al acervo genético mesoamericano. Varios marcadores indican una variabilidad aumentada en las formas silvestres y permiten inferir la presencia de un fenómeno de flujo genético e introgresión desde materiales cultivados.

  17. Elecciones 2010: Transformaciones inconclusas del sistema de partidos en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Diego Brenes Villalobos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente ensayo constituye un repaso de la evolución y estado actual del sistema de partidos en Costa Rica, así como de su interacción con el sistema electoral. Se divide en cuatro partes. Los dos primeros epígrafes describen las relaciones entre los sistemas electorales y de partidos, con particular mención a indicadores, así como a la evolución de un sistema bipartidista a uno pluripartidista limitado y la conformación de dos Costa Ricas en razón de esos sistemas. El tercer aparte revisa el comportamiento del subcociente como barrera electoral. Finalmente, se analizan las mayorías parlamentarias en el tiempo, desde una lógica propia de reforma electoral.

  18. Electric load management in developing countries: Costa Rica leads the way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy planners in developing countries have traditionally sought to meet their nations' growing electricity demands by adding more generation and transmission capacity. But as the foreign investment situation became critical in the 1980s, private investment and system efficiency improvement programmes began to garner interest. One of the most promising system efficiency improvement options is load management, which uses a variety of techniques to utilize the electricity system's existing capacity more efficiently. However, to date, only three countries have seriously considered implementing large load management programmes: Pakistan, Peru and Costa Rica. This paper describes a 1987-89 load control demonstration programme in Costa Rica, sponsored by the US Agency for International Development (AID), in which participating industries were able to reduce their peak demand by 14%. (author). 2 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  19. Accelerations from the September 5, 2012 (Mw=7.6) Nicoya, Costa Rica Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simila, G. W.; Quintero, R.; Burgoa, B.; Mohammadebrahim, E.; Segura, J.

    2013-05-01

    Since 1984, the Seismic Network of the Volcanological and Seismological Observatory of Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA) has been recording and registering the seismicity in Costa Rica. Before September 2012, the earthquakes registered by this seismic network in northwestern Costa Rica were moderate to small, except the Cóbano earthquake of March 25, 1990, 13:23, Mw 7.3, lat. 9.648, long. 84.913, depth 20 km; a subduction quake at the entrance of the Gulf of Nicoya and generated peak intensities in the range of MM = VIII near the epicentral area and VI-VII in the Central Valley of Costa Rica. Six years before the installation of the seismic network, OVSICORI-UNA registered two subduction earthquakes in northwestern Costa Rica, specifically on August 23, 1978, at 00:38:32 and 00:50:29 with magnitudes Mw 7.0 (HRVD), Ms 7.0 (ISC) and depths of 58 and 69 km, respectively (EHB Bulletin). On September 5, 2012, at 14:42:02.8 UTC, the seismic network OVSICORI-UNA registered another large subduction earthquake in Nicoya peninsula, northwestern Costa Rica, located 29 km south of Samara, with a depth of 21 km and magnitude Mw 7.6, lat. 9.6392, long. 85.6167. This earthquake was caused by the subduction of the Cocos plate under the Caribbean plate in northwestern Costa Rica. This earthquake was felt throughout the country and also in much of Nicaragua. The instrumental intensity map for the Nicoya earthquake indicates that the earthquake was felt with an intensity of VII-VIII in the Puntarenas and Nicoya Peninsulas, in an area between Liberia, Cañas, Puntarenas, Cabo Blanco, Carrillo, Garza, Sardinal, and Tamarindo in Guanacaste; Nicoya city being the place where the maximum reported intensity of VIII is most notable. An intensity of VIII indicates that damage estimates are moderate to severe, and intensity VII indicates that damage estimates are moderate. According to the National Emergency Commission of Costa Rica, 371 affected communities were reported; most

  20. [Sighting of Stenella attenuata, the spotted dolphin, in Culebra Bay, Costa Rica, 1999-2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Sáenz, Karina; Rodríguez-Fonseca, Javier

    2004-12-01

    Parallel to a zooplankton study (1999-2000) observations were made (from an inflatable boat), on the presence of dolphins along a transect (-8 km long) on the axis of Culebra Bay (24 km2), Gulf of Papagayo, Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Dolphins were found during 20 of the 31 boat surveys conducted. The only species of cetacean found in the bay was Stenella attenuata, the spotted dolphin. These sightings were more frequent during the rainy season, particularly during the month of May of both years. The presence of S. attenuata in Culebra Bay might be associated to the abundances of fish and mollusks (their presumed prey: for example, squids), as evidenced by fishery statistics available for this zone of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. PMID:17465137

  1. Payments for environmental services in Costa Rica: from Rio to Rio and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porras, Ina; Miranda, Miriam; Barton, David; Chacon-Cascante, Adriana

    2012-05-15

    Costa Rica has shown how a small developing country can grab the bull of environmental degradation by the horns, and reverse one of the highest deforestation rates in Latin America to become the poster child of environment success. Key to its achievement has been the country's payments for environmental services (PES) programme, which began in 1997 and which many countries are now looking to learn from, especially as water markets and schemes to reward forest conservation and reduced deforestation (REDD+) grow. Within Costa Rica too, there is a need to first reflect on how the contexts for, and challenges facing, PES have changed; and continue building a robust programme that can ensure the coming decade is as successful as the past one.

  2. Primer caso de hemoglobina Köln (codon98 GTG>ATG en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Cartín

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La exposición a ciertos medicamentos puede provocar anemia hemolítica con presencia de cuerpos de Heinz en sangre periférica. Esta anemia puede presentarse por sobredosis de medicamentos, tanto en individuos sanos como en personas con deficiencias enzimáticas como la glucosa-6-fosfato deshidrogenasa, o en presencia de hemoglobinas inestables. Este reporte muestra un caso de anemia hemolítica con cuerpos de Heinz, debido a la presencia de una hemoglobina inestable, cuyos estudios moleculares y HPLC confirmaron el primer caso descrito de hemoglobina Köln (Val98Met en Costa Rica.

  3. The Doryctinae (Braconidae) of Costa Rica: genera and species of the tribe Heterospilini

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Marsh; Alexander Wild; James Whitfield

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A comprehensive taxonomic study is presented for the four genera and 286 species of the doryctine tribe Heterospilini occurring in Costa Rica. The tribe is represented almost entirely by the 280 species of the genus Heterospilus Haliday. Keys for identification of the genera and species are provided and the genera and species are described and illustrated. An interactive key to the species of Heterospilus also was prepared using Lucid Builder. The following new genus and species are ...

  4. Entrepreneurship in Culinary Arts: The Costa Rica experience with university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Aguirre G.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La industria del turismo de Costa Rica representa 7,5% de PNB, 21% de las exportaciones totales y de esa contribución el subsector de alimento y bebidas representa 28%. El propósito de esta investigación fue el de identifi car, elementos y obstáculos potenciales en jóvenes estudiantes de artes culinarias de universidades en Costa Rica. El estudio fue realizado entre estudiantes de artes culinarias en de la Universidad Interamericana de Costa Rica, las entrevistas realizadas fueron 237 todos los matriculados en artes culinarias. Ausencia de tradición, la falta de cultura empresarial entre los jóvenes estudiantes y la necesidad de apoyos de la familia y amigos parecen ser pertinente y una necesidad sentida por el grupo. La falta de instrucción general en negocio y la falta de iniciativa empresarial se reconoce por ambos grupos como una debilidad y necesidad. El "coaching" y el apoyo para mujeres empresarios es muy pertinente, en especial en los aspectos administrativos y técnicos en los jóvenes estudiantes de artes culinarias. La información generada por este estudio es importante si en verdad queremos entrenar con los programas en artes artes culinarias , la nueva casta de chef/empresarios necesarios para la expansión de la industria de la gastronomía en los próximos años para Costa Rica y la región.

  5. La enseñanza de las lenguas indígenas en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rojas Chaves

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Resumen. En Costa Rica se reconocen seis lenguas indígenas que actualmente muestran un gran debilitamiento por la llamada: “nación unificada” bajo una sola lengua y una sola cultura.

    Ante esta situación, Costa Rica ha ratificado convenios internacionales para la conservación y difusión de las lenguas y las culturas autóctonas y la educación del niño indígena.

    El Programa de Enseñanza de las Lenguas Indígenas en nuestro país busca dar un espacio para la transmisión y recuperación de sus elementos culturales  a pesar de los obstáculos administrativos, legales, mentales y culturales que permitan asumir la diversidad cultural.

     

    Abstract. In Costa Rica there are six indigenous languages which currently are becoming weaker due to the so-called “unified nation” with one language and one culture. Due to this situation, Costa Rica has ratified international agreements to conserve and spread autochthonous languages and cultures, along with promoting the education of indigenous children.

    The Program for the Teaching of Indigenous Languages in our country is trying to develop a way to transfer and recover cultural elements in spite of administrative, legal, mental, and cultural obstacles to cultural diversity.

  6. Payments for environmental services in Costa Rica: Increasing efficiency through spatial differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Wünscher, T.; Engel, S.; Wunder, Sven

    2006-01-01

    Payments for Environmental Services (PES) have become a widely acknowledged and increasingly popular market based instrument to conserve forests and their environmental services. Costa Rica was the first developing country to have implemented a nationwide PES program. Besides legal and formal requirements which have to be met by any program applicant, the forest sites are selected from a pool of applications on the basis of predefined program areas. Sites inside these program areas qualify fo...

  7. La financiación de los partidos políticos en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio Sobrado González

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Analiza el régimen de financiamiento de los partidos políticos en Costa Rica, el cual y según el marco normativo se rige por un modelo mixto, por lo que los patrimonios de estos se alimentan por el financiamiento público directo, las contribuciones, donaciones o aportes de sus miembros y los bienes y recursos que autoricen sus estatutos y no prohíba la ley.

  8. Anonymity, Reciprocity, and Conformity: Evidence from Voluntary Contributions to a National Park in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Alpizar, Francisco; Carlson, Fredrik; Johansson-Stenman, Olof

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the role of anonymity, reciprocity, and conformity for voluntary contributions, based on a natural field experiment conducted at a national park in Costa Rica. Contributions made in public in front of the solicitor were 25 percent higher than contributions made in private. Giving subjects a small gift before requesting a contribution increased the likelihood of a positive contribution. At the same time, however, the conditional contribution decreased. The total effect of givin...

  9. Understanding key drivers controlling daily stable isotope variations in precipitation of Costa Rica, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Murillo, Ricardo; Welsh, Kristin; Birkel, Christian; Esquivel-Hernández, Germain; Corrales-Salazar, Jose; Boll, Jan; Brooks, Erin; Roupsard, Olivier; Katchan, Irina; Arce-Mesén, Rafael; Soulsby, Chris; Araguás-Araguás, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Costa Rica is located on the Central American Isthmus, which receives direct moisture inputs from the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. The relatively narrow, but high relief Central American land bridge is characterized by unique mountainous and lowland microclimates. However, only limited knowledge exists about the impact of relief and regional atmospheric circulation patterns on precipitation origin, transport, and isotopic composition in this tropical region. Therefore, the main scope of this study is to identify the key drivers controlling variations in meteoric waters of Costa Rica using stable isotopes based on daily sample collection for the year 2013. The monitoring sites comprise three strategic locations across Costa Rica: Heredia (Central Valley), Turrialba (Caribbean slope), and Caño Seco (South Pacific slope). Sporadic dry season rain is mostly related to isolated enriched events ranging from -5.8‰ d18O up to -0.9‰ d18O. By mid-May, the Intertropical Convergence Zone reaches Costa Rica resulting in a notable depletion in isotope ratios (up to -18.5‰ d18O). HYSPLIT back air mass trajectories indicate the strong influence on the origin and transport of precipitation of two main moisture transport mechanisms, the Caribbean Low Level Jet and the Colombian Low Level Jet as well as localized convection events. Multiple linear regression models constructed based on Random Forests of surface meteorological information and atmospheric sounding profiles suggest that Lifted Condensation Level and surface relative humidity are the main factors controlling isotopic variations. These findings diverge from the recognized 'amount effect' in monthly composite samples across the tropics. Understanding of stable isotope dynamics in tropical precipitation can be used to enhance catchment and groundwater modeling efforts in ungauged basins where scarcity of long-term monitoring data drastically limit current and future water resources management.

  10. Bacteria of the genus Rickettsia in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from birds in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrzewalska, Maria; Literák, Ivan; Capek, Miroslav; Sychra, Oldřich; Calderón, Víctor Álvarez; Rodríguez, Bernardo Calvo; Prudencio, Carlos; Martins, Thiago F; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to document the presence of Rickettsia spp. in ticks parasitizing wild birds in Costa Rica. Birds were trapped at seven locations in Costa Rica during 2004, 2009, and 2010; then visually examined for the presence of ticks. Ticks were identified, and part of them was tested individually for the presence of Rickettsia spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers targeting fragments of the rickettsial genes gltA and ompA. PCR products were DNA-sequenced and analyzed in BLAST to determine similarities with previously reported rickettsial agents. A total of 1878 birds were examined, from which 163 birds (9%) were infested with 388 ticks of the genera Amblyomma and Ixodes. The following Amblyomma (in decreasing order of abundance) were found in immature stages (larvae and nymphs): Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma calcaratum, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma sabanerae, Amblyomma varium, Amblyomma maculatum, and Amblyomma ovale. Ixodes ticks were represented by Ixodes minor and two unclassified species, designated here as Ixodes sp. genotype I, and Ixodes sp. genotype II. Twelve of 24 tested A. longirostre ticks were found to be infected with 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii', and 2 of 4 A. sabanerae were found to be infected with Rickettsia bellii. Eight of 10 larval Ixodes minor were infected with an endosymbiont (a novel Rickettsia sp. agent) genetically related to the Ixodes scapularis endosymbiont. No rickettsial DNA was found in A. calcaratum, A. coelebs, A. maculatum, A. ovale, A. varium, Ixodes sp. I, and Ixodes sp. II. We report the occurrence of I. minor in Costa Rica for the first time and a number of new bird host-tick associations. Moreover, 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' and R. bellii were found in A. longirostre and A. sabanerae, respectively, in Costa Rica for the first time.

  11. Modelling the hydrological behaviour of a coffee agroforestry basin in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gómez-Delgado; Roupsard, O.; Moussa, R.; Le Maire, G.; Taugourdeau, S.; J. M. Bonnefond; Pérez, A.; Oijen, M. van; Vaast, P.; Rapidel, B.; Voltz, M.; Imbach, P.; Harmand, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The profitability of hydropower in Costa Rica is affected by soil erosion and sedimentation in dam reservoirs, which are in turn influenced by land use, infiltration and aquifer interactions with surface water. In order to foster the provision and payment of Hydrological Environmental Services (HES), a quantitative assessment of the impact of specific land uses on the functioning of drainage-basins is required. The present paper aims to study the water balance partitioning in a volcanic coffe...

  12. Modelling the hydrological behaviour of a coffee agroforestry basin in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gómez-Delgado; Roupsard, O.; Maire, G.; Taugourdeau, S.; Pérez, A.; Oijen, M. van; Vaast, P.; Rapidel, B.; Harmand, J.M.; Voltz, M.; J. M. Bonnefond; Imbach, P.; Moussa, R.

    2011-01-01

    The profitability of hydropower in Costa Rica is affected by soil erosion and sedimentation in dam reservoirs, which are in turn influenced by land use, infiltration and aquifer interactions with surface water. In order to foster the provision and payment for Hydrological Environmental Services (HES), a quantitative assessment of the impact of specific land uses on the functioning of drainage-basins is required. The present paper aims to study the water balance partitioning in a volcanic coff...

  13. Serological Detection of Viral Infections in Captive Wild Cats from Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Kinndle Blanco; Roberto Peña; Carmen Hernández; Mauricio Jiménez; Luis Nazario Araya; Juan José Romero; Gaby Dolz

    2011-01-01

    Serum samples from a total of 44 wildcats, 28 margays (Leopardus wiedii), 10 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), four jaguaroundis (Herpailurus yaguaroundi), one oncilla (Leopardus tigrina), and one jaguar (Panthera onca) were obtained between January 2001 and August 2002 from the Profelis Centre for rehabilitation of wild felids, located in the northwestern region of Costa Rica. Forty three samples were tested for antibodies against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and p27 antigen of feline leu...

  14. Nicaragüenses en Costa Rica y Estados Unidos: datos de etnoencuestas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas, Juan Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En Centroamérica el único país con un comportamiento claramente bipolar en el destino de la emigración es Nicaragua. La migración de este país tiene a Costa Rica como principal destino y los Estados Unidos de América como el segundo. Este comportamiento no ha sido estático, aunque si muestra un patrón inverso. De mediados del siglo XIX a finales del decenio de 1970 con el triunfo sandinista (1979, Costa Rica era el principal destino. En la década de los años 80, con la denominada guerra de los contras, se presenta aumento de la emigración y se varía el destino y ocupa los Estados Unidos el primer lugar. Una vez que cesa el conflicto armado y los sandinistas dejan el gobierno, nuevamente Costa Rica se presenta como el principal destino, esta vez con aumento respecto del comportamiento histórico (Vargas; 1999, 2003. Pese a la magnitud de esta migración y las repercusiones para Costa Rica, son pocos los estudios que tienen por objeto analizarla en forma sistemática. Un importante esfuerzo lo han realizado Jimmy Rosales y otros, al estudiar los "nicaragüenses en el exterior" (Rosales: 2001 con datos del censo nicaragüense de 1995. Estudios más puntuales, con trabajo de campo en algunas comunidades fronterizas con Costa Rica, los han realizado investigadores de FLACSO-Costa Rica (Morales; 1997, 2000 (Morales y Castro, 2002. Recientemente, con el empleo de datos de etnoencuestas (para 5 comunidades en Nicaragua y otros países, se han desarrollado algunos trabajos para temas específicos. Fussell (2003 ha revisado las evidencias para la teoría de la causación acumulativa que brinda esta migración; Riosmena (2003 ha estudiado las posibilidades de retorno, y Hickes y Massey (2003, han estudiado las relaciones con el conflicto armado y político en Nicaragua y el destino de los migrantes. En este trabajo se analizan las características demográficas básicas de los migrantes, así como las corrientes migratorias con una mirada

  15. Description of a new species of Pleseobyrsa (Heteroptera: Tingidae from Costa Rica Descripción de una nueva especie de Pleseobyrsa (Heteroptera: Tingidae de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara I. Montemayor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new Pleseobyrsa, P. persea n. sp. is described for Costa Rica. The host plant of this new species is Persea americana P. Mill. This corresponds to the second species of the genus known for the country and the third whose host plant is P. americana (avocado. A description of the adult as well as of instar V are provided, together with a key to species, photographs taken in the field, and illustrations of the fifth nymph stage, adult, and the main characters.Se describe una especie nueva de Pleseobyrsa, P. persea n. sp. de Costa Rica, cuya planta huésped es Persea americana P. Mill., siendo ésta la segunda especie del género conocida del país y la tercera cuya planta huésped es P. americana (aguacate. Se describen tanto el adulto como el estadio ninfal V; se agrega una clave modificada de Froeschner para las especies, y se ilustran ejemplares en el campo, el quinto estadio ninfal, adulto y los principales caracteres.

  16. Project of Carbon Capture in Small and Medium Farms in the Brunca Region, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Navarrete

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM of the Kyoto Protocol, allows the non Annex 1 countries to receive projects that contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions and sustainable development in developing countries. The CDM, since its inception, has issued credits equivalent to 1.434.737.562 tons of CO2, distributed across 7.450 projects around the world, from 15 different sectors. Sectors 14 that allow forestry projects (such as reforestation and afforestation have registered 53 projects to date; 19 of which are in Latin America. Nevertheless, the contribution of this sector currently represents less than 1% of CDM Certificates of Emissions Reduction (CERs issued. In September 2013, through their National Forestry Financing Fund (FONAFIFO, Costa Rica registered their first CDM project with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, after having complied with all the project cycle processes. The project, known as "Carbon Sequestration in Small and Medium Farms, Brunca Region, Costa Rica" was a project executed by FONAFIFO under their Environmental Services Payment Program. This project was developed in Pérez Zeledón, San José, Costa Rica in partnership with the Cooperative Corporation CoopeAgri RL. The total goal of the project is to reduce the greenhouse gas emission by 176,050 ton of CO2-e, in a period of 20 years and commercialize the CERs in the regulated carbon market.

  17. Neotropical Bats from Costa Rica harbour Diverse Coronaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Soto, A; Taylor-Castillo, L; Vargas-Vargas, N; Rodríguez-Herrera, B; Jiménez, C; Corrales-Aguilar, E

    2015-11-01

    Bats are hosts of diverse coronaviruses (CoVs) known to potentially cross the host-species barrier. For analysing coronavirus diversity in a bat species-rich country, a total of 421 anal swabs/faecal samples from Costa Rican bats were screened for CoV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene sequences by a pancoronavirus PCR. Six families, 24 genera and 41 species of bats were analysed. The detection rate for CoV was 1%. Individuals (n = 4) from four different species of frugivorous (Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata and Carollia castanea) and nectivorous (Glossophaga soricina) bats were positive for coronavirus-derived nucleic acids. Analysis of 440 nt. RdRp sequences allocated all Costa Rican bat CoVs to the α-CoV group. Several CoVs sequences clustered near previously described CoVs from the same species of bat, but were phylogenetically distant from the human CoV sequences identified to date, suggesting no recent spillover events. The Glossophaga soricina CoV sequence is sufficiently dissimilar (26% homology to the closest known bat CoVs) to represent a unique coronavirus not clustering near other CoVs found in the same bat species so far, implying an even higher CoV diversity than previously suspected.

  18. Erosión en las costas de Costa Rica, un problema de todos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizano Rodríguez, Omar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Presenta un análisis de las causas que provocan cambios en el mar y por ende producen erosión a nivel general y en las costas costarricenses, como lo es el cambio climático, el fenómeno de El Niño, mal manejo de cuencas hidrográficas, entre otros. Describe las principales evidencias que han encontrado en las playas del Pacifico y del Mar Caribe del país. Expone una serie de conclusiones It presents an analysis of the causes that provoke changes in the sea and cause general erosion and in the Costa Rican coasts, such as the climate change, El Niño phenomenon, and bad administration of the watersheds, among others. It describes the main evidences found at the Pacific beaches and the Caribbean ocean of the country. It presents a series of conclusions

  19. Inflation persistence on Services and Regulated Goods in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge León Murillo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present document studies the degree of inflation persistence and price stickiness across different categories in the Costa Rican Consumer Price index (CPI, using disaggregate and aggregate data, with a particular focus in the regulated and services prices. We adopt two approaches: The parametric approach is based in an autoregressive process with constant mean, and the structural approach is based on the estimation of the New Keynesian Hybrid Phillips Curve. We use different econometric techniques, as univariate and multivariate time series, and panel data methods. The evidence suggests that changes in prices and services regulated items have higher degrees of persistence in addition to presenting rigidities in the adjustment pattern. Also it was found that using disaggregate data the degree of inflation persistence is lower than the inflation persistence estimation of univariate models with aggregate data, and this tend to reduce excluding the regulated and services products prices.

  20. Exploring why Costa Rica outperforms the United States in life expectancy: A tale of two inequality gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Dow, William H

    2016-02-01

    Mortality in the United States is 18% higher than in Costa Rica among adult men and 10% higher among middle-aged women, despite the several times higher income and health expenditures of the United States. This comparison simultaneously shows the potential for substantially lowering mortality in other middle-income countries and highlights the United States' poor health performance. The United States' underperformance is strongly linked to its much steeper socioeconomic (SES) gradients in health. Although the highest SES quartile in the United States has better mortality than the highest quartile in Costa Rica, US mortality in its lowest quartile is markedly worse than in Costa Rica's lowest quartile, providing powerful evidence that the US health inequality patterns are not inevitable. High SES-mortality gradients in the United States are apparent in all broad cause-of-death groups, but Costa Rica's overall mortality advantage can be explained largely by two causes of death: lung cancer and heart disease. Lung cancer mortality in the United States is four times higher among men and six times higher among women compared with Costa Rica. Mortality by heart disease is 54% and 12% higher in the United States than in Costa Rica for men and women, respectively. SES gradients for heart disease and diabetes mortality are also much steeper in the United States. These patterns may be partly explained by much steeper SES gradients in the United States compared with Costa Rica for behavioral and medical risk factors such as smoking, obesity, lack of health insurance, and uncontrolled dysglycemia and hypertension. PMID:26729886

  1. Exploring why Costa Rica outperforms the United States in life expectancy: A tale of two inequality gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Dow, William H

    2016-02-01

    Mortality in the United States is 18% higher than in Costa Rica among adult men and 10% higher among middle-aged women, despite the several times higher income and health expenditures of the United States. This comparison simultaneously shows the potential for substantially lowering mortality in other middle-income countries and highlights the United States' poor health performance. The United States' underperformance is strongly linked to its much steeper socioeconomic (SES) gradients in health. Although the highest SES quartile in the United States has better mortality than the highest quartile in Costa Rica, US mortality in its lowest quartile is markedly worse than in Costa Rica's lowest quartile, providing powerful evidence that the US health inequality patterns are not inevitable. High SES-mortality gradients in the United States are apparent in all broad cause-of-death groups, but Costa Rica's overall mortality advantage can be explained largely by two causes of death: lung cancer and heart disease. Lung cancer mortality in the United States is four times higher among men and six times higher among women compared with Costa Rica. Mortality by heart disease is 54% and 12% higher in the United States than in Costa Rica for men and women, respectively. SES gradients for heart disease and diabetes mortality are also much steeper in the United States. These patterns may be partly explained by much steeper SES gradients in the United States compared with Costa Rica for behavioral and medical risk factors such as smoking, obesity, lack of health insurance, and uncontrolled dysglycemia and hypertension.

  2. El multilingüismo y la identidad de los afro-limonenses de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Herzfeld

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In the XIX century, a mostly Afro-Jamaican linguistic minority settled down on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, a Spanish-speaking country. They went there to work for Minor C. Keith, an enterprising U.S. engineer who had been commissioned by the Costa Rica government to build a railroad that would join an eastern port to the Central Valley capital, San Jose. Later, to help finance that enterprise, he founded the United Fruit Company and the Jamaican workers remained in the Province of Limon to plant bananas. Their English-based Limonese Creole language has remained extant in spite of many government attempts to eradicate it, most likely because it acts, among other elements, as an identity marker for its people. But, will it survive globalization? And if so, for how long?.//En el siglo XIX un grupo compuesto en su mayoría por afro-jamaiquinos se estableció en la costa Caribe de Costa Rica, un país de habla hispana. Dicha comunidad debía trabajar para Minor C. Keith un ingeniero estadounidense que había sido comisionado por el gobierno costarricense para construir un ferrocarril que uniese un puerto del este con la capital del Valle Central, San José. Para financiar su empresa Keith fundó la United Fruit Company y los trabajadores jamaiquinos permanecieron en la provincia de Limón para plantar bananos. El lenguaje creole de los empleados, basado en el inglés, sobrevivió, a pesar de los esfuerzos del gobierno por erradicarlo, principalmente porque actúa, entre otros elementos, como una marca de identidad para quienes lo hablan. Pero ¿sobrevivirá a la globalización? Y si es así, ¿por cuánto tiempo?

  3. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainwater, Thomas R; Wu, Ted H; Finger, Adam G; Cañas, Jaclyn E; Yu, Lu; Reynolds, Kevin D; Coimbatore, Gopal; Barr, Brady; Platt, Steven G; Cobb, George P; Anderson, Todd A; McMurry, Scott T

    2007-02-01

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n=25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n=6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations. PMID:17182086

  4. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainwater, Thomas R. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)]. E-mail: thomas.rainwater@tiehh.ttu.edu; Wu, Ted H. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Finger, Adam G. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Canas, Jaclyn E. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Yu Lu [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Reynolds, Kevin D. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Coimbatore, Gopal [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Barr, Brady [National Geographic Channel, 1145 17th St. NW Washington, DC 20036 (United States); Platt, Steven G. [Department of Biology, Box C-64, Sul Ross State University, Alpine, TX 79832 (United States); Cobb, George P. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); McMurry, Scott T. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)

    2007-02-01

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n = 25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n = 6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations.

  5. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n = 25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n = 6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations

  6. A preliminary market research about tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum in Costa Rica (ESP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymon van Anrooy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available From January to July 1995, a market trial was conducted in Costa Rica with the fresh water fish species. Colossoma macropomum, commonly named “tambaqui”. About 1200 fish with an average weight of 800g were obtained from the fish culture station of the Universidad Nacional near La Rita, Guápiles. About 20 fish were delivered each Monday initially to three and later to each of four fishdealers in Limón, Guápiles, San José and Heredia. The shopkeepers purchased the fish at a price of $1.40/kg, covering all production and transport costs, and sold it for $1.97/kg. The motivations of the consumers for purchasing the fish were: curiosity, low price, good taste and recommendations by the shopkeepers. Most of the participants appreciated the taste, meat texture, freshness, colour and appearance very much. Some repondents criticized the amount of intramuscular spines in the fish. Eighty nine percent of the consumers intended to purchase more of the fish and 38% preferred this fish species above all other species. There was no effect (p > 0.05 of gender, householdsize or income level on the responses of the costumers. Chinese costumers were the only group discernible in the survey. Almost all participants thought tambaqui could get a good market position in Costa Rica. This trial shows that the price can be increased a little without losing much customers, but promotion would be necessary to get the product more known among the Costa Rican Population. The production of tambaqui could meet part of the demand for low priced fish in Costa Rica.

  7. La enseñanza del Inglés en Costa Rica y la destreza en el aula desde una perspectiva histórica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coto Keith, Rossina

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es parte de una serie de escritos producto de un proyecto de investigación sobre la enseñanza y el aprendizaje de la destreza auditiva en la clase de inglés en colegios públicos de Costa Rica. El mismo pretende proveer una reseña histórica sobre la enseñanza del inglés en Costa Rica y la destreza auditiva en una segunda lengua en general. El artículo está dividido en dos grandes secciones. La primera sección se concentra en la enseñanza del inglés en Costa Rica, desde alrededor de 1850 hasta nuestros días. La segunda parte trata sobre la enseñanza de la destreza auditiva en el aula, a la luz de los diferentes métodos que se han utilizado para la enseñanza de una segunda lengua o lengua extranjera. This article is the first in a series of pieces that are the result of a research project about the teaching and learning of the listening skill in the English class in public high schools in Costa Rica. It intends to give a historical overview of the teaching of English in Costa Rica and the teaching of the listening skill in general. The article is divided in two sections. The first part centers on the teaching of English in Costa Rica from around 1850 up to the present. The second part deals with the teaching of the skill through history in light of the different methods that have been used to instruct in a second or foreign language.

  8. EXPERIENCIAS EN POLÍTICA MONETARIA: LECCIONES PARA COSTA RICA

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    Marlene Villanueva Sánchez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La conducción de la política monetaria ha evolucionado junto con el desarrollo de los diferentes enfoques teóricos macroeconómicos y las enseñanzas que se han derivado de la evidencia empírica. A partir de la quiebra del Sistema de Bretton Woods todos los países tuvieron que buscar la forma de implementar y conducir su política cambiaria y monetaria en forma consistente. En ese momento, empezó un proceso de prueba y error que ha sido fundamental en la conceptualización de la política monetaria.Por mucho tiempo Estados Unidos fue quien llevó la pauta en esta materia, su máxima contribución fue deducir a la luz de la evidencia empírica que la función primordial de la política monetaria es garantizar una inflación baja y estable con el fin de crear las condiciones necesarias para lograr el máximo crecimiento económico. A pesar de esa conclusión, su estrategia muestra una discrepancia con la concepción teórica, lo cual podría estar justificada en el mandato legal que obliga a la política de la Reserva Federal a alcanzar varios objetivos macroeconómicos simultáneos, es decir, máximo crecimiento, mínima inflación y tasa de interés moderada de largo plazo.

  9. Enfermedad de Lyme (Borreliosis de Lyme) en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Boza-Cordero

    2011-01-01

    La enfermedad de Lyme o borreliosis de Lyme es una zoonosis transmitida por garrapatas del género Ixodes y producida por la espiroqueta Borrelia burgdorferi. Ha sido descrita principalmente en Norteamérica, Europa y Asia, y se caracteriza clínicamente por una presentación en tres etapas: inicial con eritema migrans que comienza alrededor de la picadura de la garrapata; infección diseminada con fiebre, ataque al estado general, artritis migratoria, linfadenopatías, alteraciones neurológicas y ...

  10. Habitat use by squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedi) in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boinski, S

    1987-01-01

    This paper analyses movement patterns, habitat preferences, activity schedules, and dispersion of troop members in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedi) in relation to seasonal changes in food abundance in a Costa Rican tropical wet forest. Secondary forest was the preferred habitat and use of primary forest and late successional forest was limited primarily to seasons when food availability was low. Range area differed between seasons, varying from 79 to 110 ha, and totaling 176 ha over 11 months. The number of hectares used, hourly rate of group movement, and proportion of time spent foraging each season were all negatively related to relative food abundance. There was a tendency to spend less time in foraging activities in the middle of the day and to spend more time exclusively in travel at dawn and dusk. In all seasons dispersion was least when the troop was travelling and it was generally greatest during seasons of low food abundance. Measures of the allocation of time by the troop to food-related activities and the extent of troop dispersion each season were consistent with estimates based on behavior sampling of individuals. PMID:3504420

  11. The Neutral State: A Genealogy of Ecosystem Service Payments in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Lansing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the case of Costa Rica, this paper examines how ′carbon′ became an identifiable problem for that state. We trace how, during the 1980s, rationalities of financialisation and security arose in this country that allowed for Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES to emerge as an economic and political mechanism. Our central thesis is: this period initiated a government project of securing a viable future for the nation′s resources by linking them to global financial markets and international trade. This project of achieving resource security through economic circulation introduced new financial logics into forest management, as well as new modes of calculating the value and extent of the forest. These ways of framing resources found expression in the nation′s PES programme that is now central to the state′s goal of achieving carbon neutrality. Today, Costa Rica′s carbon flows are becoming territorialised as part of the nation′s atmosphere, biomass, people, and economy. This paper shows how carbon′s territorialisation did not begin with a concern for the climate, nor did it occur through diffusion of global climate policy to Costa Rica. Instead, carbon′s rise can be traced to locally specific ways of coping with the problem of resource security.

  12. Diagnóstico molecular de la enfermedad de Huntington en Costa Rica Molecular diagnosis of Huntington´s disease in Costa Rica

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    Melissa Vásquez-Cerdas

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Justificación y objetivo. Este estudio representa un esfuerzo para establecer por primera vez en Costa Rica el diagnóstico molecular de la enfermedad de Huntington; esto favorecerá un mejor manejo clínico de los pacientes y podrá ser traducido en un incremento de la calidad de vida de las familias. Se pretende determinar el número de repeticiones CAG en personas con la enfermedad de Huntington y familiares mediante el diagnóstico molecular,con el fin de ofrecerles asesoramiento genético decuado y oportuno. Métodos:El estudio se realizó en 7 pacientes con diagnóstico clínico de Huntington y 31 familiares en riesgo. Para determinar el número de repeticiones CAG se utilizó la reacción en cadena e polimerasa a posterior electroforesis sobre geles de agarosa y poliacrilamida. Resultados:Se obtuvo el diagnóstico molecular de los 38 individuos.Se confirmó el diagnóstico clínico en las 7 personas afectadas, se encontraron 11 con la mutación que permanecían asintomáticas y 20 sin la mutación. Se observó una correlación negativa entre la edad de inicio y el número de repeticiones, así como inestabilidad intergeneracional, tanto vía materna como paterna. No hay diferencias en el número de repeticiones, según el sexo del progenitor transmisor. Conclusión: Los análisis moleculares mostraron un perfil de repeticiones similar al de otras poblaciones.Hemos identificado las primeras familias portadoras de enfermedad de Huntington en Costa Rica, permitiendo dar a los pacientes y su familia asesoramiento genético adecuado y oportuno basado en información confiable.Justification and Aim.This study represents an effort to establish the molecular diagnosis of Huntington ’s disease in Costa Rica. This would improve the clinical management of the patients and that could be translated into better quality of life for them and their families. Aim: to determine the number of CAG repeats in affected individuals and their relatives by

  13. Estudio de la estacionalidad del dengue en la costa pacífica de Costa Rica (1999-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Wong- McClure

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El virus del dengue constituye la causa más común de enfermedades por arbovirus en el mundo. El estudio analiza el comportamiento estacional del dengue en la región Pacífico Central de Costa Rica, durante el período comprendido entre 1999 y 2004. Materiales y métodos: La información fue tomada del Ministerio de Salud de Costa Rica y del Instituto Meteorológico Nacional. Para el análisis de la estacionalidad de dengue se utilizaron el número de casos de esta enfermedad para la estimación de promedios móviles y las características de los brotes epidémicos. Se definió como brote epidémico un total de 20 ó más casos de dengue por semana epidemiológica. Resultados: Durante el período analizado se observó un incremento en el número de casos de dengue por año. Al observar la distribución de los casos incidentes del dengue cada año se resaltó un patrón anual estacional. Los brotes del dengue se presentaron al menos una vez al año, entre las semanas epidemiológicas 18-29 (abril-julio, que coincidían con la estación lluviosa. Discusión: Se evidencia que en la región Pacífico Central, el dengue es una enfermedad predecible en cuanto a su comportamiento estacional, por lo que se recomienda intensificar las medidas de prevención para combatirla, así como preparar los servicios para la atención de pacientes, en las semanas epidemiológica previas a las de mayor promedio en el número de casos, según el patrón estacional.Aim: This study analyzed the Dengue’s seasonal behaviour in the Central Pacific Region of Costa Rica, during the period from 1999 to 2004. It is known that the dengue virus is the most common cause of arbovirus diseases in the world. Material and methods: We got the data from the Costa Rican Ministry of Health and the National Meteorological Institute. From this data, moving averages were calculated to evaluate its seasonal behaviour and the features of the outbreaks. In this study an outbreak of dengue

  14. MERCADO LABORAL, EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR Y FORMACIÓN DOCENTE EN COSTA RICA (LABOR MARKET, HIGHER EDUCATION AND TEACHERS’ TRAINING IN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales Zúñiga Luis Carlos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:En este ensayo se analiza la relación que existe entre la educación superior, la dinámica del mercado laboral, y la formación de docentes, en un nuevo contexto histórico-social caracterizado por la liberalización de la economía, y el avance de una concepción mercantil de la educación en Costa Rica. Se describe la relación que existe entre la desregulación de la oferta de educación superior, sobre todo privada, y la consecuente saturación de profesionales en el mercado laboral. Se analiza con especial interés la situación de los profesionales de la educación en este contexto, sobre todo, las condiciones laborales que enfrenta este sector educativo, como consecuencia de la aplicación de la lógica de mercado.Abstract: This essay analyzes the relationship between higher education, labor market dynamics, and teacher training in a new historical and social context characterized by the liberalization of the economy, and advancing of a merchant conception of the education practice in Costa Rica. It describes the relationship between deregulation of the supply of higher education, especially private, and the resulting saturation of professional manpower in the labor market. It is analyzed with special interest, the status of the professionals of education in this context, especially the working conditions faced by this sector of the working class as a result of the application of market logic in the educational field.

  15. Instituto Meteorológico Nacional: perspectivas climáticas Costa Rica 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallas Sojo, Juan Carlos

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Presenta los resultados del primer informe realizado por el Instituto Meteorológico Nacional con respecto al comportamiento climático del año 2004 en Costa Rica. Su realización estuvo basada en investigaciones, modelos y bases de datos de diferentes instituciones y organizaciones, tanto nacionales como internacionales. El informe incluye información referente al comportamiento de diferentes fenómenos hidrometeorológico: las lluvias, los huracanes y el Niño/Oscilación del Sur (ENOS, así como su afectación en el país. Además, se presenta una referencia histórica de las temporadas de huracanes consideradas análogas con el 2004 It presents the results of the first report developed by the National Meteorological Institute in relation with the climate behavior in Costa Rica during the year 2004. Its development was based on investigations, models and data basis from different institutions and organizations, national as well as international. The report includes information about the behavior of different hydrometeorological phenomena: rain, hurricanes and El Niño/South Oscilation (ENOS, as well as how they affected the country. It also includes a historical reference of the hurricanes season considered analogous to 2004

  16. Arsenic determination in water supplies for human consumption of the province of Cartago, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific knowledge about hydroarsenicism must be disclosed in Latin America. The presence of arsenic has been detected in waters of Costa Rica that have been used for human consumption, in areas of risk; specifically in the province of Cartago, in the cantons of Oreamuno, Central, Paraiso and Alvarado. A quantification of reduced form trivalent arsenic was performed with the methodology of the 7062 Environmental Protection Agency of the United States, through volatile metal hydride generation by flame atomic absorption. The analyzed samples have determined that maintaining the maximum extent permitted by current legislation Costa Rican, 10μg/L. Research areas have corresponded to areas of high risk for its volcanic nature. The vast water supply of the cantons under study, with areas of relative protection circling recharge areas of springs, has caused the population to consume water source underground, but surface direct influence, less influence of volcanic rocks that are found at greater depths. (author)

  17. Content-based instruction in an English oral communication course at the University of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Herrero, Annabelle

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo que se ofrece consiste en una comparación etnográfica sobre propuestas educativas no formales, entre el Museo de los Niños de Costa Rica y seis museos o centros de ciencia españoles ubicados en lo que se conoce como la nueva museología. Se detallan los aspectos de la nueva museología española que pueden enriquecer la práctica del museo costarricense. The following article consists in an ethnographic comparison about non-formal educational proposals. This comparison is carried out between Museo de los Niños and other six museums or Science Centers located in Spain which are known as New Museology. Certain aspects in which the New Spanish Museology enriches the practice in Costa Rican museum are detailed.

  18. La pedagogía intercultural en los territorios indígenas de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Morales Campos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Recibido 3 de mayo de 2007 • Aprobado 30 de mayo de 2007   Resumen. Se plantea en este artículo la necesidad de construir en forma conjunta estrategias de pedagogías interculturales, con el fin de revitalizar las lenguas y culturas indígenas de Costa Rica. Este proyecto se lleva a cabo por parte de la División de Educación Rural del Centro de Investigación y Docencia en Educación (CIDE con docentes itinerantes de lengua y cultura en la comunidad de Suretka, Talamanca.     Abstract. The article comments about the necessity of building intercultural pedagologic strategies jointly, in order to revitalize mother tongues and cultures of Costa Rican indigenous. This proposal is part of the project carry out by the Education Rural Department, which works with culture and mother tongue teachers in the community of Suretka, Talamanca.

  19. A Practical Application of Statistical Gap Analysis in National Park Management in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre González, Juan Antonio

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available If the tourism growth predicted materialized as tourism for Costa Rica protected areas would see major increases. A study conducted in Volcan Poas National Park and Volcan Turrialba National Park two of Costa Rica leading volcanic crater parks was undertaken to make available to national parks and protected areas managers, a procedure, that could be use: to measure using an adapted form of the expectations disconfirmation theory the satisfaction of visitors to Costa Rica national parks, and to evaluate if the results could be used for establishing the areas of the park infrastructure, services and recreational options that needed improvement and management decisions to enhance visitor's satisfaction. The sample included 1414 surveys The findings indicates that the procedure adapted base on the expectations-disconfirmation model was proven helpful in: a getting the information to help “zero in”, the man-agement decisions in the short and medium term and for the development of the Tourist Management Plans that is to say being developed in the 2 sites, b guiding park managers in the resource allocation process, under the conditions of scarcity that are so common in developing countries, c facilitating regular monitoring of the conditions, with a simple and quick methodology that can be used for “day to day” decisions and more sophisticated statistical analysis d identifying the areas in the management of protected areas that need further analysis and in that way is contributing to the development of the long term socio-economic research programs in national parks, e the “real” importance of the information and education activities in national parks, combination of activities that seems to be critical to enhance “consumer satisfaction” among the visitors to national parks everywhere and particularly as a means of understanding whether visitors needs and expectations are met, whether they receive what they should and as a context for

  20. The professional practice and imaging specialist from the deontological perspective in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vision of how to address the challenges facing, daily, the professional person imaging specialist has been raised with the use of new and emerging technologies. Issues to consider conflicts, ethical and moral dilemmas that may affect the way patient care, besides his family; and also, working relationship with colleagues and the institution in which he serves. This professional requires of development and training that will enable him to assess with sufficient objectivity, ethical-moral and conflicting situations to take decisions more convenient, from a critical and reflective practice. A rule of professional practice in diagnostic and therapy imaging has been missing in Costa Rica. Consequently, the need for a study, both theoretical and practical, which take into account ethical and moral guidelines, professional and regulatory was presented, with the objective to establish a possible course to comprehensive consolidation of the professional. The imaging specialist has a great responsibility in his practice, with society and with the patient attending the services in which he works. Different data collection techniques were used, to develop a proposal for guidelines for a possible rules of conduct for the professional person imaging specialist in Costa Rica; in this, have addressed the appropriate deontological topics for future implementation taking into account the professional profile, the academic level, professional practice and the requirements of society. This research has made evident the need and importance of establishing such guidelines as main result. A proposed improvement to the practice of professional person imaging specialist in diagnosis and therapy in Costa Rica is exposed from the qualitative data analysis. (author)

  1. LOS SISTEMAS GANADEROS CON CRIOLLO LECHERO TROPICAL (REYNA EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Vilaboa-Arroniz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas ganaderos con criollo lechero tropical (Reyna en Costa Rica. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue identifi car los componentes tecnológicos utilizados en los ranchos ganaderos con bovinos Criollo Lechero Tropical (CLT Reyna y las características socioeconómicas de los productores que utilizan esta raza. Este estudio se realizó de mayo a julio de 2011 en las provincias de Cartago y Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Se entrevistó a los administradores de los módulos lecheros de la Estación Experimental Alfredo Volio Mata (EEAVM de la Universidad de Costa Rica y del Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE además de cinco productores independientes. Se analizaronvariables sociales, tecnológicas y comerciales además de la percepción sobre el uso de esta raza. La información obtenida se analizó mediante estadística descriptiva y análisis de cluster utilizando el programa SAS versión 8.0. Se encontraron cuatro grupos: denominados G1: productores de Guanacaste, G2: EEAVM, G3: productor de Cartago y G4: CATIE. La superfi cie para estos grupos fue de 60±31,6; 24; 57; 46 ha con una carga animal (UA/ha de 0,6±0,1; 2,6; 0,7 y 4,1, respectivamente. La raza CLT Reyna se utiliza principalmente para establecer cruces con Bos taurus y/o Bos indicus con la fi nalidad de obtener adaptabilidad y resistencia al medio. Sin embargo, su utilización y manejo ha ido en detrimento por políticas institucionales, aspectos legales y productivos.

  2. Effect of hydrothermal circulation on slab dehydration for the subduction zone of Costa Rica and Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Juan Carlos; Currie, Claire A.; Harris, Robert N.; He, Jiangheng

    2016-06-01

    Dehydration of subducting oceanic plates is associated with mantle wedge melting, arc volcanism, intraslab earthquakes through dehydration embrittlement, and the flux of water into the mantle. In this study, we present two-dimensional thermal models of the Costa Rica-Nicaragua subduction zone to investigate dehydration reactions within the subducting Cocos plate. Seismic and geochemical observations indicate that the mantle wedge below Nicaragua is more hydrated than that below Costa Rica. These trends have been hypothesized to be due to a variation in either the thermal state or the hydration state of the subducting slab. Despite only small variations in plate age along strike, heat flow measurements near the deformation front reveal significantly lower heat flow offshore Nicaragua than offshore Costa Rica. These measurements are interpreted to reflect an along-strike change in the efficiency of hydrothermal circulation in the oceanic crust. We parameterize thermal models in terms of efficient and inefficient hydrothermal circulation and explore their impact on slab temperature in the context of dehydration models. Relative to models without fluid flow, efficient hydrothermal circulation reduces slab temperature by as much at 60 °C to depths of ∼75 km and increases the predicted depth of eclogitization by ∼15 km. Inefficient hydrothermal circulation has a commensurately smaller influence on slab temperatures and the depth of eclogitization. For both regions, the change in eclogitization depth better fits the observed intraslab crustal seismicity, but there is not a strong contrast in the slab thermal structure or location of the main dehydration reactions. Consistent with other studies, these results suggest that observed along-strike differences in mantle wedge hydration may be better explained by a northwestward increase in the hydration state of the Cocos plate before it is subducted.

  3. A mineral reconnaissance sampling manual for Costa Rica: Central American energy and resoure project. Manual para muestreo en el reconocimiento mineral de Costa Rica: Proyecto Centroamericano de energia y recursos naturales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolivar, S.

    1987-06-01

    This manual describes field procedures for the collection of stream-sediment and rock samples as part of the Mineral Resource Assessment of Costa Rica. It provides guidelines to be followed by personnel collecting, treating, or otherwise handling samples taken as part of this program. The objectives of the manual are to ensure that all samples are collected uniformly and consistent techniques are employed throughout the program. If this is done, the data from this study can be used to identify areas with potential for mineralization. This manual can also be used as a guideline for future geochemical sampling programs in Costa Rica.

  4. A History of Non-Violence: Insecurity and the Normative Power of the Imagined in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Huhn, Sebastian

    2008-01-01

    Crime, violence, and insecurity are among the most important social topics in contemporary Costa Rica. These three issues play a central role in the media, politics, and everyday life, and the impression has emerged that security has changed for the worse and that society is now threatened permanently. However, crime statistics do not support this perception. The paper thus asks why violence and crime generate such huge fear in society. The thesis is that the Costa Rican nation...

  5. Prevalencia de diabetes mellitus auto-reportada en Costa Rica, 1998

    OpenAIRE

    Marlene Roselló-Araya; Ana Gladys Aráuz-Hernández; Gioconda Padilla-Vargas; Ana Morice-Trejos

    2004-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de diabetes mellitus (DM) autoreportada en Costa Rica y su asociación con factores sociodemográficos. Métodos: En la encuesta Nacional de Hogares de Propósitos Múltiples de 1998 se incluyó un módulo sobre DM. La población de estudio fueron los habitantes de todas las viviendas particulares, los dominios lo constituyeron las regiones de planificación definidas por el Ministerio de Planificación y Política Económica. En cada hogar se entrevistó a un informant...

  6. A new species of Rhopalosiphum (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on Chusquea tomentosa (Poaceae, Bambusoideae) from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Nicolás Pérez; Martínez-Torres, David; Collantes-Alegre, Jorge Mariano; Muller, William Villalobos; Nafría, Juan M Nieto

    2012-01-01

    The new species Rhopalosiphum chusqueae Pérez Hidalgo & Villalobos Muller, is described from apterous viviparous females caught on Chusquea tomentosa in Cerro de la Muerte (Costa Rica). The identity of the species is supported both by the morphological features and by a molecular phylogenetic analysis based on a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA containing the 5' region of the cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) and on the nuclear gene coding for the Elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1α). The taxonomic position of the new species is discussed. An identification key to the Aphidinae species living on plants of Bambusoideae (Poaceae) is presented.

  7. Matemáticas y nuevas tecnologías en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    De Faria, Edison

    2005-01-01

    Costa Rica es un país que apuesta al desarrollo tecnológico como una vía alternativa para el desarrollo social, económico y educativo y se encuentra ubicada entre los países latinoamericanos líderes potenciales de adelanto tecnológico. A partir 1980 se llevaron a cabo importantes investigaciones y programas relacionados con el uso de calculadoras y de computadoras en el proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje en todos los ámbitos educativos costarricenses. En este artículo describiremos algunas ex...

  8. Fecundidad adolescente en el gran área metropolitana de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Collado Chaves, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    El propósito de esta investigación es explorar algunos de los aspectos macrosociales que explican la fecundidad adolescente en el Gran Área Metropolitana de Costa Rica. Entre los aspectos macrosociales, específicamente, se analiza el lugar de residencia de las adolescentes. La proporción de madres adolescentes entre 15 y 19 años se usa para medir la fecundidad. Esta información es tomada del Censo del 2000 y del Censo de 1984. Además, se usa un conjunto de coordenadas geográficas, para defini...

  9. Paridad de género y capacitación partidaria en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Andrés Matarrita Arroyo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo describe el deber de los partidos políticos de capacitar, en igualdad de condiciones, a mujeres y hombres. Hace un recuento histórico de los esfuerzos desplegados, en Costa Rica, para obtener financiamiento para la participación política de la mujer, especialmente a partir de la aprobación del nuevo Código Electoral en 2009. Por último, evalúa el desempeño de los partidos políticos en materia de capacitación a partir de los gastos reportados en ese rubro.

  10. Assessment of possible strategies to reduce mobile sources emissions in Costa Rica, 2010-2015 projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herrera-Murillo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of the possible strategies to reduce the emissions from mobile sources in Costa Rica were evaluated for the 2010-2015 period. The total emissions were estimated using emission factors obtained from Mobile 6 model and activity data like fuel and vehicle type distribution. This study found that 50% substitution of public transport vehicles was the most effective measure to lower the anual rate increase for NOx and Total Organic Gases (TOG. Both around 14,3% and 11,7% anually, respectively.

  11. Beyond Punishment: A Tax Compliance Experiment with Taxpayers in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benno Torgler

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Tax compliance experiments have been conducted with students and have focused on the effects of deterrence on tax compliance. However, important insights can be gained looking at alternative instruments. A main purpose of this paper is to conduct an experiment in Costa Rica not with students (exclusively but with taxpayers, holding traditional factors, such as the probability of penalty and the fine rate, constant and thus analysing to which extent other factors as fiscal exchange, moral suasion, and positive rewards systematically influence tax compliance.Our findings indicate that these factors increase ceteris paribus the compliance rate.

  12. A new species of Rhopalosiphum (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on Chusquea tomentosa (Poaceae, Bambusoideae) from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Nicolás Pérez; Martínez-Torres, David; Collantes-Alegre, Jorge Mariano; Muller, William Villalobos; Nafría, Juan M Nieto

    2012-01-01

    The new species Rhopalosiphum chusqueae Pérez Hidalgo & Villalobos Muller, is described from apterous viviparous females caught on Chusquea tomentosa in Cerro de la Muerte (Costa Rica). The identity of the species is supported both by the morphological features and by a molecular phylogenetic analysis based on a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA containing the 5' region of the cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) and on the nuclear gene coding for the Elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1α). The taxonomic position of the new species is discussed. An identification key to the Aphidinae species living on plants of Bambusoideae (Poaceae) is presented. PMID:22328859

  13. Conceptos transversales de organización gubernativa en Costa Rica: su aporte al desarrollo

    OpenAIRE

    Rolando Bolaños Garita

    2011-01-01

    El presente trabajo investigativo tiene como objetivo primario presentar el esquema político-administrativo que presenta Costa Rica en el nivel de organización y dirección públicas, mismo que tiene como basamento la Constitución Política, la Ley de Planificación Nacional y la Ley General de la Administración Pública, por lo que se ha procedido a realizar una conjunción y un análisis del marco referencial que circunda el tema, llegando a la conclusión de que las responsabilidades para ejercita...

  14. HIPERTENSIÓN EN EL PERSONAL DE LA UNIVERSIDAD ESTATAL A DISTANCIA DE COSTA RICA

    OpenAIRE

    Lourdes Arce Espinoza; Julián Monge-Nájera

    2009-01-01

    La prevalencia de la Hipertensión Arterial (HTA) se ha incrementado en todo el mundo y las acciones preventivas resultan insuficientes, ya que solamente un tercio total de esta población está controlada. La HTA es la primera causa de morbilidad y mortalidad mundial. En este artículo se presenta el primer estudio sobre los niveles de hipertensión en el personal de una universidad a distancia, mediante el análisis del total de consultas en la Universidad Estatal a Distancia de Costa Rica al 15...

  15. Content-based instruction in an English oral communication course at the University of Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Herrero, Annabelle

    2005-01-01

    El artículo que se ofrece consiste en una comparación etnográfica sobre propuestas educativas no formales, entre el Museo de los Niños de Costa Rica y seis museos o centros de ciencia españoles ubicados en lo que se conoce como la nueva museología. Se detallan los aspectos de la nueva museología española que pueden enriquecer la práctica del museo costarricense. The following article consists in an ethnographic comparison about non-formal educational proposals. This comparison is carried out...

  16. Tourism, Volcanic Eruptions, and Information: Lessons for Crisis Management in National Parks, Costa Rica, 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre, Juan Antonio; Ahearn, Megan

    2007-01-01

    Volcán Poás National Park, located in the central valley of Costa Rica, is the most visited and most economically important park in the country. Recently, a series of eruptions caused the park admin-istration to severely limit visitation for a period of approximately 3 weeks. This study examines the economic impact of this policy on the surrounding communities of Poasito and Fraijanes, which are reliant on tourists who stop in the towns on their way to or from the park. The social impact, as...

  17. Vigilancia sanitaria del agua: un nuevo enfoque para municipalidades de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Valiente

    1999-01-01

    Los programas de vigilancia sanitaria constituyen el nuevo enfoque para complementar los programas de control de calidad del agua y consisten en la aplicación de una metodología que permite determinar el grado de riesgo para la salud que presentan los sistemas de agua para consumo humano. En el presente trabajo se presenta el desarrollo y adaptación de un Programa de Vigilancia Sanitaria para ser utilizado en Costa Rica. Este programa se basa principalmente en determinar el grado de riesgo pa...

  18. Communists and Advertisement. The Experience of Costa Rica in the 1940s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Molina Jiménez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we identify the main characteristics of the advertising included in the Vanguardia magazine (1941-1942 and the Combate (1944 and Tinchera (1946 newspapers, all of them publications linked with the Communist Party in Costa Rica. It also considers the specific details of the individuals, institutions and companies that published advertisements in these media. Finally, we analyze to what extent some of the contents of those advertisements were related to broader discourses which took place in the 1940s (economic nationalism and defense of democracy, while others promoted values, beliefs, worldviews and lifestyles different from the culture the Communists were trying to spread.

  19. Las principales fallas de motores eléctricos en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Osvaldo Guerreo Castro; Luis Gómez Gutiérrez

    2010-01-01

    Una de las tareas más importantes en la gestión del mantenimiento de los equipos de producción, y particularmente de los motores eléctricos, es identificar y prevenir las fallas para tomar acciones que eviten la incidencia de las mismas.Mediante una investigación de campo, con visitas a empresas de varios sectoresproductivos y talleres de reparación de motores eléctricos en Costa Rica, se logróobtener una clasificación y distribución porcentual de las fallas más comunes enlos motores trifásic...

  20. Accidentes de tránsito fatales en Costa Rica en el 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maikel Vargas Sanabria

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Los accidentes de tránsito en Costa Rica contribuyen significativamente con la tercera causa de muerte en el país en los últimos años: las causas externas, por ello resulta importante conocer el panorama más reciente de las fatalidades causadas por estos eventos. En el presente trabajo se analizarán desde el punto de vista médico legal los accidentes de tránsito fatales, cuyas víctimas fallecieron en el año 2007. Para ello se revisaron todas las autopsias efectuadas (un total de 3003 en el Departamento de Medicina Legal de Costa Rica para ese año. Se obtuvo que una cuarta parte de las mismas se originaron en accidentes de tránsito, lo cual generó una tasa de mortalidad de 16,58 por 100000 habitantes, considerada alta a nivel mundial. El perfil predominante de las víctimas fue: ser de género masculino, en edad económicamente productiva, con accidentes fatales de predominio en la noche, los fines de semana, en las provincias costeras, con fallecimiento en el sitio del hecho por trauma cráneo cervical en ocupantes de automotores o peatones, de los cuales un porcentaje significativo estaba bajo los efectos del alcohol y muy pocos bajo los efectos de otras drogas de abuso. Se insiste en la prevención como la herramienta fundamental para evitarlos.Traffic accidents in Costa Rica have been a contributing cause of death (the third cause of death over the last years; that ’s why its is a mayor issue to know the panorama of the latest fatalities caused by this events. In this article, it will be analyzed from the legal medicine point of view, the fatal transit accidents during the year 2007. For these reason all autopsies (a total of 3003 occurred during that year which were made by the Departamento de Medicina Legal de Costa Rica were reviewed. From these revision, it was obtained that one forth of these autopsies were transit accidents, which means that the mortality rate was 16,58 per 100000 habitants, that is consider high over the

  1. Calculating spectral direct solar irradiance, diffuse and global in Heredia, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spectral model under conditions of clear skies has described the flow of solar irradiation and is verified experimentally in Heredia, Costa Rica. A description of the model is presented by comparing its results with experimental measurements. The model has calculated the spectral flows of the global solar irradiation, direct and diffuse incident on a horizontal surface. Necessary input data include latitude, altitude, surface albedo as characteristics of a locality, and atmospheric characteristics: turbidity, precipitable water vapor, total ozone content and the optical thickness of a particular subject. The results show satisfactory values. (author)

  2. [Distribution, surface and protected area of palm-swamps in Costa Rica and Nicaragua].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Sandí, Juan; Bonilla-Murillo, Fabian; Sasa, Mahmood

    2013-09-01

    In Central America, palm swamps are known collectively as yolillales. These wetlands are usually dominated by the raffia palm Raphia taedigera, but also by the royal palm Manicaria saccifera and -in lower extensions- by the American oil palm Elaeis oleifera. The yolillales tend to be poor in woody species and are characteristic of regions with high rainfall and extensive hydroperiods, so they remain flooded most of the year. The dominance of large raffia palm leaves in the canopy, allow these environments to be distinguishable in aerial photographs, which consequently has helped to map them along most of their distribution. However, while maps depicting yolillales are available, the extent of their surface area, perimeter and connectivity remains poorly understood. This is particularly true for yolillales in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, countries that share a good proportion of palm dominated swaps in the Rio San Juan Basin. In addition, it is not known the actual area of these environments that is under any category of protection according to the conservation systems of both countries. As a first step to catalog yolillal wetlands in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, this paper evaluates cartographic maps to delineate yolillales in the region. A subsample of yolillales mapped in this study were visited and we geo-referenced them and evaluate the extent and condition of the swamp. A total of 110 883.2ha are classified as yolillales in Nicaragua, equivalent to 22% of wetland surface area recorded for that country (excluding the Cocibolca and Xolothn Lakes). In Costa Rica, 53 931.3ha are covered by these palm dominated swamps, which represent 16.24% of the total surface area covered by wetlands. About 47% of the area covered by yolillales in Nicaragua is under some category of protection, the largest extensions protected by Cerro Silva, Laguna Tale Sulumas and Indio Maiz Nature Reserves. In Costa Rica, 55.5% of the area covered by yolillal is located within protected areas

  3. ESTUDIO SEROLOGICO POR INMUNOFLUORESCENCIA DE LA ENFERMEDAD DE CHAGAS EN COSTA RICA

    OpenAIRE

    LILIANA REYES; Bonilla, A.; T. MOYA; MISAEL CHINCHILLA

    1998-01-01

    RESUMEN Se estudiaron 1.043 sueros de pacientes provenientes de todo el territorio nacional por anticuerpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi utilizando la técnica de inmunofluorescencia. Se demostró un porcentaje de positividad general de 2,14%. La mayor positividad se encontró en la provincia de San José (2,4%) y la menor en Heredia (0,8%).SEROLOGICAL STUDY OF CHAGAS DISEASE IN COSTA RICA BY IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE One thousand and fourty three patients were studied for anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies by...

  4. Mejora del abastecimiento de agua a la comunidad rural de Sierpe, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    González Almarza, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Este proyecto se localiza en una comunidad rural del Pacífico-Sur de Costa Rica, en la península de Osa, muy cerca del Parque Nacional de Corcovado. Sierpe es una comunidad de unos 1.100 habitantes que vive principalmente de los ingresos del turismo, la palma aceitera y las explotaciones forestales de Teca. Frente a esta realidad social, se presenta la necesidad de mantener los recursos naturales y las zonas de bosque tropical donde se localiza la captación del acueducto rural. El objetivo...

  5. Situación del búfalo de agua en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Rosales Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    La historia del búfalo de agua en Costa Rica no es nueva, este animal llegó en el año 1974, gracias a una importación que hizo Japdeva, con el objetivo de incorporar una nueva alternativa de producción animal para el Atlántico costarricense.En esa ocasión, se importó un hato compuesto por dieciocho hembras y dos machos de la raza bufalypso, raza reconocida desde 1963, la cual se formó en Trinidad y Tobago a partir del cruce indiscriminado de las razas Murrah, Jafarabadi, Nagpuri, Surti y Nili...

  6. Socio-Demographic Factors and Intergenesic Interval in Nicaraguan Immigrant Mothers in Costa Rica

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    Bonilla, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequate birth intervals are considered a positive factor in the health of mothers and their children. One of the objectives of this study is to compare the birth interval between Nicaraguan immigrant women and local mothers in Costa Rica. Birth intervals among Nicaraguan women are significantly shorter than the local ones (p 0.05. Nicaraguan women are 30% more likely to recur in the following pregnancy as compared with local women. The study of population minorities permits the preparation of public policies on international migration issues.

  7. Manejo de desechos en universidades. Estudio de caso: Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Guillermo Romero Esquivel; Juan Carlos Salas Jiménez; Joaquín Jiménez Antillón

    2008-01-01

    Actualmente, las universidades desempeñan un papel preponderante en el manejo integral de los desechos sólidos que tanto estas como la sociedad generan, en tanto que se encargan de educar a la mayor parte de los futuros individuos involucrados en la toma de decisiones.Este artículo describe un caso de estudio acerca del manejo de desechos que realiza el Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica (ITCR) mediante la actividad permanente “Manejo de Desechos Institucionales” (MADI), específicamente, en ...

  8. [Dipteran parasitoidism on larvae of Caligo atreus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Cartago, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Renin

    2004-12-01

    Parasitoids on larvae of Caligo atreus were studied at the Estación de Biologia Tropical in Rio Macho, Cartago, Costa Rica. (1 600 masl), from March through July 2000. Fifth instar larvae of C. atreus were placed on Heliconia tortuosa Griggs var. Red Twist (Heliconiaceae) host plants at a mean temperature of 16.7 degrees C. The parasitoids obtained belong to an unidentified species of the genus Winthemia (Diptera: Tachinidae). Most flies emerge some 40 days after the eggs were laid (maximum 68 days). They make an orifice on the upper ventral part of the lepidopteran pupa. Winthemia is used commercially as biological control of cotton and banana.

  9. El suicidio en Costa Rica en el año 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Allan Chaves Moreno; Édgar Madrigal Ramírez; Maikel Vargas Sanabria; Zarela Abarca Villalobos

    2008-01-01

    Si bien en Costa Rica la tasa de suicidios por 100000 habitantes históricamente se ha encontrado por debajo de 10 por 100 mil habitantes, lo cual es bajo comparado a otros países, existen múltiples factores de riesgo, tanto sociales (pobreza, desempleo, drogadicción) como psicológicos (depresión, duelo) que son significativamente frecuentes y podrían incrementar estas cifra. En el presente artículo se pretende brindar un panorama actualizado acerca del suicidio en nuestro país, para ello se r...

  10. Relationships between Plant Biodiversity and Soil Fertility in a Mature Tropical Forest, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Nadeau, Martin B.; Sullivan, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to study relationships between plant biodiversity and soil chemical fertility in a mature tropical forest of Costa Rica. Soil samples were collected in nine sampling plots (5 m by 25 m) in order to identify P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, and Al and total N contents, soil fertility index, CEC, pH, and C/N ratio. Furthermore, species richness, Shannon-Wiener and Simpson’s species diversities, structural richness, and structural diversity were calculated for each plot. Simple linear regr...

  11. Longer leukocyte telomere length in Costa Rica's Nicoya Peninsula: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehkopf, David H; Dow, William H; Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Lin, Jue; Epel, Elissa S; Blackburn, Elizabeth H

    2013-11-01

    Studies in humans suggest that leukocyte telomere length may act as a marker of biological aging. We investigated whether individuals in the Nicoya region of Costa Rica, known for exceptional longevity, had longer telomere length than those in other parts of the country. After controlling for age, age squared, rurality, rainy season and gender, the mean leukocyte telomere length in Nicoya was substantially longer (81 base pairs, ptelomere length that characterizes this unique region does not appear to be explainable by traditional behavioral and biological risk factors. More detailed examination of mean leukocyte telomere length by age shows that the regional telomere length difference declines at older ages.

  12. [Dipteran parasitoidism on larvae of Caligo atreus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Cartago, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Renin

    2004-12-01

    Parasitoids on larvae of Caligo atreus were studied at the Estación de Biologia Tropical in Rio Macho, Cartago, Costa Rica. (1 600 masl), from March through July 2000. Fifth instar larvae of C. atreus were placed on Heliconia tortuosa Griggs var. Red Twist (Heliconiaceae) host plants at a mean temperature of 16.7 degrees C. The parasitoids obtained belong to an unidentified species of the genus Winthemia (Diptera: Tachinidae). Most flies emerge some 40 days after the eggs were laid (maximum 68 days). They make an orifice on the upper ventral part of the lepidopteran pupa. Winthemia is used commercially as biological control of cotton and banana. PMID:17354401

  13. Highly polymorphic DNA markers in an Africanized honey bee population in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobo Segura Jorge Arturo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Two genetic markers (the mtDNA COI-COII intergenic region and the microsatellite A7 with high levels of variability in South African and European honey bees were analyzed in wild swarms of Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera from Costa Rica. Allelic or haplotypic frequencies revealed high levels of genetic variability at these loci in this population. Most of the alleles were African alleles, although some European-derived alleles were also present. Differences in the frequencies of African alleles between African and Africanized samples were minor, which could be explained by founder effects occurring during the introduction of African honey bee populations into South America.

  14. Formación permanente del docente de inglés: una experiencia exitosa en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón, Roxy; Mora, Yinnia

    2012-01-01

    El artículo presenta el desarrollo y análisis de los resultados de un proyecto de capacitación dirigido a los docentes de inglés en servicio del Ministerio de Educación Pública de Costa Rica (MEP). El proyecto fue coordinado y ejecutado del año 2008 al 2011, bajo la responsabilidad de una comisión representada por las cuatro universidades públicas de Costa Rica y un representante del Ministerio de Educación Pública. La implementación de la capacitación, como un proceso continuo, muestra la im...

  15. Tourism Chains and Pro-Poor Tourism Development: An Actor-Network Analysis of a Pilot Project in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Duim, van der, V.R.; Caalders, J.D.A.D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses a pilot project in Costa Rica aimed to examine and improve the market linkages of 24 small-scale tourism initiatives to tour operators in Costa Rica and the Netherlands. It links pro-poor tourism and the concept of tourism chain to actor-network theory. The analysis shows that the tangible results in terms of pro-poor tourism of the project itself were meagre, as, initially, only three and later only one out of 24 projects was included in the tourism chain. However, the an...

  16. Diferentes morfometricas por sexo de tres especies del género opisthonema (Pisces Clupeidae de la costa del pacífico, Costa Rica

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    Rigoberto Víquez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Se compararon algunas variables morfométricas en los dos sexos de tres especies de Opisthonema  (O. libertate, O.medirastre y O. bulleri provenientes de la costa Pacífica de Costa Rica. Las hembras como los machos revelaron diferencias significativas  en su crecimiento relativo, lo cual se evidenció por el análisis de varianza, el análisis de alométria e isométria, y en la variación de crecimiento relativo.

  17. Floraciones algales nocivas en la costa pacífica de Costa Rica: toxicología y sus efectos en el ecosistema y salud pública

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Freer; Maribel Vargas-Montero

    2003-01-01

    Justificación y objetivos: Los primeros casos de intoxicación por floraciones algales nocivas (FAN) se reportaron en el país en 1990. Sin embargo desde finales de 1999 se ha observado un aumento drástico en el número de personas intoxicadas, especialmente en la costa pacífica del país. En Costa Rica existe gran desconocimiento acerca del problema. Debido al impacto que producen los fenómenos FAN en la salud pública, el turismo local y el ecosistema, es necesario describir las especies tóxicas...

  18. Enfermedad de Chagas en poblaciones prehistóricas del norte de Chile Chagas disease in prehistoric populations of northern Chile

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    NANCY ORELLANA-HALKYER

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad de Chagas es producida por el parásito Trypanosoma cruzi, el cual afecta tanto a seres humanos como a animales, en particular mamíferos marsupiales y placentarios. Las vías de transmisión son diversas, siendo una de las más importantes la vía vectorial, en la que participan insectos infectados con este parásito, animales y humanos. En este artículo de revisión discutimos los postulados sobre la vía de transmisión oral, los hallazgos de T. cruzi en momias de América y especialmente en las del norte de Chile. Presentamos además información que apunta a que la enfermedad de Chagas estuvo presente mucho antes de la conquista europea y de la construcción de viviendas de adobe. Comentamos las hipótesis sobre el vector domiciliado más importante de Sudamérica, Triatoma infestans, su antigüedad en la costa de Arica y los reportes más recientes de otros vectores silvestres. También se discute la información relacionada a la participación en el ciclo de T. cruzi de distintos mamíferos silvestres de Chile y asimismo proponemos el estudio paleoparasitológico en restos zooarqueológicos para conocer las especies de mamíferos reservónos de T. cruzi en la antigüedad.Chagas diseases is produced by a parasite named Trypanosoma cruzi, that affects humans and other marsupial and placental mammals. Transmission routes are diverse, but the most important transmission is the vector route, which involves the triatomine insects, wild and domestic infected animáis, and humans. Here we review the data about oral transmission route and the evidences of the etiological agent (Trypanosoma cruzi of Chagas disease in pre-Columbian American mummies, making a critical review of the infection in northern Chile. Moreover, we comment on the hypotheses suggested in relation to the most important vector of the infection in South América Triatoma infestans, its antiquity in the Arica coast, and the recent reports about other wild infected

  19. Land cover dynamics following a deforestation ban in northern Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest protection policies potentially reduce deforestation and re-direct agricultural expansion to already-cleared areas. Using satellite imagery, we assessed whether deforestation for conversion to pasture and cropland decreased in the lowlands of northern Costa Rica following the 1996 ban on forest clearing, despite a tripling of area under pineapple cultivation in the last decade. We observed that following the ban, mature forest loss decreased from 2.2% to 1.2% per year, and the proportion of pineapple and other export-oriented cropland derived from mature forest declined from 16.4% to 1.9%. The post-ban expansion of pineapples and other crops largely replaced pasture, exotic and native tree plantations, and secondary forests. Overall, there was a small net gain in forest cover due to a shifting mosaic of regrowth and clearing in pastures, but cropland expansion decreased reforestation rates. We conclude that forest protection efforts in northern Costa Rica have likely slowed mature forest loss and succeeded in re-directing expansion of cropland to areas outside mature forest. Our results suggest that deforestation bans may protect mature forests better than older forest regrowth and may restrict clearing for large-scale crops more effectively than clearing for pasture. (letter)

  20. Natural radiation doses for cosmic and terrestrial components in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of external natural radiation, cosmic and terrestrial components, was carried out with in situ measurements using NaI scintillation counters while driving along the roads in Costa Rica for the period July 2003-July 2005. The geographical distribution of the terrestrial air-absorbed dose rates and the total effective dose rates (including cosmic) are represented on contour maps. Information on the population density of the country permitted the calculation of the per capita doses. The average effective dose for the total cosmic component was 46.88±18.06 nSv h-1 and the average air-absorbed dose for the terrestrial component was 29.52±14.46 nGy h-1. The average total effective dose rate (cosmic plus terrestrial components) was 0.60±0.18 mSv per year. The effective dose rate per capita was found to be 83.97 nSv h-1 which gives an annual dose of 0.74 mSv. Assuming the world average for the internal radiation component, the natural radiation dose for Costa Rica will be 2.29 mSv annually

  1. Fifteen Years of Slow Slip and Tremor Observations at the Northern Costa Rica Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, S. Y.; Dixon, T. H.; Protti, M.; González, V. M.

    2015-12-01

    Coordinated long-term geophysical observations at the northern Costa Rica seismogenic zone, facilitated by NSF's MARGINS program, have greatly expanded our understanding of its megathrust behavior. Here we review fifteen years of seismic, geodetic, ocean bottom fluid flow and pressure sensor data collected on or near the Nicoya Peninsula, above the shallow thrust interface that document a variety of slow slip behaviors. These include relatively deep (~30-40 km), large slow slip events that occur about every 2 years, smaller events that locate at more intermediate depth (10-15 km) and occur more frequently (~1 per year), and very shallow events at the toe of the margin wedge that produce no discernible GPS signal on land but are detected on seafloor pressure sensors. Most of these slow slip events at the toe are accompanied by seismic tremor. Short-term, GPS only observations might have detected a few of these slow slip events; however, the longer more diverse instrument deployment was necessary to reveal their greater complexity. This demonstrates the need for a sustained, multi-instrument deployment and off-shore instrumentation at several different subduction zones, like that proposed for the Subduction Zone Observatory (SZO), to significantly advance our understanding of slow slip at convergent boundaries. Similar instrumentation to what exists in Nicoya is presently being established in the Osa-Burica region of southern Costa Rica to capture earthquake cycle deformation there. These two installations can provide a good nucleus for a larger circum-Pacific SZO effort.

  2. Magnitud y Tendencia del Suicidio en los Cantones de Costa Rica: 1980 - 1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damaris Granados Bloise

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available En dos anteriores entregas de este estudio, la primera publicada en el número anterior de esta Revista (1 y la segunda en este mismo número, se analizó, para Costa Rica como un todo y por provincias, respectivamente, la magnitud, estructura por edad y sexo, y tendencia del suicidio en el período 1980-94. En esta tercera entrega se presentan los resultados por cantones. (2 (3 (4. En la totalidad de los quince años que abarca el período 1980-94, se registraron en Costa Rica 2.015 muertes por suicidio, siendo la tasa promedio anual de mortalidad por esa causa, para el país, de 4.8 defunciones por cada 100.000 habitantes. En orden de magnitud descendente, son cantones de la región de Los Santos, Provincia de San José, los que ocupan los tres primeros lugares: Dota (13.4, Tarrazú (12.1 y León Cortés (10.9; junto con Alvarado (10.4 en Cartago, sobrepasan los 10 suicidios promedio anual por cada 100.000 habitantes.

  3. Parasites of cetaceans stranded on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J B; Morales, J A; González-Barrientos, R C; Hernández-Gamboa, J; Hernández-Mora, G

    2011-12-15

    Information regarding parasitic fauna of cetaceans from Costa Rica is provided for the first time. A total of 25 stranded dolphins and whales were examined between 2001 and 2009, including striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) (n=19), pantropical spotted dolphin (S. attenuata) (n=2), spinner dolphin (S. longirostris) (n=1), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) (n=1), dwarf sperm whale (Kogia sima) (n=1) and Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) (n=1). Pathological findings associated with the parasites are also presented. In the most representative dolphin species, S. coeruleoalba, the prevalence of parasites was 89.5%; moreover, all examined specimens of S. attenuata, S. longirostris, T. truncatus and Z. cavirostris presented parasites. No parasites were recovered from K. sima. Fourteen helminth taxa were identified, including six species of cestodes (Strobilocephalus triangularis, Tetrabothrius forsteri, Trigonocotyle sp., Phyllobothrium delphini, Monorygma grimaldi, Tetraphyllidea gen. sp. plerocercoid), four digeneans (Nasitrema globicephalae, Brachycladium palliatum, B. pacificum and Oschmarinella albamarina) and four nematodes (Anisakis spp., Halocercus lagenorhynchi, Halocercus sp. and Crassicauda anthonyi). A commensal crustacean, Xenobalanus globicipitis, was also identified. All identified parasites representing new geographic records for the Pacific coast of Central America and new host records are presented. Parasitological information is valuable for conservation of cetaceans in Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

  4. Seismic evidence for hydration of the Central American slab: Guatemala through Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syracuse, E. M.; Thurber, C. H.

    2011-12-01

    The Central American subduction zone exhibits a wide variability in along-arc slab hydration as indicated by geochemical studies. These studies generally show maximum slab contributions to magma beneath Nicaragua and minimum contributions beneath Costa Rica, while intermediate slab fluid contributions are found beneath El Salvador and Guatemala. Geophysical studies suggest strong slab serpentinization and fluid release beneath Nicaragua, and little serpentinization beneath Costa Rica, but the remainder of the subduction zone is poorly characterized seismically. To obtain an integrated seismic model for the Central American subduction zone, we combine 250,000 local seismic arrivals and 1,000,000 differential arrivals for 6,500 shallow and intermediate-depth earthquakes from the International Seismic Centre, the Central American Seismic Center, and the temporary PASSCAL TUCAN array. Using this dataset, we invert for Vp, Vs, and hypocenters using a variable-mesh double-difference tomography algorithm. By observing low-Vp areas within the normally high-Vp slab, we identify portions of the slab that are likely to contain serpentinized mantle, and thus contribute to higher degrees of melting and higher volatile components observable in arc lavas.

  5. Molecular and epidemiologic findings of childhood acute leukemia in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría-Quesada, Carlos; Vargas, Mario; Venegas, Patricia; Calvo, Melvin; Obando, Catalina; Valverde, Berta; Cartín, Walter; Carrillo, Juan Manuel; Jimenez, Rafael; González, Marcos

    2009-02-01

    In Central America, nearly 70% of pediatric cancer is related to hemato-oncologic disorders, especially acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Preliminary studies have described a high incidence of childhood leukemia in these countries; however, no molecular analyses of these malignancies have yet been carried out. We studied diagnostic samples from 84 patients from the National Children's Hospital in San Jose, Costa Rica (65 precursor B-ALL, 5 T-cell ALL, and 14 acute myeloblastic leukemia). Our methodology included cytogenetic, fluorescent in situ hybridization, and polymerase chain reaction approaches. The observed rate of leukemia was 52.2 cases per million children per year. Twelve out of 65 (18.4%) precursor B-ALL tested positive for TEL-AML1 and 3 cases for BCR-ABL (4.6%). In addition, we detected 2 patients carrying an E2A-PBX1 transcript (3.1%) and 1 patient with an MLL-AF4 fusion gene (1.5%). None of the T-cell ALL cases were positive for either SIL-TAL1 or HOX11L2. Within 14 acute myeloblastic leukemia patients, we confirmed 2 cases with FLT3-internal tandem duplication+, 1 patient with AML1-ETO, and only 1 case carrying a PML-RARalpha rearrangement. The present study confirms the relatively high incidence of pediatric leukemia in Costa Rica and constitutes the first report regarding the incidence of the main molecular alterations of childhood leukemia in our region.

  6. DNA damage in female workers exposed to pesticides in banana plantations at Limon, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticide use in Costa Rica is very high and all year round. A high percentage of what is sprayed remains in the environment and in the living organisms around. This situation brings contamination and health problems to people in contact with them. The onset of adverse effects may be in the short or long term, and symptoms vary widely, from headaches to cancer. Much research in the area has been devoted to acute or chronic effects, and not until recently to the genotoxic effect of pesticides. This study evaluated the genotoxic effect of pesticide used in banana packing activities, using the comet assay (single cell electrophoresis) as the biological marker in lymphocytes. This was a cases-control double blind study of 30 exposed women from 15 banana farms and 28 women not occupationally exposed to pesticides from the same geographic area. Results show damage to single straded DNA after working from 5 to 15 years (R2=0.12). In Costa Rica we do not have an historical record of the kind of pesticides used in banana farms, the period of time and for how long were they used. This prevented further analysis concerning dose, frequency of exposure and use of new or old kind of pesticides in the farms in relation to DNA damage. The comet assay is of value in the genetic monitoring of pesticide exposed populations. (Author)

  7. Primer hallazgo de Aedes albopictus Skuse en el Gran Área Metropolitana de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Marín Rodríguez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Informar sobre el primer hallazgo de Aedes albopictus en el Gran Área Metropolitana de Costa Rica. Métodos: Formas inmaduras de mosquitos colectadas en la Ciudadela La Carpio, Distrito Uruca, San José, como parte de una barrida epidemiológica fueron diagnosticadas preliminarmente como Ae. albopictus. Dicho material se fijó en alcohol al 70 %, se aclaró en lactofenol y se evaluó taxonómicamente mediante claves dicotómicas especializadas. Resultados: Las formas inmaduras evaluadas procedieron de dos criaderos, un tarro y un balde. Las características de las larvas y pupas permitieron identificarlas taxonómicamente como Ae. albopictus. Este es el primer reporte sobre la presencia de dicho vector en Costa Rica. Discusión: La presencia de Ae. albopictus en la Gran Área Metropolitana ocurre como parte del proceso de expansión que está teniendo dicho vector por el territorio nacional. Su presencia debe ser motivo de estudio para determinar su eventual papel en la transmisión del dengue. Por otro lado la presencia de este vector complica la gestión de la vigilancia entomológica de dengue que ha estado dirigida fundamentalmente a la identificación y control del Aedes aegypti.

  8. Trasmisión de Toxoplasma gondii en Costa Rica: Un concepto actualizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Reyes-Lizano

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Los hallazgos más recientes en cuanto a la trasmisión del Toxoplasma gondii en Costa Rica nos indican que la ingestión de carne poco cocida, así como de algunos embutidos, en donde se ha encontrado el parásito en forma viable, son mecanismos de infección importante. Estos aspectos han hecho variar un poco la concepción anterior de que la ingestión de ooquistes del parásito era la principal, sino la única, vía de infección en nuestro país. Por ello se propone un nuevo ciclo de trasmisión para este parásito, comparándolo con el previamente establecido. Este nuevo patrón epidemiológico establece mayores posibilidades de infección con este parásito para los costarricenses.Recent findings relating to the Toxoplasma gondii transmission in Costa Rica, show us that raw bovine or pork meat sausage ingestion is very important as an infection mechanism route. Therefore the tradicional model where oocysts ingestion has been considered the principal or the only infection route, has changed. In fact a new tranmission model for this parasitosis where oocyst and cyst ingestion are possible is suggested.

  9. Molecular Detection and Genotyping of Chlamydia psittaci in Captive Psittacines from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Sheleby-Elías

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs from 117 captive psittacine birds presented at veterinary clinics (88 and from shelters/rescue centers of wildlife (29 were collected to determine the prevalence of C. psittaci in captive birds in Costa Rica. Samples were collected during 2009 from a total of 19 different species of parrots, with Ara macao (33, Amazona autumnalis (24, Amazona ochrocephala (21, and Ara ararauna (8 being the most representative species sampled. C. psittaci was detected in four (3.4% birds using molecular detection (PCR. The positive samples belonged to birds presented at veterinary clinics; three of them were Ara macao and one Amazona ochrocephala. Three birds were adults; all positive birds showed no symptoms of illness and lived in homes with other birds, two in San José and two in Heredia. Sequencing was used to confirm the PCR positive results, showing that two samples of C. psittaci belonged to genotype A, representing the first report of the presence of this genotype in Costa Rica. The detection of this bacterium in captive psittacine birds shows that there is a potential risk for people living or having contact with them and that there is a possibility of infecting other birds.

  10. Major issues in the design and construction of the stellarator of Costa Rica: SCR-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims at briefly describing the design and construction issues of the stellarator of Costa Rica 1 (SCR-1). The SCR-1 is a small modular Stellarator for magnetic confinement of plasma developed by the Plasma Physics Group of the Instituto Tecnologico de Costa Rica (ITCR). The SCR-1 is based on the small Spanish Stellarator UST1 (Ultra Small Torus 1), created by Eng. Vicente Queral. These mains issues consist of the size of the Stellarator, closeness between coils, coupling of ECH to the vacuum chamber and the device for support. The size has become a problem because the vacuum chamber does not allow a lot of space to attach diagnosis devices, the heating system, the vacuum system and the very same support of the chamber. As a result of this lack of space, the Stellarator's coils are placed very close to each other; this means that two of the coils around of the vacuum chamber clash and cannot be placed as designed. The issue regarding the coupling of the ECH (electron cyclotron radio-frequency) to the vacuum chamber comprises the fact that the wave guide with rectangular shape does not match the CF port with circular shape on the vacuum chamber. In addition, the device for supporting the Stellarator has presented a challenge because of its size and the placement of the coils; in other words, there is not enough space between the ports and coils in the Stellarator to place appropriately the device for support.

  11. Parasites of cetaceans stranded on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J B; Morales, J A; González-Barrientos, R C; Hernández-Gamboa, J; Hernández-Mora, G

    2011-12-15

    Information regarding parasitic fauna of cetaceans from Costa Rica is provided for the first time. A total of 25 stranded dolphins and whales were examined between 2001 and 2009, including striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) (n=19), pantropical spotted dolphin (S. attenuata) (n=2), spinner dolphin (S. longirostris) (n=1), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) (n=1), dwarf sperm whale (Kogia sima) (n=1) and Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) (n=1). Pathological findings associated with the parasites are also presented. In the most representative dolphin species, S. coeruleoalba, the prevalence of parasites was 89.5%; moreover, all examined specimens of S. attenuata, S. longirostris, T. truncatus and Z. cavirostris presented parasites. No parasites were recovered from K. sima. Fourteen helminth taxa were identified, including six species of cestodes (Strobilocephalus triangularis, Tetrabothrius forsteri, Trigonocotyle sp., Phyllobothrium delphini, Monorygma grimaldi, Tetraphyllidea gen. sp. plerocercoid), four digeneans (Nasitrema globicephalae, Brachycladium palliatum, B. pacificum and Oschmarinella albamarina) and four nematodes (Anisakis spp., Halocercus lagenorhynchi, Halocercus sp. and Crassicauda anthonyi). A commensal crustacean, Xenobalanus globicipitis, was also identified. All identified parasites representing new geographic records for the Pacific coast of Central America and new host records are presented. Parasitological information is valuable for conservation of cetaceans in Pacific coast of Costa Rica. PMID:21665367

  12. Call for a change in research funding priorities: the example of mental health in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Javier; Raventós, Henriette; Rodríguez, Gloriana; Leandro, Mauricio

    2014-10-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020 urges its Member States to strengthen leadership in mental health, ensure mental and social health interventions in community-based settings, promote mental health and strengthen information systems, and increase evidence and research for mental health. Although Costa Rica has strongly invested in public health and successfully reduced the burden of nutritional and infectious diseases, its transitional epidemiological pattern, population growth, and immigration from unstable neighboring countries has shifted the burden to chronic disorders. Although policies for chronic disorders have been in place for several decades, mental disorders have not been included. Recently, as the Ministry of Health of Costa Rica developed a Mental Health Policy for 2013-2020, it became evident that the country needs epidemiological data to prioritize evidence-based intervention areas. This article stresses the importance of conducting local epidemiological studies on mental health, and calls for changes in research funding priorities by public and private national and international funding agencies in order to follow the WHO Mental Health Action Plan.

  13. The Search for Value and Meaning in the Cocoa Supply Chain in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Sills

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative interviews with participants in the cocoa (Theobroma cacao supply chain in Costa Rica and the United States were conducted and supplemented with an analysis of the marketing literature to examine the prospects of organic and Fairtrade certification for enhancing environmentally and socially responsible trade of cocoa from Costa Rica. Respondents were familiar with both systems, and most had traded at least organic cocoa for some period. However, most individuals said that they were seeking better product differentiation and marketing than has been achieved under the organic and Fairtrade systems. Many suggested that more direct recognition of individual growers and the unique value of their cocoa throughout the production chain would be more helpful than certification for small companies in the cocoa supply chain. These findings suggest new marketing techniques that convey an integration of meaning into the cocoa and chocolate supply chain as a differentiation strategy. This involves integration of the story of producers’ commitment and dedication; shared producer and consumer values of social and environmental responsibility; and personal relationships between producers and consumers. This marketing approach could enhance the ability of smaller companies to successfully vie with their larger competitors and to produce cocoa in a more environmentally and socially acceptable manner.

  14. Baird's tapir density in high elevation forests of the Talamanca region of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Maya, José F; Schipper, Jan; Polidoro, Beth; Hoepker, Annelie; Zárrate-Charry, Diego; Belant, Jerrold L

    2012-12-01

    Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) is currently endangered throughout its neotropical range with an expected population decline >50% in the next 30 years. We present the first density estimation of Baird's tapir for the Talamanca mountains of Costa Rica, and one of the first for the country. Ten stations with paired cameras were established in Valle del Silencio within Parque Internacional La Amistad (PILA). Seventy-seven tapir pictures of 15 individuals comprising 25 capture-recapture events were analyzed using mark-recapture techniques. The 100% minimum convex polygon of the sampled area was 5.7 km(2) and the effective sampled area using half mean maximum distances moved by tapirs was 7.16 km(2) . We estimated a tapir density of 2.93 individuals/km(2) which represents the highest density reported for this species. Intermountain valleys can represent unique and important habitats for large mammal species. However, the extent of isolation of this population, potentially constrained by steep slopes of the cordillera, remains unknown. Further genetic and movement studies are required to understand meta-population dynamics and connectivity between lowland and highland areas for Baird's tapir conservation in Costa Rica. PMID:23253369

  15. Rezagados durante la crisis económica: Pobreza entre adultos mayores en Costa Rica

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    Brenes Camacho, Gilbert

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available La crisis económica de inicios de los años ochentas impactó de muy diversas maneras a la Costa Rica del siglo XX. Las acciones gubernamentales desde 1982 tuvieron éxito en reducir la proporción de personas pobres desde un 35% en 1985 a un 23% en el 2000. El presente artículo utiliza las Encuestas de Hogares entre 1981 y 2002 y los Censos de Población para realizar una estimación de los efectos de cohorte, edad y período, y así mostrar que la pobreza entre la población adulta mayor en Costa Rica se puede entender como un efecto de cohorte. Esta condición de pobreza de estas cohortes está asociada principalmente con su bajo nivel de escolaridad, principalmente entre los hombres. La probabilidad de haber tenido derecho a pensión por jubilación y el hecho de que los menos educados recibían un ingreso bajo al final de su vida laboral median en la relación entre la educación y la pobreza como efecto de cohorte.

  16. Baird's tapir density in high elevation forests of the Talamanca region of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Maya, José F; Schipper, Jan; Polidoro, Beth; Hoepker, Annelie; Zárrate-Charry, Diego; Belant, Jerrold L

    2012-12-01

    Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) is currently endangered throughout its neotropical range with an expected population decline >50% in the next 30 years. We present the first density estimation of Baird's tapir for the Talamanca mountains of Costa Rica, and one of the first for the country. Ten stations with paired cameras were established in Valle del Silencio within Parque Internacional La Amistad (PILA). Seventy-seven tapir pictures of 15 individuals comprising 25 capture-recapture events were analyzed using mark-recapture techniques. The 100% minimum convex polygon of the sampled area was 5.7 km(2) and the effective sampled area using half mean maximum distances moved by tapirs was 7.16 km(2) . We estimated a tapir density of 2.93 individuals/km(2) which represents the highest density reported for this species. Intermountain valleys can represent unique and important habitats for large mammal species. However, the extent of isolation of this population, potentially constrained by steep slopes of the cordillera, remains unknown. Further genetic and movement studies are required to understand meta-population dynamics and connectivity between lowland and highland areas for Baird's tapir conservation in Costa Rica.

  17. First Report of Anthelmintic Resistance in Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroto, R.; Jiménez, A. E.; Romero, J. J.; Alvarez, V.; De Oliveira, J. B.; Hernández, J.

    2011-01-01

    As the prevalence and severity of anthelmintic resistance continue to rise, nematode infections in sheep correspondingly reduce the profitability of the sheep industry. In Costa Rica, sheep production systems are increasing in both number and importance. A field trial study was carried out to detect the level of anthelmintic resistance to albendazole and ivermectin in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of sheep from seven farms in Costa Rica. Resistance was determined using the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). Three treatment groups were assessed on each farm: control, albendazole, and ivermectin. Haemonchus spp. (71%), Strongyloides sp. (57%), and Trichostrongylus spp. (43%) presented resistance levels to albendazole, whereas Strongyloides sp. (43%), Haemonchus spp. (29%), and Trichostrongylus spp. (29%) were resistant to ivermectin. Haemonchus spp., Strongyloides sp., and Trichostrongylus spp. were the most resistant GIN to both products. This study suggests that frequency of treatment, exclusive chemical control, and visual estimation of animal weight to calculate dosage may contribute to the high levels of anthelmintic resistance that were observed on the farms analyzed herein. PMID:21772962

  18. First Report of Anthelmintic Resistance in Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Maroto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As the prevalence and severity of anthelmintic resistance continue to rise, nematode infections in sheep correspondingly reduce the profitability of the sheep industry. In Costa Rica, sheep production systems are increasing in both number and importance. A field trial study was carried out to detect the level of anthelmintic resistance to albendazole and ivermectin in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN of sheep from seven farms in Costa Rica. Resistance was determined using the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT. Three treatment groups were assessed on each farm: control, albendazole, and ivermectin. Haemonchus spp. (71%, Strongyloides sp. (57%, and Trichostrongylus spp. (43% presented resistance levels to albendazole, whereas Strongyloides sp. (43%, Haemonchus spp. (29%, and Trichostrongylus spp. (29% were resistant to ivermectin. Haemonchus spp., Strongyloides sp., and Trichostrongylus spp. were the most resistant GIN to both products. This study suggests that frequency of treatment, exclusive chemical control, and visual estimation of animal weight to calculate dosage may contribute to the high levels of anthelmintic resistance that were observed on the farms analyzed herein.

  19. Las principales fallas de motores eléctricos en Costa Rica

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    Osvaldo Guerreo Castro

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Una de las tareas más importantes en la gestión del mantenimiento de los equipos de producción, y particularmente de los motores eléctricos, es identificar y prevenir las fallas para tomar acciones que eviten la incidencia de las mismas.Mediante una investigación de campo, con visitas a empresas de varios sectoresproductivos y talleres de reparación de motores eléctricos en Costa Rica, se logróobtener una clasificación y distribución porcentual de las fallas más comunes enlos motores trifásicos de inducción, en el rango de 2 a 50 HP.Esta investigación determinó que existen cuatro tipos de fallas más comunes enmotores eléctricos en Costa Rica; estas se concentran en dos sectores productivos.La investigación identificó aspectos relevantes por mejorar en cuanto a la orientación de la formación profesional universitaria y, en el modelo administrativo del mantenimiento de estos equipos, en lasindustrias.

  20. Illustrations and studies in Neotropical Orchidaceae. 6. The Lepanthes guatemalensis group (Pleurothallidinae in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pupulin, Franco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We revise and characterize the group of species close to Lepanthes guatemalensis. The group comprises eight species in Costa Rica. Three new species are described and illustrated. Lepanthes durikäensis is distinguished by the non resupinate flowers, the lateral sepals ovate with the apical tails diverging, the lower lobe of petals lanceolate-subfalcate, up-curved and the pinkish column. Lepanthes leporina is recognized by the resupinate flowers with yellow sepals, faintly suffused with red, the petals violet, the lip orange, the bifid synsepal with the apices of the lateral sepals not forming tails, the lateral sepals subequal to the dorsal sepal, the petals markedly convex with the upper lobe elliptic-lanceolate and the lobes of the lip connivent at apex. Lepanthes sanctiorum is characterized by the small plants less than 1.1 cm tall, the short peduncle less than 10 mm long, the petals as wide as the lip length and the blades of the lip distinctly diverging at apex. All the species are described and illustrated on the basis of Costa Rican material. A key to the species of the group is provided.Revisamos y caracterizamos el grupo de especies cercanas a Lepanthes guatemalensis. El grupo está compuesto por ocho especies en Costa Rica. Se describen e ilustran tres especies nuevas. Lepanthes durikäensis se caracteriza por las flores no resupinadas, los sépalos laterales ovados, con las colas apicales divergentes, el lóbulo inferior de los pétalos lanceolado-subfalcado, con curvatura hacia arriba y la columna rosada. Lepanthes leporina es reconocida por las flores resupinadas, los sépalos amarillos y ligeramente teñidos de rojo, los pétalos violeta, el labelo naranja, el sinsépalo bífido con los ápices de los sépalos laterales que no forman colas, los sépalos laterales subiguales al sépalo dorsal, los pétalos marcadamente convexo con el lóbulo superior elíptico-lanceolado y los lóbulos del labelo conniventes en el ápice. Lepanthes

  1. Tersilochinae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) of Costa Rica, Part 2. Genera Megalochus gen. nov. and Stethantyx Townes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaim, Andrey I; Broad, Gavin R

    2013-01-01

    Two Costa Rican genera, Megalochus gen. nov. and Stethantyx Townes, are revised. These genera comprise a distinctive generic group that we refer to as the Stethantyx genus-group, veins Rs+2r and Rs angled more than 90 degrees, vein 2rs-m and abscissa of M between 2rs-m and 2m-cu not or very weakly thickened, hind wing with vein cul&cu-a (nervellus) more or less vertical, and prepectal carina with upper end not reaching anterior margin of mesopleuron, continuing above and backwards to the subtegular ridge. Both genera include medium sized to large species with body length 4.0 to 15.0 mm. Megalochus comprises only the type species, M. grandis sp. nov., occurring in Costa Rica, Ecuador and southern Brazil. It is the largest representative of the subfamily, with a body length of 10.5 to 15.0 mm. Megalochus differs from Stethantyx, besides the larger body size, by the slenderer first metasomal segment, which is round in cross-section and lacking glymmae, propodeum and metapleuron with coarse rugae, and shortened antennae with strongly transverse flagellomeres. Stethantyx is the dominant, most species-rich genus in the Costa Rican tersilochine fauna and probably in the Neotropical region. Twenty two species of this genus were discovered in Costa Rica, all are new: S. alajuela sp. nov., S. altamira sp. nov., S. aprica sp. nov., S. cacaoensis sp. nov., S. cartagoa sp. nov., S. cecilia sp. nov., S. curvator sp. nov., S. guanacasteca sp. nov., S. heredia sp. nov., S. limona sp. nov., S. mesoscutator sp. nov., S. niger sp. nov., S. nigrofemorata sp. nov., S. notaulator sp. nov., S. orosia sp. nov., S. osa sp. nov., S. propodeator sp. nov., S. pseudoorosia sp. nov., S. pseudoosa sp. nov., S. puntarenasa sp. nov., S. sanjosea sp. nov. and S. tenoriosa sp. nov. A key for distinguishing the genera Megalochus and Stethantyx, and a key to 22 Costa Rican species of Stethantyx are provided. PMID:26185846

  2. Inversión extranjera directa, movilidad laboral y derrames de conocimiento en Costa Rica Foreign direct investment, labor mobility and knowledge spillovers in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Monge González

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo busca determinar la existencia e importancia de los derrames de conocimiento asociados con la movilidad laboral desde las multinacionales (MNCS que operan bajo el régimen de zonas francas (ZF en Costa Rica; es decir, el impacto de tales derrames de conocimiento sobre el desempeño de las empresas locales que contratan ex empleados de MNCS. Se observó que, de un total de 41 149 empleados de MNCS que dejaron de laborar para estas empresas entre el 2001 y el 2007, un tercio se trasladó a empresas locales (15 139. El impacto de los derrames de conocimiento sobre el desempeño de empresas locales se midió en términos de tres variables: ventas, empleo y productividad media del trabajo; para esto se empleó un panel de empresas locales para el periodo que va del 2007 al 2009. Mediante el empleo de modelos econométricos sugeridos por la literatura en este campo, se encontró evidencia de que las empresas locales que han contratado ex empleados de MNCS obtienen un mejor desempeño en términos de crecimiento de sus ventas y empleo, que aquellas empresas locales que no contratan ex empleados de MNCS. Es decir, se obtuvo una clara evidencia de la externalidad positiva asociada con los derrames de conocimiento para Costa Rica, producto de la movilidad laboral desde las MNCS. No se encontró esta evidencia cuando el desempeño de las empresas locales se mide en términos de la productividad media del trabajador. Finalmente, los resultados señalan la importancia de llevar a cabo nuevas investigaciones sobre la capacidad de absorción de las empresas locales para potenciar más los impactos positivos de los derrames de conocimiento, así como respecto al impacto de tales derrames sobre la productividad total de los factores.This paper aims to determine the existence of knowledge spillovers associated to labor mobility from multinational companies (MNCS operating in Costa Rica. That is, the impact of such knowledge spillovers over the

  3. Hipovitaminosis D en Costa Rica, reporte inicial: Estudio de casos y controles Hypovitaminosis D in Costa Rica: initial report on a case control study

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    Chih Hao Chen-Ku

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir, por primera vez en Costa Rica, las características clínicas de pacientes con hipovitaminosis D. Materiales y métodos: estudio retrospectivo, en donde se detectó, entre los reportes del Laboratorio de Hormonas del Hospital San Juan de Dios, a 17 pacientes con niveles de 25-hidroxivitamina D (25(OHVDen rangos subnormales (Objective: To describe for the first time in Costa Rica, the clinical characteristics of patients with Hypovitaminosis D. Materials and methods: Retrospective study, in which17 patients with subnormal levels of 25-hydroxivitamin D25 (OHVD (<75 nmol/L were identified amongst the reports from the Hormone Laboratory at the San Juan de Dios Hospital. Also, 15 controls with normal levels, and similar age and gender were identified. Results: There was no difference in age (52.76±20.88 years in cases vs. 46.33±12.50 in controls, gender (58.85% in cases vs. 80% in controls were females.In the group with Hypovitaminosis, mean levels of 25(OHVD(59.2±10.37 nmol/L were lower and those of PTH were higher (146.86±103.76 vs. 47.82±13.77 ng/ml in controls, p=0.004. There was no difference in calcium levels (8.98 cases vs. 9.38 mg/dl controls p=.352, phosphorus (4.09 cases vs. 2.99 mg/ dl controls p=.104 nor BMD at hip and lumbar spine. There were no differences in the prevalence of nephrotic syndrome, chronic liver failure, chronic renal disease and of sun block use between both groups. There were no hospitalized patients in either group. Subjects with hypovitaminosis on the cases group indicated an average of 0.6 hours of sun exposure per week, compared with 1.46 in the control group (p=0.297. In the cases group, we observed a higher prevalence of falls (23.5% vs. 6.7% p=0.039, fractures (17.6% vs. 0%, p=0.024, diabetes (17.6% vs. 6.7% p=0,158, fatigue (29.4% vs. 13.3% p=0.012, weakness (41.2% vs. 33% p=0.010, and use of inducers of cytochrome P450 pathway (29.3% vs. 0% p=0.009. Body weight was less in cases with

  4. Scirrotherium antelucanus,una nueva especie de Pampatheriidae (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Cingulata del Mioceno Superior de Costa Rica, América Central

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    César A Laurito

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se registra por primera vez el género Scirrotherium y se describe una nueva especie para el Hemphilliano temprano de Costa Rica. Este hallazgo constituye una nueva evidencia sobre el arribo temprano de los heraldos sudamericanos a América Central durante el Pre-Gran Intercambio Biótico Americano, incrementando en al menos 3 Ma el registro de la familia Pampatheriidae en el Hemisferio Norte. La nueva especie de América Central difiere de las especies suramericanas de Scirrotherium por tener osteodermos con una ornamentación inconspicua, figura central simple y una muy amplia área superficial.

  5. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchilla, Misael; Valerio, Idalia; Sánchez, Ronald; Mora, Víctor; Bagnarello, Vanessa; Martínez, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonieta; Vanegas, Juan Carlos; Apestegui, Alvaro

    2012-06-01

    Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biol6gica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB), were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae); Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae); Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae); Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae); Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae); Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae); Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae); Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae); Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae); Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae); Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae); Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae); Prunus annularis (Rosaceae); Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae); Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanacea (Solanaceae); Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae); Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae) and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae). We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9 microg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  6. Modelo hidrogeológico conceptual del acuífero nimboyores, Guanacaste, Costa Rica Hydrogeological conceptual model Nimboyores aquifer, Guanacaste, Costa Rica

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    Mario A. García

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El acuífero de Nimboyores, ubicado en la provincia de Guanacaste (Costa Rica ha sido definido en este trabajo como un acuífero libre, está compuesto por tres capas: un coluvio grueso en la parte inferior, seguido de un coluvio fino y en la parte superior suelo areno- arcilloso. La profundidad del basamento varía entre los 30 y 45 m. Este modelo fue obtenido mediante la correlación de los resultados de 7 sondeos eléctricos verticales con 50 pozos con información litológica facilitados por el SENARA. Las conductividades hidráulicas de dichas capas son, respectivamente, 300, 60 y 10 m/d. La recarga total al acuífero es de 1211 l/s, obtenida a partir del balance hídrico. Con base en el registro de niveles en 14 pozos obtenidos durante 7 años monitoreados por el SENARA, se establecieron los niveles estáticos para el mes de mayor sequía registrada. El modelo conceptual mejora el entendimiento del flujo de agua subterránea y la influencia de las condiciones geológicas.The Nimboyores aquifer, located in the province of Guanacaste (Costa Rica has been defined in this work as an unconfined aquifer, it is composed of three layers: the deepest one is a thick colluvium, the intermediate is a thin colluvium and at the top there is a sandy clay soil. The basement depth varies between 30 and 45 m. This model was obtained by correlating the results of 7 vertical electrical soundings with 50 wells with lithological information provided by the SENARA. The hydraulic conductivities of such layers are respectively 300, 60 and 10 m/d. The total recharge to the aquifer is of 1211 l/s, obtained from the water balance. Based on the record levels in 14 wells collected during 7 years monitored by SENARA, static levels were established for the driest month recorded. The conceptual model improved the understanding of the groundwater flow and the influence of the geological setting.

  7. Contribuciones de enfermería a la anestesiología en Costa Rica

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    Alba Carranza Ramírez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. En el presente artículo se presentan los resultados de un estudio que cuyo objetivo fue identificar la participación de la enfermería en el desarrollo de la anestesiología en Costa Rica.Método. Se aplicó la metodología de la investigación histórica para determinar los sucesos ocurridos en el pasado relacionados con el desarrollo de la anestesia, así como las contribuciones de enfermería. Se analizó fuentes primarias y secundarias que fueron sistematizadas, valoradas, ordenadas  y sintetizadas. Se aplicó la técnica de  grupo focal y entrevistas en profundidad a 23 enfermeras (os técnicos en anestesia que laboran actualmente y a las enfermeras (os pensionados.Resultados. Durante más de 90 años la administración de anestesia a las personas fue llevada a cabo por enfermeras (os, no obstante, la formación de enfermería en anestesia fue suspendida en 1981.Conclusión. El estudio determinó que este personal tenía una preparación formal dada por el doctor Sotela que luego fue ampliada a año y medio por la Escuela de Medicina de la Universidad de Costa Rica, institución de la que egresaban como técnicos en anestesia.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of breast cancer control strategies in Central America: The cases of Costa Rica and Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Niëns (Laurens); S.G. Zelle (Sten); C. Gutiérrez-Delgado (Cristina); A. Peña (Alberto); B.R. Hidalgo Balarezo (Blanca Rosa); E.P. Steller (Erick); F.F.H. Rutten (Frans)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper reports the most cost-effective policy options to support and improve breast cancer control in Costa Rica and Mexico. Total costs and effects of breast cancer interventions were estimated using the health care perspective and WHO-CHOICE methodology. Effects w

  9. Cost-effectiveness of breast cancer control strategies in Central America: the cases of Costa Rica and Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niens, L.M.; Zelle, S.G.; Gutierrez-Delgado, C.; Rivera Pena, G.; Hidalgo Balarezo, B.R.; Rodriguez Steller, E.; Rutten, F.F.H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the most cost-effective policy options to support and improve breast cancer control in Costa Rica and Mexico. Total costs and effects of breast cancer interventions were estimated using the health care perspective and WHO-CHOICE methodology. Effects were measured in disability-adj

  10. Pesticide use in banana and plantain production and risk perception among local actors in Talamanca, Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barraza-Ruiz, D.A.; Jansen, K.; Wendel de Joode, van B.; Wesseling, C.

    2011-01-01

    The Talamanca County in Costa Rica has large-scale banana and small-scale plantain production, probably causing pesticide exposure in indigenous children. We explored to what extent different community actors are aware of children's pesticide hazards and how their awareness related to socio-economic

  11. Sub-regional linear programming models in land use analysis: a case study of the Neguev settlement, Costa Rica.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, R.A.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Jansen, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    The paper deals with linear programming as a tool for land use analysis at the sub-regional level. A linear programming model of a case study area, the Neguev settlement in the Atlantic zone of Costa Rica, is presented. The matrix of the model includes five submatrices each encompassing a different

  12. Multi-hazard risk assessment using GIS in urban areas: a case study for the city of Turrialba, Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westen, van Cees J.; Montoya, Lorena; Boerboom, Luc; Badilla Coto, Elena

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of the UNESCO sponsored project on “Capacity Building for Natural Disaster Reduction” a case study was carried out on multi-hazard risk assessment of the city of Turrialba, located in the central part of Costa Rica. The city with a population of 33,000 people is located in an area,

  13. The reproductive ability of Varroa destructor in worker brood of Africanized and hybrid honey bees in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calderon, R.A.; Sommeijer, M.J.; Ruijter, de A.; Veen, van der J.W.

    2003-01-01

    From February to July 2001, the reproductive ability of Varroa destructor in artificially infested worker brood cells of Africanized honey bees (AHB) (Apis mellifera) and hybrids (HF1) of AHB x European honey bees was investigated in Costa Rica. No significant differences were found between AHB and

  14. 'Around here I am the law!' Strengthening police officers' compliance with the rule of law in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkman, Q.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    At the end of the last decade many Latin American states initiated public security reform. This included police human rights strategies, which aim to improve police officers' compliance with human rights. Particular strategies emphasized the development of police legal expertise. In Costa Rica this

  15. A new species of Labania Hedqvist (Braconidae, Doryctinae from Costa Rica, reared from aerial root galls of Ficus obtusifolia Kunth

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    Sergey Belokobylskij

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the Doryctinae genus Labania Hedqvist, L. ficophaga sp. n. from Costa Rica is described. This new species was reared from aerial root galls of Ficus obtusifolia Kunth. An updated key to the five described species of Labania and digital pictures of L. ficophaga sp. n. and L. minuta Marsh are provided.

  16. Uso de tecnologías digitales en la educación matemática en Costa Rica

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    Edison De Faria

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se realiza un breve recorrido sobre investigaciones, políticas y uso de tecnologías digitales en Costa Rica, y se describe las formas con que los docentes de matemática de la enseñanza media costarricense utilizan las computadoras y calculadoras en el proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje de las matemáticas. Los datos analizados fueron recolectados mediante un cuestionario aplicado a docentes de matemática de enseñanza media durante el año 2000 por el proyecto de investigación  “La enseñanza de las matemáticas en Costa Rica”, desarrollado por investigadores del Centro de Investigaciones Matemáticas y Meta-Matemáticas de la Universidad de Costa Rica.

  17. Building positive nature awareness in pupils using the "Rainforest of the Austrians" in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, Margit; Hölzl, Irmgard; Huber, Werner; Weissenhofer, Anton

    2013-04-01

    20 years ago, Michael Schnitzler founded the NGO "Rainforest of the Austrians" to help save one of the most diverse rainforests in Central America, the Esquinas rainforest on the Pacific coast of SW Costa Rica, from being destroyed through logging. In this abstract we present an interdisciplinary upper Austrian school project aiming at building positive awareness in pupils towards rainforest conservation by fund-raising to help purchase endangered forest areas. The acquired rainforest was donated to the Costa Rican government and became part of the National Park "Piedras Blancas". In the following, we present a chronology of events and actions of the school project. We started our rainforest project by face-to-face encounters, letting involved persons speak directly to the pupils. Dr. Huber, coordinator of the tropical rainforest station La Gamba in Costa Rica (www.lagamba.at), together with Dr. Weissenhofer, presented an introductory slide show about the "Rainforest of the Austrians". With rainforest images and sounds in their mind the pupils wrote "trips of a lifetime" stories, thus creating idyllic images of rainforest habitats. Following up on that, we visited the exhibition "Heliconia and Hummingbirds" at the Biology Center in Linz. Reports about the slide show and the exhibition followed. Tropical sites were compared by producing climate graphs of La Gamba, Costa Rica, and Manaus in Brazil. The global distribution and the decrease of rainforests were also analyzed. In biology lessons the symbiosis between plants and animals of the rainforest were worked out by searching the Internet. Flyers with profiles of rainforest animals were produced. We also discussed the ecotourism project "RICANCIE" in Ecuador using fact sheets. "RICANCIE" is a Spanish acronym standing for "Indigenous Community Network of the Upper Napo for Intercultural Exchange and Ecotourism". It was founded in 1993 aiming to improve the quality of life for some 200 indigenous Kichwa families

  18. Active tectonics and Quaternary landscape evolution across the western Panama block, Costa Rica, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jeffrey Scott

    Three aspects of active tectonism are examined across central Costa Rica: (1) fault kinematics; (2) volcanic arc retreat; and (3) spatially variable coastal uplift. Diffuse faulting along the Central Costa Rica Deformed Belt (CCRDB) defines the western margin of the Panama block and aligns with the rough-smooth boundary (RSB) on the subducting Cocos plate. Sub-horizontal subduction of rough, hotspot thickened crust (Cocos Ridge and seamounts) shifts active shortening into the volcanic arc along the CCRDB. Mesoscale faults express variable kinematics across three domains: transtension in the forearc, transcurrent motion across the volcanic arc, and transpression in the back arc. Fault kinematics agree with seismicity and GPS data, and isotopic ages confirm that faulting postdates the late Neogene onset of shallow subduction. Stratigraphic correlation augmented by 40Ar/39Ar dating constrain the timing of Quaternary arc migration from the Neogene Aguacate range to the modern Cordillera Central. The Valle Central basin, between the cordilleras, filled with thick sequences of lavas, pyroclastic flows, and lahars. Middle Pleistocene drainage capture across the Aguacate arc linked the Valle Central with the Pacific slope and ash flows descended onto the coastal Orotina debris fan. Arc retreat reflects slab shallowing and enhanced tectonic erosion as rough crust entered the subduction zone. Differing subduction parameters across the RSB (crustal age, slab dip, roughness) produce marked contrasts in coastal tectonism. Varying uplift rates across coastal faults reflect sub-horizontal subduction of seamount roughness. Three groups (I--III) of fluvial terraces are correlated along the coast by isotopic ages and geomorphic characteristics. Base level fluctuations and terrace genesis reflect interaction between eustatic sea level and spatially variable rock uplift. Low uplift rates (north of RSB), yield one surface per terrace group, whereas moderate rates (south of RSB

  19. El comercio internacional un instrumento para alcanzar el desarrollo de Costa Rica

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    Álvaro Martín Parada Gómez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El comercio internacional es un instrumento para la consecución del económico en los países subdesarrollados.  En Costa Rica las ventajas del libre comercio están asociadas a la generación de exportaciones, así como a la mayor producción y generación de nuevas oportunidades de empleo en comparación con las fuentes tradicionales.  No obstante, persisten desventajas asociadas al tamaño del país, la presencia de imperfecciones de mercado, las fuertes distorsiones causadas por la intervención estatal por la excesiva regulación, entre otras causas.  El propósito es explicar las ventajas y desventajas que tienen las empresas y los sectores productivos para competir en el comercio internacional y sugerir lineamientos estratégicos que fortalezcan la posición de las empresas en el mercado internacional.  Las dos principales interrogantes que orientan este trabajo son: ¿cuáles obstáculos enfrentan las empresas de países en desarrollo como Costa Rica para posicionarse exitosamente en los mercados internacionales?, y ¿cuál estrategia podría seguir Costa Rica para competir adecuadamente en esos mercados? La principal conclusión es que los tratados de libre comercio son instrumentos para la consecución del desarrollo económico y, por tanto, no es adecuado poner todos los esfuerzos en ellos como única fuente de superación de las múltiples necesidades sociales y económicas que experimentan las economías en desarrollo. Con seguridad, se requerirá formular políticas adicionales en el campo de la infraestructura, tecnología, salud, educación, entre otros, para posicionar mejor al país en los mercados internacionales.

  20. Co-designing communication and hazard preparedness strategies at Turrialba volcano, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Saskia; Avard, Geoffroy; Martinez, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Globally volcanic activity results in huge human, social, environmental and economic losses. Disaster risk reduction (DRR) is the concept and systematic practice of reducing disaster risks and associated losses through a wide range of strategies, including efforts to increase knowledge through education and outreach. However, recent studies have shown a substantial gap between risk reduction actions taken at national and local levels, with national policies showing little change at the community level. Yet it is at local levels are where DRR efforts can have the biggest impact. This research focuses on communicating hazard preparedness strategies at Turrialba volcano, Costa Rica. Located in the Central Cordillera just 35 km northeast of Costa Rica's capital city San Jose this 3,340 m high active stratovolcano looms over Costa Rica's Central Valley, the social and economic hub of the country. Following progressive increases in degassing and seismic activity Turrialba resumed activity in 1996 after more than 100 years of quiescence. Since 2007 it has continuously emitted gas and since 2010 intermittent phreatic explosions accompanied by ash emissions have occurred. Despite high levels of hazard salience individuals and communities are not or under-prepared to deal with a volcanic eruption. In light of Turrialba's continued activity engaging local communities with disaster risk management is key. At the local levels culture (collective behaviours, interactions, cognitive constructs, and affective understanding) is an important factor in shaping peoples' views, understanding and response to natural phenomena. As such an increasing number of academic studies and intergovernmental organisations advocate for the incorporation of cultural context into disaster risk reduction strategies, which firstly requires documenting people's perception. Therefore approaching community disaster preparedness from a user-centred perspective, through an iterative and collaborative

  1. El suicidio en Costa Rica en el año 2005

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    Allan Chaves Moreno

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Si bien en Costa Rica la tasa de suicidios por 100000 habitantes históricamente se ha encontrado por debajo de 10 por 100 mil habitantes, lo cual es bajo comparado a otros países, existen múltiples factores de riesgo, tanto sociales (pobreza, desempleo, drogadicción como psicológicos (depresión, duelo que son significativamente frecuentes y podrían incrementar estas cifra. En el presente artículo se pretende brindar un panorama actualizado acerca del suicidio en nuestro país, para ello se realizó un análisis de las 309 muertes suicidas ocurridas en el año 2005, con lo que se obtuvo un perfil del individuo que logró acabar con su vida. Se trató de víctimas predominantemente de género masculino, en edades económicamente activas, costarricenses, tanto solteros como casados, con una mayor tasa de mortalidad por suicidio en Cartago, el mecanismo utilizado más comúnmente fue la asfixia por ahorcadura, con mayor frecuencia en los días lunes, en los meses de marzo, julio y octubreHistorically, suicide rate in Costa Rica has been under 10 by 100000 people. This rate is lower than other countries, but now, there are a lot of conditions in costarican population: social factors like poorness, unemployment and drug dependence; and psycological factors like depression and other emotional diseases. This conditions are increasing in the last years and suicide rate could also increases. In this paper we present an actuallized analysis about this phenomenon in Costa Rica. We analyzed 309 suicide deaths in 2005. We obtain a profile of this people: they were predominantly of masculin gender, in productive ages, married and singles, that died predominantly in monday, in march, july and october and in the province of Cartago. Also, the main mechanism utilized was death by hanging.

  2. Factores asociados a las Alteraciones del test de Papanicolaou Costa Rica, 2009

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    Leandra Abarca Gómez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El cáncer cervicouterino es en el mundo y en Costa Rica una de las 3 primeras causas de cáncer en las mujeres. La detección temprana de lesiones premalignas o malignas mejora el pronóstico de las usuarias. Objetivo: Encontrar si hay factores asociados a las alteraciones de la citología vaginal en un área de salud urbana de Costa Rica durante 2009. Metodología: Estudio de casos y controles en usuarias de una área de salud urbana de Costa Rica durante 2009. Se definió caso como toda mujer residente de esa área que presentara una citología vaginal alterada, displasia leve, moderada, severa o carcinoma durante 2009. Los controles se seleccionaron de forma aleatoria simple, tomando como marco muestral el registro de mujeres que se habían realizado citologías vaginales durante el 2009 en esa área. La recolección de la información se hizo a través de un cuestionario. Se calcularon medidas de frecuencia, de tendencia central y dispersión, OR, IC 95 %. Resultados: Se incluyeron 62 casos y 137 controles. La edad promedio de los casos fue 43 años (DE±17. El ASCUS fue la lesión más frecuente 39 % (IC 95 %=22,43-51,93. Los factores asociados a la aparición de lesiones fueron tabaco (OR=2.35; IC 95 %=1,26-4,31, inicio de actividad sexual antes de 18 años (OR=2;I C 95 %=1,06-3,64 y haber tenido 3 o más compañeros sexuales (OR=2, 10;IC 95 % 1,11-3,97. Discusión: Se encontró similitud entre lo descrito en la literatura y lo hallado en este estudio. Se recomendó dar a conocer este estudio a las mujeres de esa área de salud, ya que los factores encontrados son modificables y además se planteó a la dirección del área realizar campañas de promoción y prevención que fomenten conductas sexuales sanas.

  3. Farmers, Markets and Contracts: Chain Integration of Smallholder Producers in Costa Rica

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    Ruerd Ruben

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Contract farming is frequently considered as an appropriate mechanism for integrating smallholders into dynamic markets. We discuss the rationale for the variety in contractual arrangements between small-scale producers and agro-processing firms in the Northern and Central region of Costa Rica. Different market configurations give rise to delivery conditions, ranging from spot market negotiations to verbal or written contracts. We analyse which types of farmers are typically engaged in each of these contractual arrangements, and what are the implications for their production and investment decisions. Main attention is given to the effects of institutional organization for equity, efficiency and sustainability. The analysis is based on detailed case studies for two non-traditional commodities (pepper and chayote. Results suggest that contracts provide an important insurance device for farmers meeting investment and information constraints, and offer incentive for more intensive input use. This suggests that contract farming may be a critical requirement enabling smallholders to enter into specialized markets.Resumen: Campesinos, mercados y contratos: La integración al mercado de los pequeños productores de Costa RicaFrecuentemente se considera a la agricultura de contrato como un mecanismo apropiado para fomentar la integración campesina en mercados dinámicos. Discutimos los fundamentos que explican la gran variedad en arreglos contractuales entre pequeños productores y empresas agroindustriales en la zona Norte y Central de Costa Rica. Diferentes configuraciones mercantiles inducen condiciones de suministro que varían entre negociaciones en el mercado mismo hasta contratos verbales y escritos. Aquí analizamos qué tipo de productores se relacionan normalmente en cada uno de estos arreglos contractuales, y cuáles son las implicaciones para sus decisiones de producción e inversión. Prestamos especial atención a los efectos de la

  4. Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases in Costa Rica: a feasibility study toward a national screening program

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    Catharina Wesseling

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The integration of mental and neurologic services in healthcare is a global priority. The universal Social Security of Costa Rica aspires to develop national screening of neurodegenerative disorders among the elderly, as part of the non-communicable disease agenda. Objective: This study assessed the feasibility of routine screening for Parkinson's disease (PD and Alzheimer's disease (AD within the public healthcare system of Costa Rica. Design: The population (aged ≥65 in the catchment areas of two primary healthcare clinics was targeted for motor and cognitive screening during routine annual health check-ups. The screening followed a tiered three-step approach, with increasing specificity. Step 1 involved a two-symptom questionnaire (tremor-at-rest; balance and a spiral drawing test for motor assessment, as well as a three-word recall and animal category fluency test for cognitive assessment. Step 2 (for those failing Step 1 was a 10-item version of the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale and the Mini-Mental State Examination. Step 3 (for those failing Step 2 was a comprehensive neurologic exam with definitive diagnosis of PD, AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI, other disorders, or subjects who were healthy. Screening parameters and disease prevalence were calculated. Results: Of the 401 screened subjects (80% of target population, 370 (92%, 163 (45%, and 81 (56% failed in Step 1, Step 2, and Step 3, respectively. Thirty-three, 20, and 35 patients were diagnosed with PD, AD, and MCI, respectively (7 were PD with MCI/AD; 90% were new cases. Step 1 sensitivities of motor and cognitive assessments regarding Step 2 were both 93%, and Step 2 sensitivities regarding definitive diagnosis 100 and 96%, respectively. Specificities for Step 1 motor and cognitive tests were low (23% and 29%, respectively and for Step 2 tests acceptable (76%, 94%. Based on international data, PD prevalence was 3.7 times higher than expected; AD prevalence

  5. Consecutive Flow Events and Propagating Aseismic Slip at the Costa Rica Forearc: Matching Models to Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonte, A.; Brown, K.; Fialko, Y.

    2005-12-01

    Of Chemical Aqueous Transport (CAT) meters placed at the Costa Rica margin Dec. 1999 - Jan. 2000, three meters simultaneously recorded three flow events (Brown et. al. in press). With no seismic activity, but rather a seismic noise record that correlates with fluid pulses, we hypothesize these fluid events are a result of strain imposed by aseismic deformation. This theory is tested using a 3-d finite element modeling package to simulate transient slip events and subsequent poroelastic relaxation. The osmotically driven CAT meters developed at Scripps Hydrogeology and Tectonics Studies Laboratory are capable of detecting both inflow and outflow from the sedimented seafloor at Darcy flow rates of ~10-5 cm/d to 3 cm/d. With its cost efficient design, it was possible to deploy fourteen flow meters with 15 km grid spacing to constrain the flow field over an approximate 50 by 70 km section of the forearc. The three CAT meters located in the out-of-sequence thrust (OOST) zone spanned an along-margin strike distance of 30 km, were 7-12 km from trench, and ~1-1.5 km above the decollement according to a seismic survey. A sequence of three flow events measuring a net flow of 2-6mm and lasting 2-3 weeks was recorded on all three of these instruments at the forearc toe. Amplified sensitivity at one co-located OBS of these three instruments recorded a significant increase in noise averaged over a 12 hour period coinciding with timing of flow events at all three OOST sites. We hypothesize that a strain related to an aseismic event is causing pore pressure variations observed surface fluid flow records. Model simulations help to determine if reasonable dislocation, depth, rupture dimension of aseismic slip, and poroelastic constants for post slip relaxation can generate the flow record captured at the surface. We start by building a realistic representation of geometry at the Costa Rica subduction zone, and using of poroelastic parameters of the sediment and basement determined

  6. EDAD AL PRIMER PARTO EN VACAS HOLSTEIN DE LECHERÍA ESPECIALIZADA EN COSTA RICA

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    Mauren Salazar-Carranza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la edad al primer parto (EPP en vacas Holstein pu- ras en lecherías especializadas de Costa Rica. Se realizó un es- tudio longitudinal prospectivo histórico con 46 029 animales de raza Holstein pura de lechería especializada de Costa Rica, durante el periodo comprendido entre los años 2000 y 2010. Se incluyeron los datos de vacas que contaban con registros completos para todas las variables del estudio, registrados en el programa VAMPP Bovino 3.0. Se calculó la EPP por las variables de zona ecológica, la época de nacimiento, el año de parto, el índice de endogamia, el número de lactancias de la madre y el tipo de parto que dio origen al animal en estudio. Los datos fueron analizados por medio de estadística descrip- tiva (porcentajes, promedios, desviación estándar [DE] y el cálculo de intervalos de confianza (IC95%. La EPP prome- dio fue 30,7 meses (D.E: 6,8; IC 95%: 30,6 – 30,8. Durante el periodo, el promedio de la EPP varió entre los 30 y 31 meses; sin embargo, en los años 2006 y 2007 mostró una tendencia a disminuir. La EPP presentó diferencias significativas entre estratos según la época de nacimiento, el número de lactancia de la madre, la zona ecológica, el año de nacimiento, el tipo de parto de la madre y el coeficiente de endogamia de la vaca. Al igual que las tendencias mundiales, mostró tendencia a decrecer en Costa Rica; y las variables de animal, tiempo y ambiente mostraron un efecto sobre la EPP. Excepto el coefi- ciente de endogamia (a mediano y largo plazo, esos factores no son modificables en condiciones de pastoreo, que son los imperantes en la gran mayoría de fincas estudiadas.

  7. Taxonomy of the freshwater crabs of Costa Rica, with a revision of the genus Ptychophallus Smalley, 1964 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Pseudothelphusidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Célio; Wehrtmann, Ingo S; Lara, Luis Rólier; Mantelatto, Fernando L

    2015-01-13

    The taxonomy and geographic distribution of the freshwater crabs of the family Pseudothelphusidae Ortmann, 1893, of Costa Rica, Central America, particularly of the genus Ptychophallus Smalley, 1964, are revised. Historical materials deposited in major collections of several institutions were examined, as well as valuable collections in the Zoological Museum of the University of Costa Rica that include abundant specimens obtained recently (2007-2010) in the southern region of the country. The pseudothelphusids of Costa Rica consists of 15 currently valid species belonging to Achlidon Smalley, 1964 (two species), Allacanthos Smalley, 1964 (two species), Potamocarcinus H. Milne Edwards, 1853 (three species), and Ptychophallus (eight species). Two species seem to be restricted to the Atlantic drainage, while seven are known only from the Pacific drainage; six species occur in both drainages. Ptychophallus comprises 13 valid species; four new synonymies are proposed: P. osaensis Rodríguez, 2001, P. campylus Pretzmann, 1968, P. tumimanus ingae            Pretzmann, 1978, and P. barbillaensis Rodríguez & Hedström, 2001, as junior synonyms of P. paraxantusi (Bott, 1968), P. tristani (Rathbum 1896), P. tumimanus (Rathbun, 1898), and P. uncinatus Campos & Lemaitre, 1999, respectively. Two species, P. colombianus (Rathbun, 1896) and P. exilipes (Rathbun, 1898), are considered species inquerendae. Lectotype designations are made for P. montanus and P. colombianus. Three species of Ptychophallus are known exclusively from Costa Rica, five exclusively from Panama, and five species occur in both countries; one species appears to be exclusive of the Atlantic drainage, whereas five are known only from the Pacific drainage and seven occur in both drainages. The gonopod morphology of all species is redescribed and illustrated, and maps of their geographic distribution are furnished. A key to the species of Pseudothelphusidae from Costa Rica and to all species of

  8. First report of acariasis by Caparinia tripilis in African hedgehogs, (Atelerix albiventris, in Costa Rica Primeiro relato de acariasis por Caparinia tripilis em ouriços Africanos, (Atelerix albiventris, na Costa Rica

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    Andrés Moreira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The African hedgehog is one of the newly imported exotic pets which have been observed with increasing regularity in veterinary clinics in Costa Rica. Despite their popularity, information about their diseases is scarce. Within skin diseases of hedgehogs, mange caused by Caparinia spp. is a common diagnosis in other countries. Two adult African hedgehogs, one male and one female, were brought to a private clinic in Heredia, Costa Rica, with chronic pruritic dermatitis, scabs, nearly complete loss of spines, lethargy, dehydration, and weight loss. During physical exam, deposits of dry seborrhea were taken and processed for diagnosis. Microscopic examination revealed psoroptid mites identified as Caparinia tripilis. This is the first report of the presence of Caparinia tripilis in Costa Rica and, to the authors' knowledge, the rest of Central America. O ouriço africano é um dos animais de estimação exótico, recém-importado que tem sido observado com maior regularidade nas clínicas veterinárias da Costa Rica. Apesar da sua popularidade, informações sobre suas doenças são escassas. Dentre as doenças de pele de ouriços, a sarna causada por Caparinia spp. é um diagnóstico comum nos outros países. Dois adultos ouriços africanos, um macho e uma fêmea, foram levados para uma clínica particular, em Heredia, Costa Rica, com a dermatite pruriginosa crônica, crostas, perda quase completa de espinhos, letargia, desidratação e perda de peso. Ao exame físico, os depósitos de seborreia seca foram retirados e processados para o diagnóstico. O exame microscópico revelou ácaros (psoroptidae identificados como Caparinia tripilis. Esse é o primeiro relato da presença de Caparinia tripilis na Costa Rica e, para conhecimento dos autores, o resto da América Central.

  9. Estado nutricional de bailarinas de ballet clásico, area metropolitana de Costa Rica Nutritional status of classical ballet dancers, metropolitan area of Costa Rica

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    Elena Madrigal Rojas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El principal objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el estado nutricional de bailarinas de ballet clásico de las tres academias más importantes de ballet localizadas en el Área Metropolitana de Costa Rica. Se trabajó con 24 bailarinas adultas (18 a 30 años de niveles avanzados de ballet. Se registró el consumo de alimentos durante tres días. Se tomaron medidas de talla, peso y pliegues cutáneos. Se recolectaron muestras de sangre para análisis bioquímicos. Se evaluó además la densidad ósea (cadera y lumbar L1, L2, L3, L4 con energía dual de rayos-X. Las actitudes, creencias y riesgo de factores predisponentes a desórdenes alimentarios se evaluaron mediante una entrevista y con la aplicación del Test de Actitudes Alimentarias (EAT-26 e Inventario de Trastornos Alimentarios (EDI. El consumo promedio diario de energía fue considerablemente menor a la recomendación (1880 Kcal/d ± 448 y solamente la niacina y la vitamina B6 fueron consumidas en rangos óptimos. La densidad ósea, hemoglobina y hematocrito estuvieron dentro de los rangos de normalidad. Los resultados de este estudio sugieren que las bailarinas con Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC ≥ 20 Kg/m² tienen dietas más hipocalóricas y mayor riesgo de desórdenes alimentarios. Se necesita investigación en este campo para desarrollar estrategias de educación nutricional que permitan mejorar el estado nutricional y de salud en esta población.The main objective of the present study was to examine the nutritional status of classic ballet dancers from three of the most important ballet academies located in Metropolitan Area of Costa Rica. Study participants included twenty-four adult females (18 to 30 years old of advanced ballet level. Threeday food records were collected from each dancer. Height, body weight and skin fold measurements were completed. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Bone density was measured by dual X-ray energy (hip and lumbar L

  10. Institutional Reform and Rights Revolutions in Latin America: The Cases of Costa Rica and Colombia Reforma institucional y revoluciones de derechos en América Latina. Los casos de Costa Rica y Colombia

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    Bruce M. Wilson

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the conditions that allowed for expansive rights revolutions in Costa Rica and Colombia. My research suggests that many of the preconditions for rights revolutions in other regions of the world are also central to understanding Latin American cases. Of particular relevance is judicial system design including the high courts’ operating rules concerning access, standing, and judicial formality. These factors can and do mitigate the need for extensive resources and support structures necessary in other non-Latin American countries in which rights revolutions have occurred. Este artículo analiza las condiciones que facilitaron el surgimientode revoluciones para promover los derechos en Costa Rica y Colombia.Mi investigación sugiere que muchas de las precondiciones para lasrevoluciones de derechos en otras regiones del mundo también son centralespara entender los casos latinoamericanos. De particular relevancia es eldiseño del sistema judicial, incluyendo las reglas de funcionamiento los detribunales supremos con respecto a acceso, rango y formalidad judicial.Estos factores pueden disminuir la necesidad de recursos extensivos yestructuras de apoyo necesarios en otros paises no latinoamericanos en loscuales revoluciones de derechos han ocurrido.

  11. Postlarval settlement of spiny lobster, Panulirus argus (Latreille, 1804 (Decapoda: Palinuridae, at the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica Asentamiento postlarval en la langosta espinosa, Panulirus argus (Latreille, 1804 (Decapoda: Palinuridae en la costa Caribe de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar González

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Lobster fishery (Panulirus argus forms an important part of the fishing activities along the Caribbean coast of Central America. The present study provides information regarding the seasonal abundance and distribution of postlarval P. argus in Parque Nacional Cahuita, Costa Rica. During the study period (March 2004-February 2005, a total of 1907 pueruli were obtained from GuSi collectors. Postlarvae were present during all months, with a pronounced peak in January-February 2005 (CPUE of 21.82 and 22.18, pueruli/collector/month, respectively, and minor peaks in May and October 2004. The abundance of postlarval P. argus in the study area was comparable to locations which support important lobster fisheries, e.g. Mexico. A majority of the postlarvae (1027 ind. was collected during the first quarter moon, the remaining pueruli (880 ind. during new moon; these results are in general agreement with similar findings for P. argus in the Caribbean area. Based upon our results, we recommend introducing a local or regional monitoring program, studying spiny lobster migration and distribution patterns, and evaluate the introduction of artificial shelters for P. argus.Las capturas de langosta (Panulirus argus son de gran importancia en la actividad pesquera a lo largo de las costas del Caribe de Centroamérica. El presente estudio proporciona información relevante de la abundancia temporal y la distribución de postlarvas de P. argus en el Parque Nacional Cahuita, Costa Rica. Durante el periodo de estudio (Marzo 2004-Febrero 2005, un total de 1907 puérulos fueron obtenidos del colector GuSi. Las postlarvas fueron colectadas durante todos los meses, con máximos en enero-febrero 2005 (CPUE de 21.82 y 22.18, puérulos/colector/mes, respectivamente, y mínimos en mayo y octubre de 2004. La abundancia de postlarvas de P. argus en el estudio es comparada con áreas que soportan importantes pesquerías, p. ej. México. La mayoría de las postlarvas (1027 ind

  12. The magma budget of Volcan Arenal, Costa Rica from 1968 to 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadge, G.

    1983-01-01

    The magma volume emitted by Volcan Arenal, Costa Rica, has been calculated to be 304 x 10 to the 6th cu m. A near-continuous rise from very deep within the crust is proposed as an explanation for Arenal's magma supply, and the long-term seismic pattern is interpreted as individual batches of magma using previously fractured pathways. During a break in activity (1973) the effusion site moved from Crater A to Crater C, approximately 400 m higher. It is maintained that the steady downward tilting of the volcano's summit was caused by the loading of the volcano's western side by about 19 x 10 to the 6th cu m of lava. Also noted is the abrupt decrease in effusion rate compatible with the increased magmatic head needed to reach Crater C. It is concluded that the constancy of magma composition and effusion rate from 1974 to 1980 indicates a homogeneous magma reservoir.

  13. Forest Biomass, Carbon Stocks, and Macrofungal Dynamics: A Case Study in Costa Rica

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    Carlos Rojas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are few published studies providing information about macrofungal biology in a context of forest dynamics in tropical areas. For this study, a characterization of above-ground standing tree biomass and carbon stocks was performed for four different forest subtypes within two life zones in Costa Rica. Fungal productivity and reproductive success were estimated and analyzed in the context of the forest systems studied and results showed fungal dynamics to be a complex and challenging topic. In the present study, fungal productivity was higher in forest patches with more tree density but independent from life zones, whereas fungal biomass was higher in premontane areas with ectomycorrhizal dominant trees. Even though some observed patterns could be explained in terms of climatic differences and biotic relationships, the high fungal productivity observed in dry forests was an interesting finding and represents a topic for further studies.

  14. Essential oils of Persea povedae W.C. Burguer (Lauraceae) of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tree Persea povedae W. C. Burguer, grows in wild form in Costa Rica. The analyses to determine the composition of the essential oils that are extracted from the branches and leaves of the tree were effected by means of gas chromatography technique in capillary column, using Flame Ionization Detector (FID) and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Hundred and ten (110) compounds were identified. The major constituents of the branches are: α-pinene (7,7%), linalool (7,6%), espathulenol (5,1%), α-copaene (4,8), dodecanal (4,4%), Ε-9-dodecenal (4,1%), β -pinene (3,2%), γ-muurolene (3,1%) and α-cadinene (3,0%). The main constituents of the leaves are: Ε-nerolidol (14,6%), pentadecanoic acid (ca. 14%), longipinanol (5,1%), linalool (4,5%), γ-muurolene (3,8%) y espathulenol (3,8%). (author)

  15. Dry season distribution of land crabs, Gecarcinus quadratus (Crustacea: Gecarcinidae), in Corcovado National Park, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Megan E; Mohammad, Basma A; Vega, Andres

    2007-03-01

    The land crab Gecarcinus quadratus is an engineering species that controls nutrient cycling in tropical forests. Factors regulating their coastal distribution are not fully understood. We quantified land crab distribution during the dry season at Sirena Field Station in Corcovado National Park, Costa Rica, and found that land crab burrow density decreases with increasing distance from the ocean. Leaf litter depth and tree seedling density are negatively correlated with land crab burrow density. Burrows are strongly associated with sand substrate and burrow density is comparatively low in clay substrate. Results suggest that G. quadratus is limited to a narrow coastal zone with sand substrate, and this distribution could have profound effects on plant community structure.

  16. Price Adjustment in Costa Rica: A First Assessment Using Micro-Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto José Vindas Quesada

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the pricing adjustment process in Costa Rica, taking a deeper look into the micro-data that make up the Consumer Price Index for the period 2006-2013. The basic question asks if this process resembles time-dependent picing models, or if it resembles more a state-dependent process. This is done analysing a series of random effects regressions to explore the relations between inflation rate, frequency of pricing adjustments and their average magnitude. The main conclusions are that 1 there is considerable heterogeneity between product categories, 2 price decreases follow a very stable pattern that does not depend on the overall inflation rate, 3 the average size of the price increases is influenced by a very small magnitude by the inflation rate, 4 the proportion of prices increasing each month is strongly positively correlated with the inflation rate, and 5 state-dependent specifications fit better these facts.

  17. Rotavirus genotypes in Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras and the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdett-Stanziola, Lurys; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo; Espinoza, Felix; Bucardo, Filemon; Jimenez, Carlos; Ferrera, Annabelle

    2011-01-01

    In this study, 574 stool samples from children with gastroenteritis were obtained from different hospitals in Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua and the Dominican Republic during 2005-2006. Diarrhea stool samples were analyzed for rotavirus (RV) by ELISA and typed by the RT-PCR-based method. Unusual strains were detected: G1P6, G2P8, G3P6, G9P4, and mixed infections. Recent studies have indicated that unusual human RV strains are emerging as global strains, which has important implications for effective vaccine development. In this context, the next generation of RV vaccines will need to provide adequate protection against diseases caused not only by mixed infections, but also by unusual G/P combinations.

  18. Availability of water resources in the rio Bermudez micro-basin. Central Region of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rio Bermudez micro-basin makes up part of the principal hydrological resource area in the Central Region of Costa Rica. For this reason a study was done to determine the availability of hydrological resources in said micro-basin to identify areas with potential water availability problems. A monthly water balance was calculated using land use, geomorphology and climate parameters. From these water balance studies, the amount of available water was calculated and classified into four categories, however, in this micro-basin, only three categories were identified: high, medium and moderate water availability. No areas were identified with low water availability, indicating availability is sufficient; however, there is increasing demand on water resources because over half of the micro-basin area is classified as having moderate water availability. (Author)

  19. Poor alkaloid sequestration by arrow poison frogs of the genus Phyllobates from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebs, Dietrich; Alvarez, Joseph Vargas; Pogoda, Werner; Toennes, Stefan W; Köhler, Gunther

    2014-03-01

    Frogs of the genus Phyllobates from Colombia are known to contain the highly toxic alkaloid batrachotoxin, but species from Central America exhibit only very low levels or are entirely free of this toxin. In the present study alcohol extracts from 101 specimens of Phyllobates lugubris and Phyllobates vittatus and 21 of three sympatric species (Dendrobates pumilio, Dendrobates auratus, Dendrobates granuliferus) from Costa Rica were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Whereas the extracts of the Dendrobates species exhibited typical profiles of toxic alkaloids, those of the two Phyllobates species contained low levels of few alkaloids only, batrachotoxin was not detected. Although the feeding pattern of the Dendrobates and Phyllobates species are similar as revealed by examination of their stomach content (mainly ants and mites), the Phyllobates species are poorly sequestering alkaloids from their food source in contrast to the Dendrobates frogs. PMID:24467995

  20. Rastreo Estadístico Espacio-Temporal y Fiebre Dengue en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonilla, Roger

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio es presentar los resultados de una aplicación de rastreo estadístico espacio-temporal (space-time scan statistic para la evaluación de los sistemas de alarmas tempranas en los casos de fiebre dengue reportados en Costa Rica entre el período 1997-2003. Los excesivos casos observados de fiebre dengue en la Cuenca del Golfo de Nicoya fueron estadísticamente significativos (p 0.05. El rastreo estadístico espacio-temporal es una herramienta muy útil en el proceso de toma de decisiones. El método ayuda a decidir en qué regiones críticas o conglomerados (clusters merece dirigir los esfuerzos para la prevención del dengue, por ser estadísticamente significativos y en qué regiones estudiar con detalle las ocurrencias.

  1. Shewanella algae en un paciente con diarrea crónica. Primer caso en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Molina- Guevara

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino, vecino de Pavas-San José, con historia de diarrea crónica. En el coprocultivo se identificó Shewanella algae. Casos de infección en humanos por esta bacteria son raros y se han encontrado, predominantemente localizadas, en piel, oídos y tejidos blandos con o sin bacteremia, en la mayoría de los cuales existe el antecedente de contacto con ambientes marinos. Shewanella algae es sensible a aminoglicósidos, carbapenemes, eritromicina y quinolonas, pero resistente a penicilinas. La sensibilidad a ampicilina y cefalosporinas es variable. Nuestro paciente fue tratado con cefalexina y tuvo una respuesta satisfactoria al mismo, con cese de los síntomas. De acuerdo con nuestro conocimiento este el primer caso documentado, en Costa Rica, de infección gastrointestinal por esta bacteria.

  2. Rights to Land, Forests and Carbon in REDD+: Insights from Mexico, Brazil and Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Pacheco

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Land tenure and carbon rights constitute critical issues to take into account in achieving emission reductions, ensuring transparent benefit sharing and determining non-permanence (or non-compliance liabilities in the context of REDD+ strategies and projects. This is so because tenure systems influence who becomes involved in efforts to avoid deforestation and improve forest management, and that land tenure, carbon rights and liabilities may be linked or divorced with implications for rural development. This paper explores these issues by looking at tenure regimes and carbon rights issues in Mexico, Brazil and Costa Rica. It is effectively shown that complex bundles of rights over forest resources have distinct implications for REDD+ design and implementation, and that REDD+ strategies in selected countries have to date failed in procedurally addressing land-use conflicts and carbon rights entitlements and liabilities.

  3. Serological Detection of Viral Infections in Captive Wild Cats from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Kinndle; Peña, Roberto; Hernández, Carmen; Jiménez, Mauricio; Araya, Luis Nazario; Romero, Juan José; Dolz, Gaby

    2011-01-01

    Serum samples from a total of 44 wildcats, 28 margays (Leopardus wiedii), 10 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), four jaguaroundis (Herpailurus yaguaroundi), one oncilla (Leopardus tigrina), and one jaguar (Panthera onca) were obtained between January 2001 and August 2002 from the Profelis Centre for rehabilitation of wild felids, located in the northwestern region of Costa Rica. Forty three samples were tested for antibodies against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and p27 antigen of feline leukemia virus (FeLV), 42 samples for antibodies against feline parvovirus (FPV), and 30 for antibodies against feline calicivirus (FCV). None of the samples contained detectable antibodies against FIV or p27 antigen of FeLV, all samples contained antibodies against FPV, and one sample contained antibodies against FCV. PMID:21547230

  4. Serological Detection of Viral Infections in Captive Wild Cats from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinndle Blanco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum samples from a total of 44 wildcats, 28 margays (Leopardus wiedii, 10 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis, four jaguaroundis (Herpailurus yaguaroundi, one oncilla (Leopardus tigrina, and one jaguar (Panthera onca were obtained between January 2001 and August 2002 from the Profelis Centre for rehabilitation of wild felids, located in the northwestern region of Costa Rica. Forty three samples were tested for antibodies against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV and p27 antigen of feline leukemia virus (FeLV, 42 samples for antibodies against feline parvovirus (FPV, and 30 for antibodies against feline calicivirus (FCV. None of the samples contained detectable antibodies against FIV or p27 antigen of FeLV, all samples contained antibodies against FPV, and one sample contained antibodies against FCV.

  5. Microbial Community Analysis of the Costa Rica Margin from a Metagenomic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon Zayas, R. I.; Martino, A. J.; House, C. H.; Biddle, J.

    2015-12-01

    The taxonomic distribution and metabolic capabilities of microbial communities in the subseafloor are poorly understood. In this study we aimed to analyze the microbial community of samples obtained from the Costa Rica margin in two different sites, one where three samples were collected at 2 meters below the sea floor (mbsf), 33 mbsf and 93 mbsf, and another from 22 mbsf to 45 mbsf. Whole community analysis of conserved gene markers show that the microbial community varies with depth, in composition as well as in average genome size. Genome sizes do not increase with depth and metabolic strategies change with streamlined functions at depth. Specific metabolic processes are found to be performed by distinct members of the microbial community. Changes within the microbial populations related to depth, age and geochemistry are able to be investigated.

  6. Un bilan des enjeux et impacts de l’écotourisme au Costa Rica

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    Fabiola Nicolas

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionS’étirant sur 520 000 km², l’Amérique centrale est une région constituée d’un long isthme étroit formé entre l’Amérique du Nord et l’Amérique du Sud. Outre la péninsule du Yucatan et du Mexique, cette région comprend du Nord au Sud, sept états dont le Guatemala, le Belize, le Salvador, le Honduras, le Nicaragua, le Costa Rica et le Panama.Cette région fut marquée pour son instabilité économique, sociale et politique et à ce titre, elle a longtemps été perçue – et le reste encore –...

  7. Features of atopies in students from the Facultad de Odontologia at the Universidad de Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prevalence and characteristics of atopies are determined in students of second to sixth year of the Career of Odontology at the Universidad de Costa Rica. The prevalence of allergies in students is determined by questionnaire. The concepts of atopy and sensitization process are explained. Different types of hypersensitivity reactions and clinical manifestations are described. Dental materials that commonly produce allergic reactions are identified. The relationship between atopy and other systemic diseases are determined. The clinical manifestation of allergic reaction is mentioned when it is triggered by drugs, food and dental materials. The second year students have shown a prevalence of 3% and the third year to more than 13%, representing a significant difference by year studied. An increase in the prevalence of allergic reactions has been according it advances in the career due to a greater exposure to dental materials

  8. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Acanthamoeba Strains from Dental Units in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retana-Moreira, Lissette; Abrahams-Sandí, Elizabeth; Castro-Artavia, Esteban; Fernández-Sánchez, Ana; Castro-Castillo, Alfredo; Reyes-Batlle, María; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Free-living amoebae are protozoa widely distributed in nature, which can be found in a variety of environments. Four genera are recognized as causal agents of infections in humans and animals: Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, Balamuthia, and Sappinia. In this study, the presence of Acanthamoeba in dental units was determined and the isolates obtained were molecularly characterized; osmotolerance and thermotolerance assays were also performed to evaluate multiplication under these conditions, frequently associated with pathogenicity. The morphological analysis and partial sequencing of the 18S rDNA gene revealed the presence of Acanthamoeba genotype T4 in 14% of the units sampled. Osmotolerance and thermotolerance tests were positive for more than 80% of the isolates. Up to date, this is the first study that reports the detection, identification, and genotyping of Acanthamoeba isolated from dental units in Costa Rica and even in Latin-America. Further assays to determine the potential pathogenicity of these Acanthamoeba isolates are underway.

  9. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Costa Rica, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $2.8 million of Agency support received, Costa Rica ranks 49th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958-1991. Over half of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (52%), followed by expert services (37%) and training (11%). Sixty-two per cent of the resources were made available through the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund, while 37% of the resources were provided by UNDP. The rest was made available through extrabudgetary contributions (5%) and through in-kind assistance (1%). With regard to project disbursement by sector, the largest areas have been nuclear raw materials (36%), nuclear physics and chemistry (24%) and agriculture (20%). Smaller shares have gone to hydrology (11%) and nuclear medicine (8%)

  10. Serological detection of viral infections in captive wild cats from costa rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Kinndle; Peña, Roberto; Hernández, Carmen; Jiménez, Mauricio; Araya, Luis Nazario; Romero, Juan José; Dolz, Gaby

    2011-01-01

    Serum samples from a total of 44 wildcats, 28 margays (Leopardus wiedii), 10 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), four jaguaroundis (Herpailurus yaguaroundi), one oncilla (Leopardus tigrina), and one jaguar (Panthera onca) were obtained between January 2001 and August 2002 from the Profelis Centre for rehabilitation of wild felids, located in the northwestern region of Costa Rica. Forty three samples were tested for antibodies against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and p27 antigen of feline leukemia virus (FeLV), 42 samples for antibodies against feline parvovirus (FPV), and 30 for antibodies against feline calicivirus (FCV). None of the samples contained detectable antibodies against FIV or p27 antigen of FeLV, all samples contained antibodies against FPV, and one sample contained antibodies against FCV. PMID:21547230

  11. Water footprint in drylands: the case of sun and beach tourism in Guanacaste (Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Hernández

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly elaborates on the uses of water in services and activities related to sun and beach tourism in dry regions such as Guanacaste, in the North Pacific of Costa Rica. The concept of water footprint is used to understand the relationship between tourism and water consumption. This document discusses the implications of this approach of consumption, especially in dry environments that depend on underground extraction of water. The information comes from secondary sources review and its contextualization to the case of Guanacaste. The purpose of this paper is to provide some orientation to the discussions taking place among several involved participants in the area about the usage of water in dry environments and how this orientation should manifest itself in public policies that guide water management.

  12. Ordenación de espacios naturales: Los Cerros de Escazú (Costa Rica)

    OpenAIRE

    Zúñiga Venegas, William

    2004-01-01

    La presente tesis doctoral se realizó en Costa Rica, país del Istmo Centroamericano que ocupa el tercer lugar en extensión entre los siete países que lo integran, con un territorio de 51.100km2 y una población de 3.824.593 habitantes. De su extensión terrestre, por lo menos el 26% (13 286km2), cuenta con algún tipo de figura legal de protección ya sea ambiental o de los recursos naturales. El área específica de la investigación se localiza en la Zona Protectora de los Cerros de Escazú; que c...

  13. [The mangrove and others vegetation associations in de Gandoca lagoon, Limón, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, M; Fonseca, A C; Cortés, J

    2001-12-01

    Six plant associations were identified at Gandoca Lagoon by photointerpretation and field verification: a) mangroves, b) palm trees swamp, and palm trees with Acrostichum aureum and A. danaefolium, c) mixed palm trees, d) very humid tropical rain forest, and e) tropical beach vegetation. The mangroves cover 12.5 ha surrounding the lagoon and extend 2 km up the Gandoca River. Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove) was the dominant species, with Avicennia germinans (black mangrove), Laguncularia racemosa (white mangrove) and Conocarpus erectus (buttonwood) also present. Moving inland the mangroves grade into a tropical rain forest. Gandoca, the largest and best preserved mangrove of Caribbean Costa Rica, tripled its area from 1976 to 2000. Possible causes include sedimentation and the Limón earthquake, which may have subside the lagoon area. PMID:15264546

  14. Mitos que manejan padres y madres acerca del autismo en Costa Rica

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    Cabezas Pizarro, Hannia

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este estudio pretende identificar los principales mitos y creencias que sostienen los padres y madres acerca del autismo en Costa Rica.La confusión no se da solo en padres y familiares de personas con autismo, sino también en profesionales que trabajan directa o indirectamente con esta población. Una posible causa de los errores respecto a esta discapacidad, es el manejo de una limitada información que da origen a una serie de mitos y valoraciones erróneas de lo que es el autismo como síndrome, y lo que las personas que lo presentan son en realidad.Lo anterior ha generado una cantidad de creencias, sin fundamento, acerca de su origen, evolución, tratamiento y “curas mágicas”, que pueden y tienen efectos nocivos en el organismo y en la psicología de las personas que lo padecen, y producen en sus padres más confusión y frustración.Abstract: It is supposed that confusion, about what autism is and which is it etiology, treatment and prognosis, is share by parents and also by professionals that work with Costa Rican autistic children.A probable source of confusion is a lack of information on this disorder, which leads to create myths and believes based on irrational ideas about what autism is as a syndrome and, the particular behavioral characteristics of people carrying on this syndrome.The basic goal of this study is to identify the myths and believes that, Costa Rican parents, hold about the different aspects of autism and the people that carry this syndrome and, based on the collected information to create means to bring appropriate information on those areas it is needed.

  15. Matrix of occupational exposures to carcinogenic agents and pesticides in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European data system CAREX converts national numbers of workers in 55 sectors and estimated proportions of workers exposed to carcinogenic agents into numbers of workers exposed to each agent. CAREX is applied and modified in Costa Rica (TICAREX) for the first time outside Europe. 27 carcinogenic agents and 7 groups of pesticides were included. Numbers of exposed were estimated separately for men and women. The most frequent agents in the 1.3 million labor force of Costa Rica were solar radiation (333,000 workers); diesel engine emissions (278,000); paraquat and diquat (175,000); environmental tobacco smoke (71,000); chromium (VI) compounds (55,000); benzene (52,000); mancozeb, maneb and zineb (49,000); chlorothalonil (38,000); wood dust (32,000); silica dust (27,000); benomyl (19,000); lead and its inorganic compounds (19,000); tetrachloroethylene (18,000); and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (17,000). Owing to the different occupational distribution between the genders, formaldehyde, radon and methylene chloride were more frequent than pesticides, chromium (VI), wood dust, and silica dust in women. Agriculture, construction, personal and domestic services, land and water transport and allied services, pottery and similar industries, manufacture of wood products, mining, forestry, fishing, manufacture of electric products, and bars and restaurants were sectors with frequent exposures. Substantial reduction of occupational and environmental exposures to these agents would improve considerably public and occupational health. Reduction of occupational exposures is usually also followed by improvement of environmental quality. Monitoring of exposures and health of workers and the general public is essential in the control of environmental contamination and human exposures. This report presents details of the exposures matrix, which is the basis of TICAREX. (author)

  16. Serosurveillance of infectious agents in equines of the Central Valley of Costa Rica

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    D. Jiménez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples from 181 equines from the Central Valley of Costa Rica were collected in the year 2012 to determine the presence of antibodies against selected infectious agents in horses and to determine the risk factors associated with these agents. The presence of antibodies against Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV, Equine Herpes Virus 1 and 4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4, West Nile Virus (WNV, Influenza A Virus (IAV, Equine Viral Arteritis Virus (EVAV, Babesia caballi, Theileria equi, Neospora caninum and Chlamydia abortus was determined using commercial assays, and risk factors associated with seropositivity to the different infectious agents was established. The most seroprevalent agent detected was EHV-4 (96.7%, followed by WNV (44.2%, and IAV (41.8%. Horses >3 years, used for work or sports, and with access to pastures, had significantly increased probability to be seropositive to WNV, whereas horses used for breeding and recreational purposes, being stabled, and without access to pastures, had significantly greater probability to be seropositive to IAV. Seroprevalence to B. caballi (19.9% was lower than to T. equi (38.1%. For B. caballi, access to pastures was determined as a risk factor, whereas being older than 3 years was established as a risk factor for T. equi. Low seroprevalences were determined for EHV-1 (5.0%, EVAV (5.0%, C. abortus (4.8%, and N. caninum (4.4%. Mares having history of abortion were more likely to be seropositive to EHV-1, whereas horses >3 years, used for work and sports, and mares having multiple parturitions, were more likely to be seropositive to N. caninum. None of the horses were seropositive to EIAV. Earlier, only diseases caused by EIAV, WNV and piroplasmosis were reported in Costa Rica. The present study however, determined the presence of carriers for EHV-1, EHV-4, and EIAV.

  17. Identifying and assessing ecotourism visitor impacts at selected protected areas in Costa Rica and Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, T.A.; Marion, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Protected area visitation is an important component of ecotourism, and as such, must be sustainable. However, protected area visitation may degrade natural resources, particularly in areas of concentrated visitor activities like trails and recreation sites. This is an important concern in ecotourism destinations such as Belize and Costa Rica, because they actively promote ecotourism and emphasize the pristine qualities of their natural resources. Research on visitor impacts to protected areas has many potential applications in protected area management, though it has not been widely applied in Central and South America. This study targeted this deficiency through manager interviews and evaluations of alternative impact assessment procedures at eight protected areas in Belize and Costa Rica. Impact assessment procedures included qualitative condition class systems, ratings systems, and measurement-based systems applied to trails and recreation sites. The resulting data characterize manager perceptions of impact problems, document trail and recreation site impacts, and provide examples of inexpensive, efficient and effective rapid impact assessment procedures. Interview subjects reported a variety of impacts affecting trails, recreation sites, wildlife, water, attraction features and other resources. Standardized assessment procedures were developed and applied to record trail and recreation site impacts. Impacts affecting the study areas included trail proliferation, erosion and widening, muddiness on trails, vegetation cover loss, soil and root exposure, and tree damage on recreation sites. The findings also illustrate the types of assessment data yielded by several alternative methods and demonstrate their utility to protected area managers. The need for additional rapid assessment procedures for wildlife, water, attraction feature and other resource impacts was also identified.

  18. El Nino Southern Oscillation and vegetation dynamics as predictors of dengue fever cases in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are growing health concerns throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. This study focuses on Costa Rica, which experienced over 100 000 cases of DF/DHF from 2003 to 2007. We utilized data on sea-surface temperature anomalies related to the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and two vegetation indices derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) from the Terra satellite to model the influence of climate and vegetation dynamics on DF/DHF cases in Costa Rica. Cross-correlations were calculated to evaluate both positive and negative lag effects on the relationships between independent variables and DF/DHF cases. The model, which utilizes a sinusoid and non-linear least squares to fit case data, was able to explain 83% of the variance in weekly DF/DHF cases when independent variables were shifted backwards in time. When the independent variables were shifted forward in time, consistently with a forecasting approach, the model explained 64% of the variance. Importantly, when five ENSO and two vegetation indices were included, the model reproduced a major DF/DHF epidemic of 2005. The unexplained variance in the model may be due to herd immunity and vector control measures, although information regarding these aspects of the disease system are generally lacking. Our analysis suggests that the model may be used to predict DF/DHF outbreaks as early as 40 weeks in advance and may also provide valuable information on the magnitude of future epidemics. In its current form it may be used to inform national vector control programs and policies regarding control measures; it is the first climate-based dengue model developed for this country and is potentially scalable to the broader region of Latin America and the Caribbean where dramatic increases in DF/DHF incidence and spread have been observed.

  19. Auto-reporte de problemas de salud relacionados con nutrición en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Chinnock

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analizar la prevalencia de problemas de salud relacionados con nutrición auto reportados en diferentes comunidades de Costa Rica entre 1994 y 2012. Métodos: se analiza datos recolectados entre 1994 y 2012 por estudiantes de la Escuela de Nutrición, Universidad de Costa Rica. Las familias encuestadas fueron seleccionadas por muestra probabilística de tipo aleatorio simple y por medio de entrevistas a las madres u otro adulto de la familia, se recolectó datos sobre 12 problemas de salud relacionados con nutrición. En caso de obtener una respuesta afirmativa, se preguntó por el tipo de diagnóstico y si la persona seguía algún tipo de control o tratamiento. Se calculó la frecuencia del reporte de cada problema por comunidad en total y de cada grupo de edad. Resultados: En todas las comunidades encuestadas a partir de 2006, más de 90% de las familias reportan tener en uno o más de sus miembros, por lo menos uno de los problemas de salud y a partir de 1997, de las 22 comunidades con datos disponibles, en 17 más del 50% de las personas pertenecientes a las familias encuestadas, reportan uno o más de los 12 problemas de salud. Los problemas de salud reportado por más de 10 % de la población encuestada en la mayoría de las comunidades fueron: gastritis, caries dental, exceso de peso e hipertensión arterial. Conclusión: se encontró una alta prevalencia de problemas de salud relacionados con nutrición y reportados en las comunidades encuestadas.

  20. Vigilancia sanitaria del agua: un nuevo enfoque para municipalidades de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Valiente

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Los programas de vigilancia sanitaria constituyen el nuevo enfoque para complementar los programas de control de calidad del agua y consisten en la aplicación de una metodología que permite determinar el grado de riesgo para la salud que presentan los sistemas de agua para consumo humano. En el presente trabajo se presenta el desarrollo y adaptación de un Programa de Vigilancia Sanitaria para ser utilizado en Costa Rica. Este programa se basa principalmente en determinar el grado de riesgo para la salud que posee un acueducto, relacionando el nivel de contaminación fecal con el grado de la inspección sanitaria obtenido a partir de encuestas de campo. Los alcances del programa son proveer una plataforma para dar prioridad racional a las inversiones en el sector agua y unifica esfuerzos entre los dos roles importantes en esta área, el de las instituciones encargadas del abastecimiento de agua y el ente rector o autoridad reguladora en el campo del agua y la salud. Inicialmente, para implementar este programa se seleccionaron las Municipales de Costa Rica, de las 81 municipalidades existentes, 37 operan sistemas de suministro de agua para un total de 243 acueductos. El programa fue implementado durante los años 1996 y 1997. Se presentan para ilustración los resultados obtenidos en dos acueductos pertenecientes a las municipalidades de Cartago y San Marcos de Tarrazú. La ventaja de este tipo de programas sobre otros de control de calidad, radica principalmente en poder determinar el estado en que se encuentran las estructuras del acueducto y no solo su calidad, con el fin de establecer las prioridades para una inversión eficiente de los recursos existentes y así evitar la exposición de los usuarios a enfermedades de transmisión hídrica.

  1. Insecticide resistance in two Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) strains from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisset, J A; Marín, R; Rodríguez, M M; Severson, D W; Ricardo, Y; French, L; Díaz, M; Pérez, O

    2013-03-01

    Dengue (family Flaviridae, genus Flavivirus, DENV) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are presently important public health problems in Costa Rica. The primary strategy for disease control is based on reducing population densities of the main mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). This is heavily dependent on use of chemical insecticides, thus the development of resistance is a frequent threat to control program effectiveness. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of insecticide resistance and the metabolic resistance mechanisms involved in two Ae. aegypti strains collected from two provinces (Puntarenas and Limon) in Costa Rica. Bioassays with larvae were performed according to World Health Organization guidelines and resistance in adults was measured through standard bottle assays. The activities of beta-esterases, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, and glutathione S-transferases (GST), were assayed through synergists and biochemical tests, wherein the threshold criteria for each enzyme was established using the susceptible Rockefeller strain. The results showed higher resistance levels to the organophosphate (OP) temephos and the pyrethroid deltamethrin in larvae. The efficacy of commercial formulations of temephos in controlling Ae. aegypti populations was 100% mortality up to 11 and 12 d posttreatment with daily water replacements in test containers. Temephos and deltamethrin resistance in larvae were associated with high esterase activity, but not to cytochrome P450 monooxygenase or GST activities. Adult mosquitoes were resistant to deltamethrin, and susceptible to bendiocarb, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin. Because temephos and deltamethrin resistance are emerging at the studied sites, alternative insecticides should be considered. The insecticides chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin could be good candidates to use as alternatives for Ae. aegypti control. PMID:23540124

  2. [Microbiological quality of street sold fruits in San José, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, R; Arias, M L; Antillón, F; Utzinger, D

    1995-06-01

    The sanitary quality of street sold fruits was analyzed during the period from march 1990 thru march 1993 in San Jose, Costa Rica. It looked for the presence of Salmonella spp. Shigella spp., Escherichia coli as well as fecal coliforms in natural refreshments, fruit salads and the fruits most frecuently expended on streets, either in slices as the pineapple (Ananas comosus), papaya (Carica papaya), non-ripe mangoe (Mangifera indica) and watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) and those that can be eaten without peeling, like nances (Byrsonima crassifolia) and jocotes (Spondias purpurea). 25 samples of each fruit, 50 natural refreshments and 50 fruit salads were processed according to rinse solution method, and the bacteriological determination was based in the methodology described by Vanderzant & Splittstoesser and the Bacteriological Analytical Manual. In the same way, it was used the Most Probable Number for 5 tubes described in the Standar Methods of Water and Wastewater in orden to analyze 15 samples of ready to use water by the fruit hawker. The nutritional value was studied according to the food composition tables for Costa Rica, Latin America and USA. The results show that more than 30% of fruit samples, 70% of natural refreshments and 96% of fruit salad presented fecal coliforms. Same time, all of them present important contamination indexes with E. coli. Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were not isolated. The water analysis revelead that 53% contained fecal coliforms, probably due to the lack of hygiene in the utensils used to collect water. The nutritional evaluation shows that fruit portions (except watermelon) satisfy more than 100% of the diary recommendation of vitamin C (60 mg) and 4-7% of the recommended ingestion of dietetic fiber (30g).

  3. Análisis de eficiencia relativa de hospitales públicos de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melvin Morera-Salas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de eficiencia relativa hospitalaria resulta un tema trascendental para la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social, dado que le permite determinar cuáles de los hospitales presentan un mejor desempeño relativo y cuáles podrían mejorar el uso de los recursos. El objetivo es analizar la eficiencia técnica hospitalaria en Costa Rica. Se utilizaron datos del 2012-2013 para los hospitales generales de la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social. Para determinar la eficiencia hospitalaria se utiliza el análisis envolvente de datos con dos insumos: gasto en hospitalización y las camas y tres productos: actividad hospitalaria ajustada por casuística, índice de funcionamiento e índice de mortalidad intrahospitalaria ajustada por riesgo. Los resultados muestran que el nivel de eficiencia varía sustancialmente entre los 23 hospitales analizados. En 2013, un 30% de los hospitales resultó ser eficiente técnicamente, situación que mejoró levente respecto a 2012. Este trabajo es una primera aproximación del análisis de eficiencia de los hospitales públicos de Costa Rica. Se realizó un esfuerzo para homogenizar los datos, al ajustar las variables para considerar la complejidad y el riesgo de los casos que maneja cada hospital, de tal forma que los resultados sean comparables entre centros de diferentes tamaño y complejidad. Como conclusión se tiene que el 70% de los hospitales puede mejorar el uso de los recursos.

  4. Apuntes sobre la historia de la cirugía cardiaca en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Gutiérrez-Aguilar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available La historia de la cirugía cardiaca en Costa Rica, señala tres fechas fundamentales de las que por azares del destino he sido testigo directo o indirecto. 1 de Mayo de 1917. Primera sutura de una herida del corazón en Costa Rica. El 9 de setiembre de 1896 el alemán Ludwig Rehn, sutura con éxito una herida del corazón de un jardinero de 22 años, esa fecha es reconocida en todo el mundo como el inicio de la cirugía cardiaca, acabando así con el mito de la inviolabilidad quirúrgica de ese órgano y borrando la frase del influyente cirujano Theodore Billroth: “El cirujano que trate de suturar una herida del corazón, perderá el respeto de sus colegas”. Doce años después, el joven alajuelense Julio Aguilar Soto se graduaba como médico en la prestigiosa universidad de Tulane en Louisiana, habiendo recibido entrenamiento en cirugía de torax con el Dr. Rudolph Matas, histórico pionero en ese campo. Pronto formaría parte de un distinguido grupo de cirujanos que hacían verdaderos prodigios en el Hospital San Juan de Dios, como el que ocurrió el primero de mayo de 1917 y al que el Dr. Aguilar Soto evitaba referirse, de acuerdo a su personalidad de sólidos conocimientos científicos, pero ajeno a los elogios y reconocimientos externos, soy testigo de ello, ya que gracias a un parentesco familiar lo pude conocer y departir con él varias veces allá por los años 60.

  5. Drogas en Costa Rica: características y desafíos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulay Calvo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluación de las características de las publicaciones sobre drogas realizadas en Costa Rica entre 1966 y 2010. Materiales y Métodos: Análisis bibliométrico de los trabajos compilados en la serie “Investigaciones sobre Alcoholismo y Farmacodependencia” que publica el Instituto sobre Alcoholismo y Farmacodependencia de Costa Rica de publicación quinquenal. Dicha serie se construyó a partir de una hoja de registro con diversas características de interés, tras realizarse una consulta de los catálogos y bases de datos de las bibliotecas y centros de documentación de diferentes instituciones. Resultados: Se estudiaron 491publicaciones. Una tercera parte se publicó en revistas científicas en tanto las publicaciones monográficas y los libros ocuparon, respectivamente, un 33 y un 6 % del total. Cerca de una tercera parte de los trabajos son investigaciones epidemiológicas y la droga mayormente investigada fue el alcohol, en ámbitos poblacionales que comprendieron las evaluaciones en la población general, los sujetos en calidad de pacientes y el sector infancia y juventud. Discusión: Se destaca el papel que ha correspondido a las ciencias sociales en el terreno del conocimiento sobre drogas, la importancia y necesidad de una mayor presencia femenina en la producción de dichos conocimientos y la exploración del fenómeno mediante alternativas que supongan un mayor énfasis tanto en el paradigma cualitativo como en el experimental y cuasi experimental para el abordaje de las complejidades que el tema exige.

  6. Fishery biology of jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas off Costa Rica Dome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinjun; Li, Jianghua; Liu, Bilin; Li, Gang; Lu, Huajie

    2014-06-01

    The jumbo flying squid ( Dosidicus gigas) population was surveyed with the help of Chinese squid jigging vessels off the Costa Rica Dome (4°-11°N, 90°-100°W) in 2009 and 2010. The daily catch of D. gigas in the two survey cruises ranged from 0 to 5.5 t and was mostly obtained from the areas bounded by 6°-9°N and 91°-94°W and by 6°30'-7°30'N and 96°-97°W. The sea surface temperature in the areas yielding the most catch ranged from 27.5 to 29°C. The sex ratio of the total catch was 3.75:1 (female: male). The mantle length of the squid ranged from 211 to 355 mm (male) and from 204 to 429 mm (female) with an average of 297.9 and 306.7 mm, respectively. In the relationship of the mantle length (mm) and body weight (g) of the squid, there was no significant difference between sexes. The female and male were at a similar maturity, and most individuals are maturing or have matured with a few females being spent. The size (mantle length) and age at the first sexual maturity were 297 mm and 195 d in females, and less than 211 mm and 130 d in males, respectively. Most of the sampled stomachs (70.6%) had no food remains. The major preys of the squids were fish, cephalopods and crustaceans, with the most abundant Myctophum orientale and D. gigas. The preys in more than 65% of the non-empty sampled stomachs evidenced the cannibalism of D. gigas. The results improved current understanding of the fishery biology of D. gigas off the Costa Rica Dome, which may facilitate the assessment and management of relative fishery resources.

  7. [Environmental response in the Pacific to aseismic Cocos Ridge subduction (Panama and Costa Rica)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gracia, Carlos; O'Dea, Aaron; Rodríguez, Félix; D'Croz, Luis

    2012-06-01

    The evolution of the marine communities along the Pacific coast of Central America, may have changed in response to the formation of the Isthmus of Panama. To evaluate the effect of the Aseismic Cocos Ridge (DAC) subduction on the marine benthic communities, we reconstructed benthic assemblages from Neogene fossiliferous formations in Burica and Nicoya peninsulas of Panama and Costa Rica. Paleoecological and paleoenvironmental conditions were reconstructed by comparing community structure from bulk fossil samples with dredge collections from modern Tropical American seas, using principal component analysis. Our results indicate that during the early Pliocene, before the closing of the Isthmus, some oceanic islands existed with moderate upwelling in the Burica region. After the closure, during the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene the collision of the DAC caused an uplift of the seafloor, where water depth of 2 300m became shallow waters of less than 40m depth. Meanwhile, upwelling intensified in the open ocean the uplift that had formed small islands in coastal areas of Burica, creating protected areas and limiting the upwelling effect that was given in open ocean. The subduction of the DAC continued until the islands were joined to the mainland and gradually disappeared, allowing the return of the upwelling. During the middle Pleistocene a second process of accelerated uplift with speeds of 8m/1000 years provoked again the elevation of the seafloor and later the elevation of the Talamanca Range. The new range formed a barrier that blocked the passage of the Trade winds, created new ecological conditions and optimized and allowed the growth of the best coral reefs in the coasts of the tropical Eastern Pacific (POT) between Panama and Costa Rica.

  8. Dynamics of Ecosystem Services during Forest Transitions in Reventazón, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, Améline; Locatelli, Bruno; Levrel, Harold; Brenes Pérez, Christian; Imbach, Pablo; Estrada Carmona, Natalia; Manlay, Raphaël; Oszwald, Johan

    2016-01-01

    The forest transition framework describes the temporal changes of forest areas with economic development. A first phase of forest contraction is followed by a second phase of expansion once a turning point is reached. This framework does not differentiate forest types or ecosystem services, and describes forests regardless of their contribution to human well-being. For several decades, deforestation in many tropical regions has degraded ecosystem services, such as watershed regulation, while increasing provisioning services from agriculture, for example, food. Forest transitions and expansion have been observed in some countries, but their consequences for ecosystem services are often unclear. We analyzed the implications of forest cover change on ecosystem services in Costa Rica, where a forest transition has been suggested. A review of literature and secondary data on forest and ecosystem services in Costa Rica indicated that forest transition might have led to an ecosystem services transition. We modeled and mapped the changes of selected ecosystem services in the upper part of the Reventazón watershed and analyzed how supply changed over time in order to identify possible transitions in ecosystem services. The modeled changes of ecosystem services is similar to the second phase of a forest transition but no turning point was identified, probably because of the limited temporal scope of the analysis. Trends of provisioning and regulating services and their tradeoffs were opposite in different spatial subunits of our study area, which highlights the importance of scale in the analysis of ecosystem services and forest transitions. The ecosystem services transition framework proposed in this study is useful for analyzing the temporal changes of ecosystem services and linking socio-economic drivers to ecosystem services demand at different scales.

  9. Pesticides in blood from spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus) downstream of banana plantations in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Paul B C; Woudneh, Million B; Ross, Peter S

    2013-11-01

    Spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus) are fish-eating crocodilians that inhabit freshwater habitat in tropical regions of the Americas. To assess the exposure of caiman to pesticides from banana plantations, the authors collected whole blood samples (30 mL) from 14 adult caiman that were captured in the North Atlantic region of Costa Rica. Blood samples were analyzed for 70 legacy- and current-use pesticides and breakdown products using newly developed ultra-trace, high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Caiman accumulated pesticides ranked by concentration as dieldrin > permethrin > mirex > 4,4'-DDE > alpha-endosulfan > heptachlor epoxide > oxychlordane > heptachlor > cypermethrin. Caiman within the high-intensity banana crop watershed of Rio Suerte had higher pesticide burdens relative to other more remote locations (F = 12.79; p = 0.00). Pesticide concentration decreased with distance from upstream banana plantations in this river system (F = 20.76; p = 0.00). Caiman body condition was negatively correlated with total pesticide concentrations (F = 6.23; p = 0.02) and with proximity to banana plantations (F = 5.05; p = 0.04). This suggests that either pesticides elicited toxic effects in caiman, resulting in diminished overall health, or that the quantity or quality of their prey was reduced by pesticides downstream of plantation waterways. The authors' results indicate that pesticide use in banana plantations is impacting a high trophic level species inhabiting one of the most important wilderness areas in Costa Rica (Tortuguero National Park).

  10. Fishery Biology of Jumbo Flying Squid Dosidicus gigas off Costa Rica Dome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xinjun; LI Jianghua; LIU Bilin; LI Gang; LU Huajie

    2014-01-01

    The jumbo flying squid (Dosidicus gigas) population was surveyed with the help of Chinese squid jigging vessels off the Costa Rica Dome (4˚-11˚N, 90˚-100˚W) in 2009 and 2010. The daily catch of D. gigas in the two survey cruises ranged from 0 to 5.5 t and was mostly obtained from the areas bounded by 6˚-9˚N and 91˚-94˚W and by 6˚30´-7˚30´N and 96˚-97˚W. The sea surface temperature in the areas yielding the most catch ranged from 27.5 to 29℃. The sex ratio of the total catch was 3.75:1 (female:male). The mantle length of the squid ranged from 211 to 355 mm (male) and from 204 to 429 mm (female) with an average of 297.9 and 306.7 mm, respectively. In the relationship of the mantle length (mm) and body weight (g) of the squid, there was no significant dif-ference between sexes. The female and male were at a similar maturity, and most individuals are maturing or have matured with a few females being spent. The size (mantle length) and age at the first sexual maturity were 297 mm and 195 d in females, and less than 211 mm and 130 d in males, respectively. Most of the sampled stomachs (70.6%) had no food remains. The major preys of the squids were fish, cephalopods and crustaceans, with the most abundant Myctophum orientale and D. gigas. The preys in more than 65%of the non-empty sampled stomachs evidenced the cannibalism of D. gigas. The results improved current understanding of the fishery biology of D. gigas off the Costa Rica Dome, which may facilitate the assessment and management of relative fishery re-sources.

  11. Dynamics of Ecosystem Services during Forest Transitions in Reventazón, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, Améline; Locatelli, Bruno; Levrel, Harold; Brenes Pérez, Christian; Imbach, Pablo; Estrada Carmona, Natalia; Manlay, Raphaël; Oszwald, Johan

    2016-01-01

    The forest transition framework describes the temporal changes of forest areas with economic development. A first phase of forest contraction is followed by a second phase of expansion once a turning point is reached. This framework does not differentiate forest types or ecosystem services, and describes forests regardless of their contribution to human well-being. For several decades, deforestation in many tropical regions has degraded ecosystem services, such as watershed regulation, while increasing provisioning services from agriculture, for example, food. Forest transitions and expansion have been observed in some countries, but their consequences for ecosystem services are often unclear. We analyzed the implications of forest cover change on ecosystem services in Costa Rica, where a forest transition has been suggested. A review of literature and secondary data on forest and ecosystem services in Costa Rica indicated that forest transition might have led to an ecosystem services transition. We modeled and mapped the changes of selected ecosystem services in the upper part of the Reventazón watershed and analyzed how supply changed over time in order to identify possible transitions in ecosystem services. The modeled changes of ecosystem services is similar to the second phase of a forest transition but no turning point was identified, probably because of the limited temporal scope of the analysis. Trends of provisioning and regulating services and their tradeoffs were opposite in different spatial subunits of our study area, which highlights the importance of scale in the analysis of ecosystem services and forest transitions. The ecosystem services transition framework proposed in this study is useful for analyzing the temporal changes of ecosystem services and linking socio-economic drivers to ecosystem services demand at different scales. PMID:27390869

  12. Dynamics of Ecosystem Services during Forest Transitions in Reventazón, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, Améline; Locatelli, Bruno; Levrel, Harold; Brenes Pérez, Christian; Imbach, Pablo; Estrada Carmona, Natalia; Manlay, Raphaël; Oszwald, Johan

    2016-01-01

    The forest transition framework describes the temporal changes of forest areas with economic development. A first phase of forest contraction is followed by a second phase of expansion once a turning point is reached. This framework does not differentiate forest types or ecosystem services, and describes forests regardless of their contribution to human well-being. For several decades, deforestation in many tropical regions has degraded ecosystem services, such as watershed regulation, while increasing provisioning services from agriculture, for example, food. Forest transitions and expansion have been observed in some countries, but their consequences for ecosystem services are often unclear. We analyzed the implications of forest cover change on ecosystem services in Costa Rica, where a forest transition has been suggested. A review of literature and secondary data on forest and ecosystem services in Costa Rica indicated that forest transition might have led to an ecosystem services transition. We modeled and mapped the changes of selected ecosystem services in the upper part of the Reventazón watershed and analyzed how supply changed over time in order to identify possible transitions in ecosystem services. The modeled changes of ecosystem services is similar to the second phase of a forest transition but no turning point was identified, probably because of the limited temporal scope of the analysis. Trends of provisioning and regulating services and their tradeoffs were opposite in different spatial subunits of our study area, which highlights the importance of scale in the analysis of ecosystem services and forest transitions. The ecosystem services transition framework proposed in this study is useful for analyzing the temporal changes of ecosystem services and linking socio-economic drivers to ecosystem services demand at different scales. PMID:27390869

  13. Diagnóstico molecular de la enfermedad de Huntington en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Vásquez-Cerdas

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Justificación y objetivo. Este estudio representa un esfuerzo para establecer por primera vez en Costa Rica el diagnóstico molecular de la enfermedad de Huntington; esto favorecerá un mejor manejo clínico de los pacientes y podrá ser traducido en un incremento de la calidad de vida de las familias. Se pretende determinar el número de repeticiones CAG en personas con la enfermedad de Huntington y familiares mediante el diagnóstico molecular,con el fin de ofrecerles asesoramiento genético decuado y oportuno. Métodos:El estudio se realizó en 7 pacientes con diagnóstico clínico de Huntington y 31 familiares en riesgo. Para determinar el número de repeticiones CAG se utilizó la reacción en cadena e polimerasa a posterior electroforesis sobre geles de agarosa y poliacrilamida. Resultados:Se obtuvo el diagnóstico molecular de los 38 individuos.Se confirmó el diagnóstico clínico en las 7 personas afectadas, se encontraron 11 con la mutación que permanecían asintomáticas y 20 sin la mutación. Se observó una correlación negativa entre la edad de inicio y el número de repeticiones, así como inestabilidad intergeneracional, tanto vía materna como paterna. No hay diferencias en el número de repeticiones, según el sexo del progenitor transmisor. Conclusión: Los análisis moleculares mostraron un perfil de repeticiones similar al de otras poblaciones.Hemos identificado las primeras familias portadoras de enfermedad de Huntington en Costa Rica, permitiendo dar a los pacientes y su familia asesoramiento genético adecuado y oportuno basado en información confiable.

  14. Magnitud, estructura por edad y sexo y tendencia del suicidio en Costa Rica, 1980 - 1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damaris Granados Bloise

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Costa Rica se encuentra entre los diez países que tienen las tasas de mortalidad por suicidio más bajas. Al analizar los datos por grupos de edad y sexo, y determinar su evolución en el tiempo, se presentan disparidades y situaciones que es importante tomar en cuenta al planificar las acciones de prevención. En la totalidad de los quince años que abarca el período 1980-94, se registraron 2.015 suicidios, el 10% de los cuales correspondió a personas mayores de 20 años. La tasa promedio anual de mortalidad por suicidio fue de 4.8 por cada 100.000 habitantes, siendo 8.0 la de hombres y 1.5 la de mujeres. El Riesgo Relativo resultante, 5.3, indica que el riesgo de suicidio en los varones es, en Costa Rica, más de cinco veces el de las mujeres. Del análisis por grupos quinquenales de edad y de sexo determina que, aunque con tasas más bajas que los varones, las mujeres tienden a suicidarse en edades más jóvenes que aquéllos. La evolución del suicidio en el período de estudio indica un comportamiento que tiende a subir en un trienio y a decrecer en el siguiente, para volver a incrementarse. En el trienio 1980-82, los años de vida potencialmente perdidos por causa del suicidio fueron 13 mil, esta cifra sube a poco más de 18 mil en el trienio 1992-94.

  15. [Bacteriological quality of traditional, organic and hydroponic cultured lettuce in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, Claudio; Chaves, Carolina; Arias, María Laura

    2011-03-01

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the microbiological quality of lettuces commercialized in the Metropolitan Area of San José, Costa Rica, and cultured in different ways, in order to detect differences between the culturing methods and the risk that these products may represent for Public Health. The study was done at the Food Microbiology Laboratory, Universidad de Costa Rica, from March to July, 2010. 30 lettuce samples were analyzed (10 obtained by traditional culture, 10 by organic culture and 10 by hydropony). All samples were obtained from markets where their origin was certified. Total aerobic plate count, total and fecal coliforms count and Escherichia coli were determined to all samples, as well as the presence/abscense of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in 25 g. Results obtained show that there is no statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) between the different types of cultures analyzed for any of the parameters evaluated. An important percentage of the samples presented coliforms, nevertheless, just one E. coli strain was isolated from a traditionally cultured lettuce sample. Four different Salmonella spp. strains were isolated from the samples as well as one Listeria monocytogenes strain. Data obtained show that the consumption of this product, raw or without an adequate hygiene and disinfection may represent a risk for health. Also, from the bacteriological point of view, there is no significant difference between the culturing methods evaluated, suggesting that the specific directions for each type of culture are not followed or that there is an inadequate handling of the products or post harvest contamination. PMID:22097292

  16. El Nino Southern Oscillation and vegetation dynamics as predictors of dengue fever cases in Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, D O [Department of Geography and Regional Studies, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124-2221 (United States); Troyo, A [Centro de Investigacion en Enfermedades Tropicales, Departamento de ParasitologIa, Facultad de MicrobiologIa, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose (Costa Rica); Beier, J C [Global Public Health Program, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States)], E-mail: dofuller@miami.edu

    2009-01-15

    Dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are growing health concerns throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. This study focuses on Costa Rica, which experienced over 100 000 cases of DF/DHF from 2003 to 2007. We utilized data on sea-surface temperature anomalies related to the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and two vegetation indices derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) from the Terra satellite to model the influence of climate and vegetation dynamics on DF/DHF cases in Costa Rica. Cross-correlations were calculated to evaluate both positive and negative lag effects on the relationships between independent variables and DF/DHF cases. The model, which utilizes a sinusoid and non-linear least squares to fit case data, was able to explain 83% of the variance in weekly DF/DHF cases when independent variables were shifted backwards in time. When the independent variables were shifted forward in time, consistently with a forecasting approach, the model explained 64% of the variance. Importantly, when five ENSO and two vegetation indices were included, the model reproduced a major DF/DHF epidemic of 2005. The unexplained variance in the model may be due to herd immunity and vector control measures, although information regarding these aspects of the disease system are generally lacking. Our analysis suggests that the model may be used to predict DF/DHF outbreaks as early as 40 weeks in advance and may also provide valuable information on the magnitude of future epidemics. In its current form it may be used to inform national vector control programs and policies regarding control measures; it is the first climate-based dengue model developed for this country and is potentially scalable to the broader region of Latin America and the Caribbean where dramatic increases in DF/DHF incidence and spread have been observed.

  17. Derechos políticos de la mujer en Costa Rica: 1986-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia María Zamora Chavarría

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo reseña las propuestas de reformas legislativas que se han conocido en la Asamblea Legislativa de Costa Rica, sobre participación política de la mujer, desde marzo de 1988 hasta noviembre de 2008, con énfasis en la cuota o la paridad, para facilitar su acceso a cargos de elección popular y a los órganos internos partidarios, incluyendo la actual reforma de paridad propuesta por el TSE en enero de 2001. También hace referencia a los pronunciamientos del TSE en esta materia, en especial a su jurisprudencia, destacando cómo ésta ha posibilitado que Costa Rica ocupe el tercer lugar mundial de mujeres parlamentarias, ya que fue precisando que debía entenderse por puestos elegibles, los criterios para determinar esa elegibilidad (históricos o emergentes, la obligatoriedad del Registro Civil de no inscribir partidos ni candidaturas que no respeten la legislación, etc. También se incluyen gráficas que dan cuenta de lo reseñado. Cierra con un resumen de la propuesta de paridad y alternabilidad de género que, dentro del proyecto de reforma integral del Código Electoral, acaba de ser dictaminada, con voto afirmativo de mayoría, por la Comisión Especial de Partidos Políticos y Reformas Electorales de la Asamblea Legislativa, resaltando que retoma el espíritu de la propuesta desechada en 1998 y su necesidad su ek país desea una democracia real para las mujeres costarricenses

  18. Three-Dimensional Thermal Model of the Costa Rica-Nicaragua Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Juan Carlos; Currie, Claire A.; He, Jiangheng

    2015-10-01

    The thermal structure of a subduction zone controls many key processes, including subducting plate metamorphism and dehydration, the megathrust earthquake seismogenic zone and volcanic arc magmatism. Here, we present the first three-dimensional (3D), steady-state kinematic-dynamic thermal model for the Costa Rica-Nicaragua subduction zone. The model consists of the subducting Cocos plate, the overriding Caribbean Plate, and a viscous mantle wedge in which flow is driven by interactions with the downgoing slab. The Cocos plate geometry includes along-strike variations in slab dip, which induce along-strike flow in the mantle wedge. Along-strike flow occurs primarily below Costa Rica, with a maximum magnitude of 4 cm/year (~40 % of the convergence rate) for a mantle with a dislocation creep rheology; an isoviscous mantle has lower velocities. Along-margin flow causes temperatures variations of up to 80 °C in the subducting slab and mantle wedge at the volcanic arc and backarc. The 3D effects do not strongly alter the shallow (Nicaragua; the narrow width in the north is due to hydrothermal cooling of the oceanic plate. These results are in good agreement with previous 2D models and with the rupture area of recent earthquakes. In the models, along-strike mantle flow is induced only by variations in slab dip, with flow directed toward the south where the dip angle is smallest. In contrast, geochemical and seismic observations suggest a northward flow of 6-19 cm/year. We do not observe this in our models, suggesting that northward flow may be driven by additional factors, such as slab rollback or proximity to a slab edge (slab window). Such high velocities may significantly affect the thermal structure, especially at the southern end of the subduction zone. In this area, 3D models that include slab rollback and a slab edge are needed to investigate the mantle structure and dynamics.

  19. Heat flow along the Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project drilling transect: Implications for hydrothermal and seismic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Bridget; Harris, Robert N.

    2016-06-01

    Heat flow analysis of the Costa Rica convergent margin is carried out for seven sites drilled during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expeditions 334 and 344 as part of the Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project (CRISP). These expeditions are designed to better understand erosional subduction zones. Heat flow measurements were made to improve estimates of the thermal structure of this erosive margin and are located on the incoming plate, toe, lower, middle, and upper slopes of the margin. Heat flow values corrected for the effects of seafloor bathymetry and sedimentation are on average 15% higher than uncorrected values and range from approximately 158-200 mW/m2 on the incoming plate to values of approximately 50 mW/m2 on the middle and upper slopes of the margin. These values are consistent with previous estimates of heat flow showing a landward decrease in heat flow consistent with subduction of the Cocos plate. Preferred thermal models of the shallow subduction zone successfully predicting observed values of heat flow incorporate fluid flow within the upper oceanic aquifer have an uppermost permeability of 10-9.5 m2 and a plate boundary effective coefficient of friction of 0.06. These models suggest that temperatures on the subduction thrust reach 100°C at distances between 30 and 35 km landward of the deformation front. The updip limit of seismicity, as defined by aftershocks events of ML 1-4 recorded following the Mw 6.9 Quepos earthquake, occurs at 25 km landward of the deformation front at temperatures cooler than the 100-150°C typically predicted.

  20. USO DE AGROQUÍMICOS EN EL CULTIVO DE PAPA EN PACAYAS, CARTAGO, COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ram\\u00EDrez-Mu\\u00F1oz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Uso de agroquímicos en el cultivo de papa en Pacayas, Cartago, Costa Rica. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue realizar un diagnóstico de uso de plaguicidas y otros agroquímicos, a los productores de papa en Cartago, Costa Rica. Se emplearon cuestionarios de campo entre los años 2006 y 2009 en la microcuenca de las quebradas Plantón y Pacayas. Cada productor como promedio utilizó 32,8 kilogramos de ingrediente activo (i.a. de plaguicida por hectárea por ciclo, en un rango de 10,9 a 88,3. Como uso ponderado por hectárea se calculó un valor de 42,6 kg i.a./ha/ciclo para plaguicidas y de 1879 kg de fertilizante formulado/ciclo. El grupo de mayor uso lo constituyeron los fungicidas-bactericidas con 30 i.a. y 85,7% del total de plaguicidas, le siguen los insecticidas (25 i.a. y 11,0% y los herbicidas (4 i.a. y 3,3%. El agroquímico de mayor uso fue el mancozeb, seguido de propineb y clorotalonil; otros productos de alto empleo fueron fosetil aluminio, cartap, metamidofos, paraquat y endosulfan. Se utilizaron agroquímicos no registrados para papa y con reconocida toxicidad aguda y crónica. Los productores con mayor área cultivada adicionaron la mayor cantidad de plaguicida, mientras que en áreas menores el consumo fue menor pero se utilizó un mayor número de productos. Se utilizó más cantidad de plaguicidas y fertilizantes durante la época lluviosa de mayo a diciembre.

  1. HYPERTENSION IN PERSONNEL FROM UNIVERSIDAD ESTATAL A DISTANCIA IN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Arce Espinoza

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Arterial Hypertension (AHT has increased worldwide and preventive measures are insufficient since only one third of the population is being treated. AHT is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. In this article is presented the first study on hypertension levels of personnel of a Distance Education university based on the analysis of all medical consultations in the Costa Rican State University for Distance Education (Universidad Estatal a Distancia-UNED as of December 15, 2007 (1,526 medical files. The population studied ranges from 20 to 70 years of age and is comprised of residents of the Greater Metropolitan Area (Costa Rica with varied socioeconomic and academic levels. The Statgraphics Centurion XV software and the chi-square test were used to analyze variables such as treatment administered, sex, age, and type of work. Only 45 patients knew that they suffered from hypertension prior to their consultation with the university medical service and 136 were treated with Enalapril and Hydrochlorothiazide. The number of hypertensive patients is higher among those who have worked at the institution for more than 20 years, especially in those holding higher positions. No marked differences were found between men and women. It is concluded that the existence of a university medical service has permitted faculty and staff to satisfactorily control their blood pressure.

  2. [Inshore cetaceans from the North and South Pacific coast of Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Fernández, Damián; Montero-Cordero, Andrea; May-Collado, Laura

    2011-03-01

    Twenty nine cetacean species occur in Costa Rican waters but extensive research has been conducted only for three species. The latter shows there is a lack of general and local information about these mammals, even when the country, has shown a remarkable growth in whale watching activities. The increasing use of marine resources in coastal areas has also developed the need to determine the occurrence of cetaceans in areas showing high tourist presence, in order to propose sound conservation measures. In this study, environmental variables were determined and subsequently related to the presence of the species recorded, out of 166 sightings, between 2005 and 2006. The species with highest proportion of sightings were Stenella attenuata (68%), followed by Megaptera novaeangliae (13%) and Tursiops truncatus (10%). The presence of spotted dolphins is related to changes in salinity and water transparency, while that of the humpback whale was related to wave height (Beaufort scale) and water temperature. The presence of seven species of cetaceans was confirmed in two coastal areas of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, from which three are present throughout the year. Environmental variables were found related to the presence of at least two species. PMID:21516651

  3. Perceptions and Beliefs of Rural High School Coordinators in Costa Rica

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    Mario Segura Castillo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Costa Rican rural settings include indigenous populations and groups in scattered areas that require considering issues such as language and culture, among others, to achieve an appropriate curriculum development. The National Institute of Statistics and Census (INEC defines rurality based on the existence or lack of public services such as roads, communication, utilities, formation of the household, and participation in agricultural activities, among others. This research seeks to interpret the perceptions and beliefs of rural high school principals in Costa Rica, regarding technical and administrative conditions in compliance with the objectives for which the institutions were created. This is a longitudinal qualitative study, since data was taken from two workshops, one in 2010 with 49 rural high school coordinators and another one in 2012 with 205 participants including principals and teaching staff. Information was analyzed using an open-question questionnaire and a Venn diagram. Seventeen rural high schools were visited, and students, teachers, and parents from 45 rural high schools were interviewed during 2011 and 2012. It is concluded that there is still no real integration between the socio productive, personal and social areas with the academic area; therefore, teachers in the academic area should be trained in vocational aspects such as entrepreneurship, cooperativism, business management, as well as counsoling, physical education, arts, and music to trully meet the objectives for which rural high schools were created.

  4. Evaluation model for developing, implementing, and assessing conservation education programs: Examples from Belize and Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Susan K.

    1991-03-01

    Evaluation of conservation education programs can: (1) provide accountability in demonstrating a program's worth, (2) offer an opportunity for receiving feedback and improving programs, (3) further our understanding of the process of program development, and (4) promote conservation education by substantiating claims about its benefits. The Planning-Process-Product systems evaluation model provides feedback needed for making decisions about the development, implementation, and outcome of a program. Planning evaluation was useful in assessing the needs, goals, opportunities, and constraints of a number of programs in Costa Rica and Belize, such as a forestry education project and a zoo outreach program. It provided a basis for making planning decisions incorporating specific objectives, such as the reforestation of a region or a change in knowledge and attitudes in program participants. Process evaluation provided a Costa Rican sustainable development program with feedback during its implementation and enabled it to modify and improve its newsletter for local farmers and its ecology classes for school children. Product evaluation assessed project accomplishments, such as the 700,000 raised by the Children's Rainforest group and the 20 miles of riparian land under conservation management as part of the Belize Community Baboon Sanctuary project. Outcomes are compared with the programs original monetary or land management objectives to determine the success of the programs and to provide feedback for improvement.

  5. Cruise tourism and community economic development in Central America and the Caribbean: The case of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidl, Andy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates an economic approach to understanding the cruise tourism industry as a driver of economic development in Costa Rica. The objective is to describe the role and activities of the cruise ship industry and identify sources of economic benefit and cost such that more informed local policy decisions about the cruise ship tourism might be made. For example, our analysis indicates: the cruise tourism industry competes with the cargo shipping industry for port space at a significant cost to Costa Rican ports; the amount of money injected into the local economy per cruise tourist is substantially lower than for other types of tourism; Cruise ships purchase relatively few supplies in Costa Rica; Cruise ships generate a great deal of human waste, water and air pollution, which can create a serious health hazard, cleanup costs, and which are not commensurate with other types of tourism development available to Costa Rica; Decision makers may want to consider that investment in cruise tourism friendly ports may be less efficient from a national perspective than investment in infrastructure (e.g., airports to increase more profitable types of tourism; And leaders may want to consider the encouragement of smaller “pocket” cruises over the current cruise version of mass tourism. This approach should be applicable to communities wherever cruise tourism currently exists or is under consideration to be included in the portfolio of community economic activities

  6. Tobacco industry success in Costa Rica: the importance of FCTC article 5.3 El éxito de la industria tabacalera en Costa Rica: la importancia del artículo 5.3 del CMCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Crosbie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze how the tobacco industry influenced tobacco control policymaking in Costa Rica. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Review of tobacco industry documents, tobacco control legislation, newspaper articles, and interviewing of key informants. RESULTS: During the mid-to-late 1980s, Health Ministry issued several advanced (for their time smoking restriction decrees causing British American Tobacco (BAT and Philip Morris International (PMI to strengthen their political presence there, resulting in passage of a weak 1995 law, which, as of August 2011, remained in effect. Since 1995 the industry has used Costa Rica as a pilot site for Latin American programs and has dominated policymaking by influencing the Health Ministry, including direct private negotiations with the tobacco industry which violate Article 5.3's implementing guidelines of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC. CONCLUSIONS: The Costa Rica experience demonstrates the importance of vigorous implementation of FCTC Article 5.3 which insulates public health policymaking from industry interference.OBJETIVO: Analizar cómo la industria tabacalera influyó en la formulación de las políticas de control del tabaco en Costa Rica. MATERIALS Y MÉTODOS: Revisión de documentos de la industria tabacalera, de la legislación costarricense de control del tabaco y de periódicos y entrevistas con informantes clave. RESULTADOS: Durante los años ochenta, el Ministerio de Salud aprobó varios decretos para restringir el consumo de tabaco, lo que causó que British American Tobacco y Philip Morris International fortalecieran su presencia política, cuyo resultado fue la promulgación de una ley débil en 1995 todavía vigente. Desde 1995 la industria tabacalera ha utilizado a Costa Rica como piloto para los programas latinoamericanos y ha dominado la formulación de políticas influenciando al Ministerio de Salud, incluyendo negociaciones privadas con la

  7. Cien cariotipos fetales acreditados en Costa Rica, años 2009 y 2010 One Hundred Accredited Fetal Karyotypes in Costa Rica During 2009 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Castro-Volio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: La identificación de cromosomopatía fetal es un factor importante para el mejor manejo perinatal y pediátrico en los embarazos de alto riesgo. El objetivo de esta publicación es mostrar al personal de salud, los resultados de nuestros ensayos de cariotipo en líquido amniótico, obtenidos desde el momento en que han sido acreditados por el Ente Costarricense de Acreditación y compararlos con los estándares internacionales. Métodos: Se realizó cultivo abierto de 100 muestras recibidas desde enero del 2009 hasta diciembre 2010, provenientes de hospitales de la seguridad social y de servicios de salud privados y la cosecha de los “amniocitos” mediante suspensión enzimática. La indicación de amniocentesis en el 65% de los casos fue por ecografía anormal y el 28% de las veces por edad materna avanzada. Resultados: La cromosomopatía fetal encontrada fue de 35%. Para muestras en cantidad y calidad aceptables, el éxito de los cultivos fue 100% y el tiempo de respuesta fue de 13 días promedio. Estos datos concuerdan con las normas internacionales en esta materia. Además, anualmente participamos satisfactoriamente en rondas de evaluación externa de la calidad organizados por la Cytogenetic European Quality Assessment. Conclusión: En Costa Rica contamos con servicios de perinatología con equipos ecográficos muy sofisticados y con personal altamente especializado, de manera que los defectos anatómicos fetales y otras patologías rara vez pasan desapercibidas. El cariotipo fetal es el complemento indispensable para el abordaje clínico óptimo de estos casos, sobre todo, cuando se cuenta con la calidad que garantizan los ensayos acreditados.Aims: The identification of fetal abnormal chromosomes in high risk pregnancies, allows proper pediatric and obstetric management of the cases as well as genetic counseling. The results of 100 genetic amniocentesis from January 2009 to December 2010, since the accreditation of these

  8. Perú y Costa Rica. Geopolítica del desarrollo turístico en América Latina

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalie Raymond

    2004-01-01

    Perú y Costa Rica son dos referencias del turismo internacional en América latina.El primero gracias a su patrimonio cultural, especialmente Machu Picchu; el segundo gracias a su patrimonio natural, que le permitió desarrollar el ecoturismo. Pero una observación más precisa del desarrollo turístico de esos dos países muestra la importancia de factores exteriores, especialmente políticos, y obliga a matizar el papel de su supuesto potencial turístico. En cuanto a la configuración a...

  9. Definiciones operativas para la prevención y control de la leptospirosis en Costa Rica Operative Definitions for Prevention and Control of Leptospirosis in Costa Rica

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    Virginia Rodríguez-Moreno

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: La leptospirosis es la enfermedad zoonótica más frecuente a nivel mundial y requiere de una vigilancia epidemiológica eficiente. Se evaluaron las definiciones operativas del Protocolo para la prevención y control de la leptospirosis de Costa Rica. Método: Estudio transversal en dos etapas, una descriptiva y otra analítica, mediante un modelo clínico-predictivo por regresión logística. Los datos se obtuvieron del Centro Nacional de Referencia de Virología y Leptospira del INCIENSA (enero de 2001 a junio de 2003. Resultados: De 568 registros, se eliminaron 154 por no contar con la información para la correcta clasificación del protocolo de leptospirosis. De los 414 registros analizados ninguno cumplió con los criterios de caso confirmado, por lo que se utilizó una definición ampliada tomada de la bibliografía (caso confirmado= serología ≥ 1:800; así, hubo 52 casos confirmados y 368 sospechosos. Solamente la cefalea (OR= 0.5; IC95% 0.2 -1.1 y el sexo masculino (OR 3,01; IC 95% 1.2-8.1 mostraron asociación significativa con el diagnóstico de leptospirosis. Al agrupar las variables clínicas y epidemiológicas, las combinaciones cefalea + mialgias + antecedentes epidemiológicos (OR 3,8; IC 95% 1,1-14,9 y síntomas sistémicos + antecedentes epidemiológicos (OR 0,01; IC 95%1,2-18,9, mostraron asociación con el diagnóstico de leptospirosis, aunque entre ellas hubo alta correlación (Kappa > 0,8. Conclusión: Con los datos existentes y mediante la metodología empleada, no fue posible validar las definiciones establecidas por el protocolo ni generar definiciones operativas aplicables a nivel nacional, así como tampoco fue posible establecer una definición de caso probable.Aim: Leptospirosis is the most frequent zoonotic disease all over the world and requires of an efficient epidemiologic surveillance. The operative definitions of the "Protocolo para la prevención y control de la Leptospirosis" (Protocol for the

  10. Resumen cronoestratigráfico de las rocas ígneas de Costa Rica basado en dataciones radiométricas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, G. E.; Kussmaul, S.; Chiesa, S.; Gillot, P.-Y.; Appel, H.; Wörner, G.; Rundle, C.

    1992-10-01

    Based on a recompilation of about 160 K-Ar and U-Th analyses of igneous rocks and their stratigraphic relationships, a synthesis of the magmatic evolution of Costa Rica is presented. The igneous rocks of Jurassic to Oligocene age belong principally to the tholeiitic series. Widespread calc-alkaline volcanism started in the late Miocene and culminated during the Pleistocene in the northern and central part of Costa Rica with the eruption of large volumes of andesitic to rhyolitic ignimbrites and the development of the stratovolcanoes of the Cordillera de Guanacaste and Cordillera Central; some of these volcanoes are still active. Alkaline rocks are subordinate and concentrated on the Caribbean side of Costa Rica. Plutonic intrusions, mainly of late Miocene age, are frequent in the southern part of Costa Rica. The histogram of the available data indicates some periods of more intensive volcanic activity.

  11. Estado de bienestar y cambio: la transformación de las políticas públicas de salud en Costa Rica, (1990-2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Porras, Blanca Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Durante muchos años Costa Rica se ha reconocido por la construcción histórica de su Estado de bienestar, reconocido por el acceso igualitario y universal a la educación y la salud con avances significativos que le permite mantener indicadores de desarrollo humano en niveles comparados con los países desarrollados. Sin embargo, luego de la crisis internacional de 1980, que afectó fuertemente a Latinoamérica, Costa Rica, comenzó a sufrir una transformación en su modelo de desarrollo en un conte...

  12. A incipiente Guerra Fria na América Central: Nathaniel P. Davis, os Estados Unidos, e a Guerra Civil de 1948 na Costa Rica

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    David Díaz Arias

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa o diário de Nathaniel P. Davis, embaixador estadunidense em San José, Costa Rica, que presenciou a Guerra Civil de 1948 e participou de sua resolução. O diário de Davis, deixado de lado por pesquisadores desse período, é importante por se tratar de uma das poucas fontes que construiu uma narrativa imediata ao desdobramento dos eventos que ocorreram na Costa Rica entre março e maio 1948. Assim, juntamente com outras fontes, esse diário é utilizado para fazer uma reconstrução das ações do diplomata, de sua percepção do conflito e das atitudes por ele tomadas para solucioná-lo.Enfim, através das anotações de Davis se reavaliam vários eventos importantes que foram impressos de forma quase imutável nas narrativas historiográficas costarriquenses sobre a guerra civil de 1948. O resultado é um texto que permite reavaliar esse acontecimento fundamental da Costa Rica contemporânea.

  13. Análisis comparativo de compuestos fenólicos totales y actividad antioxidante de cuatro marcas de tisanas de Hibiscus sabdariffa (Malvaceae) comercializadas en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Agüero; Cindy Segura; Jonathan Parra

    2014-01-01

    Las tisanas de rosa de Jamaica (Hibiscus sabdariffa) son consumidas en Costa Rica por su conocido efecto cardioprotector asociado a la presencia de compuestos fenólicos, principalmente antocianinas. Este trabajo estableció diferencias en el perfil de compuestos fenólicos y su actividad anti-radical entre diferentes comercializadores de tisanas de Hibiscus sabdariffa en Costa Rica. Se identificaron cualitativamente taninos, flavonoides y antocianinas. Se cuantificó la cantidad total de compues...

  14. Aggressive coyote behavior toward a human being at Volcán Barva, Costa Rica Comportamiento agresivo del coyote hacia los seres humanos en el Volcán Barva, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Literák; Johana Polásková; Martina Literáková

    2012-01-01

    Coyotes occur in Costa Rica and their population is increasing. In August 2010, the first author visited Braulio Carrillo National Park and approached 3 coyotes. The unusual coyote behavior was analyzed using unique photographs and is ascribed primarily to maternal aggression that was possibly combined with fear-induced and territorial aggressions. As coyotes continue to adapt to suburban environments, and as their populations expand throughout Central America, coyote interactions with humans...

  15. A new species of Paraheligmonella (Nematoda, Heligmonellidae), parasite of Sylvilagus floridanus (Leporidae) from Costa Rica Una especie nueva de Paraheligmonella (Nematoda, Heligmonellidae), parásita de Sylvilagus floridanus (Leporidae) en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    María Celina Digiani; Ramón A. Carreño; Marie-Claude Durette-Desset

    2008-01-01

    Paraheligmonella lamothei n. sp. (Heligmonellidae: Heligmonellinae) is described from the small intestine of a cottontail, Sylvilagus floridanus (Allen, 1890) (Leporidae), from Costa Rica. New morphological data on the synlophe and caudal bursa of Paraheligmonella romerolagi (Gibbons and Kumar, 1980), the most similar species, are also provided. The new species differs from P. romerolagi, parasitic of Romerolagus diazi (Ferrari-Pérez, 1893) from Mexico, mainly by the characters of the caudal ...

  16. Water resources of the Upper Tempisque River Watershed, Costa Rica (Technical note) Recursos hídricos de la Cuenca Alta del Río Tempisque, Costa Rica (Nota técnica)

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Guzmán Arias; Julio César Calvo-Alvarado

    2012-01-01

    The study addresses the state of water resources of the upper Tempisque Watershed located in the Province of Guanacaste, Costa Rica. A brief biophysical description of the study area as well as detailed accounting of availability and use of water resources is provided. It was found that before 2005, water concessions plus the recom- mended environmental flow requirements for this river exceeded the availability of natural flows during the dry season. A series of recommendations are given in o...

  17. Floraciones algales nocivas en la costa pacífica de Costa Rica: toxicología y sus efectos en el ecosistema y salud pública

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Freer

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Justificación y objetivos: Los primeros casos de intoxicación por floraciones algales nocivas (FAN se reportaron en el país en 1990. Sin embargo desde finales de 1999 se ha observado un aumento drástico en el número de personas intoxicadas, especialmente en la costa pacífica del país. En Costa Rica existe gran desconocimiento acerca del problema. Debido al impacto que producen los fenómenos FAN en la salud pública, el turismo local y el ecosistema, es necesario describir las especies tóxicas y sus toxinas para tomar las medidas adecuadas de control y prevención. Métodos: Se realizaron muestreos de agua en varios sectores de la costa pacífica de nuestro país, con el objetivo de detectar las especies de microalgas potencialmente tóxicas y nocivas, y se interrogó a los pescadores locales. La identificación de las especies se realizó morfológicamente mediante microscopía de luz y electrónica de rastreo. Los hallazgos se compararon con la bibliografía y se propuso el potencial tóxico de estas microalgas, así como los métodos de análisis toxicológico, y la sintomatología de los afectados. Resultados: Observamos en Costa Rica un aumento en número de especies de microalgas productoras de FAN. Se reportaron las especies tóxicas productoras de FAN descritas por varios autores y las encontradas en este estudio. En algunas muestras de floraciones algales hemos encontrado bacterias grandes intracelulares, de forma bacilar, principalmente dentro del dinoflagelado Prorocentrum micans. Esta relación podría estar asociada a la toxigenicidad del alga. Hemos descrito la presencia de 26 dinoflagelados, 8 diatomeas y 1 cianobacteria tóxica en las FAN de las costas del Océano Pacífico costarricense. Conclusión: Se piensa que el aumento en la contaminación de las zonas costeras y el transporte de especies por medio de navíos pueden ser la causa de la aparición de estas microalgas. Estas son capaces de producir: intoxicaci

  18. Demand management by means of substitution energetics in home cooking: Costa Rica's metropolitan area; Gerenciamento da demanda mediante substituicao energetica na coccao residencial: regiao metropolitana da Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Alfonso Herrera

    1996-07-01

    The electric power system management in Costa Rica is analyzed. The possibility of substitution of LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) for electric power, in home cooking, are identified as one of the most important program in order to reduce increasing load peak and energy requirements in electric power system of Costa Rica. The sustain ability of the substitution program stands on the current process of electric power supply. The primary power sources used in generating electric power in rush hours are oil-based; this process is less efficient than directly using LPG for home cooking. Large scale substitution with LPG in home cooking will reduce increasing electric power demand in peak hours, reducing subsidized electricity sales, with better use of combustibles presently imported, improving the country commercial balance and preventing or postponing electric power system expansion investments. Three different perspectives have been considered in evaluating economical effectiveness in substituting power sources: user, utility and society perspectives. Due to subsidized electric power prices, residential users do not enough interest in substituting of LPG for power source; unless LPG cookers are also subsidized. However, positive results for the distribution utility are enough in order to offer these kind of incentives. Explicit treatment of these kind of programs, including the efficiency increment as an available resource for electric power utilities in Costa Rica, will avoid the implantation of most of combustion plants now planned in current National Electric Power Plant expansion program. (author)

  19. Análisis Médico Legal de los homicidios en Costa Rica en el 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maikel Vargas Sanabria

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente se ha comentado mucho en la opinión pública de temas como la seguridad ciudadana, la criminalidad y en general de la violencia social y su aumento en Costa Rica. Con el fin de brindar un panorama actualizado de un indicador objetivo como los homicidios se realizó el presente trabajo, en el cual se revisaron todas las autopsias de 2008 (un total de 3264 efectuadas en el Departamento de Medicina Legal de Costa Rica. Se obtuvo que una sexta parte de las mismas correspondió a homicidios, lo cual generó una tasa de mortalidad de 11,36 por 100000 habitantes, por mucho la más alta en la historia contemporánea de nuestro país. El perfil predominante de las víctimas fue: ser de sexo masculino, en edad económicamente productiva, con fatalidades acaecidas en la noche, los fines de semana, en la capital y las provincias portuarias, con fallecimiento en el sitio del suceso por heridas por proyectil de arma de fuego en cabeza, cuello y tórax, con presencia de alcohol y cocaína en un porcentaje significativo de las víctimas. A pesar de la complejidad de los factores que originan este fenómeno, se insiste en la prevención de la violencia social desde el núcleo familiar.Recently, in Costa Rica, topics like citizen security, crime rates and social violence have been a topic on public opinion. There are two positions: violence has increased and violence has not increased. We made this investigation for to give an update of the panorama of homicides in Costa Rica, one of the most important and objective indicator of social violence. We have analyzed all autopsies (a total of 3264 occurred during the year 2008 which were made by the Departamento de Medicina Legal de Costa Rica. From these revision, we obtained that one sixth of these autopsies were homicides, which means that the mortality rate was 11.36 per 100000 habitants, the highest of the modern Costa Rican history. The most common profile of the victims was: male, productive age

  20. 35 años de microscopía electrónica en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Hernández Chavarría

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available En el 2009 se cumplió el XXXV aniversario de la microscopía electrónica en Costa Rica; su historia se inició con la donación de un microscopio, por parte de Japón, la cual se ha consolidado en el Centro de Investigación en Estructuras Microscópicas, de la Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR, entidad que realiza investigación propia y brinda apoyo a diferentes dependencias de la Universidad, universidades estatales y del sector privado. Estos equipos permiten observar el mundo infinitamente pequeño y maravilloso que nos rodea.

  1. Scientific publications about DNA structure-function and PCR technique in Costa Rica: a historic view (1953-2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertazzi, Federico J

    2004-09-01

    The spreading of knowledge depends on the access to the information and its immediate use. Models are useful to explain specific phenomena. The scientific community accepts some models in Biology after a period of time, once it has evidence to support it. The model of the structure and function of the DNA proposed by Watson & Crick (1953) was not the exception, since a few years later the DNA model was finally accepted. In Costa Rica, DNA function was first mentioned in 1970, in the magazine Biologia Tropical (Tropical Biology Magazine), more than 15 years after its first publication in a scientific journal. An opposite situation occurs with technical innovations. If the efficiency of a new scientific technique is proved in a compelling way, then the acceptance by the community comes swiftly. This was the case of the polymerase chain reaction, or PCR. The first PCR machine in Costa Rica arrived in 1991, only three years after its publication.

  2. Disputa fronteriza y valor geoestratégico del río San Juan: Nicaragua y Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin E. Quesada Q.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nicaragua y Costa Rica en varias ocasiones han sostenido disputas fronterizas. Esto se debe a que gran parte de la línea divisoria entre los dos países la constituye el río San Juan, lo que ha provocado una serie de controversias relacionadas con el cauce del río y algunas zonas aledañas. En el 2010 el conflicto se reactiva debido a que Nicaragua construyó un canal en una isla perteneciente a Costa Rica. Cada país valora geoestratégicamente de manera distinta el río San Juan; para los nicaragüenses, es un símbolo de gran esperanza para su desarrollo, en tanto que para los costarricenses, es un punto de interés para preservar los humedales, áreas consideradas de fragilidad ambiental.

  3. Síntesis geocronológica del magmatismo, metamorfismo y metalogenia de Costa Rica, América Central Geochronological synthesis of magmatism, metamorphism and metallogeny of Costa Rica, Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo E. Alvarado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Una recopilación completa de 651 determinaciones de edades radiométricas desde 1968 (415 dataciones 40Ar/39Ar, 211 K/Ar, 5 U/Th, 4 Rb/Sr, 2 U/Pb y de fisión termocronología con zircón, tanto aquellas publicadas desde 1968 como muchas nuevas, proporcionan un marco completo de la estratigrafía ígnea de Costa Rica y las inferencias acerca de la edad del metamorfismo y los eventos metalogenéticos. Las rocas ígneas del Jurásico Superior temprano al Eoceno Medio (~ 160 a ~ 41 Ma, corresponden principalmente con acreciones ofiolíticas. Durante el Campaniano (~ 71 Ma comienza a establecerse la actual zona de subducción, conformada por rocas volcano-sedimentarias, con una composición desde básica a félsica. Sin embargo, las rocas volcánicas primarias, subalcalinas, in situ y abundantes, aparecen hasta después de los ~ 29 Ma. Los intrusivos e hipoabisales de granitoides hasta gabroides (plutones, stocks, diques y sills, están presentes de SE a NW en: la cordillera de Talamanca (~ 12,4 a 7,8 Ma, cerros de Escazú (~ 6,0 a 5,9 Ma, fila Costeña (~ 18,3 a 16,8 y ~ 14,8 a 11,1 Ma, Tapantí-montes del Aguacate-Carpintera (~ 4,2 a 2,2 Ma y Guacimal (~ 6,4 a 5,2 Ma. Las rocas asociadas al arco con edades entre los 29 y 11 Ma (denominado Frente Proto- Volcánico, están presentes en la llanura de San Carlos y en el sur de Costa Rica. La ubicación y la edad de las rocas ígneas indican que el arco dio un giro de 20° al NW entre 15 y 8 Ma, con un polo de rotación que se centró en el sur de Costa Rica. Esta rotación se atribuye a la deformación en la placa superior (acortamiento en el sur y extensión en el noroeste, acompañado por el retroceso de la trinchera hacia el sur. A los ~ 3,45 Ma, el arco volcánico en el sur cesó su actividad, mientras que el vulcanismo adakítico localizado persistió en la cordillera de Talamanca (4,2 - 0,95 Ma debido a la subducción de las Placa Cocos. El Frente Paleo-Volcánico está representada por rocas

  4. [Public health programs have greatly reduced infant mortality in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The spectacular decline of infant mortality in Costa Rica from 68/1000 live births in 1970 to 20/1000 in 1980 was largely due to the implementation of public health programs in the 1970s. The abrupt decline was even more notable because deaths of infants constituted the major health problem of the country during the 1960s, accounting for 40% of all registered deaths. Socioeconomic development and reduced fertility contributed to the reduction, but 3/4 of the improvement can be attributed to extension of primary health care to previously unserved rural populations and to better secondary health care, according to a study by the Costa Rican demographer Luis Rosero Bixby. The programs targeted at less privileged groups substantially reduced class and geographic differentials in infant mortality. Infant mortality began to decline at an accelerating rate in 1972, coinciding with the first national health plan and the law of universal social security in 1971, the transfer of public hospitals to the social security system and promulgation of a general health law in 1973, and application of the rural health program in 1973 and community health program in 1976. By 1980, home services reached 60% of the population and immunization programs were in place for measles and diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus. There was a doubling of outpatient services and a tripling of hours contracted by doctors between 1970-80. Also in 1980, 78% of the Costa Rican population was fully covered by health insurance. After 1972, infant mortality declined from all causes except complications of pregnancy and congenital anomalies. The decline was most rapid for deaths due to prematurity, illnesses avoidable by vaccination, and illnesses such as septicemia and meningitis in which prompt diagnosis and treatment can be lifesaving. Although impressive gains were made in neonatal mortality, the main share of the decline between 1970-80 was in postneonatal mortality. Reductions in deaths due to diarrheal

  5. Caracterización del uso de medicamentos en personas adultas mayores, Costa Rica 2007 Characterization of medication use in the eldery, Costa Rica 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Guillermo Jiménez Herrera

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de utilización de medicamentos es complejo y las personas adultas mayores tienden a tener un mayor número de entidades patológicas y de medicamentos que complica el uso racional, adecuado y seguro de los medicamentos. Se caracterizó la utilización de medicamentos y se identificaron algunos factores asociados que le determinan en la persona adulta mayor mediante las bases de datos del estudio Costa Rica Estudio de Longevidad y Envejecimiento Saludable (CRELES en su primera ronda. Un 79% de la población consume medicamentos, en especial (87% de la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS; la mayoría fueron mujeres (58% residentes de la Gran Área Metropolitana. Los principales grupos terapéuticos fueron antihipertensivos (18%, antitrombolíticos (11%, diuréticos (8%, hipoglicemiantes (7%, hipolipemiantes (6% en concordancia con el autoreporte de enfermedad; un 40% de las personas utilizan entre 1-3 medicamentos y el resto entre 4-17 (polifarmacia. El mayor porcentaje de todas las agrupaciones de medicamentos, procedentes de servicios públicos/privados se encuentra en el grupo de edad predominante (70-79 años; el abandono de los mismos se debió a preferencias de no uso de medicamentos (54%, efectos secundarios (29%, no disponibilidad (8% y precio elevado (7%. A mayor edad hay más probabilidad de atención médica domiciliar, uso de medicamentos alopáticos-remedios naturales u homeopáticos; los cuales se ven favorecidos si la persona es mujer (1,7 veces, con hipertensión (4,9 veces; padece diabetes (2,3 veces o si tiene alguna enfermedad del corazón sin previo infarto (1,3 veces. Estos elementos pueden ayudar a establecer estrategias en aspectos que atañen a la atención de la salud de la persona adulta mayor.The use of medication is a complex process and the elderly tend to have a greater number of diseases and medicines, which complicates their rational, adequate and safe use. By means of the Costa Rican Study (first

  6. Productive efficiency of specialty and conventional coffee farmers in Costa Rica: Accounting for technological heterogeneity and self-selection

    OpenAIRE

    Meike Wollni; Bernhard Brümmer

    2009-01-01

    A steep decline in coffee prices at the producer level led to considerable pressure for farmers in Costa Rica and producer countries all over the world. One possible reaction was moving to specialty markets, where price pressure was perceived to be lower. We use original survey data from 2002/03 and 2003/04 to analyze the factors influencing efficiency levels of conventional and specialty coffee farmers. Controlling for selectivity bias, we find that technical efficiency in the two subsamples...

  7. Colonización, agricultura y lluvias. Apuntes para una historia local de Rivas, Costa Rica, 1950-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuniga Arias Ana Yolanda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo es mostrar cómo los procesos de apropiación y uso del suelo son factores que contribuyen a la vulnerabilidad, según el impacto de eventos naturales en el distrito de Rivas (Pérez Zeledón, Costa Rica. El artículo está estructurado en tres partes: primero se describe aspectos generales del lugar. Seguidamente, se caracteriza el proceso de colonización agrícola de la región y el paisaje hacia 1955. Finalmente, se presenta la incidencia de deslizamientos e inundaciones provocadas por tormentas tropicales y huracanes. El análisis está sustentado principalmente en fuentes primarias escritas, orales y el Censo Agropecuario de 1955.Palabras claves: agricultura, colonización, inundaciones, Rivas, Costa Rica.Colonization, Farming, and Rains. Notes for a Local History of Rivas, Costa Rica, 1950-2000AbstractThe aim is to show how the processes of appropriation and use land are factors that contribute to the vulnerability, under the impact of natural events in the district of Rivas (Perez Zeledon, Costa Rica. The article is structured in three parts: the first one describes general aspects of the place. Then, It is characterized the process of the agricultural colonization of the region and the landscape around 1955. Finally, it presents the incidence of landslides, and floods induced by tropical storms and hurricanes. The analysis is based mainly on primary sources written, oral, and the Agricultural Census of 1955.

  8. Retos para el estudio epidemiológico de la salud mental y el bienestar en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Maroto-Vargas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aborda algunos de los retos conceptuales y metodológicos que identificó la Escuela de Psicología de la Universidad de Costa Rica para el estudio de la salud mental en Costa Rica con el fin de favorecer un debate académico. Presenta una breve reseña del trabajo realizado desde esta unidad académica en los últimos tres años y da cuenta del proceso de trabajo coordinado con otras instancias de la universidad, instituciones públicas, organismos y organizaciones de la sociedad civil a nivel nacional e internacional e identifica los principales nudos de discusión trabajados a nivel conceptual y metodológico. El primero de ellos se refiere a los alcances y las limitaciones al utilizar los términos salud mental, salud o bienestar; este último se trata de una propuesta novedosa en Costa Rica. En un segundo momento, se desarrolla el debate sobre la relevancia de los marcadores genéticos y los factores ambientales y sociales en el proceso de salud/enfermedad. Introduce los aportes de la epidemiología crítica y presenta los argumentos de por qué se considera oportuno realizar la Primera Encuesta Nacional de Salud Mental en Costa Rica, a pesar de una anticipada orientación metodológica por principios más tradicionales del enfoque psiquiátrico y de la epidemiología.

  9. The Potential Benefits of Transportation Services offered by the Sharing Economy: The Case of Uber in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Rodríguez, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    The sharing economy is growing rapidly and companies that follow this business model are innovating diverse areas of the economy in various ways, which has caused both positive and negative reactions. This project report deals with how services from the sharing economy can potentially benefit urban mobility. With the case study of the recent entry of Uber in Costa Rica, the problem is put into perspective according to the context and the social circumstances of the country. This qualitative r...

  10. Diagnóstico del estado situacional de la comunicación interna en Amanco-Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Lobo, Paola

    2009-01-01

    El presente articulo resume el trabajo de graduacion titulado "Diagnostico del estado situacional de los procesos de comunicacion interna generados por el Departamento de Recursos Humanos de Amanco Costa Rica, durante el II semestre del 2006 y primer semestre del 2007" para optar por el grado de Master en comunicacion con enfasis en mercadeo. Este trabajo busca demostrar como la comunicacion interna en una organizacion permite generar un compromiso en los colaboradores con las labores de la e...

  11. Determinants of Performance of Drinking-Water Community Organizations: A Comparative Analysis of Case Studies in Rural Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Madrigal, Róger; Alpízar, Francisco; Schlüter, Achim

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an institutional analysis of the underlying factors affecting the performance of drinking-water community organizations in rural areas of Costa Rica. These organizations provide water to more than 60 percent of the total rural population. There is, however, a great disparity in their performance. This research tries to understand how a complex configuration of geophysical characteristics of watersheds and infrastructure as well as governance and socioeconomic attributes of...

  12. Isolation of Xylella fastidiosa from Citrus sinensis (L) Osb. And Vitis vinifera and study of genetic diversity in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogenic bacterium that causes diseases in different crops. Symptoms similar to those caused by citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) were observed in sweet orange trees which served as shade and fences in coffee plantations in Costa Rica, in 2002. A total of 35 citrus trees and 24 vines from eight different districts and 3 respectively were evaluated by 'double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay' (DASELISA), resulting in 21 citrus and 19 positive vid. From four citrus trees and six of vines, were obtained six isolates and seven isolates respectively in solid medium, whose morphological and biochemical characteristics coincided with those reported in the literature as characteristic of X. fastidiosa. The identity of the isolates is confirmed by the chain polymerase reaction (PCR) using primers 272-1/272-2int and RST31/RST33. Three isolates from Grecia (Alajuela Province) amplified a band of 500pb using specific primers 272-2int/CVC-1 for strains of X. fastidiosa that cause CVC. The genetic variability of isolates from each other in comparison with isolates of coffee in Costa Rica, U.S. grapes and citrus in Brazil have been studied using techniques of random amplification polymorphism DNA (RAPD) and length polymorphisms of restriction fragments (RFLPs) of the products obtained with primers int/272-2int JB-1/JB-2 and 272-1. The results showed a clear separation between citrus isolates of Costa Rica; and, an association of three of them with the strains of citrus in Brasil. Also, an association between strains of coffee of Costa Rica with grape vines in the U.S. An association of molecular analysis confirmed the data variance. (author)

  13. De Rio a Rio+ Lecciones de 20 años de experiencia en servicios ambientales en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Kate; Porras, Ina; Miranda, Miriam; Barton, David; Chacon, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    The Rio Conference in 1992, with its Agenda 21 and the statement of principles for sustainable development, was an important impetus for environmental issues in Costa Rica, which together with processes already emerging in the country, led to the creation of Program Payment for Environmental Services (PES) in 1997. The ultimate goal of the program is to ensure PSA provision of forest environmental services: biodiversity protection, carbon sequestration and storage, water protection and scenic...

  14. Comparative Analysis of Labor Relations in the Latin American Civil Service: Argentina, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Peru: Working Paper

    OpenAIRE

    José Alberto Bonifacio; Graciela Falivene

    2002-01-01

    This document is a summary of the study entitled, Comparative Analysis of Labor Relations in the Latin American Civil Service: Argentina, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Peru. The report includes the theoretical framework, the results of the study, and contains conclusions for consideration for a "labor relations development index." This document was commissioned by the Public Management and Transparency Network of the Regional Policy Dialogue for the 2nd Hemispheric Meeting celebrated on April 4th a...

  15. Comparative Analysis of Labor Relations in the Latin American Civil Service: Argentina, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Peru

    OpenAIRE

    José Alberto Bonifacio; Graciela Falivene

    2002-01-01

    This document is a summary of the study entitled, Comparative Analysis of Labor Relations in the Latin American Civil Service: Argentina, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Peru. The report includes the theoretical framework, the results of the study, and contains conclusions for consideration for a "labor relations development index." This document was commissioned by the Public Management and Transparency Network of the Regional Policy Dialogue for the 2nd Hemispheric Meeting celebrated on April 4th a...

  16. Enterocytozoon bieneusi (ORDEN MICROSPORIDIA, FAMILIA Entrerocytozoonidae) IN COSTA RICA: REPORT OF THE FIRST HUMAN CASE IN CENTRAL AMERICA

    OpenAIRE

    MISAEL CHINCHILLA; LILLIANA REYES; OLGA M GUERRERO; MAURICIO FRAJAN; MARCO T MORALES

    1997-01-01

    The first case of microsporidiosis in Central America is described in an AIDS patient from Costa Rica. Electronic microscopy studies indicate that the spores were not included in a parasitophorous vacuola, but they are in direct contact with the cell cytoplasm. Sporogonic proliferative plasmodial forms presence ana localization of the polar tubes in the anterior region of the spore, confirmed the specie Enterocytozoon bieneusi as the cause of this microsporidian infection

  17. Evolución de la esperanza de vida de Costa Rica en el contexto global (1930-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Peláez-Herreros

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación analiza la evolución de la esperanza de vida al nacimiento en Costa Rica en el marco de las dinámicas globales de esta variable con el objetivo de encontrar factores que ayuden a explicar sus fases de crecimiento acelerado, desaceleración y estancamiento. Para ello, en primer lugar, recurriendo a los conceptos de convergencia β y σ, se confirma la existencia de un proceso generalizado de convergencia al alza de las esperanzas de vida de las distintas poblaciones del mundo. Posteriormente, se advierte que, hasta principios de la década de los ochenta, la serie de Costa Rica se aproximó a la de mejores prácticas a un ritmo superior a la media, para, a partir de entonces, ralentizar su crecimiento y evolucionar en paralelo a la serie de máximos. Tras integrar las explicaciones de la dinámica particular de la serie de Costa Rica en el marco general, donde el margen existente para incorporar innovaciones es relevante, se estudian los factores estructurales que pueden estar limitando la capacidad de ciertas poblaciones para adoptar las mejores prácticas vigentes en cada momento, impidiendo que su brecha respecto al máximo se cierre completamente, como es el caso de Costa Rica desde 1980. Para ello, se estima un modelo de datos de panel con dinámica de errores que ofrece evidencia de que el porcentaje del producto interno bruto destinado a gasto público en salud y, especialmente, el grado de urbanización son variables relevantes en este sentido.

  18. Cálculo espectral de la irradiación solar directa, difusa y global en Heredia, Costa Rica (ING)

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Wright

    2016-01-01

    A clear sky solar spectral model which describes the irradiation flux has been tested experimentally in Heredia, Costa Rica. A description of the model and comparisons with radiation data are presented. The model computes spectral fluxes of direct, diffuse and global solar irradiation incident on a horizontal surface. Necessary inputs include latitude, altitude, and surface albedo as characteristics of a location as well as the atmospheric characteristics: turbidity, precipitable water vapor,...

  19. Cost-effectiveness of breast cancer control strategies in Central America: the cases of Costa Rica and Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurens M Niëns

    Full Text Available This paper reports the most cost-effective policy options to support and improve breast cancer control in Costa Rica and Mexico. Total costs and effects of breast cancer interventions were estimated using the health care perspective and WHO-CHOICE methodology. Effects were measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs averted. Costs were assessed in 2009 United States Dollars (US$. To the extent available, analyses were based on locally obtained data. In Costa Rica, the current strategy of treating breast cancer in stages I to IV at a 80% coverage level seems to be the most cost-effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER of US$4,739 per DALY averted. At a coverage level of 95%, biennial clinical breast examination (CBE screening could improve Costa Rica's population health twofold, and can still be considered very cost-effective (ICER US$5,964/DALY. For Mexico, our results indicate that at 95% coverage a mass-media awareness raising program (MAR could be the most cost-effective (ICER US$5,021/DALY. If more resources are available in Mexico, biennial mammography screening for women 50-70 yrs (ICER US$12,718/DALY, adding trastuzumab (ICER US$13,994/DALY or screening women 40-70 yrs biennially plus trastuzumab (ICER US$17,115/DALY are less cost-effective options. We recommend both Costa Rica and Mexico to engage in MAR, CBE or mammography screening programs, depending on their budget. The results of this study should be interpreted with caution however, as the evidence on the intervention effectiveness is uncertain. Also, these programs require several organizational, budgetary and human resources, and the accessibility of breast cancer diagnostic, referral, treatment and palliative care facilities should be improved simultaneously. A gradual implementation of early detection programs should give the respective Ministries of Health the time to negotiate the required budget, train the required human resources and understand

  20. Diversity, Ecology and Herbivory of Hairstreak Butterflies (Theclinae) Associated with the Velvet Tree, Miconia calvescens in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Badenes-Péérez, F. R.; Alfaro-Alpíízar, M. A.; Johnson, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    Larvae of three species of hairstreak butterflies in the subfamily Theclinae (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) were found feeding on developing inflorescences, flower buds, and immature fruits of the velvet tree, Miconia calvescens DC. (Myrtales: Melastomataceae) in Costa Rica. Erora opisena (Druce), Parrhasius polibetes (Cramer), and Temecla paron (Godman and Salvin) were studied in association with M. calvescens, an uncommon tree in its natural range in the neotropics and a target for biocontrol as...

  1. Key drivers controlling stable isotope variations in daily precipitation of Costa Rica: Caribbean Sea versus Eastern Pacific Ocean moisture sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Murillo, R.; Birkel, C.; Welsh, K.; Esquivel-Hernández, G.; Corrales-Salazar, J.; Boll, J.; Brooks, E.; Roupsard, O.; Sáenz-Rosales, O.; Katchan, I.; Arce-Mesén, R.; Soulsby, C.; Araguás-Araguás, L. J.

    2016-01-01

    Costa Rica is located on the Central American Isthmus, which receives moisture inputs directly from the Caribbean Sea and the Eastern Pacific Ocean. This location includes unique mountainous and lowland microclimates, but only limited knowledge exists about the impact of relief and regional atmospheric circulation patterns on precipitation origin, transport, and isotopic composition. Therefore, the main scope of this project is to identify the key drivers controlling stable isotope variations in daily-scale precipitation of Costa Rica. The monitoring sites comprise three strategic locations across Costa Rica: Heredia (Central Valley), Turrialba (Caribbean slope), and Caño Seco (South Pacific slope). Sporadic dry season rain is mostly related to isolated enriched events ranging from -5.8‰ to -0.9‰ δ18O. By mid-May, the Intertropical Convergence Zone reaches Costa Rica resulting in a notable depletion in isotope ratios (up to -18.5‰ δ18O). HYSPLIT air mass back trajectories indicate the strong influence on the origin and transport of precipitation of three main moisture transport mechanisms, the Caribbean Low Level Jet, the Colombian Low Level Jet, and localized convection events. Multiple linear regression models constructed based on Random Forests of surface meteorological information and atmospheric sounding profiles suggest that lifted condensation level and surface relative humidity are the main factors controlling isotopic variations. These findings diverge from the recognized 'amount effect' in monthly composite samples across the tropics. Understanding of stable isotope dynamics in tropical precipitation can be used to a) enhance groundwater modeling efforts in ungauged basins where scarcity of long-term monitoring data drastically limit current and future water resources management, b) improve the re-construction of paleoclimatic records in the Central American land bridge, c) calibrate and validate regional circulation models.

  2. The Impact of Internet Banking on the Performance of Micro and Small Enterprises in Costa Rica: A Randomized Controlled Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Monge-Gonzalez

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses a randomized controlled experiment in Costa Rica to determine whether IB use by Banco Nacional de Desarrollo's micro and small enterprise (MSE) clients has an impact on their performance, measured in terms of productivity, increase in sales, and cost reduction. Results from the intervention group surveys indicate that Internet use is limited in MSEs' daily operations because of limited access to computers and the relatively low penetration of Internet services in employees' ac...

  3. The Impact of Internet Banking on the Performance of Micro and Small Enterprises in Costa Rica: A Randomized Controlled Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Monge-Gonzalez, Ricardo; Comisión Asesora en Alta Tecnología (CAATEC)

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses a randomized controlled experiment in Costa Rica to determine whether IB use by Banco Nacional de Desarrollo`s micro and small enterprise (MSE) clients has an impact on their performance, measured in terms of productivity, increase in sales, and cost reduction. Results from the intervention group surveys indicate that Internet use is limited in MSEs` daily operations because of limited access to computers and the relatively low penetration of Internet services in employees` ac...

  4. Knowledge-Based Economy in Argentina, Costa Rica and Mexico: A Comparative Analysis from the Bio-Economy Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Barbara MUNGARAY-MOCTEZUMA; Sylvia Monica PEREZ-NUÑEZ; Santos LÓPEZ-LEYVA

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to determine the necessary institutional characteristics of technology and human capital in Argentina, Costa Rica and Mexico in order to evolve towards a knowledge-based economy, addressing the importance of institutions for their development. In particular, the knowledge-based economy is analyzed from the perspective of bioeconomics. Based on the Knowledge Economy Index (KEI) which considers 148 indicators, in the following categories: a) economic performance...

  5. Garantías constitucionales y principios democráticos en los debate electorales en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlette Bolaños Barquero

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se exponen las garantías constitucionales vigentes en Costa Rica para la realización de los debates electorales y se refiere a los principios y valores democráticos como sustento de los criterios que rigen para el desarrollo de estas actividades electorales, los cuales se detallan junto con la jurisprudencia de la Sala Constitucional y del Tribunal Supremo de Elecciones que los han propugnado con amplitud.

  6. Consideraciones para una evaluación docente en la Universidad de Costa Rica

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    Vargas Porras, Alicia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan los resultados de un proyecto de investigación realizado en el 2002- 2003 por Alicia E. Vargas, Carolina Bolaños, José Miguel Gutiérrez, Lorena Kikut, María Lourdes Calderón y Miguel Ángel González, docentes investigadores del Centro de Evaluación Académica de la Universidad de Costa Rica. El objetivo principal fue identificar características del profesorado universitario y de su trabajo, como insumos para mejorar la evaluación docente que se realiza en esta Universidad. La investigación se centró en construir un concepto de docencia, en términos de las competencias y desempeños que se consideran como excelentes. Para ello, además de la obligada revisión bibliográfica sobre el tema, se llevó a cabo un estudio, mediante talleres y encuestas, para construir el concepto de docente excelente, según lo plantea el mismo profesorado, el alumnado y las directivas universitarias. En una segunda etapa del estudio, se abordó el tema de las especificidades didácticas, según tipos de curso, mediante consulta a la comunidad docente y talleres con amplia participación. Los resultados obtenidos en esta investigación aportan una conceptualización de lo que significa ser docente en la UCR y, así mismo, se logra diferenciar los requerimientos del desempeño docente, según tipo de curso. La información generada aporta criterios para la construcción de evaluaciones docentes en el ámbito universitario. This article presents the results of a research carried out during the period 2002-2003 by Alicia E. Vargas, Carolina Bolaños, José Miguel Gutiérrez, Lorena Kikut, María Lourdes Calderón and Miguel Ángel González, researches of the Centre for Academic Evaluation of the University of Costa Rica. Its main objective was to identify teaching qualities in higher education as inputs for the improvement of the evaluation of teachers that is carried out at the University of Costa Rica. The study aimed, in

  7. Strengthening Conservation in the Tropics: The Water Canon of Costa Rica

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    Francisco Benavides

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The tropics contain primary forests with a significant value for society, as they provide services such as carbon sequestration, soil conservation, bio-prospecting, water storage and others. Competing land uses have not favored conservation during the last several decades and therefore the need for an effective public policy instrument to curtail forest loss is evident. Approach: This article analyzed a policy intended to augment the funds for subsidizing forest conservation in Costa Rica through a tax on the consumption of potable water. This potable water canon was compared on the basis of legitimacy criteria to the alternative of imposing a tax on the exploitation of marginal lands. The analysis was based on comparing the perceptions different stakeholders have toward deforestation and its potential solutions, which result into different frames, or views regarding the problem. The perceptions were obtained from semi-structured interviews of individuals representing the central and local governments, national and local non-governmental organizations, the private sector, academia and political parties. Results: Overall, the water canon is a superior policy from the point of view of technical implementability and political feasibility. The regulation was expected to increase the forest cover in private hands in a more effective way than the tax on marginal lands, while keeping government expenditures to a minimum. The policy context is one of high expert and social trust and low government trust, requiring substantive stakeholder education and the creation of feedback mechanisms to increase acceptability during the implementation period. Conclusion: If approved by the Costa Rican Congress, the water canon will become an innovative conservation policy from which other developing countries will be able to obtain valuable lessons.

  8. Desarrollo de la especialidad en Psicología clínica en Costa Rica: perspectivas futuras

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    Roberto López-Core

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describen los antecedentes históricos, evolución y desarrollo de la Especialidad en Psicología Clínica en Costa Rica. En el año 1957, se inició el ejercicio de esta disciplina y a partir del año 1979 se consolidó el programa de estudios adscrito al Convenio Marco firmado entre la Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR y la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS. Desde entonces, ha mantenido una acción ininterrumpida en la formación de especialistas. Los y las residentes en el proceso formativo tienen una doble condición: son funcionarios/as del sistema de salud de la CCSS y estudiantes de posgrado de la UCR. Se mencionan las perspectivas futuras y la inserción de esta disciplina en la implementación de la Política Nacional de Salud Mental en Costa Rica (2012. Se menciona, además, la relación e interacción con disciplinas afines como la Psiquiatría, la Neuropsicología, las Neurociencias y la rehabilitación psicosocial. Se hace referencia a las perspectivas futuras de su participación en otras áreas, como la Psicogeriatría, Psicooncología, Psicología de enlace, cuidados paliativos y la salud sexual y reproductiva.

  9. Rabies in Costa Rica: Documentation of the Surveillance Program and the Endemic Situation from 1985 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Sabine E; Brugger, Katharina; Sancho Vargas, Victor Hugo; González, Rocío; Aguilar, Olga; León, Bernal; Tichy, Alexander; Firth, Clair L; Rubel, Franz

    2016-05-01

    This is the first comprehensive epidemiological analysis of rabies in Costa Rica. We characterized the occurrence of the disease and demonstrated its endemic nature in this country. In Costa Rica, as in other countries in Latin America, hematophagous vampire bats are the primary wildlife vectors transmitting the rabies virus to cattle herds. Between 1985 and 2014, a total of 78 outbreaks of bovine rabies was reported in Costa Rica, with documented cases of 723 dead cattle. Of cattle outbreaks, 82% occurred between 0 and 500 meters above sea level, and seasonality could be demonstrated on the Pacific side of the country, with significantly more outbreaks occurring during the wet season. A total of 1588 animal samples, or an average of 55 samples per year, was received by the veterinary authority (SENASA) for rabies diagnostic testing at this time. Of all samples tested, 9% (143/1588) were positive. Of these, 85.6% (125/1588) were from cattle; four dogs (0.3% [4/1588]) were diagnosed with rabies in this 30-year period. Simultaneously, an extremely low number (n = 3) of autochthonous rabies cases were reported among human patients, all of which were fatal. However, given the virus' zoonotic characteristics and predominantly fatal outcome among both cattle and humans, it is extremely important for healthcare practitioners and veterinarians to be aware of the importance of adequate wound hygiene and postexpositional rabies prophylaxis when dealing with both wild and domestic animal bites. PMID:26982168

  10. Social housing in Costa Rica's warm humid climate : strategies and considerations for passive design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Masis, M. [Architectural Association, London (United Kingdom). Sustainable and Environmental Design Programme

    2009-07-01

    The demand for housing in Costa Rica is growing but affordability still prevents low income families from obtaining quality homes. Although local authorities have made significant effort to face housing demand, social housing projects do not consider climate adaptation, users necessities nor thermal comfort. This is evident in warm-humid regions where poor design is often used. This paper aims to set design recommendations and environmental guidelines for social housing projects for the warm humid regions of Costa-Rica, where openness and shading becomes a main issue. Such concepts will be explored in regards of passive design strategies and thermal comfort. It was concluded that Costa Rica's social housing scenario should consider design strategies that optimize effective use of spaces, natural ventilation and shading in order to provide comfort with low energy use. The design recommendations aim to have an intrinsic relationship within bioclimatic design, comfort assessments and sustainable architecture, where social housing dwellings enhance and promote quality and dignity for the occupants through social awareness and sustainable resources. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  11. ESTRÉS EN ESTUDIANTES DE FARMACIA DE LA UNIVERSIDAD DE COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez Herrera Luis Guillermo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Este artículo muestra los resultados de un trabajo que valoró el nivel de estrés que perciben estudiantes de la Facultad de Farmacia de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Participaron 204 estudiantes, quienes completaron los formularios correspondientes a la aplicación del test de Solano-Beauregard para medir el estrés durante dos momentos durante el primer ciclo lectivo 2009: en el primer y el último mes del periodo. El 50% de los estudiantes muestran estrés grave, al considerar el índice construido con una escala de 1 a 5, donde 1 es sin estrés y 5 el máximo estrés (promedio 2,9. No se relacionó el nivel de estrés medido con ninguna de las variables académicas de interés seleccionadas. Los resultados evidencian que se debe hacer un seguimiento a la percepción de estrés que dicen tener las y los estudiantes, identificar las causas del mismo, implementar medidas que ayuden a estudiantes a aprender a manejar el estrés y mejorar o cambiar lo que sea más adecuado.Abstract:This article shows the results of a work that evaluated the stress level which they perceive students of the Faculty of Pharmacy of the University of Costa Rica. 204 students participated, who completed the forms corresponding to the application of the test of Solano-Beauregard to measure stress during two moments during first school cycle 2009: in first and the last month of the period. 50% of students show serious stress, when considering the index constructed with a scale from 1 to 5, where 1 is without stress and 5 the maximum stress (average 2.9. The level of measured stress was not related to any of selected the academic variables of interest. The results demonstrate that a pursuit to the perception of stress that say to have and the students is due to do, to identify the causes of the same, to implement measures that help students to learn to handle stress and to improve or to change what more it is adapted.

  12. Spatial and temporal variation of stable isotopes in precipitation across Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh Unwala, K.; Sanchez-Murillo, R.; Esquivel-Hernandez, G.; Brooks, E. S.; Boll, J.; Alfaro-Solis, R.; Valdes-Gonzalez, J.

    2013-12-01

    The geographic location of Costa Rica on the Central American Isthmus creates unique mountainous microclimate systems across the country that receive moisture inputs directly from the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. These microclimate systems offer an exceptional opportunity to study isotopic variations in precipitation over the Central American continental divide. Here, we present a spatial and temporal analysis of historic Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) records and current monitoring efforts. GNIP Sampling campaigns were mainly comprised of monthly-integrated samples during intermittent years from 1990 to 2005. Ongoing monitoring includes three distinct microclimate locations along the continental divide. Samples were grouped into four main regions: Nicoya Peninsula (δ2H = 6.65δ18O-0.13; r2=0.86); Pacific Coast (δ2H = 7.60δ18O+7.95; r2=0.99); Caribbean Slope (δ2H = 6.97δ18O+4.97; r2=0.97); and Central Valley (δ2H = 7.94δ18O+10.38; r2=0.98). The overall meteoric water line for Costa Rica can be defined as δ2H = 7.61δ18O+7.40 (r2=0.98). The regression of precipitation amount with annual arithmetic means in samples from all four regions yields a slope of -1.6 ‰ δ18O per 100 mm of rain (r2 = 0.57), which corresponds with a temperature effect of -0.37 ‰ δ18O/°C. A strong correlation (r2=0.77) of -2.0 ‰ δ18O per km of elevation was found. Samples within the Nicoya Peninsula and Caribbean lowlands appear to be dominated by evaporation enrichment, especially during the dry months (January-April), likely resulting from small precipitation amounts. In the inter-mountainous region of the Central Valley and Pacific slope, complex moisture recycling processes may dominate isotopic variations. Generally, isotopic values tend to be more depleted as the rainy season progresses over the year (May-October). HYSPLIT back trajectory analyses indicate that enriched isotopic compositions are related to central Caribbean parental moisture

  13. Valoración del riesgo de deforestación futura en Costa Rica.

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    Edwin Chaves Esquivel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El artículo expone un procedimiento para estimar los riesgos de deforestación futura de Costa Rica. Se utiliza un sistema de información geográfica con capas de datos en formato “raster”, que divide el territorio nacional en aproximadamente 100.000 celdas de 750 m de lado, de las cuales alrededor de 34.000 contenían bosque a inicios de los ochenta. Con regresión logística se identifica un modelo explicatorio de la probabilidad de deforestación de una celda en el periodo 1984-1996. Este modelo se aplica a datos demográficos actualizados en 1996 para estimar las probabilidades esperadas de deforestación de las celdas con bosque en ese año. Alrededor de 4.000 km2 con bosque en 1996, están en riesgo de deforestación en los siguientes 15 años. De los restantes 15.000 km2 de áreas boscosas con bajo riesgo esperado de deforestación, el 73% se encuentra en zonas que tienen algún tipo de protección legal. La mayoría de los bosques fuera de las áreas protegidas se encuentran en grave peligro de ser deforestados en los próximos 15 años. Las áreas de más alto riesgo se ubican en la zona Pacífico norte, en el Caribe y en la zona norte. Según el modelo, los sitios que están en riesgo de deforestación tienen una probabilidad del 44% que efectivamente serán deforestados, siempre y cuando ciertas condiciones pasadas se mantengan. Estos resultados son un aviso sobre lo que podría suceder como consecuencia del incremento de la presión demográfica en Costa Rica, si esta no es neutralizada con políticas apropiadas.

  14. Incidencia de esclerosis lateral amiotrófica en Costa Rica

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    Pilar Rodríguez- Paniagua

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Justificación y objetivo: Hasta el momento no se ha publicado un estudio que nos permita conocer cuál es la incidencia de ELA en nuestro país. El objetivo de este estudio fue establecer la incidencia de esta enfermedad en Costa Rica, y describir las características de los pacientes diagnosticados en nuestro país desde enero de 1998 a noviembre de 2001. Materiales y métodos: Utilizando diferentes fuentes de información se identificaron los casos de ELA en el periodo de 1998 al 2001. Se calculó la tasa de incidencia por persona año, se analizaron variables como sexo, distribución geográfica, grupo étnico, edad al diagnóstico, clasificación de la enfermedad, métodos diagnósticos y tratamientos. Resultados: Entre enero de 1998 y diciembre del 2001, 102 casos de ELA son diagnosticados en Costa Rica, la tasa incidencia anual en población de 15 años y mas es de 0.97 (I.C. 95 % 0.8 a 1.2 por 100.000 personas año. Se revisaron 76 expedientes. Veintiocho fueron mujeres y cuarenta y ocho hombres, presentándose una mayor incidencia en hombres, con una razón de masculinidad de 1.7, todos de raza blanca. La edad al diagnóstico fue de 58.4 años para las mujeres y 53.1 años para los hombres (p = 0.15. El 75% de los casos se encuentran en tres provincias: San José, Alajuela y Cartago, con tasas de incidencia similares. La tasa de incidencia aumenta conforme aumenta la edad en las mujeres, mientras en los hombres se muestra la tasa más alta en la década de los sesenta. El 36.8% de los casos fueron clasificados como ELA bulbar, mientras que el 55.3% como espinal, el 7.9% restante como bulbo espinal. Conclusión: El estudio muestra cómo la incidencia de esta enfermedad es similar a la de los países que muestran las incidencias mas bajas. La incidencia se mantuvo estable en el período analizado, la enfermedad afecta más a hombres que a mujeres.

  15. Conservación de la biodiversidad y desarrollo humano en bosques montanos de Costa Rica

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    Juan Criado Hernández

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Costa Rica es el país que posee la mayor biodiversidad del planeta en relación con su extensión (en 51 100 km2 tiene aproximadamente el 5% de la biodiversidad mundial; esto, junto al compromiso político de integrar las políticas de desarrollo humano y de medio ambiente, han consolidado el país como líder en conservación en América Latina.  Lo anterior ha favorecido, además, el desarrollo del ecoturismo, el pago de servicios ambientales y la fijación de carbono, como alternativas para el aprovechamiento racional de los recursos naturales. A pesar de estos esfuerzos, es evidente la necesidad de promover investigaciones que ayuden a entender las interacciones entre naturaleza y sociedad, base del desarrollo sostenible. A escala internacional, los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio (2005, el reciente Congreso de Áreas Protegidas en Mesoamérica (Panamá, 2006 y el último Congreso de la Asociación de Biología Tropical y Conservación (México, 2007, son algunos ejemplos que destacan esta misma necesidad. Se presenta una aproximación interdisciplinar para determinar las relaciones que existen entre la biodiversidad y el bienestar humano en bosques montanos de Costa Rica. La hipótesis considera que un buen estado de conservación del bosque tiene una correlación positiva con un acceso equitativo a las condiciones necesarias para mejorar el bienestar humano de las comunidades. Para esto, se desarrolla una metodología sencilla basada en un conjunto de indicadores biológicos y sociales. En los indicadores biológicos se considera la estructura del bosque y su relación con especies de aves frugívoras como indicadores funcionales de biodiversidad, debido a su papel como dispersores de semillas en las montañas del trópico. Los indicadores sociales están basados en la participación social, por la función que cumple en la distribución de los beneficios generados por el medio ambiente. Para ello se analizan las redes de participaci

  16. Estudio experimental de la radiación global ultravioleta en San Jose, Costa Rica (ING

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    Jaime Wright

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Se midieron las radiaciones ultravioleta global y solar global en San José, Costa Rica (latitud: 9°56´, longitud: 84°54´, altitud: 1.172m durante el periodo de octubre 1993 a enero 1995 y se analizaron en función de su variación estacional y de la correlación entre ambas. La dependencia entre la radiación ultravioleta y el índice de claridad del cielo también fue investigada, y se encontró una pobre correlación entre el cociente de la radiación ultravioleta y la radiación solar global (Hv/Hg y el índice de claridad. El coeficiente de correlación entre Hv/Hg y Hg/Ho no fue mayor de 0,25 para cuatro categorías de tipos de cielos, i.e., cielos cubiertos, cielos despejados, así como dos ámbitos intermedios, lo que demuestra que la radiación ultravioleta no solamente está asociada con la claridad del cielo, sino también con otras condiciones de transmisión atmosférica. Un análisis de regresión entre los valores horarios de las radiaciones ultravioleta y global mostró una relación lineal con un coeficiente de determinación mayor del 98%. Esta regresión simple es confiable para la estimación de la radiación ultravioleta a partir de datos de radiación global.

  17. Diagnóstico molecular de cromosomopatías fetales en Costa Rica Molecular Diagnosis of Fetal Chromosomal Defects in Costa Rica

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    Wendy Malespín-Bendaña

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Justificación y objetivos: En Costa Rica, el diagnóstico de anomalías cromosómicas fetales se realiza solo mediante el análisis citogenético convencional de cromosomas obtenidos de cultivos celulares. Además de que la espera por los resultados puede ser larga, con alguna frecuencia fracasa el cultivo, por contaminación o por mala calidad de la muestra, o las figuras mitóticas no se pueden analizar, por lo que es necesario disponer de una metodología sencilla y barata, para obtener un diagnóstico prenatal rápido y fiable de trisomía 21, 18 ó 13, en embarazos de alto riesgo genético sometidos a amniocentesis o cordocentesis. Métodos: Se diseñaron tres PCRs multiplex para amplificar cuatro distintas repeticiones cortas en tándem, de cada uno de los cromosomas 21, 18 y 13. Se colectaron 93 muestras (88 líquidos amnióticos y 5 sangres fetales, recibidas en el laboratorio entre 2006 y 2008, con solicitud de análisis cromosómico. Los resultados de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa cuantitativa fluorescente, fueron comparados con el cariotipo obtenido de las mismas muestras para demostrar la fiabilidad del ensayo Resultados: Para este grupo de datos, la exactitud del ensayo fue del 100% y se consiguió obtener resultados en 48 horas. Se logró realizar el análisis de repeticiones cortas en tándem en el 77% de las muestras en las que no se pudo obtener crecimiento celular. Conclusión: La reacción en cadena de la polimerasa cuantitativa fluorescente demostró ser una metodología sencilla, fiable y rápida, por lo que podría convertirse en una herramienta complementaria del análisis cromosómico convencional. La obtención de resultados rápidos en casos de diagnóstico prenatal podría disminuir el periodo de ansiedad parental por la espera de los resultados, así como permitir un mejor abordaje terapéutico de los fetos afectados.Justification and aims: In Costa Rica, the diagnosis of chromosomal fetal anomalies is

  18. Tectonic setting of Late Cenozoic gold mineralization in the gold belt of Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deruyter, V.D.

    1985-01-01

    The Gold Belt of Costa Rica is a northwest-elongated zone 15 km wide by 120 km long containing numerous auriferous quartz veins and pyritic silicified patterns upon which abundant small mines are developed. Gold veins are related principally to northeast-southwest and north-south striking, steeply dipping faults. Higher grade ore and thicker veins invariably occur at intersections of these fracture orientations, indicating simultaneous opening at the time of gold introduction. Restriction of gold veins to the northwest-trending arc of Miocene Aguacate Group andesite volcanic rocks, a product of Cocos Plate subduction, suggested approximately coeval formation, but recognition by the writer of the important role played by 2-5 m.y. old altered, gold mineralized rhyolite dikes intruded along north-south gold vein structures and intimately involved with high grade ores at the Esperanza Mine and Rio Chiquito prospect, for example, suggest a much younger period of fracturing and gold introduction. The rhyolite intrusions are more brittle and stockwork mineralized than andesite host rocks and form bulk tonnage gold targets. Initiation of right-lateral movement along the north-south Panama Fracture Zone at 5 m.y.a. within the pattern of northeastward Cocos Plate subduction may have tapped rhyolites from subvolcanic magma chambers into new faults.

  19. Landscape evolution within a retreating volcanic arc, Costa Rica, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jeffrey S.; Idleman, Bruce D.; Gardner, Thomas W.; Fisher, Donald M.

    2003-05-01

    Subduction of hotspot-thickened seafloor profoundly affects convergent margin tectonics, strongly affecting upper plate structure, volcanism, and landscape evolution. In southern Central America, low-angle subduction of the Cocos Ridge and seamount domain largely controls landscape evolution in the volcanic arc. Field mapping, stratigraphic correlation, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology for late Cenozoic volcanic rocks of central Costa Rica provide new insights into the geomorphic response of volcanic arc landscapes to changes in subduction parameters (slab thickness, roughness, dip). Late Neogene volcanism was focused primarily along the now-extinct Cordillera de Aguacate. Quaternary migration of the magmatic front shifted volcanism northeastward to the Caribbean slope, creating a new topographic divide and forming the Valle Central basin. Stream capture across the paleo Aguacate divide led to drainage reversal toward the Pacific slope and deep incision of reorganized fluvial networks. Pleistocene caldera activity generated silicic ash flows that buried the Valle Central and descended the Tárcoles gorge to the Orotina debris fan at the coast. Growth of the modern Cordillera Central accentuated relief along the new divide, establishing the Valle Central as a Pacific slope drainage basin. Arc migration, relocation of the Pacific-Caribbean drainage divide, and formation of the Valle Central basin resulted from slab shallowing as irregular, hotspot-thickened crust entered the subduction zone. The geomorphic evolution of volcanic arc landscapes is thus highly sensitive to changes in subducting plate character.

  20. Seed predation by mammals in forest fragments in Monteverde, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchilla, Federico A

    2009-09-01

    Few studies have evaluated seed predation in fragmented landscapes, in which lower species diversity is expected to modifying ecological interactions. The rates of seed removal by mammals were investigated in a continuous forest and two fragmented patches of Premontane Tropical Moist Forest, in Monteverde, Costa Rica. The composition of mammalian seed-predators in each site was recorded during 16 months. The removal of four native tree species of experimental seeds: Ocotea valeriana and Ocotea whitei (Lauraceae), Panopsis costaricensis (Proteaceae) and Billia colombiana (Hippocastanaceae) in forest understories was followed during two annual fruiting seasons for each species. Results indicated similar species composition of seed-predators between continuous forest, the largest fragment (350 ha). However the smaller fragment (20 ha), had fewer seed predators. In this fragment, the specialized seed predator Heteromys desmarestianus (Rodentia) was more abundant. Unexpectedly, seed-predation in the two forest fragments and the continuous forest did not differ statistically for any of the seed species. Apparently, the higher abundance of small seed-predators in the fragments was compensated by the absence of medium and large seed-predators, like Agouti paca, Dasyprocta punctata (both Rodentia) and Pecari tajacu (Artiodactyla) recorded in continuous forest. Removal of experimentally-placed seeds was higher when the number of naturally occurring seeds in the sites was lower. This result could best be attributed to differential satiation of seed predators rather than differences in richness or abundance of seed predators.

  1. [Diversity, natural history and conservation of mammals from San Vito de Coto Brus, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Jesús; Ceballos, Gerardo; Daily, Gretchen C; Ehrlich, Paul R; Suzán, Gerardo; Rodríguez-Herrera, Bernal; Marcé, Erika

    2006-03-01

    Although Costa Rica has been biologically well studied, few areas have complete mammal inventories, which are essential for ecological studies and conservation. The San Vito region is considered among the most important for scientific research in the country because of the presence of the Wilson Botanical Garden and Las Cruces. However, the knowledge of its mammalian fauna is incomplete. We extensively studied the mammals of San Vito, compiled a checklist, and evaluated its composition, relative abundance, habitat distribution, and conservation status. We recorded 105 species, representing 85 genera, 29 families, and 10 orders. Non-volant mammals represented 62 species, 59 genera, 23 families, and 9 orders. Bats belonged to 6 families, 26 genera and 43 species. The extensive deforestation and hunting have caused the extinction of seven species, but the region still supports, surprisingly, a relatively high number of species, most of which are rare. Few species are common and abundant. Species richness was higher in forest, and forest fragments; fewer species were found in coffee plantations, induced grasslands, and secondary vegetation. Around 21% (13 species) are included in the IUCN red book. Three species are considered endangered (Saimiri oerstedii, Tapirus bairdii, and Sylvilagus dicei), and two threatened (Myrmecophaga trydactila and Caluromys derbianus), of which two (T. bairdii and M. trydactila) are locally extinct. The other species in IUCN are either of low risk (i.e. Chironectes minimus) or data deficient (Lontra longicaudis). Additionally, 24 species (39%) are included in CITES.

  2. Volatile constituents of Ocotea sinuata (Mez) Rohwer (Lauraceae) of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical composition was determined of the essential oils extracted from twigs, bark and leaves of the tree Ocotea sinuata (Mez) Rohwer (Lauraceae), which grows in wild form in Costa Rica. The analyses were effected by means of the technology of gas chromatography in capillary column, using detectors of ionization at flame (FID) and spectrometry of masses (GC/MS). Eighty eight (88) compounds were identified. The oils were found to be of nature terpenic. The major constituents of the twigs were β-caryophyllene (18,4%), viridiflorol (11,3%), caryophyllene oxide (8,7%), germacrene D (7,7%), camphene (4,5%), and α-pinene (4,4%). The main constituents from bark oil were germacrene D (14.8%), β- caryophyllene(10,5%), camphene (10,3%), α-pinene (10,1%), viridiflorol (8,7%), β-pinene (4,7%) and α-copaene (4,6%). The main constituents from leaf oil were germacrene D (30,6%), β- caryophyllene (30,1%) and viridiflorol (8,9%). (author)

  3. Trasmisión de Toxoplasma gondii en Costa Rica: Un concepto actualizado

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    Liliana Reyes-Lizano

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Los hallazgos más recientes en cuanto a la trasmisión del Toxoplasma gondii en Costa Rica nos indican que la ingestión de carne poco cocida, así como de algunos embutidos, en donde se ha encontrado el parásito en forma viable, son mecanismos de infección importante. Estos aspectos han hecho variar un poco la concepción anterior de que la ingestión de ooquistes del parásito era la principal, sino la única, vía de infección en nuestro país. Por ello se propone un nuevo ciclo de trasmisión para este parásito, comparándolo con el previamente establecido. Este nuevo patrón epidemiológico establece mayores posibilidades de infección con este parásito para los costarricenses.

  4. Regional warming and the thermal regimes of American crocodile nests in the Tempisque Basin, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christopher M; Easter, Michael; Padilla, Sergio; Marin, Mahmood Sasa; Guyer, Craig

    2016-08-01

    Spatial variation in global climate change makes population-specific responses to this enigmatic threat pertinent on a regional scale. Organisms with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) potentially possess a unique physiological susceptibility that threatens population viability if rapid environmental effects on sex ratios render populations non-viable. A heavily male-biased sex ratio for hatchling American crocodiles of the Tempisque Basin, Costa Rica requires assessment of how nest temperature affects sex determination at this site, how females might compensate for these effects when creating nests, and how current patterns of climate change might alter future sex ratios and survival in hatchling cohorts. We demonstrate high within-nest variation in temperature but predict a female bias at hatching based on nest temperatures quantified here. Further, our data suggest that egg size and metabolic heating associated with this factor outweighs microhabitat parameters and depth in influencing nest thermal regimes. Finally, we document regional warming in the Tempisque Basin over the last 15 years and project that further heating over the next 15 years will not yield hatchling sex ratios as male biased as those currently found at this site. Thus, we find no support for nest temperature or climate change as likely explanations for male-biased American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) sex ratios in the Tempisque Basin.

  5. Extraction and evaluation of condensed tannins from bark of eleven species of trees from Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study is made regarding the nature and the amount of condensed tannin which can extract of bark from 11 tree species present in Costa Rica: guanacaste (Enterolobium cyclocarpum), cork oak (Licania arborea), jobo (Spondias mombin), pochote (Pachira quinata), loquat (Manilkara chicle), almond (Andira inermis), oak (Tabebuia rosea), cedar (Cedrela odorata), cenizaro (Samanea saman), pine (Pinus caribaea) and cypress (Cupressus lusitanica). The cortex samples were prepared, dried and extracted with ethanol. The ethanolic extracts were analyzed for condensed tannin content through the number of Stiasny, and characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The species with the highest proportion of extracted material were: guanacaste (9.5841% w/w), pochote (15.0066% w/w), pine (19.3400% w/w) and cypress (10.5300% w/w). The extracts with a higher proportion of condensed tannins have been: cork oak (61.9% w/w), jobo (66.1% w/w), pochote (72.8% w/w), loquat (50.5% w/w), cedar (72.7% w/w) and pine (70.7% w/w). (author)

  6. Identification of Meloidogyne species associated with upland ornamentals plants in Costa Rica.

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    Stefany Solano-González

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify nematodes species of the genus Meloidogyne associated with upland ornamental plants. We sampled ten ornamental species in a commercial nursery in San Isidro, Heredia, Costa Rica between 2011-2012. Morphometric measurements of the stylet length, the tail length, and the hyaline region of J2s, as well as perineal patterns of egg-carrying females were used for identification, Genomic DNA was extracted from single J2s and molecular analyses were performed by amplifying the intergenic region between cytochrome oxidase subunit II of the COII and the long subunit of the ARN ribosomal genes by PCR-RFLP. Combining these methods allowed identification of five species of nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne (M. arenaria, M. hapla, M. hispanica, M. incognita and M. javanica, and new restriction enzyme patterns were reported for M. hapla and M. javanica using AluI. Additionally, a preliminary report of M. hispanica was described by sequencing the 28S and 18S regions.

  7. Determination of methane emissions in three hydroelectric dams in Costa Rica

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    Jorge Herrera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The emission fluxes of methane (CH4 across air–water interface were measured in three hydroelectric dams in Costa Rica (Brasil, Nuestro Amo and Cote Lake during three years cycle (2009-2011, using the floating static chamber technique. Samples were taken during one week, both day and night time, through four campaigns per year. For the methane flux determination the water surface was divided in a 4x4 grid equally spaced. During this period, CH4 fluxes showed average values that ranged from 759 – 4282 (Brasil, 77 – 733 (Nuestro Amo and 10,9 – 44,2 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 (Cote Lake, respectively. The fluxes of CH4 showed both strong seasonal and diurnal variations. CH4 emission rate was highest in dry season and there was a significant difference for CH4 emissions between day and night, the ratios between nighttime to daytime methane flux increased from 0,35 to 0,72, 0,43 to 0,64 for Brasil and Nuestro Amo, respectively in this season. CH4 emission was correlated positively with soil temperature, water table and chlorophyll a water concentrations.

  8. Pronóstico del crecimiento trimestral de Costa Rica mediante modelos de frecuencia mixta

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    Adolfo Rodríguez Vargas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Se evalúa la utilidad de modelos de frecuencia mixta para pronosticar la tasa de crecimiento trimestral del PIB real de Costa Rica: se estiman modelos bridge y MiDaS con diferentes longitudes de rezago usando información del IMAE y se calculan pronósticos (horizontes de 0-4 trimestres que se comparan entre sí, con los de modelos ARIMA y con combinaciones de pronósticos. Combinar los pronósticos con mejor ajuste resulta útil especialmente para proyectar en tiempo real, mientras que los MiDaS muestran el mejor desempeño general: al incrementarse el horizonte su precisión disminuye levemente, su porcentaje de acierto de cambios en la tasa de variación del producto permanece estable y varios de ellos son insesgados. Los pronósticos de MiDaS simples con 9 y 12 rezagos resultaron insesgados para todos los horizontes y conjuntos de información evaluados, y son los que mostraron más diferencias significativas en capacidad de pronóstico con todos los demás modelos.

  9. Costa Rica: una decisión estratégica en tiempos inciertos

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    JORGE VARGAS CULLELL

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El 2007 estuvo marcado por el conflicto sobre la ratificación del Tratado de Libre Comercio entre Centroamérica, Estados Unidos y República Dominicana (CAFTA por sus siglas en inglés. El CAFTA fue aprobado por estrecho margen mediante referendum en octubre, luego de un período de polarización de las fuerzas políticas y sociales. El proceso reflejó la fragilidad del sistema de partidos políticos y las dificultades del gobierno y las fuerzas opositoras para lograr acuerdos políticos en otros ámbitos de la política pública.The conflict over the ratification of the Central American, United States and Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA dominated Costa Rican politics in 2007. CAFTA was approved by a narrow margin in a national referendum held in October, after a fractious and polarized campaign. The process reflected the transitional and fragile nature of the party system, and the difficulty to achieve consensus faced both by the government and the opposition.

  10. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND OTHER LIFESTYLE HABITS OF MEDICAL STUDENTS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Jiménez Morgan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Those engaged in medical sciences are social models. For this reason, their daily habits influence their professional practice and the primary prevention they carry out. The main purpose of this research was to determine whether this group of medicine training students, all from University of Costa Rica, met national and international recommendations regarding health and wellness regulations. In 2014, second semester, anonymous questionnaires were applied to all undergraduate medical students from first year to seniors (n= 216. Based on this information, some personal data was gathered such as smoking habits, alcohol intake, fruit and vegetable consumption, and the amount of physical activities they practiced. According to this evidence, 52.91% drank alcohol beverages while the prevalence of active smokers was low (3.39%. Furthermore, although they accomplished the national and international standards related to fruit and vegetable consumption, 40% of the subjects did not exercise in any way. Among those who did exercise daily, 68.9% invested only 7.8 minutes per day. Among other findings, those who performed some physical activity at least once a week devoted more time to studying than to watching television. In brief, fitness and health promotion programs should target these future professionals to prevent risk factors such as overweight, obesity, and chronic diseases associated with a sedentary lifestyle. English translation by Jeannette Soto Segura

  11. Análisis del comportamiento de mercado de la pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus en Costa Rica

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    Olman Quirós Madrigal

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available La pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus es una planta que pertenece a la familia de las cactaceae, que se puede consumir como fruta fresca o procesada como pulpa; sin embargo, en Costa Rica su uso no está muy difundido, por lo que el mercado meta es la población de origen nicaragüense residente en el país, quienes catalogan el producto como de consumo tradicional o masivo.Es por esto que resulta importante retomar el estudio de los componentes del mercado, en donde se destaca no sólo por ser una fruta con componentes nutricionales que aportan beneficios a la salud humana, sino tambien porque suple una demanda latente y su cultivo puede ser una actividad alternativa para productores de zonas con condiciones agroecológicas adversas. En relación con el abastecimiento del producto en el mercado nacional, se enfatiza que su procedencia es nacional pero principalmente se importa como fruta fresca y pulpa de Nicaragua y, en menor grado, de Colombia.El precio de la pitahaya en el mercado nacional está estrechamente relacionado con los precios de importación, ya que la oferta principal proviene del producto importado, por lo que ha tenido un comportamiento creciente al pasar, de US$0,574 en el año 2003, a US$1,18 por kg en el 2007.

  12. Servicios ecosistémicos e hidroenergía en Costa Rica

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    E.J. Leguía

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio es identificar los ecosistemas forestales que provén servicios ecosistémicos hídricos (SEH importantes para la adaptación del sector hidroenergético al cambio climático en Costa Rica. Se evaluó un marco metodológico que tomó en cuenta los vínculos espaciales entre usos del suelo, su capacidad de producir SEH y la utilidad que las centrales hidroeléctricas obtienen de los SEH, en un contexto de vulnerabilidad a eventos climáticos. Las centrales hidroeléctricas reciben SEH del 24% del territorio nacional, que en su mayoría está bajo cobertura forestal (52%. Las cuencas del río Reventazón, Grande de Tárcoles y Grande de Terraba son las más importantes en términos de área que provee SEH. Cerca del 70% de los ecosistemas forestales identificados como relevantes para la hidroenergía se encuentran fuera de áreas protegidas. Los resultados de este trabajo son de importancia para la implementación de planes de manejo adaptativo de los ecosistemas prioritarios para garantizar el flujo continuo de SEH y así contribuir a la resiliencia del sector hidroenergético, en particular frente al cambio climático.

  13. The Impact of Pesticide Exposure on Breast Cancer Incidence. Evidence from Costa Rica

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    Santamaría-Ulloa, Carolina

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast cancer (BC is the most prevalent and the leading cause of death from cancer in women worldwide. The low percentage of cases related to reproductive history risk factors and to genetics suggests that the environment may play a role in its etiology. Pesticide exposure has been hypothesized to have an important effect. Objective: This ecological study tests whether BC incidence in Costa Rica is related to pesticide environmental exposure (PEE, controlling for access to health care, fertility, age at first pregnancy, and socioeconomic status. Methods: A Poisson regression model was run. Spatial analysis techniques to test for spatial autocorrelation, and geographically weighted regressions were used. Results: PEE had a statistically significant direct association with BC for women 45 yrs+. The corresponding incidence rate ratio for PEE was 1.29. This means that after controlling for other risk factors, moving a district to the next decile of PEE was associated with 29% increase in BC incidence for women 45+. PEE was significant in some rural and agricultural areas of the country, after controlling for other risk factors. Conclusions: There seems to be an actual relation between breast cancer and pesticides. Since it is a preventable risk factor, this is an important public health issue to be debated. Paying more attention to health consequences that derivate from environmental exposure would imply a shift toward the application of the precautionary principle. Conclusions about causality can not be drawn from an ecologic approach, like the one taken in this study.

  14. Near-regional CMT solution for the September 5, 2012 14:42 Costa Rica earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronnie, Q.; Jiri, Z.; Sokos, E.

    2013-05-01

    We use acceleration data from the OVSICORI-UNA seismic network for a preliminary moment tensor solution of the event September 5, 2012 Mw 7.6, 14:42:03, Guanacaste, Costa Rica earthquake. The full-waveform inversion was made using the ISOLA code (Sokos and Zahradnik, 2008), with the 1D velocity model of Quintero and Kissling (2001). Acceleration records at 10 stations (43-251 km) and at 0.03 CMT solution at the depth of 25-45 km below epicenter, continued with a horizontal 10x10 km grid search of trial sources inland. The best stable CMT solution was found at Lat=10.146°, Lon=-85.478°, i.e. of about 50 km NNE from the OVSICORI epicenter. The centroid time is 14:42:21 UTC, i.e. 18 sec later relative to the location-based origin time; Mw 7.5, source time function duration 10-15 seconds. The nodal plane (strike=330°, dip=30° and rake=129°) is the fault plane, as proved by the H-C consistency test (Zahradnik et al., 2008), and in agreement with geometry of the subduction.

  15. Protist communities in a marine oxygen minimum zone off Costa Rica by 454 pyrosequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, H.; Rocke, E.; Kong, L.; Xia, X.; Liu, H.; Landry, M. R.

    2015-08-01

    Marine planktonic protists, including microalgae and protistan grazers, are an important contributor to global primary production and carbon and mineral cycles, however, little is known about their population shifts along the oxic-anoxic gradient in the water column. We used 454 pyrosequencing of the 18S rRNA gene and gene transcripts to study the community composition of whole and active protists throughout a water column in the Costa Rica Dome, where a stable oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) exists at a depth of 400~700 m. A clear shift of protist composition from photosynthetic Dinoflagellates in the surface to potential parasitic Dinoflagellates and Ciliates in the deeper water was revealed along the vertical profile at both rRNA and rDNA levels. Those protist groups recovered only at the rDNA level represent either lysed aggregates sinking from the upper waters or potential hosts for parasitic groups. UPGMA clustering demonstrated that total and active protists in the anoxic core of OMZ (550 m) were distinct from those in other water depths. The reduced community diversity and presence of a parasitic/symbiotic trophic lifestyle in the OMZ, especially the anoxic core, suggests that OMZs can exert a selective pressure on protist communities. Such changes in community structure and a shift in trophic lifestyle could result in a modulation of the microbial loop and associated biogeochemical cycling.

  16. Bacteriological quality and solid wastes at five coastal marine environments of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthropogenic waste and water bacteriological quality were surveyed twice a year in 2000 and in 2002 at five coastal marine environments in Costa Rica, one in the Caribbean (Bahia de Moin) and four in the Pacific (Bahia de Culebra, Golfo de Nicoya, Estero de Puntarenas, Bahia de Golfito). The most probable number (MPN)/100 mL of coliform bacteria was calculated after incubation series of five test tubes. A total of 14 coastal and two river water samples were collected in the Caribbean, and 32 coastal, nine estuarine and one tap water samples in the Pacific, plus 25 samples investigated for Escherichia coli in 2002. The means of 2 MPN/100 mL in June 2000 and 17 MPN/100 mL in May 2002, and faecal coliforms <2 MPN/100 mL in June 2000 and 4 MPN/100 mL in May 2002. Plastic materials were the most abundant item stranded in all beaches, which in more than 80% of the occasions were between moderately dirty to very dirty. (author)

  17. Francisella sp., an emerging pathogen of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, E; Hawke, J P; Fernandez, D; Morales, J A

    2009-08-01

    Francisella sp. is an emergent bacterial pathogen that causes acute to chronic disease in warm and cold water cultured and wild fish species. During the past 3 years, the bacterium has been detected in tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, cultured in Costa Rica. Infected fish presented non-specific clinical signs, such as erratic swimming, anorexia, anaemia, exophthalmia and high mortality. Upon macroscopic and microscopic examination, several internal organs (mainly spleen and kidney) were enlarged and contained white nodules. Histological examination revealed the presence of multifocal granulomatous lesions, with the presence of numerous small, pleomorphic, cocco-bacilli. The bacteria were isolated from infected tilapia on selective media and grown on several media with and without antibiotics. Specific PCR primers to the Francisella genus were used to confirm the preliminary diagnoses. In comparison with several bacterial 16S rRNA sequences, our isolate was found to share 99% identity with other Fransicella spp. isolated from fish, and more than 97% identity to the human pathogen Francisella tularensis. Koch's postulates were fulfilled after experimental intraperitoneal and gill exposure challenges. PMID:19515205

  18. [Bacteriological evaluation of fresh tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) coming from the northern region of Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Graciela; Blanco, Laura; Arias, María Laura; Chaves, Carolina

    2004-12-01

    The following work presents an evaluation of the normal and pathogenic flora associated to tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), since there are no previous national studies referred to the microbiological quality of this product. The total aerobic plate count, lactic bacteria, Enterococcus sp and Aeromonas sp and fecal and total coliform count, and the presence of Listeria sp and Salmonella spp from the external surface of tilapias were evaluated. A total of 50 samples, coming from San Carlos and Cañas zones were transported in ice to the Food and Water Microbiology Laboratory, Universidad de Costa Rica, where the laboratory analysis were performed, according to the methodology presented by de American Public Health Association, 1998. The results obtained confirm the microbiological freshness of the product when the analysis was performed, although coliform levels were unacceptable. Listeria sp was not found, but the isolation of Salmonella spp. confirms the fecal contamination of water where the tilapia is grown, aside of the Public Health concern. Also, it was found a high number of Aeromonas sp, as part of its normal flora, so we recommend including this genus in the quality standards for fresh fish. According to the data obtained, there was no significant difference (95% confidence) between the total plate count, fecal and total coliforms, Enterococcus sp. and Aeromonas sp. from the samples coming from the zones of San Carlos and Cañas. PMID:15969269

  19. Relationships between Plant Biodiversity and Soil Fertility in a Mature Tropical Forest, Costa Rica

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    Martin B. Nadeau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to study relationships between plant biodiversity and soil chemical fertility in a mature tropical forest of Costa Rica. Soil samples were collected in nine sampling plots (5 m by 25 m in order to identify P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, and Al and total N contents, soil fertility index, CEC, pH, and C/N ratio. Furthermore, species richness, Shannon-Wiener and Simpson’s species diversities, structural richness, and structural diversity were calculated for each plot. Simple linear regression analyses were conducted. Tree species richness was inversely related to concentration levels of K, Ca, and P, CEC, and soil fertility index. Therefore, higher tree species richness tended to be found on sites with lower soil fertility, which is the complete opposite of temperate forests. As a result, tropical and temperate forest ecology should be considered separately. Shannon-Wiener tree species diversity was positively correlated to C/N ratio. Herb structural richness was positively correlated with soil fertility index and P concentration. Therefore, herb structural richness may be a good indicator of soil fertility. This study gives important insights on ecological relationships between plant biodiversity and soil chemical fertility in a primary tropical forest.

  20. Do Payments Pay Off? Evidence from Participation in Costa Rica's PES Program.

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    R A Arriagada

    Full Text Available Payments for environmental services (PES are often viewed as a way to simultaneously improve conservation outcomes and the wellbeing of rural households who receive the payments. However, evidence for such win-win outcomes has been elusive. We add to the growing literature on conservation program impacts by using primary household survey data to evaluate the socioeconomic impacts of participation in Costa Rica's PES program. Despite the substantial cash transfers to voluntary participants in this program, we do not detect any evidence of impacts on their wealth or self-reported well-being using a quasi-experimental design. These results are consistent with the common claim that voluntary PES do not harm participants, but they beg the question of why landowners participate if they do not benefit. Landowners in our sample voluntarily renewed their contracts after five years in the program and thus are unlikely to have underestimated their costs of participation. They apparently did not invest additional income from the program in farm inputs such as cattle or hired labor, since both decreased as a result of participation. Nor do we find evidence that participation encouraged moves off-farm. Instead, semi-structured interviews suggest that participants joined the program to secure their property rights and contribute to the public good of forest conservation. Thus, in order to understand the social impacts of PES, we need to look beyond simple economic rationales and material outcomes.

  1. Interannual variation and host affiliations of endophytic fungi associated with ferns at La Selva, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Olmo-Ruiz, Mariana; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Ferns are an ancient and diverse lineage of vascular plants that differ morphologically, chemically and in growth habits from the angiosperms with which they co-occur. We used a culture-based approach coupled with phylogenetic analyses to characterize the incidence, diversity and composition of fungal endophyte assemblages in ferns, with a focus on healthy aboveground tissues of seven species of eupolypods at La Selva, Costa Rica. Endophytes were isolated from every individual plant and were similarly abundant and diverse in frond blades and stalks, in different vegetation types, in epiphytic vs. terrestrial species, and between sampling years. However, abundance, diversity and community structure differed significantly among fern species, and composition differed markedly between sampling years. Phylogenetic classification using separate and combined datasets revealed that as for many Neotropical angiosperms, the majority (95%) of endophyte taxa were Ascomycota, with particular dominance by Sordariomycetes, Eurotiomycetes and Dothideomycetes. However, our data suggest higher phylogenetic richness and stronger host affinities in fern associated endophytes relative to those studied in angiosperms thus far.

  2. Regional warming and the thermal regimes of American crocodile nests in the Tempisque Basin, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christopher M; Easter, Michael; Padilla, Sergio; Marin, Mahmood Sasa; Guyer, Craig

    2016-08-01

    Spatial variation in global climate change makes population-specific responses to this enigmatic threat pertinent on a regional scale. Organisms with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) potentially possess a unique physiological susceptibility that threatens population viability if rapid environmental effects on sex ratios render populations non-viable. A heavily male-biased sex ratio for hatchling American crocodiles of the Tempisque Basin, Costa Rica requires assessment of how nest temperature affects sex determination at this site, how females might compensate for these effects when creating nests, and how current patterns of climate change might alter future sex ratios and survival in hatchling cohorts. We demonstrate high within-nest variation in temperature but predict a female bias at hatching based on nest temperatures quantified here. Further, our data suggest that egg size and metabolic heating associated with this factor outweighs microhabitat parameters and depth in influencing nest thermal regimes. Finally, we document regional warming in the Tempisque Basin over the last 15 years and project that further heating over the next 15 years will not yield hatchling sex ratios as male biased as those currently found at this site. Thus, we find no support for nest temperature or climate change as likely explanations for male-biased American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) sex ratios in the Tempisque Basin. PMID:27503716

  3. Tourism, Volcanic Eruptions, and Information: Lessons for Crisis Management in National Parks, Costa Rica, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre, Juan Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Volcán Poás National Park, located in the central valley of Costa Rica, is the most visited and most economically important park in the country. Recently, a series of eruptions caused the park admin-istration to severely limit visitation for a period of approximately 3 weeks. This study examines the economic impact of this policy on the surrounding communities of Poasito and Fraijanes, which are reliant on tourists who stop in the towns on their way to or from the park. The social impact, as seen in the failure of park-community information sharing during this period of disaster management, is also investigated. Improving disaster management and planning both within and outside the park is found to be closely tied to improving the poor communication and lack of multi-stakeholder participation in park-community affairs. Both parties are responsible for improving the situation. To decrease vulnerability to physical disasters and their accompanying economic crises, the community needs to organize to illicit information and to diversify the type of tourism on which they are dependant. PNVP needs to initiate capacity-building activities in the community and include community information needs in their disaster management strategy.

  4. Evaluation of the bacteriological quality of ice cream sold at San Jose, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windrantz, P; Arias, M L

    2000-09-01

    The presence of total and fecal coliforms, E. coli, Listeria sp and Salmonella sp. was evaluated in 65 samples of both commercial and homemade ice cream. 37.1% of homemade ice cream and 20% of commercial ice cream did not fulfill the international standard for total coliforms. At the same time 82.9% of home made samples and 56.7% of commercial ones presented fecal coliforms. E. coli was found in 51.4% of home made samples and 26.7% of commercial ones. Sixteen Listeria sp. isolates were obtained, 50% corresponded to Listeria monocytogenes and 50% to L. innocua. The overall presence of L. monocytogenes in ice cream samples was of 12.3% and it was isolated in all cases, from homemade ice cream samples. Salmonella was not isolated from the samples analyzed. Although the results obtained show an important improvement in the quality of ice cream, compared with a previous work done also in Costa Rica, further efforts shall be done, in order to offer safe products to consumers. PMID:11347303

  5. Turn up the heat: thermal tolerances of lizards at La Selva, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusch, George A; Taylor, Emily N; Whitfield, Steven M

    2016-02-01

    Global temperature increases over the next century are predicted to contribute to the extinction of a number of taxa, including up to 40% of all lizard species. Lizards adapted to living in lowland tropical areas are especially vulnerable because of their dependence on specific microhabitats, low vagility, and a reduced capacity to physiologically adjust to environmental change. To assess the potential effects of climate change on lizards in the lowland tropics, we measured the critical thermal maximum (CTmax) of ten species from La Selva, Costa Rica. We also examined how well body size, microhabitat type, and species predicted the CTmax. We used current temperature data along with projected temperature increases for 2080 to predict which species may be at the greatest risk at La Selva. Of the ten species sampled, four are at serious risk of lowland extirpation and three others might also be at risk under the highest predicted temperature-increase models. Forest floor lizards at La Selva have already experienced significant population declines over the past 40 years, and we found that each of the forest floor species we studied is at serious risk of local extirpation. We also found that microhabitat type is the strongest predictor of CTmax, demonstrating the profound impact habitat specialization has on the thermal limits of tropical lizards. PMID:26466592

  6. Horizontal principal stress orientation in the Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project (CRISP) transect from borehole breakouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinverno, A.; Saito, S.; Vannucchi, P.

    2016-01-01

    The Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project (CRISP) drilled the Pacific margin of the Middle America Trench just north of where the Cocos Ridge enters the subduction zone, resulting in basal erosion of the upper plate. Here we report the orientations of the maximum horizontal principal stress (SHmax) from borehole breakouts detected by logging-while-drilling and wireline downhole measurements. All SHmax directions were estimated in the sediment cover of the margin, above the deeper rocks of the deformed margin wedge. We observe three overall SHmax orientations: NNE-SSW (25° azimuth) in the deepest interval drilled at the upper slope Site U1379; ENE-WSW (82°) in the rest of Site U1379 and in Site U1413, also drilled in the upper slope; and NNW-SSE (157°) in the mid-slope Site U1378. Our preferred interpretation is that the deepest interval of Site U1379 records the stress conditions in the underlying margin wedge, as SHmax is parallel to the direction of the Cocos-Caribbean plate convergence and of the compressional axes of plate boundary fault earthquakes. The variable SHmax directions observed elsewhere are likely due to the effect of a network of normal faults that subdivide the sediment cover into a number of independently deforming blocks. In addition, the observed SHmax directions may be influenced by the subducting Cocos Ridge, which acts as an indenter causing oblique deformation, and by the transition to seismogenic subduction along the plate boundary fault.

  7. Interannual variation and host affiliations of endophytic fungi associated with ferns at La Selva, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Olmo-Ruiz, Mariana; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Ferns are an ancient and diverse lineage of vascular plants that differ morphologically, chemically and in growth habits from the angiosperms with which they co-occur. We used a culture-based approach coupled with phylogenetic analyses to characterize the incidence, diversity and composition of fungal endophyte assemblages in ferns, with a focus on healthy aboveground tissues of seven species of eupolypods at La Selva, Costa Rica. Endophytes were isolated from every individual plant and were similarly abundant and diverse in frond blades and stalks, in different vegetation types, in epiphytic vs. terrestrial species, and between sampling years. However, abundance, diversity and community structure differed significantly among fern species, and composition differed markedly between sampling years. Phylogenetic classification using separate and combined datasets revealed that as for many Neotropical angiosperms, the majority (95%) of endophyte taxa were Ascomycota, with particular dominance by Sordariomycetes, Eurotiomycetes and Dothideomycetes. However, our data suggest higher phylogenetic richness and stronger host affinities in fern associated endophytes relative to those studied in angiosperms thus far. PMID:24459121

  8. A pedagogical model to develop mathematical power on gifted students in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelina Díaz Obando

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to share an experience on the construction of a pedagogical model that allows high school gifted students to develop mathematical power. This model was designed with the intention to offer an alternative to mathematics teachers, so they can teach these students more efficiently. Most of the time, these students are left out in a mathematics classroom. The intention with this model was to generate a learning environment where all students could develop their intellectual potential, in mathematics. This research was conducted in a public high school, located in San José, Costa Rica. It was developed under a qualitative paradigm. The subjects were two students from eleventh grade selected using specific criteria. Other participants were the mathematics teacher and the whole group. In this report we propose a pedagogical model to assist talented students, in the micro-culture of a classroom. T will be documented with evidences coming from focal point students. Finally, there are some recommendations given to different actors from the community of mathematics educators.

  9. La controversial Ritalina: ¿Cómo es su consumo en Costa Rica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santamaría Ulloa, Carolina

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available El déficit atencional y déficit atencional con hiperactividad son trastornos que se diagnostican cada vez con mayor frecuencia en la población infantil en edad escolar. Este fenómeno ha generado un aumento en el consumo de Ritalina. Con el objetivo de determinar la prevalencia de estos trastornos en Costa Rica, y la magnitud del consumo de Ritalina, se utilizó información proporcionada por el Ministerio de Salud sobre la venta del medicamento durante un período de 30 meses entre el 2000 y el 2003. Se encontró que a pesar de que la prevalencia es baja en términos globales, su distribución geográfica es muy heterogénea. En la Región Central Norte el consumo es 11 veces mayor que en la Brunca. Se recomienda impulsar la homogenización de criterios para el diagnóstico de estos trastornos, con el fin de mejorar la atención y tratamiento de los niños que así lo requieran.

  10. [Biofilm formation capacity of Listeria monocytogens strains isolated from soft cheese from Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo Zeledón, Gabriela; Redondo Solano, Mauricio; Arias Echandi, María Laura

    2010-06-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a bacteria associated with the production of severe infectious disease in human being, but also with the formation of biofilms in different surfaces related to the food production environment. Biofilm represents a serious problem in food industry, since it is a constant and important contamination source and also, bacteria present in it have an increased resistance towards physical and chemical agents of common use. The capacity of biofilm formation of L. monocytogenes strains previously isolated from soft cheese samples from Costa Rica was studied under different temperature and culture conditions. The microplate technique was performed using different culture media (BHIB, TSB 1:20 and cheese serum) and at different incubation temperatures (refrigeration, environmental and 35 degrees C). Biofilm formation capacity was classified according to the optical density obtained at 620 nm. None of the strains evaluated was classified as strong biofilm former under any of the variables studied, nevertheless, weak and moderate formers were detected. The results obtained show the influence of the nutrient content of the culture media used over biofilm formation; BHIB was the only culture media that allowed the expression of moderate biofilm forms, contrary to cheese serum that did not promote biofilm production. Biofilm formation is a multifactorial process, where adsorption level depends on several variables and its study must be promoted in order to develop methodologies that allow its reduction or elimination, so food industries may offer safe food products to consumers.

  11. Brassolis isthmia (LEPIDOPTERA: NYMPHALIDAE, EN PEJIBAYE Y EN COCOTERO EN COSTA RICA

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    Ram\\u00F3n G. Mexz\\u00F3n

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir el ciclo de vida de Brassolis isthmia asociado al pejibaye bajo condiciones de campo y de laboratorio, y su actividad en cocotero. El ciclo de vida de B. isthmia fue estudiado en condiciones de campo y de laboratorio en Guápiles, Limón, Costa Rica, entre setiembre y noviembre de 1994, durante un incremento poblacional del insecto en una plantación de pejibaye. En los años siguientes se realizaron observaciones de las actividades alimentarias de la mariposa en cocotero en varias localidades de la Vertiente Caribeña. Varios centenares de huevos y de larvas de primer estadio fueron recolectadas y colocadas en grupos de diez individuos, y alimentadas con pedazos de hojas de pejibaye, de 30 x 80 mm. El número de larvas necesario para causar defoliaciones de 5% y 20% fue calculado para cada estado de desarrollo larval. El ciclo de vida promedio duró 159 días, distribuidos en las etapas de: huevo: 20, larva: 114, pupa: 20 y adulto: 5 días. Las larvas son gregarias, se alimentan durante la noche y permanecen durante el día en nidos construidos con restos de hojas secas y seda. El consumo promedio durante la etapa larva es de 820,62 cm² de follaje; el séptimo estado larval requiere un 72,8% de éste.

  12. Turn up the heat: thermal tolerances of lizards at La Selva, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusch, George A; Taylor, Emily N; Whitfield, Steven M

    2016-02-01

    Global temperature increases over the next century are predicted to contribute to the extinction of a number of taxa, including up to 40% of all lizard species. Lizards adapted to living in lowland tropical areas are especially vulnerable because of their dependence on specific microhabitats, low vagility, and a reduced capacity to physiologically adjust to environmental change. To assess the potential effects of climate change on lizards in the lowland tropics, we measured the critical thermal maximum (CTmax) of ten species from La Selva, Costa Rica. We also examined how well body size, microhabitat type, and species predicted the CTmax. We used current temperature data along with projected temperature increases for 2080 to predict which species may be at the greatest risk at La Selva. Of the ten species sampled, four are at serious risk of lowland extirpation and three others might also be at risk under the highest predicted temperature-increase models. Forest floor lizards at La Selva have already experienced significant population declines over the past 40 years, and we found that each of the forest floor species we studied is at serious risk of local extirpation. We also found that microhabitat type is the strongest predictor of CTmax, demonstrating the profound impact habitat specialization has on the thermal limits of tropical lizards.

  13. Importance of orographic precipitation to the water resources of Monteverde, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guswa, Andrew J.; Rhodes, Amy L.; Newell, Silvia E.

    2007-10-01

    Monteverde, Costa Rica harbors montane forests that exemplify the delicate balances among climate, hydrology, habitat, and development. Most of the annual precipitation to this region arrives during the wet season, but the importance of orographic precipitation during the dry and transitional seasons should not be underestimated. Development associated with ecotourism has put significant stress on water resources, and recent work has shown evidence that changes in regional land-cover and global climate may lead to reduced precipitation and cloud cover and a subsequent decline in endemic species. Precipitation samples collected from 2003 to 2005 reveal a seasonal signal in stable isotope composition, as measured by δ 18O and δ 2H, that is heaviest during the dry and transitional seasons. Attenuated versions of this signal propagate through to stream samples and provide a means of determining the importance of precipitation delivered by the trade winds during the dry and transitional seasons to water resources for the region. Results from six catchments on the leeward slope indicate that topography exerts a strong control on the importance of orographic precipitation to stream baseflow. The contributions are greatest in those catchments that are close to the Brillante Gap in the Continental Divide. Differences in the temporal variation of precipitation and streamflow isotope compositions provide insight to the hydrologic pathways that move water to the streams.

  14. Nitrogen management in coffee-legume agroforestry systems in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An agroforestry system that included coffee (Coffea arabica) plants associated with two species of legume trees, Erythrina poeppigiana and Gliricidia sepium was established. The experiment included three treatments, coffee without legume trees, coffee and Erythrina and coffee with Gliricidia in two different coffee growing areas of Costa Rica. Shade trees were planted in May 1999 on a 2 year old coffee plantation. Several studies were completed on the experimental areas including N fertilizer efficiency, N leaching through the soil profile, and N cycling from legume prunings. Labelled 15N was injected into Gliricidia and Erythrina trees in 2003 in order to study the dynamics of N from the legume tree residues. Very low recoveries of N by coffee were obtained from fertilizer sources (3.2 % for urea and 2 fixation capacity of Erythrina was around 50%. With the tree injection technique, the time required for N in the legume residues to be recovered by coffee was 30 d for the initial appearance with a peak around 60 d. The modified system with 500 legume trees ha1 produced the highest coffee yield and foliar N values. The amount of biomass produced by Erythrina was around 4500 kg ha1, containing 200 kg N ha1. Part of that N comes from biological N2 fixation and part from soil N being recycled by the tree. The Erythrina density of 500 trees ha1 is recommended as the best system to substitute for N fertilizer (author)

  15. Contrasting nitrate adsorption in Andisols of two coffee plantations in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, M C; Graham, G R; Rudolph, D L

    2001-01-01

    Fertilizer use in coffee plantations is a suspected cause of rising ground water nitrate concentrations in the ground water-dependent Central Valley of Costa Rica. Nitrate adsorption was evaluated beneath two coffee (Coffea arabica L.) plantations in the Central Valley. Previous work at one site had identified unsaturated zone nitrate retardation relative to a tritium tracer. Differences in nitrate adsorption were assessed in cores to 4 m depth in Andisols at this and one other plantation using differences in KCl- and water-extractable nitrate as an index. Significant adsorption was confirmed at the site of the previous tracer test, but not at the second site. Anion exchange capacity, X-ray diffraction data, extractable Al and Si, and soil pH in NaF corroborated that differences in adsorption characteristics were related to subtle differences in clay mineralogy. Soils at the site with significant nitrate adsorption showed an Al-rich allophane clay content compared with a more weathered, Si-rich allophane and halloysite clay mineral content at the site with negligible adsorption. At the site with significant nitrate adsorption, nitrate occupied less than 10% of the total anion adsorption capacity, suggesting that adsorption may provide long-term potential for mitigation or delay of nitrate leaching. Evaluation of nitrate sorption potential of soil at local and landscape scales would be useful in development of nitrogen management practices to reduce nitrate leaching to ground water.

  16. Damage to Miconia calvescens and seasonal abundance of Salbia lotanalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenes-Perez, Francisco R; Castillo, Alexander; Johnson, M Tracy

    2014-08-01

    Miconia calvescens de Candolle (Melastomataceae) is an invasive tree considered the most serious threat to natural ecosystems of Hawaii and other Pacific islands. The success of M. calvescens as an invasive species is greatly owing to its shade tolerance and the shaded habitat it creates, where many native plant species that are light-demanding cannot survive. Salbia lotanalis Druce (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a neotropical leaf roller attacking M. calvescens, was evaluated for two mechanisms by which it reduces leaf area of its host plant: feeding (defoliation), which removes leaf tissue, and tying leaf rolls, which reduces exposed area of leaves. These impacts were quantified over a 1-yr period at a field site in Costa Rica, where densities of S. lotanalis larvae attacking M. calvescens peaked at the end of the rainy season and declined in the dry season. Up to 47.5% of leaves were attacked by S. lotanalis, with cumulative defoliation by an undetermined number of larvae removing an average of ≍30% (253 cm(2)) of each leaf attacked. Defoliation and leaf rolling were compared in a greenhouse experiment in which individual S. lotanalis larvae defoliated an average of 3.7% (17.8 cm(2)) of each attacked leaf, and reduced exposed leaf area as a result of leaf rolling by an average of 12.8% (66.2 cm(2)). Our results complement the findings of previous studies of S. lotanalis and confirm its potential as a biological control agent of M. calvescens. PMID:25182612

  17. Distribution and biomass of arrow worms (Chaetognatha) in Golfo de Nicoya and Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossfeld, B

    1996-12-01

    The chaetognath species guild was analyzed from samples collected during the cruise of the German RV Victor Hensen to the Pacific coast of Costa Rica in December 1993 and February, 1994, finding the following ten species of the genera Sagitta and Krohnitta: S. enflata, S. hexaptera, S. pacifica, S. neglecta, S. regularis, S. bedoti, S. friderici, S. popovicii, S. pulchra and K. pacifica. Because of their distributional patterns in the study area these species were ascribed to the following ecological groups: neritic, semi-neritic and oceanic. A strong gradient in species richness from offshore to inshore waters (8 to one respectively) was found in both gulf systems. Inshore chaetognaths were dominated by juveniles and adults of S. friderici in Golfo de Nicoya and by S. popovicii in Golfo Dulce. Biomass spectra were more continuous and of wider range in the Golfo Dulce area showing a dominance of larger chaetognaths, suggesting a more general developed pelagic system in Golfo Dulce, where larger chaetognaths might structure the plankton community by strong grazing pressure from above. PMID:9393651

  18. La Psicología del desarrollo en Costa Rica: Alcances y perspectivas futuras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Tapia-Valladares

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La Psicología del desarrollo humano se interesa por estudiar y comprender los procesos normativos de cambio que acontecen a lo largo del ciclo vital. El artículo desarrolla un análisis de la historia de esta subdisciplina de la Psicología en el contexto costarricense en las últimas dos décadas. El análisis sugiere que las contribuciones a la Psicología del desarrollo se ubican en dos vertientes: (a académico-científica y (b profesional-aplicada. Desde la primera, el artículo identifica una transición en el sustento teórico que ha servido de base para las distintas contribuciones durante estas dos décadas y que la perfila con un corte científico comprometido con los problemas nacionales que competen a la Psicología del desarrollo. Desde la segunda vertiente, se observa el limitado número de trabajos que documentan las experiencias profesionales y que en su mayoría se circunscriben al ámbito clínico-educativo. El artículo cierra con un balance sobre el rol de la Psicología del desarrollo en la evolución de la Psicología costarricense y de sus futuras orientaciones. Se incluye un apéndice de profesionales contribuyentes a esta subdisciplina en Costa Rica.

  19. Geological characteristics of the peat deposits in Costa Rica (preliminary study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, S.; Cohen, A.D.; Raymond, R.; Alvarado, A.; Malavassi, L.

    1986-04-01

    Wide areas containing peat deposits have been found in Costa Rica. Three of them were selected for the preliminary evaluation. In the Talamanca range peat occurs as a thin blanket deposit about 1 m thick in an area of about 150 km/sup 2/. It is very decomposed (about 28% fibers), with high ash content, (21%) and extensively bioturbated. It has the lowest water content (84%), pH, fixed carbon (23%) and sulphur (0.2%) of all the sampled sites, However, it has the highest bulk density (0.22 g/cm/sup 3/) and volatile components (55%). Its calorific value averages 7700 Btu/lb, dry. In Medio Queso de Upala, several peat horizons are interbedded with alluvium layers within a 70 km/sup 2/ flood plain. They have the highest calorific values (8000 Btu/lb, dry), fixed carbon (30%) and ash content (22%). Their fiber content is low (27%), and the bulk density 0.20 g/cm/sup 3/. In El Silencio, near Siquirres, the thickness of the main layer exceeds 3.5 m, averaging 19% of ash, 53% of fibers, 5.8 pH, 0.6% of sulphur, 0.13 g/cm/sup 3/ bulk density, and 7500 Btu/lb, dry. (5 refs.)

  20. Mortality among young Nicaraguan immigrants to Costa Rica: deaths from disease versus injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger E. Bonilla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la mortalidad por causas externas y por enfermedades entre inmigrantes nicaragüenses jóvenes en Costa Rica y compararla con la respectiva población de jóvenes costarricenses. El estudio se enfocó en personas con edades de 15 a 35 años, debido a la importancia relativa de las muertes por causas externas en ese grupo de edad. Las defunciones (numeradores y la población (denominadores, que fueron obtenidas del X Censo de Población y Vivienda 2000, se utilizaron para calcular las tasas de mortalidad por 100,000 habitantes. El riesgo relativo (RR resulta de dividir las tasas de mortalidad estandarizadas de las dos poblaciones. Se encontró que alrededor del 66% de las defunciones de inmigrantes nicaragüenses son por causas externas, versus el 57% de su contraparte costarricense. Los inmigrantes tienen riesgos relativos (RR mayores de mortalidad por causas externas que su correspondiente costarricense (homicidios RR=2.00, otros accidentes RR=1.70 y accidentes vehiculares RR=1.17. En particular, se destaca que los inmigrantes nicaragüenses tienen el doble de riesgo de morir a causa de homicidios que su contraparte costarricense.

  1. The meaning of nervios: a sociocultural analysis of symptom presentation in San Jose, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, S M

    1981-03-01

    The foundation of the symbolic tradition in medical anthropology is the examination of a patient's experience of a category of illness. The interpretation of folk explanations of etiology and nosology provides insight into the cultural definition of what constitutes an illness, how and why an illness is labeled, and how the afflicted individual should be treated. Further, the analysis of sociocultural meaning emerges as a critical theoretical contribution to our understanding of health and culture. Allen Young in his article "Some Implications of Medical Beliefs and Practices for Social Anthropology" suggests " that if we want to learn the social meaning of sickness, we must understand that 'signs,' whatever their genesis, become 'symptoms' because they are expressed, elicited, and perceived in socially acquired ways" (1976: 14). He further states that some categories of sickness are particularly interesting in that they enable people to organize the illness event into an episode that has form and meaning (1976: 19-20). Nervios is an example of a symptom that has acquired a special sociocultural pattern of expression, elicitation and perception in San Jose, Costa Rica. The empirical study of symptom presentation in general medicine and psychiatric outpatient clinics describes the patients who present the symptom and their associated attributes and explanations of the symptom's occurrence. The meaning of nervios is then discussed within a social interactional and symbolic framework. PMID:7249673

  2. Detection of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora spp., and Toxoplasma gondii in horses from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangoudoubiyam, S; Oliveira, J B; Víquez, C; Gómez-García, A; González, O; Romero, J J; Kwok, O C H; Dubey, J P; Howe, D K

    2011-06-01

    Serum samples from 315 horses from Costa Rica, Central America, were examined for the presence of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora spp., and Toxoplasma gondii by using the surface antigen (SAG) SnSAG2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the NhSAG1 ELISA, and the modified agglutination test, respectively. Anti- S. neurona antibodies were found in 42.2% of the horses by using the SnSAG2 ELISA. Anti- Neospora spp. antibodies were found in only 3.5% of the horses by using the NhSAG1 ELISA, and only 1 of these horses was confirmed seropositive by Western blot. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 34.0% of the horses tested, which is higher than in previous reports from North and South America. The finding of anti- S. neurona antibodies in horses from geographical areas where Didelphis marsupialis has wide distribution suggests that D. marsupialis is a potential definitive host for this parasite and a source of infection for these horses. PMID:21506839

  3. Residential Tourism and Multiple Mobilities: Local Citizenship and Community Fragmentation in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke van Noorloos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Current patterns of “move-in move-out” hypermobility are perfectly exemplified by residential tourism: the temporary or permanent mobility of relatively well-to-do citizens from mostly western countries to a variety of tourist destinations, where they buy property. The mobility of residential tourists does not stand alone, but has broader chain effects: it converts local destinations into transnational spaces, leading to a highly differentiated and segmented population landscape. In this article, residential tourism’s implications in terms of local society in Guanacaste, Costa Rica, are examined, starting from the idea that these implications should be viewed as complex and traveling in time and space. Mobile groups, such as residential tourists, can have an important local participation and involvement (independently of national citizenship, although recent flows of migrants settle more into compatriot social networks. The fact that various migrant populations continually travel back and forth and do not envision a future in the area may restrict their opportunities and willingness for local involvement. Transnational involvement in itself is not a problem and can be successfully combined with high local involvement; however, the great level of fragmentation, mobility, temporariness and absenteeism in Guanacaste circumscribes successful community organizing. Still, the social system has not completely dissolved.

  4. [Rapid ecological assessment of tropical fish communities in a gold mine area of Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza Mendiola, Mario

    2008-12-01

    Gold mining impacts have generated a great concern regarding aquatic systems and habitat fragmentation. Anthropogenic disturbances on the structure and heterogeneity of a system can have an important effect on aquatic community stability. Ecological rapid assessments (1996, 2002, and 2007) were employed to determine the structure, composition and distribution of tropical fish communities in several rivers and smaller creeks from a gold mining area in Cerro Crucitas, Costa Rica. In addition, species composition and relative abundance were related with habitat structure. A total of 35 species were registered, among which sardine Astyanax aeneus (Characidae) and livebearer Alfaro cultratus (Poeciliidae) were the most abundant fish (71%). The highest species richness was observed in Caño Crucitas (s=19) and Minas Creek (s=18). Significant differences in fish communities structure and composition from Infiernillo river and Minas creek were observed (lamda = 0.0, F(132, 66) = 2.24, p fish species and habitat structure was observed. This study reveals a high complexity in tropical fish communities that inhabit a gold mine area. Furthermore, it highlights the importance of habitat heterogeneity in fish community dynamics. The loss and degradation of aquatic systems in Cerro Crucitas can have a strong negative effect on fish community structure and composition of local species. A better understanding of the use of specific habitats that serve as essential fish habitats can improve tropical fish conservation and management strategies, thus increasing local diversity, and thereby, the biological importance of the area.

  5. Fuel tax incidence in developing countries: The case of Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackman, Allen, E-mail: blackman@rff.or [Resources for the Future, 1616 P Street, N.W. Washington, DC (United States); Environment for Development Center for Central America, Turriabla (Costa Rica); Osakwe, Rebecca; Alpizar, Francisco [Environment for Development Center for Central America, Turriabla (Costa Rica)

    2010-05-15

    Although fuel taxes are a practical means of curbing vehicular air pollution, congestion, and accidents in developing countries-all of which are typically major problems-they are often opposed on distributional grounds. Yet few studies have investigated fuel tax incidence in a developing country context. We use household survey data and income-outcome coefficients to analyze fuel tax incidence in Costa Rica. We find that the effect of a 10% fuel price hike through direct spending on gasoline would be progressive, its effect through spending on diesel-both directly and via bus transportation-would be regressive (mainly because poorer households rely heavily on buses), and its effect through spending on goods other than fuel and bus transportation would be relatively small, albeit regressive. Finally, we find that the overall effect of a 10% fuel price hike through all types of direct and indirect spending would be neutral and the magnitude of this combined effect would be modest. We conclude that distributional concerns need not rule out using fuel taxes to address pressing public health and safety problems, particularly if gasoline and diesel taxes can be differentiated.

  6. Fuel tax incidence in developing countries. The case of Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackman, Allen [Resources for the Future, 1616 P Street, N.W. Washington, DC (United States); Environment for Development Center for Central America, Turriabla (Costa Rica); Osakwe, Rebecca; Alpizar, Francisco [Environment for Development Center for Central America, Turriabla (Costa Rica)

    2010-05-15

    Although fuel taxes are a practical means of curbing vehicular air pollution, congestion, and accidents in developing countries - all of which are typically major problems - they are often opposed on distributional grounds. Yet few studies have investigated fuel tax incidence in a developing country context. We use household survey data and income-outcome coefficients to analyze fuel tax incidence in Costa Rica. We find that the effect of a 10% fuel price hike through direct spending on gasoline would be progressive, its effect through spending on diesel - both directly and via bus transportation - would be regressive (mainly because poorer households rely heavily on buses), and its effect through spending on goods other than fuel and bus transportation would be relatively small, albeit regressive. Finally, we find that the overall effect of a 10% fuel price hike through all types of direct and indirect spending would be neutral and the magnitude of this combined effect would be modest. We conclude that distributional concerns need not rule out using fuel taxes to address pressing public health and safety problems, particularly if gasoline and diesel taxes can be differentiated. (author)

  7. Social context for workplace health promotion: feasibility considerations in Costa Rica, Finland, Germany, Spain and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltomäki, Päivi; Johansson, Mauri; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Sala, Maria; Wesseling, Catharina; Brenes, Freddy; Font, Carme; Husman, Kaj; Janer, Gemma; Kallas-Tarpila, Tarja; Kogevinas, Manolis; Loponen, Minna; Solé, Maria Dolors; Tempel, Jürgen; Vasama-Neuvonen, Kaisa; Partanen, Timo

    2003-06-01

    We constructed a simple, flexible procedure that facilitates the pre-assessment of feasibility of workplace health promotion (WHP) programmes. It evaluates cancer hazards, workers' need for hazard reduction, acceptability of WHP, and social context. It was tested and applied in 16 workplace communities and among 1085 employees in industry, construction, transport, services, teaching and municipal works in Costa Rica, Finland, Germany, Spain and Sweden. Social context is inseparable from WHP. It covers workers' organizations and representatives, management, safety committees, occupational health services, health and safety enforcement agencies, general health services, non-government organizations, insurance systems, academic and other institutions, regulatory stipulations pertaining WHP, and material resources. Priorities, risk definitions, attitudes, hazard profiles, motivations and assessment methods were highly contextual. Management preferred passive interventions, helping cover expert costs, participating in planning and granting time. Trade unions, workers' representatives, safety committees and occupational health services appeared to be important operational partners. Occupational health services may however be loaded with curative and screening functions or be non-existent. We advocate participatory, multifaceted WHP based on the needs and empowerment of the workers themselves, integrating occupational and lifestyle hazards. Workforce in irregular and shift work, in agriculture, in small enterprises, in the informal sector, and immigrant, seasonal and temporary workers represent groups in need of particular strategies such as community health promotion. In a more general framework, social context itself may become a target for intervention. PMID:12746383

  8. The foundations of environmental health at the University of Costa Rica. A professional's must do La formación en salud ambiental en la Universidad de Costa Rica. El quehacer de un profesional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinia Alvarado Zeledón

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a synopsis of the historical evolution that the professional profile of Environmental Health in Costa Rica, has had so far. It also tends to recognize the sanitary developments that the country has experienced over the past 70 years, under the availability of the human resources area, particularly.The University of Costa Rica has made an important contribution when attempting to provide the country with a skilled and trained human resources department, in terms of health helping the Costarrican community.This human resources department was initially designed to inspection basic issues of environmental sanitation, such as water waste, vector control and health infrastructure. This, in a country that in the decade of the 30's, had an economy based on agriculture, mainly in which environmental conditions not yet reached alarming levels. Along with the pass of time, these conditions required of a professional able to anticipate scenarios and correct conditions adverse to human development in this Central-American Country. The professional profile of Environmental Health, is therefore, a profile constantly being updated.El presente artículo pretende ser una sinopsis acerca de la evolución histórica que ha tenido el perfil profesional de la salud ambiental en Costa Rica. Así mismo, procura hacer un reconocimiento de las transformaciones sanitarias que el país ha vivido durante los últimos 70 años, a la luz de la disponibilidad de recursos humanos, en esta área en particular.En este sentido, la Universidad de Costa Rica ha realizado una contribución importante al procurar dotar al país de un recurso humano capacitado y formado en competencias que han favorecido las condiciones de salud de la población costarricense.Este recurso humano estaba concebido inicialmente para realizar inspecciones en temas básicos de saneamiento ambiental, relacionados con excretas, aguas residuales, control de vectores, infraestructura sanitaria

  9. Nuevos registros de Orchestoidea tuberculata Nicolet 1849 (Amphipoda, Talitridae, en la costa de Chile New records of Orchestoidea tuberculata Nicolet 1849 (Amphipoda, Talitridae, from the coast of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Baessolo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Se reportan nuevas localidades para el anfípodo talítrido Orchestoidea tuberculata Nicolet 1849 en playas arenosas de la costa Chilena, extendiéndose el límite sur de distribución de la especie hasta el mar interior de la región de Aysén. Además, se discute la necesidad de intensificar los estudios taxonómicos con el objeto de descartar la presencia de más de una especie en el género.We report new localities of the talitrid amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata Nicolet 1849 in sand beaches from the Chilean coast, extending the southern distributional limit of the species to the inner sea of Aysen Region, Chile. Besides, we discuss the need for more taxonomic studies, to exclude the presence of more than one species in the genus.

  10. Bibliometry of Costa Rica biodiversity studies published in the Revista de Biología Tropical/International Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation (2000-2010): the content and importance of a leading tropical biology journal in its 60th anniversary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen-Muñoz, Vanessa; Azofeifa-Mora, Ana Beatriz; Monge-Nájera, Julián

    2012-12-01

    Central America is recognized as a mega diverse "hot-spot" and one of its smaller countries, Costa Rica, as one of the world's leaders in the study and conservation of tropical biodiversity. For this study, inspired by the 60th anniversary of the journal Revista de Biología Tropical, we tabulated all the scientific production on Costa Rican biodiversity published in Revista de Biología Tropical between 2000 and 2010. Most articles are zoological (62%) and 67% of authors had only one publication in the jounal within that period. A 54% of articles were published in English and 46% in Spanish. A 41% of articles were written in collaboration among Costa Rican institutions and 36% in collaboration with foreign institutions. The Collaboration Index was 2.53 signatures per article. Visibility in American sources was 56% in Google Scholar and 42.66% in the Web of Science, but the real visibility and impact are unknown because these sources exclude the majority of tropical journals. Revista de Biología Tropical is the main output channel for Costa Rican biology and despite its small size, Costa Rica occupies the 10th. place in productivity among Latin American countries, with productivity and impact levels that compare favorably with larger countries such as Brazil, Mexico, Argentina and Chile.

  11. Tasas de deserción en la Universidad Estatal a Distancia de Costa Rica / Drop-outs from the Universidad Estatal a Distancia de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Sánchez, Mario

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: La pretensión fundamental del presente trabajo es contribuir al conocimiento de la deserción estudiantil en la UNED; si bien es cierto, la deserción afecta directamente al estudiante, también es un síntoma de fallos en el sistema. El cambio que conlleva el ingresar a una universidad no es fácil y sobre todo cuando es a distancia, se observa en los resultados que los primeros años es la etapa más difícil de superar, es así como en los primeros 6 meses el 35% de los estudiantes han hecho abandono de sus estudios. A los 12 meses el 50% de los estudiantes han abandonado la UNED. En cuanto al género, se observa que las mujeres mantienen una menor tasa de deserción a lo largo de todo el periodo, sin embargo, independientemente del género las tasas alcanzadas son altas. En cuanto al hecho de tener pareja, pareciera que es un factor que determina un incremento en las tasas de deserción. En relación a los estudios previos, se observa como los estudiantes que han tenido una experiencia universitaria completa, tienen tasas altas de abandono, un 79% a los 36 meses. Otro factor importante en las tasas de abandono es el número de materias matriculadas, los estudiantes que matriculan 4 materias o más presentan tasas altas de abandono del 68% a los 36 meses. La edad parece indicar que a mayor edad mayor tasa de abandono, así los estudiantes con más de 30 años alcanzan una tasa de abandono de 74% a los 36 meses.Abstract: The aim of this study is to contribute to the knowledge of the frequent desertion of students in one of the four public universities of Costa Rica, the UNED. Although, it is true that desertion affects directly to students, it is caused by mistakes in the system. The impact that brings with it the change from high school to college is not easy, and even more if the dynamic of the college is not the usual—distance learning. Our results show that the first years of adaptation are the most difficult ones for the

  12. Demanda de mano de obra y rentabilidad de bancos forrajeros en Esparza, Costa Rica Labor demand and profitability of fodder banks in Esparza, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Yaneth Sánchez Sarmiento

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available En Esparza (Costa Rica se evaluó la viabilidad de invertir en bancos forrajeros (BF como alternativa de suplementación para vacas en sistema doble propósito durante la época seca (125 días. Se usaron como indicadores de rentabilidad el Valor Presente Neto (VPN y la Tasa Interna de Retorno (TIR. Se realizó un análisis de sensibilidad para el incremento del precio de la leche, los concentrados, la gallinaza y la mano de obra. Los modelos se elaboraron comparando los BF de plantas leñosas perennes de corte y acarreo de Cratylia argentea + caña de azúcar (Saccharum officinarum (BFC y de ramoneo Leucaena leucocephala (BFL vs. suplementos comerciales tipos concentrado y gallinaza. En los BFC se requirieron 71.1 jornales/año y el análisis financiero indicó que son rentables al compararlos con la gallinaza (VPN = US$362.2, TIR = 17% y concentrados (VPN = US$1953.9; TIR=39%. En BFL se requirieron 13 jornales/año y fueron igualmente rentables en comparación con gallinaza (VPN = US$1594.7; TIR = 21% y con concentrados (VPN = US$3619.6; TIR=35%. Los modelos fueron sensibles a la producción y cambios de precios en la leche, gallinaza, concentrados y el valor del jornal. Los BF son una buena alternativa para la suplementación de ganado en la época seca y una importante fuente de empleo en la región; sin embargo, los altos costos de la mano de obra contratada pueden limitar la adopción.We made a financial analysis in order to assess the feasibility to invest in Fodder Banks as an alternative for supplementing animals in dual purpose systems during the dry season (125 days. Models were constructed to compare cutting and carrying of perennial woody fodder banks (Veranera Cratylia argentea + sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum and browsing fodder banks of Leucaena leucocephala with two supplements: concentrates and chicken manure. The indicators used for the financial evaluation of the systems were Net Present Value (NPV and Internal Return Rate

  13. Upper-Plate Earthquake Swarms Remotely Triggered by the 2012 Mw-7.6 Nicoya Earthquake, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkimer, L.; Arroyo, I. G.; Montero Pohly, W. K.; Lücke, O. H.

    2013-12-01

    Remotely triggered seismicity that takes place at distances greater than 1-2 fault lengths appears to be a frequent phenomenon after large earthquakes, including damaging upper-plate 5.0-to-6.0 magnitude earthquakes in Costa Rica after the large (Mw greater than 7.0) inter-plate earthquakes in 1941, 1950, 1983, 1990, and 1991. On 5 of September 2012, an inter-plate 7.6-Mw earthquake struck the Nicoya Peninsula, triggering upper-plate seismicity in the interior of Costa Rica again. The number of upper plate-earthquakes outside the Nicoya source region that were recorded by the National Seismological Network (RSN: UCR-ICE) for the six-month period after the Nicoya event was two times higher than that number of upper plate-earthquakes during the six months before it happened. We analyze the three largest upper-plate earthquake swarms that took place during the first six months after the Nicoya event. We relocate the epicenters using a double difference algorithm with a 1D velocity model (HypoDD) and using a probabilistic method with a 3D velocity model (NonLinLoc). Additionally we compute first motion focal mechanisms for the largest events. The three swarms analyzed occurred at distances of 170 to 350 km from the Nicoya source region in three different tectonic settings: the Cartago area in the central part of Costa Rica near the active volcanic arc (approximately 170 km from the source region), the Calero Island near the Costa Rica-Nicaragua border in the backarc Caribbean region (approximately 220 km), and the San Vito area in the Costa Rica-Panama border region, at the southern flank of the Talamanca Cordillera, an inactive portion of the magmatic arc (approximately 300 km). The Cartago swarm with 95 1.8-to-4.1 Mw earthquakes occurred from September 5 to October 31, 2012. The location and left-lateral solution of the largest event suggest that the Aguacaliente fault, which caused the deadliest earthquake in Costa Rican history on May 4, 1910 (Ms 6.4), is the

  14. Aggressive coyote behavior toward a human being at Volcán Barva, Costa Rica Comportamiento agresivo del coyote hacia los seres humanos en el Volcán Barva, Costa Rica

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    Ivan Literák

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Coyotes occur in Costa Rica and their population is increasing. In August 2010, the first author visited Braulio Carrillo National Park and approached 3 coyotes. The unusual coyote behavior was analyzed using unique photographs and is ascribed primarily to maternal aggression that was possibly combined with fear-induced and territorial aggressions. As coyotes continue to adapt to suburban environments, and as their populations expand throughout Central America, coyote interactions with humans can be expected more often to occur in this region.La población de coyotes Costa Rica va en aumento. En agosto de 2010, el primer autor visitó el Parque Nacional Braulio Carrillo y se acercó a 3 coyotes. Su comportamiento inusual fue analizado mediante fotografias únicas y atribuido principalmente a la agresión maternal, posiblemente en combinación con el miedo y la agresión inducida por la agresión territorial. Teniendo en cuenta la adaptación continua de los coyotes en ambientes suburbanos y el aumento de su población en Centroamérica, se pueden esperar casos frecuentes de interacción entre coyotes y seres humanos en esta región.

  15. Primer caso de hemoglobina Köln (codon98 GTG>ATG en Costa Rica First case of hemoglobin Köln (codon98 GTG>ATG in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Cartín

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La exposición a ciertos medicamentos puede provocar anemia hemolítica con presencia de cuerpos de Heinz en sangre periférica. Esta anemia puede presentarse por sobredosis de medicamentos, tanto en individuos sanos como en personas con deficiencias enzimáticas como la glucosa-6-fosfato deshidrogenasa, o en presencia de hemoglobinas inestables. Este reporte muestra un caso de anemia hemolítica con cuerpos de Heinz, debido a la presencia de una hemoglobina inestable, cuyos estudios moleculares y HPLC confirmaron el primer caso descrito de hemoglobina Köln (Val98Met en Costa Rica.Exposure to certain drugs may result in hemolytic anemia with the appearance of Heinz-bodies in red blood cells. This type of hemolytic anemia may occur by simple drug overdosage in absence of any known abnormality, such as in normal persons or in patients with erithroid enzyme defects (e.g. G6PD deficiency or unstable hemoglobins.¹ The present report shows a Heinz-body hemolytic anemia because of an abnormal hemoglobin. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC and molecular analysis confirmed the first case of Hemoglobin Köln in Costa Rica.

  16. Modelo de negocio para exportación de adhesivos y barnices a Centroamérica: Costa Rica, Guatemala y Panamá

    OpenAIRE

    Ortíz Orrego, Jorge Mario; Vélez Restrepo, Juan Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Con el fuerte entorno competitivo que generó la globalización y la apertura económica, las empresas necesitan cada vez más explorar su incursión en nuevos mercados para crecer o subsistir en condiciones de rentabilidad -- Costa Rica, Guatemala y Panamá representan una oportunidad cercana para las empresas del sector químico colombiano de barnices y adhesivos, mediante la exportación de sus productos -- La evaluación de esta oportunidad de negocio utilizando una metodología como Canvas, comple...

  17. ESTUDIO INTRAPAÍSES DE LA COMPETITIVIDAD GLOBAL DESDE EL ENFOQUE DEL DOBLE DIAMANTE PARA PUERTO RICO, COSTA RICA Y SINGAPUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro-Gonzáles, Segundo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Muchos investigadores y economistas han argumentado que los estudios de competitividad del WEF e IMD muestran limitaciones en pequeñas economías,más aún cuando estas tienen características distintas. El objetivo de esta investigación es estudiar la competitividad de 3 peque˜nas economías: Puerto Rico, Costa Rica y Singapur. El modelo del doble-diamante de competitividad resulta útil a la hora de llevar a cabo esta tarea. La información procede de organismos internacionales. Los resultados muestran que Singapur goza de un mayor nivel de competitividad global comparado con Puerto Rico y Costa Rica. Concluimos que Puerto Rico y Costa Rica lucen equilibrados en competitividad, porque internacionalmente Puerto Rico aventaja a Costa Rica en 3 determinantes: condiciones de factores, condiciones de la demanda e industrias relacionadas y de apoyo; mientras que localmente Costa Rica es más competitivo que Puerto Rico en 3 factores domésticos: condiciones de factores, condiciones de demanda y estrategia de las firmas.

  18. Floraciones algales nocivas en la costa pacífica de Costa Rica: toxicología y sus efectos en el ecosistema y salud pública

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Freer

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Justificación y objetivos: Los primeros casos de intoxicación por floraciones algales nocivas (FAN se reportaron en el país en 1990. Sin embargo desde finales de 1999 se ha observado un aumento drástico en el número de personas intoxicadas, especialmente en la costa pacífica del país. En Costa Rica existe gran desconocimiento acerca del problema. Debido al impacto que producen los fenómenos FAN en la salud pública, el turismo local y el ecosistema, es necesario describir las especies tóxicas y sus toxinas para tomar las medidas adecuadas de control y prevención. Métodos: Se realizaron muestreos de agua en varios sectores de la costa pacífica de nuestro país, con el objetivo de detectar las especies de microalgas potencialmente tóxicas y nocivas, y se interrogó a los pescadores locales. La identificación de las especies se realizó morfológicamente mediante microscopía de luz y electrónica de rastreo. Los hallazgos se compararon con la bibliografía y se propuso el potencial tóxico de estas microalgas, así como los métodos de análisis toxicológico, y la sintomatología de los afectados. Resultados: Observamos en Costa Rica un aumento en número de especies de microalgas productoras de FAN. Se reportaron las especies tóxicas productoras de FAN descritas por varios autores y las encontradas en este estudio. En algunas muestras de floraciones algales hemos encontrado bacterias grandes intracelulares, de forma bacilar, principalmente dentro del dinoflagelado Prorocentrum micans. Esta relación podría estar asociada a la toxigenicidad del alga. Hemos descrito la presencia de 26 dinoflagelados, 8 diatomeas y 1 cianobacteria tóxica en las FAN de las costas del Océano Pacífico costarricense. Conclusión: Se piensa que el aumento en la contaminación de las zonas costeras y el transporte de especies por medio de navíos pueden ser la causa de la aparición de estas microalgas. Estas son capaces de producir: intoxicaci

  19. Análisis de necesidades educativas curriculares en la educación primaria dirigida a niños (as nicaragüenses migrantes en Costa Rica

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    Nidia Esperanza Mejía Arias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Recibido 17 de junio 2007 • Aprobado 20 de agosto 2007   Resumen. Con este artículo se pretende dar a conocer las necesidades curriculares identificadas en niñas y niños nicaragüenses migrantes que estudian en la escuela primaria rural Los Ángeles del Cantón Los Chiles de Costa Rica. Ellos y ellas, actualmente, se encuentran en una situación de exclusión, discriminación e indiferencia por parte de las instituciones locales. Existen obstáculos para el aprendizaje efectivo y el desarrollo de actitudes positivas, entre ellos la falta de participación responsable de la comunidad educativa, el procedimiento metodológico utilizado en el aula y la adecuación curricular del modelo pedagógico oficial costarricense; divorciados éstos, de las condiciones socioculturales de esta población educativa, de su familia y de la comunidad rural donde residen. Esta situación afecta la motivación de las niñas y niños, quienes no alcanzan las metas educativas: la mayoría de los que se matriculan dejan inconclusa la educación primaria, y los que la completan tienen dificultades académicas para ingresar a secundaria. Los sistemas educativos de Nicaragua y de Costa Rica deben plantear estrategias educativas conjuntas, que den respuesta a las necesidades educativas curriculares que presentan los niños nicaragüenses migrantes en las escuelas rurales costarricenses.  Abstract. The intention of the article is to announce the needs of a curriculum Identified in the Nicaraguan migrant children that study at the rural primary school “Los Angeles” in the location of Los Chiles Costa Rica. They actually are in an exclusion, discrimination and indifference situation from the local institutions. There are strong obstacles for the effective learning and development of positive attitudes, lack of responsible participation of the educative community; the methodological procedure used at the classrooms and the curricular adjustment at the pedagogical

  20. La formación en salud ambiental en la Universidad de Costa Rica. El quehacer de un profesional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinia Alvarado Zeledón

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo pretende ser una sinopsis acerca de la evolución histórica que ha tenido el perfil profesional de la salud ambiental en Costa Rica. Así mismo, procura hacer un reconocimiento de las transformaciones sanitarias que el país ha vivido durante los últimos 70 años, a la luz de la disponibilidad de recursos humanos, en esta área en particular.En este sentido, la Universidad de Costa Rica ha realizado una contribución importante al procurar dotar al país de un recurso humano capacitado y formado en competencias que han favorecido las condiciones de salud de la población costarricense.Este recurso humano estaba concebido inicialmente para realizar inspecciones en temas básicos de saneamiento ambiental, relacionados con excretas, aguas residuales, control de vectores, infraestructura sanitaria; en un país que en la década de los años treinta tenía una economía basada en la agricultura principalmente y donde las condiciones ambientales aún no alcanzaban niveles alarmantes. Con el tiempo, estas condiciones requirieron de un profesional capaz de anticipar escenarios y corregir condiciones adversas para el desarrollo del ser humano en este país centroamericano. El perfil del profesional en salud ambiental es, por lo tanto, un perfil en constante renovación.