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Sample records for chile central maitencillo-cachagua

  1. Eighty Years of History of the Central Bank of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Vittorio Corbo; Leonardo Hernández

    2005-01-01

    The Central Bank of Chile was founded in 1925, to provide the country with an institution that could stabilize the currency, regulate interest and discount rates, and avoid disruptions in the country’s financial, industrial and economic development (Decree Law Nº486, August 22, 1925). But a weak institutional framework meant that the Bank, far from ameliorating these problems, aggravated them, leading to decades of high and persistent inflation. Inflation became under control only during the ...

  2. On the generation of coastal lows in central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies of the coastal-low occurrences in central Chile have been aimed at the formulation of a conceptual model to explain observed features in connection with applied studies. The most prominent weather pattern associated with CL occurrences, (type A), coincides with the onset of a warm, middle-troposphere ridge over central Chile, and a surface high over northern Argentina. The synoptic forcing of the low is related to weak frontal disturbances that travel equatorwards. They result in a thickening of the marine layer that becomes blocked by the coastal escarpment, at the time of the onset of the ridge aloft. The blocking of the stable air above the subsidence inversion by the Andes is also hypothesized. The analysis of the subsidence inversion, the geometry of the coastal and Andes mountain ranges, and a scale analysis of the non-dimensional governing equations for the generation of the coastal lows, following the approach of Reason and Steyn (1990); leads to the conclusion that both blocking actions are strong and persistent in central Chile. An interactive mechanism between the upper and lower blocking effects is postulated to explain the cyclonic vorticity and the initial steering of the coastal lows. The scale analysis of the governing equations for the propagation stage of the low suggests that, departing for the South African case, non-linearity is important here, and that solitary Kelvin waves could be expected. Theoretical phase propagation speeds and Rossby radii are found to range between 8 and 15 m s-1 and 100-250 km, respectively. The importance of strong southerly winds ahead of the low and weak winds at its trailing edge is also stressed, as another major departure from the coastal-low behaviour elsewhere. (author). 17 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  3. Evolution of Parinacota volcano, Central Andes, Northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Clavero R.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Parinacota is an active composite stratovolcano located in the Central Andes of Northern Chile (18°S. During its earlier stage (Parinacota 1 unit, Late Pleistocene, 300-70? ka rhyolitic to andesitic magmas were erupted, forming a voluminous lava-dome complex with its associated pyroclastic fans (mainly block-and-ash flow deposits, essentially deposited towards the Upper Lauca basin (West. It later evolved to a steep-sided composite stratocone (Parinacota 2 unit, Late Pleistocene-Holocene, 70?-8 ka, mainly formed by andesitic lava flows and scoria tephra fallout deposits.Around 8 ka ago the ancestral Parinacota volcano, built during Parinacota 1 and 2, partially collapsed towards the west, in a single and catastrophic event generating the outstanding Parinacota Debris Avalanche deposit.Soon after the collapse a new stratocone started to build with the emission of andesitic lava flows and pyroclastic flows, and their associated fallout deposits (Parinacota 3 unit, Holocene, La evolución del volcán Parinacota, Andes Centrales, norte de Chile. El volcán Parinacota es un estratovolcán activo ubicado en los Andes Centrales del norte de Chile (18°S. Durante su primera etapa de evolución (Unidad Parinacota 1, Pleistoceno Superior, 300-70? ka emitió magmas de composición riolítica a andesítica, formando un voluminoso complejo de lavas-domo con abanicos piroclásticos asociados (esencialmente depósitos de bloques y ceniza, distribuidos principalmente hacia la parte superior de la cuenca del río Lauca (oeste. Posteriormente, evolucionó a un estratocono compuesto, de fuertes pendientes (Unidad Parinacota 2, Pleistoceno-Holoceno, 70?-8 ka, formado principalmente por lavas y depósitos de caída andesíticos. Aproximadamente hace 8 ka el volcán Parinacota ancestral, construido durante las unidades Parinacota 1 y 2, colapsó parcialmente hacia el oeste, en un evento único y catastrófico generando el Depósito de Avalancha de Parinacota. Poco

  4. Nitrogen fixation in four dryland tree species in central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented from a 5-year experiment using 15N-enriched fertilizer to determine N2 fixation in four tree species on degraded soils in a Mediterranean-climate region of central Chile in which there are 5 months of drought. Species tested included three slow-growing but long-lived savannah trees native to southers South America, (acacia caven, Prosopic alba and P. chilensis; Mimosoideae), and Tagasaste (Chamaecytisus proliferus ssp. palmensis; Papilonoideae), a fast-growing but medium-lived tree from the Canary Islands. Tagasaste produced four- to twenty-fold more biomass than the other species, but showed declining N2 fixation and biomass accumulation during the 5th year, corresponding to the juvenile-to-adult developmental transition. Nitrogen content was significantly higher in Tagasaste and Acacia caven than in the other species. The data revealed inter-specific differences in resource allocation and phenology of N2 fixation rarely detailed for woody plants in dryland regions. (author)

  5. EL ESTADO ACTUAL DEL HUEMUL (HIPPOCAMELUS BISULCUS EN CHILE CENTRAL CURRENT STATUS OF THE HUEMUL (HIPPOCAMELUS BISULCUS IN CENTRAL CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Povilitis

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La única población sobreviviente del huemul en Chile central (Los Nevados de Chillán se encuentra en un descenso clásico hacia la extinción. Se utilizan los datos de prospecciones en terreno por el período entre 1975 a 2002 para estimar el tamaño, la estructura espacial y la tendencia de la población. Un análisis de la población en 1997 arrojó un mínimo de 60 huemules en 12 sitios, y una declinación de un 58% en la población durante un período de dos décadas. Prospecciones recientes entre 1998-2002 indican que la población de huemules ha continuado disminuyendo a 40 individuos en 11 sitios, lo que representa un descenso adicional de un 33%. Desde el año 1987, los huemules han desaparecido de 5, y posiblemente 8, sitios de hábitat primario. Solamente un sitio, el del Río Niblinto que es protegido, muestra un grupo del huemul más o menos estable. Las amenazas al huemul y a su hábitat, tal como los impactos del ganado doméstico, la urbanización, el desarrollo recreativo, la presencia de perros domésticos y las actividades industriales siguen sin disminución en la gran mayoría de los 26 sitios de hábitat primario necesario para la recuperación del huemul. Los datos actuales muestran claramente que una compaña de conservación más amplia es necesaria para resguardar y recuperar la especie en Chile central. Se requieren proteger los sitios de hábitat primario y los corredores conectantes de hábitat del huemul. Para realizar tal objetivo, se necesitan un fuerte compromiso e inversión financiera del gobierno y del sector privado. La creación de un nuevo parque nacional o gran reserva para el huemul y la biodiversidad en el sector de Los Nevados de Chillán, con beneficios relacionados al turismo, la educación pública, e investigaciones científicas, podría ayudar a atraer los recursos financieros que se necesitan para un programa exitoso de conservaciónABSTRACT The only surviving population of huemul in central

  6. Miocene Vetigastropoda and Neritimorpha (Mollusca, Gastropoda) of central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Sven N.; Frassinetti, Daniel; Bandel, Klaus

    2004-09-01

    Species of Vetigastropoda (Fissurellidae, Turbinidae, Trochidae) and one species of Neritimorpha (Neritidae) from the Navidad area, south of Valparaı´so, and the Arauco Peninsula, south of Concepción, are described. Among these, the Fissurellidae comprise Diodora fragilis n. sp., Diodora pupuyana n. sp., two additional unnamed species of Diodora, and a species resembling Fissurellidea. Turbinidae are represented by Cantrainea sp., and Trochidae include Tegula (Chlorostoma) austropacifica n. sp., Tegula (Chlorostoma) chilena n. sp., Tegula (Chlorostoma) matanzensis n. sp., Tegula (Agathistoma) antiqua n. sp., Bathybembix mcleani n. sp., Gibbula poeppigii [Philippi, 1887] n. comb., Diloma miocenica n. sp., Fagnastesia venefica [Philippi, 1887] n. gen. n. comb., Fagnastesia matanzana n. gen. n. sp., Calliostoma mapucherum n. sp., Calliostoma kleppi n. sp., Calliostoma covacevichi n. sp., Astele laevis [Sowerby, 1846] n. comb., and Monilea riorapelensis n. sp. The Neritidae are represented by Nerita (Heminerita) chilensis [Philippi, 1887]. The new genus Fagnastesia is introduced to represent low-spired trochoideans with a sculpture of nodes below the suture, angulated whorls, and a wide umbilicus. This Miocene Chilean fauna includes genera that have lived at the coast and in shallow, relatively warm water or deeper, much cooler water. This composition therefore suggests that many of the Miocene formations along the central Chilean coast consist of displaced sediments. A comparison with different fossil and Recent faunas from around the Pacific and South America indicates that the vetigastropod and neritid fauna from the Miocene of Chile has only minor affinities with taxa living near New Zealand, Argentina, and the tropical eastern Pacific at that time.

  7. Selenium concentration in compartments of aquatic ecosystems in Central Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinochet, H.; Gregori, I. de; Cavieres, M.F. [Catholic University of Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile). Chemical Institute

    2002-07-01

    A study was conducted during 1995-96 to evaluate Se concentration in water, sediment, and plants from aquatic ecosystems of central Chile, an area particularly affected by mining activities. Samples were collected from Panquehue, Chagres, and Ocoa along the Acongua River (presumably receives discharges from a copper refinery and a copper mine). Samples were also collected from one site on the Puchuncavi Stream (directly contaminated by both a coal power plant and a copper refinery). In addition, samples were also collected from one site on the Limache Stream (an urban area with no Se-contaminating sources). The sediment and plant samples collected in Puchuncavi had higher Se levels, which were statistically different to the concentration in samples from other sites. Sediments from Puchuncavi and Ocoa had the highest levels of Se (520 plus or minus 46 and 440 plus or minus 10 {mu} g/kg, respectively) while the plant (Jussiaea repens (Ludwigia repens)) collected in Puchuncavi had an Se concentration 6.5 times higher than the sample collected in Panquehue (116 plus or minus 154 and 182 plus or minus 54 {mu} g/kg, respectively). Puchuncavi water had more acidic pH than water from the other sites thus decreasing Se solubility. Se concentrations in sediment and water collected in Chagres were lower than the concentration determined in sediment and water from either Ocoa or Panquehue. Plant/water and plant/sediment accumulation factors and a sediment/water distribution factor were similar for all sampling sites, except Puchuncavi (accumulation and distribution factors are higher than at the other sites). Hydrocotyle ranunculoides had practically the same plant/sediment accumulation factor at all sites while the accumulation factor for J. repens varied according to site. The samples collected in the Limache stream had Se at equal or even higher concentration than the other samples collected from presumably contaminated sites (except Puchuncavi). 19 refs.

  8. Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The background notes on Chile provide a statistical summary of the population, geography, government, and the economy, and more descriptive text on the history, population, government, economy, defense, and foreign relations. In brief, Chile has 13.3 million Spanish Indian (Mestizos), European, and Indian inhabitants and an annual growth rate of 1.6%. 96% are literate. Infant mortality is 18/1000. 34% of the population are involved in industry and commerce, 30% in services, 19% in agriculture and forestry and fishing, 7% in construction, and 2% in mining. The major city is Santiago. The government, which gained independence in 1810, is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches. There are 12 regions. There are 6 major political parties. Suffrage is universal at 18 years. Gross domestic product (GDP) is $29.2 billion. The annual growth rate is 5% and inflation is 19%. Copper, timber, fish, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, and molybdenum are its natural resources. Agricultural products are 9% of GDP and include wheat, potatoes, corn, sugar beets, onions, beans, fruits, and livestock. Industry is 21% of GDP and includes mineral refining, metal manufacturing, food and fish processing, paper and wood products, and finished textiles. $8.3 billion is the value of exports and $7 billion of imports. Export markets are in Japan, the US, Germany, Brazil, and the United Kingdom. Chile received $3.5 billion in economic aid between 1949-85, but little in recent years. 83% live in urban centers, principally around Santiago. Congressional representation is made on the basis of elections by a unique binomial majority system. Principal government officials are identified. Chile has a diversified free market economy and is almost self-sufficient in food production. The US is a primary trading partner. 49% of Chile's exports are minerals. Chile maintains diplomatic relations with 70 countries, however, relations are strained with Argentina and Bolivia. Relations

  9. Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Chile is a long (2650 miles), narrow (250 miles at widest point) country sandwiched between the Andes mountains and the Pacific. The northern desert is rich in copper and nitrates; the temperate middle region is agricultural and supports the major cities, including Santiago, the capital, and the port of Valparaiso; and the southern region is a cold and damp area of forests, grasslands, lakes, and fjords. The country is divided into 12 administrative regions. Chile's population of 12.5 million are mainly of Spanish or Indian descent or mestizos. Literacy is 92.3%, and the national language is Spanish. Infant mortality is 18.1/1000, and life expectancy is 68.2 years. 82% of the people are urban, and most are Roman Catholics. Chile was settled by the Spanish in 1541 and attached to the Viceroyalty of Peru. Independence was won in 1818 under the leadership of Bernardo O'Higgins. In the 1880s Chile extended its sovereignty over the Strait of Magellan in the south and areas of southern Peru and Bolivia in the north. An officially parliamentary government, elected by universal suffrage, drifted into oligarchy and finally into a military dictatorship under Carlos Ibanez in 1924. Constitutional government was restored in 1932. The Christian Democratic government of Eduardo Frei (1964-70) inaugurated major reforms, including land redistribution, education, and far-reaching social and economic policies. A Marxist government under Salvador Allende lasted from 1970 to 1973 when the present military government of General Pinochet Ugarte took power, overthrew Allende, abolished the Congress, and banned political parties. It has moved the country in the direction of a free market economy but at the cost of systematic violations of human rights. A new constitution was promulgated in 1981, and congressional elections have been scheduled for October, 1989. A "National Accord for Transition to Full Democracy" was mediated by the Catholic Church in 1985. The social reforms of the

  10. Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    In 1985, Chile's population stood at 12 million, with an annual growth rate of 1.7%. 1984's infant mortality rate was 20/1000 live births and life expectancy was 67 years. The literacy rate was 94%. Of the work force of 3,841,000 in 1985, 15.9% were engaged in agriculture, forestry, and fishing; 31.3% were employed in industry and commerce; 38.6% were in the service sector; 8.7% worked in mining; and 4.4% were employed in construction. Chile's military junta is scheduled to be replaced by an elected legislature in 1990. The GDP was US $19.2 billion in 1984, with an annual real growth rate of 6.3%, and per capita GDP stood at US$1590. Inflation averages 23%. Industry comprises 21% of the GDP. Longterm prospects for the Chilean economy are influenced by a high debt service ratio, very low domestic savings and investment, the prospect of little or no increase in copper prices, and continuing problems in the domestic financial sector. In 1985-88, under the International Monetary Fund macroeconomic program, Chile will strive for moderate economic growth while managing its external debt servicing burden. PMID:12178144

  11. Chanco formation, a potential Cretaceous reservoir, central Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecione, G.

    1983-07-01

    The Chanco embayment lies 300 km SSW of Santiago, Chile. The sequence within this basin above the metamorphic basement is: Chanco Formation (very clean sandstone), Quiriquina Formation (glauconitic sandstone, rich in organic matter), and Navidad Group (a very good caprock). This section thus contains reservoir, source and caprocks, and is therefore very promising for petroleum investigations. The offshore C-1 well yielded salt-water with gas shows, and two wells drilled onshore yielded shows of gas. The C-1 well lies on a gently-dipping EW-striking anticlinal structure, the presence of which makes the area very prospective.

  12. The evolution of seabirds in the Humboldt Current: new clues from the Pliocene of Central Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Chávez Hoffmeister

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During the last decade, new Neogene fossil assemblages from South America have revealed important clues about the evolution of seabird faunas in one of the major upwelling systems of the world: the Humboldt Current. However, most of this record comes from arid Northern Chile and Southern Peru and, in consequence, our knowledge of the evolutionary history of seabirds in the temperate transitional zone is negligible. A new Late Pliocene assemblage of fossil birds from the coastal locality of Horcon in Central Chile offers a unique opportunity to fill this gap. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Isolated bones of a medium-sized penguin are the most abundant bird remains. Morphological and cladistic analyses reveal that these specimens represent a new species of crested penguin, Eudyptes calauina sp. nov. Eudyptes is a penguin genus that inhabit temperate and subantarctic regions and currently absent in central Chile. Additionally, a partial skeleton of a small species of cormorant and a partial tarsometatarsus of a sooty shearwater have been identified. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The Horcon fossils suggest the existence of a mixed avifauna in central Chile during the Pliocene in concordance with the latitudinal thermal gradient. This resembles the current assemblages from the transitional zone, with the presence of species shared with Northern Chile and Southern Peru and a previously unrecorded penguin currently absent from the Humboldt System but present in the Magellanic region. Comparison of Pliocene seabird diversity across the Pacific coast of South America shows that the Horcon avifauna represents a distinctive assemblage linking the living faunas with the Late Miocene ones. A comparison with the fossil record near the Benguela Current (west coast of southern Africa suggests that the thermic gradient could play an important role in the preservation of a higher diversity of cold/temperate seabirds in the Humboldt Current.

  13. The Evolution of Seabirds in the Humboldt Current: New Clues from the Pliocene of Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez Hoffmeister, Martín; Carrillo Briceño, Jorge D.; Nielsen, Sven N.

    2014-01-01

    Background During the last decade, new Neogene fossil assemblages from South America have revealed important clues about the evolution of seabird faunas in one of the major upwelling systems of the world: the Humboldt Current. However, most of this record comes from arid Northern Chile and Southern Peru and, in consequence, our knowledge of the evolutionary history of seabirds in the temperate transitional zone is negligible. A new Late Pliocene assemblage of fossil birds from the coastal locality of Horcon in Central Chile offers a unique opportunity to fill this gap. Principal Findings Isolated bones of a medium-sized penguin are the most abundant bird remains. Morphological and cladistic analyses reveal that these specimens represent a new species of crested penguin, Eudyptes calauina sp. nov. Eudyptes is a penguin genus that inhabit temperate and subantarctic regions and currently absent in central Chile. Additionally, a partial skeleton of a small species of cormorant and a partial tarsometatarsus of a sooty shearwater have been identified. Conclusion/Significance The Horcon fossils suggest the existence of a mixed avifauna in central Chile during the Pliocene in concordance with the latitudinal thermal gradient. This resembles the current assemblages from the transitional zone, with the presence of species shared with Northern Chile and Southern Peru and a previously unrecorded penguin currently absent from the Humboldt System but present in the Magellanic region. Comparison of Pliocene seabird diversity across the Pacific coast of South America shows that the Horcon avifauna represents a distinctive assemblage linking the living faunas with the Late Miocene ones. A comparison with the fossil record near the Benguela Current (west coast of southern Africa) suggests that the thermic gradient could play an important role in the preservation of a higher diversity of cold/temperate seabirds in the Humboldt Current. PMID:24621560

  14. Monitoring land cover change of the dryland forest landscape of Central Chile (1975–2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Rey Benayas, José María; Schulz, Jennifer J.; Cayuela Delgado, Luis; Echeverría, Cristian; Salas Rey, Francisco Javier

    2010-01-01

    Las figuras que contiene el documento se localizan al final del mismo. Land cover and its configuration in the landscape are crucial components in the provision of biodiversity and ecosystem services. In Mediterranean regions, natural landscapes mostly covered by evergreen vegetation have been to a large extent transformed into cultural landscapes since long time ago. We investigated land cover changes in Central Chile using multi-temporal satellite imagery taken in 1975, 1985, 1999 and 20...

  15. Polygenetic development and paleoenvironmental implications of a Pleistocene calcrete at Tongoy, central northern Chile.

    OpenAIRE

    M. Pfeiffer; J. Le Roux; H. Kemnitz

    2011-01-01

    The Norte Chico Region, in central northern Chile, is a particularly sensitive area to Quaternary climate changes because of its extreme climatic gradients. However, very little has been done to determine the late Pleistocene climatic conditions of the area. Calcretes are known to be important repositories of information on past ecosystems and environments. In the Tongoy paleobay, a series of four marine beach terraces have developed over a Mio-Pliocene calcareous formation since MIS 11 to th...

  16. Direct measurement and prediction of bulk density on alluvial soils of central Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Casanova; Elizabeth Tapia; Oscar Seguel; Osvaldo Salazar

    2016-01-01

    The significance of soil bulk density (ρ) as a key indicator of soil quality was examined in this study. Bulk density values obtained by direct methods (clod, cylinder, and excavation) with three sample sizes (small, medium, and large) were compared with those obtained by 10 published pedotransfer functions (PTFs) for two alluvial soils (a massive fine-textured Fluventic Haploxeroll and an aggregated, coarse-textured Fluventic Haploxerept) of central Chile. With the exception of small cylinde...

  17. Provenance variations in the Late Paleozoic accretionary complex of central Chile as indicated by detrital zircons

    OpenAIRE

    Hervé, F.; Calderón, M.; Fanning, C. M.; Pankhurst, R.J.; Godoy, E.

    2013-01-01

    We present detrital zircon UPb SHRIMP age patterns for the central segment (34–42°S) of an extensive accretionary complex along coastal Chile together with ages for some relevant igneous rocks. The complex consists of a basally accreted high pressure/low temperature Western Series outboard of a frontally accreted Eastern Series that was overprinted by high temperature/low pressure metamorphism. Eleven new SHRIMP detrital zircon age patterns have been obtained for meta-turbidites from the cent...

  18. Impact of Intrathermocline eddies on seamount and oceanic island off Central Chile: Observation and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormazabal, Samuel; Morales, Carmen; Cornejo, Marcela; Bento, Joaquim; Valencia, Luis; Auger, Pierre; Rodriguez, Angel; Correa, Marco; Anabalón, Valeria; Silva, Nelson

    2016-04-01

    In the Southeast Pacific, oceanographic processes that sustain the biological production necessary to maintain the ecosystems associated to seamounts and oceanic islands are still poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that the interaction of mesoscale and submesoescale eddies with oceanic islands and seamounts could be playing an important role in the time-space variability of primary production. In this work, research cruises, satellite data and Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) results have been used to describe the main characteristics of intrathermocline eddies (ITE) and their impact on the Juan Fernández archipelago (JFA), off central Chile. The JFA is located off the coast of central Chile (33°S), and is composed of three main islands: Robinson Crusoe (RC), Alejandro Selkirk (AS) and Santa Clara (SC). Between the RC and AS are located the westernmost seamounts (JF6 and JF5) of the Juan Fernández archipelago. Satellite altimetry data (sea surface height from AVISO) were used to detect and track mesoscale eddies through eddy-tracking algorithm. Physical, chemical and biological parameters as temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and fluorescence were measured in the water column at JF5 and JF6, and along the coast off central Chile (30-40°S). Results from the research cruise exhibit the interaction between an ITE and the seamount JF6. Eddy-tracking results showed that the ITE observed at the JF6 was formed at the coast off central-southern Chile, traveled ~900 km seaward and after ~9 months reached the JF5 and JF6 region. Observations along the Chilean coast confirmed that the coast corresponds to the formation area of the observed ITE. In this region, ITEs are represented by subsurface lenses (~100 km diameter; 400 m thickness) of homogeneous salinity, nutrient rich and oxygen-poor equatorial subsurface water mass (ESSW) which is transported poleward by the Peru-Chile undercurrent in the coastal band and seaward by ITEs. The effect of ITEs on the

  19. Modelling the seasonal dynamics of the Peru-Chile Undercurrent off Central Chile (30-40°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Odette A.; Echevín, Vincent; Sepúlveda, Héctor H.; Colas, Francois; Quiñones, Renato A.

    2016-07-01

    The seasonal variability of the hydrology and the poleward subsurface Peru-Chile Undercurrent (PCUC) off the central Chilean coast (29-41°S) were examined using a high-resolution regional model. The model realistically reproduced observed sea level variability, such as intense anticyclonic eddies, the offshore intensification of the poleward flow and the reduced nearshore equatorward flow during autumn, as well as the equatorward intensification of nearshore meandering flow during spring. Values for geostrophic eddy kinetic energy were high along the coast between 30° and 37°S, and lower south of this area. The modelled poleward undercurrent showed latitudinal variability in velocity and transport. The maximum average transport reported was 0.8 Sv near 30°S, consistent with previous modelling studies and estimations derived from in situ observations. The poleward reduction in undercurrent strength was shown to be partly generated by the poleward decrease in wind stress curl and by the formation of a westward jet near 35°S associated with westward-propagating eddies. A Lagrangian analysis of the modelled water parcels transported by the undercurrent shows that only 14-20% of the subsurface floats transported by the undercurrent upwelled into the surface layer within the subsequent six months after their release. The floats remaining within the subsurface layer were likely transported further south by the current, offshore by westward-propagating eddies or equatorward by the deeper part of the surface coastal current.

  20. Las comunidades relictas de Gomortega keule (Gomortegaceae, Magnoliopsida en Chile central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Álvarez, Ana

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Some inventories were made in fourteen localities of Chilean températe forest with presence of Gomortega keule. All of them are situated on the west side of the Coastal Range in Central Chile. This species, the only member of the Gomortegaceae and an endemic to this área of Chile, is endangered because of habitat occupation by plantations of exotic species. In this paper, the floristic composition and ecology of these communities are described. The information about the distribution of this species is also updated.Se caracterizan florísticamente las comunidades de Gomortega keule existentes en la ladera occidental de la Cordillera de la Costa de Chile central. La riqueza florística de estas comunidades es muy elevada, con un total de 106 especies para las 14 localidades inventariadas, distribuidas en 56 familias y 83 géneros. La clara dominancia de fanerófitos (78,3%, y dentro de éstos la distribución de las distintas formas de crecimiento (17% de trepadoras y 3,8% de epífitos, condiciona tanto estructural como fisionómicamente a estas comunidades. El grupo de especies propias del bosque valdiviano es el más abundante, 42,5% de las especies, seguido de las de carácter esclerófilo típicas del Valle Central (14,2%. La conservación de G. keule, única especie de la familia Gomortegaceae, está completamente ligada al mantenimiento de estas comunidades, que en la actualidad están siendo sustituidas sistemáticamente por plantaciones forestales de especies exóticas en toda su área de distribución.

  1. A new species of Phymaturus (Iguania: Liolaemidae) of the palluma group from Central Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Troncoso-Palacios, Jaime; Lobo, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    We examined specimens of Phymaturus from four locations in central Chile, between 34º50´S and 36º00´S (from Termas del Flaco and from Lircay and its surroundings), where the only recognized species is P. maulense. We found several differences in the scalation and in the color pattern among them. The samples from Lircay and its surroundings correspond to topotypes of P. maulense and two more populations assignable to this species (Termas del Campanario and Laguna del Maule, new records), but t...

  2. Reduction of firewood consumption by households in south-central Chile associated with energy efficiency programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cities in the central-southern area of Chile face serious environmental pollution due to extensive use of firewood for heating. Low energy efficiency of constructions and cold climate increase the problem, which also affects native forests. The aims of this study are to characterize energy consumption in dwellings of this region, investigate the reduction potential, and study social and environmental consequences of high consumption of firewood. Actual energy consumption is studied with information from surveys, potential for reduction is modeled with software and other consequences are analyzed from previous studies. Results for the city of Valdivia show high firewood consumption per household, with a media bulk volume near 12 m3/year. Thermal regulations are softer compared with other countries. Moreover, around 85% of buildings were built before enforcing codes in 2007, and has almost no thermal protection. The reduction potential due to thermal improvements is found to be very high (62%) if buildings are refurbished to comply with the present Chilean Norm of 2007, but it reaches a 77% reduction if refurbished according to stricter foreign regulations. Therefore, an energy efficiency program strongly addressing existing buildings has the largest potential for reducing firewood use, and therefore mitigate environmental and health impacts. - Highlights: • High firewood consumption and environmental pollution in cities of south-central Chile. • High use of firewood due to inefficient constructions and soft thermal regulations. • Potential reduction of energy consumption up to 77% with more demanding regulations. • Policies should address building stock before thermal regulation, corresponding to 85%

  3. Growth of Stone pine (Pinus pinea L. European provenances in central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loewe_Muñoz V

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pinus pinea is characterized by phenotypic plasticity, tolerance to harsh soils and climates, but low differentiation in growth parameters and low genetic variability. Growth and cone production of six European stone pine provenances (two from Italy, three from Spain and one from Slovenia were analyzed in a field trial experiment established in central Chile. The study evaluated height, diameter at breast height (DBH and crown diameter growth of 147 nineteen-year-old trees per provenance, as well as fruiting variables (i.e., number of cones per tree and cone weight. Survival over the first 7 years was also evaluated. Provenances significantly differed in cone number per tree, cone weight, height and DBH growth, and crown diameter growth. Provenances were grouped according to growth and production variables: one group included the Italian and Slovenian provenances, the second group Andalucía and Sierra Morena (Spain, and the third included Meseta Castellana (Spain. Individual cone production was positively correlated with cone weight and other growth variables. Meseta Castellana provenance showed the highest growth and productivity. Our results provide useful information for the selection of P. pinea provenances to be used in new plantations in central Chile.

  4. Diet in pottery-making societies from Central Chile: The contribution of stable isotope analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first time that stable carbon, nitrogen and oxygen isotope analyses of human bones and teeth have been used to reconstruct subsistence and settlement patterns of prehispanic ceramic societies from Central Chile. Isotope analyses, unlike the evidence from botanical, faunal and artifactual remains from archaeological sites, and from dental and skeletal pathologies, gave information of which resources were really eaten by each individual during the last years of their life. The human data were evaluated against isotopic values of marine and terrestrial resources from central Chile. These results were interpreted taking into consideration different lines of paleodiet evidence. The main contributions are: empirical evidence of dietary differences according to cultural groups; low dependence on marine foods for most people living on the coast; indirect evidence of mobility strategies that show differences between Early and Late Intermediate societies; increased dependence on maize with time, especially among the Aconcagua people; gender differences in maize consumption for the same Aconcagua groups, men showing the greatest levels of maize intake. The results support some hypotheses, such as the difference in dietary patterns between contemporary Bato and Lolleo groups, contradict others, such as the supposed importance of marine diet for coastal inhabitants, and open new research questions for the future

  5. Revisiting mountain-building in the Andes of Central Chile: constraints from structural geology and thermochronology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesner, M.; Lacassin, R.; Simoes, M.; Armijo, R.; Carrizo, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Andes, one of the most significant reliefs on Earth, is the case example of a subduction-type mountain belt. In central Chile and western Argentina, the particular east-vergent structure of the Aconcagua fold-and-thrust belt (AFTB) is found atop a huge basement high with elevations > 4000 m, the Frontal Cordillera. Classical conceptual models consider the Andes as an east-vergent orogen, opposite to the Nazca subduction, and describe the exhumation of the Frontal Cordillera as an eastward in-sequence event that occurred late in the andean deformation (by ~10My). An alternative model recently challenged this view by proposing that the Andes have mainly a primary westward vergence. Within this scheme, the exhumation of the Frontal Cordillera would have begun earlier, by ~25My, synchronous with formation of the AFTB on the western side of the basement high. Here we test these two models by revisiting structural cross-sections of the Andes at the latitude of Santiago de Chile and of the Aconcagua (~33°S). We provide thermochronological constraints on the timing of exhumation of the Frontal Cordillera by (U-Th)/He dating on apatites retrieved from paleozoic granitoids along a 2,3km high nearly vertical section in the core of the basement high. Preliminary results suggest that the Frontal Cordillera exhumation was not a late event and likely began around 25 Ma. Therefore it appears to be synchronous with deformation within the AFTB and the westernmost fold-and-thrust belt at this latitude. We discuss these results and their implications while building a crustal-scale cross section of the range at the latitude of Santiago de Chile.

  6. Southern Hemisphere circulation signals in connection with winter rainfall forecasting in central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of detecting easterly propagating low frequency signals in the Southern Hemispheric circulation is explored in connection with the assessment of a possible seasonal rainfall forecast in central Chile. The analysis has focused on the seasonal variability associated with the biennial component of the Southern Oscillation (SO) and on the one resulting from superimposed intraseasonal oscillations, in relation with winter precipitation and individual rainfall events, respectively. Based on a previous work, relating wet winters to frequent blocks to the SW of South America during warm events of the SO, time-longitude cross sections of a 5-day average blocking index (BI) calculated from ECMWF 200 hPa daily hemispheric analyses for the period 1980-1987 are presented. A general eastward displacement of western and central Pacific positive BI areas seems to characterize the developing phase of warm SO events and vice versa, while intraseasonal variability patterns appear to be related to single rainstorms, either when the positive BI phase of the wave amplifies while crossing the western Pacific or when it reaches the far southeastern Pacific, frequently with a double block structure. It is concluded that the behaviour of both sources of variability is consistent with previously described teleconnection patterns for ENSO events in the southern winter, and that a primary prospect for winter precipitation and for the occurrence of relatively large individual rainstorms in central Chile could be obtained following the filtered BI and 500 hPa height anomalies in both time scales during the fall season. (author). 28 refs, 12 figs

  7. Comparative Study Of Focal Mechanisms In South Central Chile Before And After The 2010 Maule Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agurto, H.; Rietbrock, A.; Ryder, I. M.; Haberland, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    On 27 February 2010, a Mw=8.8 earthquake occurred off the coast of south central Chile rupturing nearly 500 km of the subduction zone plate interface. The earthquake also generated a tsunami and caused more than 500 fatalities. The largest earthquakes recorded have taken place along subduction margins (e.g. Chile 1960, 2010, Andaman-Sumatra 2004, Japan 2011) and understanding their rupture mechanisms and deformation regimes is therefore of vital importance. From November 2004 to October 2005, the TIPTEQ project ("From The Incoming Plate to megaThrust EarthQuake"; Rietbrock et al., 2007; Haberland et al., 2009) maintained a network of 120 seismic stations inland and 10 stations at sea between 37 and 39° lat. S., continuously-recording and monitoring the seismicity occurring in the area before the 2010 Maule earthquake. By using first motion polarities and moment tensor inversion we have computed and analyzed focal mechanisms for a subset of data from these records. We found thrust faulting along the subduction interface down to a depth of ~30 km, followed by a gap in the seismicity and then deeper earthquakes showing diverse faulting mechanisms more sparsely distributed within the subducting plate. We also see strike-slip crustal faulting occurring down to ~12 km depth within the area of the Lanalhue fault. The most striking observation is the presence of deep (40 km) normal faulting seismicity in the fore-arc, close to the trench. We have now started to analyze the International Maule Aftershocks Dataset (IMAD) of the 2010 earthquake in the southern rupture region. Again we observe thrust faulting in the subduction interface and a seismic gap between an upper and lower zone of seismicity along the interface. By comparison of the pre- and post-earthquake datasets we are investigating whether the Maule earthquake caused any changes in the style of deformation in this part of Chile. References Haberland, C., A. Rietbrock, D. Lange, K. Bataille, and T. Dahm (2009

  8. Biogeochemistry of sulfur and iron in Thioploca-colonized surface sediments in the upwelling area off central Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zopfi, Jakob; Michael E., Böttcher; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2008-01-01

    The biogeochemistry of sedimentary sulfur was investigated on the continental shelf off central Chile at water depths between 24 and 88 m under partial influence of an oxygen minimum zone. Dissolved and solid iron and sulfur species, including the sulfur intermediates sulfite, thiosulfate, and el...

  9. Environmental management in Chile: The power plants case; Gestion ambiental en Chile: Caso de las centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadrijevic, Maritza [Comision Nacional del Medio Ambiente, (Chile)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper are presented the general aspects of the historic evolution o the legal norms on environmental matters in Chile; general aspects of the electric generation system and the instruments of environmental management currently applied in the fossil fueled power plants, such as: the assessment system of the environmental impact; compliance of the air quality and emissions Standards and plans for decontamination [Espanol] En este trabajo se dan a conocer aspectos generales de la evolucion historica de las normas juridicas en materia ambiental en Chile; aspectos generales del sistema de generacion electrica y los instrumentos de gestion ambiental que actualmente se aplican a las plantas de generacion termoelectricas, tales como: el sistema de evaluacion de impacto ambiental; cumplimiento de normas de la calidad de aire y de emision y, planes de descontaminacion

  10. Proposals to enhance thermal efficiency programs and air pollution control in south-central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major cities in South-central Chile suffer high levels of particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5 due to combustion of solid fuels for heating. Exposure to these air pollutants is recognized as a major contribution to ill health in the region. Here we discuss new strategies to reduce air pollution. Regulations and subsidies focusing on improved combustion by providing drier wood fuel and better stoves have been in effect since 2007. However, air pollution due to combustion of wood fuel has been steadily rising, along with reports on health consequences. The paper analyzes a survey of 2025 households in the city of Valdivia, which found that wood fuel quality, stove renewal, and awareness of programs are strongly affected by income level, and that higher consumption of wood fuel is found in households already having better stoves and drier wood fuel. The analysis suggests that regulations intended to improve combustion are influenced by user's behavior and have limited potential for lowering pollution. We conclude that thermal refurbishment has a larger potential for improvement, not yet been implemented as an energy policy for the majority. Here we propose improvements and additions to current programs to enhance effectiveness and cover the whole social spectrum. - Highlights: • High levels of PM2.5 from wood combustion affect cities of south-central Chile. • Current programs on dry wood fuel and stoves renewal have not reduced air pollution. • Real operation of wood stoves strongly depends on user's behavior. • Buildings' energy efficiency has greater potential for reducing emissions. • Retrofit prevents degradation of native forest and improves indoor temperature

  11. Sr-Nd isotope changes of late cretaceous to early miocene volcanic rocks in central Chile (33oS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A longitudinal depression, the Central Valley, separates the Coast Range from the Andean Cordillera in central Chile. It contains volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of Late Cretaceous to Tertiary age deposited in a continental environment, and partly eroded Tertiary volcanic complexes. The age of the rocks at the northern end of the Central Valley and their grouping in formations have been a long-standing controversy in Chilean geology (Thomas, 1958; Aguirre, 1960; Drake et al., 1976; Vergara and Drake, 1979; Thiele, 1980; Moscoso et al., 1982; Gana and Wall, 1997; Lopez-Escobar and Vergara, 1997; Selles, 1999). Here, we report new 40Ar/39Ar data and Sr-Nd isotope ratios for lavas, pyroclastic flows and associated subvolcanic rocks from this part of central Chile (au)

  12. The tomato borer, Tuta absoluta, invading the Mediterranean Basin, originates from a single introduction from Central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemaud, Thomas; Blin, Aurélie; Le Goff, Isabelle; Desneux, Nicolas; Reyes, Maritza; Tabone, Elisabeth; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia; Niño, Laura; Lombaert, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Lepidopteran pest of tomato, Tuta absoluta, is native to South America and is invasive in the Mediterranean basin. The species' routes of invasion were investigated. The genetic variability of samples collected in South America, Europe, Africa and Middle East was analyzed using microsatellite markers to infer precisely the source of the invasive populations and to test the hypothesis of a single versus multiple introductions into the old world continents. This analysis provides strong evidence that the origin of the invading populations was unique and was close to or in Chile, and probably in Central Chile near the town of Talca in the district of Maule. PMID:25667134

  13. Riparian leaf litter processing by benthic macroinvertebrates in a woodland stream of central Chile Procesamiento de detritus ripariano por macroinvertebrados bentónicos en un estero boscoso de Chile central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIO VALDOVINOS

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf litter input from riparian landscapes has been identified as both a major energy flow to stream ecosystems and as a food source for stream macroinvertebrates. In riparian landscapes of woodland streams of central Chile, the native deciduous hardwoods are being artificially replaced by exotic coniferous trees at a large spatial scale. It is suggested that this process has a significant impact on the stream communities of central Chile. Today, exotic plantations occur throughout central Chile, with Pinus radiata (D. Don (Monterrey pine accounting for about 80 % of the more than 1,800,000 ha of exotic forests. The objective of this paper was to analyze the effect of the litter beds of a dominant native species (Nothofagus pumilio and an exotic species (P. radiata on the detritus processing carried out by benthic macroinvertebrates, in an experimental catchment of central Chile (Rucúe Creek; 36° 26'00" S, 71° 35'40" W. Results revealed that processing rates of native leaf packs are higher than rates of coniferous leaf packs, suggesting that the replacement of the native hardwoods by exotic coniferous riparian flora has an important impact on the stream energy flow in central Chile. The decay rate coefficients (k were 0.0072 for N. pumilio, and 0.0027 for P. radiata. The greater abundance and biomass of shredders per gram of leaf pack of native Nothofagus would explain the differences in leaf processing rates, especially through the activity of two Plecoptera Gripopterygidae, Limnoperla jaffueli and Antarctoperla michaelseniLa entrada de detritus foliar procedente de áreas riparianas ha sido reconocido como un componente importante en la energética de ecosistemas fluviales y como fuente de alimento de macroinvertebrados acuáticos. En áreas riparianas de esteros boscosos de Chile central los componentes nativos caducifolios están siendo artificialmente reemplazados a gran escala por coníferas exóticas, sugiriendo que este proceso tiene

  14. Mycotrophy in Gilliesieae, a threatened and poorly known tribe of Alliaceae from central Chile Micotrofía en Gilliesieae, una tribu amenazada y poco conocida de Alliaceae de Chile central

    OpenAIRE

    GUSTAVO A TORRES-MELLADO; INELIA ESCOBAR; GOTZ PALFNER; M. ANGÉLICA CASANOVA-KATNY

    2012-01-01

    The five known genera of Gilliesieae have their diversity center in the Mediterranean zone of central Chile, where many of their habitats are threatened by urban expansion, industrial and agroforestry activities, as well as other anthropogenic impacts. Very little is known about the biology of these particular geophytes, the majority of which currently have either vulnerable or endangered status, mainly due to their dispersed and small populations generally associated to remnants of native ve...

  15. Lavas Las Pataguas: volcanismo alcalino en el antearco andino del Mioceno Inferior, Chile central Lavas Las Pataguas: alkaline volcanism in the Early Miocene Andean forearc of central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate M Wall

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de rocas volcánicas del Mioceno Inferior en la cordillera de la Costa de Chile central constituye una singularidad ya que los afloramientos más occidentales del arco volcánico oligo-mioceno se encuentran 80 km al este. Lavas Las Pataguas (LLP; 33,8°S, se expone en 1,15 km², sin vestigios de un edificio volcánico ni conductos alimentadores. La presencia de túmulos del tipo `flow lobe tumuli', alineados y elongados en dirección este-oeste, indica un flujo local desde el oeste sobre una superficie de muy baja pendiente. Estos antecedentes sugieren un ciclo eruptivo de tipo fisural. La edad de LLP de ca. 18 Ma resulta intermedia entre las formaciones Abanico (34-20 Ma y Farellones (20-10 Ma y coetánea a facies litorales de la Formación Navidad, expuestas 20 km al oeste. LLP presenta contenidos de sílice de 52,8-54,5%, en el rango de las traquiandesitas basálticas, y su alto contenido de álcalis (6,21-6,26% de K2O+Na2O las sitúa en la serie alcalina de diferenciación. Destaca la clara diferencia con los productos toleíticos de la Formación Abanico, y los típicamente calcoalcalinos de la Formación Farellones. Estas lavas están significativamente enriquecidas en tierras raras livianas, con una razón La/Sm de 3,4 y un patrón plano de tierras raras pesadas. Tanto el contenido de sílice como de MgO, indican un estado de diferenciación avanzado dominado por cristalización fraccionada de olivino, clinopiroxeno y magnetita. El contenido de Ba y Nb señalaría una contribución significativa del manto litosférico. El Th, y la anomalía de Ta-Nb indicarían, también, un sello cortical. Su particular petrogénesis, así como su posición occidental y aislada en el antearco, podría explicarse como respuesta a la desaceleración de la convergencia con que culmina el ciclo extensional vigente hasta el Mioceno Inferior alto y que acompañó al volcanismo representado por la Formación Abanico. De este modo, las lavas

  16. A new species of Phymaturus (Iguania: Liolaemidae of the palluma group from Central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troncoso-Palacios, Jaime

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We examined specimens of Phymaturus from four locations in central Chile, between 34º50´S and 36º00´S (from Termas del Flaco and from Lircay and its surroundings, where the only recognized species is P. maulense. We found several differences in the scalation and in the color pattern among them. The samples from Lircay and its surroundings correspond to topotypes of P. maulense and two more populations assignable to this species (Termas del Campanario and Laguna del Maule, new records, but the specimens from Termas del Flaco are a new species: P. damasense. It is characterized by: dorsal pattern of the male formed by a thin reticulation over greenish background color with yellowish-brown tail, subocular scale fragmented in three or four scales, scales in the anterior border of the auditory meatus are projected posteriorly, females have dark bars on the flanks (formed by small spots, enlarged scales in the center of the gular fold and may have precloacar pores. Also, we call attention to some Chilean populations of the genus Phymaturus referred in the literature which need to be assigned. Examinamos especimenes de Phymaturus procedentes de cuatro localidades de Chile central, entre los 34º50'S y 36º00'S (Termas del Flaco y los alrededores de Lircay, donde la única especie reconocida es P. maulense. Estas poblaciones muestran diferencias en la escamación y en el diseño de coloración. Las muestras de la cuenca del Maule corresponden a topotipos de P. maulense y dos poblaciones más asignables a esta especie (Termas del Campanario y Laguna del Maule, nuevos registros, mientras que las poblaciones del río Las Damas constituyen una nueva especie caracterizada por: diseño dorsal del macho formado por una reticulación oscura sobre un fondo verde con cola café-amarillenta, escama subocular fragmentada en tres o cuatro, escamas agrandadas en el borde anterior del meato auditivo (proyectadas posteriormente, hembras con escamas agrandadas en el

  17. Metallurgical traditions under Inka rule: a technological study of metals and technical ceramics from the Aconcagua Valley, Central Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Plaza, M.T.; Martinón-Torres, M.

    2015-01-01

    The spread of the Inka state in the Aconcagua Valley (Central Chile) is thought to have been culturally mediated, avoiding military coercion, and thus leading to different forms of cultural acceptance, resistance or hybridisation. However, there has been no previous attempt to investigate the extent to which these interactions are reflected in the use of metals and metallurgical technologies. Here we present analytical work on metallic artefacts and technical ceramics from Cerro La Cruz and L...

  18. Methane in shallow cold seeps at Mocha Island off central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Gerdhard L.; Pantoja, Silvio; Gutiérrez, Marcelo A.; Quiñones, Renato A.; González, Rodrigo R.; Sellanes, Javier; Kellermann, Matthias Y.; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2011-04-01

    We studied for the first time the intertidal and subtidal gas seepage system in Mocha Island off Central Chile. Four main seepage sites were investigated (of which one site included about 150 bubbling points) that release from 150 to 240 tonnes CH 4 into the atmosphere per year. The total amount of methane emitted into the atmosphere is estimated in the order of 800 tonnes per year. The gases emanated from the seeps contain 70% methane, and the stable carbon isotopic composition of methane, δ 13C-CH 4 averaged -44.4±1.4‰ which indicates a major contribution of thermogenic gas. Adjacent to one of the subtidal seeps, rocky substrates support a diverse community of microbial filaments, macroalgae, and benthic organisms. While stable carbon isotopic compositions of marine benthic organisms indicate a dominant photosynthesis-based food web, those of some hard-substrate invertebrates were in the range -48.8‰ to -36.8‰, suggesting assimilation of methane-derived carbon by some selected taxa. This work highlights the potential subsidy of the trophic web by CH 4-C, and that its emission to the atmosphere justifies the need of evaluating the use of methane to support the energy requirements of the local community.

  19. Landsat image and sample design for water reservoirs (Rapel dam Central Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavanderos, L; Pozo, M E; Pattillo, C; Miranda, H

    1990-01-01

    Spatial heterogeneity of the Rapel reservoir surface waters is analyzed through Landsat images. The image digital counts are used with the aim or developing an aprioristic quantitative sample design.Natural horizontal stratification of the Rapel Reservoir (Central Chile) is produced mainly by suspended solids. The spatial heterogeneity conditions of the reservoir for the Spring 86-Summer 87 period were determined by qualitative analysis and image processing of the MSS Landsat, bands 1 and 3. The space-time variations of the different observed strata obtained with multitemporal image analysis.A random stratified sample design (r.s.s.d) was developed, based on the digital counts statistical analysis. Strata population size as well as the average, variance and sampling size of the digital counts were obtained by the r.s.s.d method.Stratification determined by analysis of satellite images were later correlated with ground data. Though the stratification of the reservoir is constant over time, the shape and size of the strata varys. PMID:24243254

  20. Effects of maize cultivation on nitrogen and phosphorus loadings to drainage channels in Central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, Fabio; Nájera, Francisco; Casanova, Manuel; Tapia, Yasna; Singh, Ranvir; do Salazar, Osval

    2015-11-01

    There are concerns about the impact of maize cultivation with high applications of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) on water quality in surface waters in Mediterranean Central Chile. This study estimated the contribution of N and P from maize fields to nearby drainage channels and evaluated the effects in water quality. An N and P budget was drawn up for three fields managed with a maize-fallow system, El Maitén (20.7 ha), El Naranjal (14.9 ha) and El Caleuche (4.2 ha), and water quality variables (pH, EC, dissolved oxygen, total solids, turbidity, NO3-N, NH4-N, PO4(3-), COD, total N, total P and sulphate) were monitored in nearby drainage channels. The N and P balances for the three fields indicated a high risk of N and P non-point source pollution, with fertiliser management, soil texture and climate factors determining the temporal variations in water quality parameters. Elevated levels of NH4-N and PO4(3-) in the drainage channels were usually observed during the winter period, while NO3- concentrations did not show a clear tendency. The results suggest that excessive slurry application during winter represents a very high risk of N and P runoff to drainage channels. Overall, great emphasis must be placed on good agronomic management of fields neighbouring drainage channels, including accurately calculating N and P fertiliser rates and establishing mitigation measures. PMID:26490735

  1. Marine protected areas facilitate parasite populations among four fished host species of central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chelsea L; Micheli, Fiorenza; Fernández, Miriam; Gelcich, Stefan; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Carvajal, Juan

    2013-11-01

    1. Parasites comprise a substantial proportion of global biodiversity and exert important ecological influences on hosts, communities and ecosystems, but our knowledge of how parasite populations respond to human impacts is in its infancy. 2. Here, we present the results of a natural experiment in which we used a system of highly successful marine protected areas and matched open-access areas in central Chile to assess the influence of fishing-driven biodiversity loss on parasites of exploited fish and invertebrate hosts. We measured the burden of gill parasites for two reef fishes (Cheilodactylus variegatus and Aplodactylus punctatus), trematode parasites for a keyhole limpet (Fissurella latimarginata), and pinnotherid pea crab parasites for a sea urchin (Loxechinus albus). We also measured host density for all four hosts. 3. We found that nearly all parasite species exhibited substantially greater density (# parasites m(-2)) in protected than in open-access areas, but only one parasite species (a gill monogenean of C. variegatus) was more abundant within hosts collected from protected relative to open-access areas. 4. These data indicate that fishing can drive declines in parasite abundance at the parasite population level by reducing the availability of habitat and resources for parasites, but less commonly affects the abundance of parasites at the infrapopulation level (within individual hosts). 5. Considering the substantial ecological role that many parasites play in marine communities, fishing and other human impacts could exert cryptic but important effects on marine community structure and ecosystem functioning via reductions in parasite abundance. PMID:23855822

  2. Modelling the day to day wind variability offshore central Chile at about 30 deg. south

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cycles of strengthening and relaxation of the winds offshore 30 degrees S at central Chile, are related to the propagation of coastal-lows, a year-round phenomenon occurring with periodicities of about one in five days. Simple physical modelling of the day to day variability of the alongshore wind component at a coastal strip extending offshore up to the Rossby deformation radius of these wave perturbations, is presented in terms of the relevant horizontal pressure gradients and the ageostrophic components arising from the coastal-low propagation. The results of 5-day composites of 8 wind-events each, at the winter and summer halves of the annual cycle, respectively; lead to a good agreement between the observed phase-lag of the winds with respect to the pressure forcing field, stressing the importance of the ageostrophic wind components at the extremes of the pressure wave perturbation associated with the passage of coastal-lows over the Point Lengua de Vaca (30 15 S) area. A possible contribution of the upwelling-favorable wind enhancement at the time of the pressure rise and subsequent fall, ahead of the coastal-low, is postulated through an upwelling-front low-level jet, that would be carried onshore and closer to the surface by the combination of the enhanced coastal upwelling, the coastal depression of the subsidence inversion base and the coastal ageostrophic wind components during the passage of the leading edge of the coastal lows. (author). 26 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  3. Soundscape of a management and exploitation area of benthic resources in central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Borie

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic ecology is an emerging and poorly known field of research. Soundscape has been used to infer the behavior of several species in different environments and can serve as a reliable indicator of the habitat type and quality; also, it is believed that it is an important factor for larvae orientation in settlement areas. We used the passive acoustic method to evaluate the soundscape of a management and exploitation area of benthic resources, a rocky reef area in central Chile. It was possible to hear a continuous cracking sound during recording and underwater observations. We detected two distinct frequency bands with similar parameters during the night and day, a band between 90 and 300 Hz, which corresponded to the effects of sea waves (geophony, and a frequency band with a range of 1,500 to 2,700 Hz (biophony, with a fundamental frequency of 2,070 Hz. Both bands had similar energy (~88.0 dB re: 1V/µPa. These results show the relevant acoustic activity in the area, which may have important ecological implications for the recruitment of commercially important benthic resources.

  4. Analyzing Food-Related Life Satisfaction and other Predictors of Life Satisfaction in Central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Lobos, Germán; Orellana, Ligia; Grunert, Klaus; Sepúlveda, José; Mora, Marcos; Denegri, Marianela; Miranda, Horacio

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of satisfaction with food-related life on life satisfaction among inhabitants of the main municipalities of central Chile. A survey was applied to a sample of 1,277 people, distributed proportionally by municipality. The questionnaire included the following scales: SWLS (Satisfaction with Life Scale), SWFL (Satisfaction with Food-related Life) and the Health-Related Quality of Life Index (HRQOL). Questions were asked regarding eating habits inside and outside the home, time available for meals at home, the assessment of five sources of happiness and the demographic characteristics of those surveyed. An ordered logit model was proposed, in which the dependent variable was satisfaction with life. Satisfaction with life was significantly related to the respondent's socioeconomic status, self-perception of health, degree of satisfaction with food-related life, monthly food expenditure, time available for supper with the family (p consumption in fast food outlets (p < .10). Satisfaction with life in the study sample is related to aspects associated with health, family and eating, and the family interaction associated with eating may play an important role in overall satisfaction with life. PMID:26083311

  5. Classification of debris-covered glaciers and rock glaciers in the Andes of central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Jason R.; Bellisario, Antonio C.; Ferrando, Francisco A.

    2015-07-01

    In the Dry Andes of Chile (17 to 35° S), debris-covered glaciers and rock glaciers are differentiated from true glaciers based on the percentage of surface debris cover, thickness of surface debris, and ice content. Internal ice is preserved by an insulating cover of thick debris, which acts as a storage reservoir to release water during the summer and early fall. These landforms are more numerous than glaciers in the central Andes; however, the existing legislation only recognizes uncovered or semicovered glaciers as a water resource. Glaciers, debris-covered glaciers, and rock glaciers are being altered or removed by mining operations to extract valuable minerals from the mountains. In addition, agricultural expansion and population growth in this region have placed additional demands on water resources. In a warmer climate, as glaciers recede and seasonal water availability becomes condensed over the course of a snowmelt season, rock glaciers and debris-covered glaciers contribute a larger component of base flow to rivers and streams. As a result, identifying and locating these features to implement sustainable regional planning for water resources is important. The objective of this study is to develop a classification system to identify debris-covered glaciers and rock glaciers based on the interpretation of satellite imagery and aerial photographs. The classification system is linked to field observations and measurements of ice content. Debris-covered glaciers have three subclasses: surface coverage of semi (class 1) and fully covered (class 2) glaciers differentiates the first two forms, whereas debris thickness is critical for class 3 when glaciers become buried with more than 3 m of surface debris. Based on field observations, the amount of ice decreases from more than 85%, to 65-85%, to 45-65% for semi, fully, and buried debris-covered glaciers, respectively. Rock glaciers are characterized by three stages. Class 4 rock glaciers have pronounced

  6. Paleoenvironmental change in central Chile as inferred from OSL dating of ancient coastal sand dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Belisario; Garcia, Juan L.; Lüthgens, Christopher; Fiebig, Markus

    2013-04-01

    To present day, the climatic and geographic expression of glacials and interglacials in the semiarid coast of central Chile remains unclear. The lack of well dated paleoclimatic records has up to now precluded firm conclusions whether maximum glacials evident in the Andes mountain range probably coincide with wetter (e.g., pluvials) or drier conditions at the coast. The natural region locally known as "Norte Chico" represents a transitional semiarid area between the extreme Atacama Desert to the North and the wetter, Mediterranean-like type of climate, to the South. In this semiarid region of Chile several generations of eolian sand dunes, some of them separated by paleosoils, have been preserved. In addition to the occurrence of paleosoils, thick debris flow deposits in some places overly ancient dune bodies, likely indicating significant environmental changes during the formation of these archives. However, the exact timing of these processes within the mid to late Pleistocene and Holocene is still unclear. A key aspect is that some of the ancient dunes are recently hanging above rocky coastlines, where no supply of sand exists today, likely implying their formation during a lower than present, probably glacio-eustatically induced sea level. The location of the research area in a key mid-latitude region of the eastern Pacific in combination with the preserved landform record offers a chance to reconstruct climatic shifts during the Quaternary by studying the variability of morphogenetic conditions throughout time, in order to promote knowledge about possible forcing factors driving climatic variability. Within this pilot study, samples for optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating were taken from three different stratigraphic sections that denote a complex environmental variability as indicated by paleosoils and debris flow units intercalated in ancient sand dunes. First dating results inferred from OSL measurements using a post-IR IRSL (pIRIR) protocol for

  7. A Centralized Auction Mechanism for the Disability and Survivors Insurance in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes H., Gonzalo

    As part of the pension reform recently approved in Chile, the government introduced a centralized auction mechanism to provide the Disability and Survivors (D&S) Insurance that covers recent contributors among the more than 8 million participants in the mandatory private pension system. This paper is intended as a case study presenting the main distortions found in the decentralized operation of the system that led to this reform and the challenges faced when designing a competitive auction mechanism to be implemented jointly by the Pension Fund Managers (AFP). In a typical bilateral contract the AFP retained much of the risk and the Insurance Company acted in practice as a reinsurer. The process to hire this contract was not competitive and colligated companies ended up providing the service. Several distortions affected competition in the market through incentives to cream-skim members by AFPs (since they bear most of the risk) or efforts to block disability claims. Since the price of this insurance is hidden in the fees charged by AFPs for the administration of individual accounts and pension funds there was lack of price transparency. Since new AFPs have no history of members’ disability and mortality profile the insurance contract acted as a barrier to entry in the market of AFP services, especially when D&S insurance costs reached 50% of total costs. Cross-subsidies between members of the same AFP, inefficient risk pooling (due to pooling occurring at the AFP rather than at the system level) and regulatory arbitrage, since AFPs provided insurance not being regulated as an insurance company, were also present. A centralized auction mechanism solves these market failures, but also gives raise to new challenges, such as how to design a competitive auction that attracts participation and deters collusion. Design features that were incorporated in the regulation to tackle these issues, such as dividing coverage into predefined percentage blocks, are presented

  8. Late Pleistocene to Holocene tephrostratigraphy of the Lonquimay Volcano, South Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, D.; Freundt, A.; Kutterolf, S.; Burkert, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Lonquimay Volcanic Complex (LVC) in South Central Chile (38.38°S, 71.58°W) is part of the Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes, which formed in response to the subduction of the Nazca Plate beneath the South American Plate. During the course of its magmatic evolution, the LVC produced explosive eruptions documented in the succession of widespread tephra deposits, as well as large lava flows that originated from the main edifice and several adjacent minor eruptive centers. The last eruptive phase in Lonquimays volcanic evolution occurred from 1988-1990. It led to the formation of the Navidad cinder cone with its associated 10.2 km long lava flow, and a widely distributed tephra blanket of andesitic composition (Moreno and Gardeweg, 1989). During recent field work we reinvestigated and complemented the LVC tephrostratigraphy as originally established by Polanco (1998)by detailed logging of 22 outcrops and collecting 126 stratigraphically controlled samples that were analyzed for their matrix glass, mineral and bulk rock compositions. This data set allows us to verify and extend the field-based correlations, and to establish a tephrostratigraphy for the LVC that comprises 15 stratigraphic units (LQA-LQO) and provides a framework for ongoing investigations of the petrogenetic evolution of the LVC. The stratigraphic record identifies at least 13 explosive eruptions of VEI > 3 that occurred since the last glaciation period (17150 a BP, McCulloch et al. 2000). Magmatic compositions of the tephra deposits range from basaltic scoriae (51wt% SiO2) to evolved dacitic pumice lapilli layers (67wt% SiO2), and thus have a wider compositional range than the chemically distinct andesitic lavas (57-63wt%) of the LVC. The vertical succession of tephra compositions reflects four periods of progressive magmatic differentiation, each successively tapped by several eruptions. The maximum degree of fractionation reached during these periods increases to younger ages. The

  9. Antibacterial Activity, Antioxidant Effect and Chemical Composition of Propolis from the Región del Maule, Central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélida Nina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is commercialized in Chile as an antimicrobial agent. It is obtained mainly from central and southern Chile, but is used for the same purposes regardless of its origin. To compare the antimicrobial effect, the total phenolic (TP, the total flavonoid (TF content and the phenolic composition, 19 samples were collected in the main production centers in the Región del Maule, Chile. Samples were extracted with MeOH and assessed for antimicrobial activity against Gram (+ and Gram (− bacteria. TP and TF content, antioxidant activity by the DPPH, FRAP and TEAC methods were also determined. Sample composition was assessed by HPLD-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. Differential compounds in the samples were isolated and characterized. The antimicrobial effect of the samples showed MICs ranging from 31.5 to > 1000 µg/mL. Propolis from the central valley was more effective as antibacterial than those from the coastal area or Andean slopes. The samples considered of interest (MIC ≤ 62.5 µg/mL showed effect on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp., Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella enteritidis. Two new diarylheptanoids, a diterpene, the flavonoids pinocembrin and chrysin were isolated and elucidated by spectroscopic and spectrometric means. Some 29 compounds were dereplicated by HPLC-MS and tentatively identified, including nine flavones/flavonol derivatives, one flavanone, eight dihydroflavonols and nine phenyl-propanoids. Propolis from the Región del Maule showed large variation in antimicrobial effect, antioxidant activity and composition. So far the presence of diarylheptanoids in samples from the coastal area of central Chile can be considered as a marker of a new type of propolis.

  10. Post-earthquake coastal evolution and recovery of an embayed beach in central-southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Carolina; Rojas, Daniel; Quezada, Matías; Quezada, Jorge; Oliva, Ricardo

    2015-12-01

    Earthquakes and tsunamis are significant factors for change along active margin shores, and influence coastal evolution. The Chilean coast was affected in 2010 by a subduction earthquake with a magnitude of Mw 8.8 and also by a trans-Pacific tsunami, which generated violent geomorphologic changes and damaged homes. Following these events, the magnitude of the changes which affect Chile's central-southern coast (37°S) and the role of subduction earthquakes in coastal evolution on a historical scale were investigated. At Lebu bay (an embayed beach) data were generated for variations in time and space along the shoreline, topographical and bathymetric changes in the bay, and for morphodynamic littoral processes. Logarithmic and parabolic models were applied to the shoreline along with map overlays in order to determine changes. The shoreline processes were analyzed based on statistics for waves, tides and sediment transport for pre- and post-tsunami conditions. An average accretion rate of 2.80 m/year (1984-2010) was established for the shoreline, with a strong trend towards accretion in the last 30 years. A parabolic function best represented the general form of the shoreline, although the presence of a river in the concave zone affected the fit in this sector. Two factors controlled historical changes on the beach: one of anthropic origin in addition to the earthquake and tsunami on February 27th, 2010. The post-earthquake recovery was fast, and currently the beach is in a stable condition despite the inter-seismic subsidence process previous to the event. This coastal system showed a high resilience in the face of coastal geomorphological changes induced by high-impact natural disturbances. However, the opposite occurred in relation to changes induced by anthropogenic disturbances.

  11. Assessing the benefits and costs of dryland forest restoration in central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiappacasse, Ignacio; Nahuelhual, Laura; Vásquez, Felipe; Echeverría, Cristian

    2012-04-30

    Investment in natural capital restoration is increasing as a response to the widespread ecological degradation of dryland forests. However, finding efficient mechanisms to promote restoration among private landowners is a significant challenge for policy makers with limited financial resources. Furthermore, few attempts have been made to evaluate the costs and benefits of restoration interventions even though this information is relevant to orient decision making. Hence, our goal was to estimate the benefits and costs of dryland forest restoration by means of reforestation with native trees in a study area in central Chile. To determine benefits we applied a Contingent Valuation questionnaire that allowed for the calculation of willingness to pay measures. Restoration costs were calculated based on market prices following existing technical recommendations developed for the study area. The results showed that the restoration project had a negative NPV irrespective of the discount rate applied in the analysis. Thus, the NPV varied between -US$71,000 and -US$258,000. The NPV attained positive results only for negative discount rates (US$15,039 for -2%) and only when the national subsidy available for forest restoration was taken into account. This shows that landowners in Colliguay do not have incentives for carrying out restoration interventions due to a classic market failure: that in which ecosystems are mismanaged because many of their benefits are externalities from the perspective of landowners. Overall, these results stress the need for developing new compensation mechanisms and enhancing those in existence, with the aim of making restoration competitive with other land uses. PMID:22325581

  12. Climate change adaptation in a highly urbanized snowmelt dominated basin in Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicuna, S.; Bustos, E.; Merino, P.; Henriquez Dole, L. E.; Jansen, S.; Gil, M.; Ocampo, A.; Poblete, D.; Tosoni, D.; Meza, F. J.; Donoso, G.; Melo, O.

    2015-12-01

    The Maipo river basin holds 40% of Chile's total population and produces almost half of the country's Gross Domestic Product. The basin is located in the semiarid and snowmelt dominated central region of the country and, aside from the typical pressures of growth in developing country basins, the Maipo river basin faces climate change impacts associated with a reduction in total runoff and changes in its seasonality. Surface water is the main water source for human settlements, natural ecosystems, and economic activities including agriculture, mining and hydropower production. In 2012 a research project, called MAPA (Maipo Plan de Adaptacion), began with the objective of articulating a climate variability and climate change adaptation plan for the Maipo river basin. The project engaged at the beginning a group of relevant water and land use stakeholders which allowed for a good representation of critical aspects of an adaptation plan such as the definition of objectives and performance indicators, future land use scenarios, modeling of the different components of the system and design of adaptation strategies. The presentation will highlight the main results of the research project with a special focus on the upper catchments of the basin. These results include the assessment of impacts associated with future climate and land use scenarios on key components of the hydrologic cycle including snowmelt and glacier contribution to runoff and subsequent impacts on water availability for the operation of hydropower facilities, satisfaction of instream (recreation and aquatic ecosystem) uses and provision of water for the city of Santiago (7 million people) and to irrigate more than 100,000 hectares of high value crops. The integrative approach followed in this project including different perspectives on the use of water in the basin provides a good opportunity to test the varying degree of impacts that could be associated with a given future scenario and also understand

  13. Dieta del pez espada Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758, en aguas oceánicas de Chile central en invierno de 2003 Diet of the swordfish Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758 in oceanic waters off central Chile in winter 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Christian M Ibáñez; Carlos González; Luis Cubillos

    2004-01-01

    Se analiza la dieta del pez espada en tres zonas de pesca en aguas oceánicas de Chile central durante el invierno de 2003, considerando como hipótesis que el tamaño de las presas se incrementa significativamente con el tamaño del depredador, conjuntamente con una disminución del número de presas. El estudio se realizó sobre la base de 48 estómagos de Xiphias gladius con contenido estomacal. Para su análisis se utilizó los descriptores cuantitativos de frecuencia de ocurrencia y método numéric...

  14. Application of the 137Cs technique to quantify soil redistribution rates in paleohumults from Central-South Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the applicability of the 137Cs technique in obtaining spatial distributed information on mean soil redistribution rates in Central-South Chile. For this purpose four fields of Palehumult soil and contrasting land use and management were selected in the Coastal Mountain Range of the 9th Region: Crop fields under subsistence and commercial management and non-permanent prairies under subsistence and commercial management. The spatial distribution of the soil redistribution rates obtained by the 137Cs method was similar to the one obtained by pedological observations. Also, annual sediment fluxes measured at experimental plots were similar to the erosion rates determined by the 137Cs method at adjacent points. The 137Cs technique is seen as an efficient method to obtain long-term soil redistribution rates under the climatic conditions and the soil type selected in Chile. In the future, it is necessary to study the applicability of the method under other climatic conditions and soil types occurring in Chile in which erosion is not so evident, and to adjust the method to optimise costs and benefits. (author)

  15. El aprecio por el paisaje y su utilidad en la conservación de los paisajes de Chile Central

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo de la Fuente de Val; José A. Atauri Mezquida; José V. de Lucio Fernández

    2004-01-01

    La transformación del paisaje mediterráneo de Chile Central comienza a plantearse en la sociedad como una prioridad en todas sus dimensiones y funcione. Se consideran no sólo sus factores ecológicos, sociales, económicos sino también culturales, escénicos y afectivos. Se ha sugerido la percepción del paisaje como una pieza significativa para emprender nuevas formas de relación con el entorno. Este trabajo ilustra los resultados generales de un amplio estudio de preferencias paisajísticas y me...

  16. Palaeoenvironment reconstruction, volcanic evolution and geochronology of the Cerro Blanco subcomplex, Nevados de Chillan volcanic complex, Central Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Mee, Katy; Gilbert, Jennie S.; McGarvie, David W.; Naranjo, Jose A.; Pringle, Malcolm S.

    2009-01-01

    Nevados de Chillán Volcanic Complex, central Chile, has been active for at least 640 ka—a period spanning a number of glacial and interglacial periods. Geologic mapping, radiometric dating and geochemical analysis have identified six new volcanic units and produced four new 40Ar/39Ar ages for Cerro Blanco, the northern subcomplex of Nevados de Chillán volcano. Compositions range from dacite to basaltic-andesite and a new geologic map is presented. Examination of lava fracture structures on bo...

  17. Syntectonic emplacement of the Middle Jurassic Concon Mafic Dike Swarm, Coastal Range, central Chile (33 degrees S)

    OpenAIRE

    C. Creixell; M.A. Parada; Roperch, Pierrick; D. Morata; Arriagada, C; Arce, C.P. de

    2006-01-01

    The Concon Mafic Dike Swarm (CMDS) consists of basaltic to andesitic dikes emplaced into deformed Late Palcozoic granitoids during the development of the Jurassic arc of central Chile. The dikes are divided into an early group of thick dikes (512 in) and a late group of thin dikes (0.5-3 m). Two new amphibole Ar-40/Ar-39 dates obtained from undeformed and deformed dikes, constrain the age of emplacement and deformation of the CMDS between 163 and 157 Ma. Based on radiometric ages, field obser...

  18. A new species of Phymaturus (Iguania: Liolaemidae) of the palluma group from Central Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Troncoso-Palacios, Jaime; Lobo, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    We examined specimens of Phymaturus from four locations in central Chile, between 34º50´S and 36º00´S (from Termas del Flaco and from Lircay and its surroundings), where the only recognized species is P. maulense. We found several differences in the scalation and in the color pattern among them. The samples from Lircay and its surroundings correspond to topotypes of P. maulense and two more populations assignable to this species (Termas del Campanario and Laguna del Maule, new records), but t...

  19. Water Erosion Prediction Using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) in a GIS Framework, Central Chile Estimación de la Erosión Hídrica Empleando la Ecuación Universal de Pérdida de Suelo Revisada (RUSLE) y SIG en Chile Central

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos A. Bonilla; Reyes, José L.; Antoni Magri

    2010-01-01

    Soil erosion is a growing problem in Central Chile, particularly in coastal dry lands, where it can significantly decrease the productivity of rainfed agriculture and forestry. In this study, the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) was integrated into a Geographic Information System (GIS), and used to evaluate the effects of different combinations of vegetative cover on soil erosion rates for Santo Domingo County in Central Chile. Implementing RUSLE in the GIS required a complete des...

  20. Estimation of real evapotranspiration and its variation in Mediterranean landscapes of central-southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivera-Guerra, L.; Mattar, C.; Galleguillos, M.

    2014-05-01

    Evapotranspiration (ETd) is a key controller in the ecohydrological processes of semi-arid landscapes. This is the case of the dry land in Chile's central-southern zone, where forestry, farming and livestock activities must adapt to precipitation with considerable year-on-year variations. In this study, the spatial distribution of ETd was estimated in relation to the land use map and physical parameters of the soil. The ETd was estimated through the Simplified Surface Energy Balance Index (S-SEBI) using data from weather stations and remote data provided by the ASTER and MODIS sensors for November 2004 and 2006, respectively. The spatial variability of ETd was compared among different plant types, soil textural classes and depths using non-parametric statistical tests. In this comparison, the highest rates of ETd were obtained in the forest covers with values of 7.3 ± 0.8 and 8.4 ± 0.8 mm d-1 for 2004 and 2006, respectively. The lowest values were estimated for pastures and shrublands with values of 3.5 ± 1.2 mm d-1 and for crops with rates of 4.4 ± 1.6 mm d-1. Comparison of the ETd of the native forest covers and plantations of exotic species showed statistically significant differences; however, no great variation was noted, at least in the study months. Additionally, the highest rates of ETd were found in the clay loam textures (6.0 ± 1.8 and 6.4 ± 2.0 mm d-1) and the lowest rates in the sandy loam soils (3.7 ± 1.6 and 3.9 ± 1.6 mm d-1) for 2004 and 2006, respectively. The results enable analysis of the spatial patterns of the landscape in terms of the relation between water consumption, ET and the biophysical characteristics of a Mediterranean ecosystem. These results form part of the creation of tools useful in the optimization of decision-making for the management and planning of water resources and soil use in territories with few measuring instruments.

  1. Latitudinal discontinuity in thermal conditions along the nearshore of central-northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Fabian J; Largier, John L; Castillo, Manuel; Wieters, Evie A; Navarrete, Sergio A

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, evidence of abrupt latitudinal changes in the dynamics, structure and genetic variability of intertidal and subtidal benthic communities along central-northern Chile has been found consistently at 30-32°S. Changes in the advective and thermal environment in nearshore waters have been inferred from ecological patterns, since analyses of in situ physical data have thus far been missing. Here we analyze a unique set of shoreline temperature data, gathered over 4-10 years at 15 sites between 28-35°S, and combine it with satellite-derived winds and sea surface temperatures to investigate the latitudinal transition in nearshore oceanographic conditions suggested by recent ecological studies. Our results show a marked transition in thermal conditions at 30-31°S, superimposed on a broad latitudinal trend, and small-scale structures associated with cape-and-bay topography. The seasonal cycle dominated temperature variability throughout the region, but its relative importance decreased abruptly south of 30-31°S, as variability at synoptic and intra-seasonal scales became more important. The response of shoreline temperatures to meridional wind stress also changed abruptly at the transition, leading to a sharp drop in the occurrence of low-temperature waters at northern sites, and a concurrent decrease in corticated algal biomass. Together, these results suggest a limitation of nitrate availability in nearshore waters north of the transition. The localized alongshore change results from the interaction of latitudinal trends (e.g., wind stress, surface warming, inertial period) with a major headland-bay system (Punta Lengua de Vaca at 30.25°S), which juxtaposes a southern stretch of coast characterized by upwelling with a northern stretch of coast characterized by warm surface waters and stratification. This transition likely generates a number of latitude-dependent controls on ecological processes in the nearshore that can explain species

  2. Strategies for improving thermal performance and visual comfort in office buildings of Central Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante Gómez, Waldo; Encinas Pino, Felipe; Pino, Alan; Otarola, Roberto; PLEA 2011 - 27th International Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture: Architecture & Sustainable Development

    2011-01-01

    Overheating, high cooling energy demand and glare are recurrent problems in office buildings in Santiago and Valparaíso, Chile. Santiago (33°S) presents a Mediterranean climate, with a high temperature oscillation between day and night during cooling period. Valparaiso (33°S), by the coast, shows lower temperature fluctuation compared with Santiago. In order to evaluate impact on thermal and lighting performance of office buildings of these cities, a sensitivity study has been made. Variation...

  3. Composición, estructura y flujo energético del meiobentos frente a Chile central Composition, structure and energy flux of the meiobenthos off central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER SELLANES

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la estructura de la meiofauna metazoaria (a nivel de grandes grupos taxonómicos y su rol en el flujo de energía en el subsistema bentónico frente a Concepción (~3630' S. Las muestras se recolectaron en mayo y noviembre de 1997 y mayo de 1998 en cinco sitios correspondientes a: interior de la Bahía de Concepción (28 m, boca de la bahía (35 m, plataforma interior (64 m, plataforma intermedia (88 m y plataforma externa (120 m. El periodo de estudio coincidió con el evento El Niño 1997-1998 (EN. El meiobentos resultó ser poco diverso a nivel de grandes grupos, pero con abundancias y biomasas moderadas a altas, en comparación con los valores promedio reportados en la literatura para el sublitoral fangoso. Nematoda fue el grupo dominante, con más de un 95 % (10³­10(4 ind 10 cm­2 de la densidad total, seguidos por Copepoda y Polychaeta. Las mayores abundancias y biomasas totales se encontraron siempre en la boca de la bahía, seguida de su parte interior y de la plataforma interior, mientras que los menores valores se ubicaron en la plataforma intermedia y externa. Frente a Concepción el meiobentos juega un importante rol en el flujo de energía a través del subsistema bentónico. Se estimó que estos organismos podrían estar remineralizando y/o convirtiendo a biomasa hasta un 36 y 45 % del carbono orgánico que llega desde la columna de agua a los sedimentos en el centro y en la boca de la bahía, respectivamente.The general objective of this study was to determine the structure of metazoan meiofauna (at a high taxonomic level and to estimate its role in the energy flux of the benthic sub-system off Concepción, Chile (~3630' S. Samples were collected in May and November 1997 and May 1998 at five sites located at the: inner Bay of Concepción (28 m, bay-mouth (35 m, inner-shelf (64 m, mid-shelf (88 m and outer-shelf (120 m. The study period coincided with the El Niño 1997-1998 (EN event. The diversity of the meiobenthos

  4. Social and economic factors of chile de agua (Capsicum Annum L. in three municipalities of the Central Valley in Oaxaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Ángeles Rodríguez Mendoza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This issue was carried out in the municipalities of San Pablo Huixtepec, San Sebastián Abasolo and Culiapan of Guerrero as part of the Central Valleys of Oaxaca, Mexico. We studied the production system of Agua Chile, using the technique of structured interview,information was obtained that allowed us to determine and meet the current models of socio-economic benefits in the form of productionof this vegetable. The importance of this study is that the chile de agua despite being a highly profitable crop has been little studied, so it is not known the extent that can have, there are markets that offer potentially greater benefits to farmers, therefore it is important to know the current situation of farmers in order to provide alternatives to improve their economic situation. The results indicate that according to the practices of peasant production and the low level of technology that includes the type of fertilizers, agrochemicals to combat pests and diseases and low use of agricultural machinery, yields of 3.97 t ha-1 allow total revenues are higher than the costs of production. Besides the existence of limited marketing networks (primarily in local markets and in the Oaxaca city, is a competitive crop in terms of profitability for finance of small production units and furthermore, it is growing factor relevant food security of farming families.

  5. Geographic variation in diversity of wave exposed rocky intertidal communities along central Chile Variación geográfica de la biodiversidad en hábitats intermareales rocosos de Chile central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BERNARDO R BROITMAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Along the coast of central Chile, geographic trends of diversity have been inferred from literature compilations and museum collections based on species range limits for some taxonomic groups. However, spatially-intensive field-based assessments of macrobenthic species richness are largely missing. Over the course of a multiyear study (1998-2005, we characterized latitudinal patterns of rocky intertidal diversity at 18 sites along the coast of central Chile (29-36° S. At each site, the number of sessile and mobile macrobenthic species was quantified in 0.25 m² quadrats. Two estimators of local (alpha diversity were used: observed local species richness, calculated from the asymptote of a species-rarefaction curve, and the Chao2 index, which takes into account the effect of rare species on estimates of local richness. We identified a total of 71 species belonging to 66 genera for a total of 86 taxa. The most diverse groups were herbivorous mollusks (27 taxa and macroalgae (43 taxa. Diversity showed a complex spatial pattern with areas of high species richness interspersed with areas of low richness. In accordance with previous work, we found no trend in the number of herbivorous mollusks and an inverse and significant latitudinal gradient in the number of algal species. Our results highlight the need for taxonomically diverse assessments of biodiversity of the dominant taxa that conform intertidal communities.A lo largo de la costa de Chile central, los patrones geográficos de diversidad han sido inferidos a partir de revisiones literarias y colecciones de museos para algunos grupos taxonómicos. Sin embargo, aun no contamos con una evaluación integral, y en terreno, de la riqueza de especies macrobentónicas intermareales. En un estudio de largo plazo conducido entre 1998 y 2005 caracterizamos los patrones latitudinales en la biodiversidad del intermareal rocoso en 18 sitios a lo largo de la costa de Chile central (29-36° S. En cada sitio

  6. Mycotrophy in Gilliesieae, a threatened and poorly known tribe of Alliaceae from central Chile Micotrofía en Gilliesieae, una tribu amenazada y poco conocida de Alliaceae de Chile central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSTAVO A TORRES-MELLADO

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The five known genera of Gilliesieae have their diversity center in the Mediterranean zone of central Chile, where many of their habitats are threatened by urban expansion, industrial and agroforestry activities, as well as other anthropogenic impacts. Very little is known about the biology of these particular geophytes, the majority of which currently have either vulnerable or endangered status, mainly due to their dispersed and small populations generally associated to remnants of native vegetation. As mycorrhizal associations are essential for soil resource acquisition and stress mitigation in most plants, our objective was to assess the hitherto unknown mycotrophic status of ten species of Gilliesieae from central Chile by qualitative and quantitative assessment of intraradical fungal structures. All sampled genera (Gethyum, Gilliesia, Miersia, Solaria, Speea showed regular presence of arbuscular mycorrhiza, while other mycorrhizal or putatively mutualistic associations, like dark septate endophytes, were practically absent. Mycorrhizal colonization of fine roots reached a mean of ca. 45 % across all examined taxa, with highly variable values ranging from 9 % to 82 % in Miersia tenuiseta and Gilliesia curicana, respectively. The high level of mycorrhization indicates that arbuscular mycorrhiza should be considered for conservation strategies of threatened species or biotechnological use in plant propagation. The main future task is the identification of the associated fungal taxa.Los cinco géneros conocidos de Gilliesieae tienen su centro de diversidad en la zona mediterránea de Chile central, donde muchos de sus hábitats están amenazados por la expansión urbana, actividades industriales y agroforestales, así como otros impactos antropogénicos. Se sabe muy poco sobre la biología de estas particulares geófitas, que en la actualidad tienen en su mayoría estatus de vulnerable o en peligro de extinción, debido a sus poblaciones

  7. Latencia y banco de semillas en plantas de la región mediterránea de Chile central Seed bank and dormancy in plants of the Mediterranean region of central Chile

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    JAVIER A. FIGUEROA

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Los bancos de semillas en las regiones mediterráneas presentan rasgos particulares que los distinguen de bancos de otras regiones del mundo. El banco de semillas es concentración de propágulos viables enterrados en el suelo por períodos variables de tiempo. Los bancos de semillas del matorral de Chile central son principalmente transitorios y funcionalmente semejantes a los bancos presentes en otros ecosistemas mediterráneos no perturbados por fuego, a excepción de Australia. El banco transitorio es aquel formado por semillas que permanecen viables en los horizontes superiores del suelo por no más de 1 año después de la dispersión. En el matorral de Chile central, en los horizontes superiores del suelo, se encuentra una de las densidades de semillas de hierbas más altas de las regiones mediterráneas. Una gran proporción de esta reserva está constituida por semillas sin latencia, fácilmente germinables, especialmente pastos anuales que germinan en otoño. Con respecto a los mecanismos de latencia de las semillas del banco transitorio responsables del almacenamiento de las semillas en el suelo, nuestra revisión bibliográfica reveló los siguientes principales síndromes de germinación: (1 especies con semillas que deben ser estratificadas en frío debido a la presencia de latencia fisiológica (principalmente hierbas introducidas; (2 especies con semillas que deben ser escarificadas con ácidos o procedimientos mecánicos debido a la presencia de latencia física (principalmente especies leñosas nativas; (3 especies con latencia fisiológica que necesitan de estratificación cálida para activar la germinación (hierbas nativas e introducidas. Estos síndromes provocan que la época de germinación en Chile central esté situada entre otoño e inicio de la primavera. Además, no hay referencias sobre la presencia de algún síndrome esporádico de germinación para los componentes de un banco de semillas permanente. Proponemos

  8. Regional ceramic production and distribution systems during the late intermediate ceramic period in central Chile based on NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research focused on the pre-Hispanic ceramic production and distribution systems of the Maipo region in central Chile by means of determining the concentration of the chemical elements in pottery of the Aconcagua culture (900-1450 A.D.) with instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Pottery fragments from eight archaeological sites and natural clays from the study region were included. The differences in chemical composition between subsets of the sample (sites, paste group and ceramic type) were interpreted as indicators of resource and ceramic production locations as well as the imprint of the geological background. These results contributed to the understanding of the Aconcagua ceramic assemblage and helped to test some hypotheses about the Aconcagua social organization. (author)

  9. Osseous skeletal material and fish scales in marine sediments under the oxygen minimum zone off northern and central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milessi, Andrés C.; Sellanes, Javier; Gallardo, Víctor A.; Lange, Carina B.

    2005-08-01

    The significance of whale falls for the study of the biogeography, evolution and biodiversity of deep-sea biota has been recently recognized by international programs since large carcasses are known to give rise to biogenic chemosynthetic ecosystems. However, the plain accumulation of smaller bone material in the shallower settings of the continental shelf and upper slope under the hypoxic conditions of the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ), has received much less attention. Here we describe new findings of skeletal material and fish scales in marine sediments under the OMZ off northern and central Chile which, combined with previous reports for the study area, lead us to suggest the existence of a band in the benthos of accumulation of bones and scales extending at least twenty degrees in latitude (18-38° S). Future studies should focus on the characterization of biotic communities living upon these resources in order to elucidate their peculiarities and importance in the Eastern South Pacific.

  10. First radiometric age (U-Pb, LA-ICP-MS, on detrital zircons) from the Punta Topocalma Formation: insights on Late Cretaceous marine deposition in central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upper Cretaceous marine rocks crop out along the Pacific coast of central and south-central Chile between 33o and 37oS. These strata constitute an important reference for the Upper Cretaceous of South America due to their diverse fossil fauna and flora. The type unit of these deposits is the Quiriquina Formation, near Concepcion. This unit is considered Maastrichtian in age based on ammonites. Upper Cretaceous marine strata from other localities of central and south-central Chile are largely unstudied and their biostratigraphic ages are not precisely known. We present the first radiometric dating (U-Pb on detrital zircons) for Upper Cretaceous marine strata of the Chilean forearc at Punta Topocalma that indicates a probable depositional age of 71.9+0.9 Ma (latest Campanian-earliest Maastrichtian). Provenance analysis indicates that the source of sediments of the Punta Topocalma Formation was plutonic and volcano-sedimentary rocks from the Coastal Cordillera and the Central Depression of central Chile. The Lo Valle Formation, a volcano-sedimentary unit in the Central Depression, recorded deposition of the Upper Cretaceous volcanic arc that was coeval with marine sedimentation in the Topocalma area

  11. Multiproxy approach revealing climate and cultural changes during the last 26kyrs in south-central Chile

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    Abarzua, Ana M.; Jarpa, Leonora; Martel, Alejandra; Vega, Rodrigo; Pino, Mario

    2010-05-01

    Multiproxy approach from Purén Lumaco Valley (38°S) describes the paleonvironmental history during the Last Maximum Glacial (LGM) in south-central Chile. Three sediment cores and severals AMS 14C dates were used to perform a complete pollen, diatoms, chironomids, and sedimentological records demonstrating the existence of a large and non profundal paleolake, between 25 and 20kyr BP. Some of these evidence are laminated silty-clay sediments (lacustrine rhythmites), associated with the presence of siderite mineral (FeCO3), besides biological proxies like Fragilaria construens and Stauroforma inermes (planctonic diatoms), and Dicrotendipes sp. and Tanytarsini tribe (littoral chironomids). The pollen ensemble reveals the first glacial refuge of Araucaria araucana forests in the low lands during the LGM. The lake was drained abruptly into a swamp/bog at 12kyr BP and colonized by Myrtaceae wet forest. This evidence suggest the dry/warm climate period of early Holocene in south-central Chile. Later, the sediments indicate variable lacustrine levels, and increase of charcoal particles, associated to current climatic conditions. The pollen spectrum dominated by Myrtaceae and Nothofagus contrasts with a strongly disturb current landscape. Actually, Purén-Lumaco valley constitutes a complex peat-bog system dominated by exotic grasses and forest species (Tritricum aestivum, Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus spp.). Some archaeological antecedents in the area document the human development at ca. 7yrs BP. The greatest archaeological characteristic present in the valley is the kuel, a Mapuche earth accumulation. The presence and extension of almost 300 kuel in the valley reflect the social/economic development, and partly explains why the region was the major resistance area for Spanish colonizer during XVI-XVII centuries. Also the archaeological findings reveal the presence of maize pollen (Zea mays) within their food consumption. The influence of climate and human impact in

  12. A study of the energy balance and melt regime on Juncal Norte Glacier, semi-arid Andes of central Chile, using melt models of different complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Pellicciotti, Francesca; Helbing, Jakob; Rivera, Andrés; Favier, Vincent; Corripio, Javier; Araos, José; Sicart, Jean-Emmanuel; Carenzo, Marco

    2008-01-01

    We use meteorological data from two automatic weather stations (AWS) on Juncal Norte Glacier, central Chile, to investigate the glacier-climate interaction and to test ablation models of different complexity. The semi-arid Central Andes are characterized by dry summers, with precipitation close to zero, low relative humidity and intense solar radiation. We show that katabatic forcing is dominant both on the glacier tongue and in the fore field, and that low humidity and absence of clouds caus...

  13. The lower cretaceous volcanism in the coastal range of Central Chile: Geochronology and isotopic geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major factors involved in subduction zone magmatism are related to the melting of the underlying mantle, which can contain a component of aqueous fluid and/or melts derived from the subducting plate (e.g. Peate et al., 1997). The Chilean Pacific margin is a subduction zone, active from Early Mesozoic to now, in which the magmatic arc emplaced on the Paleozoic basement progressively migrate to the east. The western part of this arc constitutes the Coastal Range. In this work, isotopic and radiometric data from four E-W profiles along c. 500 km of the Lower Cretaceous volcanic rocks in the Coastal Range of Chile are presented. The aim of this research is to obtain a model for the genesis of this Cretaceous volcanic arc based on their isotopic signature (au)

  14. Characterization of backyard poultry production systems and disease risk in the central zone of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton-West, C; Rojas, H; Pinto, J; Orozco, J; Hervé-Claude, L P; Urcelay, S

    2012-08-01

    Backyard poultry production systems (BPS) are an important and widespread form of poultry production. There is a common perception that biosecurity standards in BPS are generally poor and BPS are usually associated with animal diseases and zoonoses. In this study BPS were identified in the vicinity of six wetlands, having these a higher risk of presenting and introducing avian diseases such as HPAI and Newcastle disease, as defined by the national veterinary services, in to Chile's main poultry production area. BPS were characterized through a field questionnaire and the main areas covered by the survey were BPS structure, biosecurity and value chain. The BPS identified in this study share most characteristics on biosecurity, poultry management and product commercialization, but it was possible to identify a certain degree of variation within and among the study sites. BPS in Chile are similar to those in other regions, with a relatively small flock size (average 37 birds), a low level of biosecurity measures and lack of poultry disease management. Management findings include that most farmers used mixed/partial confinement, with low or no biosecurity and disease control measures in place. Eggs were the main output and were used mainly for home consumption or sale at local markets. Sick birds' treatment with drugs approved for other species or for human use could represent a risk to human health, owing to the possible presence of drug residues in poultry products. Despite the different structures of the poultry sector worldwide, BPS can play a major role in disease maintenance and spread because its management conditions characteristics and the lack of animal health services adapted to these production systems. This should be an alert message to the veterinary authorities to improve coverage of veterinary assistance and surveillance activities in backyard poultry production. PMID:21752410

  15. Altitudinal vegetation belts in the high-Andes of central Chile (33°S Pisos altitudinales de vegetación en los Andes de Chile central (33°S

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    Lohengrin A. Cavieres

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The limits of alpine vegetation belts have been established mainly based on physiognomic criteria. However, a more objective approach for fixing limits of vegetation belts are methods based on species composition and relative abundance of each species. While these methods are more time consuming, they are more detailed and permit the detection of physical factors affecting the limits of vegetation belts. In this paper we: 1 describe the altitudinal changes of vegetation above timberline, 2 compare vegetation belts defined with physiognomy and two floristic methods (a qualitative one based on altitudinal changes in species composition, and a quantitative one based on changes in dominant species; and 3 detect some environmental factors responsible for the altitudinal distribution of alpine vegetation between 2100 and 3700 masl in the Andes of Santiago, central Chile (33°S. There was a complete agreement between the different methods in delimiting the subalpine belt. However, in the lower alpine belt (the cushion's belt floristic methods subdivided it in 2-3 sub-belts. In the floristic methods, elevations 3500-3700 that formed the higher alpine belt segregated in separate ways because they have no species in common. Physiognomic descriptions lose relevant information about species distribution, especially at higher elevations. Mean annual temperature and nitrogen content of soil are the main environmental factors affecting the altitudinal limits of vegetation belts in the central Chilean AndesLa delimitación de los pisos altitudinales de vegetación andina se ha basado principalmente en criterios fisionómicos. Sin embargo, un criterio más objetivo para la delimitación es usar métodos basados en la composición y abundancia relativa de las especies presentes. Mientras estos métodos requieren de un mayor esfuerzo de muestreo, son más detallados y permiten detectar factores físicos involucrados en la delimitación altitudinal de la vegetaci

  16. Reconstruction of cryospheric changes in the Maipo and Juncal river basins, central Andes of Chile: an integrative geomorphological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaumer, Samuel U.; García, Juan L.; Gómez, Gabriel; Vega, Rodrigo M.; Gärtner-Roer, Isabelle; Salzmann, Nadine

    2016-04-01

    Water in the central Andes (32-38° S), a semi-arid mountainous area with elevations over 6000 m asl., is of great importance and a critical resource especially in the dry summer months. Ice bodies, such as glaciers and rock glaciers (permafrost) in the high mountains, provide a substantial part of the fresh-water resources but also for intensive economical use for the lowlands including Santiago metropolitan region, Chile. However the evolution of these ice bodies since the last deglaciation (i.e., Holocene, last ˜12,000 years), and in particular during historical times, and their feedback with climate is fairly unknown. In view of projected climate change, this is striking because it is also unknown whether these natural resources could be used as sustainable fresh-water source in the future. Within the presented project, we develop and apply an integrative geomorphologic approach to study glaciers and their long-term evolution in the central Andes of Chile. Apart from glaciers (with variable debris-coverage), rock glaciers have evolved over time as striking geomorphological landforms in this area. We combine geomorphologic mapping using remote-sensing and in-situ data with an innovative surface exposure dating technique to determine the ages of distinct moraine ridges at three study sites in watersheds of the Santiago region: Juncal Norte, Loma Larga and Nieves Negras glaciers. First results of the project are presented, including a detailed geomorphological mapping and first analysis of the landform dynamics. At all three sites, we distinguished at least three moraine systems of a Holocene putative age. These prominent moraine belts show that glaciers were at least 5 km longer than at present. Deglaciation from these ice marginal positions was gradual and complex in response to the detrital cover on the glaciers. Differences in ice thickness of the main glaciers in the respective valleys amount to about 100 m. Due to the partial, extensive debris coverage, the

  17. Conducta de forrajeo del gastrópodo Acanthina monodon Pallas, 1774 (Gastropoda: Muricidae en el intermareal rocoso de Chile central Foraging behavior of the gastropod Acanthina monodon Pallas, 1774 (Gastropoda: Muricidae in the intertidal rocky shores of central Chile

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    RUBÉN E. SOTO

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo investigamos aspectos de la ecología y conducta de forrajeo de Acanthina monodon, un gastrópodo murícido que habita en el intermareal rocoso de Chile central. En terreno, estudiamos las variaciones temporales en su distribución, densidad y dieta. En el laboratorio, cuantificamos la tasa de consumo, las preferencias alimentarias, el tiempo de ingestión y la rentabilidad energética obtenida con distintos tipos de presas mediante experimentos y registros en video. Las mayores densidades de individuos de A. monodon fueron observadas en la franja intermareal cercana al nivel cero de marea. En terreno, A. monodon realiza sus actividades de forrajeo principalmente durante la noche y su dieta consistió principalmente de mitílidos (95 % y cirripedios (5 %. La composición de la dieta de A. monodon en terreno presentó variaciones temporales las cuales dependerían principalmente de cambios en la oferta de los distintos tipos de mitílidos presentes en terreno durante los dos años de muestreo. En el laboratorio, los individuos de Acanthina presentaron preferencias alimentarias significativas por el mitílido Semimytilus algosus. En general, A. monodon bajo condiciones de laboratorio presentó una conducta de forrajeo en la cual maximizó la ganancia neta de energía, mediante la selección de las especies y tamaños de presas que le retribuyen la mayor rentabilidad energéticaWe investigated the ecology and foraging behavior of Acanthina monodon, a muricid gastropod that inhabits in the intertidal rocky shores of central Chile. In the field, we studied temporal variation of their spatial distribution, density, and diet composition. While in the laboratory, we quantified the consumption rate, alimentary preferences, ingestion times and energy profitability obtained with different types of prey using experiments and video recording. High densities of A. monodon individuals were observed in the intertidal fringe near at the

  18. Presence of Arctotherium (Carnivora, Ursidae, Tremarctinae in a pre-cultural level of Baño Nuevo-1 cave (Central Patagonia, Chile

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    López Mendoza, P.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The description of an I3 assigned to Arctotherium sp. obtained from the Baño Nuevo-1 site (Central Patagonia, Chile is presented. The finding was recovered from Layer 5 and it is associated to Macrauchenia sp., Lama guanicoe, Felidae, Camelidae, Equidae and Mylodontidae, within a sterile deposit of cultural material, dated between ca. 13.500 and 11.200 BP. Despite the fact that it is only a single specimen, such finding extends the known distribution for the genus in Chile.Se presenta la descripción de un I3 asignado a Arctotherium sp. proveniente del sitio Baño Nuevo-1 (Patagonia Central, Chile. El hallazgo fue realizado en la Capa 5 y está asociado a restos de Macrauchenia sp., Lama guanicoe, Felidae, Camelidae, Equidae y Mylodontidae dentro de un depósito estéril de material cultural, datado entre los ca. 13.500 y 11.200 años AP. Aunque se trata de un único espécimen, amplía el rango de distribución conocido para este género en Chile.

  19. Arc-oblique fault systems: their role in the Cenozoic structural evolution and metallogenesis of the Andes of central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquer, Jose; Berry, Ron F.; Scott, Robert J.; Cooke, David R.

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of the Main Cordillera of Central Chile is characterized by the formation and subsequent inversion of an intra-arc volcano-tectonic basin. The world's largest porphyry Cu-Mo deposits were emplaced during basin inversion. Statistically, the area is dominated by NE- and NW-striking faults, oblique to the N-striking inverted basin-margin faults and to the axis of Cenozoic magmatism. This structural pattern is interpreted to reflect the architecture of the pre-Andean basement. Stratigraphic correlations, syn-extensional deposits and kinematic criteria on fault surfaces show several arc-oblique structures were active as normal faults at different stages of basin evolution. The geometry of syn-tectonic hydrothermal mineral fibers, in turn, demonstrates that most of these structures were reactivated as strike-slip ± reverse faults during the middle Miocene - early Pliocene. Fault reactivation age is constrained by 40Ar/39Ar dating of hydrothermal minerals deposited during fault slip. The abundance and distribution of these minerals indicates fault-controlled hydrothermal fluid flow was widespread during basin inversion. Fault reactivation occurred under a transpressive regime with E- to ENE-directed shortening, and was concentrated around major plutons and hydrothermal centers. At the margins of the former intra-arc basin, deformation was largely accommodated by reverse faulting, whereas in its central part strike-slip faulting was predominant.

  20. An integrated framework to assess adaptation options to climate change impacts in an irrigated basin in Central North Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicuna, S.; Melo, O.; Meza, F. J.; Alvarez, P.; Maureira, F.; Sanchez, A.; Tapia, A.; Cortes, M.; Dale, L. L.

    2013-12-01

    Future climate conditions could potentially affect water supply and demand on water basins throughout the world but especially on snowmelt-driven agriculture oriented basins that can be found throughout central Chile. Increasing temperature and reducing precipitation will affect both the magnitude and timing of water supply this part of the world. Different adaptation strategies could be implemented to reduce the impacts of such scenarios. Some could be incorporated as planned policies decided at the basin or Water Use Organization levels. Examples include changing large scale irrigation infrastructure (reservoirs and main channels) either physically or its operation. Complementing these strategies it is reasonable to think that at a disaggregated level, farmers would also react (adapt) to these new conditions using a mix of options to either modify their patterns of consumption (irrigation efficiency, crop mix, crop area reduction), increase their ability to access new sources of water (groundwater, water markets) or finally compensate their expected losses (insurance). We present a modeling framework developed to represent these issues using as a case study the Limarí basin located in Central Chile. This basin is a renowned example of how the development of reservoirs and irrigation infrastructure can reduce climate vulnerabilities allowing the economic development of a basin. Farmers in this basin tackle climate variability by adopting different strategies that depend first on the reservoir water volume allocation rule, on the type and size of investment they have at their farms and finally their potential access to water markets and other water supplies options. The framework developed can be used to study these strategies under current and future climate scenarios. The cornerstone of the framework is an hydrology and water resources model developed on the WEAP platform. This model is able to reproduce the large scale hydrologic features of the basin such as

  1. Characterization of copper-resistant bacteria and bacterial communities from copper-polluted agricultural soils of central Chile

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    Altimira Fabiola

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Copper mining has led to Cu pollution in agricultural soils. In this report, the effects of Cu pollution on bacterial communities of agricultural soils from Valparaiso region, central Chile, were studied. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE of the 16S rRNA genes was used for the characterization of bacterial communities from Cu-polluted and non-polluted soils. Cu-resistant bacterial strains were isolated from Cu-polluted soils and characterized. Results DGGE showed a similar high number of bands and banding pattern of the bacterial communities from Cu-polluted and non-polluted soils. The presence of copA genes encoding the multi-copper oxidase that confers Cu-resistance in bacteria was detected by PCR in metagenomic DNA from the three Cu-polluted soils, but not in the non-polluted soil. The number of Cu-tolerant heterotrophic cultivable bacteria was significantly higher in Cu-polluted soils than in the non-polluted soil. Ninety two Cu-resistant bacterial strains were isolated from three Cu-polluted agricultural soils. Five isolated strains showed high resistance to copper (MIC ranged from 3.1 to 4.7 mM and also resistance to other heavy metals. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses indicate that these isolates belong to the genera Sphingomonas, Stenotrophomonas and Arthrobacter. The Sphingomonas sp. strains O12, A32 and A55 and Stenotrophomonas sp. C21 possess plasmids containing the Cu-resistance copA genes. Arthrobacter sp. O4 possesses the copA gene, but plasmids were not detected in this strain. The amino acid sequences of CopA from Sphingomonas isolates (O12, A32 and A55, Stenotrophomonas strain (C21 and Arthrobacter strain (O4 are closely related to CopA from Sphingomonas, Stenotrophomonas and Arthrobacter strains, respectively. Conclusions This study suggests that bacterial communities of agricultural soils from central Chile exposed to long-term Cu-pollution have been adapted by acquiring Cu genetic determinants

  2. PLAGUICIDAS ORGANOCLORADOS PERSISTENTES EN SEDIMENTOS DE TRES LAGOS COSTEROS Y UN LAGO ANDINO DE CHILE CENTRAL

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    RICARDO BARRAL

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la presencia y distribución de los compuestos orgánicos persistentes (COPs en núcleos de sedimentos de los lagos Chica y Grande de San Pedro, Lleu-Lleu e Icalma. Los compuestos fueron extraídos mediante sistema soxhlet con solvente n-hexano, la identificación y cuantificación, de estos, se realizó por cromatografía gaseosa con detector de captura de electrones de 63Ni. Se realizó un análisis estadístico de componentes principales (ACP y Correlación de Pearson. Los plaguicidas identificados en los sedimentos fueron: a-HCH, g-HCH, Heptacloro, Aldrin, Endrin, pp´-DDT, pp'-DDE y pp'-DDD. Los resultados indican variaciones en la distribución y concentración de los COPs, al comparar los lagos urbanos con los lagos prístinos. Destaca la presencia de pp'-DDE (rango: b.n.d- 1.68 ng g-1 peso seco y pp'-DDT (rango: b.n.d- 0.89 ng g-1 peso seco en tres de los cuatro cuerpos de agua analizados. El análisis estadístico identificó correlaciones significativas entre el pp'-DDE y pp'-DDD. No se detectaron correlaciones entre el pp'-DDT y sus metabolitos. El ACP permitió agrupar algunos compuestos orgánicos en función de sus concentraciones y degradación a través del tiempo. Se concluye que Laguna Chica de San Pedro presentó las concentraciones más altas de COPs, las cuales son bajas al ser comparadas con concentraciones detectadas en áreas limpias del Sur de ChileWe have measured concentrations and distribution of Persistent Organic Compounds (POC in sediment cores from four Chilean lakes: Laguna Chica de San Pedro, Laguna Grande de San Pedro, Lleu-lleu, and Icalma. The organochlorine compounds were extracted with n-hexane in a soxhlet system and then identified and quantified by gas chromatography using a 63 Ni Electron Capture Detector. Statistical analyses were performed using a Principal Components Analysis (PCA and the Pearson Correlation. The following pesticides were identified in the sediments: a-HCH, Lindane

  3. Adaptation and Genotype x Environment Interaction of Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L. Genotypes in South Central Chile Adaptación e Interacción Genotipo x Ambiente en Lino (Linum usitatissimum L. en la Zona Centro Sur de Chile

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    Marisol Berti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L. is imported into Chile mostly for bread making and feed. Identification of genotypes best adapted for seed production in South Central Chile would facilitate producer’s decision. The objective of this study was to determine the adaptation and genotype x environment interaction of 16 flaxseed genotypes (including 10 from North American and six from Argentine sources grown at 11 environments (defined as location-year in Chile from 2003 to 2007. Genotype seed yield was above 5700 kg ha-1 for some environments indicating a high yield potential. According to the AMMI (Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction and SREG (Sites regression models the 11 environments were classified into four groups by the AMMI and three groups by the SREG models. Genotypes were classified into five groups by the SREG model with four of the groups as single genotypes. Overall mean seed yield was similar for all genotypes; however the genotype Nekoma was the most stable and higher yielding genotype across environments. The environment with the highest yield potential was Chillán 2003-2004, but this location had low yield stability across years. The environments with greatest seed yield potential, Chillán 2003-2004 and Los Ángeles 2004-2005, had irrigation during flowering and seed filling. Seed oil content fluctuated between 420 and 530 g kg-1. The climatic differences among environments did not influence oil composition as expected from previous research. Flaxseed appears adapted to South Central Chile with differences observed among genotypes for biomass and seed yield, harvest index, test weight, oil content, and composition.La semilla de lino (Linum usitatissimum L. se importa a Chile principalmente para panaderías y alimento animal. La identificación de genotipos altamente productivos en la zona Centro Sur de Chile facilitaría la decisión de los productores. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la adaptaci

  4. Pluri-decadal (1955–2014) evolution of glacier–rock glacier transitional landforms in the central Andes of Chile (30–33° S)

    OpenAIRE

    Monnier, S.; C. Kinnard

    2016-01-01

    This study deals with relationships between debris-covered glaciers and rock glaciers in the central Andes of Chile. Three glacier–rock glacier transitional landforms are investigated over the last decades in order to highlight and question the significance of their landscape evolution and dynamics. We use series of historical air photos and Geoeye satellite images together with common remote sensing operations including imagery orthorectification, digital elevation model generation, an...

  5. Food web and fish stock changes in central Chile: comparing the roles of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) predation, the environment, and fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, Sergio; Arancibia, Hugo

    2013-10-01

    We analyzed recent food web and fish stock changes in the central Chile marine ecosystem, comparing the roles of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) as predator, the environment, and fishing. To accomplish this we used food web modeling and the Ecopath with Ecosim software (EwE). The principal fish stocks have experienced wide decadal fluctuations in the past 30 years, including stock collapses of horse mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) and hake (Merluccius gayi), and there was a large influx of jumbo squid during the mid-2000s. We used two EwE models representing the food web off central Chile to test the hypothesis that predation by jumbo squid has been significant in explaining the dynamics of the main fishing resources and other species in the study area. Results indicate that predation by jumbo squid on fish stocks is lower than that of other predators (e.g. hake) and the fishery. Long-term fluctuations (1978-2004) in the biomass of the main fish stocks (as well as other components of the food web) seem to be related to fishing and to variation in primary production, rather than to predation by jumbo squid alone. Jumbo squid seems to play a role as predator rather than prey in the system, but its impacts are low when compared with the impacts of other predators and fishing. Therefore, we conclude that jumbo squid predation on its prey was not the primary force behind the collapse of important fish stocks off central Chile. Future efforts should be directed to better understanding factors that trigger sudden increases in jumbo squid abundance off central Chile, as well as modeling its trophic impacts.

  6. Community response of zooplankton to oceanographic changes (2002-2012) in the central/southern upwelling system of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medellín-Mora, Johanna; Escribano, Ruben; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    A 10-year time series (2002-2012) at Station 18 off central/southern Chile allowed us to study variations in zooplankton along with interannual variability and trends in oceanographic conditions. We used an automated analysis program (ZooImage) to assess changes in the mesozooplankton size structure and the composition of the taxa throughout the entire community. Oceanographic conditions changed over the decade: the water column became less stratified, more saline, and colder; the mixed layer deepened; and the oxygen minimum zone became shallower during the second half of the time series (2008-2012) in comparison with the first period (2002-2007). Both the size structure and composition of the zooplankton were significantly associated with oceanographic changes. Taxonomic and size diversity of the zooplankton community increased to the more recent period. For the second period, small sized copepods (1.5 mm) and medium size copepods (1-1.5 mm), whereas euphausiids, decapod larvae, appendicularian and ostracods increased their abundance during the second period. These findings indicated that the zooplankton community structure in this eastern boundary ecosystem was strongly influenced by variability of the upwelling process. Thus, climate-induced forcing of upwelling trends can alter the zooplankton community in this highly productive region with potential consequences for the ecosystem food web.

  7. Heterogeneity of farms entering export supply chains: the case of fruit growers from central-south Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Barrena Ruiz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing stringency of world food markets requires farmers to adjust farm structure and commercial strategies to remain integrated in export supply chains. The goal of this study was to identify and characterize different types of fresh fruit farms with regard to farm structural and commercial strategies for a representative sample of fresh fruit growers from central-south Chile exporting to world markets. A typology of farms was constructed based on multivariate analysis, according to which five types of farms were differentiated from five distinct factors. Cluster I comprised the smallest and uncertified farms (14.3% of the sample. The remaining four clusters comprised certified farms, but with different farm structural and commercial characteristics. Cluster II (15.1% was composed of farms located further from market connections. Cluster III (23.9% comprised farms with the highest number of fruit species, and consequently, more diversified in fruit production. Cluster IV (8.8% was the smallest group, and comprised the largest firms. Finally, Cluster V (37.8% was composed of highly specialized fruit farms, with the highest proportion of hectares dedicated to the production of a single fruit species. The results show the heterogeneity among fresh fruit farms and support the need for differentiated incentives and technological transfer schemes from the public sector and fruit companies in order to successfully keep farmers within export supply chains.

  8. Tropical/subtropical Upper Paleocene Lower Eocene fluvial deposits in eastern central Patagonia, Chile (46°45'S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, M.; de la Cruz, R.; Troncoso, A.

    2000-11-01

    A succession of quartz-rich fluvial sandstones and siltstones derived from a mainly rhyolitic source and minor metamorphic rocks, located to the west, represent the first Upper Paleocene-Early Eocene deposits described in Chilean eastern central Patagonian Cordillera (46°45'S). This unit, exposed 25 km south of Chile Chico, south of lago General Carrera, is here defined as the Ligorio Márquez Formation. It overlies with an angular unconformity Lower Cretaceous shallow marine sedimentary rocks (Cerro Colorado Formation) and subaerial tuffs that have yielded K-Ar dates of 128, 125 and 123 Ma (Flamencos Tuffs, of the Divisadero Group). The Ligorio Márquez Formation includes flora indicative of a tropical/subtropical climate, and its deposition took place during the initial part of the Late Paleocene-Early Eocene Cenozoic optimum. The underlying Lower Cretaceous units exhibit folding and faulting, implying a pre-Paleocene-Lower Eocene contractional tectonism. Overlying Oligocene-Miocene marine and continental facies in the same area exhibit thrusts and normal faults indicative of post-Lower Miocene contractional tectonism.

  9. Interannual variations in the hatching pattern, larval growth and otolith size of a sand-dwelling fish from central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Valentino, Camilo; Landaeta, Mauricio F.; Castillo-Hidalgo, Gissella; Bustos, Claudia A.; Plaza, Guido; Ojeda, F. Patricio

    2015-09-01

    The interannual variation (2010-2013) of larval abundance, growth and hatching patterns of the Chilean sand stargazer Sindoscopus australis (Pisces: Dactyloscopidae) was investigated through otolith microstructure analysis from samples collected nearshore (<500 m from shore) during austral late winter-early spring off El Quisco bay, central Chile. In the studied period, the abundance of larval stages in the plankton samples varied from 2.2 to 259.3 ind. 1000 m-3; larval abundance was similar between 2010 and 2011, and between 2012 and 2013, but increased significantly from 2011 to 2012. The estimated growth rates increased twice, from 0.09 to 0.21 mm day-1, between 2011 and 2013. Additionally, otolith size (radius, perimeter and area), related to body length of larvae, significantly decreased from 2010 to 2012, but increases significantly in 2013. Although the mean values of microincrement widths of sagitta otoliths were similar between 2010 and 2011 (around 0.6-0.7 μm), the interindividual variability increases in 2011 and 2013, suggesting large environmental variability experienced by larvae during these years. Finally, the hatching pattern of S. australis changed significantly from semi-lunar to lunar cycle after 2012.

  10. Large scale hydrogen production from wind energy in the Magallanes area for consumption in the central zone of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy proposal of this research suggests the use of places with abundant wind resources for the production of H2 on a large scale to be transported and used in the central zone of Chile with the purpose of diversifying the country's energy matrix in order to decrease its dependence on fossil fuels, increase its autonomy, and cover the future increases in energy demand. This research showed that the load factor of the proposed wind park reaches a value of 54.5%, putting in evidence the excellent wind conditions of the zone. This implies that the cost of the electricity produced by the wind park located in the Chilean Patagonia would have a cost of 0.0213 US$ kWh-1 in the year 2030. The low prices of the electricity obtained from the park, thanks to the economy of scale and the huge wind potential, represent a very attractive scenario for the production of H2 in the future. The study concludes that by the year 2030 the cost of the H2 generated in Magallanes and transported to the port of Quinteros would be 18.36 US$ MBTU-1, while by that time the cost of oil would be about 17.241 US$ MBTU-1, a situation that places H2 in a very competitive position as a fuel. (author)

  11. Breeding distribution and abundance of seabirds on islands off north-central Chile Distribución reproductiva y abundancia de aves marinas en islas del norte y centro de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    ALEJANDRO SIMEONE; GUILLERMO LARA-JORQUERA; MARIANO BERNAL; STEFAN GARTHE; FELIPE SEPÚLVEDA; ROBERTO VILLABLANCA; URSULA ELLENBERG; MACARENA CONTRERAS; JULIETA MUÑOZ; TAMARA PINCE

    2003-01-01

    Between 1999 and 2003 we collected information on the breeding distribution and abundance of 12 seabird species occurring on nine islands off the coasts of north and central Chile (27°-33°S). The Peruvian booby Sula variegata was the most abundant seabird with a breeding population of ca. 18,000 pairs concentrated in two islands, followed by the Humboldt penguin Spheniscus humboldti with ca. 9,000 pairs, the largest colony being at Chañaral Island with ca. 7,000 pairs. Kelp gulls Larus domini...

  12. Adaptation to climate changes on a multipurpose hydrosystem in South-Central Chile with explicit regard of model uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala; McPhee, J. P.

    2010-12-01

    Decision-making in the agricultural and hydropower sectors can benefit from water resources availability projections that take into account uncertainty in a meaningful way. In this work we use statistically downscaled projections of 12 general circulation models under 3 emissions scenarios to drive a hydrologic-operational model of the upper Laja river basin in south-central Chile. The Laja hydrosystem is characterized by a large natural reservoir of 5600 Hm3 that is used for agricultural purposes in the lower basin and as the cornerstone of hydroelectric supply for the entire central Chilean electric system. The upper Laja river basin is snowmelt driven so water resources are very sensitive to both precipitation and temperature. Using each future projected series as an independent observation, empirical probability distributions are calculated for hydro-meteorological and operational variables such as reservoir levels and energy production. By the end of the 21st century, the mean value of projections shows a temperature increase of 2C, a precipitation decrease of 20%, and a decrease close to 25% in runoff due to evapotranspiration effects. A runoff-precipitation-temperature relation shows that the evaporation is most important in wet conditions because of the higher levels of water availability on surface and superior layers of soil. Operational results show a decrease of reservoir levels coupled with diminishing energy output, which suggests that the current operational policy is inappropriate for ensuring adaptation to climate change. Differences among GCMs clearly increase trough the analysis period resulting in a greater uncertainty in the magnitude of changes by the end of the 21st century. Almost all models and scenarios agree about the general trends of the estimated variables. Nevertheless, for climate change applications, the considerable magnitude differences between projections suggest the use of many models instead of a particular one or, in lieu if

  13. Evidence of proterozoic crust under the coastal Cordillera of Central Chile: Grenville age xenocrystic zircons in cretaceous volcanic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the central Andes, Proterozoic basement rocks outcrop in isolated areas from beneath a Mesozoic and Cenozoic cover in southern Peru, northernmost Chile, Bolivia, and in northwestern Argentina. Their role in Andean magmatism and metallogenesis is well documented. In the southern Central Andes, Proterozoic rocks are so far known to outcrop in Argentina, east of the continental divide. In the course of U-Pb dating of the bimodal volcanic and sub-volcanic host rocks for Mesozoic manto-type copper deposits, we have encountered xenocrystic zircon with Proterozoic and Paleozoic ages. In the Punta del Cobre Cu-Fe (Au) District (27o30' S / 70o15' W) 22 km south of Copiapo xenocrystic zircon in the Lower Cretaceous host dacite yields ca. 1 Ga ages. In the El Soldado Cu District, (32o38' S /71o04' W), 120 km northwest of Santiago, scarce and strongly resorbed zircon crystals in the Lower Cretaceous host rhyodacite yield ages of 0.5 to 1.3 Ga. The early Cretaceous bimodal volcanic and subvolcanic rocks, which consists of primitive calc-alkaline basalts and rhyodacites, display geochemical evidence of crustal contamination. Our results suggest that, during their formation and ascent, the felsic magmas picked up zircons in the Proterozoic and Paleozoic crystalline basement of the Coastal Cordillera. The presence of Proterozoic (Grenville age) basement underlying localities as close as 30 km from the Pacific coast has implications for the extent and age of the Chilenia Terrane and gives further credence to correlation models that juxtapose eastern North America (Laurentia) and southwestern South America (Gondwana) during the Late Proterozoic (au)

  14. Vertebrados terrestres de la Reserva Nacional Río Clarillo, Chile central: representatividad y conservación Terrestrial vertebrates of the Río Clarillo National Reserve, central Chile: representation and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVÁN A. DÍAZ

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Analizamos la representatividad, distribución y perspectivas de conservación de los vertebrados terrestres de la Reserva Nacional Río Clarillo, Chile central. Mediante recorridos periódicos realizados entre 1987 y 1996, determinamos la riqueza y distribución altitudinal de los vertebrados terrestres en esta Reserva. Registramos 127 especies (22 mamíferos, 85 aves, 15 reptiles y cinco anfibios, que representan el 69 % del total de especies que por su distribución geográfica y tipo de hábitat podrían habitar este lugar. De éstas, 32 especies (25 % están catalogadas con problemas de conservación. La riqueza de vertebrados decrece con la altitud, desde 101 especies a los 870 m hasta ocho especies a los 3.050 m. La riqueza de vertebrados se concentró bajo los 1.600 m, albergando 109 especies, 55 de las cuales no se registraron a mayor altitud. En cambio, sobre los 1.600 m se registraron 57 especies. Paradójicamente sólo el 31 % de la superficie de la Reserva está bajo los 1.600 m. Nuestros resultados sugieren que la superficie de la Reserva no es suficiente para albergar poblaciones viables de la mayoría de los vertebrados registrados. Alrededor de la Reserva existen propiedades privadas con grandes extensiones de bosques esclerófilos bajo los 1.600 m, los cuales podrían actuar como fuentes y la Reserva como sumidero de vertebrados. Por lo tanto, sugerimos desarrollar estrategias de conservación en estas áreas y realizar monitoreos para determinar si las poblaciones de vertebrados mas sensibles están aumentando o disminuyendo, tanto dentro como fuera de la ReservaWe analyzed the representation, distribution and conservation perspectives of terrestrial vertebrates in the Río Clarillo National Reserve, central Chile. During periodical surveys conducted between 1987 and 1996, we determined the composition and altitudinal distribution of the terrestrial vertebrates in this Reserve. We recorded 127 species (22 mammals, 85 birds, 15

  15. Supervivencia adulta y dinámica poblacional del lauchón orejudo Phyllotis darwini en Chile central Adult survival and population dynamics in the leaf-eared mouse Phyllotis darwini in central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Crespin

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A nivel demográfico, los resultados clásicos de los modelos matriciales separan a las especies de tiempo generacional corto de las especies de tiempo generacional largo en cuanto a la importancia de la supervivencia adulta para la dinámica poblacional. Específicamente, la supervivencia adulta no debería contribuir de manera importante en la tasa de cambio poblacional de especies de tiempo generacional corto. Sin embargo, Yoccoz et al. (1998, Research Population Ecology 40: 107-121 propusieron que la supervivencia adulta sería el parámetro demográfico más importante para determinar la tasa de cambio poblacional en pequeños roedores cuando se toma en consideración una escala de tiempo mensual. Con el fin de poner a prueba esta hipótesis en este trabajo, utilizamos cinco años de datos de captura-marcaje-recaptura para estimar la supervivencia y la maduración de las hembras del lauchón orejudo, Phyllotis darwini, en una localidad de Chile central. El análisis mostró que las probabilidades de supervivencia disminuían con el promedio anual de la cantidad de lluvia y que las probabilidades de maduración disminuían con la densidad poblacional. Basados en las probabilidades de supervivencia y maduración, construimos un modelo matricial estacional para medir la importancia relativa de cada parámetro demográfico en el ciclo de vida de la especie a través de un análisis de perturbación. A fin de reflejar la variabilidad estacional del ambiente, dos estaciones fueron incorporadas en el modelo matricial: una estación de lluvia de cinco meses y una estación seca. Se observó que la supervivencia adulta era en efecto el parámetro demográfico con la elasticidad más fuerte. Por lo tanto, estos resultados apoyan la hipótesis de Yoccoz et al. (1998Classic results of matrix models predict that, in species with a long generation time, adult survival should be the demographic parameter driving population dynamics whereas, in species

  16. Hábitos tróficos de la reineta Brama australis (Pisces: Bramidae) durante el periodo estival frente a Chile central

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Santa Cruz; Ciro Oyarzún; Gustavo Aedo; Patricio Gálvez

    2014-01-01

    La reineta Brama australis es un importante recurso pesquero artesanal en la zona central chilena, incorporado en los programas de seguimiento biológico, pero con escasas evaluaciones de sus aspectos tróficos. Para actualizar el estado del conocimiento, se analizó su dieta durante el verano austral época de mayor disponibilidad de este recurso en la zona central de Chile, mediante el análisis del contenido gástrico de 300 ejemplares capturados entre noviembre 2011 y marzo 2012. Se identificó ...

  17. The relation of the mid-Tertiary coastal magmatic belt in south-central Chile to the late Oligocene increase in plate convergence rate

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Muñoz; Rosa Troncoso; Paul Duhart; Pedro Crignola; Lang Farmer; Charles R. Stern

    2000-01-01

    The mid-Tertiary Coastal Magmatic Belt in south-central Chile, which crops out both in the Central Valley and, south of 41°S, in the Coastal Cordillera as far west as the Pacific coast, formed when the locus of Andean magmatic activity expanded, both to the west and to the east relative to its previous and current location in the Main Cordillera. This expansion of the magmatic arc occurred in conjunction with a regionally widespread episode of late Oligocene to Miocene extension which thinned...

  18. Corrales de piedra-pirkas- un patrimonio cultural del paisaje rural de Chile central

    OpenAIRE

    Tomic Jakas, Tonci Stipe

    2016-01-01

    Quisiéramos partir con este soliloquio, quizás el más famoso del drama español; ocurre al final del primer acto, cuando Segismundo piensa en la vida y en su suerte. No es el fatalismo lo que interesa si no que desde el inicio explicitar que se trata de una reflexión que lleva a configurar un visión –algo que anida en la mente-- que su fin central radica es tratar de poner en valor sobre la base de la importancia histórica, cultural y patrimonial de los muros de piedra o pirkas; en particular ...

  19. Paleowetlands and regional climate change in the central Atacama Desert, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quade, Jay; Rech, Jason A.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Latorre, Claudio; Quade, Barbra; Rylander, Kate Aasen; Fisher, Timothy

    2008-05-01

    Widespread, organic-rich diatomaceous deposits are evidence for formerly wetter times along the margins of the central Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on Earth today. We mapped and dated these paleowetland deposits at three presently waterless locations near Salar de Punta Negra (24.5°S) on the western slope of the Andes. Elevated groundwater levels supported phreatic discharge into wetlands during two periods: 15,900 to ~ 13,800 and 12,700 to ~ 9700 cal yr BP. Dense concentrations of lithic artifacts testify to the presence of paleoindians around the wetlands late in the second wet phase (11,000?-9700 cal yr BP). Water tables dropped below the surface before 15,900 and since 8100 cal yr BP, and briefly between ~ 13,800 and 12,700 cal yr BP. This temporal pattern is repeated, with some slight differences, in rodent middens from the study area, in both paleowetland and rodent midden deposits north and south of the study area, and in lake level fluctuations on the adjacent Bolivian Altiplano. The regional synchroneity of these changes points to a strengthening of the South American Monsoon — which we term the "Central Andean Pluvial Event" — in two distinct intervals (15,900-13,800 and 12,700-9700 cal yr BP), probably induced by steepened SST gradients across the tropical Pacific (i.e., La Niña-like conditions).

  20. Paleowetlands and regional climate change in the central Atacama Desert, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quade, Jay; Rech, Jason A.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Latorre, Claudio; Quade, Barbra; Rylander, Kate Aasen; Fisher, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    Widespread, organic-rich diatomaceous deposits are evidence for formerly wetter times along the margins of the central Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on Earth today. We mapped and dated these paleowetland deposits at three presently waterless locations near Salar de Punta Negra (24.5°S) on the western slope of the Andes. Elevated groundwater levels supported phreatic discharge into wetlands during two periods: 15,900 to ~ 13,800 and 12,700 to ~ 9700 cal yr BP. Dense concentrations of lithic artifacts testify to the presence of paleoindians around the wetlands late in the second wet phase (11,000?–9700 cal yr BP). Water tables dropped below the surface before 15,900 and since 8100 cal yr BP, and briefly between ~ 13,800 and 12,700 cal yr BP. This temporal pattern is repeated, with some slight differences, in rodent middens from the study area, in both paleowetland and rodent midden deposits north and south of the study area, and in lake level fluctuations on the adjacent Bolivian Altiplano. The regional synchroneity of these changes points to a strengthening of the South American Monsoon — which we term the "Central Andean Pluvial Event" — in two distinct intervals (15,900–13,800 and 12,700–9700 cal yr BP), probably induced by steepened SST gradients across the tropical Pacific (i.e., La Niña-like conditions).

  1. Volatile Compounds in Honey Produced in the Central Valley of Ñuble Province, Chile Compuestos Volatiles en Miel Producida en el Valle Central de la Provincia de Ñuble, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pía Gianelli Barra

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME with an 85 µm Carboxen polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS fiber was used to extract volatile compounds, and a gas chromatograph equipped with a mass spectometry detector (GC-MS was used to identify the volatile compounds in honeys. Thirty-four different volatile compounds from the headspace of honey produced in the central valley of Ñuble Province, Chile, were extracted with fiber coating CAR/PDMS. The identified compounds were: 10 alcohols, 9 acids, 6 ketones, 3 aldehydes, 2 furans, 2 terpenes and 2 lactones. Only four of the volatile compounds had never been reported before as honey compounds; these being: 1,3-propanodiol, 2-methyl butanoic acid, 3,4-dimethyl-3-hexen-2-one, and 6-methyl-5-octen-2-one. These four compounds were found in three of the 10 analyzed samples. The compounds found in the highest percentage of area were ethanol, acetic acid, 1-hydroxy-2-propane, 3-hydroxy-2-butane, and furfural. However, the analyzed samples did not present a distinctive profile.La extracción de compuestos volátiles desde el espacio de cabeza de mieles se realiza mediante microextracción en fase sólida (SPME, utilizando una fibra de 85 µm de Carboxen polidimetilsiloxano (CAR/PDMS, el análisis de los compuestos volátiles se realiza mediante cromatografía de gases con detector de masa (GC-MS. Un total de 34 diferentes compuestos volátiles fueron extraídos desde el espacio de cabeza de mieles provenientes del valle central de la provincia de Ñuble con la fibra de CAR/PDMS. Los compuestos identificados fueron 10 alcoholes, 9 ácidos, 6 cetonas, 3 aldehídos, 2 furanos, 2 terpenos y 2 lactonas. De los compuestos volátiles sólo tres no han sido reportados con anterioridad en mieles, estos compuestos fueron: 1,3-propanodiol, ácido 2-metil butanoico, 3,4-dimetil-3-hexen-2-ona, 6-metil-5-octen-2-ona. Estos cuatro compuestos se encontraron en sólo tres de las 10 muestras analizadas. Los compuestos que se

  2. On the effect of operation of the hydropower plant on the water quality of Rapel reservoir, central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossel, V.; De La Fuente, A.

    2013-12-01

    Eutrophication of lakes and reservoirs is a common problem in systems with high incoming loads of nutrients. The consequent algae bloom related to the eutrophication alters the water quality and generates an incompatibility with the tourist and recreational activities. This study is focused on Rapel reservoir: an old, dentritic and monomictic reservoir, located in central Chile (34°S, 71.6°W), that has experienced numerous algae bloom events in the past years produced by high loads of nutrients, sediments and metals. This reservoir was originally constructed in 1968 for hydropower generation without environmental restrictions on its operation. Rapel is part of Chile's Central Interconnected System (SIC), and is controlled by an independent system operator (ISO) that decides the optimal allocation of water by minimizing the SIC's operation cost. As a result of this framework, Rapel reservoir operates based on a hydropeaking scheme, thus producing energy few hours a day while zero outflows are observed the remaining hours, impacting on Rapel river located downstream the reservoir. However, previous research showed that this hydropeaking has important effects on the hydrodynamic of the reservoir as well. Particularly, it enhances vertical mixing nears the dam, and reduces horizontal dispersion. Furthermore, hydropeaking defines the outflows water temperature, and the temperature profile near the dam. As a consequence of this role of hydropeaking on the hydrodynamics and mixing of Rapel reservoir, it is expected to be a link between hydropeaking and water quality. The aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of the operation of hydropower plant on the water quality of Rapel reservoir, for which the reservoir system is modeled using the three dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model ELCOM-CAEDYM. Field data to validate the results and to define boundary and initial conditions are available for the austral summer period of 2009-2010. Different scenarios of

  3. Pyruvate Oxidoreductases Involved in Glycolytic Anaerobic Metabolism of Polychaetes from the Continental Shelf off Central-South Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, R. R.; Quiñones, R. A.

    2000-10-01

    The presence of low oxygen conditions in extensive areas of the continental shelf off central-south Chile has important effects on the biochemical adaptations of the organisms living in this ecosystem. Polychaetes assemblages cohabit on the shelf with an extensively distributed prokaryotic community made up of giant filamentous sulfur bacteria (mainly Thioploca sp.). The aim of this research was to characterize the pyruvate oxidoreductases enzymes involved in the biochemical adaptation of these benthic polychaetes. Nine polychaete species ( Paraprionospio pinnata, Nephtys ferruginea, Glycera americana, Haploscoloplos sp., Lumbrineris composita, Sigambra bassi, Aricidea pigmentata , Cossura chilensis, and Pectinaria chilensis) were assayed for lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), octopine dehydrogenase (OPDH), strombine dehydrogenase (STRDH) and alanopine dehydrogenase (ALPDH). Each species had a characteristic number of the pyruvate oxidoreductases assayed ranging from 4 in Paraprionospio pinnata to 1 in Pectinaria chilensis . The pyruvate saturation curves obtained for the enzymes from all species analysed, except L. composita, suggest that NADH can be oxidized at different rates depending on the amino acid used in the reaction with pyruvate. Our results indicate that organisms having more that one pyruvate oxidoreductase present a greater metabolic capacity to cope with functional and environmental hypoxia because these enzymes would better regulate the pyruvate consumption rate during the transition period. Thus, the dominance of Paraprionospio pinnata in the study area and its worldwide distribution is consistent with its higher number of pyruvate oxidoreductases with different pyruvate consumption rates involved in anaerobic metabolism. Finally, a positive allometric relationship was found between body size and the specific activity of ALPDH, STRDH, and maximum pyruvate oxidoreductase specific activity. This latter result suggests a positive scaling of the specific

  4. A time series of prokaryote secondary production in the oxygen minimum zone of the Humboldt current system, off central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levipan, H. A.; Quiñones, R. A.; Urrutia, H.

    2007-11-01

    Because the marine picoplanktonic communities are made up of phylogenetically different microbial groups, the re-evaluation of key processes such as bacterial secondary production (BSP) has become an important contemporary issue. The difficulty of differentiating the metabolic processes of Bacteria from the rest of the microorganisms in the water column (i.e., Archaea and Eukarya) has made it difficult to estimate in situ BSP. This work presents the seasonal variability of the prokaryote secondary production (PSP) measured by the incorporation of 14C-leucine in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) off central-southern Chile. The BSP and potential archaeal secondary production (PASP) were determined through the combined use of 14C-leucine and N1-guanyl-1, 7-diaminoheptane (GC 7), an efficient inhibitor of archaeal and eukaryote cell growth. BSP accounted for the majority of the PSP (total average, 59 ± 7.5%); maximum values were ∼600 μg C m -3 h -1 and, on several dates, BSP represented 100% of the PSP. Similarly, PASP was also an important fraction of the PSP (total average, 42.4 ± 8.5%), although with levels that ranged from not detectable (on given dates) to levels that represented up to ∼97% of PSP (winter 2003). Our results showed that both Bacteria and Archaea accounted for almost equal portions of the prokaryote heterotrophic metabolism in the OMZ, and that PASP is notoriously enhanced through temporal pulses of heterotrophy. This indicates that, at least in marine systems with high abundance of Archaea (e.g., mesopelagic realm), the secondary production obtained through methods measuring the uptake of radiolabeled substrates should be considered as PSP and not as BSP. If the latter is the target measurement, then the use of an inhibitor of both archaeal and eukaryote cell growth such as GC 7 is recommended.

  5. Degradation capability of the coastal environment adjacent to the Itata River in central Chile (36.5° S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ampuero

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The response of the coastal ocean influenced by both river discharges and inputs of photosynthetically derived organic carbon product of upwelling, was evaluated by estimating rates of microbial hydrolysis of macromolecules with the goal of estimating the potential degradation capability of the coastal ecosystem off central Chile. Extracellular enzymatic activity (EEA in seawater was dominated by aminopeptidase activity on substrate L-leucine-4-methyl-7-coumarinylamide (MCA-leu (1.2 to 182 nmol l−1 h−1 followed by 4-methylumbelliferyl-ß-D-glucoside (MUF-glu (0.08–61 nmol l−1 h−1 and 4-methylumbelliferyl-ß-D-cellobiose (MUF-cel (0.15–7 nmol l−1 h−1, with the highest rates measured during spring-summer. In riverine waters, extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis remained within the range of 45 to 131 nmol l−1 h−1 for MCA-leu and ca. 20 nmol l−1 h−1 for glucosidic substrates, year-round. Contrary to the EEA observed for the marine water column, surface sediment extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis of MCA-leu (0.04 to 6.13 nmol g−1 dw h−1 was in the same order of magnitude as the rates observed for MUF-cel (0.004 to 5.1 nmol g−1 dw h−1 and MUF-glu (0.007 to 10.5 nmol g−1 dw h−1. Moreover, hydrolysis in sediments was characterized by higher rates during winter compared with spring-summer in the coastal and estuarine zone. The five years of data allowed us to evaluate the potential capability of microbial processing of organic carbon in the coastal area adjacent to the Itata river discharge where the increase in primary production in the productive seasons is accompanied by the increase in hydrolysis of macromolecules.

  6. Contribution of legumes to the availability of soil nitrogen and its uptake by wheat in Mediterranean environments of central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Espinoza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The absorption and partitioning of N is determined by its availability and demand during the various phenological stages of the crop. In two experiments conducted in rainfed areas of the Mediterranean climate region of central Chile, legume-wheat (Triticum aestivum L. rotations were compared to oat (Avena sativa L.-wheat systems (with and without applications of N fertilizer. The objective was to assess the contribution of legumes to the availability of soil N and N uptake by the wheat crop following grain legumes. N mineralization and uptake, N use efficiency (NUE, and N uptake efficiency (NUpE by wheat were evaluated at different phenological stages in 2010. Synchronization existed between accumulated soil N mineralization and N uptake by the wheat. N uptake by wheat was higher in Experiment II (Andean foothill than in Experiment I (interior dryland. Grain yields after legumes ranged 60-110% and 72-103% of yields in the fertilized cereal rotation (oat-wheat in Experiments I and II, respectively. There was high correlation between soil N availability vs. grain yield (R² = 0.84 and 0.64 and N uptake vs. grain yield (R² = 0.55 and 0.64 for Experiments I and II, respectively. Rotations with lupine (Lupinus spp. and field peas (Pisum sativum L. showed high NUE and NUpE in Experiment I, and Experiment II in pea. The lowest NUE was after oats with N fertilizers. It is concluded that wheat cultivated in both agro-ecological areas after grain legumes or green manure was more efficient in N uptake and use than cereal, especially when the latter was fertilized.

  7. ESTRUCTURA DE LA MACROFAUNA EN AMBIENTES OXICOS DE BAHIA COLIUMO, REGION DEL BIO-BIO, CHILE CENTRAL STRUCTURE OF MACROFAUNA IN OXIC ENVIRONMENTAL OFF BAY COLIUMO, BIO-BIO REGION, CENTRAL CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Neira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la densidad, biomasa, diversidad y riqueza de especies de la macrofauna bentónica (³500 mm en ambientes óxicos (> 0.5 ml L-1 en Bahía Coliumo (36º32`S, 72º57`W, Chile central. En un transecto de cinco estaciones, entre 3,6 y 22,5 m de profundidad, fueron recolectadas muestras de sedimento con una draga tipo Van veen de 0,051 m², a bordo de la embarcación científica L/C Kay-Kay. A partir de las muestras de sedimento se determinó, el porcentaje de materia orgánica total, el tamaño de grano, densidad y biomasa de la macrofauna. Adicionalmente, se tomaron muestras de agua para el análisis de oxígeno disuelto de fondo, temperatura y salinidad. Las densidades de la macrofauna total fluctuaron entre 1111 y 11183 ind m-2. En tanto, los valores de biomasa alcanzaron 9,9 y 252,86 g m-2. Del total de la macrofauna 29 especies fueron identificadas. Los valores más altos de diversidad (3,23 coinciden con los valores más bajos de dominancia y uniformidad. Los parámetros de diversidad no mostraron una relación lineal con la profundidad. Los poliquetos fueron el grupo dominante (51,8%, seguido de los crustáceos (41% y moluscos (6,8%. Adicionalmente, a través del análisis BIOENV, se observó que el porcentaje de arena y el contenido de materia orgánica fueron los principales factores ambientales que regulan la estructura de la macrofauna de Bahía Coliumo.The density, biomass, diversity and species richness of macrofaunal benthic (³500 mm in oxic environment (> 0.5 ml L-1 off Bay Coliumo (36º32`S, 72º57`W, Chile were analyzed. One transect of five stations between 3.6 and 22.5 m of depth were collected samples of sediments with a dredged Van veen of 0.051 m²a board R/V Kay-Kay in August (winter of 2004. From sediment sample the organic matter percent, size of grain, density and biomass of the macrofauna were determined. Additionally, were taken water column samples for analyses of dissolved oxygen of bottom, temperature and

  8. Characterization of the hydrothermal system of the Tinguiririca Volcanic Complex, Central Chile, using structural geology and passive seismic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavez, C.; Tapia, F.; Comte, D.; Gutiérrez, F.; Lira, E.; Charrier, R.; Benavente, O.

    2016-01-01

    A structural characterization of the hydrothermal-volcanic field associated with the Tinguiririca Volcanic Complex had been performed by combining passive seismic tomography and structural geology. This complex corresponds to a 20 km long succession of N25°E oriented of eruptive centers, currently showing several thermal manifestations distributed throughout the area. The structural behavior of this zone is controlled by the El Fierro-El Diablo fault system, corresponding to a high angle reverse faults of Oligocene-Miocene age. In this area, a temporary seismic network with 16 short-period stations was setup from January to April of 2010, in the context of the MSc thesis of Lira (2010), covering an area of 200 km2 that corresponds with the hydrothermal field of Tinguiririca Volcanic Complex (TVC), Central Chile, Southern Central Andes. Using P- and S- wave arrival times, a 3D seismic velocity tomography was performed. The preliminary locations of 2270 earthquakes have first been determined using an a priori 1D velocity model. Afterwards, a joint inversion of both, the 3D velocity model and final locations have been obtained. High Vp/Vs ratios are interpreted as zones with high hot fluid content and high fracturing. Meanwhile, low Vp/Vs anomalies could represent the magmatic reservoir and the conduit network associated to the fluid mobility. Based on structural information and thermal manifestations, these anomalies have been interpreted. In order to visualize the relation between local geology and the velocity model, the volume associated with the magma reservoir and the fluid circulation network has been delimited using an iso-value contour of Vp/Vs equal to 1.70. The most prominent observed feature in the obtained model is a large "V" shaped low-velocity anomaly extending along the entire study region and having the same vergency and orientation as the existing high-angle inverse faults, which corroborates that El Fierro-El Diablo fault system represents the

  9. Caracterización y procedencia de obsidianas de sitios arqueológicos del Centro Oeste de Argentina y Centro de Chile con metodología no destructiva por fluorescencia de Rayos X (XRF Non-destructive x-ray fluorescence (XRF characterization and sourcing of obsidian from archaeological sites in Central West Argentina and Central Chile

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    Víctor Durán

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de 101 análisis químicos por fluorescencia de Rayos X efectuados sobre artefactos de obsidiana provenientes de sitios arqueológicos del Centro Oeste Argentino y Chile Central. También se hace una caracterización química de seis fuentes y subfuentes de obsidiana ubicadas en ambientes cordilleranos y extracordilleranos del sur de Mendoza, Neuquén y Chile Central. Con esa información se discuten propuestas referidas a la movilidad y sistemas de intercambio de las sociedades humanas que ocuparon las dos vertientes de la cordillera de Los Andes durante el Holoceno medio y tardío. Los resultados obtenidos confirman que el método no destructivo por XRF es una herramienta válida para determinar el origen y dispersión de las obsidianas arqueológicas.The results of chemical analysis by X-ray Fluorescence (XRF performed on 101 obsidian artifacts from archaeological sites of Central western Argentina and Central Chile are presented. A chemical characterization of six obsidian sources and subsources located in both Andean and extra-Andean environments of Southern Mendoza, Northern Neuquén and Central Chile, is also performed. Based on this information, different proposals related to mobility patterns and exchange systems of human societies that occupied the two slopes of the Andes during the middle and late Holocene are discussed. The results confirm that non-destructive X-ray Fluorescence is a valid tool to determine the origin and dispersal of archaeological obsidian artifacts.

  10. Personajes fuera de lugar: antropomorfos tardíos en el arte rupestre del norte semiárido de Chile Images out of place: late period antropomorphous figures in the rock art of central Chile

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    Andrés Troncoso

    2011-07-01

    , in the Choapa Province, north-central Chile (30°LS. We will discuss the chronology, affinities and relations between these anthropomorphous figures and their northern counterparts and evaluate why they are present in places so far away from their original spatial distribution pattern. Also we discuss the relations between these designs and the image circulation realized by the Tawantinsuyu.

  11. Water input and water release from the subducting Nazca Plate along southern Central Chile (33°S-46°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völker, David; Stipp, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The age of the subducting Nazca Plate off Chile increases northward from 0 Ma at the Chile Triple Junction (46°S) to 37 Ma at the latitude of Valparaíso (32°S). Age-related variations in the thermal state of the subducting plate impact on (a) the water influx to the subduction zone, as well as on (b) the volumes of water that are released under the continental fore arc or, alternatively, carried beyond the arc. Southern Central Chile is an ideal setting to study this effect, because other factors for the subduction zone water budget appear constant. We determine the water influx by calculating the crustal water uptake and by modeling the upper mantle serpentinization at the outer rise of the Chile Trench. The water release under fore arc and arc is determined by coupling FEM thermal models of the subducting plate with stability fields of water-releasing mineral reactions for upper and lower crust and hydrated mantle. Results show that both the influx of water stored in, and the outflux of water released from upper crust, lower crust, and mantle vary drastically over segment boundaries. In particular, the oldest and coldest segments carry roughly twice as much water into the subduction zone as the youngest and hottest segments, but their release flux to the fore arc is only about one fourth of the latter. This high variability over a subduction zone of <1500 km length shows that it is insufficient to consider subduction zones as uniform entities in global estimates of subduction zone fluxes.

  12. Mid-cretaceous crustal shortening: evidence from a regional-scale ductile shear zone in the Coastal Range of central Chile (32° S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arancibia, Gloria

    2004-11-01

    In the Coastal Range of central Chile, widespread Early Cretaceous volcanism associated with extensional volcanosedimetary intra- or back-arc basins and subsequent basin closures, uplift, and increased erosion/exhumation rates during the mid-Cretaceous suggests a major change from a mainly extensional tectonic regime to a relatively contractional regime and resultant crustal shortening. The author documents the contractional Silla del Gobernador shear zone (SGSZ), which developed at the western boundary of the Coastal Range in central Chile (32° S). This structure corresponds to a high-strain ductile and cataclastic shear zone that developed under low-grade (greenschist facies) metamorphic and fluid-present conditions, which indicates EW-NWW crustal shortening in a compressional (transpressional) regime. UVLAMP 40Ar/ 39Ar laserprobe dating of neoformed white mica during mylonitic deformation suggests a maximum age for the reverse ductile shearing of 109±11 Ma. An inverse isochron age of 97.8±1.5 Ma from biotite samples of a mylonitized granodiorite suggests the minimum age of deformation. These ages constrain the ductile deformation age to approximately 100 Ma (mid-Cretaceous), coeval with high exhumation/erosion rates that appear to represent uplift of the Coastal Range. The uplift and crustal shortening of the Coastal Range of central Chile has been associated with high spreading rates from the SE Pacific and southern Atlantic convergence during a change from an extensional regime developed during the Early Cretaceous to a more compressional regime that started during the mid-Cretaceous. In this sense, the SGSZ records this tectonic regime change.

  13. Modelación y análisis probabilístico del balance hídrico superficial de un sistema de riego en Chile Central

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, José Manuel; Gurovich R., Luis A.; Varas, Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    El presente artículo presenta una propuesta de modelación de los elementos y procesos involucrados en la oferta superficial y demanda hídrica de un sistema de riego de la zona central de Chile, como metodología para el estudio del balance hídrico predial en la planificación de los recursos hídricos disponibles. El estudio contempló una descripción y evaluación general del sistema mediante visitas de terreno y recolección de información, teniendo en cuenta aspectos de suelos, cultivos, agua...

  14. Consideraciones biogeográficas y ecológicas de equinodermos arquibentónicos de Chile Central (com excepción de crinoidea

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    Héctor Andrade Vasquez

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available 30 echinoderm species (the crinoias excepted have been recorded from the archibenthos off Central Chile. Samples were taken at 5 stations (from Los Vilos to Quíntero. 250-450 m depth range, every 15 days for one year. The concept of Region or Province, usually related to the intertital fauna from high latitudes are showed to be impractical using them with archibenthal echinoderms. The presence oj some species that had been registered as characteristic from the Antarctic Region and/or present in the Argentinian and Magellanic Province is related with the Antarctic Intermediate Water Mass, which is at the capture depth in the sampled area.

  15. The Jurassic-Cretaceous Boundary (Tithonian - Hauterivian) in the Andean Basin of Central Chile: Ammonites, Bio- and Sequence Stratigraphy and Palaeobiogeography

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar Soto, Christian Andrés

    2012-01-01

    Five sections of the Baños del Flaco and Lo Valdés formations in the High Andean Cordillera of Central Chile have been analyzed with regard to sediment, bio- and sequence stratigraphy, ammonite assemblages and palaeobiogeography, in order to reveal the age and depositional facies of the sediment sequence, and to evaluate the age and important bioevents across the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary. The Baños del Flaco Formation was investigated at Rio Tinguiririca and in the Rio Maitenes valley,...

  16. Hábitos tróficos de la reineta Brama australis (Pisces: Bramidae durante el periodo estival frente a Chile central

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    Francisco Santa Cruz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available La reineta Brama australis es un importante recurso pesquero artesanal en la zona central chilena, incorporado en los programas de seguimiento biológico, pero con escasas evaluaciones de sus aspectos tróficos. Para actualizar el estado del conocimiento, se analizó su dieta durante el verano austral época de mayor disponibilidad de este recurso en la zona central de Chile, mediante el análisis del contenido gástrico de 300 ejemplares capturados entre noviembre 2011 y marzo 2012. Se identificó una dieta dominada por Euphausia mucronata (IIR = 92,33, aunque a escala mensual se identificó una dieta mixta de E. mucronata durante noviembre, diciembre 2011 y marzo 2012, además de Pterygosquilla armata y anfípodos hipéridos durante enero y marzo 2012. No se encontró diferencias significativas entre ambos sexos (P > 0,01. Estos resultados demuestran y corroboran que B. australis es un depredador pelágico con un reducido espectro trófico en el litoral de Chile central.

  17. Using fecal profiles of bile acids to assess habitat use by threatened carnivores in the Maulino forest of central Chile Empleo del perfil de ácidos biliares fecales para evaluar uso del hábitat por carnívoros amenazados en el bosque maulino de Chile central

    OpenAIRE

    CARLA GUERRERO; LUIS ESPINOZA; HERMANN M. NIEMEYER; JAVIER A SIMONETTI

    2006-01-01

    The distribution and habitat use by carnivores can be assessed by studying their tracks or feces. If these methods are to be used confidently, they should not only unequivocally discriminate among species, but should also render the same patterns of spatial distributions. We assessed the fulfillment of these requirements with five carnivores inhabiting the Maulino forest of central Chile: Galictis cuja, Oncifelis guigna, Pseudalopex culpaeus, Pseudalopex griseus, and Puma concolor. Fecal bile...

  18. Biología reproductiva del águila Geranoaetus melanoleucus (Aves: Accipitridae en Chile central Breeding biology of the black-chested eagle Geranoaetus melanoleucus (Aves: Accipitridae in central Chile

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    EDUARDO F. PAVEZ

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Durante dos años (julio 1987­enero 1989 se estudió la biología reproductiva del águila (Geranoaetus melanoleucus en San Carlos de Apoquindo, en Chile central. El inicio del período reproductivo se evidenció por un aumento del número de vuelos en pareja. Los cortejos incluyeron vuelos sincronizados de la pareja, capturas, transporte de material al nido y cópulas. Los traspasos de presas ocurrieron durante todo el año, aunque fuera del período reproductivo fueron escasos y forzados por la hembra. Se localizaron 4,7 nidos pareja-1, lo que está en el límite superior documentado para grandes águilas. Fuera del período reproductivo las águilas visitaron ocasionalmente los nidos. Antes de la postura el macho visitó el nido con mayor frecuencia y por menos tiempo que la hembra. En las tres parejas estudiadas se observó visitas a nidos alternativos, con aporte de material y presas. Se promedió 2,3 huevos postura-1 (DE = 0,5, n = 6, incubando macho y hembra, y eclosionando el 100 %. A los 25 días de edad comenzaron a emerger las plumas de vuelo de los pollos, a los 35 días comían solos las presas aportadas al nido y a los 59 días abandonaron el nido. Durante la crianza la hembra permaneció más tiempo en el nido que el macho, con una tendencia de los adultos a disminuir el tiempo de permanencia en el nido. El 79 % de los pollos sobrevivió a la crianza, lo que se puede considerar un éxito reproductivo elevado, y que se explicaría por la elevada disponibilidad de presas en el sitio de estudio, particularmente de conejos. Los pollos permanecieron en el territorio paterno 10 meses, lo que coincidió con la siguiente postura de huevos, disminuyendo gradualmente su presencia en el área y aumentando la intolerancia de los adultos hacia sus hijos. Los resultados presentados se corresponden con el patrón descrito en la literatura para otras águilasThe breeding biology of the black-chested eagle (Geranoaetus melanoleucus was studied

  19. Constraining the magma flow record based on magmatic and magnetic data in La Gloria Pluton, central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, F. J.; Payacán, I.; Gelman, S. E.; Bachmann, O.; Creative Physical Petrology Team

    2013-05-01

    The magmatic origin of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) is examined in comparison with magmatic anisotropy data in a small, shallow, silicic magma reservoir in the upper crust. La Gloria Pluton (LGP) is a 10 Ma granodiorite/quartz monzonite of about 250 km3 located in the southern Andes, central Chile. LGP represents a particularly simple case of a silicic intrusion that was assembled in only a few pulses and cooled over a short time interval. Hornblende, biotite and minor magnetite are ubiquitous mafic phases. The AMS tensor indicates that magnetic fabric has an oblate shape (i.e. magnetic foliation is higher than magnetic lineation). Lineations are weak (values up to 1.05), have a N-NW trend with a nearly horizontal dip and are interpreted to represent axisymmetric convection parallel to the main pluton elongation. Foliations are more pronounced (values up to 1.14), having NW trends and dips that vary gradually from vertical at the walls, to horizontal at the center and near the roof of the chamber. We selected 12 samples from AMS sites to obtain petrographic data (well-distributed throughout the pluton, containing samples from the walls, the center and the roof of LGP), and then, determine the magmatic fabric (anisotropy, lineation, foliation). We made 3 oriented thin sections per sample oriented with the AMS. Magmatic anisotropy data were obtained by measuring mineral length, width and orientation in photomicrographs of the three main planes of the AMS tensor, producing 3-D mineral data which were collected for plagioclase and amphibole + bitotite independently. For each site, a Bingham distribution with 95% of confidence is used to determine the mean mineral orientations and their angle difference with the AMS axes. Magmatic anisotropy tensor and rotations with respect to the AMS tensor are determined using both eigenvalues and minimization algorithms. Preliminary results indicate that crystals are coherently oriented in both mineral groups, and

  20. Chemosynthetic trophic support for the benthic community at an intertidal cold seep site at Mocha Island off central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellanes, Javier; Zapata-Hernández, Germán; Pantoja, Silvio; Jessen, Gerdhard L.

    2011-12-01

    We analyzed C and N stable isotope ratios of benthic fauna and their potential food sources at an intertidal methane seep site and a control site without emanation at Mocha Island (central Chile). The objective was to trace the origin of the main food sources used by the local heterotrophic fauna, based on the hypothesis that chemosynthetic production could be partially fueling the local food web at the seep site. Food sources sampled at both sites included macroalgae, particulate organic matter and bacteria-like filaments found growing over the red algae Gelidium lingulatum within the areas of active methane release. At the control site, located 11 km away from the gas emanation, fauna exhibited moderate δ 13C values ranging from -16.2‰ (in a nereid polychaete) to -14.8‰ (in a cirolanid isopod), which were consistent with those of the potential photosynthetic food sources sampled at this site (-20.2 to -16.5‰). δ 13C values of the photosynthetic food sources at the seep site similarly ranged between -25.4 and -17.9‰. However, a portion of the animals at this site were consistently more 13C-depleted, with δ 13C values close to that of the seeping methane (-43.8‰) and the bacteria-like filaments (-39.2 ± 2.5‰) also collected at this site. Specific examples were the Marphysa sp. polychaetes (δ 13C = -44.7 ± 0.6‰), the Schistomeringos sp. dorvilleid polychaetes (δ 13C = -42.9‰), and the tanaid crustacean Zeuxo marmoratus (δ 13C = -37.3 ± 0.2‰). The significantly higher δ 13C values of the herbivorous gastropod Tegula atra at the seep site (-29.3 ± 3.1‰) than at the control site (-12.6 ± 0.3‰) also indicated differences among sites of the preferred carbon sources of this species. Mixing model estimates indicate that at the seep site bacteria-like filaments could be contributing up to ˜60% of the assimilated diet of selected invertebrates. Furthermore, several indicators of trophic structure, based in isotopic niche metrics, indicate a

  1. Persistent toxic substances in soils and waters along an altitudinal gradient in the Laja River Basin, Central Southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Ricardo; Popp, Peter; Quiroz, Roberto; Bauer, Coretta; Cid, Hernan; von Tümpling, Wolf

    2005-02-01

    In this study the levels and distribution of some persistent toxic substances (PTS) were investigated in soils, superficial water, and snow along an altitudinal gradient in the Laja River Basin (South Central Chile). The principal objective was to establish the basin's contamination status. The working hypothesis was that PTS levels and distribution in the basin are dependent on the degree of anthropogenic intervention. Fifteen PAHs, seven PCBs congeners, and three organochlorine pesticides were studied in superficial soil and water samples obtained along the altitudinal gradient and from a coastal reference station (Lleu-Lleu River). Soil samples were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction with acetone/cyclohexane (1:1) for PAHs and organochlorine compounds. Contaminants were extracted from water and snow samples by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). PAH and organochlorine compound quantification was carried out by HPLC with fluorescence detection and GC-MS, respectively. PCBs in soils presented four different profiles in the altitudinal gradient, mainly determined by their chlorination degree; these profiles were not observed for the chlorinated pesticides. In general, the detected levels for the analyzed compounds were low for soils when compared with soil data from other remote areas of the world. Higher summation operator PAHs levels in soils were found in the station located at 227 masl (4243 ng g-1 TOC), in a forestry area and near a timber industry, where detected levels were up to eight times higher than the other sampling sites. In general, PAH levels and distribution seems to be dependent on local conditions. No pesticides were detected in surface waters. However, congeners of PCBs were detected in almost all sampling stations with the highest levels being found in Laja Lake waters, where 1.1 ng/l were observed. This concentration is two times higher than values reported for polluted lakes in the Northern Hemisphere. The presence of organochlorine

  2. Combined impact of ocean acidification and corrosive waters in a river-influenced coastal upwelling area off Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, C.; De La Hoz, M.; San Martin, V.; Contreras, P.; Navarro, J. M.; Lagos, N. A.; Lardies, M.; Manríquez, P. H.; Torres, R.

    2012-12-01

    Elevated CO2 in the atmosphere promotes a cascade of physical and chemical changes affecting all levels of biological organization, and the evidence from local to global scales has shown that such anthropogenic climate change has triggered significant responses in the Earth's biota. The increased concentration of CO2 is likely to cause a corresponding increase in ocean acidification (OA). In addition, economically valuable shellfish species predominantly inhabit coastal regions both in natural stocks and/or in managed stocks and farming areas. Many coastal ecosystems may experience seawater pCO2 levels significantly higher than expected from equilibrium with the atmosphere, which in this case are strongly linked to biological processes and/or the impact of two important processes; river plumes and coastal upwelling events, which indeed interplay in a very dynamic way on continental shelves, resulting in both source or sink of CO2 to the atmosphere. Coastal ecosystems receive persistent acid inputs as a result of freshwater discharges from river basins into the coastal domain. In this context, since shellfish resources and shellfish aquaculture activities predominantly occur in nearshore areas, it is expected that shellfish species inhabiting river-influenced benthic ecosystems will be exposed persistently to acidic conditions that are suboptimal for its development. In a wider ecological context, little is also known about the potential impacts of acid waters on the performance of larvae and juveniles of almost all the marine species inhabiting this benthic ecosystem in Eastern Southern Pacific Ocean. We present here the main results of a research study aimed to investigate the environmental conditions to which economically valuable calcifiers shellfish species are exposed in a river-influenced continental shelf off Central Chile. By using isotopic measurements in the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) pool (d13C-DIC) we showed the effect of the remineralization of

  3. Future Temperatures and Precipitations in the Arid Northern-Central Chile: A Multi-Model Downscaling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souvignet, M.; Heinrich, J.

    2010-03-01

    Downscaling of global climate outputs is necessary to transfer projections of potential climate change scenarios to local levels. This is of special interest to dry mountainous areas, which are particularly vulnerable to climate change due to risks of reduced freshwater availability. These areas play a key role for hydrology since they usually receive the highest local precipitation rates stored in form of snow and glaciers. In the central-northern Chile (Norte Chico, 26-33ºS), where agriculture still serves as a backbone of the economy as well as ensures the well being of people, the knowledge of water resources availability is essential. The region is characterised by a semiarid climate with a mean annual precipitation inferior to 100mm. Moreover, the local climate is also highly influenced by the ENSO phenomenon, which accounts for the strong inter-annual variability in precipitation patterns. Although historical and spatially extensive precipitation data in the headwaters of the basins in this region are not readily available, records at coastal stations show worrisome trends. For instance, the average precipitation in La Serena, the most important city located in the Coquimbo Region, has decreased dramatically in the past 100 years. The 30-year monthly average has decreased from 170 mm in the early 20th century to values less than 80 mm nowadays. Climate Change is expected to strengthen this pattern in the region, and therefore strongly influence local hydrological patterns. The objectives of this study are i) to develop climate change scenarios (2046-2099) for the Norte Chico using multi-model predictions in terms of temperatures and precipitations, and ii) to compare the efficiency of two downscaling techniques in arid mountainous regions. In addition, this study aims at iii) providing decision makers with sound analysis of potential impact of Climate Change on streamflow in the region. For the present study, future local climate scenarios were developed

  4. A study of the relationship between degree of ethnocentrism and typologies of food purchase in supermarkets in central-southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Miranda, Horacio; Lobos, Germán; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to distinguish different types of consumers according to their level of ethnocentrism in relation to the consumption of foodstuffs in central-southern Chile. To do this a modification of the CETSCALE (Consumer Ethnocentric Tendencies Scale) was applied through direct survey of 800 habitual supermarket shoppers in two cities in central-southern Chile. The modified CETSCALE presented a sufficient level of internal consistency and there were three factors which included the 17 items of the scale. Five typologies of consumer with different degrees of ethnocentrism were distinguished by cluster analysis, based on the values of the factors and items in the CETSCALE. The composition of the typologies of consumers were related to the city and zone of residence, age, socioeconomic level, self-declared life-style, ethnic origin, knowledge of the origin of the foodstuffs purchased, frequency of purchase of imported foodstuffs and reasons for rejection in the case of a low purchase frequency. It may therefore be concluded that different levels of ethnocentrism exist in the consumption of foodstuffs, related with some socio-demographic characteristics of consumers and their attitudes to imported foodstuffs. PMID:21335039

  5. Cambios de largo plazo en el paisaje y los ensambles de micromamíferos y rapaces en Chile central Long-term changes in landscape and in small mammal and raptor assemblages in central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO F PAVEZ

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available San Carlos de Apoquindo, en la precordillera de Chile central, es una localidad con estudios de larga data en vertebrados (ca. 30 años, situación favorable para el análisis de procesos de largo plazo que operan sobre dichos ensambles. En este contexto estudiamos la trayectoria del uso del suelo mediante imágenes satelitales LANDSAT, correspondientes a 1975, 1989 y 2003 y su presunto efecto sobre la vegetación, micromamíferos y aves rapaces. El análisis de las imágenes satelitales revela una expansión acelerada del área urbana en desmedro del suelo agrícola y matorrales naturales. Las especies de micromamíferos nativos de talla reducida y media no evidencian grandes variaciones de abundancia durante el período de estudio pero las de mayor tamaño redujeron sus poblaciones. El conejo europeo (Oryctolagus cuniculus es una de las especies más abundantes del área, y estaría siendo favorecido por la modificación del paisaje. En la dieta del águila (Geranoaetus melanoleucus y del peuco (Parabuteo unicinctus se observó una disminución sostenida de la principal presa nativa, el degú (Octodon degus y un aumento de la presa exótica, el conejo. Además se observó una tendencia a la disminución de la riqueza y abundancia de aves rapaces durante el período de estudio, la que se asociaría a la expansión urbana y al deterioro del matorral natural. Postulamos que la expansión urbana y la pérdida y fragmentación del matorral han producido una disminución de la población de degú, con su consecuente disminución en la dieta de águilas y peucos, lo que a su vez ha potenciado un incremento de depredación sobre conejo.San Carlos de Apoquindo, a piedemont area to the east of Santiago city, is a site with 30 years of data on vertebrates. Using LANDSAT satellite imagery for the years 1975, 1989 and 2003, we studied the spatio-temporal trajectory of land use and its putative effects on vegetation, small mammals and raptors. On the basis

  6. Infrastructure development and agricultural exposure to climate variability and change: lessons from the Limarí basin in Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicuna, S.; Alvarez, P.; Melo, O.; Dale, L. L.; Meza, F. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Limarí basin, located in Central Chile, is a world famous example of how the development of reservoirs and irrigation infrastructure can reduce climate vulnerabilities allowing the economic development of a basin. Before the infrastructure was developed low value crops such as cereals dominated land use acreage. Today high value crops such as vineyards, orchards and vegetables account for almost 50% of total land and cereals have almost disappear. Key to this evolution have been the reduction in water supply variability, access to international markets, increased irrigation efficiency, and the existence of water markets and other flexible and strong institutions that have helped moving the water from low to high value uses. These factors are related to each other sharing infrastructure development as a common root. The system of reservoirs in the Limarí basin was designed and has been operated since its construction with the premise that droughts in this basin do not last longer than 4 years. Until recently that had been the case and farmers have been able to withstand the impacts of droughts. When faced with water supply reductions farmers would select from a set of options to accommodate their needs including: water market participation, groundwater extraction and crop irrigation and crop acreage decisions. The use of these options has even allowed increasing total irrigated land mostly through the expansion of permanent water demand crops. In the past 9 years however, the basin has experienced a longer than usual drought, interrupting the reservoir refilling cycle that characterized climate variability in the region. This situation has led to dramatically low reservoir levels and continuous reductions in water supply. In addition, due to the already high levels of irrigation efficiency and large amount of acreage devoted to permanent water demand crops, the effectiveness of the portfolio of options available to farmers to accommodate to these stressing

  7. Sr-Nd-Pb isotope compositions of felsic intrusions in the El Teniente and Laguna La Huifa areas, Central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The giant El Teniente porphyry Cu-Mo deposit is located in the Andes foothills of Central Chile (34oS). In simplistic terms, the igneous rocks at the mine can be grouped in two major units: a felsic suite of silicic intrusives (the porphyries; SiO2≥56wt%) with subvertical stock-like to dyke shapes, and a mafic volcanic to subvolcanic sequence (the Farellones formation; SiO2<≤56wt%) with a sub-horizontal nature. The felsic rocks intrude the volcanogenic Farellones formation, which is known at the mine site as 'Andesitas de la mina'. The major felsic intrusives are locally known as the 'Diorita Sewell' and 'Porfido Teniente' bodies, plus a series of minor plugs, apophyses and dikes. According to Cuadra (1986), the age of the main intrusive units spans from Late Miocene ('Diorita Sewell'; 7-8Ma) to Early Pliocene ('Porfido Teniente'; ∼4-5Ma). These felsic intrusives are closely related to copper mineralization ( ∼4-5Ma; Cuadra, 1986), particularly the younger 'Porfido Teniente' (Camus, 1975). Additionally, Skewes and Stern (1996) have suggested the existence of an even slightly younger porphyry pluton, not exposed at surface, but still linked to the ore genesis. Similar felsic intrusive bodies are also present in the Laguna La Huifa area (Reich, 2001), located less than 3 km to the NE from the main El Teniente body. The copper mineralization here, is interpreted to be almost contemporaneous with the El Teniente mineralization (Cuadra, 1986). Based on petrographic and geochemical information on the silicic intrusive suite, Rabbia et al. (2000) suggested that this magmatism could be considered as a Phanerozoic equivalent of an Archean high-Al TTG. Furthermore it may be classified as a modified (Na-rich) 'I' type granitoid, in the sense of Atherton and Petford (1993) and Petford and Atherton (1996). According to these authors, the younger (and hotter) lower Andean crust would be a better candidate than the older (and colder) subducted Nazca plate basalts (NPB

  8. Photosynthetic performance of Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth Bartl. (Caryophyllaceae in a high-elevation site of the Andes of central Chile Desempeño fotosintético de Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth Bartl. (Caryophyllaceae en los Andes de Chile central

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    M. ANGÉLICA CASANOVA-KATNY

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis of Colobanthus quitensis and mesoclimatic conditions of air temperature and light intensity during the growing season were investigated at 2,650 m in the central Chilean Andes. On three typical days of the growing period (January, March and May, CO2 exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured. In addition, a series of fluorescence response curves with increasing light intensity at different temperatures were performed to estimate the propensity of Andean C. quitensis populations to be photoinhibited. Net Photosynthesis (Pn was low (ca. 2.0 mmol CO2 m-2s-1 during the morning and noon in days with high photosynthetic active radiation (PAR, above 1,800 mmol photons m-2s-1. Pn increased in the afternoon (3.5-4.8 mmol CO2 m-2s-1 when PAR decreased to ca. 1,400 mmol photons m-2s-1 and leaf temperature were ca. 20 °C. Fv/Fm in the diurnal periods was between 0.7-0.75 without evidence of photoinhibition. Leaves at 15 and 22 °C exhibited a slow decrease of F PSII with the increase in actinic light intensity, although the fraction of reaction centers open (expressed by qP remained higher at 22 °C. NPQ was saturated at light intensities close to 500 mmol photons m-2s-1 in leaves at 22 °C and at higher intensities at 15 °C, suggesting that NPQ could be a mechanism of energy dissipation at high light intensity and high leaf temperature in the field. Our results indicated that C. quitensis is not photodamaged during the diurnal cycle and that the low Pn registered during some diurnal periods are likely to be related with photorespiration, which has been suggested as an efficient protective mechanism for photoinhibition in alpine plants. Our results are also compared with the photosynthetic performance of C. quitensis populations from the maritime AntarcticSe estudió la fotosíntesis de Colobanthus quitensis y las condiciones mesoclimáticas de temperatura del aire e intensidad lumínica a 2.650 m en los Andes de Chile central. Se

  9. Spatio-temporal variability in ontogenetic guild structure of an intertidal fish assemblage in central Chile Variabilidad espacio-temporal en la estructura de gremios ontogenéticos de un ensamble de peces intermareales de Chile central

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    PATRICIA A BERRÍOS

    2011-12-01

    variabilidad en las condiciones ambientales, especialmente en peces intermareales, los que alcanzan varios órdenes de magnitud en tamaño corporal. Sin embargo, la influencia de los cambios ontogenéticos en la membresía gremial sobre la estructura espacio-temporal de los ensambles de peces permanece virtualmente desconocida. En este trabajo estudiamos la variabilidad espacio-temporal en la estructura de los gremios alimenticios ontogenéticos (OFG de los ensambles de peces intermareales que ocurren en el intermareal rocoso de la costa de Chile central. Para esto realizamos an��lisis de componentes principales (PCA y pruebas de aleatorización (pruebas R de la composición relativa de las OFG de estos ensambles, obtenidos de muestreos estacionales en diez pozas intermareales ubicadas en dos alturas de mareas en la zona intermareal en tres localidades entre los 33° y 34° S. En general, los PCA y pruebas R sugieren que la variabilidad espacial domina sobre la variabilidad temporal en la estructura de las OFG, debido principalmente a la alta representatividad de las especies omnívoras en las pozas altas del intermareal en dos de las tres localidades muestreadas. Sin embargo, cambios relacionados a la fenología en la representación de las clases de tamaño de los peces (i.e. reclutamiento de carnívoros en primavera-verano junto con diferencias ontogenéticas en la selección de hábitat (e.g., selección por pozas del intermareal bajo por la OFG de carnívoros de gran tamaño contribuyeron a una diferenciación espacial y temporal de la estructura de la OFG. Finalmente, la representación relativa de cada OFG se correlacionó con la de sus especies dominantes, sin evidencia de una compensación por densidad. Esto sugiere bajos niveles de redundancia funcional entre las especies en cada OFG, lo cual denota la vulnerabilidad del funcionamiento de estos ensambles a perturbaciones sesgadas en tamaño corporal tales como la pesca.

  10. Fallout radionuclides 137Cs and 7Be as an important tool to evaluate effectiveness of no-tillage systems in Central-South Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1970 the process of agricultural intensification has drastically increased soil erosion and associated soil degradation in the coastal mountains of south-central Chile. Due to conventional tillage (with burning of crop residues), over 80% of the soils under agriculture show evidence of compaction below plough depth and erosion rates are described amongst the highest for any agricultural land in Chile. The current study developed a simplified method for using 137Cs depth distribution datasets to estimate soil loss or accumulation at a sampling point under conventional tillage and after the shift to a no-till system. Previous applications of 137Cs measurements had been limited to the estimation of erosion rates during the period extending from the beginning of fallout receipt to the time of sampling. The new procedure allows the change in erosion rates associated with a shift in land tillage practices to be estimated. It represents an innovative application of 137Cs measurements in soil erosion research. In an additional study to assess no-till systems with and without burning of crop residues after harvesting, 7Be was used to quantify the erosion that occurred within the same field area, as a result of burning and a period of extreme rainfall (400 mm in 27 days, May 2005)

  11. Satellite-measured interannual variability of turbid river plumes off central-southern Chile: Spatial patterns and the influence of climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldías, Gonzalo S.; Largier, John L.; Mendes, Renato; Pérez-Santos, Iván; Vargas, Cristian A.; Sobarzo, Marcus

    2016-08-01

    Ocean color imagery from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) onboard the Aqua platform is used to characterize the interannual variability of turbid river plumes off central-southern Chile. Emphasis is placed on the influence of climate fluctuations, namely El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and the Antarctic Oscillation (AAO). Additional satellite data on wind, boat-based hydrographic profiles, and regional climate indices are used to identify the influence of climate variability on the generation of anomalous turbid river plumes. The evolution of salinity at a coastal station on the 90 m isobath between the Itata and Biobío Rivers shows a freshwater surface layer with salinity importance of long-term and high-resolution ocean color observations for studying the temporal evolution of river plumes.

  12. Talla de madurez y época de desove de la reineta (Brama australis Valenciennes, 1836) en la costa central de Chile Maturity size and spawning time of the Pacific pomfret (Brama australis Valenciennes, 1836) in the central coast of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Elson Leal; Ciro Oyarzún

    2003-01-01

    La reineta (Brama australis) adquiere cada vez mayor importancia en los desembarques de la pesca artesanal, no obstante, es escasa la información que existe acerca de su biología básica, particularmente sobre su dinámica reproductiva. En este trabajo se determina la época principal de desove de B. australis en la costa central de Chile y la talla de madurez (TM), para lo cual se analizó un total de 1061 individuos capturados frente a Lebu (37º37'S-73º40'W), entre enero y septiembre de 2001. E...

  13. Botanical Composition of Alpaca (Lama pacos Linn.) Diet in a Central Mediterranean Range of Chile Composición Botánica de la Dieta de Alpaca (Lama pacos Linn.) en un Pastizal del Secano Mediterráneo de la Zona Central de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    G Castellaro; F Squella N; F León C; A Raggi S

    2008-01-01

    The re-introduction of domestic South American camelids (alpacas and llamas) in the central zone of Chile makes it necessary to study their behaviour and adaptability. Since it is fundamental to characterize the camelid’s diet, the present work had as an objective the determination of the plant species selected by the alpacas (Lama pacos Linn.) in different phenological stages (vegetative, reproductive and dry season). The study was carried out over three years in a paddock of 2.5 ha of spars...

  14. Shoreline changes in Concón and Algarrobo bays, central Chile, using an adjustment model Cambios en la línea litoral de las bahías de Algarrobo y Concón, Chile central, a través de un modelo de ajuste

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Martinez

    2007-01-01

    Adjustment models for both Algarrobo and Concón bays, central Chile, are presented herein; the results show a nearly logarithmic spiral shape for the shore. Spatial-temporal variations in the shorelines of both bays were found based on aerial photographs from different years. The results indicate important variations in the relative position of the Concón Bay shoreline between 1945 and 2006, with extreme oscillations (-368 to 123.8 m) only occurring in the proximal zone, where the Aconcagua E...

  15. Evolución tectónica, paleogeográfica y metalogénica durante el Cenozoico en los Andes de Chile norte y central e implicaciones para las regiones adyacentes de Bolivia y Argentina Tectonic, paleogeographic, and metallogenic evolution during the Cenozoic in the Andes of Central and Northern Chile and implication for the adjacent regions of Bolivia and Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Reynaldo Charrier; Marcelo Farías; Víctor Maksaev

    2009-01-01

    La orogenia incaica dio origen a un importante relieve en el Eoceno Medio, el que se concentró en el ámbito del arco magmático precedente, la Cordillera Incaica. Este relieve positivo de orientación NNE se extendió desde el sur de Perú hasta la región central de Chile y separó dos dominios paleogeográficos que tuvieron evoluciones diferentes durante el resto del Cenozoico. El dominio occidental se caracterizó por el predominio de procesos de erosión y sedimentación. En el dominio oriental tam...

  16. Tectonic styles and crustal shortening of the Central Andes "Pampean" flat-slab segment in northern Chile (27-29°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Fernando; Arriagada, César; Peña, Matías; Deckart, Katja; Charrier, Reynaldo

    2016-01-01

    The Andean orogenic belt, located in the Central Andes "Pampean flat-slab" segment in northern Chile (27-29°S), is composed of two major tectonic regions: the Coastal Cordillera and the Frontal Cordillera. To understand their internal tectonic styles, history of growth and the shortening absorbed by the upper crustal structure of this segment, we combined regional geological mapping data, new ages obtained from radiometric U-Pb dating, and a semibalanced and restored cross-section 225.18 km in length. The results as shown in the previous Mesozoic extensional fault systems, established in northern Chile by the Gondwana breakup, have played a fundamental role in the orogenic buildup. The central structure is characterized by an asymmetric basin (Upper Cretaceous-Paleocene) confined by a doubly vergent fault system composed of inverted faults related to the edges of the Mesozoic Chañarcillo and Lautaro Basins. The U-Pb geochronological data obtained from synorogenic volcano-sedimentary deposits and the angular unconformities recorded between the Cenozoic geological units have revealed that the compressive deformation in this segment started at around ~ 80 Ma by tectonic inversion in the eastern Coastal Cordillera and western Frontal Cordillera, however, the presence of Paleocene and Miocene synorogenic successions at the footwall of the basement reverse faults of the Frontal Cordillera suggests a migration of Andean deformation from the west to the east during the Paleocene-Miocene by propagation of ramps involving inherited basement highs. The pre-compression restoration makes it possible to estimate 40.94 km of minimum shortening, concentrated by inversion anticlines and fault-controlled basement highs across the Frontal Cordillera.

  17. Productivity and Persistence of Yellow Serradela (Ornithopus compressus L. and Biserrula (Biserrula pelecinus L. in the Mediterranean Climate Region of Central Chile Productividad y Persistencia de Serradela Amarilla (Ornithopus compressus L. y Biserrula (Biserrula pelecinus L. en la Región Climática Mediterránea de Chile Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro del Pozo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The production and sustainability of non-irrigated pastures in the Mediterranean climate region of central Chile is currently limited by the low diversity of valuable species and cultivars of annual forage legumes, able to persist in zones with highly variable annual rainfall, and low fertility or poorly drained soils. In this work, DM production, seed yield, hardseededness and pasture persistence were evaluated for cultivars of yellow serradella (Ornithopus compressus L. and biserrula (Biserrula pelecinus L., in field experiments conducted in the subhumid portion of the Mediterranean climate region of Chile. Burr medic (Medicago polymorpha L. and sub clover (Trifolium subterraneum L. were used as a reference plants. A remarkable DM production and seed yield were observed in biserrula (cvs. Mor96 and Casbah, and in some cultivars of yellow serradella (e.g. Madeira, Santorini; biserrula produced by far the largest number of seeds per m². As was expected for species that produce very high levels of hard-seeds, the regeneration of biserrula and serradella was low in second growing season, but plant density and productivity were high in the third growing season. The use of biserrula and serradela in monoculture or in mixture with other annual legumes, either in pasture-crop rotation or permanent pasture, would contribute to the improvement of the prevailing productive systems in the Mediterranean climate region of central Chile.La producción y la sostenibilidad de las praderas de secano en la región de clima mediterráneo de Chile central están actualmente limitadas por la baja diversidad de especies valiosas y cultivares de leguminosas forrajeras anuales, capaces de persistir en zonas con precipitaciones anuales sumamente variables, y suelos de baja fertilidad o de mal drenaje. En este trabajo se evaluó la producción de fitomasa, producción de semilla, dureza seminal y la persistencia de cultivares de serradela amarilla (Ornithopus

  18. A new record of Equus (Mammalia: Equidae from the Late Pleistocene of central-south Chile Un nuevo registro de Equus (Mammalia: Equidae para el Pleistoceno Superior de Osorno, Chile

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    OMAR P RECABARREN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen dental and bone parts of a horse excavated from the Pilauco paleontological site, Osorno (40°39' S-73°07' W are analysed and interpreted. This site was formed in association with a peat bog located on the banks of the old Damas River and has conserved abundant late Pleistocene mammalian fauna and flora materials. A date of 11457 ± 140 14C yrs B.P. was obtained from a molar and agrees with our stratigraphic age model. We have identified the fossils as pertaining to the species Equus (Amerhippus andium, which confirms its presence in central-south Chile. Furthermore, the recorded geographic location indicate that the metapodial adaptations of the specimens previously described agree with the reconstructed late Pleistocene landscape of Pilauco, dominated by soft volcanic soils and isolated forest patches over large extensions of grasslands.Se analizan e interpretan 14 fósiles correspondientes a dientes y huesos de caballo registrados en el sitio Pilauco, Osorno (40°39' S-73°07' W. El sitio se formó asociado a un pantano en un borde del antiguo río Damas; en él se ha conservado abundante material de mastofauna y flora pleistocénica. Una fecha radiocarbónica de 11457 ± 140 A.P obtenida de un molar, es concordante con el modelo de edad del sitio. La identificación taxonómica permite asociar a los fósiles a la especie Equus (Amerhippus andium, lo que confirma la presencia de la especie en el centro-sur de Chile. Por otra parte, la posición geográfica de los hallazgos y la reconstrucción del paisaje indicarían que se trata de ejemplares cuyas adaptaciones en los metapodios son concordantes para el paisaje pleistocénico de Pilauco dominado por suelos volcánicos blandos, con presencia de bosquetes dispersos en grandes extensiones de praderas de gramíneas.

  19. A new species of Phymaturus of the P. mallimaccii Group from the Andes of central Chile (Iguania: Liolaemidae

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    Jaime Troncoso-Palacios

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Phymaturus from the Provincia Mountain in the San Ramón Mountains in the Metropolitan Region of Chile is described. It is a member of the P. palluma Group and the P. mallimaccii subgroup. The new species can be distinguished from other members of the P. mallimaccii subgroup by having a highly fragmented subocular scale (4 or 5, a preocular scale that is smaller than the canthal, males having a olive dorsum with a diffuse pattern of light bands on the paravertebral fields and a light triangle between the shoulders, which has the apex of the triangle oriented toward the snout. The distribution of new species lies south of that of other members of the P. mallimaccii subgroup, from which it is completely isolated. The low abundance of the new species is noteworthy. Information about the natural history of the lizard is provided and some aspects of unnamed populations of Chilean Phymaturus are discussed.

  20. Seasonal changes in the photosynthetic performance of two evergreen Nothofagus species in south central Chile Cambios estacionales en el desempeño fotosintético de dos especies siempreverdes de Nothofagus en el centro sur de Chile

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    RAFAEL ZÚÑIGA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The evergreen Nothofagus dombeyi and Nothofagus nitida are important members of the temperate Chilean rainforest. They seldom grow together in nature. Nothofagus nitida is more susceptible to excess light and drought than N. dombeyi. We postulate that the different properties of the photosynthetic apparatus under common garden conditions of these species could explain their contrasting habitat preferences. The two species growing in a common garden in south central Chile were studied. The optimal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm of both species remained within normal values (»0.8 with the exception of a decrease in N. dombeyi at midday in summer, suggesting reversible reduction in photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII. During summer the effective photochemical efficiency (F PSII, photochemical quenching (qP, photosynthesis (Amax, stomatal conductance (gs and transpiration rates (E in N. dombeyi were higher than in N. nitida. The highest increments in photoprotective pigments (zeaxanthin + antheraxanthin and lutein contents between predawn and midday were obtained in summer in N. dombeyi. In N. nitida a nocturnal retention of dissipative pigments, without a decrease in Fv/Fm, was found in winter. The results suggest that N. dombeyi showed a better photosynthetic performance than N. nitida under high light, high temperature, and drier conditions. These data support are consistent with the pioneer character of N. dombeyi and the semi-tolerant shade properties and more restricted distribution of N. nitida. These photosynthetic characteristics, along with their freezing and flooding resistance differences, may result from their habitat separationLas siempreverdes, Nothofagus dombeyi y Nothofagus nitida, representantes importantes de los bosques lluviosos templados de Chile, raramente crecen juntos en forma natural. Nothofagus nitida es más sensible al exceso de luz y déficit de agua que N. dombeyi. Se postula que diferentes propiedades

  1. Crypsis in early benthic phases of Brachyuran Decapod Crustaceans in central Chile Cripsis en fases bentónicas tempranas de crustáceos decápodos braquiuros en Chile central

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    ÁLVARO T. PALMA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Although common and in some cases of commercial value, little is known about the mechanisms and processes that affect the distribution and abundance of many species of decapod crustaceans, particularly in Chile. All of these species have planktonic larvae that must settle and recruit before becoming part of the adult segments of their populations. For several of these species we have detected the presence of a variety of color morphs in newly settled individuals. The existence of these morphs in Chilean species is comparable with those observed in other latitudes (e.g., coast of the Gulf of Maine. On the other hand, it is characteristic that the occurrence of these patterns only appears during the early juvenile stages and that after reaching a certain size it disappears, with adults being typically monochromatic. The expression of this pattern in the Chilean subtidal seems to be more pronounced in detritivorous species than in carnivorous ones. We propose that the existence of these kind of phenotypic attributes, apparently generalized in brachyuran decapods, could play an important role both from an ecological as well as evolutionary point of viewAunque comunes, y en algunos casos de valor comercial, poco es lo que se conoce acerca de los mecanismos y procesos que afectan la distribución y abundancia de muchas especies de crustáceos decápodos, particularmente en Chile. Todas estas especies poseen larvas planctónicas que deben asentarse y reclutar antes de pasar a formar parte de los segmentos adultos de sus poblaciones. En varias de estas especies hemos detectado la presencia de una variedad de morfos de coloración en individuos recién asentados. La existencia de dichos morfos en especies chilenas es comparable con aquellos observados en otras latitudes (e.g., costa del Golfo de Maine. Por otro lado, es característica la aparición de estos patrones solo durante los estadíos juveniles tempranos y, al alcanzar cierto tamaño, estos

  2. Presencia del tiburón martillo Sphyrna zygaena (Carchariniformes: Sphyrnidae y nuevo registro del tiburón espinudo Echinorhinus cookei (Squaliformes: Squalidae en San Antonio, Chile central Presence of the smooth hammerhead Sphyrna zygaena (Carchariniformes: Sphyrnidae and new records of prickly shark Echinorhinus cookei (Squaliformes: Squalidae in San Antonio, central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Brito

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Se documenta el registro de Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus, 1758, sobre la base de un ejemplar capturado en la bahía de San Antonio (33°35'S y un ejemplar de Echinorhinus cookei Pietschmann, 1928, capturado al oeste de Santo Domingo (33°37'S. En el primer caso, se amplía su distribución geográfica desde Arica hasta San Antonio, y en el segundo, se agrega un quinto registro para esa especie en aguas chilenasThe sighting of Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus, 1758 based on the capture of a specimen in the bay of San Antonio (33°35'S and a specimen of Echinorhinus cookei Pietschmann, 1928 captured to the west of the coast of Santo Domingo (33°35'S. The former case, the known geographic distribution is increased from region to the north to San Antonio, in central Chile and in the alter, a fifth sighting is noted for the species in Chilean waters, confirming its presence in the central region of Chile

  3. Use of 137Cs to estimate tillage- and water-induced soil redistribution rates on agricultural land under different use and management in central-south Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the applicability of conventional 137Cs sampling and a simplified approach, for estimating medium-term tillage- and water-induced soil erosion and sedimentation rates on agricultural land in Chile. For this purpose, four study sites under contrasting land use and management were selected in central-south Chile. First, a conventional 137Cs approach, based on grid sampling was applied, adapting a mass balance conversion model incorporating soil movement by tillage to the site specific conditions of the study region. Secondly, using the same conversion model, the feasibility of estimating soil redistribution rates from measurements of 137Cs inventories based on composite soil samples taken along contour lines was also tested at all four sites. The redistribution rates associated with tillage and water and the total rates estimated using both methods correlated strongly at all four sites. The conventional method provides more detailed information concerning the redistribution processes operating over the landscape. The simplified method is suitable for assessing soil loss and sediment accumulation in areas exhibiting simple topography and almost similar slopes along the contour lines. Under these conditions, this method permits faster estimation of soil redistribution rates, providing the possibility of estimating soil redistribution rates over larger areas in a shorter time. In order to optimise the costs and benefits of the methods, the sampling and inventory quantification strategy must be selected according to the resolution of the required information, and the scale and complexity of the landscape relief. Higher tillage- and water-induced erosion rates were observed in the annually ploughed cropland sites than in the semi-permanent grassland sites. Subsistence managed crop and grassland sites also show greater erosion effects than the commercially managed sites. The 137Cs methods used permit discrimination between

  4. Air quality forecasting for winter-time PM2.5 episodes occurring in multiple cities in central and southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saide, Pablo E.; Mena-Carrasco, Marcelo; Tolvett, Sebastian; Hernandez, Pablo; Carmichael, Gregory R.

    2016-01-01

    Episodic air quality degradation due to particles occurs in multiple cities in central and southern Chile during the austral winter reaching levels up to 300-800 µg/m3 hourly PM2.5, which can be associated with severe effects on human health. An air quality prediction system is developed to predict such events in near real time up to 3 days in advance for nine cities with regular air quality monitoring: Santiago, Rancagua, Curicó, Talca, Chillan, Los Ángeles, Temuco, Valdivia, and Osorno. The system uses the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model configured with a nested 2 km grid-spacing domain to predict weather and inert tracers. The tracers are converted to hourly PM2.5 concentrations using an observationally based calibration which is substantially less computationally intensive than a full chemistry model. The conversion takes into account processes occurring in these cities, including higher likelihood of episode occurrence during weekends and during colder days, the latter related to increased wood-burning-stove activity for heating. The system is calibrated and evaluated for April-August 2014 where it has an overall skill of 53-72% of episodes accurately forecasted (61-76% for the best initialization) which is better than persistence for most stations. Forecasts one, two, and three days in advance all have skill in forecasting events but often present large variability within them due to different meteorological initializations. The system is being implemented in Chile to assist authority decisions not only to warn the population but also to take contingency-based emission restrictions to try to avoid severe pollution events.

  5. Comparison of Airborne LiDAR and Satellite Hyperspectral Remote Sensing to Estimate Vascular Plant Richness in Deciduous Mediterranean Forests of Central Chile

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    Andrés Ceballos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Andes foothills of central Chile are characterized by high levels of floristic diversity in a scenario, which offers little protection by public protected areas. Knowledge of the spatial distribution of this diversity must be gained in order to aid in conservation management. Heterogeneous environmental conditions involve an important number of niches closely related to species richness. Remote sensing information derived from satellite hyperspectral and airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR data can be used as proxies to generate a spatial prediction of vascular plant richness. This study aimed to estimate the spatial distribution of plant species richness using remote sensing in the Andes foothills of the Maule Region, Chile. This region has a secondary deciduous forest dominated by Nothofagus obliqua mixed with sclerophyll species. Floristic measurements were performed using a nested plot design with 60 plots of 225 m2 each. Multiple predictors were evaluated: 30 topographical and vegetation structure indexes from LiDAR data, and 32 spectral indexes and band transformations from the EO1-Hyperion sensor. A random forest algorithm was used to identify relevant variables in richness prediction, and these variables were used in turn to obtain a final multiple linear regression predictive model (Adjusted R2 = 0.651; RSE = 3.69. An independent validation survey was performed with significant results (Adjusted R2 = 0.571, RMSE = 5.05. Selected variables were statistically significant: catchment slope, altitude, standard deviation of slope, average slope, Multiresolution Ridge Top Flatness index (MrRTF and Digital Crown Height Model (DCM. The information provided by LiDAR delivered the best predictors, whereas hyperspectral data were discarded due to their low predictive power.

  6. Long-term responses of sandy beach crustaceans to the effects of coastal armouring after the 2010 Maule earthquake in South Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodil, Iván F.; Jaramillo, Eduardo; Acuña, Emilio; Manzano, Mario; Velasquez, Carlos

    2016-02-01

    Earthquakes and tsunamis are large physical disturbances frequently striking the coast of Chile with dramatic effects on intertidal habitats. Armouring structures built as societal responses to beach erosion and shoreline retreat are also responsible of coastal squeeze and habitat loss. The ecological implications of interactions between coastal armouring and earthquakes have recently started to be studied for beach ecosystems. How long interactive impacts persist is still unclear because monitoring after disturbance generally extends for a few months. During five years after the Maule earthquake (South Central Chile, February 27th 2010) we monitored the variability in population abundances of the most common crustacean inhabitants of different beach zones (i.e. upper, medium, and lower intertidal) at two armoured (one concrete seawall and one rocky revetment) and one unarmoured sites along the sandy beach of Llico. Beach morphology changed after the earthquake-mediated uplift, restoring upper- and mid-shore armoured levels that were rapidly colonized by typical crustacean species. However, post-earthquake increasing human activities affected the colonization process of sandy beach crustaceans in front of the seawall. Lower-shore crab Emerita analoga was the less affected by armouring structures, and it was the only crustacean species present at the three sites before and after the earthquake. This study shows that field sampling carried out promptly after major disturbances, and monitoring of the affected sites long after the disturbance is gone are effective approaches to increase the knowledge on the interactive effects of large-scale natural phenomena and artificial defences on beach ecology.

  7. VariaciOn morfolOgica de Phacelia secunda J.F. Gmel. (Hydrophyllaceae a lo largo de un gradiente a ltitudinal en Chile central Morphological variation of Phacelia secunda J.F. Gmel. (Hydrophyllaceae along an altitudinal gradient in central Chile

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    Lohengrin A. Cavieres

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Phacelia secunda J.F. Gmel. (Hydrophyllaceae es una hierba perenne que en Chile, y también en Argentina, presenta una amplia distribución, habitando desde Parinacota (18°S hasta Tierra del Fuego (54°S, y desde el nivel del mar hasta la alta cordillera. En este estudio se documentan algunas variaciones morfológicas que presenta esta especie a lo largo de un gradiente altitudinal desde los 1.600 m a los 3.400 m en los Andes de Chile central (33°S. Se encontró que el diámetro de las rosetas aumenta significativamente con la altitud, al igual que el número de inflorescencias por individuo y la longitud de la pubescencia. Por el contrario, la altura de las inflorescencias disminuye con la altitud. La tendencia a privilegiar el crecimiento vertical a bajas altitudes y el crecimiento horizontal en altitudes mayores sería una respuesta adaptativa a las frías condiciones de los ambientes de alta montaña. Del mismo modo, el aumento en la longitud de la pubescencia con la altitud sería una adaptación para mantener un balance térmico positivo y evitar los excesos de radiación en dichos ambientesPhacelia secunda J.F. Gmel. (Hydrophyllaceae is a perennial herb that both, in Chile and Argentina, shows a wide distributional range, inhabiting from Parinacota (18°S to Tierra del Fuego (54°S, and from the sea level up to the high Andes. In this study some morphological variations along an altitudinal gradient from 1600 to 3400 m in Andes of central Chile (33°S are reported. The diameter of the rosettes significantly increased with elevation, as well as the number of inflorescences per individual and the longitude of pubescence. In contrast, the height of inflorescences decreased with elevation. Tendencies for privileging vertical growth at lower elevations and horizontal growth at higher elevations would be adaptations to the cold and harsh climate of high mountain habitats. In a similar vein, the increase in the longitude of pubescence with

  8. Determination of trace elements in Pre-Hispanic ceramics from Chile's Central Zone using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of the element composition in archaeological ceramics is an often unexplored potential, that could provide a unique set of data to verify regional economic and socio-political hypotheses. By chemically defining the elements in these materials, their manufacturing and production centers may be identified, as well as the territorial and social organization of the peoples. Appropriate analytical methodologies for this type of research are limited since there are strict requirements with reference to precision, sensitivity and detection limits, all characteristics that the activation analysis technique provides. The Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, the University of Chile, the Smithsonian Institution and the International Atomic Energy Agency developed together a cooperative interregional project to promote interdisciplinary research, to resolve archaeological problems and to develop a new application for a nuclear analytical technique. Until this work was undertaken, no systematic studies of trace elements in archaeological ceramics had been done in Chile using the technique of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). This analytical technique was used in this research to chemically characterize archaeological pieces with the sensitivity, precision and accuracy needed to be able to work with mathematical models that can or cannot establish relationships between the different samples. Protocols were defined first for preparing the pottery samples in order to generate representative samples that could be analyzed by INAA. The homogeneity in preparing the samples used was defined using a group of elements that could be determined by INAA with a precision under 2%. A group of 18 elements was selected and an analytical test procedure was planned that included the type of packaging for the irradiation, the irradiation times, decline and count, the standards to be used and the type of monitor for correcting the neutron flow. The methodology used

  9. Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz during fruit development and maturation in Central Chile Contenidos de polifenoles y actividad antioxidante de maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz durante el desarrollo y maduración de frutos en Chile Central

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    Carolina Fredes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae is a Chilean native species which produces small berries that are mainly collected from the wild. The health benefits of maqui fruit are attributed to their high polyphenol content as well as their wide variety of anthocyanins and flavonols. One of the main factors that affect the polyphenol content in fruit is the maturity stage at harvest. The objective of this study was to determine total phenol and total anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity (by ferric reducing ability of plasma FRAP assay of maqui fruits harvested at different fruit maturity stages from two wild populations located in Central Chile. Each maturity stage was determined by days from fruit set, berry size, and soluble solids. Total phenol content declined while total anthocyanin content increased from the green to light red stage. Nevertheless, both total phenol and anthocyanin content increased from the light red to dark purple stage. The highest anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity was found in the late maturity stage (dark purple. The results show that ripening in maqui fruit can be expected with 1100 growing degree-days (91 d after fruit set in Central Chile. At this moment of harvest, fruits with 18-19 °Brix have the highest anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity (FRAP. This study constitutes the first advances in the understanding of maqui fruit ripening and corresponding antioxidant activity.El maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae es una especie nativa de Chile que produce unas bayas pequeñas que se recolectan principalmente de individuos silvestres. Los beneficios para la salud atribuidos a los frutos de maqui se deben a sus altos contenidos de polifenoles, así como a la gran variedad de antocianos y flavonoles. Uno de los principales factores que afectan el contenido de polifenoles en frutos es el estado de madurez a la cosecha. El objetivo de este estudio fue

  10. Estudio del comportamiento serológico de Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App en planteles porcinos comerciales de la zona central de Chile Serological behaviour study of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App in commercial swine herds from the central region of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Muñoz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En Chile se ha realizado sólo un estudio en Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App. Este trabajo pretende determinar la duración de la inmunidad materna, la edad de seroconversión y la prevalencia aparente y verdadera en 7 planteles de cerdos comerciales. Se obtuvieron 60 muestras por plantel, divididas en 10 muestras de suero, de animales de 4, 6, 10, 14,18 y 21 semanas de edad, y analizadas a través de un kit ELISA® comercial. De las 420 muestras se detectaron 134 positivas, de las cuales 112 correspondían a cerdos menores de 10 semanas y sólo 22 provenían de animales mayores de 10 semanas, que seroconvirtieron probablemente debido a una infección de campo. La caída de la inmunidad materna fue alrededor de la 10ª semana de edad. En cuanto a la seroconversión, se observó que a partir de la 18* semana comenzaron a aparecer los animales con anticuerpos circulantes propios. Dos de los siete planteles no seroconvirtieron. Además, dos presentaron una seroconversión igual o superior al 50% a las 18 semanas. La seroprevalencia aparente de App fue de 10,48%, mientras que prevalencia verdadera, mediante dos métodos estadísticos, fue de 9,6% (IC: 7,6% y 11,7% y 10,67% respectivamente. En este trabajo se encontró que la prevalencia es similar a la observada en EE.UU., debido presumiblemente al sistema de producción y a los serotipos que están presentes en ambos países. Por otro lado, si bien la mayoría de los planteles seroconvierten luego de la caída de la inmunidad materna, se observaron diferentes patrones serológicos entre ellos.In Chile, there was only one existing study on App. This study was designed to determine the maternal immunity duration, the age of seroconversion and the apparent and true prevalence in animals from 7 swine commercial herds. 60 samples were taken per herd and divided into 10 serum samples from animals of 4, 6,10,14,18and21 weeks of age, which were analyzed by ELISA®. Out of the 420 samples, 134 were

  11. Breeding distribution and abundance of seabirds on islands off north-central Chile Distribución reproductiva y abundancia de aves marinas en islas del norte y centro de Chile

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    ALEJANDRO SIMEONE

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Between 1999 and 2003 we collected information on the breeding distribution and abundance of 12 seabird species occurring on nine islands off the coasts of north and central Chile (27°-33°S. The Peruvian booby Sula variegata was the most abundant seabird with a breeding population of ca. 18,000 pairs concentrated in two islands, followed by the Humboldt penguin Spheniscus humboldti with ca. 9,000 pairs, the largest colony being at Chañaral Island with ca. 7,000 pairs. Kelp gulls Larus dominicanus bred at all the surveyed sites in colonies of variable size, ranging from 40 to 2,000 pairs. Peruvian diving-petrels Pelecanoides garnotii and Peruvian pelicans Pelecanus occidentalis bred at restricted sites, but generally in large colonies. Magellanic penguins Spheniscus magellanicus, wedge-rumped storm-petrels Oceanodroma tethys, Neotropical cormorants Hypoleucos brasiliensis, guanay cormorants Leucocarbo bougainvillii, red-legged cormorants Stictocarbo gairmardi, band-tailed gulls Larus belcheri and Inca terns Larosterna inca nested at few sites forming small colonies (from a few to 150 pairs. Two new breeding sites are reported for the Peruvian diving-petrel and nesting of the wedge-rumped storm-petrel is confirmed on the Chilean coast for the first time. Despite protective status, most of the islands showed human disturbance, derived mainly from guano harvesting, egging and tourism. On at least five of these islands we were able to confirm introduced mammals including rats, rabbits and cats. These factors are likely to be detrimental to seabirds and thus demand detailed assessment. Further comprehensive ornithological surveys in other areas are needed so as to improve the scarce knowledge that we currently have on the seabird populations along the Chilean coast

  12. Fungal parasites infect marine diatoms in the upwelling ecosystem of the Humboldt current system off central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Marcelo H; Jara, Ana M; Pantoja, Silvio

    2016-05-01

    This is the first report of fungal parasitism of diatoms in a highly productive coastal upwelling ecosystem, based on a year-round time series of diatom and parasitic Chytridiomycota abundance in the Humboldt Current System off Chile (36°30.80'S-73°07.70'W). Our results show co-variation in the presence of Skeletonema, Thalassiosira and Chaetoceros diatoms with attached and detached chytrid sporangia. High abundance of attached sporangia was observed during the austral spring, coinciding with a predominance of Thalassiosira and Skeletonema under active upwelling conditions. Towards the end of austral spring, a decreasing proportion of attached sporangia was accompanied by a decline in abundance of Skeletonema and Thalassiosira and the predominance of Chaetoceros, suggesting specificity and host density dependence of chytrid infection. The new findings on fungal parasitism of diatoms provide further support for the inclusion of Fungi in the current model of the role played by the marine microbial community in the coastal ocean. We propose a conceptual model where Fungi contribute to controlling the dynamics of phytoplankton populations, as well as the release of organic matter and the transfer of organic carbon through the pelagic trophic web in coastal upwelling ecosystems. PMID:26914416

  13. Sedimentology, paleontology and age of the Ayacara and Lago Ranco formations (south-central Chile, 40°- 42°S). Tectonic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encinas, Alfonso; Zambrano, Patricio; Bernabe, Pablo; Finger, Kenneth; Buatois, Luis; Duhart, Paul; Valencia, Victor; Fanning, M.; Herve, Francisco

    2010-05-01

    Deep-marine, Mio-Pliocene strata correlative with the Navidad Formation crop out in different areas along the forearc of south-central Chile (~34°-41°) and have also been recognized in boreholes drilles on the continental shelf. However, at Lago Ranco (40°S) and Ayacara (42°) there are outcrops of marine strata whose age and correlation with these units remain uncertain. These deposits consist of rhythmic successions of sandstone and siltstone representing facies similar to those of the Navidad and correlative formations. These marine successions are known ase the Estratos de Lago Ranco and Ayacara formations. They both crop out in the western Andean Cordillera near the limit with the Intermediate Depression at Lago Ranco and the submerged equivalent of this physiographic unit at Ayacara. There are very few studies carried out on these units and most of them consist on internal reports and unpublished theses.In order to unravel the sedimentary enviroment, age and tectonic history of this area during the Neogene we carried out sedimentological, ichnological and micropaleontological studies. In addition, we carried out U-Pb dating in detrital zircons (LAICPMS and SHRIMP). Our studies show the presence of sedimentary features and ichnofacies typical of deposition in a deep-marine environment for these units..In agreement, benthic foraminifers (Ciclamina incisa and Siphonodosaria sangrinensis) indicate lower bathial depths (1500 m). U-Pb (LAICPMS and SHRIMP) indicate a maximum depositional age of around 20 Ma for these units. In agreement, the occurrence of the planktic foraminifer species Globorotalia siakensis (P22-N14), Globigerinoides quadrilobatus (N6-Recent) and Globigerinoides sikanus (N8-N9) in strata of the Ayacara Formation suggest an early-middle Miocene age for this unit. These data indicate that the area corresponding to the western Main Andean Cordillera in south central Chile, was subjeted to major subsidence during the early-middle Miocene. Major

  14. Estructura comunitaria de diatomeas presentes en los sedimentos superficiales de ocho lagos andinos de Chile central Diatoms community structure in superficial sediments of eight Andean lakes of central Chile

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    INGRID E ALVIAL

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizó la estructura comunitaria de diatomeas depositadas en los sedimentos superficiales de ocho lagos andinos chilenos ubicados entre los 32°49' y 38°48' S. Se encontró un total de 99 taxa de diatomeas, distribuidos en 48 géneros. Del total de taxa, 74 fueron identificados a nivel de especie siendo todos ellos cosmopolitas a excepción de Eunotia andinofrequens, Gomphonema punae, Pinnularia araucanensis y Pinnularia acidicola, entre otras, que están descritos solo para el Hemisferio Sur. Por otro lado, las muestras analizadas presentaron distinta composición florística de diatomeas. De esta manera, en los ensambles diatomológicos depositados en los sedimentos de las lagunas de altura Ocho, Huifa, Ensueño y Negra ubicadas sobre los 2.860 m del nivel del mar, abundaron especies bentónicas, típicas de aguas oligotróficas y acidas como Achnanthidium exiguum, Achnanthidium minutissimum, Encyonema minutum, Pinnularia acidicola y Planothidium lanceolatum. En los ensambles diatomológicos de los lagos Galletué, Icalma y Laja, ubicados bajo los 1.360 m del nivel del mar, abundaron diatomeas planctónicas, características de aguas alcalinas y mesotróficas como Asterionella formosa, Aulacoseira distans, Aulacoseira granulata, Cyclotella stelligera y Rhopalodia gibbaIn this research the taxonomic structure of diatoms in sediments of high mountain lakes was studied. These lakes are located in Chile between 32°49' and 38°48' S in the Andean Cordillera. A total of 99 diatom taxa distributed in 48 genera were identified and all this taxa are cosmopolitan excepting a Eunotia andinofrequens, Gomphonema punae, Pinnularia araucanensis and Pinnularia acidicola, which are know only for the Southern Hemisphere. The assemblages of diatoms were different in the studied lakes. So the high mountain lakes Ocho, Huifa, Ensueño and Negra, dominated benthic diatoms which are typical of oligotrophic and acid waters as Achnanthidium

  15. Synchronous degassing patterns of the neighbouring volcanoes Llaima and Villarrica in south-central Chile: the influence of tidal forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredemeyer, Stefan; Hansteen, Thor H.

    2014-10-01

    The neighbouring volcanoes Villarrica and Llaima are two of the most active volcanoes in Chile and both currently degas continuously. We present a semi-continuous time series of SO2 fluxes for Villarrica and Llaima volcanoes. The time series was obtained using five scanning Mini-Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometers (Mini-DOAS, UV spectrometers) over 6 months (13 February to 31 July 2010) and is based on 6,829 scans for Villarrica and 7,165 scans for Llaima. Statistical analyses of the SO2 flux time series reveal a periodicity of degassing maxima about every 7 days, and further a conspicuous synchronicity of the degassing maxima and minima between the two volcanoes. Intra-day variations in SO2 fluxes also show a striking correlation between Villarrica and Llaima. All these patterns correlate well with the trend of the modelled solid Earth tide curves, where the 7-day degassing maxima correspond with both the fortnightly tidal maxima and minima. The intra-day degassing peaks mostly correlate well with the periods of maximum deformation rates during the diurnal tidal cycle, and further with semidiurnal minima in atmospheric pressure, a phenomenon we refer to as "the tidal pump". As there is little time lag between the tidal action and the changes in degassing rates, we infer that degassing at both volcanoes is controlled by conduit convection, involving physical separation between gas and magma at comparatively shallow levels. Variations in daily degassing rates were up to a factor of ca. 12 and 10 for Villarrica and Llaima, respectively, without any noticeable changes in the periodicity. We thus suggest that the described cyclic variations must be taken into account for all comparable volcanoes when using gas monitoring as a tool for volcanic hazard mitigation.

  16. Valinia INIA, a New Early Storage Onion Variety for Central South Chile Valinia INIA, una Nueva Variedad de Cebolla de Guarda Precoz para la Zona Centro Sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés González A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In Central South Chile, storage onion varieties (Allium cepa L. sold domestically usually begin the maturation process in March, which implies that a large proportion of bulbs do not mature adequately and do not resist prolonged storage. This situation led the Quilamapu vegetable program of the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA to select an early maturing onion variety. This breeding method involved a recurrent selection with free plant crossing that began in 1994 on a population of 2000 plants of the 'Valenciana' commercial variety. Plants were first selected when they reached physiological maturity (tops down before 28 February, and then for shape, size, storage capacity, and single-centered bulbs. The result of the program was 'Valinia INIA', a type of Valenciana onion variety: early maturing, medium-sized bulb, spherical, yellow, and resistant to sprouting during storage. From the 2001-2002 to the 2008-2009 season, variety assays were carried out to compare 'Valinia INIA' with commercial cultivars, i.e., 'Sintética 14', 'Grano de Oro', and 'Valenciana Cobra'. 'Valinia INIA' precocity exceeded the other varieties in all seasons with a mean of 1.5 wk ahead of 'Sintética 14', which is the earliest commercial variety and more than 2 wk ahead of the other two. Its yield is similar to 'Valenciana Cobra' and higher than the other two varieties. Its storage capacity is similar to 'Grano de Oro' and 'Sintética 14', but greater than 'Valenciana Cobra'.En la zona centro sur de Chile es habitual que las variedades de cebolla (Allium cepa L. de guarda que se comercializan en el pais inicien el proceso de maduración preferentemente en marzo, lo que conlleva a que una gran proporción de bulbos no madure adecuadamente, no resistiendo el almacenaje por un tiempo prolongado. Esta situación llevó al programa de hortalizas del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA Quilamapu a la selección de una variedad de cebolla de madurez

  17. Fecal Contamination of Groundwater in a Small Rural Dryland Watershed in Central Chile Contaminación Fecal en Agua Subterránea en una Pequeña Cuenca de Secano Rural en Chile Central

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    Mariela Valenzuela

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on microbiological groundwater quality was conducted in Chile in a rural watershed that has almost no other water source. Forty-two wells were randomly selected and levels of indicator bacteria - total coliforms (TC, fecal coliforms (FC, and fecal streptococci (FS - were repeatedly measured during the four seasons of 2005. The aim of this study was to characterize microbiological groundwater quality, relate indicator levels to certain watershed features and management characteristics which are likely to affect water quality. The dynamics of seasonal temporal contamination was determined with statistical analyses of indicator organism concentrations. Nonparametric tests were used to analyze relationships between bacterial indicators in well water and other variables. TC, FC, and FS were found in all samples indicating the wells had been contaminated with human and animal fecal material. The frequency distribution of microorganisms fitted a logistic distribution. The concentrations appeared to be temporal and levels varied between seasons with higher concentrations in winter. The cause of contamination could be linked to the easy access of domestic animals to the wells and to the permeable well casing material. Local precipitation runoff directly influenced the bacterial concentrations found in the wells.Se realizó una investigación de la calidad microbiológica de las aguas subterráneas en una cuenca rural chilena. En esta cuenca prácticamente no había otra fuente de agua disponible. En 42 pozos seleccionados al azar, se midieron niveles de bacterias indicadoras en cuatro temporadas distintas durante el año 2005. Las bacterias incluyeron coliformes totales (TC, coliformes fecales (FC y Estreptococos fecales (FS. El objetivo fue caracterizar la calidad microbiológica del agua subterránea y relacionar los indicadores con ciertas propiedades y el manejo de la cuenca que pueden afectar la calidad del agua. La dinámica temporal de la

  18. Receiver Function Migration of Broadband Seismograms recorded by the International Maule Aftershock Deployment (IMAD) in Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morell, M.; Beck, S. L.; Roecker, S. W.; Meltzer, A.; Russo, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Mw=8.8 Maule earthquake that occurred off the coast of Chile on February 27, 2010 is one of the largest megathrust earthquakes ever to be recorded and ruptured ~600 km of the plate boundary. This segment of the Nazca-South America plate boundary is an ideal region to investigate the processes related to the structure of the down-dip edge of the seismogenic zone, forearc wedge and subducting slab. Immediately after the Maule earthquake, international teams from France, Germany, Great Britain and the United States joined Chilean seismologists to install an array of seismic stations between 33°-38.5°S, from the coast to the foothills of the Andes to produce the International Maule Aftershock Deployment (IMAD) data set. These arrays were deployed from mid-March until the end of December 2010 in order to capture and study the aftershocks in and around the rupture zone, and to better understand crustal and mantle wedge structure. We calculated receiver functions (RFs) from P and PP phases and made Common Conversion Point stacks to image the structures in the slab and forearc wedge down to a depth of 100 km. We have identified the oceanic slab Moho on several E-W and N-S profiles at 40 to 60 km depth beneath the array and several discontinuities above the slab in the forearc. These profiles also show a large low-velocity zone beneath the northern half of the array in the forearc. In addition, we are using a 2.5D finite difference teleseismic waveform tomography technique described in Roecker et al. (2010) to image the crust and upper mantle beneath that part of the Chilean Andes occupied by the IMAD array and the earlier TIPTEQ deployment of Rietbrock et al. (2005). While the technique does not require any kind of formal source deconvolution, in sparse deployments we can apply this technique in an RF type migration by normalizing medium sensitivities. Both these techniques will improve our imaging of the down-dip limit of the seismogenic zone, forearc wedge and

  19. The relation of the mid-Tertiary coastal magmatic belt in south-central Chile to the late Oligocene increase in plate convergence rate

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    Jorge Muñoz

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The mid-Tertiary Coastal Magmatic Belt in south-central Chile, which crops out both in the Central Valley and, south of 41°S, in the Coastal Cordillera as far west as the Pacific coast, formed when the locus of Andean magmatic activity expanded, both to the west and to the east relative to its previous and current location in the Main Cordillera. This expansion of the magmatic arc occurred in conjunction with a regionally widespread episode of late Oligocene to Miocene extension which thinned the crust below the proto-Central Valley in south-central Chile and generated sedimentary basins west of, within, and east of the Main Cordillera. The extrusive rocks of the mid-Tertiary Coastal Magmatic Belt are interbedded with the late Oligocene to Miocene continental and marine sediments deposited in these basins, and forty-seven of the fifty new and previously published age determinations for these rocks are within the time period 29 Ma (late Oligocene to 18.8 Ma (early Miocene. The initiation of extension, basin formation and the westward migration of magmatic activity coincides closely to the beginning, in the late Oligocene, of the current period of both high convergence rate (>10 cm/yr and less oblique convergence, which together resulted in an approximately three-fold increase in trench-normal convergence rate between the Nazca and South American plates. Extension continued, along with a transient steepening of subduction angle as indicated by the westward migration of the volcanic front during the formation of the mid-Tertiary Coastal Magmatic Belt, during an approximately 10 million year period after the trench-normal convergence rate tripled across the Nazca and South American plate boundary. The mid-Tertiary Coastal Magmatic Belt includes igneous rocks chemically similar to modern Andean arc magmas, as well as rocks with ocean island basalt chemical affinities characterised by lower Ba/La (+5. The latter formed by melting of mantle

  20. Positive interactions between alpine plant species and the nurse cushion plant Laretia acaulis do not increase with elevation in the Andes of central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavieres, Lohengrin A; Badano, Ernesto I; Sierra-Almeida, Angela; Gómez-González, Susana; Molina-Montenegro, Marco A

    2006-01-01

    In alpine habitats, positive interactions among plants tend to increase with elevation as a result of altitudinal increase in environmental harshness. However, in mountains located in arid zones, lower elevations are also stressful because of scarce availability of water, suggesting that positive interactions may not necessarily increase with elevation. Here we analysed the spatial association of plant species with the nurse cushion plant Laretia acaulis at two contrasting elevations, and monitored the survival of seedlings of two species experimentally planted within and outside cushions in the semiarid Andes of central Chile. Positive spatial associations with cushions were more frequent at lower elevations. Species growing at the two elevations changed the nature of their association with cushions from neutral or negative at higher elevations to positive at lower elevations. Survival of seedlings was higher within cushions, particularly at lower elevations. The increased facilitation by cushions at lower elevations seems to be related to provision of moisture. This result suggests that cushion plants play a critical role in structuring alpine plant communities at lower elevations, and that climatic changes in rainfall could be very relevant for persistence of plant communities. PMID:16390419

  1. Application of stable isotopes to evaluate groundwater recharge of a coastal aquifer in North-Central Chile and its role in vegetation dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The understanding of the water sources for plant growth is one of the key elements to evaluate the present and long term primary productivity in arid ecosystems. We use stable isotope tools to evaluate the recharge mechanisms in a coastal aquifer located in the arid zone of north-central Chile. The main water sources in the study area, fog, rain and groundwater, were isotopically characterized over a decade. The isotope data confirmed that fog does not play any role in groundwater recharge. The water table and isotope data showed that during low water conditions (dry periods), the aquifer is maintained primarily by water recharged in the higher part of the Romeral basin. During high water table conditions (wet periods), recharge associated with local precipitation becomes a significant source of groundwater recharge. The aquifer responded very fast to rains with amounts over the average level for precipitation (like El Nino conditions), while no recharge was detected with precipitation events lower than the average value for precipitation. The recharge pattern can also influence the behavior of plants characterized by a dimorphic root systems than can perform hydraulic redistribution. Part of the fast recharge of the aquifer could be related to this water redistribution. (author)

  2. Patrón de asentamiento durante el periodo Alfarero en la cuenca de Santiago, Chile Central: Una mirada a la escala local Settlement pattern during the early Ceramic period in the Santiago basin, Central Chile: A view at the local level

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    Luis Cornejo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan y discuten la metodología y los resultados de prospecciones superficiales de alta intensidad realizadas en el extremo meridional de la cuenca de Santiago, poniendo énfasis en una escala de análisis hasta ahora no considerada en la arqueología de Chile Central, que es el estudio sistemático de la localidad. Los resultados muestran que el patrón de asentamiento denota una alta concentración de ocupaciones domésticas del periodo Alfarero temprano, continuadas más tardíamente pero con menor intensidad. Estas ocupaciones resultan estar vinculadas a la disponibilidad en esta localidad de recursos de aguas superficiales y reflejarían una forma de ocupar el espacio definida por unidades domésticas dispersas que en sus cercanías tendrían a otras unidades sociales no necesariamente vinculadas socialmente.This paper presents the methodology and results of intensive surface surveys carried out in the southern Santiago Basin, focused on the locality, a scale of analysis not previously undertaken in archeological studies of Central Chile. The settlement pattern point out to a high concentration of Early Ceramic Period domestic occupations, followed by less intense occupations during the Late Ceramic Period. These occupations were linked to the availability in this locality of surface water resources and reflect a way of occupying space defined by scattered domestic units , in whose vicinity were other domestic units, although not necessarily connected socially.

  3. Deformación frágil de los depósitos neógenos de la cuenca de Navidad (Cordillera de la Costa, 34°S, Chile central Brittle deformation of the Neogene deposits of the Navidad Basin (Coastal Cordillera, 34°S, central Chile

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    Alain Lavenu

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available En la cuenca neógena de Navidad, situada en la Cordillera de la Costa de Chile central (~34°S, se identificaron una serie de deformaciones frágiles que fueron generadas durante el Mioceno Tardío y el Plioceno. A partir del análisis numérico de planos de microfallas y sus estrías, se determinaron las direcciones principales de los esfuerzos producidos por diversos eventos tectónicos extensionales y compresivos. Los resultados obtenidos en la cuenca de Navidad permiten concluir que durante el Mioceno Tardío-Plioceno Temprano se produjo una extensión con dirección desconocida. Posteriormente, una deformación extensional, de dirección aproximada este-oeste, afecta a esta zona durante todo el Plioceno. Durante esta época se produce un corto pulso tectónico compresivo de dirección este oeste. A pesar de este evento compresivo la cuenca marina de Navidad se desarrolló esencialmente en un ambiente tectónico extensional durante todo el NeógenoIn the Neogene Navidad Basin, located in the Coastal Range of central Chile (34°S, a series of brittle deformations generated during the Late Miocene and Pliocene, were observed. Based on the numerical analysis of microfault planes and their slickensides, the main stress directions, caused by various extensional and compressive tectonic events, were determined. Results obtained in the Navidad Basin indicate that an extension of unknown direction occurred during the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene. Thereafter, extensional deformation orientated approximately east-west, affected this zone during the whole of the Pliocene. During this epoch a short east-west compressive pulse occurred. In spite of this compressive event, the marine Navidad Basin developed essentially in an extensional tectonic regime during the entire Neogene

  4. Talla de madurez y época de desove de la reineta (Brama australis Valenciennes, 1836 en la costa central de Chile Maturity size and spawning time of the Pacific pomfret (Brama australis Valenciennes, 1836 in the central coast of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elson Leal

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La reineta (Brama australis adquiere cada vez mayor importancia en los desembarques de la pesca artesanal, no obstante, es escasa la información que existe acerca de su biología básica, particularmente sobre su dinámica reproductiva. En este trabajo se determina la época principal de desove de B. australis en la costa central de Chile y la talla de madurez (TM, para lo cual se analizó un total de 1061 individuos capturados frente a Lebu (37º37'S-73º40'W, entre enero y septiembre de 2001. El análisis macroscópico de los ovarios, mostró ejemplares sexualmente maduros durante todo el período de muestreo. El Indice Gonadosomático (IGS presentó fluctuaciones que indican un extenso período de desove, con un máximo invernal (junio-agosto. La TM se calculó a partir del método de longitud del 50% de hembras maduras a los 36,9 cm longitud horquilla (LH, con intervalo de confianza entre 35,3 y 37,8 cm y en 39 cm LH mediante el método del Incremento Relativo del IGS (IR.IGS. Debido a que las capturas ocurrieron principalmente en ejemplares sobre 39 cm LH, la flota estaría extrayendo mayoritariamente peces madurosLandings of Pacific pomfret (Brama australis is acquiring an increasing importance to the Chilean artisanal fishery. However, lack of information regarding its basic biology, in particular, reproductive dynamics, still persists. In this work we determine the spawning season of B. australis in the central coast of Chile and the length of maturity (LM. A total of 1061 individuals captured in the coastal zone of Lebu (37°37'S-73°40'W, Chile, between January and September 2001, were analyzed. Macroscopic analysis of ovaries, showed sexually mature individuals throughout the sampling period. Gonadosomatic Index (IGS showed fluctuations indicative of extensive spawning periods, with a maximum in the austral winter season (June-August. LM of females was estimated with the length at 50% maturity method, in 36.9 cm fork length (LH, with

  5. Effects of massive wind power integration on short-term water resource management in central Chile - a grid-wide study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, J.; Olivares, M. A.; Palma, R.

    2013-12-01

    In central Chile, water from reservoirs and streams is mainly used for irrigation and power generation. Hydropower reservoirs operation is particularly challenging because: i) decisions at each plant impact the entire power system, and ii) the existence of large storage capacity implies inter-temporal ties. An Independent System Operator (ISO) decides the grid-wide optimal allocation of water for power generation, under irrigation-related constraints. To account for the long-term opportunity cost of water, a future cost function is determined and used in the short term planning. As population growth and green policies demand increasing levels of renewable energy in power systems, deployment of wind farms and solar plants is rising quickly. However, their power output is highly fluctuating on short time scales, affecting the operation of power plants, particularly those fast responding units as hydropower reservoirs. This study addresses these indirect consequences of massive introduction of green energy sources on reservoir operations. Short-term reservoir operation, under different wind penetration scenarios, is simulated using a replica of Chile's ISO's scheduling optimization tools. Furthermore, an ongoing study is exploring the potential to augment the capacity the existing hydro-power plants to better cope with the balancing needs due to a higher wind power share in the system. As reservoir releases determine to a great extent flows at downstream locations, hourly time series of turbined flows for 24-hour periods were computed for selected combinations between new wind farms and increased capacity of existing hydropower plants. These time series are compiled into subdaily hydrologic alteration (SDHA) indexes (Zimmerman et al, 2010). The resulting sample of indexes is then analyzed using duration curves. Results show a clear increase in the SDHA for every reservoir of the system as more fluctuating renewables are integrated into the system. High

  6. Hábitos alimentarios de Dosidicus gigas (D' Orbigny, 1835 (Cephalopoda: Teuthoidea frente a la costa centro-sur de Chile Feeding habits of Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835 (Cephalopoda: Teuthoidea in the central-south coast off Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIO ULLOA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron los hábitos alimentarios del calamar rojo Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835 frente a la costa de Chile centro-sur, durante el invierno del año 2005. Se examinaron un total de 52 estómagos, en todos los cuales había contenido alimentario. Los ejemplares provenían de pescas efectuadas por la flota arrastrera industrial que opera entre 36°39' S y 38°55'S sobre la merluza común Merluccius gayi (Guichenot 1848 y a una profundidad media de 290 m sobre la plataforma continental. Para la descripción del espectro trófico, alimento principal y el establecimiento de las eventuales diferencias sexuales u ontogenéticas en la frecuencia de aparición de los ítemes presa, se utilizaron los métodos numérico, gravimétrico, de frecuencia de ocurrencia, índice de importancia relativa (IIR e índice de similitud porcentual (ISP. No se observaron diferencias sexuales ni ontogenéticas en la frecuencia de aparición de los ítemes presa. Los resultados muestran que D. gigas es un depredador oportunista, principalmente ictiófago, y secundariamente malacófago (incluye el canibalismo y carcinófago. Se discuten los eventuales motivos e implicancias de tal conductaA study on the feeding habits of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835 was carried out during the winter season 2005, in waters of the Chilean central and southern Pacific. A total of 52 jumbo squid stomachs from the fishing of the continental slope were collected and examined, in the Eighth and Ninth regions, between 36°40' S and 38°55'S, at an average depth of 290 m. To determine the trophic spectrum, the feeding preferences and the importance of the sex and ontogenetic condition in the diet, the numeric, gravimetric, frequency of occurrence methods, and the index of relative importance and dietary similarity were utilized. The frequency of the prey did not vary with relation to the sex and ontogenetic conditions, and was besides a hight trophic similarity in such

  7. Water Erosion Prediction Using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE in a GIS Framework, Central Chile Estimación de la Erosión Hídrica Empleando la Ecuación Universal de Pérdida de Suelo Revisada (RUSLE y SIG en Chile Central

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    Carlos A Bonilla

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion is a growing problem in Central Chile, particularly in coastal dry lands, where it can significantly decrease the productivity of rainfed agriculture and forestry. In this study, the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE was integrated into a Geographic Information System (GIS, and used to evaluate the effects of different combinations of vegetative cover on soil erosion rates for Santo Domingo County in Central Chile. Implementing RUSLE in the GIS required a complete description of the county’s soils, climate, topography and current land use/land cover. This information was compiled in rasters of 25 x 25 m cells. RUSLE parameter values were assigned to each cell and annual soil loss estimates were generated on a cell by cell basis. Soil losses were estimated for the current and for three alternate scenarios of vegetative cover. Under current conditions, 39.7% of the county is predicted to have low erosion rates ( 1.1 t ha-1 yr-1. The remainder of the surface (10.2% is not subject to erosion. Under the recommended alternate scenario, 89.3% of the county is predicted to have low erosion rates, and no areas are affected by high soil loss, reducing soil erosion to a level that will not affect long term productivity. This paper describes how RUSLE was implemented in the GIS, and the methodology and equations used to evaluate the effects of the land use/land cover changes.La erosión hídrica es un problema creciente en la Zona Central de Chile, especialmente en el Secano Costero, donde reduce la productividad de los suelos agrícolas y forestales. En este trabajo se empleó la Ecuación Universal de Pérdida de Suelo Revisada (RUSLE integrada a un Sistema de Información Geográfica (GIS para evaluar el efecto de distintas combinaciones de cubierta vegetal en las tasas de erosión en la comuna de Santo Domingo, Chile. La implementación de RUSLE en el GIS requirió la caracterización de suelos, clima, relieve y uso actual del

  8. K-Ar geochronologic evidence for a triassic metamorphic event in the main Chiloe Island, south-central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pioneers geological reconnaissance studies in the Chiloe Archipelago recognised a Palaeozoic metamorphic basement (Saliot, 1969; Watters and Fleming, 1972; Valenzuela, 1982; Valdivia, 1986). Currently in progress geologic studies (Munoz et al., 1999, Duhart et al., 2000; Antinao et al., 2000) interpreted these rocks as part of the Bahia Mansa Metamorphic Complex (Duhart et al., 2000), well exposed to the north and equivalent to the 'Serie Occidental' (Aguirre et al., 1972). Geochronologic data set indicate that this complex evolved during Devonian to Triassic times. In the main Chiloe Island, this metamorphic complex is mainly conform by metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks covered by Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic rocks and Quaternary glacial, fluvial, estuarine, beach, eolian and fluvial deposits. According to north-west and north-south lineament observed in satellite images, regional magnetic maps and topographic features, the main Chiloe island have been divide in northern, central and southern segments (Munoz et al., 1999). These lineaments are interpreted as regional faults but their ages and cinematic are not well constrained. The central segment was interpreted as an uplifted tectonic block and recent studies in the northern part of this segment have identified an intrusive body herein named as 'Metalqui Pluton'. Although the age of this pluton is unknown yet, Cretaceous intrusive rocks in the same tectonic setting of the Metalqui Pluton have been reported in the Valdivia area (Munizaga et al., 1988; Duhart et al., 1998). Previous U-Pb radiometric ages for detrital zircons from pelitic schists in the northern segment indicated a maximum sediment deposition age during Early to Middle Devonian (Duhart et al., 1999). Also, Triassic K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar ages have been determined for the main metamorphic and tectonic event. This contribution report Triassic K-Ar ages for the central segment and discuss their regional significance (au)

  9. Estudio hidrogeoquímico en la cuenca altiplánica de Pampa Lirima, Andes Centrales (Chile)

    OpenAIRE

    Achurra, Luciano; Custodio Gimena, Emilio; Aguirre, Igor; Arcos, Rodrigo; Clavero, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    La cuenca de Pampa Lirima se ubica en el límite occidental del Altiplano. Las cumbres y zonas elevadas (4200-5800 msnm) de la cuenca se componen de rocas volcánicas del Oligoceno a Plioceno, donde localmente se desarrollan acuíferos colgados y acuitardos en los sectores afectados por alteración hidrotermal. En la zona central más deprimida (4000-4200 msnm) la cuenca está rellena de depósitos aluviales y pluvioglaciales, que forman un acuífero intergranular libre y artesiano en sectores pun...

  10. Aftershock seismicity and tectonic setting of the 2015 September 16 Mw 8.3 Illapel earthquake, Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Dietrich; Geersen, Jacob; Barrientos, Sergio; Moreno, Marcos; Grevemeyer, Ingo; Contreras-Reyes, Eduardo; Kopp, Heidrun

    2016-08-01

    Powerful subduction zone earthquakes rupture thousands of square kilometres along continental margins but at certain locations earthquake rupture terminates. To date, detailed knowledge of the parameters that govern seismic rupture and aftershocks is still incomplete. On 2015 September 16, the Mw 8.3 Illapel earthquake ruptured a 200 km long stretch of the Central Chilean subduction zone, triggering a tsunami and causing significant damage. Here, we analyse the temporal and spatial pattern of the coseismic rupture and aftershocks in relation to the tectonic setting in the earthquake area. Aftershocks cluster around the area of maximum coseismic slip, in particular in lateral and downdip direction. During the first 24 hr after the main shock, aftershocks migrated in both lateral directions with velocities of approximately 2.5 and 5 km hr-1. At the southern rupture boundary, aftershocks cluster around individual subducted seamounts that are related to the downthrusting Juan Fernández Ridge. In the northern part of the rupture area, aftershocks separate into an upper cluster (above 25 km depth) and a lower cluster (below 35 km depth). This dual seismic-aseismic transition in downdip direction is also observed in the interseismic period suggesting that it may represent a persistent feature for the Central Chilean subduction zone.

  11. Estabilidad temporal de las infracomunidades de parásitos en la borrachilla Scartichthys viridis (Valenciennes, 1836 (Pisces : Blenniidae en la costa central de Chile Temporal stability in parasite infracommunities of the blenny Scartichthys viridis(Valenciennes, 1836 (Pisces: Blenniidae on the central coast of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREDDY DÍAZ

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se comparan las infracomunidades de parásitos de la borrachilla Scartichthys viridis (Pisces: Blenniidae de tres muestras tomadas en un lapso de 17 meses, entre 1999 y 2001, desde pozas intermareales vecinas a Las Cruces (33°27' S, 71°37' O, Chile central. El objetivo es averiguar si la riqueza, diversidad, abundancia y composición de las infracomunidades de parásitos son persistentes o no en el tiempo ontogenético y cronológico. Se recolectaron 10 taxa parasitarios en cerca del 89 % de los 63 huéspedes examinados, de los cuales ocho eran metazoarios. La búsqueda de protozoos se realizó sólo en los últimos 2 años. El 75 % de los ocho taxa de metazoos ocurrieron en los tres años, uno no estuvo presente en un año, y otro fue encontrado solamente en un año. La mayoría de los huéspedes examinados albergaba protozoos parásitos. La prevalencia de los protozoos Cryptobia sp. fue alta para ambos años, y menor en Trichodina sp. La longitud total de los huéspedes era un predictor relevante de las variaciones en la riqueza, abundancia, diversidad y composición infracomunitaria en el conjunto de los tres años. En cambio, el año de muestreo no lo fue, en particular al comparar entre huéspedes de similar longitud total. Estos resultados son similares a los encontrados en infracomunidades de parásitos de otras especies de peces en Chile, en que hay baja variabilidad en las propiedades agregadas de las infracomunidades en el tiempo cronológico. Se discute acerca de la extensión relativa del tiempo ontogenético en contraste al tiempo cronológico al ser probablemente ambos de importancia en las características de las infracomunidades, y se propone que se explore la medida en la cual estos resultados constituyen un patrón.Parasite infracommunities of the blenny Scartichthys viridis (Pisces: Blenniidae are compared among three samples taken within a 17-month period during three consecutive years (1999-2001, from intertidal pools at

  12. Karyotypic polymorphism and evolution within and between the Liolaemus monticola (Iguanidae "northern 2n = 38-40" chromosome race populations in central Chile Polimorfismo cromosómico y evolución intra e inter poblacional de la raza cromosómica "Norte 2n = 28-40" de Liolaemus monticola (Iguanidae en Chile Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MADELEINE LAMBOROT

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal genotypes were scored from 359 Liolaemus monticola lizards of the "northern, 2n = 38-40" chromosomal race from 21 locality samples between the Maipo (and one of its tributaries and the Aconcagua (and one of its tributaries ribers, plus a sample from the interracial hybridization zone, and some representative locality samples of the "southern 2n = 34" and the "multiple fission 2n = 42-44" chromosomal races for comparisons. The first seven variable chromosomal pairs were coded as Mendelian genotypes and statistically summarized by several clustering and population genetic algorithms. Spatial and temporal differentiation was assessed by chromosome frequencies, chromosomal diversity and heterozygosity. While no differentiation was found for diversity in the "northern 2n = 38-40" race, chromosomal frequencies and heterozygosity showed significant spatial differentiation that permit distinguishing between the coastal, Andean and transversal mountain range populations. The sample of Cuesta Chacabuco may represent a hybrid zone between the other two range samples. The origin of the chromosomal rearrangements, the population cytogenetics, and the recombination patterns resulting from chromosomal heterozygosity are compared in these chromosomal races, thus expanding the geographical area. These patterns are discussed with respect to the evolution of this complex in Chile and the importance of the riverine barriers in central ChileSe cuantificaron los "genotipos" cromosómicos para 359 lagartijas de 21 muestras poblacionales de la raza "Norte, 2n = 38-40" comprendida entre los ríos: río Maipo y uno de sus afluentes el río Yeso y río Aconcagua (y uno de sus afluentes el río Juncal. Con fines comparativos agregamos una muestra de la zona de hibridación interracial, algunas muestras representativas de la raza "Sur 2n = 34" y una de la raza "múltiples fisiones 2n = 42-44". Los siete primeros pares cromosómicos variables fueron codificados

  13. Fission track thermochronology of Neogene plutons in the Principal Andean Cordillera of central Chile (33-35°S): Implications for tectonic evolution and porphyry Cu-Mo mineralization Termocronología mediante trazas de fision de plutones neógenos en la Cordillera Principal Andina de Chile central (33-35°S): Implicancias para la evolución tectónica y mineralización de pórfidos de Cu-Mo

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Maksaev; Francisco Munizaga; Marcos Zentilli; Reynaldo Charrier

    2009-01-01

    Apatite fission track data for Miocene plutons of the western slope of the Principal Andean Cordillera in central Chile (33-35°S) define a distinct episode of enhanced crustal cooling through the temperature range of the apatite partial annealing zone (~125-60°C) from about 6 to 3 Ma. This cooling episode is compatible with accelerated exhumation of the plutons at the time of Pliocene compressive tectonism, and mass wasting on the western slope of the Principal Andean Cordillera in central Ch...

  14. Multiscale upwelling forcing cycles and biological response off north-central Chile Ciclos multiescala en el forzamiento de la surgencia y respuesta biológica en el centro-norte de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ RUTLLANT

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The physical forcing of the upwelling along the subtropical west coasts of the continents encompasses a broad range of time scales which shape both phytoplankton biomass (Chl-a and primary productivity (carbon fixation changes over any given time interval. The narrow continental shelf and the steep alongshore orography off north-central Chile provide for a unique combination of year-round, upwelling-favorable winds with quasi-weekly upwelling pulses associated with atmospheric coastal-trapped disturbances (coastal lows. This variability is modulated by intraseasonal oscillations in the depth of the thermo/nutricline, produced by coastal-trapped waves in the ocean, upon which annual (seasons and interannual (ENSO cycles are superimposed. During coastal field experiments off Cruz Grande bay (29º S, carried on in November 1987 and 1988 (opposite extremes of the ENSO cycle, mean changes of the phytoplankton-integrated Chl-a (B and carbon fixation rate (PP from the active to the relaxed phases of the local upwelling forcing cycle (phyto-pattern were characterized. Those data were contrasted against similar ones reported off Punta Lengua de Vaca (Coquimbo, 30º S and off Mejillones peninsula (Antofagasta, 23º S, encompassing different seasons and phases of intraseasonal and interannual (ENSO cycles from 1992 to 1997. A "warm" phyto-pattern was schematically characterized by a significant increase in B and a quasi-steady evolution of PP from the active to the relaxed phases of one complete upwelling event. Conversely, relative small changes in B and a significant increase in PP characterized a "cold" phyto-pattern. It is proposed here that the ENSO "cold/warm" signal may be offset by more than one opposite "thermal" condition (seasonal and/or intraseasonal in defining a "warm" or "cold" phyto-pattern associated with a particular cycle of the local upwelling forcingEl forzamiento físico de la surgencia a lo largo de las costas occidentales de los

  15. Satellite-measured interannual variability of turbid river plumes off central-southern Chile: Spatial patterns and the influence of climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldías, Gonzalo S.; Largier, John L.; Mendes, Renato; Pérez-Santos, Iván; Vargas, Cristian A.; Sobarzo, Marcus

    2016-08-01

    Ocean color imagery from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) onboard the Aqua platform is used to characterize the interannual variability of turbid river plumes off central-southern Chile. Emphasis is placed on the influence of climate fluctuations, namely El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and the Antarctic Oscillation (AAO). Additional satellite data on wind, boat-based hydrographic profiles, and regional climate indices are used to identify the influence of climate variability on the generation of anomalous turbid river plumes. The evolution of salinity at a coastal station on the 90 m isobath between the Itata and Biobío Rivers shows a freshwater surface layer with salinity < 32.5 and 5-10 m thick during major plume events in 2002, 2005 and 2006. Surface salinity minima are correlated with peaks in turbidy from the normalized water leaving radiance at 555 nm (nLw(555)), both representing turbid river plumes. EOF analysis reveals that major turbid plume events occurred primarily during warm phases of the ENSO and PDO, and negative phases of the AAO, when storm tracks are further north. Anomalously large turbid plumes extend long distances offshore (∼ 70-80 km), and individual plumes coalesce into a continuous plume along the coast that covers the entire continental shelf. Season-specific correlation analyses reveal an increased influence of the AAO on river plumes south of Punta Lavapié in spring-summer (negative correlation). North of this major cape, ENSO and PDO indices have a dominant influence on plumes with positive correlations with the nLw(555) signal in winter (and negative in summer). We discuss the biogeochemical implications of plume events and the importance of long-term and high-resolution ocean color observations for studying the temporal evolution of river plumes.

  16. Seasonal mercury concentrations and δ15N and δ13C values of benthic macroinvertebrates and sediments from a historically polluted estuary in south central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lenga Estuary is one of the most industrialized sites in south central Chile where the historic operation of chlor-alkali plants resulted in large quantities of mercury (Hg) being deposited into the estuary. This historical contamination may still represent a risk to the biota in the estuary. To investigate this four macroinvertebrates, Neotrypaea uncinata (ghostshrimp), Elminius kingii (barnacle), Hemigrapsus crenulatus (shore crab) and Perinereis gualpensis (ragworm) were collected seasonally from three different sites in the Lenga Estuary and one in a reference estuary (Tubul Estuary), and analyzed for Hg and stable isotopes (δ15N and δ13C). Mercury concentrations in Lenga sediments ranged from 0.4 ± 0.1 to 13 ± 3 mg/kg, while those in Tubul sediments ranged from 0.02 ± 0.01 to 0.07 ± 0.09 mg/kg. Total Hg concentrations of invertebrates were significantly different between estuaries (p 0.05). In contrast, organic Hg concentrations were different by species and season with shore crab muscle tissues exhibiting the greatest percent difference. Site-specific relationships demonstrated that total Hg concentrations in ragworm best reflected the total Hg sediment mercury concentrations. Signatures of δ13C were correlated to the organic Hg % rather than total Hg. This suggests that organic Hg concentrations in these species were related to the carbon sources. -- Highlights: ► Hg in sediments and biota from Lenga Estuary were elevated compared to nearby estuary. ► Invertebrates showed interspecific and seasonal differences in terms of organic Hg %. ► Total Hg levels in the ragworm best reflect Hg sediment gradient in Lenga Estuary. ► Interspecific variation in δ13C signatures indicated different feeding modes. ► Organic forms of Hg in invertebrates were mainly related to the carbon sources.

  17. Biases in determining the diet of jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (D' Orbigny 1835) (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) off southern-central Chile (34°S-40°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Christian M.; Arancibia, Hugo; Cubillos, Luis A.

    2008-12-01

    The diet of jumbo squid ( Dosidicus gigas) off southern-central Chile is described to examine potential biases in the determination of their main prey. Specimens were collected from catches using different fishing gear (jigging, trawl and purse-seine), from July 2003 to January 2004, and from December 2005 to October 2006. The stomach contents were analyzed in terms of frequency of occurrence, number, and weight of prey items and the diet composition was analyzed using Detrended Correspondence Analysis. In the industrial purse-seine fleet for jack mackerel ( Trachurus murphyi), the dominant prey of D. gigas was T. murphyi. In the industrial mid-trawl fishery for Patagonian grenadier ( Macruronus magellanicus), the dominant species in the diet of D. gigas was M. magellanicus. Similarly, Chilean hake ( Merluccius gayi) was the main prey in the diet of D. gigas obtained in the industrial trawl fishery for Chilean hake; and, in both artisanal fisheries (purse-seine for small pelagics and jigging), small pelagic fish and D. gigas were the main prey in the stomach contents of D. gigas. Cannibalism in D. gigas varied between different fleets and probably is related to stress behavior during fishing. The Detrended Correspondence Analysis ordination showed that the main prey in the diet of D. gigas is associated with the target species of the respective fishery. Consequently, biases are associated with fishing gear, leading to an overestimate in the occurrence of the target species in the diet. We recommend analyzing samples from jigging taken at the same time and place where the trawl and purse-seine fleets are operating to avoid this problem, and the application of new tools like stable isotope, heavy metal, and fatty acid signature analyses.

  18. Recruitment Dynamics of the Relict Palm, Jubaea chilensis: Intricate and Pervasive Effects of Invasive Herbivores and Nurse Shrubs in Central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Marina; Marcelo, Wara; Vásquez, Rodrigo A; González, Luis Alberto; Bustamante, Ramiro O

    2015-01-01

    Shrubs can have a net positive effect on the recruitment of other species, especially relict species in dry-stressful conditions. We tested the effects of nurse shrubs and herbivory defoliation on performance (survival and growth) of nursery-grown seedlings of the largest living palm, the relict wine palm Jubaea chilensis. During an 18-month period, a total of more than 300 seedlings were exposed to of four possible scenarios produced by independently weakening the effects of nurse shrubs and browsers. The experiment followed a two-way fully factorial design. We found consistent differences in survival between protected and unprotected seedlings (27.5% and 0.7%, respectively), and herbivory had a dramatic and overwhelmingly negative effect on seedling survival. The invasive rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is clearly creating a critical bottleneck in the regeneration process and might, therefore, partially explain the general lack of natural regeneration of wine palms under natural conditions. Apparently biotic filters mediated by ecological interactions are more relevant in the early stages of recruitment than abiotic, at least in invaded sites of central Chile. Our data reveal that plant-plant facilitation relationship may be modulated by plant-animal interactions, specifically by herbivory, a common and widespread ecological interaction in arid and semi-arid environments whose role has been frequently neglected. Treatments that protect young wine palm seedlings are mandatory to enable the seedlings to attain a height at which shoots are no longer vulnerable to browsing. Such protection is an essential first step toward the conservation and reintroduction of this emblematic and threatened species. PMID:26218100

  19. Cenozoic tholeiitic volcanism in the Colbún area, Linares Precordillera, central Chile (35º35'-36ºS

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    Mario Vergara

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Volcanismo toleítico Terciario en el área de Colbún, Precordillera de Linares, Chile central (35º-35º36'S. En la Precordillera de Linares, Chile central (35º5'-36ºS, afloran rocas volcánicas, cuyas edades varían del Eoceno Superior al Mioceno Medio. Sobre la base de criterios estratigráficos y dataciones K-Ar y Ar-Ar, se han diferenciado dos unidades: 1- una Unidad Inferior (Eoceno Superior a Oligoceno Superior, con predominio de rocas volcánicas silíceas en la base y básicas en el nivel superior y 2- una Unidad superior (Mioceno Inferior a Medio, con basaltos afíricos y tobas soldadas riolíticas. Las características geoquímicas de las rocas volcánicas de Colbún, tales como bajos contenidos en K2O, razones MgO/FeO altas, patrones de REE planos, abundancia normalizada con respecto al MORB cercana a la unidad para los elementos Nb a Sc, razones isotópicas iniciales de Sr relativamente bajas (0.703575-0.704028 y relativamente altas de Nd (0.512919-0.513003, son consistentes con una afinidad toleítica y con un grado de contaminación cortical bajo en la evolución de los magmas parentales. Las relaciones isotópicas de Pb y el enriquecimiento en algunos elementos incompatibles, tales como K, Rb, Sr y Ba, sugieren un reciclamiento de material subductado de la placa de Nazca, el cual estuvo acompañado por un adelgazamiento cortical y el desarrollo de estructuras tipo calderas. Isotópicamente, las rocas de Colbún son las más primitivas de los Andes chilenos. Relaciones geoquímicas sugieren que estas rocas se emplazaron en un ambiente geotectónico de trasarco, intracontinental, postorogénico y extensional. Los magmas de Colbún evolucionaron, principalmente, por cristalización fraccional a partir de magmas primarios generados en el manto. Las semejanzas químicas e isotópicas presentadas por estas rocas emplazadas entre el Eoceno Superior y el Mioceno Medio sugieren que las fuentes y procesos, involucrados en su g

  20. Estimating glacier and snowmelt contributions to stream flow in a Central Andes catchment in Chile using natural tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rodriguez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology for hydrograph separation in high elevation watersheds, which aims at identifying individual flow sources such as snow- and ice melt, rainfall and soil water. Daily summer and bi-daily spring water samples from the outlet of the Juncal River were analyzed for all major ions as well as stable water isotopes, δ18O and δ2H. Additionally, various water sources such as rain, springs, snow- and glacial melt were sampled throughout the catchment. A principal component analysis (PCA was performed in order to reduce the dimensionality of the problem. Potential sources were identified in a two-component U space that explains 77% of variability. Hydrograph separation (HS was performed through three models: (i Isotopic model, (ii Mixing–PCA model, and (iii Informative–Bayesian model, with very similar results in each case. At the Juncal River outlet, summer flows were composed by at least 50% of water originating in highly glaciarized headwaters in 2011–2012 (a dry period in the Central Andes. Autumn and winter flows were highly influenced by soil water and affect total annual discharge. Before the high flow season, snow melt accounted for approximately 25% of streamflow, However during summer, when streamflow was highest, snowmelt contribution was minimal, while glacier melt and soil water were the most important sources.

  1. Freezing resistance varies within the growing season and with elevation in high-Andean species of central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Almeida, Angela; Cavieres, Lohengrin A; Bravo, León A

    2009-01-01

    Predicted increases in the length of the growing season as a result of climate change may more frequently expose high-elevation plants to severe frosts. Understanding the ability of these species to resist frosts during the growing season is essential for predicting how species may respond to changes in temperature regimes. Here, we assessed the freezing resistance of 24 species from the central Chilean Andes by determining their low temperature damage (LT(50)), ice nucleation temperature (NT), freezing point (FP) and freezing resistance mechanism (i.e. avoidance or tolerance). The Andean species were found to resist frosts from -8.2 to -19.5 degrees C during the growing season, and freezing tolerance was the most common resistance mechanism. Freezing resistance (LT(50)) varied within the growing season, decreasing towards the end of this period in most of the studied species. However, the FP showed the opposite trend. LT(50) increased with elevation, whilst FP was lower in plants from lower elevations, especially late in the growing season. Andean species have the potential to withstand severe freezing conditions during the growing season, and the aridity of this high-elevation environment seems to play an important role in determining this high freezing resistance. PMID:19210722

  2. Using fecal profiles of bile acids to assess habitat use by threatened carnivores in the Maulino forest of central Chile Empleo del perfil de ácidos biliares fecales para evaluar uso del hábitat por carnívoros amenazados en el bosque maulino de Chile central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLA GUERRERO

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and habitat use by carnivores can be assessed by studying their tracks or feces. If these methods are to be used confidently, they should not only unequivocally discriminate among species, but should also render the same patterns of spatial distributions. We assessed the fulfillment of these requirements with five carnivores inhabiting the Maulino forest of central Chile: Galictis cuja, Oncifelis guigna, Pseudalopex culpaeus, Pseudalopex griseus, and Puma concolor. Fecal bile acid thin layer chromatographic profiles were assessed, and shown to be species-specific, invariant within samples of a given individual and among individuals of a given species, but consistently different across species. The spatial distribution of feces in mixed stands of native forests and exotic pine plantations in the coastal Maule region of central Chile was compared with the expected distribution according to habitat offer, and also with the expected distribution based on earlier track records. The results revealed that Pseudalopex culpaeus makes extensive use of pine plantations; Oncifelis guigna prefers native forests, and Pseudalopex griseus thrives in pine plantations, native forests, and patches of native forest, in proportion to habitat availability. Results from scat distribution were similar to those obtained by tracks records. Feces and tracks were thus useful indicators of habitat use by carnivores, and could be used complementarily to study species with conservation problemsEl uso del hábitat por carnívoros puede ser examinado a partir de la distribución de sus huellas y fecas. Para que ambas aproximaciones sean usadas en forma segura y complementaria, ellas deberían no solamente discriminar inequívocamente entre especies, sino que también deberían entregar la misma información sobre los patrones de distribución espacial. Analizamos el cumplimiento de estos requisitos con cinco especies de carnívoros en el bosque maulino de Chile

  3. Evolución tectónica, paleogeográfica y metalogénica durante el Cenozoico en los Andes de Chile norte y central e implicaciones para las regiones adyacentes de Bolivia y Argentina Tectonic, paleogeographic, and metallogenic evolution during the Cenozoic in the Andes of Central and Northern Chile and implication for the adjacent regions of Bolivia and Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Charrier

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La orogenia incaica dio origen a un importante relieve en el Eoceno Medio, el que se concentró en el ámbito del arco magmático precedente, la Cordillera Incaica. Este relieve positivo de orientación NNE se extendió desde el sur de Perú hasta la región central de Chile y separó dos dominios paleogeográficos que tuvieron evoluciones diferentes durante el resto del Cenozoico. El dominio occidental se caracterizó por el predominio de procesos de erosión y sedimentación. En el dominio oriental también existieron importantes episodios de erosión que originaron depósitos que se encuentran en la vertiente oriental de la cadena en la actualidad y presentan una cronología comparable con la de los depósitos del dominio occidental. Sin embargo, la evolución se caracterizó por presentar, a partir del Eoceno Tardío, diferencias al norte y sur de los ~27ºS. Al norte de esa latitud, en el ámbito del Altiplano-Puna, el arco magmático se mantuvo aproximadamente en la misma posición, coincidente con la del arco actual, y estuvo bordeado por una cuenca de antepaís de retroarco; mientras que, al sur de ~27ºS, se desarrollaron sucesivos arcos magmáticos con una marcada migración hacia el este. El arco magmático del Eoceno Tardío al Oligoceno Tardío - Mioceno Temprano se caracterizó por el desarrollo de una amplia cuenca extensional de intra-arco, la cuenca de Abanico. En esta cuenca se acumularon hasta 3.000 m de rocas volcánicas, volcaniclásticas y, subordinadamente, sedimentarias. A partir del límite oligoceno-mioceno, tuvo lugar un nuevo evento compresivo a lo largo de todo el orógeno que rejuveneció el núcleo de la Cordillera Incaica e invirtió la cuenca de Abanico permitiendo la generación de abundantes depósitos sintectónicos a ambos lados de los nuevos relieves. El inicio de este evento coincide con la orogenia pehuenche, los pulsos compresivos se mantuvieron hasta el Plioceno Temprano. En el Mioceno Temprano a Medio

  4. Un modelo de la historia de la vegetación de la Cordillera de La Costa de Chile central-sur: la hipótesis glacial de Darwin A model for the history of vegetation of the Coastal Range of central-southern Chile: Darwin's glacial hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA VILLAGRÁN

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available En Chile central-sur, entre los paralelos 37 y 43º S, existen comunidades aisladas de coníferas y tundras magallánicas, cuya distribución principal es altoandina y/o de latitudes altas. De acuerdo a Darwin (1859, en general, estas "islas" corresponderían a los remanentes de poblaciones glaciales, que ocuparon sitios de menor altitud y latitudes más bajas, durante el avance de los hielos. Se desprende de esta hipótesis que, a lo largo de Chile, se habrían producido desplazamientos de la flora austral y andina hacia el Valle Longitudinal, durante la última glaciación, y en sentido inverso, durante el Tardiglacial (14.600-10.000 14C años AP y Holoceno (después de 10.000 14C años AP. Considerando esta hipótesis, en este trabajo se analizan dos secuencias palinológicas, procedentes de las cimas de la Cordillera de la Costa de la Región de los Lagos (cordilleras de Nahuelbuta y de Sarao, y se correlacionan con registros publicados, tanto de otros sitios de cimas de cerros, como de sitios de baja altitud, todos ellos procedentes de las regiones de Los Lagos y de Los Canales. Los registros de las cimas de la Cordillera de La Costa, analizados en este estudio, muestran la siguiente secuencia cronológica: (1 El registro de la Cordillera de Sarao documenta, para el Holoceno temprano, a partir de 9.040 14C años AP, la colonización del elemento de tundras magallánicas y bosque norpatagónico con coníferas, aunque ambas formaciones alcanzan su máximo desarrollo en el Holoceno medio, sucedidas por el elemento de bosque norpatagónico-valdiviano, en el Holoceno tardío. (2 El registro de la Cordillera de Nahuelbuta muestra que la colonización de estos mismos elementos se produce, recién, en el Holoceno medio, alrededor de 5.430 14C años AP. Otros registros de polen de las cimas de la Cordillera de La Costa (Cordillera Pelada y de Piuchué muestran que el desarrollo de ambas formaciones se produjo en el Tardiglacial y Holoceno temprano

  5. Efecto del reemplazo de la vegetación nativa de ribera sobre la comunidad de macroinvertebrados bentónicos en arroyos de climas templados, Chile central Replacement effect of riparian native vegetation on benthic macroinvertebrates community in temperate climate streams, Central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Mancilla

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El aporte de materia orgánica desde la vegetación ribereña es determinante en la estructura y complejidad de los sistemas fluviales; es identificado como el mayor aporte energético en ríos y una fuente importante de alimento para macroinvertebrados en arroyos de cabecera. No obstante, el paisaje ribereño ha sido altamente degradado por actividades humanas, lo que ha afectado la estructura y composición de las comunidades acuáticas. El presente estudio se desarrolló en Chile central (región del Biobío donde se concentra una intensa actividad forestal con especies exóticas. Se seleccionaron ríos de bajo orden (The organic matter from riparian vegetation is determined by the structure and complexity of streams. It presents a higher energetic input to streams as well as important source of food for macroinvertebrates in head streams. In spite of its importance, riparian landscape has been rapidly degraded by human activity, this affects structure and composition of the aquatic community. The present study was made in Central Chile (Biobio Region which has intensive forest activity with exotic species. Small streams were selected (< 3 order, because they are very particularly sensitive to changes in land use. The sites were grouped identified according to native forest land cover larger than 20% (group 1 and smaller than 20% (group 2. Significant differences (p< 0.05 in Plecoptera abundance (p < 0.05 were found between the two groups. Differences in trophic groups were significant for shredders and predators increased and gathering-collectors decreased their abundance, with native cover smaller than 20%. This showed the dependent on allochthonous material. The vegetation cover and community parameters correlations showed that Diversity (W increased with higher percentage of watershed covered by native vegetation and exotic species mix. Results suggest that a buffer conservation area of native riparian vegetation is necessary in streams

  6. Biomasa en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson Cifuentes, Gabriel; Rodríguez Monroy, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    El artículo presenta el desarrollo de la biomasa en Chile, dentro del complejo marco energético existente en el país, el cual, aún no logra potenciar e incentivar el desarrollo de energías renovables y depende fuertemente de los combustibles fósiles, acrecentando el riesgo latente de sufrir una crisis energética, en el mediano plazo, producto de la paulatina incorporación de nuevas centrales generadoras de energías, que satisfagan la creciente demanda energética pronosticada. Este ar...

  7. La fauna de caprélidos (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Caprellidea de la costa de Coquimbo, centro-norte de Chile, con una clave taxonómica para la identificación de las especies The caprellid fauna (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Caprellidea from the coast of Coquimbo, Northern-central Chile, with a taxonomic key for species identification

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    JOSÉ M. GUERRA-GARCÍA

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Los caprélidos son comunes y abundantes en muchos hábitats litorales del ambiente marino. Sin embargo este grupo de anfípodos no ha sido muy bien estudiado en la costa chilena. El estudio de los caprélidos se ha visto dificultado por su gran variabilidad morfológica y el hecho de que la literatura así como los especímenes de los museos son difíciles de localizar. El objetivo de este estudio fue entregar las herramientas taxonómicas para la identificación de las especies de crustáceos caprélidos comunes en el centro-norte de la costa de Chile. Se muestrearon distintos hábitats (boyas, bolones intermareales, praderas de algas y fanerógamas marinas y se encontraron seis especies distintas de caprélidos: Caprellina longicollis (Nicolet, 1849, Caprella equilibra Say, 1818, C. scaura Templeton, 1836, C. verrucosa Boeck, 1871; Deutella venenosa Mayer, 1890 y Paracaprella pusilla Mayer, 1890. Caprella scaura, C. verrucosa y D. venenosa fueron muy abundantes sobre las algas, hidrozoos y briozoos asociados a boyas. Caprella equilibra, también presente en boyas, fue más abundante bajo piedras en zonas intermareales rocosas expuestas, donde también se encontraron ejemplares de D. venenosa y de P. pusilla. Caprella scaura también se encontró sobre algas rojas de las playas arenosas, especialmente sobre Gracilaria chilensis y sobre la fanerógama marina Heterozostera tasmanica, donde cohabitó junto a Caprellina longicollis. Paracaprella pusilla constituye una nueva cita para las costas pacíficas sudamericanas, siendo nueva para la fauna de Chile. La especie D. venenosa, que se cita por primera vez después de la descripción original de Mayer en el año 1890, es considerada una especie endémica de la costa central de ChileCaprellids are abundant in many littoral habitats of the marine environment. Nevertheless, this group of amphipods has been scarcely studied along the coast of Chile. The study of the Caprellidea is particularly

  8. New time-constraints on provenance, metamorphism and exhumation of the Bahía Mansa Metamorphic Complex on the Main Chiloé Island, south-central Chile Nuevas restricciones temporales sobre proveniencia, metamorfismo y exhumación del Complejo Metamórfico Bahía Mansa en la Isla Grande de Chiloé, centro-sur de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Duhart; Alberto C Adriasola

    2008-01-01

    The Coastal Ranges in the western part of the Chiloé Archipelago represent an emerged forearc high at the subduction front of south-central Chile. Prior to the Cenozoic framework of the subducting Farallón and Nazca plates beneath the South American plate, the history of the metamorphic basement in the Coastal Ranges involves episodes of subduction and/or accretion of oceanic and ensialic material along the proto-Pacific margin of Gondwana. Along different segments of the Main Chiloé Island t...

  9. Depositación atmosférica de nitrógeno en un transecto valle longitudinal-cordillera de Los Andes, centro-sur de Chile Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen in a transect from the Central Valley to Cordillera de Los Andes, south-central Chile

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    CARLOS E. OYARZÚN

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available El aumento de las actividades agrícolas y ganaderas en el centro-sur de Chile puede producir elevadas emisiones de nitrógeno hacia la atmósfera (mayormente NH3. El amoniaco es transportado por corrientes de aire y depositado en el suelo y vegetación. El presente estudio evalúa la depositación atmosférica de compuestos nitrogenados (NO3- y NH4+ en la química de las precipitaciones en un transecto altitudinal de 66 km, desde los alrededores de la ciudad de Osorno (40º 35' S, 72º 57' O, 55 m de altitud hasta la cordillera de Los Andes, Parque Nacional Puyehue (40º 46' S, 72º 11' O, 1.120 m de altitud. En siete sitios, durante el período anual junio-1999 hasta mayo-2000, se registró la precipitación y mensualmente se colectaron muestras de agua para determinar: pH, conductividad y las concentraciones de NO3- y NH4+. La precipitación anual se incrementó desde 1.103 mm en la zona de Osorno hasta 6.799 mm en el sector Antillanca, Parque Nacional Puyehue. Los valores promedio anual del pH registraron escasa variación desde 6,3 en el valle central hasta 5,8 en la cordillera de Los Andes. La conductividad presentó los máximos valores en la proximidad de Osorno (22,9 myS cm-1 para descender a través del transecto en zonas intermedias y alcanzar en la Cordillera de los Andes un valor de 11,3 myS cm-1. Las concentraciones promedio de NO3-Nen la lluvia fluctuaron entre 52,3 myg L-1 en la zona agrícola-ganadera y 6,9 myg L-1 en los bosques del Parque Nacional Puyehue. Las concentraciones de NH4-N variaron entre 699,4 myg L-1 en el sector de Osorno y 37,8 myL-1 en la cordillera de Los Andes. Los valores de N-inorgánico poseen una marcada tendencia estacional en el sector agrícola, con valores máximos en primavera-verano y los mínimos en invierno. Las tasas anuales de depositación atmosférica de NO3-N fluctuaron entre 0,53 y 0,57 kg ha-1 año-1 y las de NH4-N fueron entre 6,4 y 2,8 kg ha-1 año-1 para los sitios agrícola-ganaderos de

  10. Hábitos alimentarios de Dosidicus gigas (D' Orbigny, 1835) (Cephalopoda: Teuthoidea) frente a la costa centro-sur de Chile Feeding habits of Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835) (Cephalopoda: Teuthoidea) in the central-south coast off Chile

    OpenAIRE

    PATRICIO ULLOA; MARTA FUENTEALBA; VÍCTOR RUIZ

    2006-01-01

    Se estudiaron los hábitos alimentarios del calamar rojo Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835) frente a la costa de Chile centro-sur, durante el invierno del año 2005. Se examinaron un total de 52 estómagos, en todos los cuales había contenido alimentario. Los ejemplares provenían de pescas efectuadas por la flota arrastrera industrial que opera entre 36°39' S y 38°55'S sobre la merluza común Merluccius gayi (Guichenot 1848) y a una profundidad media de 290 m sobre la plataforma continental. Para ...

  11. The genetic relationship between mafic dike swarms and plutonic reservoirs in the mesozoic of central chile (30A degrees-33A degrees 45'S) : insights from AMS and geochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    C. Creixell; M.A. Parada; D. Morata; Roperch, Pierrich; Arriagada, C

    2009-01-01

    Five mafic dike swarms between 30A degrees and 33A degrees 45'S were studied for their geochemical signature and kinematics of magma flow directions by means of AMS data. In the Coastal Range of central Chile (33A degrees-33A degrees 45'S), Middle Jurassic dike swarms (ConcA(3)n and Cartagena dike swarms, CMDS and CrMDS, respectively) and an Early Cretaceous dike swarm (El Tabo Dike Swarm, ETDS) display the presence of dikes of geochemically enriched (high-Ti) and depleted (low-Ti) basaltic c...

  12. Evolución tectónica, paleogeográfica y metalogénica durante el Cenozoico en los Andes de Chile norte y central e implicaciones para las regiones adyacentes de Bolivia y Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    La orogenia incaica dio origen a un importante relieve en el Eoceno Medio, el que se concentró en el ámbito del arco magmático precedente, la Cordillera Incaica. Este relieve positivo de orientación NNE se extendió desde el sur de Perú hasta la región central de Chile y separó dos dominios paleogeográficos que tuvieron evoluciones diferentes durante el resto del Cenozoico. El dominio occidental se caracterizó por el predominio de procesos de erosión y sedimentación. En el dominio oriental tam...

  13. Hydrochemical and isotopic patterns in a calc-alkaline Cu- and Au-rich arid Andean basin: The Elqui River watershed, North Central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Major ions are provided by rock weathering and NaCl recycling. ► Aridity and cal-alkaline lithology effects abate acid drainage. ► Factors affecting hydrochemistry in mineral rich zone are addressed. ► Stable isotopes confirm the meteoric origin of groundwaters. ► High sulfate contents are explained by widespread sulfide minerals. - Abstract: The geochemistry of surface water and groundwater from the Elqui River basin, North-Central Chile, was studied in spring 2007 and fall 2008 to obtain a general understanding of the factors and mechanisms controlling the water chemistry of steep rivers located in mineral-rich, arid to semi arid zones. Besides its uniform intermediate igneous lithology, this basin is known for acid drainage and high As contents in the El Indio Au–Cu–As district, in its Andean head. Abundant tailings deposits are present in the middle part of the basin, where agricultural activities are important. According to the results, the chemical and isotopic composition of the Elqui basin surface water and groundwater is related to uniform calc-alkaline lithology and the major polluting system of the chemically reactive, but closed El Indio mining district. The resulting compositional imprints in surface and ground-water are, (a) high SO4 levels, reaching about 1000 mg/L in the Toro River water, directly draining the mining area; (b) a major depletion of Fe and pollutant metals in surface water after the confluence of the Toro and La Laguna rivers; (c) similar chemical composition of surface and ground-waters that differ in H and O isotopic composition, reflecting the effect of differential evaporation processes downstream of the Puclaro dam; and (d) seasonal variations of Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn in surface water. In contrast, the groundwater chemistry exhibits moderate seasonal changes, mainly in HCO3- content. In spite of the acid drainage pollution, water quality is adequate for human consumption and irrigation. This is a

  14. Modelling the hydrological response of debris-free and debris-covered glaciers to present climatic conditions in the semiarid Andes of central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Alvaro; Pellicciotti, Francesca; MacDonell, Shelley; McPhee, James; Vivero, Sebastián; Campos, Cristián; Egli, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the main contributors to runoff of a 62 km2 glacierized catchment in the semiarid Andes of central Chile, where both debris-free and debris-covered glaciers are present, combining an extensive set of field measurements, remote sensing products and an advanced glacio-hydrological model (TOPKAPI-ETH). The catchment contains two debris-free glaciers reaching down to 3900 m asl (Bello and Yeso Glaciers) and one debris-covered avalanche-fed glacier reaching to 3200 m asl (Piramide Glacier). A unique dataset of field measurements collected in the ablation seasons 2013-14 and 2014-15 included four automatic weather stations, manual measurements of snow depth and debris cover thickness, discharge measurements at glaciers outlets, photographic monitoring of surface albedo as well as ablation stakes measurements and snow pits. TOPKAPI-ETH combines physically-oriented parameterizations of snow and ice ablation, gravitational distribution of snow, snow albedo evolution, glacier dynamics, runoff routing and the ablation of debris-covered ice.We obtained the first detailed estimation of mass balance and runoff contribution of debris-covered glaciers in this mountainous region. Results show that while the mass balance of Bello and Yeso Glaciers is mostly controlled by air temperature lapse rates, the mass balance of Piramide Glacier is governed by debris thickness and avalanches. In fact, gravitational distribution by avalanching on wet years plays a key role and modulates the mass balance gradient of all glaciers in the catchment and can turn local mass balance from negative to positive. This is especially the case for Piramide Glacier, which shows large amounts of snow accumulation below the steep walls surrounding its upper area. Despite the thermal insulation effect of the debris cover, the contribution to runoff from debris-free and debris-covered glaciers is similar, mainly due to elevation differences. At the catchment scale, snowmelt represents more than 60

  15. Chile ushers in new hydro era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The planned construction of two hydroelectric power plants at Peuchen and Mampil, will help to meet Chile's growing electricity demand. Securing finance for the project has been straight forward thanks to the optimal hydrological conditions, rivers with a very strong flow providing a large head of water over short distance. Hydropower plays a central role in Chile's generating capacity providing 70% of total energy consumption. Thus, the future of these projects will be highly successful, it is argued. (UK)

  16. Parasite loads and altitudinal distribution of Liolaemus lizards in the central Chilean Andes Cargas parasitarias y distribución de lagartijas Liolaemus en los Andes de Chile central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOHN H. CAROTHERS

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the distributions of ten species of Liolaemus lizards in the central Chilean Andes to the distributions of four types of parasites: malaria-causing Plasmodium, gut nematodes, ticks, and mites. We wanted to see if parasite numbers might be a factor in determining distributional limits of the lizards. We found that there was no evidence of malarial infestation of the lizards, that ticks were almost absent, that more often than not mite numbers decreased at the distributional limits of the lizards, and that gut nematodes confined to the herbivorous lizards in our sample may well be beneficial rather than detrimental. Rather than parasitism, other biotic interactions (e.g., predation or competition are more likely candidates as factors influencing lizard elevational distributions, as are abiotic characteristics such as microhabitat availabilities and thermal factorsEste estudio compara las distribuciones de diez especies de lagartijas Liolaemus en los Andes de Chile central, con las distribuciones de cuatro tipos de parásitos: Plasmodium causantes de malaria, nemátodos intestinales, garrapatas y ácaros. Quisimos verificar si los números de parásitos pudieran ser un factor determinante de los límites de distribución de las lagartijas. Encontramos que no había evidencia de infestación por malaria en las lagartijas; que las garrapatas estaban casi ausentes; que los números de ácaros más a menudo decrecían que aumentaban en los límites distribucionales de las lagartijas; y que los nemátodos intestinales confinados a las lagartijas herbívoras en nuestra muestra bien podían ser beneficiosos antes que dañinos. Más bien que parasitismo, otras interacciones bióticas (e.g., depredación o competencia son candidatos más probables como factores que influyen las distribuciones altitudinales de las lagartijas, además de características abióticas tales como la disponibilidad de microhábitats y los factores térmicos

  17. La vertebración territorial en regiones de alta especialización: Valle Central de Chile. Alcances para el desarrollo de zonas rezagadas en torno a los recursos naturales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBERTO GARCÍA-HUIDOBRO

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Los procesos de reestructuración económica y la apertura de los mercados han generado múltiples y variadas consecuencias sobre nuestros territorios. Quizás para Chile, como para otros países latinoamericanos, uno de los más importantes procesos a nivel regional es el desarrollo de espacios altamente especializados o regiones-commodities. Distintos trabajos académicos señalan que interiormente, en conjunto con áreas de gran competitividad, se están generando áreas rezagadas o alejadas de los dinamismos económicos. Por lo tanto: ¿ En qué ha derivado su modelo de vertebración territorial y su sistema de centros poblados ? ¿Cuáles son las características de estas áreas rezagadas ? Y por ende, ¿cuáles son los desafíos a los cuales se enfrentan? El Valle Central de Chile es una de estas áreas donde se evidencia dicha especialización. Por tanto, analizaremos la estructura física territorial en las que han derivado estas regiones y el papel que cumplen sus centros poblados en los nuevos escenarios. A partir de la caracterización de su vertebración territorial avanzaremos hacia la definición de sus zonas menos favorecidas, e intentaremos generar algunas hipótesis que respondan a sus desafíos y requerimientos futuros.Economic restructuring processes and market opening have generated multiple and varied consequences in our territories. Perhaps for Chile, as with other Latin American countries, one of the most important processes at the regional level is the development of highly specialized spaces or commodity-regions. Different academic work indicates that within these spaces, as well as areas of high competitiveness, there are also backward areas with limited economic dynamism. Consequently: What has happened to the model of a territorial spine and system of population center? What are the characteristics of these backward areas? In addition, what are the challenges to be faced? Chile's Central Valley is one of the areas

  18. DETECTION OF LOCAL SITE CONDITIONS INFLUENCING EARTHQUAKE SHOCK AND SECONDARY EFFECTS IN THE VALPARAISO AREA IN CENTRAL-CHILE USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Theilen-Willige; Felipe Barrios Burnett

    2011-01-01

    The potential contribution of remote sensing and GIS techniques to earthquake hazard analysis was investigated in Valparaiso in Chile in order to improve the systematic, standardized inventory of those areas that are more susceptible to earthquake ground motions or to earthquake related secondary effects such as landslides, liquefaction, soil amplifications, compaction or even tsunami-waves. Geophysical, topographical, geological data and satellite images were collected, processed, and integr...

  19. Estimación de la biomasa de langostino amarillo (Cervimunida johni, aplicando Modelo Lineal Generalizado a registros de captura por área barridaen la zona central de Chile Estimating yellow squat lobster (Cervimunida johni biomass by applying a generalized linear model to catch records per swept area in central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Canales

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available La información obtenida en cruceros de evaluación directa de langostino amarillo (Cervimunida johní realizados en la zona central del Chile (32°-38°S entre 1997 y 2009, permitió modelar los cambios en la densidad anual de este recurso mediante Modelo Lineal Generalizado (MLG. El objetivo de este enfoque fue tanto minimizar el efecto de los distintos criterios y diseños de muestreo que han sido empleados en el tiempo, como también determinar los efectos que explican las variaciones en la densidad de este recurso. Lo anterior permitió estimar el valor esperado de la densidad anual para el cálculo de biomasa mediante el método de "área barrida". Los registros lance a lance de captura por unidad de área barrida (CPUA permitieron la identificación y medición de los focos de abundancia, además de caracterizar la distribución y área que ha ocupado el recurso en el tiempo. El MLG identificó como efectos significativos el año, la zona, la profundidad, y las interacciones anuales de primer orden, explicando con ello el 43% de la devianza residual del modelo. Los principales efectos que explican las variaciones de la CPUA son el año y la interacción año-zona. Se determinó que la zona con mayor abundancia promedio corresponde a la delimitada entre 32° y 34°S, de igual manera que en el rango de profundidad menor a 250 m. Dentro del período analizado, se determinó que la población de este recurso incrementó en biomasa de manera sostenida hasta el 2006, principalmente en la zona norte del área de estudio, seguida de una fuerte reducción que al 2009 equivale al 75% respecto del máximo, reflejada en una biomasa de 11.000 ton.Changes in the annual density of the yellow squat lobster (Cervimunida johni were modeled using a generalized linear model (GLM, using information obtained during direct stock assessment cruises carried out in central Chile (32°-38°S between 1997 and 2009. The purpose of this approach was to minimize the

  20. Botanical Composition of Alpaca (Lama pacos Linn. Diet in a Central Mediterranean Range of Chile Composición Botánica de la Dieta de Alpaca (Lama pacos Linn. en un Pastizal del Secano Mediterráneo de la Zona Central de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Castellaro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The re-introduction of domestic South American camelids (alpacas and llamas in the central zone of Chile makes it necessary to study their behaviour and adaptability. Since it is fundamental to characterize the camelid’s diet, the present work had as an objective the determination of the plant species selected by the alpacas (Lama pacos Linn. in different phenological stages (vegetative, reproductive and dry season. The study was carried out over three years in a paddock of 2.5 ha of sparse shrubland dominated by Acacia caven (Mol. Mol. and annual species in the herbaceous stratum, which were continually grazed by five male alpacas. The botanical composition and the forage dry matter available for grazing in the pasture was evaluated. Botanical composition of diets was estimated with the microhistological technique, using dung samples collected directly from the rectum. During the vegetative season, the most consumed plant species were annual and perennial grasses. In the reproductive season, the most important components of the diet were woody plant species, annual grasses and forbs. In the dry season, the diet was composed of a high percentage of woody plant species.La reintroducción de camélidos sudamericanos domésticos (alpaca y llamas en la zona central de Chile, hace necesario estudiar su comportamiento y adaptabilidad. En este contexto, la caracterización de la dieta es fundamental. Por ello, el presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo determinar las especies vegetales seleccionadas por las alpacas en diferentes etapas fenológicas del pastizal (vegetativo, reproductivo y seco. El estudio se realizó durante tres temporadas en un potrero de 2,5 ha ocupado por un matorral claro dominado por Acacia caven (Mol. Mol. y especies anuales en el estrato herbáceo, las cuales fueron pastoreadas continuamente por cinco alpacas macho. En la pradera se evaluó la composición botánica y la disponibilidad de la materia seca bajo pastoreo. La

  1. Efectos de la planta en cojín Oreopolus glacialis (Rubiaceae sobre la riqueza y diversidad de especies en una comunidad alto-andina de Chile central Effects of the cushion plant Oreopolus glacialis (Rubiaceae on species richness and diversity in a high-Andean plant community of central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERNESTO I BADANO

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas en cojín que crecen en ambientes de alta montaña modifican microclimáticamente su entorno, generando microhábitats favorables para el establecimiento de otras especies, actuando como nodrizas. Varios estudios han demostrado que los cojines contienen una mayor riqueza de especies que los espacios abiertos. Sin embargo, hasta ahora, no se ha evaluado el efecto de los cojines sobre otros parámetros comunitarios como la abundancia de individuos, la diversidad y la equitatividad. En este trabajo se analiza el efecto que posee Oreopolus glacialis, una planta en cojín de la cordillera andina, sobre la riqueza, abundancia, diversidad y equitatividad de la comunidad vegetal en un ambiente de alta montaña ubicado a 1.900 m en Chile central. Se determino la riqueza y abundancia de especies que crecen tanto sobre cojines de O. glacialis como en los espacios abiertos entre cojines. Los resultados mostraron que la riqueza de especies y la abundancia de individuos por unidad de área es mayor dentro de los cojines que fuera de ellos. Sin embargo, los valores de diversidad y equitatividad sobre O. glacialis fueron menores que fuera de ellos debido a la presencia de algunas especies dominantes. Análisis particulares de la frecuencia y abundancia de cada especie mostraron que no todas las especies son afectadas de la misma manera por la presencia de este cojín, por lo que O. glacialis actuaría como nodriza sólo para una parte limitada de los componentes de la comunidadCushion plants growing in high mountain habitats can modify the microclimate within their canopy generating microhabitats more favorable for the recruitment of other plant species, acting as nurse plants. Although several studies have shown that species richness is higher within cushions than outside them, no attempts have been made in order to assess the effect of cushions on other community aspects such as total and individual abundance, diversity and evenness. In this study

  2. Shoreline changes in Concón and Algarrobo bays, central Chile, using an adjustment model Cambios en la línea litoral de las bahías de Algarrobo y Concón, Chile central, a través de un modelo de ajuste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Martinez

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Adjustment models for both Algarrobo and Concón bays, central Chile, are presented herein; the results show a nearly logarithmic spiral shape for the shore. Spatial-temporal variations in the shorelines of both bays were found based on aerial photographs from different years. The results indicate important variations in the relative position of the Concón Bay shoreline between 1945 and 2006, with extreme oscillations (-368 to 123.8 m only occurring in the proximal zone, where the Aconcagua Estuary is located. On the other hand, the spatial-temporal variations in the Algarrobo Bay shoreline between 1967 and 2006 are moderate (131 in the proximal and -73 in the distal zone. Whereas Concón Bay exhibits a stable state of equilibrium for the past 60 years, if the estuary zone is excluded, Algarrobo Bay presents a stable state with a tendency for growth in the proximal zone and retreat in the distal zone. The results are discussed in terms of coastal changes associated with highly urbanized shorelines and applications for coastal area management that are derived from the modelsSe presentan los resultados de la aplicación de un modelo de ajuste para las bahías de Algarrobo y Concón en Chile central, cuya forma se aproxima a una espiral logarítmica. A partir del uso de fotografías aéreas correspondientes a diferentes años, se determinaron las variaciones espacio-temporales de la línea litoral en ambas bahías. Los resultados indican que la bahía de Concón ha presentado importantes variaciones en la posición relativa de su línea litoral para el período 1945 a 2006, únicamente en su zona proximal, lugar en donde se localiza el estuario Aconcagua con oscilaciones extremas entre -368 m y 123,8 m. En la bahía de Algarrobo, las variaciones espacio-temporales de la línea litoral son de magnitud moderada para el período comprendido entre 1967 y 2006, presentando valores extremos de 131 m en la zona proximal y de -73 m en la zona distal

  3. Floristic changes in alpine plant communities induced by the cushion plant Azorella madreporica (Apiaceae in the Andes of central Chile Cambios florísticos en comunidades de plantas alpinas inducidos por la planta en cojín Azorella madrepórica (Apiaceae en los Andes de Chile central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANZA L QUIROZ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the number of plant species associated with nurse plants increases with elevation. However, studies conducted so far have largely ignored the effect of nurse plants on other community attributes, such as the species abundances, diversity and evenness. Moreover, changes in these community attributes along environmental gradients have also been seldom examined. The present study evaluates the effect of the cushion plant Azorella madrepórica (Apiaceae on species richness, species abundance, diversity and evenness of vascular plants at two elevations in the Andes of central Chile. Theoretically, the impact of this nurse cushion plant on these community attributes should be grater at a higher elevation. Results showed that the proportion of plant species associated with cushion plants increases with elevation, and the abundance of some species is also greater within cushions than on bare ground. Although the proportion of species growing within cushions increased with elevation, diversity and evenness were higher on bare ground. This is due to some few species that attained very high densities within cushions, generating assemblages highly dominated by some few species. Ordination analyses indicated differences in species assemblages within and outside A. madrepórica at the higher elevation. Therefore, the influence of cushion plants on community structure changes with elevation. Accordingly, we suggest that attributes other than species richness must be included in future studies in order to analyze the impact of nurse species on community structure along environmental gradients.Se sabe que el número de especies asociado a plantas nodrizas aumenta con la altitud. Sin embargo, el efecto de plantas nodrizas sobre otros atributos de las comunidades, como la abundancia de especies, diversidad y equidad, ha sido largamente ignorado. Más aún, cambios en estos atributos en gradientes ambientales han sido pocas veces examinados

  4. The Donoso copper-rich, tourmaline-bearing breccia pipe in central Chile: petrologic, fluid inclusion and stable isotope evidence for an origin from magmatic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skewes, M. Alexandra; Holmgren, Carmen; Stern, Charles R.

    2003-01-01

    The copper-rich, tourmaline-bearing Donoso breccia pipe is one among more than 15 different mineralized breccias in the giant (>50 million metric tonnes of copper) Miocene and Pliocene Río Blanco-Los Bronces copper deposit in the high Andes of central Chile. This breccia pipe, bracketed in age between 5.2 and 4.9 Ma, has dimensions of 500 by 700 m at the current surface 3,670 m above sea level. Its roots have yet to be encountered, and it is >300 m in diameter at the depth of the deepest drill holes. The Donoso breccia is, for the most part, monolithic, containing clasts of the equigranular quartz monzonite pluton which hosts the pipe. It is matrix supported, with between 5 and 25% of the total rock volume consisting of breccia-matrix minerals, which include tourmaline, quartz, chalcopyrite, pyrite, specularite, and lesser amounts of bornite and anhydrite. An open pit mine, centered on this breccia pipe, has a current production of 50,000 tonnes of ore per day at an average grade of 1.2% copper, and copper grade in the breccia matrix is significantly higher. Measured δ18O for tourmaline and quartz from the matrix of the Donoso breccia at different levels of the pipe range from +6.9 to +12.0‰, and measured δD in tourmaline ranges from -73 to -95‰. Temperatures of crystallization of these minerals, as determined by the highest homogenization temperatures of highly saline fluid inclusions, range from 400 to >690°C. When corrected for these temperatures, the stable isotope data indicate that fluids from which these breccia-matrix minerals precipitated were magmatic, with δ18O between +5.6 to +9.1‰ and δD between -51 to -80‰. These isotopic data preclude participation of a significant amount of meteoric water in the formation of the Donoso breccia. They support a model in which brecciation is caused by expansion of magmatic fluids exsolved from a cooling pluton, and breccia-matrix minerals, including copper sulfides, precipitated from the same magmatic

  5. Consistent magmatic and magnetic anisotropy data in La Gloria Pluton, central Chile: Implications for the magma flow record in a shallow pluton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payacan, I.; Gutierrez, F. J.; Bachmann, O.; Parada, M.

    2012-12-01

    The magmatic origin of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) is examined in comparison with magmatic anisotropy data in a small, shallow, silicic magma reservoir in the upper crust. La Gloria Pluton (LGP) is a 10 Ma granodiorite/quartz monzonite of about 250 km3 located in the southern Andes, central Chile. LGP represents a particularly simple case of a silicic intrusion which was assembled in a few pulses and cooled over a short time interval. Hornblende, biotite and minor magnetite are ubiquitous mafic phases. The AMS tensor indicates that magnetic fabric has an oblate shape (i.e. magnetic foliation is higher than magnetic lineation). Lineations are weak (values up to 1.05), have a N-NW trend with a nearly horizontal dip and represent axisymmetric convection parallel to the main pluton elongation. Foliations are more pronounced (values up to 1.14), having NW trends and dips that vary gradually from vertical at the walls, to horizontal at the center and near the roof of the chamber. We interpret this to represent shear localization near the magma locking point along solidification fronts. Magmatic anisotropy data were obtained by measuring mineral length, width and orientation in the three main planes of the AMS tensor. We define the planes Pmax, Pint, and Pmin as orthogonal to the maximum, intermediate, and minimum axes of the AMS tensor, respectively. Mineral data were collected for plagioclase and amphibole + bitotite independently. For each site, the Bingham distribution with 95% of confidence is used to determine the mean mineral orientation and their angle difference with the AMS axes. Preliminary results indicate that mean crystal orientations are well defined for Pmax and Pint for all analyzed minerals, but Pmin is only well constrained for amphibole + bitotite and poorly constrained for plagioclase. Angle differences generally decrease with magnetic anisotropy but are independent of the size and aspect ratio of the crystals. Mean values of

  6. Using 137Cs and 210Pbex and other sediment source fingerprints to document suspended sediment sources in small forested catchments in south-central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the impact of forest harvesting operations on sediment mobilization from forested catchments has been undertaken in south-central Chile. The study focused on two sets of small paired catchments (treatment and control), with similar soil type, but contrasting mean annual rainfall, located about 400 km apart at Nacimiento (1200 mm yr−1) and Los Ulmos (2500 mm yr−1). The objective was to study the changes in the relative contribution of the primary sources of fine sediment caused by forestry operations. Attention focused on the pre-harvest and post-harvest periods and the post-replanting period was included for the Nacimiento treatment catchment. The sediment source fingerprinting technique was used to document the contributions of the potential sources. Emphasis was placed on discriminating between the forest slopes, forest roads and channel erosion as potential sources of fine sediment and on assessing the relative contributions of these three sources to the sediment yield from the catchments. The fallout radionuclides (FRNs) 137Cs and excess lead-210, the environmental radionuclides 226Ra and 40K and soil organic matter (SOM) were tested as possible fingerprints for discriminating between potential sediment sources. The Kruskal–Wallis test and discriminant function analysis were used to guide the selection of the optimum fingerprint set for each catchment and observation period. Either one or both of the FRNs were selected for inclusion in the optimum fingerprint for all datasets. The relative contribution of each sediment source to the target sediment load was estimated using the selected fingerprint properties, and a mixing model coupled with a Monte Carlo simulation technique that takes account of uncertainty in characterizing sediment source properties. The goodness of fit of the mixing model was tested by comparing the measured and simulated fingerprint properties for the target sediment samples. In the Nacimiento treatment catchment the

  7. Relaciones entre la distribución de recursos pelágicos pequeños y la temperatura superficial del mar registrada con satélites NOAA en la zona central de Chile Relationships between the small pelagic resources distribution and the sea surface temperatures recorded by NOAA satellites from Chile central zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleuterio Yáñez R

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un estudio exploratorio para determinar la posibilidad de introducir el uso de imágenes de temperatura superficial del mar (TSM, confeccionadas con datos de satélites NOAA, en las pesquerías de recursos pelágicos pequeños de la zona central de Chile. Se determinan significativas relaciones entre los rendimientos de las especies analizadas y los gradientes térmicos (GRT en forma particular. Estos se asocian a aguas oceánicas en el caso del jurel (Trachurus murphyi, y a surgencias costeras en relación con la anchoveta (Engraulis ringens y sardina común (Clupea bentincki. Se concluye que el uso de imágenes de TSM-NOAA puede jugar un papel importante en la operación de flotas, particularmente de las del tipo de embarcaciones consideradas en el presente trabajo.A survey study was conducted to assess the possibility of introducing the use of sea surface temperatures (SST, obtained from NOAA satellite data, for the small pelagic fisheries resources. Relationships between species yields and thermal gradients (TGR were found significant. Jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi yields were largely related with a strong thermal gradient next to oceanic waters, while anchovy (Engraulis ringens and common sardine (Clupea bentincki yields were mainly associated to the development of coastal upwelling events. It is concluded that the use of SST-NOAA images can play an important role in fleet operations, particularly in the case ot the type of boats considered in this paper.

  8. Nurse effect in seedling establishment: facilitation and tolerance to damage in the Andes of central Chile Efecto nodriza en el establecimiento de plántulas: facilitación y tolerancia al daño en los Andes de Chile central

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    IAN S ACUÑA-RODRÍGUEZ

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Nurse effects, which occur when one plant species enhances the survival or growth of another plant species, are predicted to be most relevant in stressful environments. These effects are particulary important during seedling establishment due to their vulnerability to both biotic and abiotic factors, such as herbivory and drought. Tolerance to herbivory reflects the degree to which plants are able to regrow and reproduce after damage, and should vary with resource availability. In the high Andes of central Chile, the cushion plant Laretia acaulis (Apiaceae acts as a buffer against environmental stress, enhancing survival of several associated plant species. We hypothesized that tolerance to herbivory of seedlings growing inside the canopy of L. acaulis should be greater than that of seedlings growing outside the cushion plant. We conducted a field experiment to test this hypothesis for two native perennial species in the high Andes of central Chile: Hordeum comosum (Poaceae and Haplopappus anthylloides (Asteraceae. Seedlings of each species were planted inside and outside L. acaulis cushions and half of them received manual damage (50 % foliar tissue removed. Seedlings growing inside the nurse species showed high survival independent of the damage treatment. Whereas position (inside or outside the cushion plant did not affect tolerance of Haplopappus anthylloides, it significantly affected tolerance of Hordeum comosum. Thus, we found similar survival of damaged and control seedlings of H. comosum inside the cushions, but survival of damaged seedlings in the bare ground was lower than that of control seedlings. We verified the occurrence of nurse effects of Laretia acaulis on the establishment of both species, and detected enhancement of tolerance to damage in Hordeum comosum in this stressful habitatSe ha sugerido que el efecto nodriza, el cual se evidencia cuando una especie vegetal incrementa la supervivencia o el crecimiento de otra, es m

  9. Mortalidad natural de larvas de merluza común (Merluccius gayi gayi frente a Chile centro-sur en relación a su distribución espacial y grado de agregación Natural mortality of chilean hake (Merluccius gayi gayi larvae of central-south Chile in relation to their spatial distribution and patchiness

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    Cristian Vargas

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Existe escasa información sobre la ecología y sobrevivencia de estados larvales de merluza común frente a las costas de la VIII Región, Chile. Debido a que la agregación puede ser un factor determinante en la depredación de larvas de peces, en el presente trabajo se estudia su influencia en la mortalidad natural instantánea de larvas de merluza común (Merluccius gayi gayi Guichenot, 1848, estimada a través del modelo mortalidad-agregación de McGurk (1986. Las muestras (red bongo 500µ fueron obtenidas durante un crucero efectuado en la zona costera del centro-sur de Chile (36º22'S _ 37º10'S durante septiembre de 1991. La tasa de mortalidad natural instantánea fluctuó entre 0,1 y 0,38 d-1 para larvas en un rango de tallas de 4 a 11 mm de longitud estándar. Los valores de mortalidad obtenidos a través del modelo de interacción mortalidad-agregación (McGurk, 1986, revelaron que la distribución espacial (agregación podría influenciar considerablemente a la mortalidad, especialmente en larvas de mayor longitud (> 9 mm.At the present time limited information is available about ecology and survival of Chilean hake larvae off coast from VIII Region, Chile. Because spatial patchiness of larvae may be an important factor on the predation of fish larvae, its influence on the instantaneous natural mortality of larval Chilean hake (Merluccius gayi gayi Guichenot, 1848 was studied using the mortality-patchiness model (McGurk, 1986. Samples (bongo net 500µ were taken during a survey carried out in the coastal zone off Central-South Chile (36º22'S _ 37º10'S during september 1991. The natural mortality for larvae between 4 to 11 mm of standard length fluctuated between 0,1 and 0,38 d-1. The mortality values obtained using the mortality-patchiness model (McGurk, 1986, showed that the spatial distribution (patchiness would influence the larval mortality, specially in the largest ones (> 9 mm.

  10. Abanico East Formation: petrology and geochemistry of volcanic rocks behind the Cenozoic arc front in the Andean Cordillera, central Chile (33°50'S

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    Marcia Muñoz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The stratigraphy, chemistry and age of rocks assigned to the eastern portion of the Abanico Formation exposed along the El Volcán river valley, Principal Cordillera east of Santiago (30º50'S/70º12'-70º5'W, are reported and discussed. This ca. 3,300 m thick succession is mainly composed of basalts, basaltic andesites and volcaniclastic rocks. 40Ar/39Ar radiometric dates on plagioclase from the lava flows yield Oligocene-lower Miocene ages with a maximum age of 34.3 ±0.4 Ma for the lower part and a plateau age of 21.4±1.0 Ma for the upper part of the succession. The lava flows show calc-alkaline affinities and have chemical characteristics that are typical of arc volcanic rocks erupted in an active continental margin. A temporal chemical evolution in the sequence is indicated by upward increases in concentrations of LILE and LREE elements and LaN/YbN ratios. This pattern can be attributed to increasing contributions of fluids derived from the subducted lithosphere with time. A chemical comparison of these rocks with Oligocene-lower Miocene volcanic rocks from the Cerro Abanico and Chacabuco areas on the western border of the Principal Cordillera, east of Santiago, and at the northern end of the Central Depression reveals west to east compositional variations. From west to east these variations include: (1 increasing LILE and LREE concentrations, LaN/YbN ratios and Sr and Nd initial isotopic ratios, and (2 decreasing LILE/HFSE and LREE/HFSE ratios. These pattern can be attributed to a west to east decrease in the contribution of slab derived fluids and increase in the influence of crustal contamination processesLa formación Abanico Este: petrología y geoquímica de las rocas volcánicas detrás del arco Cenozoico en la Cordillera Andina, Chile central (33º50'S. Se presentan los resultados del estudio de la estratigrafía, química y edades de rocas asignadas a la franja oriental de la Formación Abanico expuestas en la ladera sur del R

  11. Low prevalence of Factor V Leiden and the prothrombin G20210A mutation in a healthy population from the central-south region of Chile Baixa prevalência do Fator V Leiden e da mutação da protrombina G20210A em uma população sã da região centro-sul do Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Iván Palomo; Fabian Segovia; Daniela Parra; Marcelo Alarcón; Edgardo Rojas

    2009-01-01

    Thrombosis is a result of the interaction between predisposing genetic polymorphisms and acquired risk factors. The two prothrombotic polymorphisms which are most frequently associated with thrombosis are factor V (FV) Leiden and the prothrombin (PT) G20210A mutation. The objective of this work was to investigate the prevalence of both factors in the central-south region of Chile. Determination of the frequency was carried out by means of a genetic analysis of 1200 healthy, non-native individ...

  12. Nuevo esquema estratigráfico para los depósitos marinos mio-pliocenos del área de Navidad (33º00'-34º30'S, Chile central New stratigrafic scheme for the Mio-Pliocene marine deposits of the Navidad area (33º00'-34º30'S, central Chile

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    Alfonso Encinas

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Varios autores han propuesto diferentes esquemas estratigráficos para los depósitos sedimentarios neógenos marinos que afloran en la zona costera de Chile central entre Valparaíso (~33°00'S y Punta Topocalma (~34°30'S, sin que exista un consenso al respecto. Tampoco existe acuerdo respecto a las correlaciones entre los depósitos que afloran en la parte norte de dicha zona, entre Valparaíso y San Antonio (~33°30'S con aquellos que aparecen en la parte sur, entre San Antonio y Punta Topocalma. Sobre la base de nuevos estudios estratigráficos, sedimentológicos y paleontológicos se propone, de manera formal, un nuevo esquema estratigráfico para estos depósitos. De acuerdo con este nuevo esquema se definen la Formación Navidad (Mioceno Superior-Plioceno Inferior y las formaciones Licancheu, Rapel y La Cueva (Plioceno. Se propone la elevación de las tres primeras unidades (Navidad, Licancheu y Rapel, generalmente consideradas como miembros en clasificaciones anteriores, al rango de formaciones debido a que se encuentran separadas por discontinuidades (paraconformidades de escala regional. En el presente trabajo se definen estas unidades, se revisan los esquemas anteriores y se justifica la proposición de este nuevo esquemaDifferent stratigraphic schemes have been proposed by various authors for the Neogene marine sedimentary deposits cropping out along the central Chilean coast between Valparaíso (~33°00'S and Punta Topocalma (~34°30'S, without any consensus having been reached. Neither does any agreement exist with respect to the correlation between the deposits cropping out in the northern part of this area, between San Antonio (~33°30'S and Valparaíso, and those of the southern part, between San Antonio and Punta Topocalma. Based on new stratigraphic, sedimentologic and paleontologic studies we propose a formal, new stratigraphic classification for this area. According to this scheme we define the Navidad Formation (Upper

  13. Liolaemus carlosgarini and Liolaemus riodamas (Squamata: Liolaemidae), two new species of lizards lacking precloacal pores, from Andean areas of central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquerré, Damien; Núñez, Herman; Scolaro, José Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Most of the lizards of the Liolaemus genus present precloacal pores in males, with few exceptions in species of the lineomaculatus and neuquensis groups, and in the elongatus-kriegi complex. The elongatus-kriegi complex, belonging to the Liolaemus (sensu stricto) subgenus, is composed of medium sized, saxicolous, viviparous and insectivorous or omnivorous lizards, distributed between the Andean and Patagonian zones of Chile and Argentina. We reviewed the taxonomic history of this group, and we describe two new species, Liolaemus carlosgarini, found in the vicinity of the Maule Lagoon, in the Maule Region, Chile, and Liolaemus riodamas, described from the population that was originally designated as Liolaemus cf ceii, from Las Damas River, near the Termas del Flaco locality, in the Libertador Bernardo O'Higgins Region, thereby based on this research L. ceii is eliminated from the species belonging to Chile. Both species have as a diagnostic character the absence of precloacal pores, and we suggest here their presumptive systematic relationships in Liolaemus. We analyzed ten species of Liolaemus, in order to perform a phylogenetic analysis based on external morphology, using mostly squamation and morphometric characters. The analysis was performed using PAUP, with the Maximum Parsimony criterion. In addition, through diaphanisation, we studied and described the osteology of the new species. We conclude that species lacking precloacal pores do not form a monophyletic group, and that constructing a phylogeny using only external morphology, at least for this group of reptiles, is insufficient to establish solid phyletic relationships. Other sort of characters should complement the morphological ones. PMID:26131484

  14. Borage (Borago officinalis L. Response to N, P, K, and S Fertilization in South Central Chile Respuesta de Borraja (Borago officinalis L. a la Fertilización con N, P, K, y S en el Centro Sur de Chile

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    Marisol T. Berti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Borage (Borago officinalis L. is an oilseed with a high gamma-linolenic acid (GLA content in its seed. The objective of this study was to determine the response of borage seed yield, oil content, and fatty acid composition to N, P, K, and S fertilizer treatments. Three experiments were conducted in Osorno (40º22’ S, 73º04’ W; 72 m.a.s.l., Chile. The first experiment was conducted during the 2005-2006 growing season, with four N rates (0, 100, 200, and 300 kg N ha-1, three P rates (0, 60, and 120 kg P2O5 ha-1 and two K rates (0 and 150 kg K2O ha-1. The second experiment was conducted in 2006-2007 and evaluated only the effect of four N rates (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha-1 was evaluated because there was no response to P and K in the first experiment. The third experiment was conducted in the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 and evaluated only two rates of S, 0 and 40 kg S ha-1. Seed yield was not affected by N, P, K, or their interactions in any of the experiments. As N rates increased GLA content increased. Mean seed yield increased to 98 kg ha-1 when applying 40 kg S ha-1. Results indicate that borage has a higher response to S applications than N. Further research is needed to determine the interactions between N and S applications, given that the experiments were conducted on soils with high P and K levels.La borraja (Borago officinalis L. es una oleaginosa con alto contenido de ácido gamma-linolénico (GLA en su semilla. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la respuesta en rendimiento de semillas, contenido y composición del aceite de borraja, a la fertilización con N, P, K y S. Tres experimentos fueron conducidos en Osorno (40º22’ S, 73º04’ O; 72 m.s.n.m., Chile. El primer experimento fue conducido en la temporada 2005-2006, con cuatro dosis de N (0, 100, 200 y 300 kg N ha-1, tres dosis de P (0, 60 y 120 kg P2O5 ha-1 y dos dosis de K (0 y 150 kg K2O ha-1. El segundo experimento fue conducido en el 2006-2007, cuando sólo se

  15. DETECTION OF LOCAL SITE CONDITIONS INFLUENCING EARTHQUAKE SHOCK AND SECONDARY EFFECTS IN THE VALPARAISO AREA IN CENTRAL-CHILE USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS METHODS

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    Barbara Theilen-Willige

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential contribution of remote sensing and GIS techniques to earthquake hazard analysis was investigated in Valparaiso in Chile in order to improve the systematic, standardized inventory of those areas that are more susceptible to earthquake ground motions or to earthquake related secondary effects such as landslides, liquefaction, soil amplifications, compaction or even tsunami-waves. Geophysical, topographical, geological data and satellite images were collected, processed, and integrated into a spatial database using Geoinformation Systems (GIS and image processing techniques. The GIS integrated evaluation of satellite imageries, of digital topographic data and of various open-source geodata can contribute to the acquisition of those specific tectonic, geomorphologic/ topographic settings influencing local site conditions in Valparaiso, Chile. Using the weighted overlay techniques in GIS, susceptibility maps were produced indicating areas, where causal factors influencing near- surface earthquake shock occur aggregated. Causal factors (such as unconsolidated sedimentary layers within a basin’s topography, higher groundwater tables, etc. summarizing and interfering each other, rise the susceptibility of soil amplification and of earthquake related secondary effects. This approach was used as well to create a tsunami flooding susceptibility map. LANDSAT Thermal Band 6-imageries were analysed to get information of surface water currents in this area.

  16. Importance of water quality on plant abundance and diversity in high-alpine meadows of the Yerba Loca Natural Sanctuary at the Andes of north-central Chile Importancia de la calidad del agua sobre la abundancia y diversidad vegetal en vegas altoandinas del Santuario Natural Yerba Loca en los Andes de Chile centro-norte

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    ROSANNA GINOCCHIO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Porphyry Cu-Mo deposits have influenced surface water quality in high-Andes of north-central Chile since the Miocene. Water anomalies may reduce species abundance and diversity in alpine meadows as acidic and metal-rich waters are highly toxic to plants The study assessed the importance of surface water quality on plant abundance and diversity in high-alpine meadows at the Yerba Loca Natural Santuary (YLNS, central Chile (33°15' S, 70°18' W. Hydrochemical and plant prospecting were carried out on Piedra Carvajal, Chorrillos del Plomo and La Lata meadows the growing seasons of 2006 and 2007. Direct gradient analysis was performed through canonical correspondence analysis (CCA to look for relationships among water chemistry and plant factors. High variability in water chemistry was found inside and among meadows, particularly for pH, sulphate, electric conductivity, hardness, and total dissolved Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Fe. Data on species abundance and water chemical factors suggests that pH and total dissolved Cu are very important factor determining changes in plant abundance and diversity in study meadows. For instance, Festuca purpurascens, Colobanthus quitensis, and Arenaria rivularis are abundant in habitals with Cu-rich waters while Festuca magellanica, Patosia clandestina, Plantago barbata, Werneria pygmea, and Erigeron andícola are abundant in habitals with dilute waters.Los megadepósitos de pórfidos de Cu-Mo han influido sobre la calidad de las aguas superficiales en las zonas altoandinas del centro-norte de Chile desde el Mioceno. Estas alteraciones en la calidad de las aguas podrían afectar negativamente a la vegetación presente en las vegas altoandinas, ya que las aguas acidas y ricas en metales son altamente tóxicas para las plantas. En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de la calidad de las aguas en la abundancia y diversidad florística de las vegas altoandinas del Santuario de la Naturaleza Yerba Loca (SNYL, en Chile central (33

  17. Combining point and distributed snowpack data with landscape-based discretization for hydrologic modeling of the snow-dominated Maipo River Basin, in the semi-arid Andes central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videla Giering, Y. A., III; McPhee, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Snow hydrology in mountain environments plays an important role in the availability of hydrological resources in warm climate areas and height effects, since the magnitude of snowpack, its spatial and temporal distribution is very important to determine the availability of water in the snowmelt season and take forward different productive activities This investigation models and assess the main phenomena hydrological cycle of snow using the software Cold Region Hydrological Model (Pomeroy et al., 2007). The software is a physically based model developed by the centre for hydrology, University of Saskatchewan. The aim of this model is to have a better understanding of hydrological processes involved in cold environments, which are particular in the sense that a host of specific phenomena such as snow and ice accumulation, transport and melt, infiltration through frozen soils, and the like, control the hydrograph timing) The analysis involved the development of a hydrologic model for the Upper Maipo River Basin, with elevations between 800 and 6500 meters above sea level and 5000-km^2 watershed in the Andes of Central Chile which supplies water resources to the capital city of Santiago (7 million inhabitants), to a thriving agricultural region, as well as to hydropower and large mining activities. The paper concludes that there is a differential distribution of snow cover in the study area, determined mainly by steep terrain geomorphology. These factors have been considered in the parameterization of the model, showing considerable variation in storage time, redistributions by blowing snow, melting intervals, infiltration rates and drainage basin. The fictional scenarios modeled demonstrate noticeable changes in the hydrograph, showing the fragile climate and hydrological condition of this basin of Central Chile.

  18. Patrones reproductivos del lobo marino común, Otaria flavescens (Shaw 1800, en el centro-sur de Chile Breeding patterns in southern sea lions, Otaria flavescens (Shaw 1800, in south-central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HÉCTOR J PAVÉS

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El desfase latitudinal de los eventos reproductivos en Otaria flavescens sugiere la existencia de una adaptación fisiológica y conductual a condiciones ambientales locales. La identificación de cambios en los patrones conductuales intraespecíficos frente a modificaciones ambientales sugieren una relación entre estos. Se pretende revisar los patrones reproductivos del O. flavescens, determinando la existencia de una sincronización y estabilidad en ellos durante las temporadas 1996-1997 y 1997-1998 en la colonia de Punta Lobería, Chile. Se realizaron observaciones directas de las agrupaciones y conductas reproductivas empleando binoculares, y apoyadas por el uso de material fílmico y fotográfico. Los resultados evidenciaron modificaciones en, (a el número de harenes (de 28 disminuye a 19, (b la distribución espacial de los harenes (70 % de los harenes durante 1997-1998 se establecieron en el lado norte de la playa reproductiva, durante la temporada anterior estos se distribuyeron a lo largo de toda la playa, (c proporción etaria (un macho: 12 hembras: un juvenil: siete cachorros, desciende a un macho: nueve hembras: dos juveniles: seis cachorros, (d índice de poliginia (de 12,4 a 7,8 HPMT y de 11 a 9 HP, y (e la población organizada en harenes (disminución del 10,3 %. Estas variaciones estarían relacionadas con la reducción del espacio óptimo para el establecimiento de harenes debido a la incorporación de suelo/roca posterior a un derrumbe invernal. Los patrones conductuales reproductivos que se mantuvieron invariables durante las temporadas fueron, (a la estacionalidad de los harenes (constitución durante la cuarta semana de diciembre y disolución en la cuarta semana de febrero, (b el período de partos (inicio durante la segunda semana de enero, finalización durante la cuarta semana de enero, y (c el período de cópulas (inicio durante la tercera semana de enero, finalización durante la segunda semana de febrero. Por lo

  19. Revisiting chlorophyll data along the coast in north-central Chile, considering multiscale environmental variability Reinterpretando datos de clorofila en la costa centro-norte de Chile, considerando variabilidad ambiental de multiescala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIVIAN MONTECINO

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton abundance in the surface mixed layer of the coastal ocean responds to environmental changes at various time scales. Here the "warm", "cold" and "neutral" phases of "three environmental cycles" have been jointly considered to assess chlorophyll-a (Chl-a biomass variability for both the active and relaxed phases of the local, wind-driven coastal upwelling: (i the interannual ENSO cycle (ii the annual (seasonal cycle and (iii the intraseasonal cycle associated with equatorially-sourced, ocean trapped-waves along the coast in northern Chile. The main goal of this study is to quantitatively assess the variability of the depth- integrated Chl-a biomass in the euphotic zone (¾Chl-a in terms of an overall "environmental condition" over a 50 km upwelling sensitive coastal strip, revisiting published and unpublished Chl-a ship (Cship = Chl-a + Phaeopigments data. All possible "environmental conditions" combinations were further ranked into seven "environmental indices" ranging from 0 ("absolutely cold" to 6 ("absolutely warm". Out of 332 samples of ¾Chl-a, 198/134 were obtained during active/relaxed upwelling conditions from which 24/38 and 30/36 samples were associated with the simultaneous occurrence of at least two "cold"/"warm" phases of the three environmental cycles ("cold"/"warm" environmental conditions, respectively. Lower ¾Chl-a values during "cold" and "warm" environmental conditions relative to the "neutral" ones reached statistical significance for both active and relaxed conditions (144/60 samples respectively. Higher turbulent mixing during "cold" environmental conditions and a deeper nutricline during "warm" ones would explain lower ¾Chl-a-values. Satellite chlorophyll (Csat data obtained in clear skies (active upwelling only, showed a similar distribution to those of ¾Chl-a when classified into the corresponding "environmental indices". These results suggest that during "neutral" (transitional "environmental conditions

  20. The effect of heat and smoke on the emergence of exotic and native seedlings in a Mediterranean fire-free matorral of central Chile Efecto del calor y el humo sobre la emergencia de plántulas exóticas y nativas en un matorral mediterráneo libre de fuego en Chile central

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    JAVIER A FIGUEROA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of heat shock and wood-fueled smoke on the emergence of native and exotic plant species in soil samples obtained in an evergreen matorral of central Chile that has been free of fire for decades. It is located on the eastern foothills of the Andes Range in San Carlos de Apoquindo. Immediately after collection samples were dried and stored under laboratory conditions. For each two transect, ten samples were randomly chosen, and one of the following treatments was applied: (1 heat-shock treatment, (2 plant-produced smoke treatment, (3 combined heat-and-smoke treatment, and (4 control, corresponding to samples not subjected to treatment. Twenty-seven species, representing 13 families, emerged from the soil samples. The most abundant families were Asteraceae and Poaceae. All of the emerged species were herbaceous, and 18 species were exotic. Respect to general hypothesis, there is no evidence for the proposition that fire-free matorral has lower proportion of exotic and native species with fire-related cues than matorral with fires. Among the exotic and native, the mean number of species that emerged from soil samples did not change significantly with respect to the control for any of the treatments applied. Nevertheless, important species-specific responses were observed. Smoke and heat-smoke combination significantly increased the emergence of the exotic species Anthriscus caucalis. While smoke-related cues significantly increased the emergence of the exotic species Avena barbata, the emergence of the exotic Aphanes arvensis and the native Bromus berteroanus decreases. For several species our results showed inconsistent responses to fire-related cues compared to those reported in the literature. We suggest that these differences might be related with the fire-history in the populations, an important issue poorly acknowledge in the literature.Nosotros estudiamos el efecto del golpe de calor y del humo de la combustión de

  1. Spatio-temporal distribution of spionids (Polychaeta-Spionidae in an estuarine system in south-central Chile Distribución espacio-temporal de los espiónidos (Polychaeta-Spionidae en un sistema de estuarios del centro sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURICIO DÍAZ-JARAMILLO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is based on the identification and distribution of spionid polychaetes in relation to abiotic characteristics of the environment at the mouth of the Valdivia-Tornagaleones estuary in south-central Chile. Four samplings were carried out in 2005, in which eight species were identified including Aquilaspio peruana, Boccardia polybranchia, Carazziella carrascoi, Dipolydora socialis, Minuspio patagónica, Rhynchospio glutaea, Scolelepis quinquedentata and Spiophanes sp. As it is typical of other estuaries in south central Chile, spionids were an important component of the macroinfauna of the Valdivia estuary. The distribution of the Spionidae family in the system showed higher species richness in the outer reach of the estuary but higher abundance (number of specimens at the inner reach. The distributional pattern of the polychaetes did not vary throughout the year, exhibiting strong spatial zonation with three significantly different assemblages. Minuspio patagónica, A. peruana and C. carrascoi contributed to the similarity between these three groups, as well as to the formation of a general component in the macroinfauna. Sedimentological and depth variables, as well as sedimentary organic material were only marginally related to the distribution of spionids. Results showed that bottom salinity was the environmental variable responsible for spatial differentiation of spionids in the three groups, which permit to differentiate the outer-reach species from those in the internal area of the estuary. The significant contribution of spionids to the total component of macroinfauna in the studied area shows that these species are a significant component of the estuarine and transition areas in the southwest Pacific coast.El estudio se desarrolla en base a la identificación y distribución de Spionidae y su relación con las características abióticas del medio, en la desembocadura del sistema estuarial Valdivia-Tornagaleones (Chile. Se

  2. Effect of Compost Application on Some Properties of a Volcanic Soil from Central South Chile Efecto de la Aplicación de Compost sobre Algunas Propiedades de un Suelo Volcánico de La Región Centro-Sur de Chile

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    Pedro José Valarini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil compost application is a common soil management practice used by small farmers of Central-South Chile that produces positive effects on soil properties and also promotes presence and activity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF. This fungi form symbiosis with plant roots improving plant nutrition, as well as producing glomalin, a glycoprotein that has been associated with soil aggregation stability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate, in an Ultisol from Central-South Chile, the effect of different doses of compost on some soil characteristics at the end of the third year of a crop sequence including wheat (Triticum aestivum L., bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., and grassland (Lolium multiflorum Lam. associated with Trifolium repens L.. Studied soil characteristics included chemical (pH, available-P, organic C, biological (C and N biomass, AMF spore number, root colonization percentage, mycelium length, and glomalin content, as well as physical parameters (water holding capacity [WHC], and water stable aggregates [WSA]. Results showed that, in general, compost application increased soil pH, mycorrizal roots, mycelium length, glomalin levels, and WSA. Significant relationships were found between C and N biomass, C biomass and WSA, C biomass and glomalin, WSA and WHC, among others. Results suggest that compost application to this type of soil is a feasible option as a fertilizer substitute, and a way to avoid soil erosion by small local farmers involved in organic agriculture.La aplicación de compost al suelo, práctica habitual en predios de pequeños agricultores de la región centro-sur de Chile, produce efectos positivos en sus propiedades y promueve la presencia y actividad de los hongos micorrícicos arbusculares (AMF. Estos hongos forman simbiosis con las raíces de las plantas mejorando su nutrición y además producen una glicoproteína llamada glomalina, la cual ha sido relacionada con la estabilidad de los agregados de

  3. Parasites of the Green-backed Firecrown (Sephanoides sephaniodes) in Chile Parásitos del picaflor chico (Sephanoides sephaniodes) en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel González-Acuña; Carolina Silva; Marta Soto; Sergei Mironov; Lucila Moreno; González-Gómez, Paulina L.; Hasan Badrul; Mike Kinsella

    2011-01-01

    Gastrointestinal and external parasites from 12 Green-backed Firecrown (Sephanoides sephaniodes) were collected between January 2004 and December 2008 from the Biobío Region south-central Chile and Santiago (central Chile). Helminths collected included 1 trematode species (Mosesia sp.) and 1 cestode species (Hymenolepis trinidadensis). The mite Proctophyllodes huitzilopchtlii was the only ectoparasite species found. All these parasites represent new records for Chile and the first parasites r...

  4. La dieta y fauna de endoparásitos del pejesapo Gobiesox marmoratus Jenyns, 1842 (Pisces: Gobiesocidae en el litoral central de Chile están conectadas pero no correlacionadas Feeding habits and endoparasite fauna of the clingfish Gobiesox marmoratus Jenyns, 1842 (Pisces: Gobiesocidae on the central coast of Chile are intertwined, but not correlated

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    M. Cecilia Pardo-Gandarillas

    2004-12-01

    similarity is documented in the composition of the endoparasitic fauna and the diet of the clingfish G. marmoratus Jenyns, 1842, between three localities off the central coast of Chile separated about 400 km from their nearest neighbor(s. Clingfish in the samples were similar between localities in total body length. The parasite fauna was composed by 16 metazoan taxa (including five Myxozoa. Parasites were found in 38.8 % of the 108 clingfish examined, whereas 32.4 % of the fish in the samples had stomach contents, where 37 prey items were recognized. The even rarer cases of co-occurrence of parasites and prey impeded the search of correlations between both type of variables, such as that between the dietary width and parasite richness. Composition of parasite infracommunities and diet changed along host ontogeny. The diet of juvenile and adult clingfish consisted mainly of amphipods, decapod crustaceans and mollusks at the three localities. The numerical descriptors of the diet and of infracommunities (total abundance, diversity and richness are similar between the localities and along the host ontogeny. The composition of the endoparasitic fauna necessarily depends on the diet of the clingfish, but there is no statistical correlation between both variables. This can be due to the small maximum body size reached by the adults, to the short length of the digestive tract, to the differences in the rate and frequency at which parasites and prey enter and stay in the hosts, to the level of taxonomic resolution attained in prey and/or parasites, and to having decided to include or not rare prey/parasites in the analyses

  5. Análisis operacional de dos flotas industriales en la pesquería de merluza común (Merluccius gayi gayi, región centro-sur de Chile Operational analysis of two industrial fleet in the Chilean hake (Merluccius gayi gayi fishery in the southern-central region of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catterina Sobenes V.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar la actividad de dos flotas industriales (empresa A y empresa B que operan sobre la pesquería de merluza común en la región centro-sur de Chile. Para ello, se utilizó información histórica de la operación de la flota pesquera entre 1998 y 2002. Se evaluaron las zonas de pesca o caladeros según indicadores de efectividad, costo unitario, rentabilidad y utilidad. Las embarcaciones se seleccionaron acorde a indicadores de eficiencia operacional. Estos resultados fueron contrastados con los caladeros visitados y las embarcaciones utilizadas por las empresas, durante el período de estudio. La zona de pesca más adecuada, se determinó según los índices de eficiencia para 13 caladeros de la región centro-sur de Chile. Se observa que ambas empresas han seleccionado adecuadamente los caladeros Tomé al oeste (caladero 9, Tomé al este (caladero 8 y al sur de Punta Lavapié (caladero 10, que tienen los mejores índices de eficiencia. Respecto a la selección de la embarcación más adecuada, se efectuó un análisis de jerarquización de las embarcaciones, por cada empresa, mediante el análisis de anomalías de indicadores de eficiencia. Ambas empresas seleccionaron aquellas embarcaciones que obtuvieron los mejores indicadores de eficiencia. Para el caladero 9 el estudio propone que la empresa A opere con el pesquero de alta mar PAMa3 y la empresa B con el PAMb4. Sin embargo, en el caladero 10, la empresa A debe utilizar el PAMa5 y no el PAMa3 utilizado históricamente, y la empresa B debe continuar operando con el PAMb1 y PAMb2 como lo ha hecho durante el periodo analizadoThis work aims at analysing the operation of two industrial fishing fleets (company A and company B which works on the Chilean hake (Meluccis gayi gayi fishery in the southern-central region of Chile. For this reason, it was used the historical information of the fleet operation from the southern-central region from 1998 to 2002. The

  6. Rhizosphere Pseudomonas sp. strains reduce occurrence of pre- and post-emergence damping-off in chile and tomato in Central Himalayan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Alok; Wray, Victor; Johri, Bhavdish N

    2007-04-01

    Based on in vitro screening for PGP and anti-mycelial activity against three zoosporic pathogenic oomycetes, Pythium aphanidermatum 123, P. aphanidermatum 4746, and Phytophthora nicotianae 4747, seven bacterial isolates were selected for field trials on tomato and chile to test for plant growth promotion under natural and artificial disease-infested field sites in both winter and wet seasons. The effectiveness of isolates in the field trials correlated with the in vitro antagonism screening data. Pseudomonas sp. FQP PB-3, FQA PB-3 and GRP(3) showed substantial beneficial effects on plant growth promotion and lowered considerably the incidence of pre- and post-emergence damping-off in both the crops under various disease scenarios. For example, seed bacterization with these bacterial strains reduced pre-emergence-damping off by ca. 60-70% in the two natural sites, with and without histories of fungicide use in the winter season, and to a lesser extent, ca. 20-40%, in the warmer wet (high humidity; 85-92%) season. The suppression efficacy for post-emergence damping-off was less compared to pre-emergence damping-off although still significant (P > 0.05). Our data unambiguously show that screening of a large number of bacterial pool identifies promising isolates that show beneficial effects on all stages of plant growth in natural oomycete-infested regimes. PMID:17160408

  7. Determination of potential risk of heat stress of cattle in four locations of Central and Southern Chile Determinación del riesgo potencial de estrés térmico del ganado bovino en cuatro localidades del centro y sur de Chile

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    RA Arias

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Meteorological data from December to January of years 1999 to 2007 from weather stations located in four localities in Chile (Curicó, Chillán, Temuco and Osorno were used to calculate the adjusted temperature-humidity index (THIadj-max. Climate variables used to calculate the index were: wind speed, air temperature, relative humidity and an estimated value of solar radiation. When the values of THIadj-max were greater than 75, those days were considered as “alert” and as potential risk of heat stress in cattle. Additionally, the impact of climate on animal production was assessed by means of potential losses in milk production for each locality estimated by two equations. The localities of Curicó and Chillán presented similar values of THIadj-max (79.4 and 79.1, respectively, and both were higher than those for Temuco and Osorno (77.1 and 68.1, respectively, P 75 was greater in the Central region. In addition, the estimated mean milk production loss was greater in the Central regions (1.5 to 4.3 and 1.2 to 3.1 L*cow-1*d-1 for Curicó and Chillán, respectively. Conversely, the Southern regions, Temuco and Osorno, presented lower potential losses with 0.9 to 2.6 and 0.1 to 0.6 L*cow-1*d-1, respectively. In conclusion, the potential risk of heat stress of cattle seems greater in Curicó and Chillán, moderate in Temuco and minimum in Osorno. Additional research is needed in the order to quantify the impacts of environmental conditions in productivity and welfare of cattle in Chile.Datos climáticos del periodo diciembre a febrero de los años 1999 al 2007 provenientes de estaciones meteorológicas situadas en Curicó, Chillán, Temuco y Osorno fueron utilizados para calcular un índice temperatura-humedad ajustado por el efecto del viento y de la radiación (THIadj-max. Las variables climáticas utilizadas para calcular este índice incluyeron: velocidad del viento, temperatura máxima del aire, humedad relativa y un valor estimado de la

  8. Caracterización de agregaciones de merluza de cola (Macruronus magellanicus en la zona centro-sur de Chile Characterization of Chilean hoki (Macruronus magellanicus aggregations off central-southern Chile

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    Dante Queirolo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó la caracterización mensual de las agregaciones de merluza de cola usando registros acústicos obtenidos por equipos SIMRAD EK60 y ES60 a bordo de tres embarcaciones multipropósito que operaron en la Unidad de Pesquería Centro-Sur durante el año 2003, para lo cual se emplearon descriptores morfológicos y batimétricos. En cuanto a su morfología, las agregaciones mostraron una amplia variabilidad, explicada por su nivel de cohesión y tendencia a formar agregaciones de gran extensión horizontal, mientras que batimétricamente se determinó que el 90% de éstas se ubicaron preferentemente entre 300 y 450 m. Existe evidencia de asociación entre diversos descriptores y estos a su vez con otros factores como talla media, temperatura del agua, latitud y mes, lo que permite describir apropiadamente la forma de las agregaciones y su ubicación en la columna de agua. Algunas relaciones relevantes corresponden a: profundidad de las agregaciones respecto a la profundidad del fondo (r = 0,55, altitud de las agregaciones respecto a la profundidad del fondo (r = 0,72, altitud de las agregaciones respecto al índice de profundidad relativa (r = -0,98 y profundidad de las agregaciones respecto a la talla media (r = 0,66.A monthly characterization of Chilean hoki aggregations was done using acoustic records ob-tained with SIMRAD EK60 and ES60 devices aboard three multipurpose vessels that operated in the central-southern fishery unit during 2003; this considered morphological and bathymetric descriptors. The wide mor-phological variation of the aggregations was explained by their cohesión level and tendency to form large horizontal aggregations whereas, bathymetrically, 90% of the aggregations were located between 300 and 450 m. Evidence of associations between various descriptors was found, and these were, in turn, associated with other factors such as mean size, water temperature, latitude, and month, allowing an adequate description of the

  9. A small, new gerbil-mouse Eligmodontia (Rodentia: Cricetidae) from dunes at the coasts and deserts of north-central Chile: molecular, chromosomic, and morphological analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotorno, Angel E; Zuleta, Carlos; Walker, Laura I; Manriquez, German; Valladares, Pablo; Marin, Juan C

    2013-01-01

    A small, new species of gerbil rodents of the genus Eligmodontia from the southwestern dunes of the Atacama Desert in northern Chile is described; the genus had not been reported for this western lowland region. Our description is based on cytogenetic and molecular data, as well as cranial and external morphology. In order to support this hypothesis, we studied 27 specimens captured in Playa Los Choros (Coquimbo) and Copiapó (Atacama), comparing them with samples of all the extant species of the genus. Nineteen individuals consistently showed 2N=50, FN=48, with telocentric chromosomes and G-bands identical to those of the geographically northeastern E. hirtipes; these two groups were geographically separated by E. puerulus (2N = 34, FN = 48). The phylogenetic analysis of 56 Eligmodontia cytochrome-b gene sequences yielded a maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree where the new species formed a divergent and well-supported clade within the genus, which was also confirmed by unweighted parsimony, minimum evolution, and Bayesian analyses. The new species has K2P genetic distances of 12.8% from the geographically distant E. hirtipes, and 10.3% from E. puerulus. Axes 1 and 2 of Principal Component Analysis based on 12 body and skull measurements clearly separated the new species, the latter having a smaller head+body length (70.6 +/- 3.4 mm, n = 17) and lower weight (11.9 +/- 1.9 g, n = 20). We provide strong evidence to recognize a distinct new western lineage within Eligmodontia genus, Eligmodontia dunaris sp. nov., for which we give a complete taxonomic description and a hypothetical biogeographic scenario. The new species should be considered endangered, due to its level of endemism, its low population numbers (which can be occasionally increased after a blooming desert) and its fragile dry habitat patchily distributed near the Atacama Desert. PMID:25250459

  10. Depositación atmosférica de nitrógeno en un transecto valle longitudinal-cordillera de Los Andes, centro-sur de Chile Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen in a transect from the Central Valley to Cordillera de Los Andes, south-central Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Oyarzún, Carlos E; ROBERTO GODOY; SERGIO LEIVA

    2002-01-01

    El aumento de las actividades agrícolas y ganaderas en el centro-sur de Chile puede producir elevadas emisiones de nitrógeno hacia la atmósfera (mayormente NH3). El amoniaco es transportado por corrientes de aire y depositado en el suelo y vegetación. El presente estudio evalúa la depositación atmosférica de compuestos nitrogenados (NO3- y NH4+) en la química de las precipitaciones en un transecto altitudinal de 66 km, desde los alrededores de la ciudad de Osorno (40º 35' S, 72º 57' O, 55 m d...

  11. Radioactive wastes management development in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Facility for immobilizing and conditioning of radioactive wastes generated in Chile, has recently started in operation. It is a Radioactive Wastes Treatment Plant, RWTP, whose owner is Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, CCHEN. A Storgement Building of Conditioned Wastes accomplishes the facility for medium and low level activity wastes. The Project has been carried with participation of chilean professionals at CCHEN and Technical Assistance of International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA. Processes developed are volume reduction by compaction; immobilization by cementation and conditioning. Equipment has been selected to process radioactive wastes into a 200 liters drum, in which wastes are definitively conditioned, avoiding exposition and contamination risks. The Plant has capacity to treat low and medium activity radioactive wastes produced in Chile due to Reactor Experimental No. 1 operation, and annex Laboratories in Nuclear Research Centers, as also those produced by users of nuclear techniques in Industries, Hospitals, Research Centers and Universities, in the whole country. With the infrastructure developed in Chile, a centralization of Radioactive Wastes Management activities is achieved. A data base system helps to control and register radioactive wastes arising in Chile. Generation of radioactive wastes in Chile, has found solution for the present production and that of near future

  12. Late Mesozoic to Paleogene stratigraphy of the Salar de Atacama Basin, Antofagasta, Northern Chile: Implications for the tectonic evolution of the Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpodozis, Constantino; Arriagada, César; Basso, Matilde; Roperch, Pierrick; Cobbold, Peter; Reich, Martin

    2005-04-01

    The Salar de Atacama basin, the largest "pre-Andean" basin in Northern Chile, was formed in the early Late Cretaceous as a consequence of the tectonic closure and inversion of the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Tarapacá back arc basin. Inversion led to uplift of the Cordillera de Domeyko (CD), a thick-skinned basement range bounded by a system of reverse faults and blind thrusts with alternating vergence along strike. The almost 6000-m-thick, upper Cretaceous to lower Paleocene sequences (Purilactis Group) infilling the Salar de Atacama basin reflects rapid local subsidence to the east of the CD. Its oldest outcropping unit (Tonel Formation) comprises more than 1000 m of continental red sandstones and evaporites, which began to accumulate as syntectonic growth strata during the initial stages of CD uplift. Tonel strata are capped by almost 3000 m of sandstones and conglomerates of western provenance, representing the sedimentary response to renewed pulses of tectonic shortening, which were deposited in alluvial fan, fluvial and eolian settings together with minor lacustrine mudstone (Purilactis Formation). These are covered by 500 m of coarse, proximal alluvial fan conglomerates (Barros Arana Formation). The top of the Purilactis Group consists of Maastrichtian-Danian alkaline lava and minor welded tuffs and red beds (Cerro Totola Formation: 70-64 Ma K/Ar) deposited during an interval of tectonic quiescence when the El Molino-Yacoraite Late Cretaceous sea covered large tracts of the nearby Altiplano-Puna domain. Limestones interbedded with the Totola volcanics indicate that this marine incursion advanced westwards to reach the eastern CD slope. CD shortening in the Late Cretaceous was accompanied by volcanism and continental sedimentation in fault bounded basins associated to strike slip along the north Chilean magmatic arc to the west of the CD domain, indicating that oblique plate convergence prevailed during the Late Cretaceous. Oblique convergence seems to have

  13. Las áreas de filtración de metano constituyen zonas de agregación del bacalao de profundidad (Dissostichus eleginoides frente a Chile central?

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    Javier Sellanes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta los resultados de dos campanas (invierno y verano de pesca de bacalao de profundidad (Dissostichus eleginoides, realizadas sobre un área de filtración de metano (AFM y un sitio aledano utilizado como control. Estas fueron desarrolladas con el objetivo de determinar si las AFM constituyen sitios de agregación de D. eleginoides. Para cada área se registró la captura promedio, el rendimiento de pesca y se determinó índices de abundancia y diversidad incluyendo la fauna capturada incidentalmente. Los ejemplares de bacalao de profundidad capturados en ambos sitios fueron sexados, medidos y pesados. Adicionalmente, se presentan imágenes tomadas in situ, dentro del AFM, que documentan la presencia tanto de D. eleginoides como aparejos de pesca perdidos utilizados en su captura frente a la costa de Concepción. Las mayores capturas y rendimientos fueron observadas en el AFM, con valores promedio de 56,2 kg por lance de pesca y rendimientos promedios de 80,3 g/anzuelo, siendo significativamente mayores en comparación al sitio control. La campana de pesca realizada en invierno registra mayores capturas y rendimientos en ambas áreas. La composición faunística evaluada a través de los índices comunitarios, indica diferencias significativas entre sitios, registrándose un mayor número de especies de fauna acompanante en el AFM, en comparación con el sitio control (18 y 14 especies, respectivamente. Se hipotetiza que la mayor abundancia de bacalao de profundidad en el AFM, estaría relacionada tanto con la mayor heterogeneidad espacial, dada por la presencia de arrecifes de carbonatos autigénicos, como con la disponibilidad de presas, constituyendo estos sitios como zonas de alimentación. El presente trabajo entrega información tendiente a establecer el rol ecológico de las AFM y la fauna asociada a ellas en ambientes batiales frente a Chile.

  14. Geometry of the inverted Cretaceous Chañarcillo Basin based on 2-D gravity and field data. An approach to the structure of the western Central Andes of northern Chile

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    F. Martínez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an integrated approach that provides new ideas about the structural geometry of the NNE-striking, Cretaceous Chañarcillo Basin located along the eastern Coastal Cordillera in the western Central Andes of northern Chile (27–28° S. The results obtained from the integration of two transverse (E–W gravity profiles with previous geological information, show that the architecture of this basin is defined by a large NNE–SSE-trending and east-vergent anticline ("Tierra Amarilla Anticlinorium", which is related to the positive reactivation of a former Cretaceous normal fault (Elisa de Bordos Master Fault. Moreover, intercalations of high and low gravity anomalies and steep gravity gradients reveal a set of buried, west-tilted half-grabens associated with a synthetic normal fault pattern. These results, together with the uplift and folding style of the Cretaceous syn-rift recognized within the basin, suggest that their complete structural geometry could be explained by an inverted fault system linked to the shortening of pre-existing Cretaceous normal fault systems. Ages of the synorogenic deposits exposed unconformably over the frontal limb of the Tierra Amarilla Anticlinorium confirm a Late Cretaceous age for the Andean deformation and tectonic inversion of the basin.

  15. DIAGNÓSTICO PARTICIPATIVO DE LAS CONDICIONES SOCIOCULTURALES ASOCIADAS A LA CONSERVACIÓN DE LOS CHILES SILVESTRES (Capsicum spp. EN LA DEPRESIÓN CENTRAL DE CHIAPAS, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. A. Bran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Los recursos fitogenéticos son la base de la seguridad alimentaria de la población mundial. México constituye uno de los centros de origen y diversidad de varias especies vegetales, entre ellas diversos tipos de Capsicum. Sin embargo, el mal manejo de ellos está afectando su conservación, fundamentalmente por la acción depredadora del hombre, el uso excesivo de agroquímicos y la deforestación; todo esto explica el esfuerzo de las instituciones científicas y gubernamentales por su cuidado y conservación. El trabajo se realizó en cinco municipios de la región Frailesca de la Depresión Central de Chiapas, México. Se inició con la aplicación de una encuesta a 386 pobladores de la región rural. La información fue evaluada mediante el análisis de frecuencia. Los resultados demostraron que la población rural tiene conocimientos sobre la utilización de los chiles silvestres y semisilvestres como alimento y condimento, no así en los aspectos relacionados con su conservación, la cual es realizada por los campesinos en pequeños huertos.

  16. Fundacion Chile Incubator : Chile Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    Foundation Chile was created in 1976 as a nonprofit governed jointly by the Chilean government and a large American conglomerate. It proactively introduces technology innovations and develops companies in target industries including agribusiness, marine resources, forestry, environment and chemical metrology, human capital, and information and communication technologies. Among its successe...

  17. U-Pb, 40Ar-39Ar and fission track geochronology of the Early Cretaceous Caleu pluton and its volcanic envelope, Coastal Range of central Chile: tectonic and metamorphic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Caleu pluton is emplaced into a thick Early Cretaceous volcano-sedimentary succession deposited in a subsiding basin (Vergara et al., 1995). This succession includes the Ocoite Group (Aguirre et al., 1989) and the Las Chilcas Formation. At the latitude of Santiago (33oS) the Ocoite Group is represented by a c. 10 km thick pile, whose lower third corresponds to the volcanic-sedimentary Lo Prado Formation (Valanginian - Hauterivian). The central part of the pile corresponds to the Veta Negra Formation (Barremian - Albian), which is made up of continental porphyritic basalts and basaltic andesites and continental flow breccias. The Las Chilcas Formation (Mid-Albian) consists of a succession of limestones, red sandstones, rhyolitic tuff, and thick strata of coarse-grained conglomerates. The Early Cretaceous basalts and basaltic andesites of the Veta Negra Formation and the granitoids of the Caleu pluton are rocks derived from one of the most isotopically (Sr-Nd) depleted source identified in Andean history (cf. Vergara et al., 1995; Parada et al., 2001). These rocks exhibit high-K to shoshonitic affinity, and are associated with a regional extensional regime (Levi et al., 1989; Vergara et al., 1995), probably triggered by asthenospheric upwelling after a lithospheric delamination (Parada et al., 1999). As a consequence of the extensional regime, low-grade burial metamorphism developed in the rocks of the volcano sedimentary sequences. The aim of this study is to provide evidence from U-Pb (zircon), 40Ar-39Ar (hornblende, biotite and plagioclase), and apatite fission track dating of the Caleu pluton, and from 40Ar-39Ar (plagioclase, sericite and adularia) ages of the spatially related mafic volcanic rocks of the Veta Negra Formation, about the timing of magmatism, subsolidus cooling of the pluton and metamorphism, and the tectonic processes that took place during a key period of the Andean geological evolution in central Chile (au)

  18. Geochronology (40Ar/39Ar, K-Ar and He-exposure ages of Cenozoic magmatic rocks from Northern Chile (18-22°S: implications for magmatism and tectonic evolution of the central Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Wörner

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available K-Ar and Ar/Ar ages from magmatic rocks of northern Chile (18-22°S describe duration and extent of the Tertiary and Quaternary magmatic evolution and date major tectonic events in northernmost Chile. This paper summarizes new K-Ar and Ar-Ar mineral and whole rock ages for intrusive rocks from the Precordillera, Tertiary ignimbrites and andesitic stratovolcanoes from the Western Andean Escarpment at 18°S (WARP and the volcanic front. Intrusive rocks of the Precordillera (Quebrada Paguana, Quebrada Blanca, Quebrada Choja, Quebrada Guatacondo, Cerro Chandacolla represent the Cretaceous to Eocene magmatic arc system and gave ages between 45 and 35 Ma. Younger ages on intrusive rocks are invariably caused by deuteric alteration. Ignimbrites of the Putani and Oxaya formations gave Ar-Ar sanidine ages around 24.2 to 24.8 Ma and 22.8 to 19.4 Ma, respectively. Andesitic stratovolcanoes, which directly overlie Oxaya ignimbrites east of the Western Cordillera gave ages of 20.3 Ma (Cordon Quevilque to 9.0 Ma (Cerro Margarita. Samples from the Miocene to Pleistocene arc system on the Chilean Altiplano underlying the volcanoes of the active volcanic front have been dated between 10.5 to ~3 Ma. A widespread ignimbrite can be correlated from the Lauca basin to the Pacific coast and to the east to occurrences of near Pérez. Repeated Ar-Ar sanidine dating of the Lauca-Pérez-ignimbrite resulted in highly concordant ages of 2.71±0.25 Ma, 2.72 Ma±0.01 Ma, and 2.73±0.11 Ma. Rocks from the active chain (Volcanic Cordillera gave ages younger than 0.9 Ma (Volcán Irruputuncu, Volcán Olca, Volcán Aucanquilcha, Volcán Ollagüe, Volcán Poruñita. These new data are used to constrain Miocene stratigraphy and tectonic movements as well as the timing of uplift and sedimentary response at the Western Andean Escarpment within the framework of the tectonic evolution of the Central AndesGeocronología (49Ar/39Ar, K-Ar y edades He de exposición de rocas cenozoicas del

  19. Copper Bioleaching in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Gentina; Fernando Acevedo

    2016-01-01

    Chile has a great tradition of producing and exporting copper. Over the last several decades, it has become the first producer on an international level. Its copper reserves are also the most important on the planet. However, after years of mineral exploitation, the ease of extracting copper oxides and ore copper content has diminished. To keep the production level high, the introduction of new technologies has become necessary. One that has been successful is bioleaching. Chile had the first...

  20. Marine Energy in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Levy

    2012-01-01

    This is the first issue of a new series dedicated to deliver concise information on energy innovation published by the Energy Innovation Center at the IDB. This issue offers a primer on the potential for marine energy in Chile. The ocean is increasingly recognized as a viable source of renewable energy, and Chile, with its long coastline, powerful waves and tidal currents, has captured the attention of marine energy proponents. While harvesting this source of energy would increase sustainabil...

  1. Research training in dental undergraduate curriculum in Chile.

    OpenAIRE

    Ximena Moreno

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Research plays a central role in professional training in dentistry. There is a clear recommendation to include a minimum training in biomedical research at undergraduate level. In Chile, there is no standardized curriculum structure including research training for undergraduate students. Objective: To describe the presence of research courses in the undergraduate dental curriculum in Chile during 2014. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study. The curriculum for all Chilean...

  2. Characterization and comparison of microphytoplankton biomass in the lower reaches of the Biobío River and the adjacent coastal area off Central Chile during autumn-winter conditions Caracterización y comparación de la biomasa microfitoplanctónica en el curso inferior del río Biobío y la zona costera adyacente frente a Chile Central durante condiciones de otoño-invierño

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    Bárbara Léniz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Biobío River in central Chile is the third largest watershed and second largest river in Chile in terms of discharge volume. Three sampling campaigns were made in the lower reaches of the river and the adjacent coastal ocean to evaluate the influence of the river plume on the physical/chemical conditions and the abundance/biomass of microphytoplankton during autumn-winter conditions. In addition, a preliminary quantification of riverine nutrients, dissolved silica, and phytoplankton carbon flux to the adjacent ocean was also conducted. High nitrate (ño3- and silicic acid (Si(OH4 concentration (>18 and 50 μΜ, respectively was observed in the lower reaches of the river during all field campaigns. Si(OH4 was even high in surface river plume waters. Hydrographic conditions indicate that river plume waters were piled coastward, and they could drove to the south at the Arauco Gulf. In all sampling, highest microphytoplankton biomass (>5000 μgC m-3 was associated to the lower reaches of the river and river plume waters as they were moving southward. During autumn-winter conditions a significant flux of phytoplankton carbon and nutrients to the adjacent coastal ocean also played an important role in the high biological productivity of this coastal upwelling area. These preliminary results evidence the need to conduct large-term studies, which should consider the importance of these allochthoñous carbon sources in global carbon budgets and coastal food-web models.El río Biobío, en la zona central de Chile es la tercera cuenca más grande y segundo río más grande de Chile en térmiños de volumen de descarga de agua dulce. Se realizaron tres campanas de muestreo en el curso inferior del río y la zona costera adyacente para evaluar la influencia de la pluma del río Biobío, en las condiciones físicas/químicas relacionadas con la abundancia/biomasa del microfitoplancton en condiciones de otoño-invierño. Además, se realizó una

  3. Comunidad ectomicorrícica en una cronosecuencia de Pinus radiata (Pinophyta: Pinaceae de la zona de transición climática mediterráneo-templada de Chile central The ectomycorrhizal community in a chronosequence of Pinus radiata (Pinophyta: Pinaceae of the transitional Mediterranean-temperate climatic zone of central Chile

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    YUSSI M PALACIOS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En ecosistemas naturales y plantaciones, las coníferas establecen asociaciones mutualistas con una comunidad diversa de hongos micorrícicos. El estudio de este tema en Sudamérica es aún incipiente, y no existen antecedentes sobre la dinámica temporal de esta comunidad, y menos de sus potenciales causas, a pesar de su importancia para un país forestal como Chile. En el presente trabajo se evaluó la dinámica de la comunidad ectomicorrícica, identificando y cuantificando los hongos formadores de esta asociación en raíces finas de Pinus radiata en plantaciones de 3, 10 y 20 años. Los resultados confirman que la comunidad ectomicorrícica de P. radiata cambia con la edad de los árboles, la cual difiere más bien en el patrón de dominancia que en la riqueza de especies, separándose un primer grupo de árboles de 3 y 10 años de un segundo grupo de 20 años. Un total de once morfotipos de micorrizas fueron diferenciados. Cuatro de ellos, identificados como Hebeloma crustuliniforme, Inocybe sp., Russula sardonia y Pinirhiza spinulosa, fueron los más abundantes (77, 29, 78 y 8 % respectivamente, mientras las otras se encontraron colonizando menos de 100 puntas de raíz (In natural forest ecosystems and plantations, most trees live in mutualistic association with mycorrhizal fungi. Studies of this association in South America are still scarce, especially when referring to the causes of temporal dynamics of this symbiotic community, despite its importance in countries with a thriving forestry industry like Chile. This study evaluates the dynamics of the ectomycorrhizal community of Pinus radiata stands of 3, 10 and 20 years of age, identifying and quantifying the most common fungal colonizers of fine roots in each age class. The results confirm that the mycobiont community changes with host tree age but that age classes differ in dominance patterns rather than in species richness, with the three- and ten-year-old tree cohorts forming a

  4. The role of sediment composition and behavior under dynamic loading conditions on slope failure initiation: a study of a subaqueous landslide in earthquake-prone South-Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemer, Gauvain; Moernaut, Jasper; Stark, Nina; Kempf, Philipp; De Batist, Marc; Pino, Mario; Urrutia, Roberto; de Guevara, Bruno Ladrón; Strasser, Michael; Kopf, Achim

    2015-07-01

    Subaqueous slope failure mechanisms are still poorly understood partly because they are difficult to study due to the remote location of submarine landslides. Landslides in lakes are smaller in size and more readily accessible and therefore represent a good alternative to their marine counterparts. Lake Villarrica, located in South-Central Chile, experienced significant slope failure and serves here as an exemplary study area for subaqueous landslide initiation mechanisms in tectonically active settings. Coring and CPTU testing were undertaken with the MARUM free-fall CPTU deployed adjacent to the coring sites where all lithological units involved in the slope failure were sampled. Using geotechnical methods such as pseudo-static factor of safety analysis and cyclic triaxial testing, three types of soils (i.e., diatomaceous ooze, volcanic ash, and quick clay) were analyzed for their role in slope failure, and earthquake shaking was identified as the primary trigger mechanism. The investigated landslide consisted of two distinct phases. During the first phase, slope failure was initiated above a tephra layer. In the second phase, retrogression led to the shoreward extension of the slide scarp along a second failure plane located in a stratigraphically deeper, extremely sensitive lithology (i.e., quick clay). Results show that liquefaction of buried tephra layers was unlikely, but such layers might still have contributed to a reduction in shear strength along the contact area with the neighboring sediment. Furthermore, cyclic shaking-induced pore pressure in diatomaceous ooze may be similar to that in granular soils. We generally infer that failure mechanisms observed in this study are equally important for landslide initiation in submarine settings as diatomaceous ooze intercalated with volcanic ash may be abundantly present along active continental margins.

  5. New time-constraints on provenance, metamorphism and exhumation of the Bahía Mansa Metamorphic Complex on the Main Chiloé Island, south-central Chile Nuevas restricciones temporales sobre proveniencia, metamorfismo y exhumación del Complejo Metamórfico Bahía Mansa en la Isla Grande de Chiloé, centro-sur de Chile

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    Paul Duhart

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Coastal Ranges in the western part of the Chiloé Archipelago represent an emerged forearc high at the subduction front of south-central Chile. Prior to the Cenozoic framework of the subducting Farallón and Nazca plates beneath the South American plate, the history of the metamorphic basement in the Coastal Ranges involves episodes of subduction and/or accretion of oceanic and ensialic material along the proto-Pacific margin of Gondwana. Along different segments of the Main Chiloé Island the thermal record of the metamorphic basement rocks includes regional metamorphism, exhumation and finally magmatism. Detrital zircons conventional U-Pb ages from a pelitic schist of the Central Segment of the Main Chiloé Island constrain the maximum possible sedimentation age to the Carboniferous (310 Ma. Other concordant zircon fractions (360, 390 and 412 Ma suggest Ordovician primary sources. The sedimentary provenance of zircons could correspond to continental magmatic rocks of similar ages presently exposed in adjacent areas such as Nahuelbuta Mountains and Principal Cordillera and, additionally, from distal areas in the North-Patagonian and Deseado massifs. Widespread metamorphism in greenschist facies is well represented in the basement unit of the Main Chiloé Island. K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages in white mica range between 245 to 220 Ma, interpreted as near the peak of metamorphism during Middle to early Late Triassic times. Zircon and apatite fission-track (FT central ages in metamorphic rocks range from Late Jurassic (ca. 156 Ma to Eocene (ca. 38 Ma and are accompanied by relatively large dispersions. The modelling of the zircon FT single-grain age distributions depicts younger deconvoluted Late Cretaceous peak (ca. 80 Ma and the apatite modelling shows two populations, an older Late Cretaceous peak (ca. 64-91 Ma and a younger Eocene peak (ca. 3 8-5 3 Ma. The zircon and apatite Late Cretaceous peaks together with the presence of a marine

  6. Evolución tectónica, paleogeográfica y metalogénica durante el Cenozoico en los Andes de Chile norte y central e implicaciones para las regiones adyacentes de Bolivia y Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Charrier

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La orogenia incaica dio origen a un importante relieve en el Eoceno Medio, el que se concentró en el ámbito del arco magmático precedente, la Cordillera Incaica. Este relieve positivo de orientación NNE se extendió desde el sur de Perú hasta la región central de Chile y separó dos dominios paleogeográficos que tuvieron evoluciones diferentes durante el resto del Cenozoico. El dominio occidental se caracterizó por el predominio de procesos de erosión y sedimentación. En el dominio oriental también existieron importantes episodios de erosión que originaron depósitos que se encuentran en la vertiente oriental de la cadena en la actualidad y presentan una cronología comparable con la de los depósitos del dominio occidental. Sin embargo, la evolución se caracterizó por presentar, a partir del Eoceno Tardío, diferencias al norte y sur de los ~27ºS. Al norte de esa latitud, en el ámbito del Altiplano-Puna, el arco magmático se mantuvo aproximadamente en la misma posición, coincidente con la del arco actual, y estuvo bordeado por una cuenca de antepaís de retroarco; mientras que, al sur de ~27ºS, se desarrollaron sucesivos arcos magmáticos con una marcada migración hacia el este. El arco magmático del Eoceno Tardío al Oligoceno Tardío - Mioceno Temprano se caracterizó por el desarrollo de una amplia cuenca extensional de intra-arco, la cuenca de Abanico. En esta cuenca se acumularon hasta 3.000 m de rocas volcánicas, volcaniclásticas y, subordinadamente, sedimentarias. A partir del límite oligoceno-mioceno, tuvo lugar un nuevo evento compresivo a lo largo de todo el orógeno que rejuveneció el núcleo de la Cordillera Incaica e invirtió la cuenca de Abanico permitiendo la generación de abundantes depósitos sintectónicos a ambos lados de los nuevos relieves. El inicio de este evento coincide con la orogenia pehuenche, los pulsos compresivos se mantuvieron hasta el Plioceno Temprano. En el Mioceno Temprano a Medio

  7. Structural Volatility in Chile: A Policy Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo J. Caballero

    2000-01-01

    This paper identifies Chile's economic weaknesses and offers policy recommendations for increasing stability. Current problems include weak international financial links, a Central Bank mandate that is ill-designed to deal with terms of trade shocks, a propensity to waste scarce liquidity in the banking system; and limited development of financial markets. The paper's policy recommendations include improving external financial links, molding terms of trade contingencies into anti-cyclical pol...

  8. Epoca reproductiva y talla media de primera madurez sexual de Strangomera bentincki y Engraulis ringens en el período 1993-1997, en la zona centro-sur de Chile Reproductive period and mean size at first maturity for Strangomera bentincki and Engraulis ringens from 1993 to 1997 off central-southern Chile

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    Luis Cubillos S.

    1999-01-01

    . Lm50% was determined on the basis of 50% of mature females criteria using a logistic equation fitted to observed data. The month at maximum GSI, between July and September, has the lowest interannual variability, i.e. coefficients of variation of 5.1% y 14.6% for S. bentincki and E. ringens respectively. The month at secondary maximum GSI presented coefficients of variation of 45% for S. bentincki and of 35.3% for E. ringens. Lm50% was estimated in 10 cm TL for S. bentincki and 11.5 cm for E. ringens. The Lm50% of S. bentincki is achieved in July, at the end of the first year of life, while the Lm50% of E. ringens is achieved in February, at about 1.5 year old. It is postulated that the populational reproductive period for both species, occurring in August during winter time, is a consequence of the adaptation to the seasonal coastal upwelling ecosystem off central-southern Chile. A higher productivity (e.g.food in the coastal waters can be found as a consequence of the occurrence of upwelling events from middle September to late March. Under this hypothesis, larval stages and juveniles could find good conditions for growth and survival during spring and summer time, and adults could gain energy that could be used in gonad maturation for the reproduction during winter time, the less-productive season

  9. Efecto de la fragmentación forestal sobre la estructura vegetacional de las poblaciones amenazadas de Legrandia concinna (Myrtaceae del centro-sur de Chile Effect of forest fragmentation on vegetation structure of Legrandia concinna (Myrtaceae threatened populations in south-central Chile

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    ADISON ALTAMIRANO

    2007-03-01

    tiempo a fin de evaluar la efectividad de determinadas estrategias de conservación para estas poblacionesHabitat fragmentation is one of the main threats to ecosystems integrity. In this study we assessed the influence of forest fragmentation on vegetation structure of populations of tree specie Legrandia concinna in south-central Chile. Occupancy pattern of Legrandia populations in remaining fragments of native forests was described, and relationship between landscape indices and vegetation structure variables were evaluated. Landscape indices, such as area, proximity mean index, shape and edge distance to fragment were applied to forest cover maps generated from a Landsat ETM+ satellite scene for the year 2001. Results showed high predominance of reduced size fragments, high isolation levels and regulars shapes of the fragments. Occupancy pattern suggests that Legrandia populations are found mainly in small and more isolated fragments. No significant difference was found between fragment distribution with and without presence of Legrandia related to size and isolation. However, we found that size, isolation and distance to fragment edge are significantly related to the presence of this specie. As conservation measures for this specie, we propose to include populations with high disappearance risk in protected areas, promote ex situ conservation and set up a monitoring program. This study sets a precedent related by linking landscape scale information obtained from satellite imagery and vegetation structure information measured in the field with conservation status of threatened populations. This innovative method allows monitoring changes over time to assess effectiveness of conservation strategies for these populations

  10. Análisis de las tasas de captura de jurel (Trachurus symmetricus en la zona centro-sur de Chile (1987-1999 Jack mackerel (Trachurus symmetricus catch rate analysis in the central-south of Chile (1987-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Gatica

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron los cambios en la Captura por Unidad de Esfuerzo (CPUE de la pesquería industrial de cerco de jurel (Trachurus symmetricus en la zona centro-sur de Chile entre 1987 y 1999. Se utilizaron dos unidades de esfuerzo de pesca para calcular las tasas de captura: días fuera de puerto y viajes con pesca. La flota se clasificó en cuatro estratos homogéneos mediante Análisis de Componentes Principales (ACP, utilizando una matriz de correlación de variables técnico-operacionales. Los dos primeros ejes del ACP explicaron 87,8% de la varianza, debido a la naturaleza altamente autocorrelacionada de las variables. Los estratos identificados se utilizaron como variables categóricas para estandarizar la CPUE a través de un Modelo Lineal General (MLG, previa transformación logarítmica de la CPUE. Los modelos ajustados a los datos explicaron sobre un 64% de la variabilidad observada, siendo el estrato el que explicó un mayor porcentaje de variabilidad: 24,6% en el caso de la CPUE basada en los días fuera de puerto y 42,6% en la CPUE basada en los viajes con pesca. Las dos series de CPUE indicaron diferentes tendencias entre 1987 y 1993, pero coincidieron en señalar una tendencia negativa de la CPUE entre 1994 y 1997. La clasificación por estratos de una flota heterogénea mediante ACP permitió mejorar el análisis de las tasas de captura, aunque la componente espacial debe ser tomada en cuenta en futuros estudios. A su vez, la unidad de esfuerzo de pesca puede tener un impacto notable en las tendencias de CPUE, particularmente si se considera como un índice de abundancia relativaCatch per unit effort (CPUE data from the jack mackerel fishery operating in central-south Chile and covering the period 1987-1999 are analyzed in order to detect changes in relative abundance. Two units for fishing effort were used to compute the catch rate: number of days outside port and the number of trips with capture. The fleet was classified in four

  11. Influencia del tamaño de la hembra en la duración e intensidad de la actividad reproductiva de Merluccius gayi gayi en la zona centro-sur de Chile Influence of female size on the duration and intensity of the reproductive activity of Merluccius gayi gayi off central-south Chile

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    Carolina Alarcón

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available En poblaciones de peces la dinámica reproductiva es un proceso que depende del tamaño de los individuos, aspecto que tiene notable importancia en términos de la intensidad y duración de la actividad reproductiva. En este estudio se analiza la duración e intensidad de la actividad reproductiva en función del tamaño de las hembras de Merluccius gayi gayi (Guichenot, 1848 de la zona centro-sur de Chile, a partir de muestras obtenidas en 1998. Se calculó el índice gonadosomático (IGS, el índice gonádico específico (IGE, y el índice de duración e intensidad (IDI de actividad reproductiva mediante la medición anual del área bajo la curva del IGS, por grupos de tamaño (longitud total, cm. Se encontró una relación lineal entre el IGS y el IGE (r² = 0,980, sugiriendo que las diferencias observadas en los índices se debe a cambios en el peso de la gónada y no a variaciones en el peso total. La mayor actividad reproductiva ocurrió entre agosto y octubre, detectándose actividad reproductiva secundaria entre febrero y abril. El IDI es función del tamaño de la hembra, y se encontró que la duración e intensidad de la actividad reproductiva es descrita por un modelo log-normal (r² = 0,96; n = 17,418; p In fish populations, reproductive dynamics is a process depending on the body size of the females, and has notable importance on intensity and duration of reproductive activity. In this study, we analyzed the duration and intensity of reproductive activity as a function of the body size in Merluccius gayi gayi females from samples obtained in 1998 off central-south Chile. The gonadosomatic index (GSI, the specific gonadal index (SGI and the duration and intensity index (DII of reproductive activity were computed. The DII represents the area under the GSI of length classes over a year. A linear relationship between the GSI and the SGI was found (r² = 0.980, suggesting that the changes in the variables are due to changes in ovary

  12. Cambios en la morfometría bucal y su relación con la dieta de Thyrsites atun (Euphrasen, 1791 en el centro-sur de Chile Changes in mouth morphometries as related to the diet of Thyrsites atun (Euphrasen, 1791 from south-central Chile

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    FREDDY DUARTE

    2007-12-01

    don't present such a clear pattern. To verify these relationships in the fish Thyrsites atun, a total of 140 individuals were collected from industrial and semi-industrial landings in south-central Chile. The diet of T. atun was described by means of frequency, number and weight of preys, which were compared between sub-adult and adult fishes. We also measured mouth morphometry to compare them with the fish size and prey size. Mouth volume was also calculated to relate it with the number and weight of the ingested preys. Four prey species were found in their digestive tracts, Euphausia sp., Todarodes filippovae, Strangomera bentincki and Engraulis ringens, the latter being the most frequent prey (99.9 %. The mouth measures were dependent of predator body size. Equally, prey size turned out to be dependent of predator size, as well as of the mouth measures. Also, mouth volume was related positively with predator body size, and the number and the weight of the prey items were correlated with mouth size and volume. Thyrsites atun feeds in the neritic area on small fishes that live in schools. As size of T. atun increases so would increase the size of preys, and consequently when the mouth volume increases so does the quantity and biomass of prey items

  13. Patrones de abundancia, composición trófica y distribución espacial del ensamble de peces intermareales de la zona centro-sur de Chile Abundance, trophic composition and spatial distribution of the intertidal fish assemblage of South-central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO A QUIJADA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available En las costas de la zona centro-sur de Chile se han realizado una serie de estudios relacionados con la biología de los peces pelágicos de importancia económica. Por el contrario, el conocimiento acerca de los peces litorales es escaso. En el presente trabajo, se estudiaron los patrones de abundancia, distribución y composición trófica del ensamble de peces que habitan en el intermareal rocoso de la costa de la Octava Región. Esta zona fue muestreada periódicamente entre septiembre de 1998 y enero de 1999. Se capturaron un total de 374 individuos pertenecientes a 13 especies y 8 familias. La especie más abundante en esta zona fue el pejesapo Gobiesox marmoratus (Gobiesocidae seguido de Calliclinus geniguttatus (Labrisomidae, las que en conjunto aportaron el 54 % al número total de peces encontrados. Las restantes especies pertenecieron a las familias Blenniidae, Labrisomidae, Clinidae, Bovichthydae, Tripterygiidae, Ophiididae y Nototheniidae. La presencia de ejemplares en estado juvenil, principalmente de G. marmoratus, indica que estas áreas son muy importantes como zonas de reclutamiento. El análisis trófico indica que este ensamble se compone en su mayoría de especies carnívoras que se alimentan principalmente de crustáceos y gastrópodos, con la excepción de los blénidos Scartichthys viridis, el cual es herbívoro, e Hypsoblennius sordidus que presenta una dieta de tipo omnívoraOn the coast of South-central Chile, a number of studies have been undertaken focusing on the biology of economically important pelagic fishes. In contrast, the knowledge of coastal fishes is scarce. In the present study, we analysed the patterns of abundance, distribution and trophic composition of the intertidal fish assemblage that inhabits rocky intertidal areas along the coast of the Eighth Region. This zone was sampled periodically between September 1998, and January 1999. A total of 374 individuals belonging to 13 species and 8 families were

  14. Cambio del uso del suelo en el centro sur de Chile a fines del siglo XX: Entendiendo la dinámica espacial y temporal del paisaje Land use change in the south central Chile at the end of the 20th century: Understanding the spatio-temporal dynamics of the landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURICIO AGUAYO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los humanos han transformado gran parte de la superficie del planeta en los últimos 300 años. La tala de bosques, las prácticas agrícolas de subsistencia, la intensificación de la producción agrícola y la expansión de los centros urbanos han cambiado drásticamente el paisaje. En el centro y sur de Chile las transformaciones han estado asociadas, en un inicio, a la expansión de la frontera agropecuaria que permitió satisfacer tanto las necesidades internas como la creciente demanda externa por productos agrícolas. Posteriormente, un fuerte incentivo a la forestación, comandado por el Estado, generó un acelerado proceso de desarrollo forestal que explica, en gran medida, la actual configuración del paisaje en esta región. En este trabajo hemos analizados la dinámica espacial de los cambios en el uso del suelo ocurridos durante las últimas décadas en un área de 2.3 millones de hectáreas ubicada entre las regiones del Biobío y La Araucanía. Las coberturas del suelo fueron obtenidas a partir de dos imágenes Landsat correspondientes a los años 1979 y 2000. Los resultados confirman que las principales transformaciones del paisaje son consecuencia del desarrollo forestal, la mantención de los rubros agropecuarios y el crecimiento urbano e industrial. Asimismo, fue posible determinar que la pérdida del bosque nativo se debe, principalmente, a la expansión de las plantaciones forestales hacia los cordones montañosos andinos y costeros.Land use changes have transformed much of the Earth's surface in the last 300 years. Deforestation, intensification of agriculture, and urban sprawl have radically changed the preindustrial landscape. In south-central Chile, landscape change was initially related to the expansión of farming to address national needs and the growing international demand for agricultural products. Subsequently, prívate forestry, subsidized by the State, promoted the accelerated expansión of industrial

  15. Recent temperature trends in the South Central Andes reconstructed from sedimentary chrysophyte stomatocysts in Laguna Escondida (1742 m a.s.l., 38°28 S, Chile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, R.; Schneider, T.; Hernández-Almeida, I.; Grosjean, M.

    2016-02-01

    In this study we present a quantitative, high resolution reconstruction of past austral winter length in the Chilean Andes at 38°S from AD 1920 to 2009. For Laguna Escondida, a nearly pristine lake situated on the flanks of the Andes at 1740 m above sea level, past variability in the duration of the winter season (Days T4 °C) was reconstructed. Because high elevation meteorological stations are absent in this region, the reconstruction provides novel insights into recent temperature trends in the central-southern Andes. As a cold-season temperature proxy, we used chrysophyte stomatocysts. This novel proxy for cold season temperature was so far applied successfully in the European Alps and Pyrenees but has not yet been tested in the Southern Hemisphere. The reconstruction in this study was based on a newly developed Transfer Function to estimate Days T4 °C (number of consecutive days with surface water temperatures at or below 4 °C) from sedimentary stomatocyst assemblages (R2boot = 0.8, RMSEPboot = 28.7 days (= half the standard deviation)). To develop a high quality TF model, sediment traps and thermistors were placed in thirty remote lakes along an altitude gradient (420-2040 m a.s.l.). Complete materials and data were collected in 24 lakes after one year. Detailed statistical analyses indicate that modern stomatocysts primarily respond to the length of the cold season. The TF model was then applied to the sedimentary stomatocysts from a 210Pb-dated short core of L. Escondida. Comparison to independent reanalysis data showed that reconstructed changes in Days T4°C provides detailed information on winter-spring temperature variability since AD 1920. The reconstruction shows that recent warming (onset in AD 1980) in the southern Chilean Andes was not exceptional in the context of the past century. This is in strong contrast to studies from the Northern Hemisphere. The finding is also in contrast to the cooling temperature trends which were detected using

  16. Barren Miocene granitoids in the Central Andean metallogenic belt, Chile: Geochemistry and Nd-Hf and U-Pb isotope systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four Middle-to-Late Miocene barren plutonic complexes that occur between the giant porphyry copper deposits of the central Chilean Andes were selected for U-Pb LA-ICPMS geochronology and Hf-isotope systematics on single zircon grains. Major and trace elements and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope whole rock geochemical studies were undertaken to compare with slightly younger or coeval barren and fertile intrusive rocks between 32o and 34oS. The studied granitoids yield resolvable crystallization ages of 11.3±0.1 Ma (Cerro Meson Alto massif), 10.3±0.2 Ma (La Gloria pluton), 14.9±0.2 Ma/14.9±0.1 Ma (Yerba Loca stock) and 11.2±0.1 Ma/14.7±0.1 Ma (San Francisco Batholith). Major and trace elements discard an adakitic signature as suggested for coeval porphyric intrusions at 32oS, slightly younger mineralized porphyries at Rio Blanco-Los Bronces deposit and other Cenozoic adakites. Volcanic host rocks are less fractionated than the intrusive rock units. The same observation can be made for the unmineralized northern plutons compared to the southern ones. Initial Sr-Nd isotope data show insignificant variation (0.703761-0.704118 and 0.512758- 0.512882), plotting in the mantle array. Trace element enrichment can be explained by addition of subducted-slab fluids and/or terrigenous sediments to the mantle wedge prior to and/or slight crustal input during magma ascent. Zircon grains separated from these barren intrusives share a similar initial εHf-data variation for the younger age group (10-12 Ma; 7.04-9.54) and show a more scattered range for the older one (14-15 Ma; 8.50-15.34); both sets plot between the DM and CHUR evolution lines. There is evidence that magma evolution was slightly distinct through time from older to younger barren magmatism, compared to a few fertile porphyritic rocks from Rio Blanco-Los Bronces porphyry copper deposit. It is suggested that chronological inconsistencies within these complexes might be related to differential shortening across the NE

  17. [Domestic violence in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Tomás; Grez, Marcela; Prato, Juan Andrés; Torres, Rafael; Ruiz, Sergio

    2014-08-01

    According to recent surveys, there is a high prevalence of domestic violence (DV) in Chile. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed, Scielo, and Lilacs with the MesH terms "Chile", "Mental Health", "Health", "Domestic Violence", to explore the impact of DV on health in Chile. Eleven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Two studies were prospective, exploring the influence of DV on maternal-infant health. Nine studies explored the influence of DV on mental health in adults. DV was associated with deranged mental health indicators specially anxiety and depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Similar results were observed among mothers who were victims of violence and their children. It is concluded that DV is a complex phenomenon with serious effects on health. However the number of studies on the subject is low and new follow up studies are required. Predictive models for DV and effective preventive measures are urgently needed. PMID:25424674

  18. Copper Bioleaching in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Gentina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chile has a great tradition of producing and exporting copper. Over the last several decades, it has become the first producer on an international level. Its copper reserves are also the most important on the planet. However, after years of mineral exploitation, the ease of extracting copper oxides and ore copper content has diminished. To keep the production level high, the introduction of new technologies has become necessary. One that has been successful is bioleaching. Chile had the first commercial operation in the world exclusively via bioleaching copper sulfides. Nowadays, all bioleaching operations run in the country contribute to an estimated 10% of total copper production. This article presents antecedents that have contributed to the development of copper bioleaching in Chile.

  19. EVALUACIÓN DE PLANTAS con propiedades NEMATICIDAS EN EL CONTROL DE Xiphinema index EN VID DE MESA CV. THOMPSON SEEDLESS EN LA ZONA CENTRAL DE CHILE Evaluation of plants with nematicidal properties in the control of Xiphinema index on table grapes cv. Thompson Seedless in the central zone of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Aballay E.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Xiphinema index Thorne and Allen es un nemátodo ectoparásito económicamente importante en la vid ( Vitis vinifera L. en Chile, como patógeno de las raíces y como vector del "virus de la hoja en abanico" (GFLV en vides. El control tradicional se ha hecho básicamente con productos químicos, de efectos erráticos y muy cuestionados por sus efectos ambientales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar en vides cv. Thompson Seedless el efecto nematicida de ocho plantas antagónicas en el control de Xiphinema index. Las plantas antagónicas se cultivaron en la líneas de plantación y se incorporaron como abono verde. Las especies ensayadas fueron: raps (Brassica napus L., caléndula (Calendula officinalis L., cosmos (Cosmos bipinnatus Cav., gaillardia (Gaillardia picta L., lupino (Lupinus albus L., clavelón (Tagetes patula L., tomillo (Thymus vulgaris L., zinia (Zinnia elegans Jacq.. El efecto de estas especies se comparó con tres testigos: testigo absoluto (sólo vides; testigo químico (Fenamiphos, 4 kg i.a. ha-1 ; y cebada (Hordeum vulgare L. testigo planta sin antecedentes nematicidas. La acción nematicida de las especies ensayadas se evaluó determinando las densidades poblacionales del nemátodo en 250 cm³ de suelo en: 1 antes del establecimiento de los cultivos; 2 previo a su incorporación al suelo, a los dos meses del establecimiento; 3 3 meses después de la incorporación. El mejor resultado se obtuvo con el establecimiento e incorporación del raps (Brassica napus, el cual redujo significativamente las poblaciones de X. index (PThe ectoparasitic nematode Xiphinema index Thorne and Allen is economically important in grapes (Vitis vinifera L. in Chile, both as a root parasite and as a vector for grapevine fan leaf virus (GFLV. The traditional methods for nematode control are based on chemical nematicides, which are erratic and very questionable for their environment effects. The objective of this research was to evaluate the

  20. Las áreas de filtración de metano constituyen zonas de agregación del bacalao de profundidad (Dissostichus eleginoides frente a Chile central? Do the methane seep areas constitute aggregation spots for the Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides off central Chile?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sellanes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta los resultados de dos campanas (invierno y verano de pesca de bacalao de profundidad (Dissostichus eleginoides, realizadas sobre un área de filtración de metano (AFM y un sitio aledano utilizado como control. Estas fueron desarrolladas con el objetivo de determinar si las AFM constituyen sitios de agregación de D. eleginoides. Para cada área se registró la captura promedio, el rendimiento de pesca y se determinó índices de abundancia y diversidad incluyendo la fauna capturada incidentalmente. Los ejemplares de bacalao de profundidad capturados en ambos sitios fueron sexados, medidos y pesados. Adicionalmente, se presentan imágenes tomadas in situ, dentro del AFM, que documentan la presencia tanto de D. eleginoides como aparejos de pesca perdidos utilizados en su captura frente a la costa de Concepción. Las mayores capturas y rendimientos fueron observadas en el AFM, con valores promedio de 56,2 kg por lance de pesca y rendimientos promedios de 80,3 g/anzuelo, siendo significativamente mayores en comparación al sitio control. La campana de pesca realizada en invierno registra mayores capturas y rendimientos en ambas áreas. La composición faunística evaluada a través de los índices comunitarios, indica diferencias significativas entre sitios, registrándose un mayor número de especies de fauna acompanante en el AFM, en comparación con el sitio control (18 y 14 especies, respectivamente. Se hipotetiza que la mayor abundancia de bacalao de profundidad en el AFM, estaría relacionada tanto con la mayor heterogeneidad espacial, dada por la presencia de arrecifes de carbonatos autigénicos, como con la disponibilidad de presas, constituyendo estos sitios como zonas de alimentación. El presente trabajo entrega información tendiente a establecer el rol ecológico de las AFM y la fauna asociada a ellas en ambientes batiales frente a Chile.We report results of two seasons (winter and summer fishing for Patagonian toothfish

  1. Credit constraints in rural financial markets in Chile: determinants and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyes, A.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from two surveys carried out in 2006 and 2008 on 177 farmers in Chile, this study measures access to credit and empirically determine the effects of credit constraints on investment and production for market-oriented farmers in central Chile. More specifically, four issues are dealt with:

  2. Utilización de recursos faunísticos y materias primas líticas durante el Holoceno tardío en la cordillera de Chile central: un enfoque integrador desde Caletón Los Queltehues Use of faunal resources and lithic raw materials during the late Holocene in the cordillera of central Chile: an integrative approach from Caletón los Queltehues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Labarca Encina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo evalúa, desde una perspectiva tecnológica y conductual, tendencias a largo plazo de cambio y continuidad en las estrategias de aprovechamiento de recursos faunísticos y líticos en contextos de cazadores-recolectores cordilleranos de Chile central. Para esto, tomamos los datos procedentes de un contexto ubicado en la cuenca superior del río Maipo: Caletón Los Queltehues, y escogimos, de su secuencia ocupacional, los componentes Arcaico IV y Alfarero temprano (5000 a 1000 AP. Los resultados de los análisis no arrojaron mayores variaciones entre ambos períodos en términos de taxones explotados, frecuencia de partes esqueletarias, modificaciones culturales y fragmentación de los restos óseos. De manera similar, las materias primas, las categorías morfofuncionales y los tipos de desechos líticos se observaron relativamente constantes. Sólo se registraron cambios en la tasa de la depositación, la frecuencia de modificaciones naturales y la diversidad de actividades de uso/descarte lítico, las que son interpretadas como una tendencia hacia una variación en la recurrencia e intensidad de la ocupación, pero no en cuanto a su funcionalidad.This article evaluates long-term trends in change and continuity of lithic and faunal use strategies in hunter-gatherer contexts in the central Chilean cordillera from technological and behavioral perspectives. The main objective of the analysis is to articulate both lines of evidence from a behavioral and technological perspective in order to infer unknown elements of the function and organization of activities in this kind of archaeological context. As an initial example, the Archaic IV and Early Ceramic (5000-1000 BP components from a classic site located in the upper valley of the Maipo river, Caletón Los Queltehues, were analyzed in detail. The results do not show significant variation between the periods in exploited taxa, skeletal part frequencies, cultural modifications, or

  3. Parasite loads and altitudinal distribution of Liolaemus lizards in the central Chilean Andes Cargas parasitarias y distribución de lagartijas Liolaemus en los Andes de Chile central

    OpenAIRE

    JOHN H. CAROTHERS; Jaksic, Fabián M

    2001-01-01

    This study compared the distributions of ten species of Liolaemus lizards in the central Chilean Andes to the distributions of four types of parasites: malaria-causing Plasmodium, gut nematodes, ticks, and mites. We wanted to see if parasite numbers might be a factor in determining distributional limits of the lizards. We found that there was no evidence of malarial infestation of the lizards, that ticks were almost absent, that more often than not mite numbers decreased at the distributional...

  4. Incomplete trimorphic incompatibility expression in Oxalis compacta Gill. ex Hook. et Arn. subsp. compacta in the central Chilean Andes Expresión incompleta de incompatibilidad trimórfica en Oxalis compacta Gill. ex Hook. et Arn. subsp. compacta en los Andes de Chile central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARY T. K ARROYO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The expression of trimorphic incompatibility was investigated in a high altitude population of Oxalis compacta subsp. compacta distributed in the upper alpine belt (3100-3470 m of the central Chile Andes. Stigma-anther reciprocity (2 populations, morph representation (7 populations, unassisted selfing capacity and open-pollination fruit set (6 populations were determined. O. compacta ssp. compacta es highly dependent on external pollinators. Although it has typical tristylous flowers, considerable seed set is possible following illegitimate intermorph and intramorph cross pollination. Open pollination fruit set varied from 9-83% and on average was lower in the higher-elevation populations. The possibility of seed set following two kinds of illegitimate cross pollination is seen as a means of enhancing reproductive output by enabling more effective use of the limited pollinator resource in the high alpine environment, where fruit set shows high inter-annual variability and there is some evidence for pollination limitation in Oxalis compacta subsp. compacta.Se investigó la expresión de incompatibilidad trimórfica en una población de Oxalis compacta subsp. compacta distribuida en la zona alpina superior de los Andes de Chile central. Se determinó la reciprocidad de los estigmas y anteras (dos poblaciones, representación de morfos florales (7 poblaciones, capacidad para autofecundación no asistida y polinización abierta (6 poblaciones. O. compacta subsp. compacta es altamente dependiente de polinizadores externos. No obstante la presencia de flores tristilicas, las dos categorías ilegítimas de polinización dieron semillas. La producción de frutos mediante polinización abierta fluctuó entre 9-83% y en promedio fue menor en las poblaciones de mayor elevación. Se plantea que la capacidad de formar semillas mediante polinización ilegítima permitirá el uso más eficaz del recurso limitado de polinización en la zona andina superior

  5. Infrastructure Concessions in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Lobo, Andrés; Hinojosa, Sergio

    2000-01-01

    To increase investment in infrastructure, in the early 1990s Chiles government introduced private capital into the transport infrastructure sector, covering roads and highways, bridges, tunnels, and airports. The chosen mechanism: a concession scheme through which private firms would finance and build a given project and then operate the infrastructure for a set of number of years, recover...

  6. The Geology of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera, Lluís; Calafat, A.; Gimeno, D.; Liesa, M.; Proenza, J.; Sàbat, F.; Sáez, Alberto; Santanach, Pere

    2008-01-01

    6 páginas.-- Book review of "The Geology of Chile", by Teresa Moreno and Wes Gibbons (eds.) (2007). Geological Society. London (United Kingdom). 414 pages, 286 figures including maps, charts and pictures; 27, 5 x 21 cm, ISBN 978-1- 86239-219-9 (hardback) and ISBN 978-1-86239-220-5 (softback).

  7. Chile's Madam President

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    After becoming the first female to win a presidential election in the socially conservative country, Chilean President-elect Michelle Bachelet created history again when unveiling a cabinet that was absolutely gender-balanced on January 30. Following similar breakthroughs of women politicians in Liberia and Germany, what happened in Chile is considered another case of women gaining power worldwide.

  8. Seasonal mercury concentrations and {delta}{sup 15}N and {delta}{sup 13}C values of benthic macroinvertebrates and sediments from a historically polluted estuary in south central Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Jaramillo, Mauricio, E-mail: mdiazjaramillo@conicet.gov.ar [Aquatic Systems Research Unit, EULA Chile Environmental Sciences Centre, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); Munoz, Claudia; Rudolph, Ignacio [Aquatic Systems Research Unit, EULA Chile Environmental Sciences Centre, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); Servos, Mark [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, ON (Canada); Barra, Ricardo [Aquatic Systems Research Unit, EULA Chile Environmental Sciences Centre, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile)

    2013-01-01

    The Lenga Estuary is one of the most industrialized sites in south central Chile where the historic operation of chlor-alkali plants resulted in large quantities of mercury (Hg) being deposited into the estuary. This historical contamination may still represent a risk to the biota in the estuary. To investigate this four macroinvertebrates, Neotrypaea uncinata (ghostshrimp), Elminius kingii (barnacle), Hemigrapsus crenulatus (shore crab) and Perinereis gualpensis (ragworm) were collected seasonally from three different sites in the Lenga Estuary and one in a reference estuary (Tubul Estuary), and analyzed for Hg and stable isotopes ({delta}{sup 15}N and {delta}{sup 13}C). Mercury concentrations in Lenga sediments ranged from 0.4 {+-} 0.1 to 13 {+-} 3 mg/kg, while those in Tubul sediments ranged from 0.02 {+-} 0.01 to 0.07 {+-} 0.09 mg/kg. Total Hg concentrations of invertebrates were significantly different between estuaries (p < 0.05), but not by species or season for each estuary (p > 0.05). In contrast, organic Hg concentrations were different by species and season with shore crab muscle tissues exhibiting the greatest percent difference. Site-specific relationships demonstrated that total Hg concentrations in ragworm best reflected the total Hg sediment mercury concentrations. Signatures of {delta}{sup 13}C were correlated to the organic Hg % rather than total Hg. This suggests that organic Hg concentrations in these species were related to the carbon sources. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hg in sediments and biota from Lenga Estuary were elevated compared to nearby estuary. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Invertebrates showed interspecific and seasonal differences in terms of organic Hg %. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Total Hg levels in the ragworm best reflect Hg sediment gradient in Lenga Estuary. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interspecific variation in {delta}{sup 13}C signatures indicated different feeding modes. Black

  9. Styles of early diagenesis and the preservation potential of onshore tsunami deposits-A re-survey of Isla Mocha, Central Chile, 2 years after the February 27, 2010, Maule tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlburg, Heinrich; Spiske, Michaela

    2015-08-01

    The style of early diagenesis and preservation of onshore tsunami deposits are poorly constrained. Only tsunami surveys and subsequent re-surveys can fill this information gap. Here we present the results of a first re-survey in 2012 on Isla Mocha following the original survey in 2010 in the wake of the February 27, 2010, Maule earthquake and tsunami in central Chile. As a result of this tsunami, a large number of boulders consisting of clay-rich fine sandstones representing the Miocene age bedrock of the island had been transferred from the tidal to shallow subtidal zone onto the coastal plain. Coarse clastic sediment mixtures of pebbles, granules, and sand entrained at coastal plain terraces and transported up to the maximum runup position c. 600 m from the coast by the inflow had been left behind as extensive backflow blankets on the lower coastal plain. In 2012, vegetation had covered the 2010 tsunami deposits. Sediment beyond 200 m from the coast had been removed by a combination of surface processes and grazing cattle. Grain-size distributions of the preserved sediment show an increase of the sand fraction at the expense of the coarser grain sizes. Boulders show patterns resembling mud cracks on the surface and evidence of disintegration into smaller fragments and sand. Veneers of dried algae documenting the derivation of the boulders from the tidal zones had flaked off partly or completely from most rock surfaces. At the northern, wind-facing coast of the island, a c. 130 m long and 1.2 m high beach ridge had accumulated, most likely from reworked tsunami sediment. Boulders deposited by tsunamis are commonly assigned a high preservation potential. We demonstrate for the first time that such boulders may in fact disintegrate rapidly and disappear from the record over short geological time scales, given a lithology susceptible to weathering. The degree of modification to the lsla Mocha tsunami boulders and deposits strongly questions the applicability of

  10. Análisis histórico del crecimiento somático de merluza común (Merluccius gayi gayi frente a la costa central de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cerna

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el crecimiento somático del stock de merluza común frente a la costa central de Chile, mediante la aplicación de la ecuación de Von Bertalanffy (vB con un modelo No-lineal de Efecto Mixto, sobre los datos edad-talla actual proveniente de la lectura de otolitos realizada por el Instituto de Fomento Pesquero desde 1972. Se estimó la tasa de crecimiento promedio para cada año, desde 1972 a 2009 y se analizaron los parámetros y curvas de crecimiento de vB, agrupados en tres periodos, seleccionados en referencia a importantes variaciones en la biomasa del stock, a saber: 1972-1990, 1991-2003 y 2004-2009. Los resultados indicaron que la tasa de crecimiento promedio mostró variaciones interanuales que no superan ± 1,5 cm LT en torno al promedio histórico de machos y hembras, no mostrando una tendencia persistente hacia el aumento o disminución sostenida. Las curvas de crecimiento obtenidas con los parámetros (vB estimados para los tres periodos indicados, mostraron tanto en hembras como en machos, trayectorias similares hasta los 7 y 8 años de edad, respectivamente. Variaciones posteriores a estas edades se podrían deber a la disminución de los peces de mayor tamaño en la distribución, removidos por el efecto selectivo de la pesca que efectivamente ocasiona variaciones en las curvas ajustadas, pero estas variaciones no son el reflejo de cambios en el crecimiento somático de esas edades en la población. Los resultados permiten concluir que el crecimiento somático de merluza común no ha variado en forma importante desde 1972, los cambios que se observan en peces de mayor edad es probable que obedezcan a causas distintas a la denso-dependencia.

  11. Low prevalence of Factor V Leiden and the prothrombin G20210A mutation in a healthy population from the central-south region of Chile Baixa prevalência do Fator V Leiden e da mutação da protrombina G20210A em uma população sã da região centro-sul do Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Palomo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrombosis is a result of the interaction between predisposing genetic polymorphisms and acquired risk factors. The two prothrombotic polymorphisms which are most frequently associated with thrombosis are factor V (FV Leiden and the prothrombin (PT G20210A mutation. The objective of this work was to investigate the prevalence of both factors in the central-south region of Chile. Determination of the frequency was carried out by means of a genetic analysis of 1200 healthy, non-native individuals. The mutation of FV Leiden was found in 1.25% of the population and the PT G20210A mutation in 1.33%. None of the individuals were homozygosis or had both polymorphisms. The prevalences of FV Leiden and the PT G20210A mutation are less common in the healthy population.A trombose pode ser o resultado da interação de polimorfismo genético e fatores de riscos adquiridos. Os polimosfirmos protrombóticos mais frequentes são fator V (FV Leiden e a mutação da protrombina (PT G20210A. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a prevalência de ambos os polimorfismos na região centro-sul do Chile. Foram realizadas análises genéticas (PCR RFLP de 1.200 pessoas saudáveis, não nativas da região. Foram encontrados 1,25% de mutação do Fator V Leiden e 1,33% da mutação da protrombina G20210A. Não foi detectada homozigose em ambos os polimorfismos. A prevalência de FV Leiden e da mutação G20210A é baixa na população estudada.

  12. Acumulación de cobre en una comunidad vegetal afectada por contaminación minera en el valle de Puchuncaví, Chile central Copper accumulation in a plant community affected by mining contamination in Puchuncaví valley, central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISABEL GONZÁLEZ

    2008-06-01

    accumulation of copper. The species with the highest accumulation of copper was Oenothera affinis (614 mg kg-1. However, no hyperaccumulator species were found. Oenothera affinis could be considered as a good candidate for remediation initiatives in Chile, because it is a native perennial herb, it is drought resistant, it is easy to propágate, and that it produces a large biomass. However, it is still required to verify that there was no overestimation of Cu concentrations in the plants due to attachment of particles onto the trichomes. In addition, two new samplings were carried out later in the growing season, for Argemone subfusiformis and Oenothera affinis. There was a decrease in the concentration of Cu in the shoots with the advance of the season caused by the development of structures with low Cu accumulation (flowers, fruits, and summer leaves during the reproductive stage and the loss of Cu-rich biomass during the senescence. Moreover, this last sampling suggests that there was possibly a certain re-translocation of Cu into the subterranean structures during the senescence for O. affinis.

  13. Influence of Conservation Tillage and Soil Water Content on Crop Yield in Dryland Compacted Alfisol of Central Chile Influencia de la Labranza de Conservación y el Contenido de Agua sobre el Rendimiento del Cultivo en un Alfisol compactado del Secano Central de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Martinez G

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chilean dryland areas of the Mediterranean climate region are characterized by highly degraded and compacted soils, which require the use of conservation tillage systems to mitigate water erosion as well as to improve soil water storage. An oat (Avena sativa L. cv. Supernova-INIA - wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Pandora-INIA crop rotation was established under the following conservation systems: no tillage (Nt, Nt + contour plowing (Nt+Cp, Nt + barrier hedge (Nt+Bh, and Nt + subsoiling (Nt+Sb, compared to conventional tillage (Ct to evaluate their influence on soil water content (SWC in the profile (10 to 110 cm depth, the soil compaction and their interaction with the crop yield. Experimental plots were established in 2007 and lasted 3 yr till 2009 in a compacted Alfisol. At the end of the growing seasons, SWC was reduced by 44 to 51% in conservation tillage systems and 60% in Ct. Soil water content had a significant (p En Chile, las zonas de clima mediterráneo se caracterizan por suelos altamente degradados y compactados por erosión, lo que requiere el uso de sistemas de labranza conservacionista para mitigar la erosión hídrica, así como incrementar el contenido de agua en el suelo. Se evaluó una rotación avena (Avena sativa L. cv. Supernova-INIA - trigo (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Pandora-INIA establecida bajo los siguientes sistemas conservacionistas: cero labranza (Nt, Nt + curvas de nivel (Nt+Cp, Nt + franjas vivas (Nt+Bh y Nt + subsolado (Nt+Sb, las que fueron comparadas al sistema de labranza convencional (Ct, para evaluar su influencia en el contenido de agua en el suelo (SWC en el perfil (10 a 110 cm profundidad, la compactación del suelo y su interacción con el rendimiento del cultivo. Las parcelas experimentales fueron establecidas 3 años seguidos (2007 al 2009 en un Alfisol compactado. Al final de la temporada, el SWC disminuyó 44 a 51% en los sistemas conservacionistas y 60% en el sistema convencional. El sistema de

  14. Macroalgas varadas sobre la superficie de una playa arenosa del sur de Chile: preferencias alimentarias y de habitat de juveniles y adultos de Orchestoidea tuberculata (Nicolet, (Amphipoda, Talitridae Stranded algal wracks on a sandy beach of south central Chile: feeding and habitat preferences of juveniles and adults of Orchestoidea tuberculata (Nicolet, (Amphipoda, Talitridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIAN DUARTE

    2008-03-01

    temes alimentarios diferentes, los juveniles pueden evitar el canibalismo de los adultos, interacción biológica previamente demostrada para O. tuberculata. La diferencia notoria en los patrones de preferencia de juveniles y adultos de este anfípodo demuestra la importancia de considerar la variabilidad intraespecífica en este tipo de estudiosThe amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata, is the numerically dominant scavenger in the upper intertidal levels of sandy beaches from south central Chile. The main food source for juveniles and adults of this amphipod are the macroalgae stranded on the beach. Experiments of food preferences were carried out to analyze the eventual partition on the most common macroalgae on that beaches {Durvillaea antárctica, Macrocystis pyrifera y Lessonia nigrescens by .juveniles and adults of this amphipod. While juveniles preferred to consume L. nigrescens, adults showed a significant preference for D. antárctica. Similar to the laboratory results, that of field studies shows that juveniles of O. tubercula ta did not show significant preferences between D. antárctica and M. pyrifera, while adults preferred to consume D. antárctica instead of M. pyrifera. That suggest that D. antárctica is an important source of food (and habitat, for adult amphipods. Due to the fact that L. nigrescens could not be included in the field experiments, the possibility that juveniles also prefer this macroalgae in those conditions remains as an open question. Although the reasons underlying the differences in the food preferences of juveniles and adults are unknown, two possibilities can be proposed: ontogenetic changes in the morphology of mouth structures used for feeding and/or ontogenetic changes in nutritional requirements. However, the fact that juveniles preferred to consume the macroalgae with the lowest nutritional content (L. nigrescens among the three species offered as food, suggest another explanation to the observed differences. This refers to the fact, that by

  15. La dieta y la fauna de parásitos metazoos del torito Bovichthys chilensis Regan 1914 (Pisces: Bovichthydae en la costa de Chile centro-sur: variaciones geográficas y ontogenéticas Diet and metazoan parasite fauna of the thornfish Bovichthys chilensis Regan 1914 (Pisces: Bovichthydae on the coast of central-south Chile: geographical and ontogenetic variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA MUÑOZ

    2002-12-01

    variación geográfica del parasitismo de los toritos adultos, para dilucidar si en esta especie de hospedador el eje ontogenético es o no más importante que el geográfico para explicar las variaciones de la fauna parasitaria.Knowledge on what, how much, when and where hosts eat and live should help to understand the changes that occur in parasite communities because transmission of endoparasites is tightly linked to diet composition as well as ectoparasites are to the use that hosts make of the habitat. Thus, geographical and ontogenetic variations in diet and parasite fauna of the thornfish Bovichthys chilensis are described, and discussed taking into account the ontogenetic shifts in this host's niche. A total 122 individuals: 108 juveniles collected from the intertidal zone at four localities along the south-central coast of Chile (between 33º and 40º S, and 14 adults collected from the shallow subtidal at a fifth locality (36º S, were examined for food contents and parasite infracommunities. Food items were encountered in almost 70 % of fish examined with 25 prey items being recognized. Only one of the prey items was found in both juvenile and adult fish. The diet of juvenile fish consisted mainly of amphipods and while that of adults was mainly composed of crustacean decapods. Almost 40 % of fish examined harbored parasites with a total of 624 individuals and belonging to 16 taxa being identified, four of which were shared between juvenile and adult fish. Prevalence, total intensity, richness, and diversity of parasites was similarly low among juvenile fish sampled at four different localities, while significant differences in total prevalence, dietary and parasite infracommunity composition among localities were found. Absence of a clear relationship among juvenile fish between the composition of the diet and of infracommunities may be due to the fact that parasitoses are necessarily recent. Adult hosts had infracommunities with greater total prevalence

  16. Spent Fuel in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The government has made a complete and serious study of many different aspects and possible road maps for nuclear electric power with strong emphasis on safety and energy independence. In the study, the chapter of SFM has not been a relevant issue at this early stage due to the fact that it has been left for later implementation stage. This paper deals with the options Chile might consider in managing its Spent Fuel taking into account foreign experience and factors related to safety, economics, public acceptance and possible novel approaches in spent fuel treatment. The country’s distinctiveness and past experience in this area taking into account that Chile has two research reactors which will have an influence in the design of the Spent Fuel option. (author)

  17. Waste management in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main radioactive waste management issues to be faced by the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) are discussed herein. Research reactor spent fuel management is the most outstanding challenge at the beginning of the 21st century. Interim storage appears to be the most promising alternative, allowing fuel safekeeping until a definitive step is taken. The situation regarding radioactive waste resulting from radioisotope applications in Chile will not undergo considerable change in the near future. Low and intermediate level radioactive waste management is being safely performed followed by interim storage of conditioned wastes. The strategy in the radioactive waste management plan, to be described as well, is meant to ensure the safe storage of radioactive wastes produced in Chile. (author)

  18. Efecto nodriza intra-específico de Kageneckia angustifolia D. Don (Rosaceae sobre la germinación de semillas y sobrevivencia de plántulas en el bosque esclerófilo montano de Chile central Intra-specific nurse effect of Kageneckia angustifolia D. Don (Rosaceae and its effect on seed germination and seedling survival in the montane sclerophyllous forest of central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRO PEÑALOZA

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available El bosque esclerófilo montano de Chile central (32-33° S, 1.500-2.100 m de altitud está dominado por poblaciones de Kageneckia angustifolia (Rosaceae, especie semidecidua de verano que forma un dosel muy abierto. Esto sugiere que, a diferencia de lo que ocurre en el matorral esclerófilo de menor altitud donde el cerrado dosel de árboles y arbustos generan condiciones microclimáticas diferentes a los espacios abiertos, en el bosque montano no existiría una marcada diferencia microclimática entre bajo el dosel y los espacios abiertos. Por otro lado, en el bosque montano, las precipitaciones ocurren principalmente en forma de nieve, la que se acumula preferentemente en los espacios entre los árboles, pudiendo facilitar el reclutamiento de nuevos individuos en este microhábitat, fenómeno que se conoce como efecto nodriza. Se estudió el probable efecto nodriza a nivel intra-específico de K. angustifolia comparando el microclima de los ambientes bajo dosel y los espacios abiertos, y el efecto de la acumulación de nieve en la germinación de semillas y sobrevivencia de plántulas de en un bosque esclerófilo montano ubicado en el Santuario de la Naturaleza Yerba Loca, 50 km al este de Santiago (33° S, 1.600 m de altitud. De acuerdo a las variables microclimáticas estudiadas (PAR, humedad del aire y suelo, y temperatura del aire y suelo, en el bosque montano no existen diferencias microclimáticas entre los espacios abiertos y bajo el dosel. Sólo la acumulación de nieve fue significativamente mayor en los espacios abiertos. La germinación fue menor y más tardía en los espacios abiertos, lo que estaría relacionado con la mayor acumulación de nieve. Las plántulas originadas más tempranamente tienen más tiempo para desarrollarse y pasar en forma exitosa la sequía estival en comparación con las plántulas que emergen más tardíamente. Esto explicaría la menor sobrevivencia de las plántulas en los espacios abiertosThe montane

  19. Patrones de regeneración arbórea en claros a una década de la floración y muerte masiva de Chusquea quila (Poaceae en un remanente de bosque antiguo del valle central en el centro-sur de Chile Tree regeneration patterns in canopy gaps after a decade of Chusquea quila (Poaceae dieback in an old-growth remnant forest in the lake district of south-central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARIEL A MUÑOZ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available En bosques de elevaciones bajas del centro-sur de Chile (38-42° S Chusquea quila (Poaceae es la especie del sotobosque de mayor influencia en el proceso de regeneración de especies arbóreas en claros naturales y antropogénicos. Su floración y muerte sincrónica, después de un extenso periodo en estado vegetativo, constituye una alteración de gran escala que puede afectar importantemente la dinámica de regeneración arbórea en claros. El último episodio de muerte masiva de C. quila (1989-1995, que afectó a los escasos remanentes de bosques antiguos dominados por Nothofagus obliqua y especies siempreverdes, ofreció la oportunidad de monitorear la respuesta de la regeneración arbórea en seis claros del dosel entre los años 1994 y 2003. El objetivo central de este estudio fue analizar, luego de 10 años desde dicho evento, los principales patrones de respuesta de la regeneración arbórea en claros. La regeneración avanzada -establecida en los claros previa a la floración y muerte de C. quila- estuvo dominada por las especies tolerantes Aextoxicon punctatum, Laureliopsis philippiana y Amomyrtus luma. Después de 10 años desde la muerte de C. quila en los claros, la mortalidad de la regeneración avanzada fue 42 % y ocurrió principalmente en individuos originados de semillas. Por su parte, la respuesta de los nuevos establecimientos estuvo marcada por la abundante regeneración de N. obliqua, Podocarpus saligna y Aristotelia chilensis durante los primeros años postdisturbio; sin embargo, al cabo de 10 años solo unos pocos individuos de estas especies sobrevivieron a la competencia de la nueva cohorte de C. quila. Los individuos originados por rebrotes de raíces de las especies Eucryphia cordifolia, Gevuina avellana y L. philippiana presentaron mayor sobrevivencia y crecimiento que aquellos originados de semillas. Finalmente, el aumento temporal de recursos asociado a la muerte de C. quila en claros, favorece a especies arb

  20. Mineralización del nitrógeno, carbono y actividad enzimática del suelo en un bosque de Nothofagus obliqua (Mirb Oerst y una plantación de Pinus radiata D. Don. del centro-sur de Chile Nitrogen and carbon mineralization and enzyme activity in soils of Nothofagus obliqua (Mirb Oerst stands and Pinus radiata D. Don plantation in south-central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YESSICA RIVAS

    2009-03-01

    Nothofagus obliqua (Mirb Oerst forest and P. radiata plantation in central-southern Chile (40°07' S, 72° W. In this study, the rate of nitrogen mineralization (N-min, carbon mineralization (C-min and the potential enzymatic activity of soils (urease, protease and fluorecein diacetate hydrolysis were determined between September 2003 and May 2005. Results showed that soil biological activity was significantly different between forest and plantations (Wilk's Lambda = 0.022; F> 5,80 = 733, P < 0,0001, and among the months (Wilk's Lambda = 0.01 E-6, F100,395 = 84, P < 0,0001, with vaiues for N. obliqua forest significantly higher (Tukey < 0.01 than those for P. radiata plantation. N-min and C-min rates showed seasonal variability with the higher values in spring and summer months. For enzymatic activity there was not a clear seasonal variation. The higher values of C and N-min and enzymatic activity in the N. obliqua forest could be explained by differences in composition and chemistry of litter. Consequently, P. radiata plantation changed soil chemistry and C/N ratio resulting in lower decomposition rates of organic matter and in consequence, reduced mineralization of C and N and soil biological activity compared to the original soil of N. obliqua forest.

  1. Primary Medical Care in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.

    Primary medical care in Chile: accessibility under military rule [Front Cover] [Front Matter] [Title Page] Contents Tables Figures Preface Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: The Restructuring of Medical Care Financing in Chile Chapter 3: Inflation and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 4: Help......-Seeking Behavior of the Urban Poor Chapter 5: Spatial Organization and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 6: Conclusion...

  2. Chile rural electrification cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The author describes a joint program to use renewables for rural electrification projects in Chile. The initial focus was in a limited part of the country, involving wind mapping, pilot project planning, training, and development of methodologies for comparative evaluations of resources. To this point three wind hybrid systems have been installed in one region, as a part of the regional private utility, and three additional projects are being designed. Additional resource assessment and training is ongoing. The author points out the difficulties in working with utilities, the importance of signed documentation, and the need to look at these programs as long term because of the time involved in introducing such new technologies.

  3. Análisis de las tasas de captura de jurel (Trachurus symmetricus) en la zona centro-sur de Chile (1987-1999) Jack mackerel (Trachurus symmetricus) catch rate analysis in the central-south of Chile (1987-1999)

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Gatica; Luis Cubillos

    2002-01-01

    Se analizaron los cambios en la Captura por Unidad de Esfuerzo (CPUE) de la pesquería industrial de cerco de jurel (Trachurus symmetricus) en la zona centro-sur de Chile entre 1987 y 1999. Se utilizaron dos unidades de esfuerzo de pesca para calcular las tasas de captura: días fuera de puerto y viajes con pesca. La flota se clasificó en cuatro estratos homogéneos mediante Análisis de Componentes Principales (ACP), utilizando una matriz de correlación de variables técnico-operacionales. Los do...

  4. Cambio del uso del suelo en el centro sur de Chile a fines del siglo XX: Entendiendo la dinámica espacial y temporal del paisaje Land use change in the south central Chile at the end of the 20th century: Understanding the spatio-temporal dynamics of the landscape

    OpenAIRE

    MAURICIO AGUAYO; ANÍBAL PAUCHARD; GERARDO AZÓCAR; OSCAR PARRA

    2009-01-01

    Los humanos han transformado gran parte de la superficie del planeta en los últimos 300 años. La tala de bosques, las prácticas agrícolas de subsistencia, la intensificación de la producción agrícola y la expansión de los centros urbanos han cambiado drásticamente el paisaje. En el centro y sur de Chile las transformaciones han estado asociadas, en un inicio, a la expansión de la frontera agropecuaria que permitió satisfacer tanto las necesidades internas como la creciente demanda externa por...

  5. Chile: Transantiago recargado Chile: Transantiago Reloaded

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGO MARDONES Z

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El 2007 fue el segundo año del gobierno de Michelle Bachelet. Se trató de un año sin elecciones; con un buen desempeño económico, a pesar de una inflación creciente en los últimos meses; y marcado por la discusión sobre escándalos de corrupción. Sin embargo, lo que más afectó al Gobierno fue la desastrosa puesta en marcha de la reforma al sistema de transporte público de la capital: Transantiago. Este puso un velo sobre los importantes avances en materias previsionales y educacionales, cuestionando no sólo la capacidad ejecutiva del Gobierno, sino que profundizando un flanco de indisciplina al interior de la coalición oficialista (Concertación; síntoma de su desgaste después de 17 años ocupando la Presidencia de Chile.The year 2007 was the second in Michelle Bachelet’s presidencial term. It was a year free of elections, exhibiting a fairly good economic performance, despite the high rate of inflation shown during the last months. Public discussion on corruption escandals was frequent; however, the most important issue was the disestrous beginning of the reform on the public transportation system of the country’s capital: Transantiago. This has placed a veil over the important achievements on the pension system and education, questioning not only the government’s capacity, but also opening and edge of indiscipline within the ruling coalition (Concertación, which is a symtom of its erosion after 17 years in the presidential office.

  6. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chiles Valley. 9.154... Chiles Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chiles Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Chiles...

  7. Parasites of the Green-backed Firecrown (Sephanoides sephaniodes in Chile Parásitos del picaflor chico (Sephanoides sephaniodes en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel González-Acuña

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal and external parasites from 12 Green-backed Firecrown (Sephanoides sephaniodes were collected between January 2004 and December 2008 from the Biobío Region south-central Chile and Santiago (central Chile. Helminths collected included 1 trematode species (Mosesia sp. and 1 cestode species (Hymenolepis trinidadensis. The mite Proctophyllodes huitzilopchtlii was the only ectoparasite species found. All these parasites represent new records for Chile and the first parasites reported for this host species.Se recolectaron parásitos internos (gastrointestinales y externos de 12 picaflores (Sephanoides sephaniodes entre enero del 2004 y diciembre del 2008, de la región del Biobío en el centro-sur de Chile y en Santiago, en la región central de Chile. Los helmintos recolectados incluyeron 1 especie de trematodo (Mosesia sp. y 1 de cestodo (Hymenolepis trinidadensis. Únicamente se encontró 1 especie de ectoparásito, el ácaro Proctophyllodes huitzilopchtlii. Todos los parásitos mencionados representan nuevos registros para Chile y se registran por primera vez para este hospedero.

  8. Carga parasitaria en crustáceos decápodos de la costa central de Chile: ¿existe alguna asociación con la abundancia de los hospedadores definitivos?

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Leiva; Mario George-Nascimento; Gabriela Muñoz

    2015-01-01

    Los crustáceos tienen un rol importante en el ciclo de vida de los parásitos, ya que actúan como hospedadores intermediarios. No obstante, en Chile y a nivel mundial existen pocos estudios parasitológicos sobre crustáceos que habitan el intermareal rocoso. En este estudio se registró y comparó la carga parasitaria de crustáceos decápodos, y se relacionó con la abundancia de sus hospedadores definitivos (peces y aves). Entre julio y septiembre de 2013 se recolectaron 409 crustáceos, correspond...

  9. Patrones de regeneración arbórea en claros a una década de la floración y muerte masiva de Chusquea quila (Poaceae) en un remanente de bosque antiguo del valle central en el centro-sur de Chile Tree regeneration patterns in canopy gaps after a decade of Chusquea quila (Poaceae) dieback in an old-growth remnant forest in the lake district of south-central Chile

    OpenAIRE

    ARIEL A MUÑOZ; MAURO E GONZÁLEZ

    2009-01-01

    En bosques de elevaciones bajas del centro-sur de Chile (38-42° S) Chusquea quila (Poaceae) es la especie del sotobosque de mayor influencia en el proceso de regeneración de especies arbóreas en claros naturales y antropogénicos. Su floración y muerte sincrónica, después de un extenso periodo en estado vegetativo, constituye una alteración de gran escala que puede afectar importantemente la dinámica de regeneración arbórea en claros. El último episodio de muerte masiva de C. quila (1989-1995)...

  10. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Chile 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    Chile has experienced several serious energy supply incidents over the last decade, including major droughts, a sustained gas supply cut from Argentina (since 2004), and a major earthquake in early 2010 which affected electricity networks and refineries, and caused several black-outs. Due to Chile's unique and sinuous geography - it runs 4 300 kilometres from North to South and only 175 kms from East to West- the country's energy markets are regionally disjointed, particularly as the regional gas and electricity grids are not connected. In the arid North, energy demand is dominated by the mining industry, and operates based on a separate thermal-based Sistema Interconectado Norte Grande (SING) electricity grid. The more densely-populated central region (including Santiago) operates on the more hydro-dependent Sistema Interconectado Central (SIC) electricity grid. The southernmost, hydro-rich regions of the country are not connected to the rest of Chile in terms of electricity and gas. The following report is based on an IEA Emergency Response Assessment carried out in 2010 and 2011 which looked specifically at Chile's capacity to respond to short-term emergencies in oil, gas and electricity.

  11. Eso's Situation in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    ESO, the European Southern Observatory, in reply to questions raised by the international media, as well as an ongoing debate about the so-called "Paranal case" in Chilean newspapers, would like to make a number of related observations concerning its status and continued operation in that country [1]. THE ESO OBSERVATORY SITES IN CHILE The European Southern Observatory, an international organisation established and supported by eight European countries, has been operating more than 30 years in the Republic of Chile. Here ESO maintains one of the world's prime astronomical observatories on the La Silla mountain in the southern part of the Atacama desert. This location is in the Fourth Chilean Region, some 600 km north of Santiago de Chile. In order to protect the La Silla site against dust and light pollution from possible future mining industries, roads and settlements, ESO early acquired the territory around this site. It totals about 825 sq. km and has effectively contributed to the preservation of its continued, excellent "astronomical" quality. Each year, more than 500 astronomers from European countries, Chile and elsewhere profit from this when they come to La Silla to observe with one or more of the 15 telescopes now located there. In 1987, the ESO Council [2] decided to embark upon one of the most prestigious and technologically advanced projects ever conceived in astronomy, the Very Large Telescope (VLT). It will consist of four interconnected 8.2-metre telescopes and will become the largest optical telescope in the world when it is ready. It is safe to predict that many exciting discoveries will be made with this instrument, and it will undoubtedly play a very important role in our exploration of the distant universe and its many mysteries during the coming decades. THE VLT AND PARANAL In order to find the best site for the VLT, ESO performed a thorough investigation of many possible mountain tops, both near La Silla and in Northern Chile. They showed

  12. Alimentación y relaciones tróficas del pez espada (Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758), frente a Chile centro-norte durante 2005 Feeding and trophic relationships of the swordfísh (Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758), off central and northern Chile during 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Letelier; Roberto Melendez; Esteban Carreño; Sebastián López; Patricio Barría

    2009-01-01

    Se analizaron 126 estómagos de pez espada (Xiphias gladius), capturados entre los 25° y 34°S y 78° y 90°W, por barcos palangreros de la pesquería industrial frente a Chile centro-norte. Del total de estómagos analizados, 54 se encontraron vacíos (42,9%) y 72 (57,1%) presentaron sus estómagos con contenidos, de estos últimos la proporción sexual correspondió a 32 machos (44,4%), 37 hembras (51,4%o) y 3 indeterminados (4,2%o). Para el análisis de contenidos estomacales se utilizaron los métodos...

  13. Biología reproductiva de Convolvulus chilensis (Convolvulaceae en una población de Aucó (centro-norte de Chile Reproductive biology of Convolvulus chilensis (Convolvulaceae in a population of Aucó (north-central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena H. Suárez

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Convolvulus chilensis es una hierba perenne, única representante endémica de la familia Convolvulaceae en Chile. Se estudió el sistema de reproducción, fenología, morfología y longevidad floral de C. chilensis en una población natural ubicada en la localidad de Aucó, dentro de la Reserva Nacional Las Chinchillas, IV Región, Chile. Se montó un experimento de polinización controlada considerando los tratamientos de polinización natural, polinización cruzada, autopolinización manual, autopolinización automática y apomixis, evaluándose su efecto sobre la formación de frutos y el número de semillas producidas por fruto. Adicionalmente, se compararon los siguientes atributos de la progenie según tipo de polinización (autopolinización o polinización cruzada: peso de semilla, germinación, altura y número de hojas de plántulas de ocho semanas en condiciones de invernadero. Se encontró que C. chilensis es una especie autocompatible, parcialmente autógama (capaz de autopolinizarse sin mediador y parcialmente apomíctica (capaz de producir semillas sin participación de gameto masculino. La longevidad floral fue estimada en 5,25 h. Durante este período, aproximadamente en 1,5 h hay disponibilidad de polen en los estambres. El período de floración se extiende por 22 semanas (agosto a enero. El tratamiento de apomixis presentó el menor porcentaje de formación de frutos y la menor cantidad de semillas por flor en comparación a los tratamientos de polinización natural, cruzada manual, autopolinización automática y autopolinización manual, los cuales no mostraron diferencias entre sí en ambos atributos. El tipo de polinización (autopolinización o polinización cruzada no afecta el desempeño de la progenie en los atributos de semilla y plántula evaluadosThe perennial herb Convolvulus chilensis is the only endemic species of the Convolvulaceae in Chile. The breeding system, phenology, morphology and floral longevity of C

  14. Credit constraints in rural financial markets in Chile: determinants and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes, A.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from two surveys carried out in 2006 and 2008 on 177 farmers in Chile, this study measures access to credit and empirically determine the effects of credit constraints on investment and production for market-oriented farmers in central Chile. More specifically, four issues are dealt with: (1) to identify the main factors that influence access to credit for market-oriented farmers, (2) to determine whether informal financial institutions act as complements to or substitutes for farm...

  15. Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae) in Chile from a Cytogenetic Perspective Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae) en Chile Bajo una Perspectiva Citogenética

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos M Baeza; Otto Schrader; Eduardo Ruiz; M Negritto

    2008-01-01

    Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae) is an endemic genus of South America with two major distribution centers in the continent: Chile and Brazil. In Chile the genus is distributed from the North, near Iquique (20º13’ S, 70º09’ W) to the Chilean and Argentine Patagonia (53º10’ S, 70º54’ W). The central zone of Chile presents the highest number of species. A. presliana Herb. grows from Curicó (34º59’ S, 71º14’ W) to Cautín (38º45’ S, 72º34’ W) in Chile and Neuquén (36º50’ S, 71º05’ W), Argentina. A ...

  16. First pathological report of parasitic gastric ulceration in Humboldt penguin(Spheniscus humboldtialong the coast of south-central Chile Primera descripción patológica de úlceras gástricas parasitarias en el pingüino de Humboldt (Spheniscus humboldti en la costa centro-sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Yáñez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This report offers a macroscopic and histological description of ulcerative gastric lesions in Humboldt penguins associated with the presence of Contracaecum pelagicum. Parasites of this genus have been isolated from different species of marine mammals and birds, including penguins, demonstrating its capacity to generate ulcerative lesions in the gastrointestinal tracts of many hosts. A bibliographic review revealed no publications on gastric ulceration by nematodes in Humboldt penguins. Studies carried out in Chile concerning gastrointestinal parasitism by nematodes of the Contracaecum genus in S. humboldti only established the parasite's taxonomy. This is the first pathological description of a parasitic ulcerative manifestation in the stomach of S. humboldti in the world. The Humboldt penguin is a vulnerable species. Therefore, this study is relevant as it offers a better understanding of the diseases that affect S. humboldti and facilitates the development of strategies intended to recover the population.El presente trabajo ofrece una descripción macroscópica e histológica de lesiones gástricas de tipo ulcerativas en el pingüino de Humboldt asociadas a la presencia de Contracaecum pelagicum. Parásitos del género Contracaecum han sido aislados de diferentes especies de mamíferos y aves marinas, incluyendo pingüinos, en gran parte del mundo, demostrando una gran capacidad de generar lesiones ulcerativas en un número importante de hospederos. La revisión bibliográfica reveló la ausencia de publicaciones relativas a cuadros ulcerativos gástricos causados por nemátodos en el pingüino de Humboldt. Los estudios realizados en Chile concernientes a parasitismo gastrointestinal por nemátodos del género Contracaecum en S. humboldti sólo han abordado aspectos taxonómicos. Esta publicación constituye la primera descripción patológica de un cuadro de ulceraciones gástricas parasitarias en el pingüino de Humboldt. S. humboldti est

  17. complejidad en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alejandro Bustamante-Ubilla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tiene por objetivo caracterizar el clima organizacional al interior de 2 hospitales dealta complejidad de Chile, determinando las dimensiones más y menos influyentes. Para su desarrollose aplicó un cuestionario que consta de 71 variables agrupadas en 14 dimensiones a una muestra de561 funcionarios. La interpretación de los resultados se realizó a través del análisis del valor prome-dio estandarizado y su confiabilidad ratificada mediante el alfa de Cronbach. A partir de lo anterior, sedeterminó que las dimensiones que influyen por encima del promedio fueron: identidad, motivaciónlaboral y responsabilidad; en tanto que las dimensiones que muestran un nivel de impacto por debajodel promedio resultaron ser: equipo y distribución de personas y material, administración del conflictoy comunicación.© 2015 Universidad ICESI. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. Este es un artículo Open Access bajo lalicencia CC BY (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

  18. Different Seed Selection and Conservation Practices for Fresh Market and Dried Chile Farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Kraig H; de Jesús Luna-Ruíz, José; Gepts, Paul

    2010-12-01

    Different Seed Selection and Conservation Practices for Fresh Market and Dried Chile Farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico. The process of selecting and saving seed is the most basic and oldest of agricultural practices. In today's modern and highly capital-intensive agriculture, seeds are often treated like another chemical input. This study sought to examine seed selection and saving practices among chile farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico, where both industrial and traditional agriculture are practiced. We observed a clear division among farmers who plant chile peppers commercially. Sixty-eight chile pepper farmers were surveyed in order to document seed selection and saving practices. Fifteen respondents (22%) planted chile peppers destined for the fresh market and all utilized purchased commercial seed of F1 hybrid varieties. Fifty-three farmers (78%) planted chiles to be dried and either saved their own or purchased seeds that others had saved and selected. Farmers who saved their own seed sought to maintain an ideotype, rather than directionally select for certain traits, much like Cleveland et al. (2000) chronicled in central Mexican maize farmers. Farmers would benefit from a participatory plant-breeding program in order to maintain productive seed stock for the continued cultivation of dried chile pepper in the state. PMID:21212817

  19. Clasificación acústica de anchoveta (Engraulis ringens y sardina común (Strangomera bentincki mediante máquinas de vectores soporte en la zona centro-sur de Chile: efecto de la calibración de los parámetros en la matriz de confusión Acoustic classification of anchovy (Engraulis ringens and sardine (Strangomera bentincki using support vector machines in central-southern Chile: effect of parameter calibration on the confusion matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Robotham

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Se clasificó la anchoveta (Engraulis ringens y sardina común (Strangomera bentincki detectadas mediante equipos acústicos en la zona centro-sur de Chile, mediante el método de Máquinas de Vectores Soporte (SVM. Para esto se utilizaron descriptores de cardúmenes extraídos desde ecogramas, que fueron clasificados como morfológicos, batimétricos, energéticos y posicional espacial. Para lograr clasificaciones precisas mediante la utilización de esta metodología, fue necesario optimizar parámetros correspondientes al Kernel-Gaussiano, γ y de penalización del modelo C, mediante el análisis del efecto de la calibración sobre las matrices de confusión resultantes de la clasificación de las especies analizadas. El método SVM ajustó correctamente el 95,3% de los cardúmenes de anchoveta y sardina común. Los parámetros óptimos del Kernel-Gaussiano γ y de penalización C obtenidos mediante la metodología propuesta fueron γ = 450 y C = 0,95, respectivamente. Los parámetros mencionados incidieron de manera importante en la matriz de confusión y los porcentajes de clasificación final, por lo que se sugiere establecer, en aplicaciones futuras de este método, un protocolo experimental de calibración. La sardina común fue la especie con menor error de clasificación en el conjunto de las matrices de confusión. El descriptor correspondiente a profundidad del fondo fue el más sensible al SVM, la segunda variable en importancia es el descriptor distancia a la costa.The support vector machines (SVM method was used to classify the anchovy (Engraulis ringens and common sardine (Strangomera bentincki species detected in south-central Chile by means of acoustic equipment. For this, descriptors of fish schools (morphology, bathymetry, energy, spatial position extracted from ecograms were used. In order to obtain precise classifications using this methodology, it was necessary to optimize the parameters Gaussian-Kernel γ and penalty term

  20. PARASITOS DE LOS ANIMALES DOMESTICOS EN CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    HECTOR ALCAINO; TEXIA GORMAN

    1999-01-01

    PARASITES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS IN CHILE An up-to-date list of the parasites that have been identified in horses, cattle, sheep, goats, llamas, alpacas, pigs, dogs, cats, rabbits, chickens and pigeons in Chile, according to the studies performed at the University of Chile and other Universities and Institutes.

  1. China and Chile Signing Free Trade Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen; Danyang

    2005-01-01

      Mr. Bo Xilai, Minister of Commerce of China, and Mr.Walker, Foreign Minister of Chile, signed the China-Chile FTA on behalf of their respective government on November 18, 2005. Chinese President Hu Jintao and Chile President Lagos attended the signing ceremony, according to a press release on the website of Network Center of MOFCOM.……

  2. China and Chile Signing Free Trade Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Danyang

    2005-01-01

    @@ Mr. Bo Xilai, Minister of Commerce of China, and Mr.Walker, Foreign Minister of Chile, signed the China-Chile FTA on behalf of their respective government on November 18, 2005. Chinese President Hu Jintao and Chile President Lagos attended the signing ceremony, according to a press release on the website of Network Center of MOFCOM.

  3. PARASITOS DE LOS ANIMALES DOMESTICOS EN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HECTOR ALCAINO

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available PARASITES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS IN CHILE An up-to-date list of the parasites that have been identified in horses, cattle, sheep, goats, llamas, alpacas, pigs, dogs, cats, rabbits, chickens and pigeons in Chile, according to the studies performed at the University of Chile and other Universities and Institutes.

  4. MEJORAMIENTO DE TRIGOS HARINEROS (Triticum aestivum L. EN LA ZONA CENTRO SUR DE CHILE.: ANALISIS DEL RENDIMIENTO Y VARIABLES ASOCIADAS EN TRIGOS DE PRIMAVERA Genetic improvement in bread wheats (Triticum aestivum L. in the South Central area of Chile.: Analysis of grain yield and related variables in spring varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Mellado Z.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron experimentos de campo con once variedades de trigos (Triticum aestivum L. de primavera liberadas a la producción comercial entre 1971 y 1993, para evaluar la ganancia genética en rendimiento de grano y sus variables asociadas (biomasa, índice de cosecha, granos por espiga, peso de mil semillas y peso del hectolitro. Los genotipos fueron desarrollados en el Proyecto de Mejoramiento de Trigo del Centro Regional de Investigación Quilamapu, del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias. Mexifén fue la primera variedad de este grupo, y se usó como variedad de referencia. Los experimentos se llevaron a cabo en Chillán, Chile, durante 1995 a 1998. En cada año se realizaron dos experimentos similares, con y sin control de enfermedades foliares, para evaluar la ganancia genética y el daño de las enfermedades respectivamente. El promedio de rendimiento de todas las variedades, durante los cuatro años, con fungicida fue de 9,02 t ha-1 y de 7,50 t ha-1 sin fungicida. No se detectó ganancia genética significativa en rendimiento de grano, ni en sus variables asociadas, con la excepción del peso de la semilla. En este último caso la ganancia genética fue de 22,1 mg grano-1 año-1. Se concluyó que las variedades distribuidas entre 1971 y 1993, no mostraron ganancia genética en rendimiento de grano y, que la razón principal para el cambio de variedades en ese período habría sido la resistencia genética a las enfermedades foliares.Field experiments with eleven spring wheat varieties released between 1971 and 1993 were carried out to assess genetic gain in yield potential and related variables (biomass, harvest index, kernels/spike, kernel weight and test weight. The genotypes tested were developed in the Quilamapu Wheat Breeding Program. Mexifén was the first enhanced variety of this group, and was used as the standard variety. The experiments were carried out at the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, Chillán, Chile

  5. MEJORAMIENTO DE TRIGOS HARINEROS (Triticum aestivum L. EN LA ZONA CENTRO SUR DE CHILE: CONTENIDO Y PRODUCCIÓN DE PROTEINA, Y VOLUMEN DE SEDIMENTACIÓN EN TRIGOS INVERNALES, ALTERNATIVOS Y PRIMAVERALES Genetic improvement of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in the South Central zone of Chile: Protein content, production and sedimentation volume of winter, alternative and spring wheats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Mellado Z.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron cuatro experimentos de campo con diez variedades de trigos de invierno y hábito alternativo (grupo 1, y cuatro experimentos con once variedades de trigos de primavera (grupo 2, para evaluar el porcentaje y producción de proteína del grano, y el volumen de sedimentación. Los genotipos fueron desarrollados en el Proyecto de Mejoramiento de Trigo del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, Centro Regional de Investigación Quilamapu. Lilifén fue la primera variedad mejorada en el grupo 1, y Mexifén en el grupo 2; por lo tanto ambas fueron usadas como referencia. Los experimentos se llevaron a cabo en suelos Andisoles del Campo Experimental Santa Rosa (INIA, Chillán, Chile, desde el año 1995 a 1998. Los porcentajes medios de proteína de las variedades de los grupos 1 y 2 fueron 9,6 %, y 10,8%, respectivamente. El promedio de producción de proteína de las variedades del grupo 1 fue 894,6 kg ha-1 mientras que en el grupo 2 este valor fue 968,4 kg ha-1. Los valores medios para sedimentación fueron 3,4 mL en el grupo 1 y 4,3 mL en el grupo 2. En relación a las variedades, los resultados demostraron que el trabajo de mejoramiento de trigo realizado entre 1968 y 1993 fue más exitoso en mejorar el contenido de proteína del grano que su calidadFour field experiments with ten winter and alternative varieties (group 1 and four experiments with eleven spring wheat varieties (group 2, were carried out to assess grain protein percentage, grain production and sedimentation volume. The tested genotypes were developed at the Quilamapu Wheat Breeding Program, Institute of Agricultural Research, INIA. Lilifen was the first breed variety improved in group 1, and Mexifen in group 2; as such both were used as references. The experiments were carried out in Andisoil soils at the Santa Rosa Experimental Field, Chillán, Chile, from 1995 to 1998. The mean protein percentage of varieties of groups 1 and 2 were 9.6 and 10

  6. Litterfall, litter decomposition and nitrogen mineralization in old-growth evergreen and secondary deciduous Nothofagus forests in south-central Chile Aporte, descomposición de hojarasca y mineralización de nitrógeno en bosques siempreverdes de antiguo crecimiento y bosques secundarios deciduos, centro-sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEROEN STAELENS

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available South Chilean forest ecosystems represent one of the largest areas of old-growth temperate rainforests remaining in the Southern hemisphere and have a high ecological value, but suffer from deforestation, invasion by exotic species, fragmentation, and increasing atmospheric nitrogen (N deposition. To support sustainable forest management, more knowledge is required on nutrient cycling of these ecosystems. Therefore, a descriptive study of nutrient dynamics was done in four Valdivian rainforests in the lower Andes range of south Chile: old-growth and altered evergreen stands and unmanaged and managed secondary deciduous stands. Time series were measured for (i mass (four year and nutrient content (N, K, Ca, and Mg; one year of litterfall, (ii decomposition and nutrient dynamics (N, C, K, Ca, Mg, and P; one year of leaf litter and Saxegothaea conspicua bark litter, and (iii in situ topsoil net N mineralization (one year. Litterfall in the four stands ranged from 3.5 to 5.8 ton ha-1 yr-1, was temporarily lower in the managed than in the unmanaged deciduous stand and had a different seasonality in the evergreen stands than in the deciduous stands. Leaf litter decomposed faster (on average 32 % mass loss after one year than bark litter (8 % but without significant differences between leaf litter types. Net N in evergreen leaf litter decreased during decomposition but increased in deciduous leaf litter. Net soil N mineralization was fastest in the pristine evergreen stand, intermediate in the deciduous stands and slowest in the altered evergreen forest. Given the absence of replicated stands, the definite impact of forest type or management regime on the internal nutrient cycling cannot be demonstrated. Nevertheless, the results suggest that management can affect nutrient turnover by altering species composition and forest structure, while recent (five years selective logging in secondary deciduous forest did not affect litter decomposition or N

  7. Alimentación y relaciones tróficas del pez espada (Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758, frente a Chile centro-norte durante 2005 Feeding and trophic relationships of the swordfísh (Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758, off central and northern Chile during 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Letelier

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron 126 estómagos de pez espada (Xiphias gladius, capturados entre los 25° y 34°S y 78° y 90°W, por barcos palangreros de la pesquería industrial frente a Chile centro-norte. Del total de estómagos analizados, 54 se encontraron vacíos (42,9% y 72 (57,1% presentaron sus estómagos con contenidos, de estos últimos la proporción sexual correspondió a 32 machos (44,4%, 37 hembras (51,4%o y 3 indeterminados (4,2%o. Para el análisis de contenidos estomacales se utilizaron los métodos numéricos, de frecuencia, gravimétricos e índice de importancia relativa (IIR. Los cefalópodos fueron el alimento principal (%IIR > 90, mientras que los peces aparecen como alimento secundario (%IIR A total of 126 sword-fish (Xiphias gladius stomach were analyzed. The stomachs were obtained from specimens captured within the 25° to 34°S and 78° to 90°W área, by industrial longline vessels. Only 72 (57.1% of the total stomach had food ítems in their stomachs, whit a sex proportion of 32 males (44.4%o, 37 females (51.4% and 3 indeterminate (4.2%. Traditional methods for the stomach contents analysis such as the numeric, frequency of occurrence, gravimetric and índex of relative importance (IRI were used. Cephalopods were the main food ítems (%IIR > 90 followed by the fishes (%IIR < 4. The squid (Dosidicus gigas was the principal food in this study (%IIR = 85.1. No significant differences were found between the feeding of males and females of swordfishes (U = 81; p = 0.4862, p < 0.05. A cluster analysis showed higher stomach contents similarity between fall and winter than those from spring, within the size groups the I group was different than others and finally, the feeding from zone 3 were different from others zones.

  8. The biomethane potential in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the last decade natural gas gained considerable importance in Chile. The contribution of natural gas within the energy system will increase in the future by predicted 3.6% annually until the year 2015. Due to limited resources within its own country, the energy system of Chile depends on natural gas imports preferential from Argentina. Therefore, the aim of several stakeholders from policy and industry is to reduce the share of imported primary energy within the overall energy system. In order to reach this goal, the use of domestic resources and particularly the utilisation of biomass as one of the most important renewable sources of energy in Chile could play an important role. Against this background, the goal of this paper is the analysis of the technical potentials of biomethane as a substitute for natural gas. For the production of biomethane the anaerobic or bio-chemical (i.e. Biogas) as well as the thermo-chemical conversion pathways (i.e. Bio-SNG) are considered. The results of this analysis show that biomass converted to biomethane is a promising energy provision option for Chile and it contributes to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

  9. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Chile

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Chile's equity market is fairly large and successful. The market capitalization of the 249 listed firms represented 89 percent of GDP at year-end, 2001. Corporate ownership is concentrated and pyramid structures are common. Business groups/conglomerates are the predominant corporate form. Institutional investors, especially pension funds, are active equity investors. The Securities Market ...

  10. Socialisme i Chile efter Pinochet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristoffanini, Pablo Rolando

    2008-01-01

    Chile bliver ofte præsenteret som et paradigme for resten af det latinamerikanske kontinent: Et land med høj økonomisk vækst og politisk stabilitet. Landet har endda haft to socialistiske præsidenter siden 2000, den sidste den første kvindelige præsident. Succeshistorien har en bagside: De social...

  11. Depositional environment of Stelloglyphus llicoensis isp. nov.: a new radial trace fossil from the Neogene Ranquil Formation, south-central Chile Ambiente depositacional de Stelloglyphus llicoensis isp. nov.: una nueva traza fósil radial de la Formación Ranquil (Neógena), centro-sur de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Le Roux, Jacobus P.; Nielsen, Sven N; Álvaro Henríquez

    2008-01-01

    Stelloglyphus llicoensis isp. nov. is a large radial, discoidal to ellipsoidal trace fossil with a central shaft and single to bifurcating branches radiating from different levels. A 30 m thick measured section of the Ranquil Formation at Punta Litre contains an associated trace fossil assemblage including Zoophycos, Chondrites, Phycosiphon, Nereites missouriensis, Lockeia siliquaria, Psammichnites(?), Parataenidium,Ophiomorpha,and Rhizocorallium,some of which reworked the Stelloglyphus trace...

  12. Acuicultura Insostenible en Chile (Unsustainable aquaculture in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommer, Marcos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa acuicultura en Chile sólo será alternativa a la pesca si se consigue llevar su producción a parámetros de sostenibilidad, no solamente económica sino, fundamentalmente, ambiental. Con un esfuerzo dirigido hacia medidas legislativas y de control, e investigación aplicada, podríamos acercarnos a una acuicultura ambientalmente sostenible.

  13. Cambios latitudinales en la pesquería pelágica de merluza de cola (Macruronus magellanicus de la zona centro-sur (1986-2003 Latitudinal changes in the Patagonian grenadier (Macruronus magellanicus pelagic fishery off central-southern Chile (1986-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A Cubillos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron los cambios espacio-temporales de las capturas de merluza de cola obtenidas por la flota industrial de cerco en la zona centro-sur de Chile (34°-41°30'S, para revisar la hipótesis de migración hacia el norte de la fracción juvenil de merluza de cola en primavera. Se utilizaron datos de bitácoras de pesca del periodo 1986-2003, y a partir de éstos se calcularon centros de gravedad de las capturas y su varianza. Se postula que si la flota sigue el comportamiento migratorio de la fracción juvenil, se esperaría que los centros de gravedad de las capturas migren latitudinalmente de sur a norte conforme la estación de pesca avanza. No obstante, sólo se encontró cuatro casos en que ocurrió una migración hacia el norte de los centroides. Más bien, los centros de gravedad se presentan estacionarios, al interior de cada temporada de pesca. Se postula que existe una fracción juvenil residente que sólo incrementa su accesibilidad y vulnerabilidad en aguas superficiales en primavera debido al régimen ambiental, que se caracteriza por la dominancia de eventos de surgencia y no a una migración de sur a norte.We analyzed spatio-temporal changes in Patagonian grenadier catches by the purse-seine fleet off central-southern Chile (34°-41°30'S in order to check the hypothesis that the juvenile fraction of the population migrates northward in spring. Log-book data from 1986 to 2003 were used to calculate the center of gravity of and variance of each catch. We proposed that, if the fleet follows the migratory behavior of the juvenile fraction, the centers of gravity of the catches will migrate from south to north as the fishing season progresses. Nevertheless, the centers of gravity migrated northward in only four cases. Unexpectedly, the centers of gravity remained stationary within each fishing season. Now we propose that, in spring, a resident juvenile fraction of Patagonian grenadier increases its accessibility and vulnerability

  14. Long-term denudation rates from the Central Andes (Chile) estimated from a digital elevation model using the black top hat function and inverse distance weighting : implications for the neogene climate of the Atacama Desert

    OpenAIRE

    Riquelme, R.; Darrozes, J; Maire, E.; Hérail, Gérard; J. C. Soula

    2008-01-01

    A methodology for determining long-term denudation rates from morphologic markers in a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is checked by a comparative study of two drainage basins in the Precordillera of the Central Andes. In both cases the initial configuration of an incised pediment surface has been restored by using two different methods: the Black Top Hat (BTH) function and the Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) interpolation. Where vertical incision and hillslope erosion are recorded, the 1DW ap...

  15. [The epidemiological transition in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalá, C; Vio, F; Robledo, A; Icaza, G

    1993-12-01

    Aiming to describe the place that Chile has in the epidemiological transition, a descriptive study of the changes in demographic and epidemiological profiles of the country during the last 30 years is presented. The important decrease in general and child mortality rates, that has lead to an increase in life expectancy and ageing of the population, is emphasized. A 82% reduction in the proportion of deaths among less than one year old children and a 62% increase in mortality among people 65 years or older is observed. In agreement with these changes, non transmissible chronic diseases appear as the principal cause of mortality (65% of all deaths). However, regarding morbidity, an increase in digestive infectious and sexually transmitted diseases and a decrease in immuno-preventable diseases, excepting measles, is noted. It is concluded that, according to mortality, Chile is in a post transition stage, but there is persistence of some infectious diseases, typical of a pre-transition stage. PMID:8085073

  16. Relación entre características del hábitat y estructura del ensamble de insectos en humedales palustres urbanos del centro-sur de Chile Relationship between habitat characteristics and insect assemblage structure in urban freshwater marshes from central-south Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMINA VILLAGRÁN-MELLA

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Los humedales son ecosistemas altamente productivos que se caracterizan por cumplir múltiples funciones, manteniendo además una alta diversidad biológica. No obstante, casi la mitad de los humedales en el mundo ha desaparecido en el último siglo debido al proceso de desarrollo urbano. En Chile, la diversidad bioclimática genera una gran variedad de ambientes acuáticos. Estos ecosistemas también han sido expuestos a fuertes presiones antrópicas, debido al proceso de urbanización. En la intercomuna Concepción-Talcahuano-San Pedro (Región del Biobío más del 23 % (1.734 ha del área ocupada por humedales se ha perdido en las últimas tres décadas. Evaluamos la relación entre características del hábitat (morfométricas, limnológicas y vegetacionales y la estructura del ensamble de insectos en siete humedales palustres de la intercomuna, con el fin de determinar los efectos de la urbanización sobre los patrones de diversidad en estos ecosistemas. Los análisis mostraron que la abundancia relativa y la diversidad de especies se relacionan positivamente con la naturalidad de la matriz y el contenido de oxígeno en el agua, esta última característica fue el predictor más importante para la estructura del ensamble de insectos. De las 24 morfoespecies de insectos analizadas, la abundancia de siete especies fue relacionada significativamente con las características del hábitat consideradas. La naturalidad de la matriz, el área del humedal, la heterogeneidad vegetacional y la concentración de oxígeno disuelto se relacionaron positivamente con la abundancia de estas especies, mientras que la conductividad y/o turbidez del agua mostró un efecto negativo sobre ella. La disminución de la diversidad de insectos determinada por características del hábitat asociadas con la pérdida, fragmentación, homogeneización, eutroficación y/o contaminación de los humedales indica que los insectos podrían ser utilizados como indicadores de

  17. Miedo y represionpolitica en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Amado M. Padilla; Lillian Comas Díaz

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a human rights fact-finding mission to Chile concerned with the use of psychological techniques employed in offlcia- Uy sactioned torture and repressíon, Meetings and interviews were conducted with representatives of many organízatíons working with víctima of governrnental repression including the Chílean Psychological Assocíation. Fear and repression wene found to be widespread among all socioeconomic segments of the population. Physical and psychologic...

  18. EL CONEJO EUROPEO EN CHILE: HISTORIA DE UNA INVASIÓN BIOLÓGICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Camus

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza las relaciones entre los seres humanos y su ambiente, a partir de la historia de la aclimatación y posterior invasión de conejos en Chile, constatando que, en el largo plazo, las acciones humanas tienen efectos e impactos insospechados sobre el medio natural. En efecto, si bien inicialmente los conejos fueron vistos como una oportunidad de desarrollo económico a partir del aprovechamiento de su piel y su carne, pronto esta especie se convirtió en una plaga difícil de controlar en diversas regiones del país, como Chile central, Tierra del Fuego e islas Juan Fernández. Así, con el paso del tiempo, el conejo se ha terminado por transformar en nuestro país en un verdadero "convidado de piedra".This work analyses the relationship between human beings and their environment taking into consideration the adjustment and eventual invasión of rabbits in Chile. It argües that in the long run, human actions have unsuspected effects upon the environment. In fact rabbits were seen initially as an opportunity for economic development because of the exploitation of their meat and skin. Later, rabbits became a plague in different áreas of Central Chile, Tierra del Fuego and Juan Fernández islands, which was difficult to control. Over the years rabbits became unwelcome guests in Chile.

  19. Reseña Bibliográfica: Bastías, C. (et. al). 2011, Mujeres de la Vega. Género, memoria y trabajo en la Vega Central de Santiago. Chile Santiago, Salesianos Impresores S.A.

    OpenAIRE

    Eloísa Maldonado

    2014-01-01

    Una sugerente portada, que representa la gráfica y los colores de los carteles que habitualmente ofrecen los productos agrícolas, nos invita a entrar al mun­do de la Vega, uno de los mercados más importantes de Santiago. “Mujeres de la Vega. Género, memoria y trabajo en la Vega Central de Santiago” es el libro donde se dan a conocer los resultados de una investigación realizada entre agosto de 2010 y enero de 2011, financiada por el Consejo Nacional de la Cul­tura y las Artes, a través del Fo...

  20. An individual-centered approach to multidimensional poverty: The cases of Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franco-Correa, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of selecting the unit of analysis in multidimensional poverty analyses, which is a central decision to take, both from academic and normative points of view. The paper compares the results of an individual-level Multidimensional Poverty Index for Chile, Colombia, Ec

  1. Canl to Curarrehue (Chile): A Journey in Alternative Development. Outdoor Education and Sustainable Development: Part Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rod

    1999-01-01

    The outdoor experience's core element of connection to the earth is a central feature of an environmental-education project in Canl forest sanctuary (Chile). Developed to provide integrated environmental and adventure-education experiences to forest visitors, the project expanded to train local youth as ecotourism guides and native-tree nursery…

  2. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chile has an area of 740,760 square kilometers. The capital is Santiago. The country is 4,183 km. long and ranges from 22.5 to about 354 km. in width. Its chief topographic features para]lei each other - the Coastal Range, Andes Mountains and Central Valley. The Coastal Range rises to 2,130 meters in the north, but averages from 610 to 700 meters high generally. The range plunges into the Pacific Ocean far south of Valparaiso and reappears in the southern archipelagic islands. The Andes extend along nearly the entire length of Chile and contain 100 volcanoes. Andean peaks range mostly from 3,000 to 6,700 meters in elevation. In southern Chile the Andes are lower, and contain about a dozen major lakes. The mountains disappear in Chilean Patagonia, but reappear at Cape Horn. The Central Valley lies between the Coastal Range and the Andes, being best defined in the midland region as a 64 to 72 km sloping plain. It is the Chilean heartland with three-quarters of the country's population. Salt basins are found over much of northern Chile in the very arid desert, while the region south of the Gulf of Reloncavi consists of unpopulated islands, fjords, channels and heavily forested mountains. The Strait of Magellan, the Tierra del Fuego archipelago and a flat grassland area make up the extreme southern end of the country. Much of Chile is subject to flash floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides and avalanches. In September 1976 the Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear (CCEN) was given exclusive rights to negotiate contracts with private companies for the exploration, development and mining of uranium and other radioactive minerals. The new law provides the CCEN with considerable flexibility in the terms of the contracts. Pre-964 owners of uranium deposits may reach agreements with foreign companies to mine the uranium, but since 1964 all uranium has belonged to the state. Uranium produced in the country can only be exported after Chile's needs have been met. The

  3. Field survey of the 16 September 2015 Chile tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, Marcelo; Fritz, Hermann M.

    2016-04-01

    On the evening of 16 September, 2015 a magnitude Mw 8.3 earthquake occurred off the coast of central Chile's Coquimbo region. The ensuing tsunami caused significant inundation and damage in the Coquimbo or 4th region and mostly minor effects in neighbouring 3rd and 5th regions. Fortunately, ancestral knowledge from the past 1922 and 1943 tsunamis in the region along with the catastrophic 2010 Maule and recent 2014 tsunamis, as well as tsunami education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate to high ground after the earthquake. There were a few tsunami victims; while a handful of fatalities were associated to earthquake induced building collapses and the physical stress of tsunami evacuation. The international scientist joined the local effort from September 20 to 26, 2015. The international tsunami survey team (ITST) interviewed numerous eyewitnesses and documented flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment deposition, damage patterns, performance of the navigation infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The ITST covered a 500 km stretch of coastline from Caleta Chañaral de Aceituno (28.8° S) south of Huasco down to Llolleo near San Antonio (33.6° S). We surveyed more than 40 locations and recorded more than 100 tsunami and runup heights with differential GPS and integrated laser range finders. The tsunami impact peaked at Caleta Totoral near Punta Aldea with both tsunami and runup heights exceeding 10 m as surveyed on September 22 and broadcasted nationwide that evening. Runup exceeded 10 m at a second uninhabited location some 15 km south of Caleta Totoral. A significant variation in tsunami impact was observed along the coastlines of central Chile at local and regional scales. The tsunami occurred in the evening hours limiting the availability of eyewitness video footages. Observations from the 2015 Chile tsunami are compared against the 1922, 1943, 2010 and 2014 Chile tsunamis. The

  4. Sistema de salud de Chile The health system of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Becerril-Montekio; Juan de Dios Reyes; Annick Manuel

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Chile, incluyendo su estructura, financiamiento, beneficiarios y recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone. Este sistema está compuesto por dos sectores, público y privado. El sector público está formado por todos los organismos que constituyen el Sistema Nacional de Servicios de Salud y cubre aproximadamente a 70% de la población, incluyendo a los pobres del campo y las ciudades, la clase media baja y los jubilados, así como ...

  5. Chile : Household Risk Management and Social Protection

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2004-01-01

    This report is part of the World Bank's advisory and analytical assistance to the Government of Chile. The report examines whether Chile has a social protection "system" - broadly defined to include policy interventions, public institutions, and the regulation of private institutions that lower the welfare costs of adverse shocks to income from job loss and extended unemployment, health ep...

  6. Earthquake engineering research program in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragoni, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    Earthquake engineering research in Chile has been carried out for more than 30 years. Systematic research is done at the university of Chile in Santiago. Other universities such as the Catholic University, university of Concepcion, and the Federico Santa Maria Technical University have begun to teach and conduct research in earthquake engineering in recent years. 

  7. Response of Table Grape to Irrigation Water in the Aconcagua Valley, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Zúñiga-Espinoza; Cristina Aspillaga; Raúl Ferreyra; Gabriel Selles

    2015-01-01

    The irrigation water available for agriculture will be scarce in the future due to increased competition for water with other sectors, and the issue may become more serious due to climate change. In Chile, the table grape is only cultivated under irrigation. A five-year research program (2007–2012) was carried out in the Aconcagua Valley, the central area of grapes in Chile, to evaluate the response of table grape vines (Vitis vinifera L., cv Thompson Seedless) to different volumes of irrigat...

  8. Factores de riesgo psicosocial y satisfacción laboral en trabajadoras estacionales de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo Palomo-Vélez; Jairo Carrasco; Álvaro Bastías; María Doris Méndez; Andrés Jiménez

    2015-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Caracterizar la relación entre los factores de riesgo psicosocial y la satisfacción laboral en trabajadoras estacionales agrícolas de la zona central de Chile. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal en una muestra no probabilística de 106 trabajadoras de una empresa comercializadora y exportadora de frutas de la región del Maule, Chile. Las entrevistas se realizaron entre septiembre y octubre de 2013. Se empleó el cuestionario SUSESO ISTAS-21 para evaluar los riesgos psicosociales en el traba...

  9. Sistema de salud de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Becerril-Montekio; Juan de Dios Reyes; Annick Manuel

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Chile, incluyendo su estructura, financiamiento, beneficiarios y recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone. Este sistema está compuesto por dos sectores, público y privado. El sector público está formado por todos los organismos que constituyen el Sistema Nacional de Servicios de Salud y cubre aproximadamente a 70% de la población, incluyendo a los pobres del campo y las ciudades, la clase media baja y los jubilados, así como ...

  10. Social Networks and Political Parties in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adler Lomnitz, Larissa

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the origin and evolution of two Chilean political parties (the Radical Party and the Christian Democrat Party through the analysis of the social networks that originated and composed them. The aim of this study is to propose a model of national political cultures on the basis of the structure of social networks related to power and of the symbol system, which legitimizes it. The structure of social networks, horizontal and vertical, are based on reciprocal or redistributive forms of exchange, on what is being exchanged and on the articulation between networks. In every society there are symmetrical and asymmetrical exchanges, which produce horizontal and vertical networks. These networks interact among themselves to form the social fabric. The dominance of some over others and how they combine, delineate the character of the political culture (authoritarian vs. egalitarian. Chile is a multiparty country within which there are cohorts of horizontal groups of friends, who informally exercise a central control over their members and create invisible boundaries setting them apart from others, in which leadership is under constrains. The result is both a strong presidential system based on an almost fanatic legitimacy, combined with factionalism and a strong parliamentary system.

  11. ALMA communication backbone in Chile goes optical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, G.; Ibsen, J.; Jaque, Sandra; Liello, F.; Navarro, C.

    2014-07-01

    High-bandwidth communication has become a key factor for scientific installations as Observatories. This paper describes the technical, organizational, and operational goals and the level of completion of the ALMA Optical Link Project. The project focus is the creation and operation of an effective and sustainable communication infrastructure to connect the ALMA Observatory, located in the Atacama Desert, in the Northern region of Chile, with the point of presence in ANTOFAGASTA, about 400km away, of the EVALSO infrastructure, and from there to the Central Office in the Chilean capital, Santiago. This new infrastructure that will be operated in behalf of ALMA by REUNA, the Chilean National Research and Education Network, will use state of the art technologies, like dark fiber from newly built cables and DWDM transmission, allowing extending the reach of high capacity communication to the remote region where the Observatory is located. When completed, the end-to-end Gigabit-per-second (Gbps) capable link will provide ALMA with a modern, effective, robust, communication infrastructure capable to cope with present and future demands, like those coming from fast growing data transfer to rapid response mode, from remote monitoring and engineering to virtual presence.

  12. Holocene and deglacial paleoenvironmental history of the Peru-Chile current system and adjacent continental Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, F.; Hebbeln, D.; Kim, J.; Mohtadi, M.; Ruehlemann, C.

    2002-12-01

    A combined analysis of terrigenous and biogenic compounds in marine sediments from the Chilean continental slope allows detailed reconstructions of both the paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic history of this region during the last glacial and Holocene. Based on sediment cores recovered during two cruises with the German R/V Sonne, we found evidence for changes both in continental rainfall, most likely induced by latitudinal shifts of the Southern Westerlies, and marine productivity as well as sea surface temperature (SST) changes within the Peru-Chile Current system on time scales ranging from Milankovitch to centennial-scale. On Milankovitch time-scales, we found strong evidence for precession-controlled shifts of the Southern Westerlies implying e.g. more humid conditions during the LGM in the Chilean Norte Chico and a trend towards more arid climates during the deglaciation culminating in the early Holocene. These shifts are paralleled by paleoceanographic changes indicating generally higher productivity during the LGM mainly caused by increased advection of nutrients from the south through an enhanced Peru-Chile current. SSTs off central Chile were about 3.5 C lower than present during the LGM. On shorter time-scales, extremely high resolution sediment cores from the southern Chilean margin provide evidence of significant short-term Holocene climate changes with bands of variability centred at ca. 900 and 1500 years, periodicities also well known from Northern Hemisphere records. Our data point to strong interhemispheric connections of climate change both on multi-centennial to millennial and Milankovitch time-scales with a major role of the tropics for the interhemispheric transfer of climate signals involving changes within the Hadley circulation and/or probably long-term modifications of the El Ni¤o-Southern Oscillation system. The recently drilled ODP Sites 1233 (ca. 41S) and 1234/1235 (ca. 36S) at the southern Chilean margin have the potential to extent

  13. EL RACISMO AMBIENTAL EN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATÍAS MEZA-LOPEHANDÍA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El problema de la desigualdad en Chile ha sido abordado desde diferentes puntos de vista como la cuestión de la distribución de la riqueza o el acceso a los derechos sociales. Es este trabajo se observa el mismo problema pero desde la perspectiva recientemente esbozada por los movimientos sociales: la del racismo ambiental o la desigual distribución de los deshechos del desarrollo y el consumo. De esta manera se revisan sucintamente los principales conflictos que han surgido en el último tiempo a lo largo del país entre empresas públicas y privadas y comunidades locales y originarias. Así mismo se examinan las formas de organización que estas últimas han asumido y el estado actual de articulación entre ellas. De la revisión de la situación se concluye que estamos ante el surgimiento de un actor de nuevo tipo, que surge de las contradicciones del Chile neoliberal y que se diferencia del movimiento ecologista por vincular sus reivindicaciones a la defensa del territorio y al derecho a la autodeterminación de los pueblos.

  14. Miedo y represionpolitica en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amado M. Padilla

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a human rights fact-finding mission to Chile concerned with the use of psychological techniques employed in offlcia- Uy sactioned torture and repressíon, Meetings and interviews were conducted with representatives of many organízatíons working with víctima of governrnental repression including the Chílean Psychological Assocíation. Fear and repression wene found to be widespread among all socioeconomic segments of the population. Physical and psychological abuses directed at individuals are díscussed, Psychological techníques used in the control of social groups such as intimidation, control of information, and community destabilization are also described. It is concluded that violations of human rigths are a reality in Chile. Ways to support the work of Chilean psychologists must be sought sínce the damaging eonsequences of officially sanctioned repressíon are wid.espread, and resources are minimal.

  15. President of Chile at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The President of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, in the ATLAS cavern with, from left to right, Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesman, Vivian Heyl, CONICYT President, and Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General. Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General, and Vivian Heyl, CONICYT President, signing a cooperation agreement between CERN and Chile’s Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT).The President of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, paid a visit to CERN during her three-day tour of Switzerland. The charismatic Michelle Bachelet and her large delegation were greeted by the CERN Director-General and then taken to see the ATLAS experiment and the LHC. She also took time to meet the Chilean community working at CERN, comprising several physicists in the Theory Group and the ATLAS experiment. The meeting was followed by the signing of a cooperation agreement between CERN and Chile’s Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científi...

  16. Chile's energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-11-18

    In recent years, a new emphasis has been placed on increasing solid fuel availability in Chile, to reach the northern mining operations where demand for power is soaring. The south of the country is well served by hydroelectric power plants (2.3 million kW). The coal industry has doubled its capacity to cope with increased copper production - the Tocopilla power plant at the Chuquicamata copper mine has been converted from oil to coal - and there has been a major investment programme in the steel industry. In 1986, 1.4 million tons of coal was mined, mostly from the Provinces of Concepcion and Arauco, the remainder from Valdivia. Since then, 70 million US dollars has been invested by COCAR SA in the Pecket deposit near Punta Arenas. Coal from Pecket should cost around 26 dollars/t compared with 60 dollars/t for underground coal. It should support an expanded coal market in Chile and may also be able to compete in the Brazilian and Argentine markets. Reserves are estimated at over 200 Mt. Petroleum reserves in Tierra del Fuego are nearly exhausted; seismic surveys in the Atacama desert are promising.

  17. Chile: los mapuches y el Bicentenario Chile: Mapuches e do Bicentenario Chile: Mapuche and the Bicentennial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bengoa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El Bicentenario de la República de Chile se conmemoró en el mes de septiembre del año 2010. Además de marcar un importante hito histórico, coincidió con un cambio político en el Gobierno del país, el que pasó de la Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia a la Alianza de partidos formada por la derecha chilena. Se cumplieron por tanto 20 años desde que en el año 1990 cambiara el Gobierno militar presidido por el general Pinochet. Ese largo tiempo, dos décadas, coincide con un período de políticas que el Estado ha implementado hacia los Pueblos Indígenas. El Proyecto “Conmemoraciones y Memorias Subalternas” ha realizado durante el año 2010 un conjunto de investigaciones de terreno y documentales tendientes a comprender del modo más objetivo y científico lo ocurrido en el período y por tanto la situación actual de las sociedades mapuches en sus complejas relaciones con la chilena.O Bicentenario da República do Chile comemorou-se no mês de Setembro do ano 2010. Junto com transformar-se num marco histórico, coincidiu com uma mudança política no Governo do país, que passou da Concertação de Partidos pela Democracia (centro-esquerda à Aliança de partidos formada pela direita chilena. Cumpriram-se por tanto 20 anos desde que em 1990 mudasse o Governo militar presidido pelo general Pinochet. Esse longo tempo, duas décadas, coincide com um período de políticas que o Estado implementou para com os Povos Indígenas. O Projeto “Comemorações e Memórias Subalternas” realizou durante o ano 2010 um conjunto de pesquisas de campo e documentais tendentes a compreender do modo mais objetivo e científico o ocorrido no período e, por tanto, a situação atual das sociedades mapuches em suas complexas relações com a chilena.The conmeration of the 200 years of the Independence of Chile was in September 2010. This year was also the political change from the Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia to the right

  18. First records of Eocr Onartium muscicola (Basidiomycota, Eocronartiaceae) in Chile on two new hosts Primeros registros de Eocronartium muscicola (Basidiomycota, Eocronartiaceae) en Chile sobre dos nuevos hospederos

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Sandoval; José L Henríquez; Luis Faúndez; Juan Larraín

    2012-01-01

    The heterobasidiomycete fungus Eocronartium muscicola is an obligate parasite recorded on about 21 moss species, mainly from the Northern Hemisphere. It interacts with its hosts mainly by replacing the sporophyte and obtaining water and nutrients from the gametophyte through specialized tissues. This work reports for the first time E. muscicola on the native mosses Eurhynchium corralense and Eurhynchiella acanthophylla in central and southern Chile, in different forest formations. Also, assoc...

  19. FÍSICA: SU TRAYECTORIA EN CHILE (1800-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIO GUTIÉRREZ GALLARDO

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta el desarrollo de la Física en Chile desde los comienzos de la República hasta 1960, poniendo énfasis en el desarrollo interno de la disciplina, la evolución de su concepción y la transmisión de su saber. El trabajo enfrenta el mito de la inexistente tradición científica en Chile, mostrando que en el caso de la Física ha habido un largo y sostenido desarrollo. En este desarrollo de la Física se distinguen cuatro etapas: (1 como capítulo de la Filosofía Escolástica; (2 como ciencia útil o indistinguible de la ingeniería; (3 como ciencia cultural y centro de una concepción científica del mundo; y (4 como disciplina con problemas propios, donde la investigación deviene parte central de su desarrollo. Para el historiador de la ciencia la novedad es que su desarrollo sigue una lógica donde los parámetros locales tienen una influencia muy significativa en comparación con aquellos determinados por el desarrollo mundial de la disciplinaThis paper presents the development of Physics in Chile from the beginnings of the Republic until the year 1960, emphasizing the internal development of the discipline, the evolution of its conception and the transmission of its body of knowledge. This work faces the myth of the non-existent scientific tradition in Chile by showing in the case of Physics a long and sustained development. In this development we distinguish four stages of Physics: (1 As a chapter of Scholastic Philosophy; (2 As a discipline closely related to engineering and real-life problems; (3 As cultural science and base of a scientific view of the world; (4 As a discipline with its own problems, where research becomes a central part of its development. For the science historian the novelty is that this development follows a logic where the local parameters have strong influence as compared to those determined by the universal development of the discipline

  20. The shallow-water chitons (Mollusca, Polyplacophora of Caldera, Region of Atacama, northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Araya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Molluscan species of the northern littoral of Chile have been sparsely studied. This work reviews for the first time the diversity of polyplacophoran molluscs around the port of Caldera, in the Region of Atacama (26°45’49”S; 70°45’17”W to 27°20’23”S; 70°56’46”W, northern Chile. Eleven species were found in this study: Acanthopleura echinata (Barnes, 1824; Callistochiton pulchellus (Gray, 1828; Calloplax vivipara (Plate, 1899, Chaetopleura peruviana (Lamarck, 1819; Chiton cumingsii Frembly, 1827; Chiton granosus Frembly, 1827; Chiton magnificus Deshayes, 1827; Enoplochiton niger (Barnes, 1824, Radsia barnesii (Gray, 1828, Tonicia atrata (G. B. Sowerby II, 1840 and Tonicia chilensis (Frembly, 1827. All of the species occurring in the area have distributions in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, from Ecuador to central Chile, and three of them are species endemic to the Chilean coasts (Calloplax vivipara, Radsia barnesii, and Tonicia atrata. This diversity of species is comparable to that of better surveyed faunas of central and southern Chile or Patagonia. Of the eleven species recorded, the geographic distribution records for Callistochiton pulchellus, Radsia barnesii and Tonicia atrata are extended, and Calloplax vivipara is found alive again after 40 years, filling a gap in its known distribution. Illustrations of living specimens in their habitat, distribution records and a taxonomic key for all the studied taxa are also provided.

  1. Village microgrids: The Chile project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a village application in Chile. The objective was to demonstrate the technical, economic and institutional viability of renewable energy for rural electrification, as well as to allow local partners to gain experience with hybrid/renewable technology, resource assessment, system siting and operation. A micro-grid system is viewed as a small village system, up to 1200 kWh/day load with a 50 kW peak load. It can consist of components of wind, photovoltaic, batteries, and conventional generators. It is usually associated with a single generator source, and uses batteries to cover light day time loads. This paper looks at the experiences learned from this project with regard to all of the facets of planning and installing this project.

  2. 1960 Puerto Montt, Valdivia, Chile Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On May 22, 1960, a Mw 9.5 earthquake, the largest earthquake ever instrumentally recorded, occurred in southern Chile. The series of earthquakes that followed...

  3. Report on the ESO Chile Science Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Michael

    2008-03-01

    Science Days in Santiago are an annual gathering of ESO's geographically dispersed team in Chile to learn more about each other's research, to celebrate scientific achievements of the past year and to encourage new collaborations.

  4. Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, in extreme southern Chile. WMO station ID 85934. Period of record 1896-1954. The original forms were scanned at the Museo...

  5. Biomonitoring air pollution in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Chile, in general, and Santiago, its capital city, in particular, has serious air pollution problems mainly in winter time when the pollutants could reach dangerous levels which might be detrimental to older people and children. A project was undertaken within the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. The present paper describes the activities carried out within this CRP. The lichens, collected in clean areas (native forests), were transplanted to selected sites in Santiago and exposed during three and six months. At a second stage, samples of Tillandsia recurvata were collected in the Metropolitan Area. All samples were carefully cleaned, using only clean plastic materials, milled at liquid nitrogen temperature, freeze dried, re-homogenized and stored at low temperature until analysis. The samples were mainly analysed by INAA, RNAA SS-AAS and ASV. As part of the routine QA/QC programme, analytical laboratories involved in the project participated in intercomparison runs organized by the IAEA for the determination of trace and minor elements in two lichens samples. From the data and its subsequent mapping over the area under study, it was possible to identify places exposed to higher amounts of some elements. Of interest are also the correlations between several elements, perhaps indicating a given source of pollutants. The results indicate the usefulness of biomonitoring air pollution using lichens and Tillandsias, which, jointly with multielemental analytical techniques, such as NAA, open the possibility to study extensive areas without the infrastructure needed for conventional APM sample collection and at reduced costs. (author)

  6. Hemophilia in Chile, 1996-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Donoso Scroppo

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the process that Chile underwent from 1996 to 2006, which is the dawn of a period of planned and systematic organization that begins to solve the severe health problems that afflict patients with hemophilia. The article reports a general overview of the situation of hemophilia in Chile in that period – up to 2006 - , including the lack of reliable data, treatment options, training of specialists on the topic and healthcare system responses. The article then goes on to d...

  7. Enterprise Surveys : Chile Country Profile 2010

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2011-01-01

    The Country Profile for Chile is based on data from the Enterprise Surveys conducted by the World Bank. The benchmarks include the averages for the group of countries in Latin America & Caribbean and the Chile income group. The enterprise surveys focus on the many factors that shape the decisions of firms to invest. These factors can be accommodating or constraining and play an important r...

  8. Desigualdad geográfica en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Agostini, Claudio A.; Brown, Philip H.

    2007-01-01

    Despite success in reducing poverty over the last twenty years, inequality in Chile has remained virtually unchanged, making Chile one of the least equal countries in the world. High levels of inequality have been shown to hamper further reductions in poverty as well as economic growth and local inequality has been shown to affect such outcomes as violence and health. The study of inequality at the local level is thus crucial for understanding the economic well-being of a country. Local measu...

  9. Trade and Integration Sector Note: Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio Mesquita Moreira

    2006-01-01

    This Trade and Integration Sector Note addresses a few different factors for trade in Chile: export diversification, trade and regional disparities, preferential agreements, trade and transport costs. The final section looks beyond the conventional tariff and non tariff-barriers to trade, and focuses on the role of transport costs. Given Chile's low tariff and non-tariff barriers and its network of trade agreements, the reduction of non-conventional trade costs are bound to offer the best ret...

  10. Estudio serológico preliminar de hepatitis E en cerdos en Chile Swine hepatitis E preliminary serological study in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. REINHARDT

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El virus de la hepatitis E (VHE en el hombre puede provocar epidemias masivas de hepatitis aguda. Se transmite vía oro-fecal, especialmente por agua contaminada. Se ha demostrado que el cerdo puede ser infectado con el VHE humano. Se han detectado anticuerpos y ARN del VHE en cerdos y otras especies animales, lo que sugiere un reservorio animal. Por otro lado, se identificó un agente nuevo denominado VHE porcino, distinto del VHE humano. En Chile, en seres humanos se ha encontrado prevalencia de anti- HEV de hasta 7%, pero no se ha determinado su estudio por RT-PCR ni tampoco se ha investigado su significado en especies animales. Mediante ELISA se determinaron anti-VHE (IgG, en 200 sueros de cerdos de planteles de la zona central de Chile y en 175 de la provincia de Valdivia, de diferentes edades y ambos sexos. De estos se seleccionaron 4 sueros anti-VHE positivos para estudios de VHE por RT-PCR, usando secuencias de VHE humano. Por ELISA se detectaron 9.5% anti-VHE positivos (19/200 en planteles de la zona central y 0.6% (1/175 de la provincia de Valdivia, Chile. El estudio por RT-PCR de los 4 sueros anti-VHE positivos no visualizó las bandas de precipitación esperadas. Estos resultados preliminares indican, por primera vez en Chile, que el virus E está presente en poblaciones de cerdos. Sin embargo, se necesitan de estudios más acabados para evaluar la magnitud del problema, usando secuencias de VHE porcinos y lograr la determinación del genoma viralThe hepatitis E virus (HEV can cause acute epidemic hepatitis outbreak in humans. The path of transmission is oro-fecal, especially through contaminated water.It has been demonstrated that pigs can be infected with the human form of HEV. HEV antibodies and RNA from HEV have been found in pigs and other animals. Recently a new strain, called porcine HEV, was identified which differs from the human HEV. In Chile prevalence of anti-HEV in human general population reach 7%. However no studies

  11. Estado de conocimiento de las aves de aguas continentales de Chile Synopsis of the Inland aquatic birds of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro F Victoriano

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se informa de manera sintética la composición de especies, distribución, estatus de conservación y algunos aspectos de la biología de las aves acuáticas de ambientes continentales de Chile. Esta avifauna está compuesta por un total de 133 especies, distribuidas en 69 géneros, 21 familias y 10 órdenes. El grupo representado por el mayor número de especies es el Orden Charadriiformes (51 especies, con una alta presencia en ambientes ecotonales estuarinos. En ambientes de aguas interiores el grupo con más especies es el Orden Anseriformes (29 especies. La distribución de la riqueza de especies se corresponde en términos generales con las tendencias de representación para cada Orden en Sudamérica. De acuerdo a esta revisión, una parte importante de los registros para Chile son esporádicos (28 especies o visitantes regulares (13 especies, y sólo un 69% del total pueden ser consideradas como residentes de nuestra avifauna acuática. De acuerdo a los estados de conservación, un total de 25 especies es considerada en algún sistema de clasificación, de las cuales una especie, Numenius borealis o zarapito boreal, se considera extinta en todo su rango distribucional. Según los registros de los últimos 50 años, el pidén austral (Rallus antarcticus es una especie extinta en la zona central de Chile, quedando sólo algunas poblaciones poco abundantes en el extremo sur del país y en el sur de Argentina. En Chile no existen especies de aves acuáticas endémicas. Sin embargo, al considerar como áreas de análisis las regiones biogeográficas clásicas de nuestro país, existen dos zonas con un alto número de especies exclusivas: en la ecorregión Desértica 9,1% del total nacional son endémicas de esa zona, mientras que la Tropical o Puna incluye un 7,6%. A pesar de que en las ecorregiones Mediterránea y Oceánica existe un alto número de especies, éstas muestran pocos taxa propios (3% y 2,3% respectivamente. Se

  12. Palaeoindian occupation of the Atacama Desert, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosjean, Martin; Núñez, Lautaro; Cartajena, Isabel

    2005-10-01

    Palaeoindian occupation of the Atacama Desert in northern Chile has been found between 12 600 and 10 200 cal. yr BP. The new site at Salar Punta Negra (24°28S/60°53W/2976 m) includes about 1000 classifiable, mostly unifacial artefacts and, uniquely, three different diagnostic types of early projectile points. Two of the Lateglacial/early Holocene projectile types have wide distribution and are known from different geographical areas in South America: the Palaeoindian Fell fish-tail point mainly from the southern cone of South America, and the triangular Tuina points typical of the Puna of the south-central Andes in northern Chile and northwestern Argentina. In addition, we found a third type, a stemmed point typical for the Salar Punta Negra. Filling a large geographical gap of Fell occupation, the site at Salar Punta Negra provides evidence for generally much higher mobility and diversity of early cultures, and supports an Andean-Pacific route for early human exploration of South America to the south through the desert at intermediate altitudes. Contemporaneous high-amplitude climatic changes were fundamental preconditions to provide adequate environments and habitats, and to make Palaeoindian hunting-gathering occupation possible in the Atacama Desert.

  13. Interactions Between Trypanosoma cruzi the Chagas Disease Parasite and Naturally Infected Wild Mepraia Vectors of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Soto, Ricardo; Ortiz, Sylvia; Cordova, Ivan; Bruneau, Nicole; Botto-Mahan, Carezza; Solari, Aldo

    2016-03-01

    Chagas disease, which ranks among the world's most neglected diseases, is a chronic, systemic, parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Mepraia species are the wild vectors of this parasite in Chile. Host-parasite interactions can occur at several levels, such as co-speciation and ecological host fitting, among others. Thus, we are exploring the interactions between T. cruzi circulating in naturally infected Mepraia species in all areas endemic of Chile. We evaluated T. cruzi infection rates of 27 different haplotypes of the wild Mepraia species and identified their parasite genotypes using minicircle PCR amplification and hybridization tests with genotype-specific DNA probes. Infection rates were lower in northern Chile where Mepraia gajardoi circulates (10-35%); in central Chile, Mepraia spinolai is most abundant, and infection rates varied in space and time (0-55%). T. cruzi discrete typing units (DTUs) TcI, TcII, TcV, and Tc VI were detected. Mixed infections with two or more DTUs are frequently found in highly infected insects. T. cruzi DTUs have distinct, but not exclusive, ecological and epidemiological associations with their hosts. T. cruzi infection rates of M. spinolai were higher than in M. gajardoi, but the presence of mixed infection with more than one T. cruzi DTU was the same. The same T. cruzi DTUs (TcI, TcII, TcV, and TcVI) were found circulating in both vector species, even though TcI was not equally distributed. These results suggest that T. cruzi DTUs are not associated with any of the two genetically related vector species nor with the geographic area. The T. cruzi vectors interactions are discussed in terms of old and recent events. By exploring T. cruzi DTUs present in Mepraia haplotypes and species from northern to central Chile, we open the analysis on these invertebrate host-parasite interactions. PMID:26771702

  14. The Genus Austroleptis from South Chile and Patagonia (Diptera, Rhagionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    NAGATOMI, Akira; NAGATOMI, Hisako; ナガトミ, アキラ; ナガトミ, ヒサコ; 永冨, 昭; 永冨, 尚子

    1988-01-01

    The genus Austroleptis from South Chile and Patagonia is revised and three new species are added. So, there are eight known species, five of which are from South Chile and Patagonia and three from Australia and Tasmania.

  15. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetovic, Alexander, E-mail: alexander@galetovic.cl [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile. Av. San Carlos de Apoquindo 2200, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Munoz, Cristian M., E-mail: cmunozm@aes.com [AES Gener and Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Catolica de Chile (Chile)

    2011-10-15

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: > We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. > Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. > Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. > Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. > We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  16. Isotope hydrology in northern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental isotope analyses were done on samples from aquifers in the Pampa del Tamarugal and the Salar de Atacama drainage basin in northern Chile. In the Pampa it is possible to delineate individual groundwater bodies on the basis of their 18O and deuterium contents and, in some cases, to relate these to specific recharge areas. A marked displacement from the meteoric water line indicates that river recharge is an important mechanism for groundwater renewal. Groundwater ages appear high at distance from the Andes and much of the water found in the Pampa may have to be treated as a non-renewable resource. The groundwaters, springs and rivers of the Salar de Atacama drainage basin vary between -6.09 and -8.06%. No difference between the different waters can be recognized and an evaporative isotope enrichment indicates that also here river recharge is an important process. Some groundwaters adjacent to the Salar are very salty but 18O and deuterium data show that these waters are not refluxed brines but simply salty freshwater. The 14C contents in groundwaters and springs are very low but their delta13C values are high. It is concluded that this is probably due to the uptake of volcanic CO2. 14C age dating is thus not possible unless the delta13C values of all possible carbon sources can be defined and the geochemical evolution of the groundwaters is better understood. (author)

  17. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: → We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. → Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. → Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. → Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. → We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  18. Consumer preferences of genetically modified foods of vegetal and animal origin in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Berta Schnettler; Horacio Miranda; José Sepúlveda; Marianela Denegri

    2012-01-01

    Given the debate generated by Genetically Modified (GM) foods in developed and developing countries, the aim was to evaluate the importance of determining factors in the preference of consumers in Temuco and Talca in central-southern Chile for GM foods using conjoint analysis and to determine the existence of different market segments using a survey of 800 people. Using conjoint analysis, it was established that, in general, genetic modification was a more important factor than either brand o...

  19. Water Scarcity and the Impact of the Mining and Agricultural Sectors in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas Aitken; Diego Rivera; Alex Godoy-Faúndez; Eduardo Holzapfel

    2016-01-01

    Chile contains some of the driest areas in the world, yet human activities in these areas require large volumes of water, the result is regions experiencing high water scarcity leading to environmental degradation, conflicts and reduced industrial productivity. The aim of this paper was to quantify the water scarcity in the central and northern regions by calculating the water scarcity index—the ratio of annual water demand to availability. A focus of the paper was to determine the impact of ...

  20. On the Stylized Facts of Nominal Exchange Rates in Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Manuel Julio-Roman

    2015-01-01

    Together with a set of not commonly reported ones, the most widely known stylized facts of high frequency Nominal Exchange Rates in Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru with respect to the US Dollar are studied and interpreted to the light of recent literature in this paper. Among many other results, findings include (i) the tails of ordinary and absolute returns distributions follow inverse power laws, a family of widely occurring empirical regularities which seem to arise from Central ...

  1. Local livelihoods, conservation and mining: An uneven struggle over land access in Punta de Choros, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Lenninger, Paula

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to explore the relation between national economic ventures, environmental security and community development. It does so through a case study of the implementation process of an iron and copper mine (La Dominga Project) in a “biodiversity hotspot” in central-northern Chile. Using qualitative methods to gather empirical data and a discursive analytical framework, it seeks to understand how the mine affects livelihoods and community development, as perceived by loc...

  2. El abate Juan Ignacio Molina: una vida dedicada a la historia natural y civil del reino de Chile Abbot Juan Ignacio Molina: A life devoted to the natural and civil history of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Reynaldo Charrier; Francisco Herv

    2011-01-01

    Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829) naci cerca de Talca, Chile, y falleci en Bolonia, Italia. Es el primer cientfico chileno. Desde pequeo se interes por la naturaleza. Se educ con la Compaa de Jess en diversos lugares de Chile central, lo que le permiti conocer su geografa, fauna, flora y poblacin. Con 15 aos ingres a la Compaa. En 1767, abandon el pas al ser expulsada esta orden de espaa y sus dominios. Se radic en los Estados Pontificios, donde se orden de sacerdote y permaneci hasta su muerte...

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata Blanco), and tangerines (Citrus reticulata Blanco) may be imported into the United States from Chile,...

  4. REFORMAS DA EDUCAÇÃO SUPERIOR NO CHILE, NO BRASIL E EM PORTUGAL: UMA ABORDAGEM COMPARATIVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrânio Mendes Catani

    2007-01-01

    Portuguese case in allows them to observe determinative aspects of the reforms of the superior education of years 90 that they are inserted in a global context, with similarities and differences between such movements in countries of the central capitalism. Our object of study will be Chile case and, from there, will establish relations with the superior education in Brazil and Portugal. The recent reforms of the sector in Chile had been initiated under the military regimen (1973- 90, that it inaugurated the implementation of the neoliberalismo in Latin America in years 70 (Milton Friedman was council member of general Pinochet.

  5. A new genus and species of leaf miner (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae for Chile associated to the native tree Lithraea caustica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique A. Mundaca

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of leaf miner (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae for Chile associated to the native tree Lithraea caustica. We propose the new genus and species of Gracillariidae (Lepidoptera Hualpenia lithraeophaga Mundaca, Parra &Vargas gen. nov., sp. nov., leaf miner of Lithraea caustica (Mol. H. et Arn (Anacardiaceae occurring in southern central Chile. Aspects of the life cycle, adult and larval morphology, development and feeding habits of the new genus and species are also presented. We emphasise the uniqueness and importance of this new species for broadening the current knowledge on the Chilean fauna of Gracillariidae.

  6. Income Inequality in Chile: 1990-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Hourton

    2012-01-01

    The entrance of Chile to the Organization for the Economic Cooperation and Development, as the first South American country and second after Mexico in Latin America, sets a landmark in the development path that since the beginning of the 1990s decade has seemed to lead this country to a privileged position in the region. Given the reforms taken by the military regime in the 1980s, Chile is one of the most market-oriented countries in Latin America, with Free Trade Agreements and Economical Pa...

  7. XII congreso internacional de la vivienda/Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escorihuela, M. José

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the development of the Xllth International Congress on Housing, held in Viña del Mar (Chile on March 1985, is summarized. Its central topic was: "New Construction and Financing Methods". The presented papers intended to bring technical, social and financial solutions to housing problems, specially in developing countries. Spanish participation include two works, one about the particular problem of the inner condensation in walls and another where it is showed a graphic method which allows to simplify of solar radiation in the diverse elements of a building, with the purpose to obtain a better use of this kind of energy, so as to reach a higher comfort in human habitat.En este artículo se resume el desarrollo del XII Congreso Internacional de la Vivienda, celebrado en Viña del Mar (Chile, en marzo de 1985, y que ha tenido como tema central: "Nuevos Métodos de Construcción y Financiamiento". Los trabajos presentados han tratado de dar soluciones técnicas, sociales y financieras al problema de la vivienda, especialmente en los países en desarrollo. La participación española ha consistido en dos trabajos, uno sobre la problemática concreta de las condensaciones en interiores de muros, y otro que expone un método gráfico que permite simplificar los procesos para adquirir mayor conocimiento de la radiación solar recibida sobre los distintos elementos de un edificio, con el fin de conseguir un mejor aprovechamiento de este tipo de energía y así obtener un mayor confort en el habitat humano.

  8. The provenance of archaeological obsidian artifacts from Northern Chile determined by source-induced X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of provenance of obsidian artifacts from 'site 25-Las Estacas', Quebrada de Jorquera (Copiapo, Northern Chile) was carried out by means of X-ray fluorescence, using radioactive sources. Obsidian samples from different Chilean geological regions, located in South Central Chile (Laguna del Maule volcanic area, sources of La Coloradas and La Plata), 'Radal Siete Tazas' and the North of Chile (Copiapo Volcano) were analyzed. The analysis was performed using 109Cd and 241Am annular excitation sources and X-ray fluorescence. This allowed the determination of Fe, Cu, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, and Ba concentrations on samples of ground obsidian from the aforementioned sites. The measured Rb, Sr, and Zr concentrations were used to construct discriminant diagrams, which clearly showed clustering of the samples from the different sources, and the association of the archaeological obsidian sample to the Copiapo Volcano source, which is geographically close to the site. (author)

  9. Hallazgo de Ehrlichia canis en Chile, informe preliminar Ehrlichia canis in Chile; preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. LÓPEZ

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el primer caso de Ehrlichiosis canina detectado en Chile, causado por la rickettsia Ehrlichia canis y transmitida por el vector Rhipicephalus sanguineus. El diagnóstico clínico fue confirmado en Alemania por Inmunofluorescencia Indirecta (IFATThe first case of canine ehrlichiosis detected in Chile is described. It is caused by the rickettsia Ehrlichia canis and carried by the vektor Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed in Germany using the Immunofluorescent Antibody Test (IFA

  10. Assessing the performance of hybrid CSP+PV plants in northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, Allan; Cardemil, José M.; Escobar, Rodrigo; Colle, Sergio

    2016-05-01

    The electricity systems in Chile are characterized by a variable hourly demand in the central grid and an almost constant demand in the northern grid, which require different operation strategies for solar power plants depending on their location. Hybridizing a CSP plant with a PV plant can increase the whole plant capacity factor by allowing thermal energy to be stored while the PV plant is in production and thus help to achieve a fully dispatchable solar electricity production system. A thermal and economic analysis of hybrid CSP+PV plants is conducted considering a range of plant capacities based on a parabolic trough plant with the addition of a PV plant for the environmental conditions of Crucero in Northern Chile, which is a hotspot for solar energy development in the country. The study considers a parametric analysis and optimization of the storage and power block sizes for the CSP plant in terms of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for varying PV plant nominal capacity. The annual production of the plants are calculated by using the Transient System Simulation program (TRNSYS), which uses a new component library developed for that purpose. The results show good agreement with other software packages as well as with actual data from currently operating CSP plants. The adopted approach helps the proper assessment of the integration of different technologies, since it uses the well-kwon modular structure of the TRNSYS. Regarding the potential for the hybrid solar-solar plants in the Atacama Desert, the high level of irradiation available in Chile can provide a competitive electricity cost, allowing to investors the access to PPA contracts with mining companies in northern Chile. Additionally, the optimization analysis shows that the northern regions of Chile present an outstanding potential for the deployment of such projects.

  11. Museos de Santiago de Chile. Directorio

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo, Andrea; Funes, Catherine; Heredia, Constanza; Herrera, Daniela; Suárez, Víctor

    2012-01-01

    Directory of the museums in Santiago of Chile categorized by subject, such as Art, Archaeology, Historic house, Science and technology, Natural science and Natural history, Specialized, Ethnography and Anthropology, History, Site museum and Other. It comprehends basic information about name, creation date, collections, services, contact info, social network accounts, website and entrance fee of the museums.

  12. Republic of Chile : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    Chile's public procurement system is considered generally free of corruption, supported by probity of the civil servants, decentralization, and good budgetary and control systems. However, it is affected by deficiencies that the government recognizes, and is taking action to overcome, particularly with respect to procurement of goods and services. There is no unified comprehensive, and pub...

  13. DEZVOLTAREA CONTEMPORANĂ A TURISMULUI DIN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Mihaela Győri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary development of the Chilean Tourism sector is analyzed mainly on thebasis of data supplied by the National Service of Tourism in Chile. Figures on inboundtourism, domestic tourism, lodging, employment, receipts, as well as the existing structurewithin the sector, were taken into consideration for the investigated period of 1999-2006.

  14. [Notes about other epidemics in Colonial Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laval, Enrique

    2015-10-01

    In chronicles or in the historiography of the Colony in Chile there are few references about epidemics different to smallpox; like typhus, typhoid fever, dysentery, etc. Almost all, fast spreading in the country and some with high lethality, which led to overflowing the capacity of hospitals in the Chilean colonial period. PMID:26633117

  15. A Decade of Environment Management in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Ruthenberg, Ina-Marlene

    2001-01-01

    This publication presents an evaluation of the Environmental Institutions Development Project in Chile, selected by Bank management to be part of an intensive learning process in final project evaluation, given its contributing factor to the Bank's knowledge base on environmental institutional development projects. The first part of the publication focuses on the project as catalyst for cu...

  16. Nuclear public information activities in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear plans and developing programs in developing and developed countries are facing-in a higher or lower degree- opposition from public opinion. The objectives and contents of the public education program on nuclear energy in Chile are dealt with in this paper

  17. Sistema de salud de Chile The health system of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Becerril-Montekio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Chile, incluyendo su estructura, financiamiento, beneficiarios y recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone. Este sistema está compuesto por dos sectores, público y privado. El sector público está formado por todos los organismos que constituyen el Sistema Nacional de Servicios de Salud y cubre aproximadamente a 70% de la población, incluyendo a los pobres del campo y las ciudades, la clase media baja y los jubilados, así como los profesionales y técnicos. El sector privado cubre aproximadamente a 17.5% de la población perteneciente a los grupos sociales de mayores ingresos. Un pequeño sector de la población, perteneciente a la clase alta, realiza pagos directos de bolsillo a proveedores privados de servicios de atención a la salud. Alrededor de 10% de la población está cubierta por otras agencias públicas, fundamentalmente los Servicios de Salud de las Fuerzas Armadas. Recientemente el sistema se reformó creando el Régimen General de Garantías en Salud, que establece un Sistema Universal con Garantías Explícitas que se tradujo, en 2005, en el Plan de Acceso Universal con Garantías Explícitas (AUGE, que garantiza el acceso oportuno a servicios de calidad para 56 problemas de salud, incluyendo cáncer en niños, cáncer de mama, trastornos isquémicos del corazón, VIH/SIDA y diabetes.This paper describes the Chilean health system, including its structure, financing, beneficiaries, and its physical, material and human resources. This system has two sectors, public and private. The public sector comprises all the organisms that constitute the National System of Health Services, which covers 70% of the population, including the rural and urban poor, the low middle-class, the retired, and the self-employed professionals and technicians.The private sector covers 17.5% of the population, mostly the upper middle-class and the high-income population. A small

  18. Feeding profile of Mepraia spinolai, a sylvatic vector of Chagas disease in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, F; Bacigalupo, A; Quiroga, J F; Ferreira, A; Cattan, P E; Ramírez-Toloza, G

    2016-10-01

    American trypanosomiasis is a chronic disease transmitted mainly by vectors. The hematophagous triatomine vectors transmit Trypanosoma cruzi to a wide variety of mammals, which usually are their food source. This study determined the feeding profile of Mepraia spinolai, a sylvatic triatomine vector, present in endemic areas of Chile. Vectors were captured in the north-central area of Chile. Samples of intestinal contents were analyzed by an Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that identifies and discriminates the presence of serum antigens from Homo sapiens and nine animal species (Canis familiaris, Felis catus, Capra hircus, Mus musculus, Gallus gallus, Octodon degus, Thylamys elegans, Phyllotis darwini and Oryctolagus cuniculus). Our data indicate the most frequent feeding source in this area was P. darwini, followed by O. degus, O. cuniculus, M. musculus, G. gallus, T. elegans, C. familiaris, F. catus and C. hircus. Mixed food sources were also identified. PMID:27349188

  19. Cambios latitudinales en la pesquería pelágica de merluza de cola (Macruronus magellanicus) de la zona centro-sur (1986-2003) Latitudinal changes in the Patagonian grenadier (Macruronus magellanicus) pelagic fishery off central-southern Chile (1986-2003)

    OpenAIRE

    Luis A Cubillos; Katty Riquelme; Billy Ernst

    2009-01-01

    Se analizaron los cambios espacio-temporales de las capturas de merluza de cola obtenidas por la flota industrial de cerco en la zona centro-sur de Chile (34°-41°30'S), para revisar la hipótesis de migración hacia el norte de la fracción juvenil de merluza de cola en primavera. Se utilizaron datos de bitácoras de pesca del periodo 1986-2003, y a partir de éstos se calcularon centros de gravedad de las capturas y su varianza. Se postula que si la flota sigue el comportamiento migratorio de la ...

  20. Polen y esporas de la Formación Navidad, Neógeno de Chile Pollen and spores of the Navidad Formation, Neogene from Chile

    OpenAIRE

    VIVIANA BARREDA; ALFONSO ENCINAS; LUIS FELIPE HINOJOSA

    2011-01-01

    El análisis palinológico de la Formación Navidad en afloramientos de la Cordillera de la Costa, Chile central, brindó asociaciones dominadas por leños, cutículas, algas de agua dulce, esporas y granos de polen (elementos de origen continental) con muy escasa participación de quistes de dinoflagelados, acritarcos y cubiertas internas de foraminíferos arenáceos (componentes marinos) indicando que estas asociaciones se habrían acumulado en un ambiente marino. Las asociaciones de polen y esporas ...

  1. Integrated Geophysical Characteristics of the 2015 Illapel, Chile, Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, M. W.; Yeck, W. L.; Nealy, J. L.; Hayes, G. P.; Barnhart, W. D.; Benz, H.; Furlong, K. P.

    2015-12-01

    On September 16th, 2015, an Mw 8.3 earthquake (USGS moment magnitude) ruptured offshore of central Chile, 50 km west of the city of Illapel and 200 km north of Santiago. The earthquake occurred just north of where the Juan Fernandez Ridge enters the subduction zone. In this study, we integrate multiple seismic and geodetic datasets, including multiple-event earthquake relocations; moment tensors of the Illapel mainshock, aftershocks, and prior regional seismicity; finite fault models (FFMs) of the mainshock rupture; subduction zone geometry; Coulomb stress transfer calculations; and co-seismic GPS offsets and InSAR images. These datasets allow us to (a) assess the context of the Illapel earthquake sequence with respect to historical seismicity in central Chile; (b) constrain the relationship between subduction geometry and the kinematic characteristics of the earthquake sequence; and (c) understand the distribution of aftershocks with respect to the rupture zone. Double source W-phase moment tensor analysis indicates the Illapel mainshock rupture began as a smaller Mw ~7.2 thrusting event before growing into a great-sized Mw 8.3 earthquake. Relocated aftershock seismicity is concentrated around the main region of slip, and few aftershocks occur on the megathrust shallower than ~15 km, despite the FFM indicating slip near the trench. This distribution is consistent with the aftershock behavior following the 2010 Maule and 2014 Iquique earthquakes: aftershocks primarily surround the rupture zones and are largely absent from regions of greatest slip. However, in contrast to the recent 2014 Iquique and 2010 Maule events, which ruptured in regions of the Chilean subduction zone that had not had large events in over a century, this earthquake occurred in a section of the subduction zone that hosted a large earthquake as recently as 1943, as well as earlier significant events in 1880 and 1822. At this section of the subduction zone, in addition to the impinging Juan

  2. [Public health policies in Chile: seeking to regain trust].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, Cristóbal

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare represents a key area in the public agenda. In the case of Chile, this central part of citizen demands has emerged with an increasing criticism of the health system, its actors and institutions, while a major democratic and legitimacy crisis in Chilean society unfolds. The starting point of this analysis is the link between the critical and widespread societal dissatisfaction with the legitimacy crisis in the health sector. There is an interdependence and parallelism between these two different aspects of the crisis. The analysis is built around the dimensions of trust and legitimacy as a potential driver of the conflict, taking as an analytical framework the socio-political matrix. Conceptual elements around the ideas of trust and legitimacy in public policies are reviewed. This article focuses on recent situations surrounding the dynamics of the Chilean health system such as the rise of the Instituciones de Salud Previsional (ISAPRE) and the market-driven health system, the failed health care reform of the last decade, conflicts of interest in the formulation of public policies, loss of legitimacy of healthcare authorities, and the role of the health professionals in this process. Finally, a discussion arises seeking to regain public trust as a central issue for the future development and sustainability of health policies. PMID:27602919

  3. Conditioning of radium sources in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process experimented in Chile to conditioning Ra-226 sources arising as waste from medical uses in Chile is described. The IAEA offered to participate in the Project for Conditioning Radium Sources in order to place all the radium sources in the country under an internationally accepted standard. These sources hare those that have been used in medical applications for many years. The CCHEN made its own modifications to the project's execution by using its own infrastructure and scientific and technical skill in this field. For this purpose, the CCHEN uses the human resources and facilities of the Radioactive Waste Management Unit (UGDR) and acquires materials that are commercially available in the country. IAEA assistance focused on quality assurance, so they supply all expensive items which the UGDR, cannot access, plus they certify the quality of the conditioned products. This assistance is achieved through the approval of procedures and methodologies based on those that are recommended

  4. Hemophilia in Chile, 1996-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Donoso Scroppo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the process that Chile underwent from 1996 to 2006, which is the dawn of a period of planned and systematic organization that begins to solve the severe health problems that afflict patients with hemophilia. The article reports a general overview of the situation of hemophilia in Chile in that period – up to 2006 - , including the lack of reliable data, treatment options, training of specialists on the topic and healthcare system responses. The article then goes on to describe in general terms the main aspects of Operation Access and the National Hemostasis and Thrombosis Program, the results of which will be described in a subsequent article of this series.

  5. Thermoluminescence properties of Chile Guajillo (paprika) Mexicano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermoluminescence properties of the inorganic dust extracted from the Chile Guajillo (paprika) Mexicano, were studied in order to verify the possibility of using the TL technique to discriminate between irradiated and non irradiated peppers. The inorganic dust was found to consist of quartz 60%, albite (NaAlSi3O8) 30%, and ortose (KAlSi3O8) 10%. Its thermoluminescence dose response covers the wide dose range of 1Gy-10kGy, which was attributed mainly to feldspars. Its high sensitivity and its stability over 10 irradiation-readout cycles allow the application of a single grain-single aliquot regeneration dosimetry in Chile Guajillo (paprika). Evaluations based on trapping parameters show that thermal fading at room temperature for glow-peaks above 180 deg.. C, is not a problem in the dosimetry of paprika

  6. Evolution of Housing Prices in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Parrado H. /; Paulo Cox P.; Marcelo Fuenzalida C.

    2009-01-01

    The availability of real estate data is clearly limited in Chile, which makes more complex the discussion of the possible vulnerabilities of households and the financial sector to risks arising from real estate markets. This paper proposes a set of housing price indicators for measuring the potential pressures that could be developing in the credit market. Using these price measures, we find that the recent sustained rise in home prices coincides with the sustained increase in disposable inco...

  7. Unmarried cohabitation among deprived families in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Ramm Santelices, Alejandra Margarita

    2013-01-01

    It is clear that unmarried cohabitation is increasing in Chile. It is less clear what unmarried cohabitation is and why is it rising. In Latin America cohabitation is common among low income groups, and has been described as a surrogate marriage for the disadvantaged. Cohabitation in the region entails conventional gender roles and having children. It has been explained by colonial dominance, poverty, kinship, and machismo. The evidence amassed here indicates that although in practice cohabit...

  8. Movilidad intrageneracional del ingreso en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio, Sapelli

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates the different intra-generational mobility indicators for Chile on the basis of the Casen panel. Conclusions from the literature are evaluated in light of results that are based mainly on a discussion of the transition matrix. It is concluded that there is a mistaken interpretation of the data in part of the literature. A simulation is made that demonstrates that the Chilean transition matrix could be the consequence of random shocks to the effective distribution of income...

  9. Equity in health care utilization in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez, Alicia; Chi, Chunhuei

    2013-01-01

    One of the most extensive Chilean health care reforms occurred in July 2005, when the Regime of Explicit Health Guarantees (AUGE) became effective. This reform guarantees coverage for a specific set of health conditions. Thus, the purpose of this study is to provide timely evidence for policy makers to understand the current distribution and equity of health care utilization in Chile. The authors analyzed secondary data from the National Socioeconomic Survey (CASEN) for the years 1992–2009 an...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: Chile pepper [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Chile pepper Capsicum annuum Capsicum_annuum_L.png Capsicum_annuum_NL.png Capsicum_annuum_S.png Capsicum..._annuum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capsicum+annuum&t=L htt...p://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capsicum+annuum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capsicum...+annuum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capsicum+annuum&t=NS ...

  11. Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae in Chile from a Cytogenetic Perspective Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae en Chile Bajo una Perspectiva Citogenética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M Baeza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae is an endemic genus of South America with two major distribution centers in the continent: Chile and Brazil. In Chile the genus is distributed from the North, near Iquique (20º13’ S, 70º09’ W to the Chilean and Argentine Patagonia (53º10’ S, 70º54’ W. The central zone of Chile presents the highest number of species. A. presliana Herb. grows from Curicó (34º59’ S, 71º14’ W to Cautín (38º45’ S, 72º34’ W in Chile and Neuquén (36º50’ S, 71º05’ W, Argentina. A comparative karyotype study was made between a population of A. presliana subsp. presliana and a population of A. presliana subsp. australis Ehr. Bayer. Both populations presented asymmetric karyotypes, with 2n = 2x = 16 chromosomes, but with different chromosome formulae: A. presliana subsp. presliana has a haploid formula with 4m + 1sm-sat + 1st-sat + 2t, i.e., four pairs ofmetacentric chromosomes, one submetacentric pair with satellite, one subtelocentric pair with satellite, and two telocentrics pairs. A. presliana subsp. australis has a formula with 2m + 1m-sat + 1sm + 4t chromosomes, i.e., two pairs of metacentric chromosomes, one metacentric pair with satellite, one submetacentric pair, and four telocentrics chromosomes. These results indicated that the karyotype of the subspecies is very different, and it would be possible to recognize A. presliana subsp. australis as a new species.Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae es un género endémico de Sudamérica y presenta dos grandes centros de distribución: Chile y Brasil. En Chile se distribuye desde el norte, cerca de Iquique (20º13’ S, 70º09’ O hasta la Patagonia (53º10’ S, 70º54’ O. La zona central del país presenta el mayor número de especies. A. presliana Herb. crece con una distribución que va desde Curicó (34º59’ S, 71º14’ O a Cautín (38º45’ S, 72º34’ O en Chile y en la Provincia de Neuquén (36º50’ S, 71º05’ O, Argentina. Se hizo un

  12. Radiological protection in interventional cardiology in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In September 2000, an expert mission was assigned to Chile, under the regional project named 'International BBS in Medical Practices Radiation Protection and Quality Assurance In Interventional Radiology' (ARCAL XLIX). The objective of the mission was to evaluate the level of radiation protection (RP) and safety in interventional cardiology ( IC ) installations. A team of local cardiologists, medical physicists and technologists was created for this purpose and during one week, several cardiology laboratories were evaluated and some basic quality controls (QC) were carried out. A basic pilot training course in radiation protection was imparted at the Hospital of the University of Chile in Santiago de Chile and some of the key objectives for a future national quality assurance programme were presented during the national congress of IC. In addition, a national survey on radiation protection aspects was circulated and its results evaluated. These activities enabled the local team to become familiar with the methodology of assessment of the level of protection and the organization of a programme, which was illustrated with the examples of similar European programmes. As result of these actions, several proposals were made to both the local authorities and the IAEA. The most important were: a) to initiate a basic QC programme, b) to organize a training in RP for cardiologists in order to formalize their accreditation, c) to improve personal occupational dosimetry, d) to initiate a programme of patient dosimetry, e) to optimize the technical and clinical protocols, f) to create a national registry of incidents with skin injuries. (author)

  13. La solitaria estrella: en torno a la realización del Barrio Cívico de Santiago de Chile, 1846-1946. / The Lone Star: about the realization of the Civic District of Santiago de Chile, 1846-1946.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurovich Weisman, Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El Barrio Cívico en el área central y pericéntrica de la ciudad de Santiago de Chile, una presencia unitaria, donde destaca la complejidad de los debates generados por su proyecto, las múltiples lecturas que pueden hacerse en torno a la significancia de su conformación, y la permanente afirmación de una hipótesis que no se cumple, relativa a los efectos de difusión del cambio sobre los espacios contiguos del entorno urbano./The civic district in the central area of Santiago de Chile is an indivisible presence, that has generated many complex debates because of the various interpretations of the meaning of its conformation and a hypothesis that is not proven, a hypothesis about how the changes would spread on the vicinity of the district.

  14. Los patelogastrópodos intermareales de Chile y Perú Intertidal limpets of Chile and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN ESPOZ

    2004-06-01

    diversos del mundo. Más aún, esta variabilidad y flexibilidad pueden ser responsables de las confusiones taxonómicas que han rodeado a este conjunto faunísticoIn this study we present a classification system reflecting the phylogenetic relationships for the intertidal patellogastropods of Chile and Peru. We infer phylogenetic relationships between limpets species using DNA sequences from the 16S region of the mitochondrial genome. We include a comparative limpet study of: shell structure, color and morphological patterns of the shell, radular teeth and anatomy. Additionally, we provide information about the distribution and ecology for members of this group within the studied area. The results show a Chilean-Peruvian Lottiidae fauna consisting of at least nine species, which are grouped into a single monophyletic clade Scurria (S. variabilis, S. zebrina, S. viridula, S. plana, S. scurra, S. araucana, S. ceciliana and a non identificated species, and a "problematic taxon" preliminarily assigned to the genus Lottia (Lottia orbignyi. The group of species is present in the intertidal rocky shores between 5º S and 54º S, from the upper to the lower intertidal fringes, ranging from exposed to protected areas. The systematic outcome of this study suggests the synonymization of S. parasitica to S. variabilis, and of S. ceciliana to S. boehmita. According to our field results, the species S. variabilis shows at least three ecophenotypes: (1 on rocky substrates along the full geographic range, (2 on the shells of the key-hole limpets: Fissurella crassa and F. limbata mainly in central and south of Chile, and (3 on the chiton plates of Enoplochiton niger in the north of Chile and south of Perú. S. ceciliana is a species in which morphology and color patterns are highly variable. In general, this variability indicates that the Chilean-Peruvian limpet species are among the most complex and diverse limpet fauna in the world. This, may reflects the taxonomic confusion which has

  15. Taxonomic Treatment of Solanum Section Petota (Wild Potatoes) in Catálogo de Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay, y sur del Brasil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanum section Petota (Solanaceae), which includes the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its wild relatives, contains over 150 wild species distributed from the southwestern U.S.A. (38°N) to central Argentina and adjacent Chile (41°S). This catalog includes all species from the Southern Con...

  16. Market Design for the Provision of Social Insurance: The Case of Disability and Survivors Insurance in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo Reyes

    2010-01-01

    As part of the pension reform recently approved in Chile, the government introduced a centralized auction mechanism to provide the Disability and Survivors (D&S) Insurance that covers recent contributors among the more than 8 million participants in the mandatory private pension system. This paper is intended as a case study presenting the main distortions found in the decentralized operation of the system that led to this reform and the challenges faced when designing a competitive auction m...

  17. Formación y Desarrollo del Servicio de Impuesto Internos (SII) en Chile: Un análisis institucional

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Wormald; Ana Cárdenas

    2008-01-01

    Este trabajo está orientado a describir y analizar el desarrollo del Servicio de Impuestos Internos (SII) en Chile en tanto institución social. Ello supone asumir una perspectiva de análisis que incorpore, a lo menos, dos dimensiones centrales: Una propiamente institucional referida a los valores, normas y funciones que fundan su estructura y una organizacional que refiere a las formas en que se realizan estas funciones (Portes, 2007).

  18. Impacts of the existing water allocation scheme on the Limarí watershed : Chile, an integrative approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kretschmer, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The research is motivated by an interest in evaluating the special Chilean water management framework, relating to the 1981 Water Code legislation, introduced by the military government. This law mainly strengthened private property rights and increased private autonomy in water use. In particular, it is of interest to assess the impacts of this legislation in the context of the current highly stressed water availability situation in central and northern Chile, combined with intensive and inc...

  19. Geothermal Potential Evaluation for Northern Chile and Suggestions for New Energy Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monia Procesi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chile is a country rich in natural resources, and it is the world’s largest producer and exporter of copper. Mining is the main industry and is an essential part of the Chilean economy, but the country has limited indigenous fossil fuels—over 90% of the country’s fossil fuels must be imported. The electricity market in Chile comprises two main independent systems: the Northern Interconnected Power Grid (SING and the Central Interconnected Power Grid (SIC. Currently, the primary Chilean energy source is imported fossil fuels, whereas hydropower represents the main indigenous source. Other renewables such as wind, solar, biomass and geothermics are as yet poorly developed. Specifically, geothermal energy has not been exploited in Chile, but among all renewables it has the greatest potential. The transition from thermal power plants to renewable energy power plants is an important target for the Chilean Government in order to reduce dependence on imported fossil fuels. In this framework, the proposed study presents an evaluation of the geothermal potential for northern Chile in terms of power generation. The El Tatio, Surire, Puchuldiza, Orriputunco-Olca and Apacheta geothermal fields are considered for the analysis. The estimated electrical power is approximately 1300 MWe, and the energy supply is 10,200 GWh/year. This means that more than 30% of the SING energy could be provided from geothermal energy, reducing the dependence on imported fossil fuels, saving 8 Mton/year of CO2 and supplying the mining industry, which is Chile’s primary energy user.

  20. Blueberry production in Chile: current status and future developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge B. Retamales

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chile has become a major actor in the blueberry industry as the most important supplier of off-season fresh fruit for the northern hemisphere. Blueberry exports passed from US$ 30 million (around 4,000 tons in 2000 to US$ 380 million (94,000 tons in 2011. The characteristics of the major blueberry growing regions (North, Central, South-central and South are presented in terms of acreage, varieties, management practices, extension of the harvest season, and soil and climatic conditions. Most fruit is from highbush varieties, picked by hand and exported fresh by boat to United States. Largest proportion of fruit is exported from mid December to late January, which coincides with lowest prices. The south-central region (latitudes 34º50' to 38º15' S was in 2007 the most important one with 5,075 ha (51.1% of area planted. Among the challenges for the Chilean blueberry industry in the near future are: 1. Lower profitability due to lower rates of currency exchange and higher costs, 2 - Greater scarcity and higher cost of labor, 3.- Need for higher productivity and sustainable production practices, 4- Fruit of high and consistent quality, and 5.- Greater investment in research. As a case study the article presents three approaches that can help identify areas with low availability of labor and improve its efficiency. The article shows the use of geomatic tools to establish labor availability, application of growth regulators to reduce crop load, increase fruit size and improve harvest efficiency, and the use of shakers to harvest fresh fruit for long distance markets. More research is needed to improve yields, reduce costs and give greater economical and ecological sustainability to the Chilean blueberry industry.

  1. Mineralog??a de alteraci??n en el pozo Pte-1, campo geotermal Tinguiririca, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Droguett, B??rbara; Morata, Diego; Clavero, Jorge; Pineda, Germ??n; Morales-Ruano, Salvador; Carrillo-Ros??a, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo presenta los avances en el estudio mediante petrograf??a ??ptica, DRX y SEM de la mineralog??a de alteraci??n presente en el pozo PTe-1, ubicado en el campo geot??rmico Tinguiririca (Chile central). Los 813,85m de rocas perforadas pertenecen al Complejo Volc??nico Tinguiririca (Pleistoceno-Holoceno) formado por lavas, tobas y brechas volc??nicas de composici??n andes??tica. Sobre la base de las asociaciones minerales se ha determinado dos zonas de alteraci??n principales. La de m...

  2. Comparative karyotype analysis of populations in the Alstroemeria presliana Herbert (Alstroemeriaceae) complex in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Baeza; Víctor L. Finot; Eduardo Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Alstroemeria L., one of the most diverse genera of the Chilean flora and of high floricultural value, is represented by 35 species, most of them distributed between 28–38° S in the Mediterranean zone of Central Chile. There are 24 complex-forming taxa, of which 18 have conservation problems (8 are considered “endangered” and 10 as “vulnerable”). One of these complexes is Alstroemeria presliana Herb. with two subspecies: subsp. presliana and subsp. australis Bayer. Alstroemeria presliana grows...

  3. Medicinal plants of Chile: evaluation of their anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Orlando M; Maya, Juan D; Ferreira, Jorge; Christen, Philippe; San Martin, José; López-Muñoz, Rodrigo; Morello, Antonio; Kemmerling, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    The extracts of several plants of Central Chile exhibited anti-Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes activity. Most active extracts were those obtained from Podanthus ovatifolius, Berberis microphylla, Kageneckia oblonga, and Drimys winteri. The active extract of Drimys winteri (IC50 51.2 microg/mL) was purified and three drimane sesquiterpenes were obtained: polygodial, drimenol, and isodrimenin. Isodrimenin and drimenol were found to be active against the trypomastigote form of T. cruzi with IC50 values of 27.9 and 25.1 microM, respectively. PMID:23923616

  4. [Determinants of the rural exodus: the importance of place of origin factors, Chile, 1965-1970].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczynski, D

    1982-07-01

    Trends in rural-urban migration in Chile during the period 1965-1970 are analyzed, with a focus on the impact of the combination of structural factors and socioeconomic processes in rural areas. Factors of population retention and expulsion are examined in terms of agrarian structure, the process of agrarian reform, urbanization of the countryside, and the availability of basic social services. Rural-urban migration rates in the central and southern areas of the country are compared, and migration rates of males and females are examined. PMID:12313739

  5. The Mass Media and Political Socialization: Chile, 1970-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Amy R.

    2005-01-01

    This project seeks to determine the effect of the mass media on political attitudes and behaviors in Chile between the years 1970 and 2000. The relationship between the media and "political socialization" is just now gaining recognition in scholarly research, and Chile offers an excellent case study. This paper traces these two variables during…

  6. Chile - Institutional Design for an Effective Education Quality Assurance

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this report is to present the Government of Chile with policy options related to the institutional distribution of roles and responsibilities for effective quality assurance in education. Following the introduction, the report is structured as follows. Chapter II presents background information on the evolution of Chile's education system since 1980. This information,...

  7. Chile: Una Vision Politica, Economica y Social (Chile: A Political, Economic, and Social View).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Hwang, Adriana

    1972-01-01

    This address seeks to explain in brief the historical background and political, economic, and social conditions leading to the democratic election of a Marxist president in Chile. A historical sketch of Chilean government from independence in 1810 is provided with a description of the situation just before Salvador Allende's election in 1969. Some…

  8. Polen y esporas de la Formación Navidad, Neógeno de Chile Pollen and spores of the Navidad Formation, Neogene from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIVIANA BARREDA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El análisis palinológico de la Formación Navidad en afloramientos de la Cordillera de la Costa, Chile central, brindó asociaciones dominadas por leños, cutículas, algas de agua dulce, esporas y granos de polen (elementos de origen continental con muy escasa participación de quistes de dinoflagelados, acritarcos y cubiertas internas de foraminíferos arenáceos (componentes marinos indicando que estas asociaciones se habrían acumulado en un ambiente marino. Las asociaciones de polen y esporas indican el desarrollo de una vegetación de bosque con participación de elementos gondwánicos (Podocarpaceae, Araucariaceae, Nothofagaceae y neotropicales (Sapotaceae, Malphigiaceae, Arecaceae, Chloranthaceae, Tiliaceae/Bombacaceae -Paleoflora Mixta- apoyando hipótesis previas basadas en las megafloras. En las márgenes de los bosques se habrían desarrollado parches con vegetación esclerófila con AAnacardiaceae y Fabaceae como componentes principales. Sobre suelos arenosos o marismas salinos se habrían desarrollado elementos herbaceo-arbustivos, xerofíticos y halofíticos, como Chenopodiaceae y Calyceraceae. Se destaca el primer registro de taxones endémicos de las familias Calyceraceae y Asteraceae (Barnadesioideae para la palinoflora de Chile. Estas comunidades vegetales se habrían desarrollado bajo condiciones de clima subtropical, cálido y húmedo. Desde el punto de vista cronoestratigráfico las asociaciones esporopolínicas sustentan una edad neógena para la Formación Navidad.Palynological assemblages recovered from the Navidad Formation in outcrops of the Cordillera de la Costa, central Chile, are dominated by wood remains, cuticles, spores and pollen grains and fresh water algae (continental elements with scarce dinoflagellate cysts, acritarchs, foraminiferal linnings marine palynomorphs indicating that these assemblages would have been accumulated in a marine environment. Spore-pollen assemblages indicate a forest vegetation

  9. El poder de la Gran Distribución en el sistema agroalimentario actual. El caso de los lácteos en chile

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Ríos Núnez; Daniel Coq Huelva

    2010-01-01

    La Gran Distribución (GD) es un agente central de los modernos sistemas agroalimentarios. Esta importancia creciente se observa claramente en América Latina y, particularmente, en Chile, donde la GD concentra más de 60% de las ventas de alimentos y productos del hogar. Se trata, además, de un sector oligopolizado. En Chile, dos grupos distribuidores concentran cerca de 65% de las ventas de esos establecimientos. Así, la concentración da a los grupos distribuidores un poder de mercado que cada...

  10. Ecología trófica del jabalí europeo (Sus scrofa silvestre en Chile Trophic ecology of the wild boar (Sus scrofa in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÓSCAR SKEWES

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Documentamos la dieta del jabalí silvestre en el centro-sur de Chile basados en el examen de 20 estómagos colectados en los faldeos de volcán Mocho-Choshuenco (39°54' S, 72°02' O y en el Parque Nacional Vicente Pérez Rosales (41°03' S, 71°54' O. La dieta está representada por animales, vegetales y hongos. Entre los vegetales y hongos son consumidas tanto las partes epígeas como hipógeas, lo mismo que frutos y semillas. Hongos y rizomas de Gunnera tinctoria constituyen ítemes vegetales cuantitativamente importantes en la alimentación. El jabalí forrajea en general en ambiente boscoso, pero las especies vegetales más frecuentes en la dieta se encuentran en espacios abiertos o fuera del bosque. El ambiente dominado por Chusquea spp. constituye un importante sitio de alimentación. Los roedores de la familia Muridae dominan entre los animales determinados en la dieta del jabalí. Esta situación, sin embargo, parece obedecer a la ocurrencia de una ratada producto de la semillación masiva de Chusquea spp. durante la época de muestreo. Las aves de la familia Rhinocryptidae e invertebrados (en especial larvas del coleóptero Chiasognathus grantii constituyen parte frecuente de los ítemes animales de la dieta del jabalí. En comparación a estudios en otras partes del mundo, el jabalí silvestre en Chile consume hongos en porcentaje de ocurrencia similar (65 % a su dieta en Estados Unidos de América pero bastante más alta que su dieta en Europa (5-32 %. En relación al volumen del componente animal, el jabalí en Chile consume más (16,1 % que en Estados Unidos de América (6 % y que en Europa (7-13 %We document the diet of wild boar in south-central Chile based on analysis of 20 stomachs collected on the outskirts of Mocho-Choshuenco volcano (39°54' S, 72°02' W and of Vicente Pérez Rosales National Park (41°03' S, 71°54' W. The diet incorporates animals, plants and fungi. Among the latter two, both epigeal and hypogeal parts

  11. China and Chile Are to Be Free-Trade Partners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In line with the words "We hope that Chile's Next Partner is China", Chile is believed to choose China as the new negotiation party of Free Trade Agreements after signing respectively free trade agreements with Canada, the United States, EU and ROK. On January 24, Chile's trade delegation composed of 20 members led by Kaiross Feirch, the Head of economy general department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs paid the first visit to China to launch first five-day round of mutual trade negotiation.Kaiross Feirch, the Head of economy general department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Chile and Barbirlo Kafuleirla, Chile's Ambassador to China received special visit of reporters about this round.

  12. Chile's pension reform after twenty years

    OpenAIRE

    Acuna R., Rodrigo; Iglesias P., Augusto

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the 1980 Chilean pension reform and to present its main results and economic impact. It is mainly descriptive; however we have tried to emphasize the lessons that may be learned and that may be of interest to other countries in different circumstances. In particular, we focus on potential areas for regulatory improvements. In Section II, a brief description of the AFP system and its place within Chile's social security system is presented. Also, the main c...

  13. Chile Successfully Halts Rise in Childhood Obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity in Latin America has become a cause for concern. The IAEA has worked closely with the Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA) at the University of Chile since 1997 to address the problem of malnutrition in the country. In Santiago, the Laboratory of Energy Metabolism and Stable Isotopes was established in 1998 with the help of the IAEA to provide an isotope ratio mass spectrometer and training in the use of stable isotope techniques to assess body composition, infant feeding practices and total daily energy expenditure

  14. Los Maestros en Chile: Carreras e Incentivos

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra Mizala; Pablo González; Pilar Romaguera; Andrea Guzmán

    2000-01-01

    La reforma educacional que Chile está implementando requiere para su éxito que los maestros se pongan a la cabeza de la reforma, y para ello es necesario fortalecer la profesión docente y la carrera de pedagogía. Diseñar políticas efectivas hacia los maestros supone estudiar las características socioeconómicas y motivacionales de éstos, así como los incentivos y factores institucionales que determinan la composición del cuerpo docente y que influencian su desempeño profesional. Esto es lo que...

  15. Financiamiento de la vivienda en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Morandé, Felipe G.; Garcia, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    El financiamiento a la vivienda en Chile ha alcanzado en los últimos 20 años un grado de desarrollo muy importante. Para esto ha sido fundamental: a) la eliminación del efecto de la inflación sobre el valor de las deudas de largo plazo, primero, mediante el desarrollo de una unidad de cuenta indexada a la inflación creíble y transparente (la UF), y posteriormente, con el abatimiento de la inflación como fenómeno macroeconómico; b) la reforma provisional de comienzos de los años 80, que fue cl...

  16. 75 FR 10846 - The Chile Fund, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... COMMISSION The Chile Fund, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application March 2, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange.... Applicants: The Chile Fund, Inc. (``Chile Fund''), Aberdeen Australia Equity Fund (``Australia Fund,'' together with the Chile Fund, the ``Current Funds''), Aberdeen Asset Management Asia Limited...

  17. Central Bank independence in Latin America La independencia de la Banca Central en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junguito Bonnet Roberto

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the origin and evolution of the central banks of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela, and analyzes their respective institutional structures. It also studies the contribution of the central bank to stabilization and the problems for maintaining this independence into the future.Este artículo describe el origen y la evolución de los Bancos Centrales de Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, México y Venezuela, y analiza sus respectivas estructruras institucionales. También estudia la contribución de la banca central a la estabilización y los problemas para que esta independencia se mantenga en el futuro.

  18. El abate Juan Ignacio Molina: una vida dedicada a la historia natural y civil del reino de Chile Abbot Juan Ignacio Molina: A life devoted to the natural and civil history of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Charrier

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829 naci cerca de Talca, Chile, y falleci en Bolonia, Italia. Es el primer cientfico chileno. Desde pequeo se interes por la naturaleza. Se educ con la Compaa de Jess en diversos lugares de Chile central, lo que le permiti conocer su geografa, fauna, flora y poblacin. Con 15 aos ingres a la Compaa. En 1767, abandon el pas al ser expulsada esta orden de espaa y sus dominios. Se radic en los Estados Pontificios, donde se orden de sacerdote y permaneci hasta su muerte. All ense ciencias naturales y produjo su obra cientfica: Compendio de la historia geogrfica, natural y civil del reino de Chile de 1776, una versin aumentada, Ensayo sobre la historia natural de Chile de 1782 y una segunda en 1810. En ellas, abord aspectos climticos, botnicos, geolgicos, zoolgicos, mineralgicos y geogrficos del territorio. Describi el terremoto de Concepcin, las erupciones del Villarrica y Peteroa, e hizo referencia a recursos minerales. Diferenci cuatro unidades litoestratigrficas para Chile central. Clasific plantas y animales siguiendo los criterios de Linneo. En una de sus 14 memorias, Analogas menos observadas de los tres reinos de la Naturaleza, sin podrselo calificar de evolucionista, se destaca su intento de integracin entre los "seres" de los tres reinos, y en Sobre la propagacin del gnero humano en las diversas partes de la tierra, propuso tres vas diferentes para el poblamiento de Amrica. En 1802, ingres a la Academia de Ciencias de Bolonia.Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829, born next to Talca, Chile, and dead in Bologna, Italy, is the first Chilean scientist. His education in establishments of the Society of Jesus, in several localities of central Chile, allowed him to learn about its geography, flora, fauna, and population. At 15 years old he entered the Society. In 1767, he left Chile when the Jesuits were expelled from the spanish territories. In Bologna he produced his scientific contribution. Molina published in 1776 the first

  19. Stakeholder participation within the public environmental system in Chile: major gaps between theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lostarnau, Carla; Oyarzún, Jorge; Maturana, Hugo; Soto, Guido; Señoret, Michelle; Soto, Manuel; Rötting, Tobias S; Amezaga, Jaime M; Oyarzún, Ricardo

    2011-10-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present a critical analysis of the stakeholder participation process within the Environmental Impact Assessment System in Chile, after ca. 14 years of being enforced. This analysis is sustained by the description and analysis of the stakeholder participation possibilities in a representative rural area of North-Central Chile. The Environmental Basis Act 19300, enacted in 1994, considers the participation of the local community in the environmental impact assessment of new projects. However, this possibility is very limited and difficult to exert, often resulting in frustration for the participants. This is due to a number of reasons, such as the imbalance of resources and knowledge among the majority of participating communities and project proponents, the complexity and administrative and legal constraints to participation, and the dominant interest of the Central Government in approving investments, specifically in energy and natural resources related projects, which generate wealth and jobs. Also, the State's rush to develop Internet-based communication and management systems has built a barrier for poor, traditional communities. This factor is clearly reflected in the case study considered. Results show that there is generally a significant lack of knowledge about institutions and participation tools. From this base, we intend to raise concern on these selected aspects that could be addressed to improve the effectiveness of the existing framework, both in Chile and in other developing countries, where immature environmental impact assessment and public management systems face similar pressures in relation to the sustainable use of their natural resources. Finally, some basic steps are proposed in order to make the community participation an effective tool for sustainable development. PMID:21641109

  20. Forest mapping with satellite in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, A. [SSC Satellitbild (Sweden)

    1995-12-31

    Chile has about 9.1 million ha of forest land, among which 7.6 million ha are native forest and 1.5 million ha are plantations of exotic species. The number of plantations is constantly growing due to the important role these areas play in the national economy. Pino Radiata (Pinus radiata) is found in most of the plantations while the remaining parts are dominated by Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.) The governmental Instituto Forestal (INFOR) in Santiago de Chile, is monitoring the rapid changes in these areas through frequent inventories. As an inventory of this type takes about six years to complete in all areas (one region per year), it is of great importance to find quicker ways to cover these areas. The native forest has in recent years been the subject of debate, not only for economic reasons, but also as a result of ecological pressure for conservation. Where to conserve, where to put restrictions and where to allow forestry are the big issues. Against this background it is necessary to evaluate different data sources that can give information about the present forest situation and provide the means to monitor the changes. The aim of the project was to evaluate whether satellite imagery could fulfill INFOR`s demand for forestry information, and to investigate the kind of data source and methodology to apply when using satellite data

  1. The ecology of Chagas disease in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, C J; Apt, W; Miles, M A

    1982-01-01

    Chagas disease probably affects over half a million people in Chile, principally in rural communities in the fertile valleys of the arid 'norte chico' region, north of Santiago. The main domestic vector is Triatoma infestans, but Triatoma spinolai, although mainly in rocky sylvatic and peridomestic ecotopes, also invades houses. Since the Spanish invasion in the sixteenth century, and particularly during the last 100 years, the endemic region has suffered an ecological breakdown, largely due to excessive timbering and over-grazing, which has led to a denuded landscape with severe loss of agricultural productivity. This breakdown, combined with uneconomically sized farms and poor marketing, exacerbates the poverty of the rural communities. As in other similar areas of Latin America, the combination of poverty and poor education discourages improvements in housing which would reduce the risk of vector-transmitted Chagas disease. This paper reviews the historical and ecological background of the endemic region of Chile, both as a basis for further work, and as a point of comparison with other endemic areas. The review attempts to show how the current status of Chagas disease is likely to be maintained through its association with poor quality housing, poverty and ecological degradation, drawing parallels with other endemic++ areas and suggesting ways by which the ecological damage might be reversed. PMID:6821391

  2. Ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Acuña, Daniel; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2005-01-01

    The tick species recorded from Chile can be listed under the following headings: (1) endemic or established: Argas keiransi Estrada-Peña, Venzal and Gonzalez-Acuña, A. neghmei Kohls and Hoogstraal; Ornithodoros amblus Chamberlin; Otobius megnini (Dugès); Amblyomma parvitarsum Neumann; A. tigrinum Koch; Ixodes auritulus Neumann; I. chilensis Kohls; I. cornuae Arthur, I. sigelos Keirans, Clifford and Corwin; I. stilesi Neumann; I. uriae White; Rhipicephalus sanguineus Koch. (2) Probably established or endemic: Argas miniatus Koch; Ornithodoros spheniscus Hoogstraal, Wassef, Hays and Keirans; Ixodes abrocomae Lahille; I. neuquenensis Ringuelet; I. pararicinus Keirans and Clifford. (3) Doubtfully established: Argas reflexus Fabricius; Ornithodoros talaje (Guérin-Méneville). (4) Exotic: Amblyomma argentinae Neumann; A. latum Koch, Rhipicephalus (= Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini). (5) Erroneously identified as present in Chile: Amblyomma americanum (Linnaeus); A. maculatum Koch; A. varium Koch; Ixodes conepati Cooley and Kohls; I. frontalis (Panzer); I. ricinus (Linnaeus); Margaropus winthemi Karsch. (6) Nomina nuda: Argas reticulatus Gervais; Amblyomma inflatum Neumann; Ixodes lagotis Gervais. Hosts and localities (including new records) are presented. Argas neghmei, O. amblus, O. megnini, I. uriae and R. sanguineus may cause severe injury to their hosts, including humans. The Chilean Ixodes fauna is unique to the Neotropical Zoogeographic Region, and additional research is needed in order to understand the biological importance of these species. PMID:15777007

  3. Gestión del urbanismo y administración urbana: los pies de barro en el despliegue territorial del neoliberalismo en Chile. / Management planning and urban management: feet of clay in the territorial deployment of neoliberalism in Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaete Feres, Héctor

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En Chile, el abordaje eficiente de los problemas urbanos requiere enfrentar un asunto central pero rezagado de los procesos de modernización impulsados en el marco del modelo económico neoliberal vigente: la ineficiencia en la administración y gestión del desarrollo territorial. Ambas constituyen lastres que afectan el desempeño del sistema económico y el logro de los objetivos del país en calidad de vida para las personas. El artículo busca relevar, revisar el estado del arte y proponer líneas de trabajo hacia soluciones./Management of urbanism and urban administration. The Mud Feet in the Territorial Deployment of the Neoliberalism in Chile.In Chile, the efficient boarding of the urban problems requires to face a central but left behind subject of the impelled processes of modernization in the frame of the effective neoliberal economic model: inefficiency in the administration and management of the territorial development. Both constitute ballasts that affect the performance of the economic system and the profit of the objectives of the country in quality of life for the people. I articulate looks for to release, to review the state-of-the-art and to propose lines of work towards solutions.

  4. ESO and Chile: 10 Years of Productive Scientific Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    ESO and the Government of Chile launched today the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe", written by the beneficiaries of the ESO-Chile Joint Committee. This annual fund provides grants for individual Chilean scientists, research infrastructures, scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. In a ceremony held in Santiago on 19 June 2006, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) and the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs marked the 10th Anniversary of the Supplementary Agreement, which granted to Chilean astronomers up to 10 percent of the total observing time on ESO telescopes. This agreement also established an annual fund for the development of astronomy, managed by the so-called "ESO-Chile Joint Committee". ESO PR Photo 21/06 ESO PR Photo 21/06 Ten Years ESO-Chile Agreement Ceremony The celebration event was hosted by ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of Special Policy for the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ambassador Luis Winter. "ESO's commitment is, and always will be, to promote astronomy and scientific knowledge in the country hosting our observatories", said ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "We hope Chile and Europe will continue with great achievements in this fascinating joint adventure, the exploration of the universe." On behalf of the Government of Chile, Ambassador Luis Winter outlined the historical importance of the Supplementary Agreement, ratified by the Chilean Congress in 1996. "Such is the magnitude of ESO-Chile Joint Committee that, only in 2005, this annual fund represented 8 percent of all financing sources for Chilean astronomy, including those from Government and universities", Ambassador Winter said. The ESO Representative and Head of Science in Chile, Dr. Felix Mirabel, and the appointed Chilean astronomer for the ESO-Chile Joint Committee, Dr. Leonardo Bronfman, also took part in the

  5. Checklist, diversity and distribution of testate amoebae in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Leonardo D; Lara, Enrique; Mitchell, Edward A D

    2015-10-01

    Bringing together more than 170 years of data, this study represents the first attempt to construct a species checklist and analyze the diversity and distribution of testate amoebae in Chile, a country that encompasses the southwestern region of South America, countless islands and part of the Antarctic. In Chile, known diversity includes 416 testate amoeba taxa (64 genera, 352 infrageneric taxa), 24 of which are here reported for the first time. Species-accumulation plots show that in Chile, the number of testate amoeba species reported has been continually increasing since the mid-19th century without leveling off. Testate amoebae have been recorded in 37 different habitats, though they are more diverse in peatlands and rainforest soils. Only 11% of species are widespread in continental Chile, while the remaining 89% of the species exhibit medium or short latitudinal distribution ranges. Also, species composition of insular Chile and the Chilean Antarctic territory is a depauperated subset of that found in continental Chile. Nearly, the 10% of the species reported here are endemic to Chile and many of them are distributed only within the so-called Chilean biodiversity hotspot (ca. 25° S-47° S). These findings are here thoroughly discussed in a biogeographical and evolutionary context. PMID:26340665

  6. A comparative study of interlocking directorates at the end of the import-substituting industrialization period in Argentina and Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Salvaj, Andrea Lluch

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on interlocking directorates has been conducted primarily in the United States and European countries. Little work of either theoretical or empirical nature has been done to study the characteristics and the factors that affect this important business network in peripheral and turbulent economies. In this comparative and historical study, we focus on the effect of the political and economic turbulence and the ownership composition of the largest firms on shaping the structure of interlocking directorates in Argentina and Chile by the end of the sixties. Four main findings result from this analysis: 1 the interlocking directorate in Argentina is more fragmented than in Chile; 2 most relevant actors in the directorship interlock in Argentina are firms in industries considered strategic by the government; 3 multinational subsidiaries occupy a central position in Argentina; 4 banks and firms owned by local business groups played a central role in the interlocking directorates in Chile. This study shows how the institutional and economic factors shape the structure of relations between companies.

  7. Tropospheric anomalies following the 2010 Mw=8.8 Chile earthquake from GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbuz, Gokhan; Jin, Shuanggen

    2016-07-01

    The Mw=8.8 Maule earthquake occured on 27 February 2010 near the coast of central Chile, which killed more than 500 people and caused large economic losses. Meanwhile, the earthquake triggered a tsunami with devastating several coastal towns in south-central Chile and damaging the port at Talcahuano. Several geodetic observations data and methods were used to investigate pre-seismic ionospheric disturbances and co-seismic crustal deformations on this eartquake, such as InSAR and GPS measurements. However, the precursor and detailed rupture properties of this earthquake are still not clear. In this study tropospheric anomalies following the Mw=8.8 Maule earthquake are investigated using zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) computed from GPS observations. Results show tropospheric anomalies during and after the mainchock at CONZ that is the closest GPS station to the epicenter and VALP station that is close to the fault rupture. The possible mechanism of seismic-tropospheric disturbances is discussed, which will be further studied in near future.

  8. Chile; Staff Report for the 2001 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2001-01-01

    Chile's economic performance was very strong during most of the 1990s, but the country suffered a recession in 1998–99. In early 1998, Chile faced a widening external current account deficit—resulting from surging domestic demand and a large drop in copper export prices—which together with turbulence in world financial markets weakened investor confidence and put downward pressure on the currency. Chile has maintained a very open trade regime and has continued with the unilateral phased...

  9. [Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese immigration: Chile 1860-1930].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez Roldan, H G

    1989-12-01

    "The paper refers to the amount and some characteristics of the Spanish, Italian and Portuguese immigration to Chile during the period 1860-1930. It is compared with [movements to] Argentina, Brazil, Cuba and Uruguay.... Different information sources are used and in spite of data weakness, the low preference for Chile of the European migratory flows is ratified as compared with those to Argentina.... It is pointed out that the migratory flows to Latin America, in particular to Chile, are associated, on the one hand, with the favourable... European [immigration] policy in this country and on the other hand with the huge European emigration overseas during that period." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12342735

  10. CASO DE ESTUDIO: LA FUNDACION COCA-COLA CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    JORGE HERRERA

    2006-01-01

    This case gives an overview of the Coca-Cola System in Chile and focuses on the Coca-Cola Chile Foundation (CCFCH), a non-profit organization dedicated to education. Created in 1992 with donations from Coca-Cola de Chile S.A. (CCCH) and the bottling companies Embotelladora Andina S.A., Coca-Cola Embonor S.A. and Coca-Cola Polar S.A., the foundation now faces an expansion dilemma in its most important program, the TAVEC Laboratories. Under this program the CCFCH donated interactive scientific ...

  11. Evaluating the Chile Solidario program: results using the Chile Solidario panel and the administrative databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Hoces de la Guardia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados de una evaluación de tres años realizada en las primeras cohortes del Programa Chile Solidario, el programa de reducción de la pobreza más importante de Chile. El artículo presenta una descripción del programa, haciendo hincapié en el mecanismo por el cual las personas fueron admitidas en el programa. A continuación, propone estrategias de evaluación y discute su validez. 8a evaluación final se realiza mediante un estimador de "Matching" (pareo, y se discuten los principios en base a los cuales se trataría de un método de evaluación válida. Los resultados iniciales usando el Panel de Chile Solidario sugieren que el programa ha tenido efectos positivos sobre el bienestar psicosocial y en la adopción de subsidios y programas sociales. Sin embargo, no es posible obtener resultados fiables debido a las deficiencias de datos, en particular la falta de una línea de base. Con el fin de resolver el problema, hemos generado una base de datos utilizando seis años de datos administrativos, incluyendo alrededor de 1.000.000 de registros de familias por año. Un método para superar el problema de sustitución de tratamiento es discutido y aplicado. Los resultados son mucho más robustos que los del Panel de Chile Solidario y muestran pequeños, pero evidentes efectos positivos de varias variables, especialmente relativos al número de trabajadores en el hogar, el porcentaje de trabajadores en el hogar y el empleo del jefe de hogar.

  12. LA NOVELA DE LA DICTADURA EN CHILE The novel of the dictatorship's period in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Lulo C

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Para un sector de la crítica y de la academia chilena, la gran novela de la Dictadura es una asignatura pendiente. En este artículo se problematiza este tema mediante la formulación de una hipótesis según la cual una serie de novelas aparecidas en Chile entre 1977 y 2006 cumplen con la función de narrar -desde su fragmentariedad- las causas y consecuencias del 11 de septiembre de 1973. Así, busca plantear las bases epistemológicas e históricas que posibiliten llevar a cabo una investigación de mayor alcance acerca del problema del papel de la novela durante y después de la Dictadura.For many critics and scholars the great novel of the dictatorship's period in Chile still remains a pending matter. This article, on the contrary, hypothesizes on the existence of a significant number of novéis published in Chile between 1977 and 2006, which out of their fragmentary character and peculiarity give a proper account of the causes and consequences of the coup d'état held on September llth 1973. The article seeks to set a preliminary basis for an epistemological discussion and further major research about the role of the Chilean novel, in the historical context of post modernity, during and after the dictatorship's era.

  13. Tectonic and morphosedimentary features of the 2010 Chile earthquake and tsunami in the Arauco Gulf and Mataquito River (Central Chile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lario, J.; Zazo, C.; Goy, J. L.

    2016-08-01

    Effects of the 2010 Chilean earthquake and tsunami were evaluated at coastal sites between two zones of different coseismic deformations. Land deformation, run-up, inundation extent and deposit extent and thickness were measured in the field, providing insights into the processes and morphological changes associated with tsunami inundation and backwash. Three to five waves, of up to 10 m height, deposited several related layers along the coast, the thickness of these sandy deposits does not exceed 80 cm, and is generally less than 30 cm. Coseismic deformation measured by means of bio- and geomorphic markers agrees well both with model deformation and measured GPS. There is no relationship between the run-up height and the trend of coseismic deformation (uplift or subsidence), mainly because the effects of the tsunami were influenced locally by offshore bathymetry and coastal morphology.

  14. Human pseudoterranovosis, an emerging infection in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, P; Jercic, M I; Weitz, J C; Dobrew, E K; Mercado, R A

    2007-04-01

    Fifteen cases of human pseudoterranovosis are reported for Chile, representing an emerging parasitic infection in this country caused by larvae of the nematode Pseudoterranova sp. Our observations also included an outbreak of pseudoterranovosis in 3 of 4 individuals who shared the same raw fish dish (cebiche). Most of the cases occurred in adult patients. The main source of infection was from consumption raw or fried marine fish, including hakes (Merluccius australis or Merlucciuts gayi), pomfret (Brama australis), Inca scad (Trachurus murphvi), and corvina (Cilus gilberti). Seasonal distribution showed most of the cases to occur in fall and spring. Parasite larvae were isolated from the mouths of most of the patients after they reported a pharyngeal tickling sensation, coughing, vomiting, or a foreign body in the mouth or throat. PMID:17539437

  15. A DRONE FLIGHT OVER PARANAL, CHILE

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Aerial clip (shot using a drone and a Go pro) describing ESO's astronomical observatory facilities in the Atacama desert, Northern Chile. Locations covered by the drone flight include Cerro Paranal, with the Residencia (external and internal views) and the Very Large Telescope facility on Cerro Paranal, from above and with a peek into Unit Telescope 1 and its 8,2 m diameter mirror; final image on Cerro Armazones, the site chosen for building ESO's next telescope, the E-ELT (European Extremely Large Telescope). With a 39-metre main mirror, it will be the largest optical/near-infrared telescope in the world. The Argentinian Codillera with the Llullaillaco volcano are visible in the background.

  16. Improving the effectiveness of rural development policy in Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter Leal, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    In Chile, agriculture remains a key economic factor for rural development. Accordingly, the Chilean government, through the Agricultural Development Institute (INDAP), provides financial support for fostering entrepreneurship among small farmers to enable them to become more competitive in global ma

  17. Beyond Income: A Study of Multidimensional Poverty in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Bronfman, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Using the latest nationally representative household survey for Chile, this paper empirically assesses multidimensional poverty both at the national and subnational level. Based on the Alkire-Foster method and focusing on four dimensions of well-being –education, health, income and living standard– this study estimates the level and depth of multidimensional poverty for Chile in 2011. At national level, the results show that fewer individuals are subject to multidimensional poverty compared t...

  18. Transportation in Developing Countries: Greenhouse Gas Scenarios for Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Raúl O'Ryan; Daniel Sperling; Tom Turrentine; Mark Delucchii

    2001-01-01

    Chile is a lightly populated country of 15 million that has undergone large economic transformations. Over the past 25 years, the economy has evolved from a slow-growing state-directed economy into a fast growing, market-oriented economy. Its South American neighbors are imitating this transformation. The changes have been especially great in the transport sector, with the private sector taking over many traditional public sector activities. This report addresses the implications of Chile's e...

  19. Decades lost and found: Mexico and Chile since 1980

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael Bergoeing; Patrick J. Kehoe; Timothy J. Kehoe; Raimundo Soto

    2002-01-01

    Both Chile and Mexico experienced severe economic crises in the early 1980s, yet Chile recovered much faster than Mexico. This study analyzes four possible explanations for this difference and rules out three, explanations based on money supply expansion, real wage and real exchange rate declines, and foreign debt overhangs. The fourth explanation is based on government policy reforms in the two countries. Using growth accounting and a calibrated growth model, the study determines that the on...

  20. Long-term denudation rates from the Central Andes (Chile estimated from a Digital Elevation Model using the Black Top Hat function and Inverse Distance Weighting: implications for the Neogene climate of the Atacama Desert Tasas de denudación de largo tiempo en los Andes Centrales, Chile, estimadas a partir de un modelo digital de elevación usando la función 'Top Hat' por cierre y la interpolación ponderada por el inverso de la distancia: implicancias del clima Neógeno del Desierto de Atacama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Riquelme

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A methodology for determining long-term denudation rates from morphologic markers in a Digital Elevation Model (DEM is checked by a comparative study of two drainage basins in the PrecordiUera of the Central Andes. In both cases the initial configuration of an incised pediment surface has been restored by using two different methods: the Black Top Hat (BTH function and the Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW interpolation. Where vertical incision and hillslope erosion are recorded, the IDW appears to be the most adequate to reconstitute the pediment surfaces. Conversely, where only vertical incision is observed, the BTH describes more precisely the former pediment surfaces and it is easier to solve. By subtracting the DEM from the reconstructed marker we calculated an eroded volume, and estimated its uncertainty by considering Root Mean Square Error (RMSE and DEM grid error. For the last ~10 Myr we obtained long-term denudation rates of 7.33±1.6 m/Myr in the San Andrés drainage basin and 13.59±1.9 m/Myr in the El Salado drainage basin. These estimations are largely in agreement with other reported estimates of long-term denudation rates in the Atacama Desert. Comparison with long-term denudation rates reported in a wide range of climatic regimes suggests that our estimates cannot be explained by the current rainfall in the PrecordiUera. However they could be explained by a rainfall similar to that reported 40 km to the east in the Puna. This suggests that during the time span concerned the geomorphologic evolution of the study area, this evolution is dominated by an orographically controlled rainfall pattern. The preserved pediment surface and the small long term denudation rates determined in this study also indicate that the PrecordiUera was never reached by humid tropical air masses and precipitation as currently observed in the Altiplano during the summer monthsUna metodología para determinar tasas de denudación de largo tiempo a partir de

  1. Streamflow responses in Chile to megathrust earthquakes in the 20th and 21st centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Christian; Manga, Michael; Wang, Chi-yuen; Korup, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Both coseismic static stress and dynamic stresses associated with seismic waves may cause responses in hydrological systems. Such responses include changes in the water level, hydrochemistry and streamflow discharge. Earthquake effects on hydrological systems provide a means to study the interaction between stress changes and regional hydrology, which is otherwise rarely possible. Chile is a country of frequent and large earthquakes and thus provides abundant opportunities to study such interactions and processes. We analyze streamflow responses in Chile to several megathrust earthquakes, including the 1943 Mw 8.1 Coquimbo, 1950 Mw 8.2 Antofagasta, 1960 Mw 9.5 Valdivia, 1985 Mw 8.0 Valparaiso, 1995 Mw 8.0 Antofagasta, 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule, and the 2014 Mw 8.2 Iquique earthquakes. We use data from 716 stream gauges distributed from the Altiplano in the North to Tierra del Fuego in the South. This network covers the Andes mountain ranges, the central valley, the Coastal Mountain ranges and (mainly in the more southern parts) the Coastal flats. We combine empirical magnitude-distance relationships, machine learning tools, and process-based modeling to characterize responses. We first assess the streamflow anomalies and relate these to topographical, hydro-climatic, geological and earthquake-related (volumetric and dynamic strain) factors using various classifiers. We then apply 1D-groundwater flow modeling to selected catchments in order to test competing hypotheses for the origin of streamflow changes. We show that the co-seismic responses of streamflow mostly involved increasing discharges. We conclude that enhanced vertical permeability can explain most streamflow responses at the regional scale. The total excess water released by a single earthquake, i.e. the Maule earthquake, yielded up to 1 km3. Against the background of megathrust earthquakes frequently hitting Chile, the amount of water released by earthquakes is substantial, particularly for the arid northern

  2. The fruit fly programme in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: country. In fact, no species of the genera Ceratitis, Bactrocera, Anastrepha, Dacus and Toxotrypana exist in the country. This programme uses the Fruit fly National Detection System, which includes detection of the pest by trapping and fruit sampling in different areas located between the I and XI Regions of the country. This system is approved by the Chilean trade partners on the basis of the fruit fly-free recognition. For the Chilean fresh fruit exports, this is an important advantage, because there is no need to apply quarantine treatments or any other restriction measure. Chile has also a huge fruit industry, whose export revenues last season reached USD 1,900 million. This fact has permitted to undertake continuously a big effort to maintain that phytosanitary condition. Since Chile is the only fruit-fly free Latin American country, it has to face a continuous biological pressure of fruit flies, mainly C. capitata, to invade its territory. But the country has also some important advantages to prevent flies migrating due to its natural isolation. These natural barriers are the Los Andes ranges in the east, thousands of kilometers of desert in the north, the Pacific Ocean in the west and finally an extremely cold, sub polar climate in the south. This isolation has led to the NPPO officials to believe that the passive spread, through smuggling and hidden fruit in passenger's baggage, to be the most likely source of fruit fly entries. Because of that, Chile has a very strict quarantine system with border control stations at every point of entry. The only exception to the mentioned isolation is Arica Province on the border with Peru. There, SAG applies an area-wide preventative approach through the rearing and release of sterile insects, as well as bait spraying in the border area, which is mainly desert, but has some 'green spots' that allow the fly to alight for resting and feeding. Additionally, through bi-national agreements, common activities are

  3. La Medialuna: un edificio para Chile/The Crescent, a building for Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Recchione, Alberto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se refiere los antecedentes históricos sobre la escuela ecuestre de la jineta y su introducción en las faenas agrícola-ganaderas chilenas. Se reseña el nacimiento del rodeo como deporte nacional chileno y los requerimientos del complejo espacio de la “fiesta del rodeo”: un problema arquitectónico y también urbanístico./ The equestrian school of "La Jineta" in Chile, and the architecture for the national holiday of "rodeo."

  4. TRICOMONOSIS EN ADOLESCENTES EMBARAZADAS DE ANTOFAGASTA, CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERNAN SAGUA

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Los problemas de salud de la adolescencia se caracterizan por una carga psicosocial elevada y un nivel de daño relativamente bajo en términos de morbilidad y mortalidad, sin embargo, la disminución de la edad promedio de la menarquia y el inicio precoz de actividad sexual coital son factores de riesgo para el embarazo y las enfermedades de transmisión sexual (ETS entre los adolescentes. En este trabajo se investigó la infección por Trichomonas vaginalis y los factores epidemiológicos y obstétricos relacionados entre 300 adolescentes embarazadas de la ciudad de Antofagasta, cuyas edades variaron entre 12 y 18 años, de las cuales el 87,7 % se concentró en el rango 15 y 17 años, en tanto que el 76,0 % tuvo su menarquia entre los 12 - 14 años y el 27,3 % inició su actividad sexual antes de los 15 años. Se determinó una tasa de infección por T. vaginalis de un 5,7 % .TRICHOMONOSIS IN PREGNANT ADOLESCENT FROM ANTOFAGASTA, CHILE A large psychosocial load and a relatively lower impact in terms of morbidity and mortality characterize adolescence’s health problems. For adolescents, however, a decrease in the average for the first menstruation and an early start in sexual activity, are two risk factors for both pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. In this work, we have investigated Trichomonas vaginalis’ infection and its related epidemiological and obstetric factors, among 300 pregnant adolescents from Antofagasta in northern Chile, between the ages of 12 to 18. Most adolescents studied (87.7% were in the range of 15-17 years old; 76.0% had the first menstruation at the range of 12-14 years old and 27.3 % started sexual activity before the age 15. A T. vaginalis’ infection rate of 5.7 % was obtained

  5. Chile's dilemma: how to reinsert scientists trained abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Parra, Alexia; Ramos, Maria-Paz

    2014-01-01

    Chile is recognized worldwide as an emergent economy, with a great power in natural resource exploitation. Nonetheless, despite being one of the most developed countries in Latin America, Chile imports most of the knowledge and technology necessary to drive innovation in the country. The tight budget that the Chilean government assigned to research and development and the absence of a long-term scientific agenda contributed to a limited supply of scientists over the years. In an effort to reverse this scenario, Chile has created several fellowships, such as the Becas Chile Program (BCP) to encourage new generations to pursue graduate studies to ultimately advance research and development in situ. More than 6000 fellows are now being trained abroad, accumulating an incredible potential to transform the Chilean scientific environment as we know it.  Chile now faces a greater challenge: it has to offer infrastructure and job openings to the highly skilled professionals in whom it invested. Unfortunately no clear public policies to address this situation have been developed, partially due to the lack of a dedicated institution, such as a Ministry for Science and Technology which could focalize the necessary efforts to promote such policies. Therefore, in the meantime, Chilean scientist have been motivated to create different organizations, such as, Mas Ciencia para Chile and Nexos Chile-USA, to promote constructive discussion of the policies that could be implemented to improve the Chilean scientific situation. We hope that these and other organizations have a real impact on the generation of scientific guidelines that will finally contribute to the development of the country. PMID:25309739

  6. Evaluating the regional influence of Santiago de Chile on air quality and meteorology during VOCALS-REX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, M.; Carmichael, G. R.; Molina, L. T.; Spak, S.; Campos, T.; Mc Naughton, C.; Clarke, A.; Gallardo, L.

    2009-04-01

    The VOCALS campaign was carried out in Chile during October-November 2008, gathering hundreds of scientists from all over the world with the objective to study stratocumulus decks in the East South Pacific, off the coast of Chile and Peru. Surface and airborne platforms measured multiple chemical and meteorological parameters, with support from chemical weather forecast models. Anthropogenic influence on meteorology and climate was evidenced due to in situ measurements, and satellite observations, as was expected from the large point sources of sulfur due to smelters and power plants in the region. However certain conditions benefited long range transport from central Chile, which made the Santiago plume clearly discernible (high ozone, organic aerosol, low CO) as sampled by the NSF C-130 almost 2000 km north of the city. This research will highlight how model products can provide guidance on the sources of the air masses sampled during the campaign, and how the Santiago plume influences regional air quality and meteorology (focusing on effective cloud radii and brightness temperature differences satellite measurements). Ultimately the research shows that the campaign's objective of contrasting cloud properties between pristine and anthropogenically influenced airmasses provided a unique opportunity to isolate the signal of a large emerging South American megacity from remote regions of the East South Pacific.

  7. Gastrointestinal and external parasites of Enicognathus ferrugineus and Enicognathus leptorhynchus (Aves, Psittacidae) in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdebenito, José Osvaldo; Moreno, Lucila; Landaeta-Aqueveque, Carlos; Kinsella, John Mike; Mironov, Sergey; Cicchino, Armando; Troncoso, Ignacio; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Parasite species are important components of biodiversity, as they provide valuable information about host health, evolutionary relationships, population structures, trophic interactions, the existence of environmental stresses, and climatic conditions. With the aim of describing the parasites associated with parrots of the genus Enicognathus Gray 1840 from central Chile, thirteen austral parakeets, Enicognathus ferrugineus, and five slender-billed parakeets, E. leptorhynchus, were examined between September 2007 and March 2014. The prevalence of ectoparasites and endoparasites was 88.9% and 22.2%, respectively. On eleven of the E. ferrugineus (84.6%) analyzed, and on all of the E. leptorhynchus analyzed (100%), five feather mite species (Pararalichus hastifolia, Genoprotolichus major, Protonyssus sp., Fainalges sp., and Eurydiscalges sp.) were collected. On ten E. ferrugineus (76.9%) and two E. leptorhynchus (40%), the chewing lice Heteromenopon macrurum, Psittacobrossus patagoni, and Paragoniocotes enicognathidis were collected. The nematode Capillaria plagiaticia was collected from three E. ferrugineus (23.1%), and the nematode Ascaridia hermaphrodita was found in one E. leptorhynchus (20%). The presence of C. plagiaticia, Protonyssus sp., Fainalges sp., and Eurydiscalges sp. from the two Enicognathus spp. are new records for Chile and represent new parasite-host associations. PMID:26648008

  8. Social-Ecological Collapse: TURF Governance in the Context of Highly Variable Resources in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. Aburto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In Chile, a Territorial User Rights for Fisheries system was developed to manage benthic fisheries. This system is referred to as Management Areas for the Exploitation of Benthic Resources. Management areas involved a shift from top-down control by governments to comanagement. We have analyzed the effects of a highly variable fishery, characterized by boom-and-bust cycles, on the governance of local institutions designed for resource management. We focused on a case study in north central Chile, in which the surf clam fishery experienced high levels of variability when the fishery was in an open access system. The management areas were established for the fishery in 1999. As a result, a set of rules for the fishery were created and enforced by fishers and local fishery authorities. Despite intense efforts on the part of all stakeholders, the fishery collapsed after three years of management area policy. This approach has been shown to be an effective management option for other species; however, for resources with boom-and-bust cycles, it is important to understand the response pattern of users confronting this spatial and temporal variability before the establishment of territorial user rights. Defining the appropriate spatial scale of the territorial rights could allow fishers to switch among different surf clam beds to maintain their livelihood and support the sustainability of local institutions for resource management.

  9. [Nutritive value of shellfish consumed in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, N; Vera, G; Araya, H

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the protein quality and digestibility of shellfish commonly consumed in Chile, and to estimate its contribution to the protein needs of the Chilean population. The shellfish studied were chorito (Mytilus edulis chilensis), macha (Mesodesma donacium), loco (Concholepas concholepas), cholga (Aulacomya ater), erizo (Loxechinus albus) and almeja (no specific variety). The NPU method was used to determine protein quality. The percentage of protein adequacy for adult rations was calculated according to FAO/WHO 1973. The contribution of shellfish to the protein availability according to the family income of the Santiago population, was also calculated. Most of the shellfish presented NPU values of about 70; the lowest values were found for loco (54.9) and macha (63.3). The apparent and true digestibility gave an average of 83.6 and 90.4, respectively. The percentage of protein adequacy of habitual rations ranged between 27% (erizo) and 58% (loco). The availability of shellfish protein in relation to total protein increased from 0.4 to 2.5% when income increased. It is concluded therefore, that shellfish protein is, in general, of good quality. Nevertheless, it might be considered of poor influence insofar as fulfilling the protein needs of the population studied, whatever its socioeconomic level. PMID:3834878

  10. Financiamiento Solidario para Vivienda en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Rojas Mujica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El Programa de Desarrollo Solidario (PDS del Banco del Desarrollo consiste en brindar apoyo financiero y formativo a mujeres de escasos recursos a lo largo de todo Chile, a través de un crédito solidario, sin ningún otro tipo de garantía que la confianza, la responsabilidad y la solidaridad. En este Programa se trabaja con grupos de al menos 8 mujeres de muy escasos recursos que no tienen acceso al sistema bancario tradicional por no contar con ingresos demostrables ni estables. El apoyo financiero se canaliza a través de créditos solidarios. El apoyo formativo consiste en un trabajo en forma previa al otorgamiento de los créditos y luego un seguimiento periódico del grupo, durante todo el periodo de reembolso del crédito. A la fecha, han participado en este programa más de 10.000 mujeres, estimándose que más de 6.000 de ellas han dedicado estos préstamos al mejoramiento de la calidad de su vivienda, movilizando en forma directa más de 2 millones de dólares.

  11. A SEARCH FOR CORRELATIONS BETWEEN SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURES AND OPTICAL REFLECTANCES IN CHILE AND BRAZIL DERIVED FROM AVHRR/NOAA IMAGES

    OpenAIRE

    Aníbal Gusso; Jorge Ricardo Ducati; Carlos G Cotlier; Diego A. G Lopez

    2004-01-01

    A search is made for indicators of the presence of phytoplankton, using satellite images of the Pacific (Central Chile) and Atlantic (South Brazil). AVHRR/NOAA-16 and -17 visible (1 and 2) and thermal (4 and 5) channels were used to perform a detection test, respectively, the Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and the Sea Surface Temperature (SST). In Brazilian waters, a positive correlation is found between SST and SPM's reflectance. This is interpreted as due to phytoplankton being more abu...

  12. First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor A. Vargas; Gerardo Lamas

    2011-01-01

    First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) in Chile. The presence of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) is reported for the first time in Chile, from the Azapa valley, Arica.Primeiro registro de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) no Chile. A presença de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera; Pieridae) é mencionada pela primeira vez para o Chile, no vale de Azapa, Arica.

  13. Policy-Driven Productivity in Chile and Mexico in the 1980s and 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Raimundo Soto; Raphael Bergoeing; Timothy Kehoe; Patrick Kehoe

    2002-01-01

    Both Chile and Mexico experienced severe economic crises in the early 1980s, but Chile recovered much faster than did Mexico. Using growth accounting and a calibrated dynamic general equilibrium model, we conclude that the crucial determinant of this difference between the two countries was the faster productivity growth in Chile, rather than higher investment or employment. Our hypothesis is that this difference in productivity was driven by earlier policy reforms in Chile, the most crucial ...

  14. El poder de la Gran Distribución en el sistema agroalimentario actual. El caso de los lácteos en chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ríos Núnez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La Gran Distribución (GD es un agente central de los modernos sistemas agroalimentarios. Esta importancia creciente se observa claramente en América Latina y, particularmente, en Chile, donde la GD concentra más de 60% de las ventas de alimentos y productos del hogar. Se trata, además, de un sector oligopolizado. En Chile, dos grupos distribuidores concentran cerca de 65% de las ventas de esos establecimientos. Así, la concentración da a los grupos distribuidores un poder de mercado que cada día choca más con el de las grandes industrias agroalimentarias. En el caso de los lácteos en Chile la pugna puede verse claramente. Su presencia ha sido esencial para explicar muchos de los cambios productivos y logísticos que se dieron en la producción de leche en los últimos años. El artículo analiza el rol de la Gran Distribución dentro del sector lácteo en Chile; se expone, por medio de una investigación empírica, la posición de poder que el sector tiene sobre los otros componentes del sistema agroalimentario.

  15. Desarrollo de la educación parvularia en Chile - Preschool education development in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Caiceo, Chile

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available DESENVOLVIMENTO DA EDUCAÇÃO PRÉ-ESCOLAR NO CHILEResumoA educação pré-escolar no Chile tem início na segunda metade do século 19, especialmente por influência alemã, trazida ao país por José Abelardo Núñez. No começo se deu de forma particular, formando-se os primeiros jardins de infância. Somente em 1906 foi fundado o primeiro jardim da infância mantido pelo Estado, anexo à Escola Normal n. 1. Para isso foi contratada a educadora austríaca Leopoldina Maluschka, que usou metodologias inspiradas em Fröebel. Na Universidad de Chile, a partir da década de 1930, teve início um movimento de renovação pedagógica orientado por Irma Salas, que havia se doutorado nos Estados Unidos com Dewey e trouxe o pensamento da Escola Nova para o país. Ela conduziu a criação da Escola de Educadoras de Pré-Escolares em 1944. A primeira diretora dessa escola foi a destacada professora Amanda Labarca. Isto facilitou a criação de berçários e creches no país. Neste texto, de caráter histórico, em que se recorrerá a documentos primários e secundários, se pretende descrever o desenvolvimento que o Estado do Chile tem mostrado pela educação pré-escolar no país, reconhecendo os direitos das crianças.Palavras-chave: jardins de infância, educação pré-escolar, Escola Nova, Junji/Integra. PRESCHOOL EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT IN CHILEAbstractPreschool education in Chile has its beginnings in the second half of the nineteenth century due to the German influence brought to Chile by José Abelardo Núñez. The first kindergarten was formed in a particular way. After that, the first public kindergarten, attached to the Normal School No. 1, was founded in 1906. At the same time, the austrian educator Maluschka Leopoldina was hired and the Froebelian method was used. At the University of Chile, in the 30s of the twentieth century, an improved movement was carried out by Irma Salas who studied for her doctorate in The United States with Dewey

  16. Discurso y legitimidad: la Doctrina de Seguridad Nacional como argumento legitimatorio del Golpe de Estado de 1973 en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Monsálvez Araneda, Danny Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo central del trabajo es exponer la estrecha relación que existe entre los fundamentos de la Doctrina de Seguridad Nacional, el Golpe de Estado en Chile de 1973 y las posteriores acciones de fuerza y represión llevada adelante por los militares una vez instalados en el poder. En ese sentido, determinados elementos de la Doctrina de Seguridad Nacional fueron utilizados como argumentos para legitimar la intervención y posterior acción militar del 11 de septiembre de 1973.

  17. Forest Typification to Characterize the Structure and Composition of Old-growth Evergreen Forests on Chiloe Island, North Patagonia (Chile)

    OpenAIRE

    Jan R. Bannister; Pablo J. Donoso

    2013-01-01

    The Evergreen forest type develops along the Valdivian and North-Patagonian phytogeographical regions of the south-central part of Chile (38° S–46° S). These evergreen forests have been scarcely studied south of 43° S, where there is still a large area made up of old-growth forests. Silvicultural proposals for the Evergreen forest type have been based on northern Evergreen forests, so that the characterization of the structure and composition of southern Evergreen forests, e.g., their typific...

  18. Chile: Un caso poco frecuente de indisciplina fiscal (bailout) y endeudamiento encubierto en la educación municipal

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Serrano; Heidi Berner

    2002-01-01

    Este estudio aborda el tema de la descentralización fiscal y las ocasiones por las que ocurre una situación de rescate financiero desde el nivel central del Estado hacia administraciones locales en Chile. No obstante un sistema de administración financiera que da garantías para una alta disciplina fiscal, en el caso de la administración de la educación municipal se han generado situaciones de endeudamiento encubierto reiterado por no pago de cotizaciones previsionales a los docentes en los qu...

  19. Trail impacts and trail impact management related to ecotourism visitation at Torres del Paine National Park, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, T.A.; Marion, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Ecotourism and protected area visitation in Central and South America are largely dependent upon a relatively undisturbed quality of natural resources. However, visitation may impact vegetation, soil, water and wildlife resources, and degrade visitor facilities such as recreation sites and trails. Findings are reported from trail impact research conducted at Torres del Paine National Park in Patagonia, Chile. The frequency and magnitude of selected trail impacts and the relative effect of the amount of use, vegetation type, trail position and trail grade are investigated. Findings differed from previous studies in that amount of use was significantly related to both trail width increases and trail erosion. Management actions to minimize trail impacts are offered.

  20. 76 FR 14320 - Importation of Figs and Pomegranates From Chile Under a Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... of Figs and Pomegranates From Chile Under a Systems Approach AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... regulations to allow the importation into the continental United States of figs and pomegranates from Chile... production that is registered with the Government of Chile and certified as having a low prevalence...

  1. 77 FR 22663 - Importation of Pomegranates From Chile Under a Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... Chile Under a Systems Approach AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final... continental United States of pomegranates from Chile, subject to a systems approach. Under this systems... plant protection organization of Chile and certified as having a low prevalence of Brevipalpus...

  2. 77 FR 12903 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Chile Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Chile Environmental Cooperation Agreement ACTION: Notice of preparation of the 2012-2014 U.S.-Chile Environmental Cooperation Work Program... suggestions regarding items for inclusion in a new work program for implementing the U.S.-Chile...

  3. 76 FR 65933 - Importation of Fresh Baby Kiwi From Chile Under a Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD37 Importation of Fresh Baby Kiwi From Chile Under a... United States of baby kiwi fruit from Chile, subject to a systems approach. Under this systems approach, the fruit must be grown in a place of production that is registered with the Government of Chile...

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-23 - Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Chile. 319.56-23 Section 319.56-23 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... and Vegetables § 319.56-23 Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. (a... from Chile in accordance with this section and all other applicable provisions of this subpart. 3 3...

  5. 75 FR 32901 - Notice of Determination of Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... Chile AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are advising the public that we are recognizing an additional area of the Republic of Chile as a pest-free area for... the documentation submitted by the Republic of Chile, which we made available to the public review...

  6. 19 CFR 10.490 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Chile. 10.490 Section 10.490 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.490 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules which apply...

  7. 75 FR 28059 - Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... COMMISSION Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore AGENCY: United...) instituted investigation No. 332-515, Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements with Chile, Australia, and...) concluded with Chile, Singapore, and Australia. In its report the Commission will-- (1) With respect to...

  8. CHILE: An Evidence-Based Preschool Intervention for Obesity Prevention in Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sally M.; Sanders, Sarah G.; FitzGerald, Courtney A.; Keane, Patricia C.; Canaca, Glenda F.; Volker-Rector, Renee

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a major concern among American Indians and Hispanics. The Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) is an evidence-based intervention to prevent obesity in children enrolled in 16 Head Start (HS) Centers in rural communities. The design and implementation of CHILE are described. Methods: CHILE uses a…

  9. Exotic plant invasions to the mediterranean region of Chile: causes, history and impacts Invasión de plantas exóticas en la región mediterránea de Chile: causas, historia e impactos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER A. FIGUEROA

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We review the literature on patterns, causes, processes and impacts of exotic plants, primarily in the mediterranean region of Chile, considering three major non-independent drivers of the invasion process: (a Availability of exotic species propagules, (b attributes of the local communities in which exotic species establish and through which they will eventually spread out, and (c attributes of exotic species that either facilitate or constraint their spread into new sites. Regarding availability of propagules, central Chile matorral presents the communities with the greatest incidence of naturalized herbs, followed by the sclerophyllous forest and the espinal scrubland in the coastal range. In contrast, north-central communities have lower numbers and proportions of naturalized species of herbs in their seed banks. Availability and persistence of naturalized herbs do not differ between aboveground vegetation and seed bank. Regarding attributes of local communities associated with the establishment and the spread of exotics, grazing regime and land use emerge as the most prominent causes that render them more prone to invasion by exotics. Evidence on the effect of the fire regime is contradictory and native species richness does not seem to be an important factor. Regarding attributes of exotic species, results suggest that naturalized annuals germinate within a wide temperature range, are highly resistant to cold and dry conditions, and show some degree of physiological dormancy. Additionally, naturalized annuals are highly tolerant to poor soils, but are generally intolerant to shade. These general attributes have largely determined the invasion process in the mediterranean region of Chile. Historical data indicate that an important number of exotic species were intentionally introduced, and that the spread of exotic is uncontrolled. It has been demonstrated that arrival time of exotics is of great relevance to understand present day spread of

  10. Evaluando la confianza institucional en Chile: Una mirada desde los resultados LAPOP Assessing Institutional Confidence in Chile: A Look from LAPOP's Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURICIO MORALES QUIROGA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de que Chile ocupa lugares de vanguardia en los índices de democracia de Freedom House y Polity IV, la confianza de los ciudadanos en las distintas instituciones del sistema político, a 18 años de reinaugurada la democracia, deja en entredicho su solidez y consolidación. Esto, sumado a los bajos niveles de participación ciudadana y al preocupante incremento en la tasa de no inscritos en los registros electorales y de los abstencionistas, deja abierta una serie de preguntas en torno a la calidad de la democracia en Chile. Sobre la base de los resultados arrojados por las encuestas LAPOP 2006 y 2008, este artículo explora los niveles y determinantes de diferentes tipos de confianza institucional (definidos empíricamente hallados en los ciudadanos chilenos. El trabajo concluye que las positivas evaluaciones de los ciudadanos, respecto a los esfuerzos del gobierno para solucionar los principales problemas, están significativamente correlacionadas con el nivel de confianza hacia las instituciones democráticas. También se distinguen diferencias según identificación con coaliciones (Concertación o Alianza, participación electoral y satisfacción con la democracia, además de algunas variables sociodemográficas.Chile is comparatively placed in a very favorable position in terms of its recent experience with democracy, which resumed eighteen-years ago after an unprecedented experience with authoritarianism (Freedom House, Polity IV. However, while not unique to this case, citizen's low levels of confidence in democratic institutions as well as declining electoral participation rates, increasing blank and invalid voting, and youngsters alienation from democratic elections yield significant questions regarding the consolidation of the country's currently democratic political regime. Drawing on the LAPOP 2006 and 2008 surveys, this article explores the levels and determinants of different (empirically defined types of institutional

  11. The National Immunization Plan for Chile: is it a priority?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Crocco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 1978, Chile has an expanded immunization program. Target population is all infants and children in the country, along with the elderly at age 65. If we review available World Health Organization data on the immunization monitoring system, in 2011 all vaccines had below 95% coverage. With the exception of BCG, vaccines are primarily applied in the primary care setting. One way to understand organizational priorities is to identify how present they are in the management systems. Thus, it is possible to determine the priority of the National Immunization Plan in Chile by looking into sectoral planning. A review of the most recent policy documents of the Ministry of Health of Chile, one titled “National Health Strategy to Achieve the Health Objectives of the 2011-2020 Decade" stands out. Upon reviewing this policy paper, the National Immunization Plan is not considered as an outcome as a whole, but only some of the vaccines it includes.

  12. Desigualdad Geográfica en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A. Agostini

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite success in reducing poverty over the last twenty years, inequality in Chile has remained virtually unchanged, making Chile one of the least equal countries in the world. High levels of inequality have been shown to hamper further reductions in poverty as well as economic growth and local inequality has been shown to affect such outcomes as violence and health. The study of inequality at the local level is thus crucial for understanding the economic well-being of a country. Local measures of inequality have been difficult to obtain, but recent theoretical advances have enabled the combination of survey and census data to obtain estimators of inequality that are robust at disaggregated geographic levels. In this paper, we employ this methodology to produce consistent estimators of inequality for every county in Chile. We find a great deal of variation in inequality, with countylevel Gini coefficients ranging from 0.41 to 0.63.

  13. The Unexpected Awakening of Chaitén Volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carn, Simon A.; Pallister, John S.; Lara, Luis; Ewert, John W.; Watt, Sebastian; Prata, Alfred J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Villarosa, Gustavo

    2009-06-01

    On 2 May 2008, a large eruption began unexpectedly at the inconspicuous Chaitén volcano in Chile's southern volcanic zone. Ash columns abruptly jetted from the volcano into the stratosphere, followed by lava dome effusion and continuous low-altitude ash plumes [Lara, 2009]. Apocalyptic photographs of eruption plumes suffused with lightning were circulated globally. Effects of the eruption were extensive. Floods and lahars inundated the town of Chaitén, and its 4625 residents were evacuated. Widespread ashfall and drifting ash clouds closed regional airports and cancelled hundreds of domestic flights in Argentina and Chile and numerous international flights [Guffanti et al., 2008]. Ash heavily affected the aquaculture industry in the nearby Gulf of Corcovado, curtailed ecotourism, and closed regional nature preserves. To better prepare for future eruptions, the Chilean government has boosted support for monitoring and hazard mitigation at Chaitén and at 42 other highly hazardous, active volcanoes in Chile.

  14. Improving the Monetary Policy Frameworks in Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Medina Cas; Alejandro Carrion-Menendez; Florencia Frantischek

    2011-01-01

    Several Central American (CADR) countries with independent monetary policies are strengthening their monetary frameworks and some have implemented or are moving towards inflation targeting (IT) regimes. Strengthening the monetary policy frameworks of CADR is key to improving the effectiveness of monetary policy. The paper reviews the literature on the reforms needed for strengthening the monetary policy frameworks, and examines the experiences of IT countries, Chile, Peru, and Uruguay to help...

  15. Source Process of the 2007 Mw 7.7 Tocopilla, Chile Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minson, S. E.; Simons, M.; Owen, S.; Genrich, J.; Galetzka, J.; Chowdhury, F. R.; Webb, F.; Beck, J. L.; Comte, D.; Glass, B.; Leiva, C.

    2008-12-01

    The magnitude 7.7 Tocopilla earthquake of November 14, 2007 ruptured a stretch of the northern Chile subduction zone just north of the 1995 Antofagasta earthquake source region. In this study, we compare a Bayesian analysis with a simulated annealing inversion methodology to determine a finite fault rupture model for the Tocopilla earthquake. While we also incorporate both teleseismic data and satellite radar images, high-rate (5 samples/sec) GPS data provides particularly important constraints on the source process of this event. Because the Tocopilla earthquake was located immediately coastward of the CANTO (Central ANdean Tectonic Observatory) geodetic network, the evolution of the local slip field is well-recorded. We find that the high-rate continuous GPS data is key to determining the location of the hypocenter and asperities as well as the evolution of slip. Most of the slip is located east of the coastline with at least two distinct regions of concentrated slip.

  16. Biogeografía marina de Chile continental Marine biogeography of continental Chile

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    PATRICIO A. CAMUS

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Por casi un siglo, varios autores han analizado los patrones de distribución de la fauna y flora marina del Pacífico de Sudamérica y de la costa de Chile en particular, con el propósito de establecer el número de las unidades biogeográficas presentes. Si bien los patrones generales actuales son relativamente bien conocidos, la mayoría de los estudios se ha enfocado en las discontinuidades distribucionales y en propuestas de clasificación más que en los factores y procesos dinámicos que han formado las unidades espaciales identificadas. Aun en el caso de las clasificaciones, las conclusiones publicadas se basan principalmente en el análisis de uno o pocos grupos seleccionados, y presentan diferencias importantes en los criterios de selección de los grupos, el número de especies involucrado y la metodología usada. Por otra parte, las discrepancias entre estudios específicos tienden a obscurecer un fenómeno relevante y de mayor escala como es la dinámica de las biotas, uno de los aspectos biogeográficos menos conocidos en Chile. En tal contexto, este trabajo presenta una revisión de literatura sobre la biogeografía marina de Chile y sus aspectos asociados, con los siguientes objetivos: (a resumir las características oceanográficas, climáticas y geomorfológicas de la costa continental de Chile; (b discutir 27 clasificaciones biogeográficas publicadas para la costa chilena, analizando los criterios y procedimientos usados por los autores, sus conclusiones principales, y la concordancia entre los estudios; (c evaluar los procesos dispersivos y vicariantes asociados a los desplazamientos y modificaciones de las biotas de la región, en función de los antecedentes disponibles sobre las condiciones existentes y los principales eventos ocurridos durante los períodos Terciario y Cuaternario; y (d proponer un escenario de cambio biogeográfico basado en determinantes históricas y su influencia en la formación, carácter y din

  17. Analysis and projections of physics in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, an assessment of the Physics research capacity in Chile is presented. For this, the period between 2000 and June 2005 has been studied. In this period almost 200 physicists have contributed to scientific production in terms of ISI publications. Amongst these 200, ∼160 correspond to theoretical physicists and only ∼40 to experimental physicists; ∼178 are men and only ∼22 are women. A more detailed analysis shows that ∼160 physicists have at least one appearance in ISI publications per year considering the last 3 years. Ten years ago, a similar criteria (at least one appearance per year in ISI articles, considering mobile three-year periods), the number of active physicists in the Chilean community was estimated at 70. Therefore, the Chilean active physicists' community has doubled in 10 years. There exist 20 centres in which scientific research is developed: 18 university centres, a government institute and a private institute. As regards scientific productivity, both as related to disciplines or research areas, and well as in relation to research centres, it is found that, generally, scientific production, in a particular area in Physics or in a research centre, is directly related to the number of corresponding researchers; that is to say, the percentage of the national productivity in an area or research centre corresponds to its share in the total number of physicists in the country. A geographical analysis shows that 50% of the productivity corresponds to Santiago and 50% to the rest of the country. The impact of the different funds for research is assessed, also: FONDECYT, Presidential Chairs and large projects and centres of excellence. According to Physics researchers opinion, Fondo Nacional de Ciencia y TecnologIa (FONDECYT, National Fund fro Science and Technology) has become the best instrument to support researchi activities in Chile. However, the amount of projects awarded has practically not been increased, which is

  18. conelchilenoresistentearte, Solidaridad: Chile Vive, una Exposición en España contra el Chile Dictatorial withthechileanresistantart, Solidarity: Chile Vive, an Exposition in Spain against the Dictatorial Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Godoy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En 1987 se realiza en Madrid Chile Vive, megaexposición que incluye diferentes manifestaciones artísticas para dar cuenta de la vitalidad cultural de Chile en dictadura. El ensayo, partiendo de una discusión conceptual sobre el problema de la exposición de arte latinoamericano en el extranjero, analiza la configuración de esta exposición, centrándose en las artes visuales como alineación unitaria de un discurso político de país, además de examinar su repercusión en la prensa española de la época. Por otro lado, reflexiona sobre las inclusiones y exclusiones de artistas y las proyecciones de Chile Vive en el problema de la exposición del arte chileno en el extranjero, particularmente el de un periodo tan complejo como el producido durante la dictadura militar.In 1987, Chile Vive, a mega-exhibition that included different artistic expressions, was performed in Madrid to inform people about the cultural vitality of Chile during their dictatorship. This essay will focus on a conceptual discussion about the problem of Latin American art exhibitions abroad. It will analyze the configuration of the mentioned exhibition, focusing on visual arts as a unitary alignment of a political discourse of nation. The text will also examine the repercussion in the Media of Spain in that period of time. On the other hand, the article will develop some thoughts on the artists incorporations, exclusions and projections of Chile Vive, focusing on why the exhibition of Chilean art abroad might be problematic, particularly the ones that belongs to this complex period of time; the military dictatorship.

  19. Subduction zone guided waves in Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garth, Thomas; Rietbrock, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Guided wave dispersion is observed in subduction zones as high frequency energy is retained and delayed by low velocity structure in the subducting slab, while lower frequency energy is able to travel at the faster velocities associated with the surrounding mantle material. As subduction zone guided waves spend longer interacting with the low velocity structure of the slab than any other seismic phase, they have a unique capability to resolve these low velocity structures. In Northern Chile, guided wave arrivals are clearly observed on two stations in the Chilean fore-arc on permanent stations of the IPOC network. High frequency (> 5 Hz) P-wave arrivals are delayed by approximately 2 seconds compared to the low frequency (times of different frequencies, while the velocity spectra is used to constrain the relative amplitude of the arrivals. Constraining the waveform in these two ways means that the full waveform is also matched, and the low pass filtered observed and synthetic waveforms can be compared. A combined misfit between synthetic and observed waveforms is then calculated following Garth & Rietbrock (2014). Based on this misfit criterion we constrain the velocity model by using a grid search approach. Modelling the guided wave arrivals suggest that the observed dispersion cannot be solely accounted for by a single low velocity layer as suggested by previous guided wave studies. Including dipping low velocity normal fault structures in the synthetic model not only accounts for the observed strong P-wave coda, but also produces a clear first motion dispersion. We therefore propose that the lithospheric mantle of the subducting Nazca plate is highly hydrated at intermediate depths by dipping low velocity normal faults. Additionally, we show that the low velocity oceanic crust persists to depths of up to 200 km, well beyond the depth range where the eclogite transition is expected to have occurred. Our results suggest that young subducting lithosphere also has

  20. Artemia (Crustacea, Anostraca in Chile: a review of basic and applied biology Artemia Crustacea, Anostraca en Chile: revisión de la biología básica y aplicada

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    Patricio De los Rios-Escalante

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The brine shrimp Artemia in Chile has been studied since the 1980s, initially on populations inhabiting shallow coastal and inland mountain ponds, and saltworks in northern and central Chile. Based on morphometric and molecular evidence, these populations were identified as A. franciscana. In the 1990s, A. persimilis was recorded from southern Patagonia, a species previously considered endemic to Argentina. Recently, two new populations of A.franciscana have been recorded, from one saline coastal pond in northern Chile and from a saltwork in central Chile. The scope for further research to increase both understanding of the strain characterization and basic population ecology descriptions of the Chilean brine shrimps and improve their conservation status is discussed. It is suggested that future studies should investigate first the management of local brine shrimp population for local aquaculture or conservation resources, other direction would be the effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR exposition that is notoriously high in brine shrimp habitats. This last factor is very important because the UVR is an important mutagen on the genetic structure of the populations. In this scenario, it is suggest a carefully management for introduced brine shrimp populations for local aquaculture for avoid alterations in native populations that due their genetic isolation would need conservation procedures for avoid local extinctions.El camarón de salmuera o Artemia ha sido estudiado en Chile desde la década de 1980, las primeras descripciones de poblaciones fueron para lagunas someras en zonas costeras y de montana, y en salinas artificiales en la zona central y norte de Chile. Sobre la base de evidencias morfométricas y moleculares estas poblaciones fueron descritas como A. franciscana. En la década de 1990, se describió la presencia de A. persimilis en la zona sur de la Patagonia, lo cual fue una ampliación del rango de distribución significativa

  1. Nuevos inmigrantes en Chile: Los determinantes de su actividad emprendedora

    OpenAIRE

    Mancilla, Claudio; de Lima, Philomena

    2014-01-01

    En Chile es poca la literatura que estudia a los inmigrantes desde una perspectiva económica, y menos la que aborda su actitud emprendedora (a pesar de que son proporcionalmente más emprendedores que los habitantes locales). El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar los factores que influyen en el emprendimiento de los in - migrantes sudamericanos en Chile. Se utilizó un modelo logit ajustado para even - tos extraños para determinar el impacto sobre la probabilidad de emprendimiento individual....

  2. Competitividad de las exportaciones de chile seco mexicano

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alberto Flores Sánchez; Alejandro Mungaray Lagarda

    2015-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se estudia el comportamiento de la competitividad que ha mostrado México, en cuanto a sus exportaciones de chile seco, durante el periodo de 1993 a 2009, mediante la obtención del índice de ventaja relativa de exportaciones y aplicando el método de análisis de participación constante de mercado, los resultados que se obtuvieron muestran que las exportaciones de chile seco de México han crecido fuertemente, con una tendencia de crecimiento muy variable, por otro lado los...

  3. Migración y Mercado Laboral en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Dante Contreras; Jaime Ruiz-Tagle; Paulina Sepúlveda

    2013-01-01

    Los últimos procesos migratorios que ha vivido Chile han despertado el interés respecto a los efectos de la inmigración sobre la economía del país. El objetivo de este trabajo es caracterizar y analizar los efectos de la inmigración sobre el mercado laboral en Chile y la situación de los migrantes en el mercado laboral local. Utilizando los datos de la encuesta CASEN 2006 y 2009, y los datos de Extranjería del Ministerio del Interior y del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, encontramos que ...

  4. El poblamiento temprano de la costa norte de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Varela, Héctor Hugo; Cocilovo, José Alberto

    2005-01-01

    La costa Norte de Chile estuvo habitada por lo menos desde 10000 AP por pequeños grupos humanos que subsistían de los recursos del mar y la costa. Ellos estaban asociados con la cultura Chinchorro, caracterizada por el tratamiento artificial que le daban a sus muertos. El sitio Caleta Huelén 42 se encuentra ubicado en la desembocadura del río Loa en el Norte de Chile. Constituye una importante conexión hacia el sur, vinculada con la expansión de los grupos de pescadores arcaicos semejantes a ...

  5. The economic and financial gains from water markets in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Hearne, Robert R.; Easter, K. William

    1997-01-01

    Chile is one of the few countries that has encouraged the use of markets in water resource management. In order to assess the impact of water markets and transactions costs in Chile, four river valleys, the Maipo, Elqui, Limari, and the Azapa were selected as case studies. Transactions from the Elqui and Limari valleys, during the years 1986 to 1993, were analyzed to determine the gains-from-trade from market transfers. In the economic and financial analysis of water markets, crop budgets wer...

  6. Entendiendo las brechas salariales por genero en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Perticara; Ivonne Bueno

    2008-01-01

    El propósito de este paper es estudiar las brechas salariales por género en Chile usando una nueva base de datos, la Encuesta de Protección Social 2002-2006, la que permite controlar por la experiencia laboral efectiva y el timming de dicha experiencia. Las variables de experiencia laboral potencial no reflejan el patrón de participación laboral intermitente y poco continuo que tienen las mujeres en Chile. Se introducen también correcciones por selección ocupacional y se instrumentan dos vari...

  7. Scenarios for wind power in Brazil, Argentina and Chile; Cenarios para a energia eolio eletrica no Brasil, Argentina e Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedecca, Joao Gorestein; Nogueira, Larissa Goncalves; Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martino [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], emails: jdedecca@fem.unicamp.br, larissa@fem.unicamp.br, januzzi@fem.unicamp.br; Gomes, Rodolfo Dourado [International Energy Initiative-Latin America (IEI-LA), Campinas, SP (Brazil)], email: rodolfo@iei-la.org

    2010-07-01

    The Chilean, Argentinean and Brazilian power matrixes presented in the last two decades a growth of the non-renewable energy sources share, especially fossil sources, mainly in installed capacity and in a lesser degree in energy production. Greenpeace and the European Renewable Energy Council have elaborated a reference energy scenario together with a scenario analyzing the institution of ample measures for the promotion of renewable energy sources. Feed-in tariffs and auction or bidding mechanisms implemented in Brazil and Argentina and the renewable portfolio standard implemented in Chile allied with the wind industry state in these countries indicate that Chile and Argentina will fulfill the 2020 wind power installed capacity predicted in the reference scenarios, while Brazil will reach the energy revolution scenario prediction. Important energy policy changes are required if the Chile and Argentina energy revolution scenarios wind power installed capacity are to become a reality in 2020. (author)

  8. Monitoring the northern Chile megathrust with the Integrated Plate boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, Bernd; Asch, Günter; Cailleau, Beatrice; Diaz, Guillermo Chong; Barrientos, Sergio; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Oncken, Onno

    2010-05-01

    The oceanic Nazca plate subducts beneath the continental South American plate by recurrent rupture of large segments of its interface. The resulting earthquakes are among the largest and most frequent on Earth. Along the Chilean and southern Peruvian margin, all sizeable segments have ruptured at least once in the past 150 years for which there exist historic and/or instrumental records. The one segment that is most mature for re-rupture stretches for more than 500 km along the northernmost Chilean coast between roughly -23° and -18° latitude. It last broke in 1877 in a magnitude ~8.5 earthquake, triggering a major Tsunami. From the historical record, it has been known to have a recurrence cycle of approximately 110 years. The adjoining segments to the south and north broke rather recently in 1995 and 2001 in M>8 earthquakes and an M 7.7 earthquake intruded into the southern part of the seismic gap in 2007 between Antofagasto and Tocopilla. This makes northern Chile a unique natural laboratory to observe a subduction megathrust at various stages of its seismic cycle. For that purpose, installation of long-term observatories started in 2006 in a close cooperation of the Universidad de Chile (Santiago, Chile), the Universidad Catolica del Norte (Antofagasta, Chile), the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (France), and the GFZ German research Centre for Geosciences (Germany). Currently we are operating 17 modern seismological stations equipped with STS-2 broadband seismometers and accelerometers (EPI sensor). At least two more stations will be installed in the near future. Continuous GPS, tilt, creep, climate and magnetotellurics measurements are complementing the seismological part. A majority of the sites provide data near real-time. We will present results of seismic monitoring including analysis of the 2007 M7.7 Tocopilla earthquake sequence that was recorded during the installation stage of the observatory. We relocated the mainshock and about a one

  9. Production and consumption of energy in Chile 1987. Produccion y consumo de energia en Chile 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    Presents information, at a national level, on production and consumption of various types of energy, including statistical data on commercial deals (hydrocarbons, coal) and the activities of the companies (hydromechanical energy, vegetable wastes for power generation and biogas). Electrical energy is described in detail. The first chapter presents an energy overview of the country and its energy sources, evaluating each one in order to obtain the total energy produced in Chile. The second chapter deals with electric power in the country, classifying power installed, generated and consumed by category of producer, consumer and generating type. The third chapter discusses the planned capacity of the Zonas Electricas, and the fourth chapter reviews the characteristics of the installations, production statistics, consumption and operation of the grid.

  10. Nuevos registros de Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta) en Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, en Chile New records of Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta) in Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    D. González-Acuña; I. CABEZAS; Moreno, L.; Castro, D.

    2007-01-01

    Se cita a Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932) y Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866) por primera vez en Chile, y se confirma la presencia de M. praelongiceps (Neumann 1909) parasitando alpacas en la comuna de General Lagos (I Región), Chile. Se discute la importancia de los presentes registros.For the first time in Chile, the presence of Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932) and Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866), are reported, and the presence of M. praelongiceps (Neuman 1909) parasiting alpacas in ...

  11. Chile: protección social de la salud Chile: social protection in health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Urriola

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This piece begins with a brief discussion of the concepts leading to the social right to health protection. Special emphasis is placed on the principle of social cohesion, which has influenced social health protection in European countries. Chile’s experience in this field from the 1990s to the present is described, as exemplified in three dimensions. In the first place, social security coverage is presented as a means to achieve universal (horizontal coverage. A discussion follows on vertical coverage, where the author identifies health problems for which insured persons have guaranteed rights of access to medical care. This section describes available emergency care, primary health care, and the special plan for Universal Access to Explicit Guarantees (Acceso Universal de Garantías Explícitas de salud, or AUGE. Thirdly, the discussion covers the funding sources supporting the Chilean health care system: Government subsidies, contributions to social security, and out-of-pocket disbursements for private care. Chile’s public health system has various special programs. One of them is catastrophic insurance, which covers 100% of the care needed for complex and very costly treatments. Older persons (over 65 have coverage for 100% of the cost of eyeglasses and hearing aids, and for 50% of the cost of home care. If life expectancy is an appropriate indicator of health system results, it is worth noting that Chile and the United States of America have both achieved a life expectancy of 77 years, even though Chile spends only 5.9% of its gross domestic product on health care, as compared to the 15% spent by the United States.

  12. Nutritional Quality of Beef Produced in Chile from Different Production Systems Calidad Nutricional de Carne obtenida de Diferentes Sistemas Productivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Morales

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, beef industry has improved production processes to ensure quality and certification for overseas meat markets. However, there is limited scientific information about the nutritional quality of beef from Chile. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the nutritional quality of beef produced in Chile from different production systems classified according to the type of finishing diet. Two-hundred and five animals from 13 livestock farms were used, 80