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Sample records for chile austral durante

  1. Efectos ambientales sobre la variabilidad espacial del ictioplancton de Chile austral durante noviembre de 2005 Environmental effects on the spatial variability of the ichthyoplankton from southern Chile during November 2005

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    CLAUDIA A BUSTOS

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la distribución y abundancia del ictioplancton de Chile austral (41-45° S durante noviembre de 2005 en relación a las características oceanógraficas de la columna de agua (temperatura, salinidad y estratificación. Durante el periodo de estudio, se recolectó un total de 44.606 huevos de peces y 2.016 larvas correspondientes a 28 taxa. Los estados tempranos de peces pelágicos pequeños dominaron en las muestras, con densidades de ~ 14.000 huevos 10 m-2 de anchoveta (Engraulis ringens y > 100 larvas 10 m-2 de clupeidos. Análisis multivariados indicaron la formación de dos grupos de estaciones, uno asociado a la zona de fiordos, de mayor profundidad, con fuertes gradientes verticales de temperatura y salinidad y mayor estratificación, y otro grupo asociado al borde oriental de la isla Chiloé, de menor profundidad y mayor mezcla en la columna de agua. En las zonas de mayor estratificación (Le., mayor frecuencia de Brunt-Váisála, N-2, se encontraron mayores densidades de huevos y larvas de peces pelágicos y mesopelágicos (Strangomera bentincki y Maurolicus parvipinnis. Al comparar esta información con un crucero oceanógrafico llevado a cabo 10 años antes en la misma zona (octubre de 1995, se detectaron cambios en la composición específica de ictioplancton, lo que puede indicar diferencias en las especies de peces marinos que utilizan la zona de fiordos y canales como área de desove y crianza larval.The distribution and abundance of ichthyoplankton from southern Chile (41-45°S during November 2005 were analyzed, in relation to the oceanographic features of the water column (temperature, salinity, stratification. During the sampling period, 44.606 fish eggs and 2.016 fish larvae were collected, belonging to 28 taxa. Early life stages of small pelagic fishes dominated the plankton samples, with mean densities of ~ 14,000 eggs 10 m-2 of anchovy (Engraulis ringens and > 100 larvae 10 m-2of clupleids. Multivariate analysis

  2. FERROCARRILES EN LA ZONA AUSTRAL DE CHILE, 1869-1973

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    Mateo Martinic B.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se entrega una visión completa acerca de los ferrocarriles construidos y explotados en la región austral de Chile y se ofrece asimismo una explicación sobre su modesta expresión hist��rica, cosa notable en un territorio como la Patagonia chilena en cuya colonización y desarrollo ulterior fue importante la utilización de la tecnología industrial moderna. Se dan a conocer también algunas interesantes iniciativas ferrocarrileras que no llegaron a materializarseIn spite of the important development in Chilean Patagonia between circa 1870 an 1973, particulary in the old Magellan Territory, an almost surprising fact was that in between many incorporated industrial technology the railroad, a paradigm of modernity, had a scarce representation. In this paper, a complete review about railroads settled and exploted in southernmost Chile is done and a explanation of its modest expression and some interesting projects that necer became materialized which explains the emptiness in the historical information on the subject

  3. Mortalidad por enfermedades respiratorias en Chile durante 1999 MORTALITY DUE TO RESPIRATORY DISEASES, CHILE-1999

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    JORGE SZOT M.

    2003-01-01

    Se trata de un estudio descriptivo que presenta características sobre la mortalidad por causas respiratorias (CR) en Chile durante 1999. Se muestra que las CR constituyen la tercera causa de muerte en el país. La "neumonía por agente no especificado" (NANE) es la primera causa aislada de muerte respiratoria en ambos sexos con un 64%, seguida de enfermedades respiratorias crónicas que originan un 30% de las defunciones. Por lo anterior se hace necesario prevenir la ocurrencia de la NANE, asegu...

  4. Identification of virus and nematode resistance genes in the Chilota Potato Genebank of the Universidad Austral de Chile

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    Marlon López

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Potato Genebank of the Universidad Austral de Chile (UACh is an important gene bank in Chile. The accessions collected all over the country possess high genetic diversity, present interesting agronomic and cooking traits, and show resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. A particularly interesting subgroup of the gene bank includes the accessions collected in the South of Chile, the Chilota Potato Genebank. The focus of this study is the identification of virus and nematode resistant genes in potatoes (Solatium tuberosum L., using the RYSC3 and YES3-3B molecular markers. The Potato virus Y(PVY resistance genes Ry adg and Ry sto were identified. Furthermore, the CP60 marker was used to assess the Rx resistance gene that confers resistance to Potato virus X (PVX. In addition, the HC and GRO1-4 markers were utilized to identify the GpaVvrn_QTL and Gro1-4, resistance genes of Globodera pallida and Globodera rostochiensis, respectively. Both G. pallida and G. rostochiensis are Potato Cyst Nematodes (PCN. The plant material used in this study included leaves from 271 accessions of the gene bank. These samples were collected in the field where natural pathogen pressure of potential viruses and diseases exists. ELISA assays were run for field detection of PVY and PVX. However, there have been no previous reports of nematode presence in the plant material. The results herein presented indicate presence of virus and nematode resistance genes in accessions of the Chilota Potato Genebank. In terms of virus resistance, 99 accessions out of the 271 tested possess the Ry adg resistance gene and 17 accessions of these 271 tested have the Ry sto resistance gene. Also, 10 accessions showed positive amplification of the Rxl resistant gene marker. As to nematode resistance, 99 accessions have possible resistance to G. pallida and 54 accessions show potential resistance to G. rostochiensis as detected using the available molecular markers.

  5. Distribución del ictioplancton en la Patagonia austral de Chile: potenciales efectos del deshielo de Campos de Hielo Sur Ichthyoplankton distribution in South Patagonia, Chile: potential effects of ice melting from the Southern Ice Field

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    Mauricio F Landaeta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Durante octubre-noviembre de 2009 se realizó un crucero oceanográfico entre 50 y 53°S de Chile austral, en las cercanías del glaciar Campos de Hielo Sur. Las estaciones cercanas al glaciar presentaron baja temperatura (1-3°C y salinidad ( 0,1 ciclos s-1. Los principales taxa del ictioplancton fueron huevos y larvas de sardina fueguina Sprattus fuegensis, pez hacha Maurolicus parvipinnis, Macrouridae y merluza austral Merluccius australis. El desove principal de S. fuegensis (~ 8000 huevos 10 m-2 ocurrió en zonas mezcladas de la plataforma continental adyacente, mientras que el desove de M. parvipinnis ocurrió en canales intermedios asociado a valores intermedios de estabilidad (N~0,06 ciclos s-1. Se observó una nula o baja abundancia de huevos y larvas de peces en las cercanías del glaciar, y la abundancia de huevos de M. parvipinnis estuvo relacionada positivamente con la temperatura y salinidad de la columna de agua y negativamente con la estabilidad de la columna de agua. Además, hubo una relación negativa entre la densidad del agua de mar y el diámetro de los huevos de S. fuegensis. La relación entre deshielo e ictioplancton podría tener consecuencias en el transporte advectivo y mortalidad masiva de huevos y larvas de peces y el acople pelágico-bentónico en la Patagonia austral de Chile. Como el cambio climático global ha incrementado los deshielos de glaciares en latitudes altas, y el aumento del ingreso de aguas de baja temperatura y salinidad podría tener consecuencias en el ictioplancton de la Patagonia chilena.In October-November 2009, an oceanographic survey was carried out between 50 and 53°S off southern Chile, near the Southern Ice Field. The stations near the glacier showed low temperatures (1-3°C and salinity ( 0.1 cycles s-1. Main ichthyoplankton taxa were eggs and larvae of southern sprat Sprattus fuegensis, lightfish Maurolicus parvipinnis, Macrouridae, and southern hake Merluccius australis. The main

  6. La pesca artesanal en el sur austral de Chile. Controversias territoriales en el espacio marino – costero

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    Gonzalo Saavedra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza desde una perspectiva etnográfica tres casos en donde se evidencia que la dimensión territorial de la pesca artesanal, en el sur-austral de Chile, es problemática y compleja. Problemática porque revela que el uso/apropiación del espacio en cuestión es diverso y desigual según los actores que en él se sitúan. En tal escenario son las comunidades de pesca artesanal las que mayoritariamente padecen las consecuencias perversas de esta desigualdad, encontrando un lugar cada vez más incierto y vulnerable como forma de vida cultural. En contrapartida es un escenario atractivo para empresas e inversionistas privados, quienes se ven notoriamente favorecidos por los marcos regulatorios y legislativos impulsados desde la administración estatal. Es un escenario de complejidad porque se trata de territorios y sistemas económico-sociales abiertos, dinámicos y cambiantes, condición multidimensional que nos impele a pensar y problematizar el espacio pesquero artesanal más allá de sus emplazamientos convencionales (la caleta, la comuna o la región. El análisis que aquí se plantea explora las tensiones aparentemente internas que derivan del entramado relacional referido, las que sin embargo desbordan los límites de cada localización.

  7. Las relaciones entre Chile y Suecia durante el primer gobierno de Olof Palme, 1969-1976

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    Fernando Camacho Padilla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante el primer gobierno del socialdemócrata Olof Palme, las relaciones bilaterales entre Chile y Suecia fueron las más intensas de toda su historia, tanto en cercanía como en conflictividad. La razón la encontramos en los distintos fenómenos políticos que vivió Chile en ese periodo, puesto que Palme coincidió temporalmente con tres gobiernos claramente diferenciados: la Democracia Cristiana, la Unidad Popular y el Régimen Militar. Si las relaciones sueco-chilenas tuvieron su mejor momento durante el mandato de Salvador Allende, el golpe de Estado significó todo lo contrario. El compromiso que tuvo el embajador de Suecia, Harald Edelstam, por quienes eran perseguidos en Chile le llevó a su expulsión, lo que se tradujo en un claro deterioro de las relaciones y el inicio de una nueva etapa marcada por el gran contingente de exiliados que comenzaron a llegar a Suecia. Este trabajo analiza los principales acontecimientos diplomáticos ocurridos entre Chile y Suecia así como las consecuencias que tuvieron durante el gobierno de Olof Palme.

  8. CASTIGO FEMENINO EN CHILE DURANTE LA PRIMERA MITAD DEL SIGLO XIX

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    Marcelo Neira Navarro

    2004-01-01

    El presente artículo permitió generar una serie de categorías de castigos femeninos, considerando que durante buena parte del siglo XIX la policía pudo aplicar "justicia correccional", es decir, sancionar delitos menores. De un universo de más de 32.000 arrestos efectuados en la ciudad de Santiago de Chile entre los años 1830 a 1840 y utilizando el criterio "femenino", el levantamiento logró una muestra que alcanzó al 12% del total. Los datos sistematizados permiten señalar que durante la pri...

  9. Características da Atmosfera na Primavera Austral Durante o El Niño de 2015/2016

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    Heloisa Ramos Pereira

    Full Text Available Resumo O El Niño (EN é caracterizado pelo aquecimento anômalo das águas superficiais do oceano Pacífico Tropical central e leste que afeta o clima global e regional através das anomalias da circulação da atmosfera. O EN 2015/2016 foi classificado como um evento muito forte. Portanto, esse estudo tem como objetivo mostrar as características da atmosfera durante a ocorrência desse evento nos meses de setembro, outubro e novembro de 2015. Entre os resultados, têm-se o deslocamento para leste da célula de circulação zonal de Walker, intensificação dos jatos subtropical e polar, presença de anomalias positivas de altura geopotencial no oceano Pacífico próximas ao sul da América do Sul e anomalias negativas no sudeste desse continente e no oceano Atlântico. Além disso, há maior frequência de ciclones nas latitudes subtropicais do oceano Atlântico e convergência do fluxo de umidade integrado na vertical sobre o sudeste da América do Sul. Essas características contribuem para anomalias de precipitação e temperatura do ar na América do Sul.

  10. CASTIGO FEMENINO EN CHILE DURANTE LA PRIMERA MITAD DEL SIGLO XIX

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    Marcelo Neira Navarro

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo permitió generar una serie de categorías de castigos femeninos, considerando que durante buena parte del siglo XIX la policía pudo aplicar "justicia correccional", es decir, sancionar delitos menores. De un universo de más de 32.000 arrestos efectuados en la ciudad de Santiago de Chile entre los años 1830 a 1840 y utilizando el criterio "femenino", el levantamiento logró una muestra que alcanzó al 12% del total. Los datos sistematizados permiten señalar que durante la primera mitad del siglo XIX el delito femenino fue parte importante de la actividad represiva en Chile y dio origen a un castigo relacionado a la Cárcel Correccional. Aunque también se observan otras penas como trabajo de casa formal o encierro en monasterios, forman parte de un circuito restrictivo en función del encierro de mujeres.The present article allowed to generate a series of categories of female punishments, considering that during a great part of the XIX century the police could apply "correctional justice", in other words, punish minor offences. In a universe of more than 32,000 arrest in the city of Santiago, Chile between the years 1830 and 1840 and using a "female" criteria, the uprising achieved a sample that reached 12% of the total. The systematized information shows that during the firt half of the xix century the female offence was an important part of the repressive activity in Chile and it gave origin to a punishment related to a correctional. Even though some other punishments were observed such a work in a formal house or monastery confinemet, they formed part of a restricting circuit functioning with the confinement of women.

  11. CINE, PROPAGANDA Y EL MUNDO DE DISNEY EN CHILE DURANTE LA SEGUNDA GUERRA MUNDIAL

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    Fernando Purcell

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo estudia el fenómeno e impacto de la propaganda cinematográfica de Estados Unidos en Chile durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Se argumenta que la serie de proyectos fílmicos planeados y realizados por Estados Unidos durante el conflicto fueron parte de una diplomacia cultural que no estuvo escindida de los principales lineamientos diplomáticos trazados desde Washington. Por el contrario, queda de manifiesto la estrecha vinculación de la industria hollywoodense con el Departamento de Estado. El cine y otras formas de propaganda tuvieron una amplia difusión en el país, y contribuyeron a consolidar el mensaje de Estados Unidos entre la población chilena, independiente de reacciones negativas puntuales, asociadas a representaciones cinematográficas de Chile que hirieron sensibilidades identitarias de parte de la ciudadanía.This article studies the phenomena and the impact of propaganda film from the United States in Chile during the World War II. I argue that the series of film projects planned and created by the United States during the conflict were part of a cultural diplomacy that was not separated from Washington's main diplomatic guidelines. On the contrary the close connection between the Hollywood film industry and the Department of State is evident. Independent of specific negative reactions associated with representations that hurt Chilean identity, film and other forms of propaganda were largely circulated throughout the country and contributed to the consolidation of the United State's message within the Chilean population.

  12. Perspectivas culturales del desarrollo en las costas australes de Chile: aproximación antropológica a las persistencias y transformaciones de las economías de pesca artesanal en el litoral de Aisén

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    Saavedra Gallo, Gonzalo

    2011-01-01

    La investigación busca explicar y comprender las perspectivas, las implicaciones y las respuestas económico-culturales de las comunidades costeras del sur austral de Chile frente a los procesos de desarrollo económico y modernización que se despliegan actualmente en sus territorios. La problematización del objeto de estudio, se enmarca en la expansión de la industria productora de salmones en cautiverio y en la promoción local de las mentalidades emprendedoras por parte de las agencias del Es...

  13. Perturbaciones de los fuegos de verano en la palma mas austral del mundo (Jubaea Chilensis (mol. Baillon en microcuencas costeras de la Zona Mediterranea de Chile

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    Víctor Quintanilla Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los principales factores de degradación de las microcuencas costeras de la región de Valparaíso corresponde a los incendios forestales, como también a la expansión urbana y a las obras de infraestructura, que han implicado una importante disminución de la superficie vegetal nativa y que posee especies de un alto valor geobotánico y endémico, como es el caso de la palma chilena (Jubaea chilensis. Esta palmera se encuentra en la formación del bosque esclerófilo de Chile central (30o-37oS., área en la cual ocurren la mayor parte de los fuegos vegetales durante el vera- no en el país. A través de los registros de incendios que comprende el período 2000-2012, se han definido en el área de estudio los sectores críticos con mayor impacto de los fuegos; información que es complementada con la aplicación de índices de vegetación (NDVI a partir de imágenes satelitales Landsat e imágenes Theos-I de diferentes temporadas de verano.

  14. Paleoecología y evolución de la fauna de mamíferos de América del Sur durante la «edad de las planicies australes» (Mioceno superior-Plioceno superior

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    Ortiz Jaureguizar, E.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the paleoecology and evolution of the South American land-mammal fauna during the «Age of the Southern Plains» are studied. Chronologically, the «Age of the Southern Plains» encompasses the Chasicoan, Huayquerian, Montehermosan and Chapadmalalan South American Land-Mammal Ages. Changes on the taxonomic richness, first and last appearance rates, and trophic types were considered, taking as a model the fossil record of the Pampean Region (Argentina. A gradual increase of the taxonomic richness is observed during the «Age of the Southern Plains». Caviomorpha and Cingulata were the most diversified taxonomic groups. First appearance rates are higher that those of the last appearances excepting the Chapadmalalan, in which both rates reach a balance. From a trophic point of view, grazer mammals were predominant. This last characteristic corroborates the hypothesis of an existing similarity between the «Age of the Southern Plains» and the North American Clarendonian Chronofauna.En este trabajo se estudian la paleoecología y la evolución de la fauna de mamíferos de América del Sur durante la denominada «edad de las planicies australes», un período que abarca las «Edades-mamífero» Chasiquense, Huayqueriense, Montehermosense y Chapadmalalense. Para ello se consideran los cambios en la riqueza taxonómica, en las tasas de primera y última aparición y en los tipos tráficos, tomando como modelo el registro de la Región Pampeana de la República Argentina. Durante la «edad de las planicies australes» se observa un paulatino incremento en la riqueza taxonómica, con un predominio de los Caviomorpha y los Cingulata. Las tasas de primera aparición son más altas que las de última aparición con la excepción de la «Edad-mamífero» Chapadmalalense, en la cual ambas tasas alcanzan un equilibrio. Desde un punto de vista trófico, predominan los mamíferos pastadores. Esta última característica corrobora la similitud

  15. Influencia del fenómeno ENSO sobre la precipitación nival en el sector andino de Chile central durante el invierno

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    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available INFLUENCE DU PHÉNOMÈNE ENSO SUR LES PRÉCIPITATIONS NEIGEUSES DANS LE CENTRE DU CHILI ANDIN AU COURS DE L’HIVER AUSTRAL. On analyse l’influence du phénomène El Niño/Oscillation du Sud (ENSO sur les précipitations nivales dans les Andes du Chili central au cours de l’hiver. Pour cela, on a utilisé l’information obtenue sur des sites spécifiques (routes de neige situées entre 30° et 38° S et les anomalies de Température de Surface de la Mer (TSM du bloc Niño 3, comme indicateur de l’importance des événements chauds ou froids dans le Pacifique équatorial central. Au nord de 35°S, l’accumulation de neige tend à être supérieure à la normale quand l’anomalie moyenne de TSM dépasse +1°C au cours de la période mai-août. Dans ce même secteur, on enregistre une précipitation inférieure à la normale les hivers caractérisés par une anomalie de TSM inférieure à -0,5°C. Dans la zone située au sud de 35° S, l’influence du phénomène ENSO sur l’accumulation de neige n’est plus significative. Se analiza la influencia del fenómeno El Niño/Oscilación del Sur (ENSO sobre la precipitación nival en los Andes de Chile central durante el invierno. Para esto, se utiliza información de rutas de nieve localizadas entre 30° y 38° S, y de anomalías de temperatura superficial del mar (TSM en la región Niño 3 como un indicador de la magnitud de los eventos cálidos y fríos en el Pacífico ecuatorial central. En la región al norte de 35° S, la acumulación de nieve durante el invierno tiende a ser superior a lo normal cuando la magnitud de la anomalía media de TSM en el periodo mayo-agosto supera +1,0° C. En este mismo sector se verifica que durante los inviernos caracterizados por una anomalía de TSM inferior a -0,5° C, suele registrarse una precipitación nival inferior a lo normal. En el sector al sur de los 35° S, la influencia del fenómeno ENSO sobre la acumulación de nieve durante el invierno no es

  16. Abastecimiento de sangre durante desastres: la experiencia de Chile en 2010 Blood supply during disasters: the experience of Chile in 2010

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    Marcela Vásquez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión de la gestión del abastecimiento y suministro de sangre durante desastres a partir de las experiencias de diversos eventos ocurridos principalmente en la primera década de este siglo, y en particular el terremoto grado 8,8 en la escala de Richter que afectó la zona centro sur de Chile el 27 de febrero de 2010. El objetivo fue proporcionar información que pueda ser útil para mejorar las estrategias y planes de respuesta durante potenciales desastres futuros. La información descriptiva sobre los procedimientos de respuesta se obtuvo mediante entre-vistas, reportes internos y la base de datos del sistema informático del Centro Productivo Regional de Sangre del Maule. Los resultados permiten concluir que para responder de manera eficiente y efectiva a las necesidades de sangre inmediatamente después de un desastre es de importancia clave tener un sistema centralizado de gestión que facilite el abastecimiento y el suministro de sangre y con-tar con personal voluntario competente en salud que esté dispuesto a acudir con celeridad durante estos eventos. Asimismo, se ha observado que durante dichas emergencias se produce un cambio en el perfil de quienes donan sangre. En Chile, por ejemplo, durante las dos semanas siguientes al terremoto la razón hombre/mujer en los donantes se invirtió, con 61,1% de participación por parte de las mujeres, quienes en la semana previa al evento representaban a solo 37%.A review of the management of blood supply and its administration during disasters was conducted based on the experience of several events that occurred primarily from 2000-2010, particularly the earthquake that measured 8.8 on the Richter scale that struck central and southern Chile on 27 February 2010. The objective was to provide information that could be useful in improving response plans and strategies during potential future disasters. The descriptive information on response procedures was obtained from

  17. Diurnal variability of rainfall in southwest Amazonia during the LBA-TRMM field campaign of the austral summer of 1999 Variação diurna da chuva no sudoeste da Amazônia durante a campanha de campo do experimento LBA-TRMM no verão austral de 1999

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    José A. Marengo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The TRMM-LBA field campaign was held during the austral summer of 1999 in southwestern Amazonia. Among the major objectives, was the identification and description of the diurnal variability of rainfall in the region, associated with the different rain producing weather systems that occurred during the January-February season. By using a network of 40 digital rain gauges implemented in the state of Rondônia, and together with observations and analyses of circulation and convection, it was possible to identify details of the diurnal cycle of rainfall and the associated rainfall mechanisms. Rainfall episodes were characterized by regimes of "low-level easterly" and "westerly" winds in the context of the large-scale circulation. The westerly regime is related to an enhanced South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ and an intense and/or wide Low Level Jet (LLJ east of the Andes, which can extend eastward towards Rondônia, even though some westerly regime episodes also show a LLJ that remains close to the foothill of the Andes. The easterly regime is related to easterly propagating systems (e.g. squall-lines with possible weakened or less frequent LLJs and a suppressed SACZ. Diurnal variability of rainfall during westerly surface wind regime shows a characteristic maximum at late afternoon followed by a relatively weaker second maximum at early evening (2100 Local Standard Time LST. The easterly regime composite shows an early morning maximum followed by an even stronger maximum in the afternoon.O experimento de campo do TRMM-LBA ocorreu conteceu durante o verão austral de 1999, na região do sudeste de Amazonia. Entre os principais objetivos deste trabalho pode-se citar a identificação e descrição da variabilidade diurna da chuva nesta região, associada a diferentes fenômenos meteorológicos e sistemas de tempo que ocorreram durante o período de Janeiro-Fevereiro. Usando uma rede de 40 pluviômetros instalados no estado de Rond

  18. Trophic parameters and method validation in Lake Riñihue (North Patagonia: Chile from 1978 through 1997 Parámetros tróficos y validación de métodos en el Lago Riñihue (Patagonia norte: Chile durante 1978-1997

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    STEFAN WOELFL

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Lake Riñihue is the last in a chain of glacially derived oligotrophic lakes in southern Chile and was the subject of limnological research by Dr. Hugo Campos and co-workers at the Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile, since the 1970's. Prof. Campos died in the field in 1998, and this paper now presents a review of these data with comments on methodology relevant to trophic parameters of this lake. Data are presented on inorganic nutrients, chlorophyll a, phytoplankton biomass, primary production and Secchi depth obtained over a period of 21 years between 1978 and 1997 in order to evaluate potential changes in these parameters over time. Non-parametric Wilcoxon rank sum tests were applied to determine temporal trends and revealed: (1 total phosphorus showed a significant increase (TP: 2.7 mg P L-1 to 6.5 mg P L-1, (2 Secchi depth, soluble reactive phosphorus and primary production did not change significantly, (3 chlorophyll a changed significantly among different years, but did not reveal a clear temporal trend, (4 nitrate showed an upward trend and increased concentrations during the early 1990 period, although this data remain in doubt due to methodological anomalies, and (5 the phytoplankton biomass showed significantly higher values during the 1980 period. The significant increase in total phosphorus may reflect increasing usage of grassland within the catchment area. A number of anomalies discovered in historical data sets related to methodology are analysed and discussed within the context of the study.El lago Riñihue es el último en una cadena de lagos oligotróficos, de origen glacial, en del sur Chile, y fue sujeto de investigaciones limnológicas por el Dr. Hugo Campos y colaboradores de la Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile, desde 1970. El Profesor Campos falleció en terreno en 1998 y esta publicación ahora presenta una revisión de estos datos con comentarios acerca de la metodología concerniente a par

  19. RUPTURA CON EL EJE Y ALINEAMIENTO CON ESTADOS UNIDOS: CHILE DURANTE LA SEGUNDA GUERRA MUNDIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Nocera

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se avanza más allá en la investigación de un tema que ya ha sido objeto de otros estudios. Se entrega un análisis pormenorizado de la posición de Chile ante el origen y primer desarrollo de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Aunque se destacan las relaciones con EE.UU., en base principalmente a un amplio estudio de archivos chilenos y norteamericanos, se analiza la situación tanto política como económica del país en relación a la guerra. El artículo vincula las relaciones de Chile con Estados Unidos a la luz de sus propias relaciones con el conflicto europeo, y particularmente con la Alemania naziThis study advances the research of a field, which already has been subyect of other works. There is a detailed analysis on Chile's position in front of the origins and in the first stage of the Second World War. There is an emphasis on relations with the U.S., based on Chilean and American archives, on the economic and political attitudes on the war. The article links the relations between Chile and the U.S. under the light of Chilean relations with the European conflict and, specially, Nazi Germany

  20. Política habitacional de Argentina y Chile durante los noventa. Un estudio de política comparada

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    Mercedes Lentini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La óptica del análisis comparado de políticas habitacionales conduce las argumentaciones de este artículo. Se pretende sinteti-zar algunos resultados de una investigación de mayor alcance cuyo objetivo central se planteó a partir de la necesidad de efectuar el análisis de las políticas públicas de vivienda implementadas por dos países de la Región: Chile y Argentina. Se indaga en torno a los efectos producidos sobre las políticas por los procesos hegemónicos que dominaron la escena interna-cional durante el último cuarto del siglo XX. Se analiza, la concreción y alcances del denominado enfoque facilitador que carac-terizó la política habitacional durante los noventa. Posteriormente, se sintetizan diez enseñanzas que resultan del análisis de las políticas en los dos países. Finalmente, a modo de conclusión, se realiza un breve análisis del camino seguido por ambos países al inicio del nuevo siglo. Se identifican cambios en el rol del Estado y nuevas estrategias de intervención.

  1. Precios y Salarios Reales en Chile durante el Ciclo Salitrero, 1880-1930

    OpenAIRE

    Matus González, Mario

    2009-01-01

    DE LA TESIS:Las pésimas condiciones de vida de los trabajadores urbanos chilenos a inicios del siglo XX -especialmente aquellas referidas al ámbito de la habitación y situación sanitaria- han llevado a que la historiografía dedicada al Ciclo Salitrero de Chile (1880-1930), cultivada tanto por especialistas chilenos como extranjeros, haya tendido a señalar que estas circunstancias fueron ocasionadas por una caída constante y generalizada en el valor de los salarios reales de los trabajadores c...

  2. Prevalencia del alcoholismo durante tres décadas en Chile (1952-1982)

    OpenAIRE

    Naveillan,Pedro; Vargas,Sergio

    1989-01-01

    Mediante el método de Jellinek se estudió la evolución del número de alcohólicos y de la tasa de prevalencia de alcoholismo en Chile y sus variaciones entre los años 1952 y 1982. Se señalan los sesgos y limitaciones de la metodología empleada y se comparan los resultados obtenidos con los de otras investigaciones chilenas. Se concluye que ha habido un incremento del número de alcohólicos y de la tasa de alcoholismo en el periodo analizado que para 1982 es un 70% mayor que para 1952. Este incr...

  3. La esquizofrenia del desarrollo: Un análisis semántico-discursivo de las relaciones entre salmonicultura y pesca artesanal en el sur-austral de Chile

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    Gonzalo Saavedra Gallo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo se basa en una investigación, etnográfica y documental, sobre la problemática relación entre las empresas productoras de salmones en cautiverio y los sistemas pesquero-artesanales emplazados en el sur-austral de Chile, en Patagonia insular occidental. En particular este trabajo busca elucidar qué tipo de representaciones sobre la pesca artesanal y la salmonicultura construyen sus protagonistas –actores de la “comunidad” costera- en un contexto problemático, caracterizado por las incertidumbres y las dinámicas disolutivas y des-estructurantes propias de la expansión modernizante del capitalismo tardío, o si se prefiere, transnacional y neoliberal. La investigación tiene como base metodológica una etnografía reflexivo-conversacional realizada en sucesivas experiencias de campo llevadas a cabo entre diciembre 2011 y septiembre 2014, y la aplicación de redes semánticas naturales para construir y analizar representaciones sociales. Los principales resultados de la investigación dan cuenta de las diferencias discursivas y prácticas que los actores en cuestión formulan en esa intersección espacio-territorial, revelando los sentidos paradójicos y controversiales que se entretejen en la relación industria/comunidad, en donde el “trabajo” pareciera ser el denominador conceptual común pero que adquiere una condición polisémica de notables contrastes según sea observado y/o vivenciado desde la comunidad pesquero-artesanal o desde los/as operarios/as de la industria acuícola.

  4. Montoneras Populares durante la gestación de la República, Chile: 1810-1820

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    León, Leonardo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the social movement that erupted in Central Chile during the 1810-1820 decade, examining the upsurge of popular montoneros who, contemporary to the monarchists and free Mapuche Indians resistance, challenged the Republican project. Cipriano Palma, José María Zapata, Pablo Pincheira y Vicente Benavides, amongst others, emerge as the leaders of those plebeian guerillas that forced the displacement of revolutionary forces from Concepción to Santiago; it also quotes official reports of hundreds of marauders, thieves and bandits who runsacked resources from local villages and the countryside. It postulates that subaltern social groups took advantage of the power vacuum created by the 1810 Revolution, took up arms and, thus armed, withstood the installation of a political regime monopolised by the creole aristocracy. This account also defies official history, which is centered exclusively around the facts derived from the actions of the elite and the State.

    Se examina el movimiento social que se produjo en Chile central durante la década 1810-1820, analizando con particular atención el surgimiento de las montoneras populares que, de modo simultáneo con monarquistas y mapuches, desafiaron el proyecto republicano. Cipriano Palma, José María Zapata, Pablo Pincheira y Vicente Benavides, entre otros, emergen como los líderes de las guerrillas plebeyas que obligaron al retroceso de las fuerzas revolucionarias desde Concepción hacia la capital, junto con centenares de sujetos anónimos que, bajo el disfraz de asaltantes, ladrones y bandidos, asolaron villas y estancias. Se plantea que los grupos subalternos sacaron ventaja del vacío de poder que generó la Revolución, para levantarse en armas y, de esa manera, resistieron la instalación de un régimen político monopolizado por los criollos. El relato constituye una visión revisionista de la historiografía de la época, elaborada en torno a las hazañas de la

  5. Estimación de mortalidad natural e incertidumbre para congrio dorado (Genypterus blacodes Schneider, 1801 en la zona sur-austral de Chile Estimation of natural mortality and uncertainty in pink cusk-eel (Genypterus blacodes Schneider, 1801 in southern Chile

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    Rodrigo Wiff

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El congrio dorado (Genypterus blacodes es un pez demersal de gran importancia económica en la pesquería multiespecífica y multiflota que opera en la zona sur-austral de Chile (41°28'-57°00'S. Desde principio de los años noventas se consideró para efectos de la evaluación poblacional la existencia de un único stock. Sin embargo, varios antecedentes relacionados con la historia de vida y demografía han conducido a que, desde el año 2005, la evaluación de esta especie se realice bajo dos stocks administrativos, uno en la zona norte (41°28'-47°00'S y otro en la zona sur (47°00'-57°00'S. La separación de stocks produce una demanda por actualización de parámetros de historia de vida, entre éstos la mortalidad natural (M. En este trabajo se estimó M para el congrio dorado mediante métodos empíricos aplicados por zona y sexo. La incertidumbre en M fue incorporada a través de remuestreo de Monte Carlo considerando dos fuentes de error, una proveniente de los parámetros de historia de vida que alimentan los modelos empíricos y otra, proveniente de los coeficientes que los definen. El promedio de M mediante los diferentes métodos mostró, para una determinada zona, importantes diferencias entre sexos, como también para sexos conjuntos entre zonas de pesca. Los individuos de la zona norte presentaron mayor M que aquellos provenientes de la zona sur y los coeficientes de variación por método son altamente dependientes del tipo de error incorporado. El método de Pauly (1980 parece ser el más adecuado para el congrio dorado entregando valores de M para sexos conjuntos de 0,27 año-1 (IC: 0,13-0,47 en la zona norte y 0,23 año-1 (IC: 0,11-0,40 en la zona sur.Pink cusk-eel (Genypterus blacodes is a demersal fish of high economic importance for the multi-species and multi-fleet fishery operating off far-southern Chile (41°28'-57°00'S. Since the early 1990s, the existence of a single stock was assumed for purposes of stock

  6. Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The background notes on Chile provide a statistical summary of the population, geography, government, and the economy, and more descriptive text on the history, population, government, economy, defense, and foreign relations. In brief, Chile has 13.3 million Spanish Indian (Mestizos), European, and Indian inhabitants and an annual growth rate of 1.6%. 96% are literate. Infant mortality is 18/1000. 34% of the population are involved in industry and commerce, 30% in services, 19% in agriculture and forestry and fishing, 7% in construction, and 2% in mining. The major city is Santiago. The government, which gained independence in 1810, is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches. There are 12 regions. There are 6 major political parties. Suffrage is universal at 18 years. Gross domestic product (GDP) is $29.2 billion. The annual growth rate is 5% and inflation is 19%. Copper, timber, fish, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, and molybdenum are its natural resources. Agricultural products are 9% of GDP and include wheat, potatoes, corn, sugar beets, onions, beans, fruits, and livestock. Industry is 21% of GDP and includes mineral refining, metal manufacturing, food and fish processing, paper and wood products, and finished textiles. $8.3 billion is the value of exports and $7 billion of imports. Export markets are in Japan, the US, Germany, Brazil, and the United Kingdom. Chile received $3.5 billion in economic aid between 1949-85, but little in recent years. 83% live in urban centers, principally around Santiago. Congressional representation is made on the basis of elections by a unique binomial majority system. Principal government officials are identified. Chile has a diversified free market economy and is almost self-sufficient in food production. The US is a primary trading partner. 49% of Chile's exports are minerals. Chile maintains diplomatic relations with 70 countries, however, relations are strained with Argentina and Bolivia. Relations

  7. Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Chile is a long (2650 miles), narrow (250 miles at widest point) country sandwiched between the Andes mountains and the Pacific. The northern desert is rich in copper and nitrates; the temperate middle region is agricultural and supports the major cities, including Santiago, the capital, and the port of Valparaiso; and the southern region is a cold and damp area of forests, grasslands, lakes, and fjords. The country is divided into 12 administrative regions. Chile's population of 12.5 million are mainly of Spanish or Indian descent or mestizos. Literacy is 92.3%, and the national language is Spanish. Infant mortality is 18.1/1000, and life expectancy is 68.2 years. 82% of the people are urban, and most are Roman Catholics. Chile was settled by the Spanish in 1541 and attached to the Viceroyalty of Peru. Independence was won in 1818 under the leadership of Bernardo O'Higgins. In the 1880s Chile extended its sovereignty over the Strait of Magellan in the south and areas of southern Peru and Bolivia in the north. An officially parliamentary government, elected by universal suffrage, drifted into oligarchy and finally into a military dictatorship under Carlos Ibanez in 1924. Constitutional government was restored in 1932. The Christian Democratic government of Eduardo Frei (1964-70) inaugurated major reforms, including land redistribution, education, and far-reaching social and economic policies. A Marxist government under Salvador Allende lasted from 1970 to 1973 when the present military government of General Pinochet Ugarte took power, overthrew Allende, abolished the Congress, and banned political parties. It has moved the country in the direction of a free market economy but at the cost of systematic violations of human rights. A new constitution was promulgated in 1981, and congressional elections have been scheduled for October, 1989. A "National Accord for Transition to Full Democracy" was mediated by the Catholic Church in 1985. The social reforms of the

  8. Principales exposiciones de arte en Chile durante el siglo XX: circulación, recepcion y debates escriturales = Principais exposições de arte no Chile durante o século XX: circulação, recepção e debates escriturais = Principal art expositions in Chile during the XX century: circulation, reception and scriptural debates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamorano Pérez, Pedro Emilio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O cenário das Artes Visuais no Chile durante o século XX esteve fortemente marcado por um conjunto de exposições artísticas que, por sua importância e propostas, tiveram capacidade de se tornarem marcos importantes de mudanças na arte nacional. Algumas o marcaram pelo caráter simbólico e oficial que tiveram, como a de 1910. Esta exposição, além da presença de grande quantidade de países, marcou solenemente as atividades comemorativas do primeiro centenário da Independência Nacional. Outras, como a do grupo Montparnase, a de Tótila Albert e a De Manet aos Nossos Dias, por trazer e instalar novos conceitos e debates estéticos no país

  9. LAS RELACIONES ENTRE CHILE Y CANADÁ DURANTE LA SEGUNDA GUERRA MUNDIAL: LAS PRIMERAS EXPERIENCIAS DE LOS DIPLOMÁTICOS CHILENOS

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    JOSÉ DEL POZO

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Basado en los informes diplomáticos chilenos, este artículo analiza el tema de las relaciones entre Chile y Canadá, en el período en que esos países avanzaron hacia el intercambio de embajadas, entre 1941 y 1944. En él se explica que hasta antes de esos años, Canadá solo tenía un interés comercial en América Latina, mientras que para Chile era más importante el plano diplomático, a causa de su interés en reforzar su posición internacional, un tanto debilitada desde comienzos del siglo XX. Las razones que llevaron a ambos países a tomar esa decisión estuvieron directamente relacionadas con el contexto de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Una vez instaladas las embajadas, se comentan las impresiones que tuvieron los primeros representantes de Chile en Ottawa acerca de lo que era Canadá, lo que muestra las dificultades en comprender el funcionamiento de un país bastante distinto a Chile. El artículo concluye que el establecimiento de embajadas no trajo un incremento significativo a corto plazo en las relaciones entre ambos países, ni a nivel comercial ni políticoBased on the reports of the Chilean foreign mission in Canada, this article deals with the relations between Chile and Canada during the period in which both countries decided to exchange embassies. It explains that before those years, Canada was interested in Latin America mainly in commercial topics, while Chile showed more interest on the diplomatic side. This difference is due to the fact that Chile found itself in a rather vulnerable position before 1939. The Second World War was the main reason that led to the establishment of embassies in both countries. The article analyzes also the first impressions of the Chilean representatives in Ottawa, showing that it was not easy for Chilieans to understand the nature of a country like Canada. It ends saying that in the short term, the establishment of embassies did not lead to an increase in the commercial or the political

  10. Evolution of ice-dammed proglacial lakes in Última Esperanza, Chile: implications from the late-glacial R1 eruption of Reclús volcano, Andean Austral Volcanic Zone Evolución de lagos proglaciales embalsados por hielo en Última Esperanza, Chile: Implicancias de la explosión volcánica tardiglacial R1 del volcán Reclús, Zona Volcánica Austral Andina

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    Charles R Stern

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Newly described outerops, excavations and sediment cores from the region of Última Esperanza, Magallanes, contain tephra derived from the large late-glacial explosive Rl eruption of the Reclús volcano in the Andean Austral Volcanic Zone. New radiocarbon dates associated to these deposits refine previous estimates of the age, to 14.9 cal kyrs BP (12,670±240 14C yrs BP, and volume, to >5 km³, of this tephra. The geographic and stratigraphic distribution of Rl also place constraints on the evolution of the ice-dammed proglacial lake that existed east of the cordillera in this area between the termination of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM and the Holocene. This proglacial lake generated wave-cut terraces, and also caves, such as the Cueva de Milodón, along the highest prominent terrace. The current elevation of these terraces depends on the total amount of post-glacial isostatic rebound, which is unknown. Due to differential rebound, the highest prominent lake terraces decrease in height from west-to-east, from -170 m a.s.l. on Península Antonio Varas west of Seno Ultima Esperanza, to-150 m a.s.l. aroundLago Sofía, anddownto-125 m a.s.l. along their easternmost margin. The presence of thick deposits of Rl tephra in some of the caves around Lago Sofía implies that the proglacial lake had already dropped below its highest level prior to the time of this eruption, and, in fact, even earlier, prior to 16.1 cal kyrs BP (13,560±180 14C yrs BP, when land mammals first oceupied these caves. The depositional environment of Rl in a core from Dumestre bog suggests that the lake level was in fact 70 m a.s.l. until 12.8 cal kyrs BP (10,695±40 14C yrs BP. However, a 14.2 cal kyrs BP (12,125±85 14C yrs BF Mylodon pelvis from a nearby site, located at only -7 m a.s.l., suggests that the lake could have emptied, for at least a brief period, to this low level at this time. This latter datum, combined with the lack of any prominent terraces between the

  11. “Fue bonita la solidaridad entre mujeres”: género, resistencia, y prisión política en Chile durante la dictadura

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    Hillary Hiner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo ocuparemos la teoría de género para analizar las historias orales de presas políticas en Chile durante la dictadura. En particular, nos interesa la manera en que las mujeres podían ocupar estrategias generizadas de resistencia y solidaridad, aunque reconocemos que estas mismas estrategias podían volverse insuficientes, ya que la misma naturaleza extrema de la tortura y la prisión política terminó promoviendo el instinto de sobrevivir a todo costo. Finalmente, concluimos que las memorias de las ex presas políticas han sido profundamente influenciadas, en muchos casos, por contactos posteriores con el feminismo.

  12. Potencial de la percepción remota - estudio basado en desastres naturales ocurridos durante los últimos 5 años en Chile

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    Guido Staub

    Full Text Available A través de desastres naturales ocurridos en Chile durante los últimos 5 años se ejemplifica como observaciones adquiridas por los diversos sensores, hoy en día disponibles en la Percepción Remota, fueron utilizadas con éxito en varias ocasiones, tanto durante como después de que ha ocurrido una catástrofe. Los ejemplos presentados en el presente artículo están relacionados con el terremoto y posterior tsunami ocurrido en febrero 2010 y las erupciones volcánicas en los años 2008 y 2011. Se da a conocer las plataformas y los sensores remotos más convenientes para realizar una administración moderna de desastres naturales. Aunque el catastro de daños producidos por un desastre natural es la aplicación más conocida en público, la Percepción Remota también puede ser usada en todas las fases de su administración: Mitigación, Preparación, Respuesta y Recuperación. Por tal motivo también se muestra como y en que situación puede ser útil el uso de datos adquiridos por sensores remotos. Como la Percepción Remota puede ser considerada como una de las más importantes herramientas en el ámbito de la administración de desastres naturales se concluye que en un país como Chile, su aplicación debe ser intensificado para poder superar cualquier catástrofe.

  13. LAS RELACIONES DE DOS REGÍMENES AUTORITARIOS: ESPAÑA Y CHILE DURANTE LOS GOBIERNOS DE PRIMO DE RIVERA E IBÁÑEZ DEL CAMPO

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    Juan Luis Carrellán Ruiz

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Este trabajo quiere poner de relieve la importancia que tuvieron las relaciones diplomáticas y económicas entre España y Chile durante los mandatos de Primo de Rivera e Ibáñez del Campo y para ello se ha analizado la documentación diplomática existente en diversos archivos españoles y chilenos. También refleja las opiniones vertidas en la prensa española sobre la política diseñada por el coronel Carlos Ibáñez. Estas relaciones se basaron en las simpatías ideológicas de los dos regímenes que propiciaron unas conexiones muy intensas en diferentes ámbitos como fueron las de índole política y diplomática con la firma de un tratado de arbitraje y la elevación al máximo nivel de las respectivas legaciones; las de carácter militar con la formación de oficiales chilenos en escuelas españolas; y las de signo comercial con dos acuerdos, uno de rebaja de aranceles y otro para el internamiento de salitre en territorio español. Palabras Claves: Dictadura, España, Primo de Rivera, Chile, Ibáñez del Campo. ABSTRACT This work wants to emphasize the importance of the diplomatic and economic relations, which took place during Primo de Rivera and Ibáñez del Campo mandates, between Spain and Chile. For that purpose, there has been analyzed the diplomatic existing documentation in different Spanish and Chilean Archives. It also reflects the opinions written on the Spanish press about the politics designed by Colonel Carlos Ibanez. These relations were based on the ideological sympathy of both regimes which propitiated very intense connections in different areas, such the political and diplomatic areas with the arbitration agreement signature and the elevation to the maximum level of both legations, those of military character with the Chilean officials training in Spanish training centres, and those of commercial sign with two agreements, the reduction of duties and the internment of saltpetre in Spanish territory. Key Words

  14. Composición de especies, tasas de captura y estructura de tamaño de peces capturados en la pesquería espinelera artesanal de rayas en la zona sur-austral de Chile Species composition, catch rates, and size structures of fishes caught in the small-scale longline skate fishery off southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Quiroz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos diez años los desembarques de rayas en la pesquería espinelera artesanal se han incrementado aceleradamente en la zona sur-austral de Chile y actualmente se desconocen características fundamentales para la descripción de la dinámica poblacional, como es la composición de especies, tasas de capturas y estructura de tamaño. En este estudio se exploraron estas características mediante información biológico-pesquera obtenida en un programa de moni toreo experimental desarrollado entre febrero 2003 y agosto 2004. Se analizaron 403 lances de pesca donde se registró información operational (fecha, profundidad, tiempo de reposo, número de anzuelos, captura total y zona de pesca y biológica (identificación de especies, número de especies, peso, sexo y longitud total. Se examinó por zona de pesca la composición de un grupo de 16 especies correspondientes al 98% de la captura total. Las capturas estuvieron constituidas principalmente por raya volantín (Dipturus chilensis y congrio dorado (Genypterus blacodes, que en conjunto representaron el 87,8% de la captura total, mientras que la importancia del resto de las especies de elasmobranquios incidentales no superó el 9%. Adicionalmente, se obtuvo la estructura de tamaño y tasas de captura de congrio dorado y de las únicas dos especies de rajiformes reportadas en las capturas, raya volantín y raya espinuda (Dipturus trachyderma. En estas tres especies, la estructura de tamaño evidenció cambios significativos (p Landings of the small-scale longline skate fishery have increased rapidly off southern Chile during the last ten years. At present, the fundamental characteristics for describing the population dynamics (e.g., species composition, catch rates, size structures are not known. The present study explored these characteristics using biological-fishery information coming from an experimental sampling program carried out between February 2003 and August 2004. A total

  15. Migración laboral e intercambios culturales: trabajadores galeses del cobre en Chile durante el siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Jones

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aún se debe estudiar en detalle el traspaso de la tecnología de fundición de cobre a partir de la zona de Swansea que acompañó el desarrollo de la industria mundial de cobre en el siglo XIX. Este artículo comienza a remediar esta omisión al enfocarse detenidamente en una microhistoria de los fundidores galeses de cobre quienes migraron a Guayacán, cerca de Coquimbo, Chile, a mediados del siglo XIX. Analiza el desarrollo de una presencia laboral galesa en Guayacán y las dinámicas de la migración, incluyendo motivos, redes laborales y proceso de reclutamiento. También estudia cómo el poseer habilidades industriales dio forma a encuentros culturales y religiosos entre galeses y chilenos.

  16. The AUSTRAL VLBI observing program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, L.; Lovell, J. E. J.; McCallum, J. N.; Mayer, D.; Reynolds, C.; Quick, J.; Weston, S.; Titov, O.; Shabala, S. S.; Böhm, J.; Natusch, T.; Nickola, M.; Gulyaev, S.

    2017-07-01

    The AUSTRAL observing program was started in 2011, performing geodetic and astrometric very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) sessions using the new Australian AuScope VLBI antennas at Hobart, Katherine, and Yarragadee, with contribution from the Warkworth (New Zealand) 12 m and Hartebeesthoek (South Africa) 15 m antennas to make a southern hemisphere array of telescopes with similar design and capability. Designed in the style of the next-generation VLBI system, these small and fast antennas allow for a new way of observing, comprising higher data rates and more observations than the standard observing sessions coordinated by the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS). In this contribution, the continuous development of the AUSTRAL sessions is described, leading to an improvement of the results in terms of baseline length repeatabilities by a factor of two since the start of this program. The focus is on the scheduling strategy and increased number of observations, aspects of automated operation, and data logistics, as well as results of the 151 AUSTRAL sessions performed so far. The high number of the AUSTRAL sessions makes them an important contributor to VLBI end-products, such as the terrestrial and celestial reference frames and Earth orientation parameters. We compare AUSTRAL results with other IVS sessions and discuss their suitability for the determination of baselines, station coordinates, source coordinates, and Earth orientation parameters.

  17. Represión y vigilancia hacia el Trabajo Docente durante la Dictadura Militar en Chile (1973-1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Andres Zurita Garrido

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar las políticas de represión y vigilancia ejercidas contra el Trabajo Docente durante la Dictadura Militar (1973-1990. Para alcanzar este objetivo se interrogan diferentes fuentes: Informes de Derechos Humanos, Actas de las Sesiones Secretas de la Junta Militar y documentos propios del funcionamiento cotidiano del aparato de represión. Allí, la figura de profesoras y profesores encuentra un lugar de destaque en tanto grupo a corregir y perseguir, situación que invita a sostener que la Dictadura Militar dedicó una especial atención hacía el Trabajo Docente, apoyándose en estrategias de vigilancia y persecución especialmente diseñadas para estas finalidades.

  18. Liderazgo distribuido durante el proceso de elaboración e implementación de planes de mejoramiento educativo en una comuna rural en Chile

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    Luis Ahumada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La gestión de los centros educativos es uno de los elementos relevantes a la hora de explicar la mejora en la calidad y la equidad en la educación. En Chile se ha puesto atención a una serie de variables tales como liderazgo, gestión curricular, gestión de recursos, convivencia escolar que incidirían en el logro de resultados de aprendizaje de los estudiantes.Apartir del año 2009, los Planes de Mejoramiento Educativo (PME se propusieron como la principal estrategia para el logro de un aprendizaje continuo en cada una de estas variables. El objetivo del artículo es comprender las prácticas de liderazgo y aprendizaje organizacional que se dan durante el proceso de elaboración e implementación de dichos planes. Se utilizó una metodología cualitativa de tipo descriptiva e inductiva basada en el método hermenéutico. 6 Escuelas Básicas y 1 Liceo de Enseñanza Básica y Media pertenecientes a una Comuna Rural participaron en este estudio. El diseño es longitudinal utilizando entrevistas activas semi-estructuradas individuales y grupos focales. Los resultados dan cuenta de cuatro tipos de liderazgo que emergen durante el proceso de elaboración e implementación de los planes: estratégico, táctico, espontáneo y pragmático. Se discuten las implicancias de estos resultados para los procesos de cambio y mejora educativa.

  19. Accidentes de trabajo en el Hospital Clínico de la Universidad de Chile durante el año 2007

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    Carlos Valdés

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Conocer el número de los accidentes laborales en el Hospital Clínico de la Universidad de Chile (HCUCH el año 2007 y su caracterización de acuerdo a variables como: sexo, edad, tipo de lesión, día de la semana, mes del año, cargo desempeñado y días perdidos. Diseño: Estudio descriptivo, transversal, retrospectivo y observacional. Lugar: Hospital Clínico de la Universidad de Chile (HCUCH. Participantes: Accidentes laborales reportados entre el 1 de Enero y el 31 de Diciembre del 2007. Intervención: Se utilizó la base de datos del Registro de Notificación de Accidentes Laborales, proporcionada por el Departamento de Prevención de Riesgos del HCUCH Principales medidas de Resultados: Porcentajes y Medidas de Tendencia Central, tabuladas en una base de datos con ayuda del programa Microsoft Excel 2003 para Windows ®. Resultados: Se observan 104 accidentes laborales, con un mayor número de eventos en el personal femenino (69,2%, en el rango etareo de 30-39 años (34,3%, el tipo de lesión más frecuente fueron las contusiones policontusiones (39,4%, el grupo más accidentado fue los auxiliares y técnicos (71.1%. El estudio por días de la semana revela que hay más accidentes los días miércoles y jueves (43,27% y los meses del año con más accidentes fueron enero, agosto y diciembre. La mayor cantidad de accidentes laborales comprometen entre 1 a 5 días perdidos. Conclusiones: Durante el año 2007, se pesquisó 104 accidentes laborales, lo que significó 804 días de ausentismo. Este estudio muestra que el sexo femenino, tener entre 30-39 años y ejercer como auxiliar o técnico fueron factores de asociados al incremento de los accidentes laborales. Palabras clave: Accidentes de trabajo, ausentismo, notificación de accidentes de trabajo.

  20. Accidentes de trabajo en el Hospital Clínico de la Universidad de Chile durante el año 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Valdés

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo, Conocer el número de los accidentes laborales en el Hospital Clínico de la Universidad de Chile (HCUCH el año 2007 y su caracterización de acuerdo a variables como, sexo, edad, tipo de lesión, día de la semana, mes del año, cargo desempeñado y días perdidos. Diseño, Estudio descriptivo, transversal, retrospectivo y observacional. Lugar, Hospital Clínico de la Universidad de Chile (HCUCH. Participantes, Accidentes laborales reportados entre el 1 de Enero y el 31 de Diciembre del 2007. Intervención, Se utilizó la base de datos del Registro de Notificación de Accidentes Laborales, proporcionada por el Departamento de Prevención de Riesgos del HCUCH Principales medidas de Resultados, Porcentajes y Medidas de Tendencia Central, tabuladas en una base de datos con ayuda del programa Microsoft Excel 2003 para Windows ®. Resultados: Se observan 104 accidentes laborales, con un mayor número de eventos en el personal femenino (69,2%, en el rango etareo de 30-39 años (34,3%, el tipo de lesión más frecuente fueron las contusiones/policontusiones (39,4%, el grupo más accidentado fue los auxiliares y técnicos (71.1%. El estudio por días de la semana revela que hay más accidentes los días miércoles y jueves (43,27% y los meses del año con más accidentes fueron enero, agosto y diciembre. La mayor cantidad de accidentes laborales comprometen entre 1 a 5 días perdidos. Conclusiones: Durante el año 2007, se pesquisó 104 accidentes laborales, lo que significó 804 días de ausentismo. Este estudio muestra que el sexo femenino, tener entre 30-39 años y ejercer como auxiliar o técnico fueron factores de asociados al incremento de los accidentes laborales.

  1. Human exploitation of seabirds in coastal southern Chile during the mid-Holocene Explotación humana de aves marinas durante el Holoceno medio en la costa del sur de Chile

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    ALEJANDRO SIMEONE

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed a collection of 738 bird bones, representing a minimum of 71 individuals, found in a settlement of hunter-gatherers from the mid-Holocene, 5,000 years BP, in the coastal locality of Chan Chan, southern Chile. The camp was inhabited for over ca. 500 years, during which time a steady hunting pressure on the local marine resources was exerted, particularly on seabirds. The most abundant taxon (bones/number of individuals was the red-legged cormorant Phalacrocorax gaimardi (551/44 which was also the prey which provided the highest edible proportion of body mass. Albatrosses Thalassarche cf. melanophris (103/12 and shearwaters Puffinus cf. griseus (20/5 were secondary prey. Cormorants were presumably hunted at their breeding colonies (which are still present in the area so it is probable that egging also occurred. Because they are pelagic, albatrosses could have been hunted at sea, but the adequate technology for this (boats, hooks is not apparent in the archaeological record. The bird assemblage obtained in the sample does not qualitatively differ from that of the present, indicating a reasonable stability in species richness from the considered period until the present. The high diversity of coastal resources in Chan Chan was likely important in leading to the, at least seasonal, occupation of these areas by hunter-gatherers and also may have encouraged the development of the adequate technology for the exploitation of these resourcesSe analizaron 738 restos óseos de aves, correspondientes a un mínimo de 71 individuos, encontrados en un asentamiento de cazadores-recolectores del Holoceno medio, 5.000 años AP, en la localidad costera de Chan Chan, sur de Chile. El campamento fue habitado durante al menos 500 años, tiempo durante el cual se ejerció una presión de caza persistente sobre los recursos marinos locales, particularmente las aves marinas. El taxón más numeroso (restos/ número de individuos fue el lile Phalacrocorax

  2. Variaciones glaciales durante el Holoceno en Patagonia Central, Aisén, Chile: evidencias geomorfológicas Holocene glacial variations in Central Patagonia, Aisén, Chile: geomorphological evidences

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    María Mardones

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Durante el Holoceno, avances y retrocesos glaciares geomorfológicamente registrados caracterizan la Patagonia. Este artículo presenta la evolución geomorfológica y las evidencias de fluctuaciones glaciales holocénicas de una región patagónica, que servirán de referencia para el estudio de la evolución paleoclimática Postglacial del extremo sur de Sudamérica. El área de trabajo es la cuenca del río Blanco (45°30'S, en la Patagonia Central (Región de Aisén, Chile. Dataciones radiométricas de sedimentos orgánicos de morrenas terminales aportan antecedentes preliminares de dos avances glaciares: el primero, representado por la morrena frontal del lago Elizalde, arroja una edad inferior a 9.370±50 años 14C AP (10.700 a 10.480 cal. años AP, lo que cronológicamente ubica este evento glaciar en el Holoceno Temprano. Esta progresión del hielo es 100 a 200 años más antigua que aquella observada inmediatamente al sur del área de estudio, en el margen oriental del lago General Carrera (o lago Buenos Aires en Argentina y aproximadamente 100 años más joven, que la registrada en la morrena de Puerto Banderas I (lago Argentino, 50°S. Este resultado sugiere un patrón de comportamiento de los glaciares de Patagonia Central diferente a aquel observado por otros investigadores en la Región de Los Lagos (41°S y en la Región de Magallanes (54°S, donde no se registran huellas de reavances glaciares durante el Holoceno Temprano. Luego de un importante retroceso hacia el oeste, un reavance glaciar más reciente se habría producido en el valle del río Quetro (afluente del río Blanco, a una edad inferior a 2.250±40 AP (2.340 a 2.150 cal. años AP, comparable con el estadio frío del Neoglacial Medio, verificado en distintos puntos de la Patagonia. Confrontando estos resultados con registros palinológicos previamente publicados por otros autores, interpretamos que las causas de ambas fluctuaciones glaciales son variaciones regionales

  3. Cuando habitábamos lo elemental. Una mirada crítica sobre la vivienda tradicional en el Chile austral a través de la fotografía del siglo XIX

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    Jocelyn Tillería González

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available La fotografía es, sin duda, una herramienta extraordinaria para el estudio histórico de la arquitectura. Así lo demuestra su capacidad documental, reforzada por sus amplias escalas de registro, entre el territorio y la edificación. La fotografía llega a Chile en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX, coincidiendo con el proceso de construcción nacional y consolidación territorial, que se desarrollaba en paralelo al de las otras naciones americanas. Las vistas de ciudades, calles y construcciones, tomadas por fotógrafos anónimos y de renombre, nos ofrecen testimonio del arraigo que alcanzó la arquitectura de origen colonial hispano en la tradición constructiva del país. Además, documentan el nacimiento de una nueva arquitectura que hace su aparición en los denominados territorios de la colonización, producto del intercambio constructivo entre la tradición local y la europea, que rápidamente fue asimilada y extendida. Gracias a estas miradas de los fotógrafos decimonónicos, contamos hoy con un registro documental de gran valor que nos permite comprender mejor las características de las arquitecturas tradicionales del centro y Sur del país.

  4. Prevalencia del alcoholismo durante tres décadas en Chile (1952-1982 Prevalência do alcolismo durante três décadas no Chile (1952-1982 The prevalence of alcoholism in Chile over three decades (1952-1982

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    Pedro Naveillan

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available Mediante el método de Jellinek se estudió la evolución del número de alcohólicos y de la tasa de prevalencia de alcoholismo en Chile y sus variaciones entre los años 1952 y 1982. Se señalan los sesgos y limitaciones de la metodología empleada y se comparan los resultados obtenidos con los de otras investigaciones chilenas. Se concluye que ha habido un incremento del número de alcohólicos y de la tasa de alcoholismo en el periodo analizado que para 1982 es un 70% mayor que para 1952. Este incremento ha sido irregular y fluctuante. Nuestros resultados cuestionan la eficacia de las políticas de prevención del alcoholismo llevadas a cabo en el período.Mediante o método de Jellinek foi estudada a evolução do número de alcoólatras e da taxa de prevalência do alcoolismo no Chile e suas variações entre os anos de 1952 e 1982. Foram assinalados os vieses e limitações da metodologia empregada e comparados os resultados obtidos com os de outros estudos chilenos. Concluiu-se que houve aumento do número de alcoólatras e da taxa de alcoolismo, no período analisado, sendo que a taxa observada em 1982 foi 70% maior que a de 1952. Este aumento mostrou-se irregular e flutuante. Os resultados questionam a eficácia das políticas de prevenção do alcoolismo, realizadas no período.The level of alcoholism in Chile and its variations between 1952 and 1982 are studied by means of the Jellinek Method. The limitations and bias of the methodology employed are indicated and the results are compared with those of other children studies. The conclusion is that there was an increase in the number of alcoholics and in the alcoholism rate during the period analyzed, with a rate for 1982 70% higher than that for 1952. The efficacy of the policy for the prevention of alcoholism adopted in the period under study is called in question by the results presented.

  5. Acoustic Engineering program at the Universidad Austral de Chile (UACh)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerhoff, Jorge; Poblete, Victor; Arenas, Jorge P.

    2002-11-01

    From the beginning of the acoustics program at UACh in 1968, the studies of Acoustic Engineering have been modified and developed according to the vision and human resources of its developers. Three different stages of growth can be seen. When the program began, it was totally aimed at forming skilled professionals in audio and recording. In this way, the professional title given was Sound Engineer. At that time, each applicant was required to have ''good musical hearing,'' which had to be demonstrated through a special musical audition test. The second stage was characterized by the incorporation of acoustics subjects which allowed students, with no musical abilities, to competently work on acoustic engineering activities not related to music. Then, the professional title was changed to Acoustic Engineer. Thus, job opportunities were diversified and access was allowed by all types of students. In the last stage, the study plan was modified as a response to the new vision and requirements of the globalized world in which the environmental component has a great importance. In this work the development of a program that dates from 35 years ago is presented and justified.

  6. Phosphate geochemistry, mineralization processes, and Thioploca distribution in shelf sediments off central Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmkvist, Lars; Arning, Esther T.; Küster-Heins, Kathrin

    2010-01-01

    mineralization, and occurrence of dense communities of the filamentous sulfur bacteria, Thioploca spp., on the continental shelf off central Chile during the austral summer when high phytoplankton productivity and anoxic bottom water prevailed. Freshly deposited phytodetritus stimulated extremely high sulfate...

  7. Chile es bandera y juventud”. Efebolatría y gremialismo durante la primera etapa de la dictadura de Pinochet (1973-1979

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    Víctor Muñoz Tamayo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the relation between two aspects of the political history of Chile during the early years of the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet. On the one hand, the symbolic contents projected by the regime, which highlighted youth as a metaphor of the new order —a cult of youth: “efebolatría”—, and, on the other hand, the articulation in said context of a political network of youths who managed to position themselves in the highest level of government, the so-called “gremialistas”. Thus, a study based on documents and oral testimony led to the conclusion that said relationship was fundamental in producing the political and doctrinal support for the dictatorship itself.

  8. Aspectos epidemiológicos sobre mordeduras caninas durante el año 2011 en la ciudad de Temuco, Chile.

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    Waldo Armstrong,

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Los accidentes causados por mordeduras de perros y gatos son un problema de salud pública y concretamente las mordeduras de perro constituyen el riesgo más grave que estos animales suponen para la salud de las personas. A los costes económicos derivados del tratamiento de las lesiones físicas debemos añadir las secuelas psicológicas que muchas veces aparecen tras las agresiones. La prevención es el único camino para resolver este problema y puede efectuarse mejor cuando se conocen los diversos factores involucrados en la génesis de este tipo de accidentedebido a lo anterior el objetivo del estudio fue describir las características epidemiológicas asociadas a las personas mordidas por perros. La metodología utilizada para la recolección de datos fue la aplicación de una encuesta a 9 centros asistenciales de la ciudad de Temuco. Se solicitó información sobre pacientes atendidos por mordeduras caninas durante el año 2011 y los datos recolectados se ingresaron en una planilla de cálculos. Los resultados indican que niños y adultos presentan 52% de las mordeduras durante el año. Los hombres presentan una mayor incidencia con un 47% a diferencia de las mujeres con un 44%. Con respecto a la región corporal afectada los miembros superiores alcanzan un 25% de frecuencia ante el ataque y los miembros inferiores un 31.3%. Por otra parte, las mordeduras por perros presentaron una marcada estacionalidad en los meses de verano con un 30% de casos. Se concluye que las mordeduras caninas son un problema frecuente y de real importancia en el ámbito de salud pública, generando en la población secuelas físicas y psicológicas por las lesiones generadas durante el ataque.

  9. Comunistas y anticomunistas. Redes políticas y culturales en Argentina y Chile durante la Guerra Fría (circa 1960

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    Elena Carmen Scirica

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Los trabajos incluidos en este dossier analizan los posicionamientos, las prácticas y las redes de relaciones de diversos espacios anticomunistas y comunistas en la Argentina y Chile. Esta propuesta, pues, pone en comunicación los distintos núcleos en lugar de concentrarse exclusivamente en el análisis de grupos abroquelados dentro de una misma familia ideológica o partidaria. Al respecto, se parte del supuesto de que el despliegue de cada uno de ellos se construye en íntima conexión con las prácticas, anclajes y discursividades de los otros, y en forma articulada con los imaginarios y las representaciones creadas sobre esos mismos otros.Con estas consideraciones presentes, este abordaje articula dos espacios vecinos y contemporáneos a partir de un problema en común (Bloch, 1992. El mismo está dado, como se indicó, por el modo en que se configuraron organizaciones, dispositivos y apuestas anticomunistas de distinto signo –ya sea desde esferas progresistas, investigadas en este dossier por Jorge Nallim a través de su estudio comparativo sobre el Congreso por la Libertad de la Cultura en ambos países, o desde múltiples espacios de derecha, analizados por Ernesto Boholavsky y Martín Vicente en el caso argentino– entre mediados de la década de 1950 y 1960, al fragor de la Guerra Fría en América latina. Al mismo tiempo, esa misma concatenación incidió en la propia estrategia del campo comunista y su búsqueda de alianzas o apelación a otros sectores. Inserta en esa lógica, la otra cuestión abordada refiere al contexto y los avatares que se desplegaron en torno a la organización del Primer Congreso Latinoamericano de Mujeres realizado en Santiago de Chile, así como su denostación como “pantalla” del comunismo internacional, según sus detractores –problemáticas examinadas por Adriana Valobra–.En esta dinámica, el influjo de la Revolución Cubana acentuó expectativas y resquemores en los actores en estudio, a

  10. Estabilidad fenotípica del rendimiento y adaptación en líneas de chile jalapeño (Capsicum annuum L. durante la época lluviosa en Costa Rica

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    Carlos R. Echandi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron 3 experimentos durante la época lluviosa de los años 2001 al 2003, para evaluar la productividad, adaptación y estabilidad fenotípica de 25 líneas de chile en Sabanilla, Poás y Sarchí Norte, Provincia de Alajuela, respectivamente. Los genotipos junto con 2 testigos se dispusieron en un diseño de bloques completos al azar con 3 repeticiones en una plantación de renovación de café. Las variables evaluadas fueron el peso y número de frutos tipo A, B y C, el rendimiento total de frutos y la incidencia e índice de daño de la mancha bacteriana (Xanthomonas campestris. El análisis combinado permitió identificar la interacción línea por localidad en las variables de respuesta, por lo que se recurrió al análisis de estabilidad propuesto por Eberhart y Russell (1966, en el caso del rendimiento total de frutos comerciales. Las líneas 2 y 3 sobresalieron por su rendimiento promedio de frutos comerciales en las 3 localidades, con 10,57 y 12,38 t ha-1, respectivamente. La línea 21 junto a las anteriores resultó ser una de las más aptas para la producción de chile jalapeño en la localidad más desfavorable de Poás. Las líneas 15 y 18, junto con la 2 y 3, incrementarían significativamente el ingreso del productor de café, en relación con los comparadores, en los ambientes más favorables de producción. La reacción promedio de los genotipos al daño foliar por X. campestris en las 3 localidades fue de baja intensidad (20,3%. Este nivel de daño foliar no afectó el rendimiento de frutos; por lo que se recomienda evaluar la respuesta de estos materiales a presiones mayores de inóculo.

  11. Variaciones estacionales de los foraminíferos planctónicos durante 2005-2006 frente a Iquique (20°S y Concepción (36°S, Chile Seasonal variations of planktic foraminifera during 2005-2006 off Iquique (20°S and Concepción (36°S, Chile

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    Nathalie Gajardo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió por primera vez las variaciones estacionales de los foraminíferos planctónicos frente a las costas de Iquique (20°S, 70°W y Concepción (36°S, 74°W, Chile. Las muestras fueron recolectadas mediante trampas de sedimentos ubicadas en dos profundidades: 1.000 y 2.300 m, entre septiembre y diciembre 2005, bajo condiciones normales (con surgencias permanentes y ausencia del evento El Niño en la zona norte, y entre enero y octubre durante el evento El Niño 2006 en la zona sur (con surgencias estacionales. Se determinó un total de 23 especies, 22 de las cuales se recolectaron frente a Iquique y 16 frente a Concepción. Además, se determinó el flujo de carbonato de calcio de foraminíferos, flujo de individuos y diversidad para definir patrones faunísticos en dichas áreas, de diferentes condiciones oceanográficas. Los resultados mostraron que en Iquique, bajo condiciones normales, se produjo un constante flujo de individuos y carbonato, con máximos en septiembre y octubre 2005, confirmando la presencia de surgencia costera en este período. Por el contrario, en Concepción, bajo condiciones El Niño (2006, el flujo de individuos y carbonato de calcio presentó máximos durante la época estival evidenciando surgencias, que sin embargo, son de menor duración (enero-febrero respecto a lo descrito en condiciones normales para esta área. La diversidad fue mayor a menor en profundidad en ambas zonas, permaneciendo constante durante todo el período en la zona norte, a diferencia de la zona sur, cuyos mayores valores se observaron durante la época estival coincidiendo con los afloramientos costeros en esta área.We studied for first time the seasonal variations of planktic foraminifera off Iquique (20°S, 70°W and Concepcion (36°S, 74°W, Chile. The samples were collected by sediment traps located at two depths: 1000 and 2300 m between September and December 2005, under normal conditions (with permanent upwelling and the

  12. Galaxias australes con núcleo doble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, G.; Díaz, R.; Carranza, G.

    Se estudia una muestra de galaxias australes con núcleo doble a partir de una búsqueda extensiva en la literatura. Se analizan las características morfológicas, fotométricas y espectroscópicas de la muestra. Para algunas galaxias se han realizado observaciones con el espectrógrafo multifunción (EMF) de la Estación Astrofísica de Bosque Alegre a partir de las cuales se determinaron parámetros cinemáticos.

  13. Cardenolide glycosides from Elaeodendron australe var. integrifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Mark S; Towerzey, Leanne; Pham, Ngoc B; Hyde, Edward; Wadi, Sao Khemar; Guymer, Gordon P; Quinn, Ronald J

    2014-02-01

    Extracts from dried leaf and stems of Elaeodendron australe var. integrifolium (Celastraceae) collected in South East Queensland, Australia, were active in an assay that measured Ca(2+) driven expression of IL-2/luciferase designed to identify inhibitors of the ICRAC channel. Bioassay-guided isolation using C18 and polyamide column chromatography, HPLC (Phenyl and C18) and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) led to the isolation of digitoxigenin (1) and three cardenolide glycosides, glucoside 2, quinovoside 3 and the new natural product xyloside 4, as the active components with low nM activity in the reporter assay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Structural overprint of a late Paleozoic accretionary system in north-central Chile (34°-35°S during post-accretional deformation Modificación estructural de un sistema acrecional del Paleozoico tardío en el centro-norte de Chile (34°-35°S, durante deformación posacrecional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne P Willner

    2009-01-01

    of the S2 foliation and refolding about steep axes with associated vertical cataclastic left-lateral shear zones. 2. The left-lateral reverse Pichilemu-Vichuquén fault at the boundary between both units is a prominent brittle structure that formed at -100 Ma concomitant with basin closure and acceleration of exhumation rates in the forearc. Similar contractional struetures oceur along the coast further north, where both units partly disappeared by subduction erosión most likely during these deformation episodes. The transition between nearly unaffected accretion systems in the south and disrupted and partly subducted ones in the north oceurs at 35°S.En la Cordillera de la Costa de Chile, de 36° a 35°S, se encuentra expuesta la arquitectura coherentemente preservada de un prisma de acreción del Paleozoico tardío, en cercana vecindad a un área entre los 34° y 35°S, donde el mismo está fuertemente modificado por procesos postacrecionales. Estudiando las desviaciones de la arquitectura original, en esta región pueden ser perfectamente distinguidas estructuras sin- y post acrecionales. Al sur de los 35° se observa un contacto transicional entre dos unidades mayores, el cual refleja un cambio continuo en el modo de acreción de la cuña acrecional antes de -305 Ma: las metagrauvacas estructuralmente suprayacentes de las series orientales muestran estructuras típicas de una acreción frontal, pliegues chevron subverticales de planos de estratificación con una foliación de plano axial S . Con el aumento de la deformación finita hacia su base, se desarrollan pliegues abiertos F2 asociados con una foliación S , la cual se va tornando cada vez más achatada y subhorizontal. En las series occidentales estructuralmente subyacentes, S2 es la foliación de transposición penetrativa que afecta a las metagrauvacas derivadas de un continente e intercalaciones de metabasitas de origen oceánico. Las estructuras fueron formadas durante acreción basal. Esta evoluci

  15. Efecto de la recirculación de polvo de fundición de cobre de Chile con altos contenidos de impurezas en la distribución de impurezas durante el proceso de fusión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montenegro, V.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Usually, dust generated during the copper smelting process by the Teniente Converter and the Flash Smelting Furnaces in Chile, contains high concentrations of copper, zinc, arsenic, antimony and other metals. In general, the dust is recirculated to the smelting process or it is directed to hydrometallurgical process for recovery and stabilization. However, in recent years the generation of dust has increased because of the degradation of the quality of the concentrate. In addition, the environmental regulations have become stricter. It is therefore desirable to understand the behavior of those elements, when the smelting process operates with recirculation of dust. In this study, the effect of dust recirculation to smelting process on the distribution among the matte, slag and gas phases was evaluated, as a function of matte grade, amount of recirculated dust, oxygen enrichment and temperature. It was found that the concentration in thematte of the impurities such as arsenic, antimony and bismuth, increased slightly with recirculation of dust. On the other hand, the concentration of lead and zinc depend of the direct recirculation of dust to the process. Additionally, it was found that high concentrations of arsenic and antimony in the dust may lead to the formation and precipitation of copper arsenates and other metals (speiss, which may generates important operational problems.

    Usualmente, el polvo generado durante el proceso de fusión de concentrado de cobre por el Convertidor Teniente y el Horno Flash en Chile, contienen altos contenidos de cobre, zinc, arsénico y antimonio, entre otros metales. En general, el polvo se recircula al proceso de fusión o se envía a procesos hidrometalúrgicos para recuperación y estabilización. Sin embargo, en los años recientes, la generación de polvo ha aumentado debido a la baja en la calidad del concentrado. Adicionalmente, las normas ambientales se han vuelto más estrictas. Por lo tanto, es

  16. Relevamiento de HI en el Hemisferio Austral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, E. M.; Bajaja, E.; Morras, R.; Pöppel, W. G. L.

    Un nuevo relevamiento de HI de todo el Hemisferio Austral, comprendido entre -90o de ~50000 posiciones en el cielo serán observadas, espaciadas en una grilla (lxb) de (0.5o x 0.5o). El intervalo de velocidades cubierto en este relevamiento abarca el rango -450 km/s a +450 km/s en el sistema LSR. Esta base de datos será corregida por efectos de ``stray radiation''. Al presente se ha observado ~70% del total del relevamiento. El mismo es complementario de uno similar realizado en el Hemisferio Norte por Hartman y Burton (1996), con cubrimiento espacial, sensibilidad, resoluciones espaciales y en velocidad, similares a los del IAR. El objetivo final de ambos relevamientos es disponer de una base de datos uniforme en todo el cielo.

  17. Biogeografía marina de Chile continental Marine biogeography of continental Chile

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    PATRICIO A. CAMUS

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Por casi un siglo, varios autores han analizado los patrones de distribución de la fauna y flora marina del Pacífico de Sudamérica y de la costa de Chile en particular, con el propósito de establecer el número de las unidades biogeográficas presentes. Si bien los patrones generales actuales son relativamente bien conocidos, la mayoría de los estudios se ha enfocado en las discontinuidades distribucionales y en propuestas de clasificación más que en los factores y procesos dinámicos que han formado las unidades espaciales identificadas. Aun en el caso de las clasificaciones, las conclusiones publicadas se basan principalmente en el análisis de uno o pocos grupos seleccionados, y presentan diferencias importantes en los criterios de selección de los grupos, el número de especies involucrado y la metodología usada. Por otra parte, las discrepancias entre estudios específicos tienden a obscurecer un fenómeno relevante y de mayor escala como es la dinámica de las biotas, uno de los aspectos biogeográficos menos conocidos en Chile. En tal contexto, este trabajo presenta una revisión de literatura sobre la biogeografía marina de Chile y sus aspectos asociados, con los siguientes objetivos: (a resumir las características oceanográficas, climáticas y geomorfológicas de la costa continental de Chile; (b discutir 27 clasificaciones biogeográficas publicadas para la costa chilena, analizando los criterios y procedimientos usados por los autores, sus conclusiones principales, y la concordancia entre los estudios; (c evaluar los procesos dispersivos y vicariantes asociados a los desplazamientos y modificaciones de las biotas de la región, en función de los antecedentes disponibles sobre las condiciones existentes y los principales eventos ocurridos durante los períodos Terciario y Cuaternario; y (d proponer un escenario de cambio biogeográfico basado en determinantes históricas y su influencia en la formación, carácter y din

  18. Recording of ocean-climate changes during the last 2,000 years in a hypoxic marine environment off northern Chile (23°S Registro de cambios océano-climáticos durante los últimos 2000 años en un ambiente marino hipóxico en el norte de Chile (23°S

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    LUC ORTLIEB

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Atmosphere-ocean interactions are particularly strong along the Chile-Peru coast and largely account for the extreme aridity of the Atacama Desert. Near the center of the driest part of this coastal desert, we found that the embayment Bahía Mejillones constitutes an unusually favorable setting for the formation and subsequent preservation of a sedimentary record of the successive oceanographic conditions of the last few thousand years. This work deals with relative abundance of various bio-indicators, including fish scales, foraminifers and phytoplankton, with a centimetre-scale resolution, in several gravity cores taken from 80 to 120 m depth, in a low-oxygen environment. We use this information to document ocean-climate changes at decadal to centennial time scales in the region. Radiocarbon dating on the bulk organic-rich sediment provides the chronological framework for the observed paleoceanographic changes. We interpret that an episode of relatively warmer water, with a stratified water column and enhanced anoxic ( 0.3 ml l-1 O2 conditions at the bottom of the water column, may correspond to the Little Ice Age (16th to mid-19th centuries. During the first millennium of our era, two thin sedimentary layers which present similarities with the bed assigned to the warm episode are interpreted as possible remnants of very strong, or " mega " El Niño events. The study confirms that Bahía Mejillones sediments did record ocean-climate changes with a very high time-resolution, and thus deserve a closer attention to investigate the ocean-atmosphere interactions over the last few thousand yearsLas interacciones océano-atmósfera son particularmente fuertes a lo largo de la costa de Chile y Perú y explican en gran parte la extrema aridez del desierto de Atacama. Cerca del sector más seco del desierto costero, hemos encontrado que la bahía semi-cerrada de Bahía Mejillones constituye un sitio particularmente favorable para la formación y

  19. La participación de las Comunicaciones Eclesiales de Base en la regeneración de la sociedad civil durante las dictaduras militares: Los casos de Chile y Brasil.

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    Fabián Bustamante

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to show the role of the Base Ecclesial Communities (CEBs in the process of rebuilding civil society in the political violence of military dictatorships. For this, we focus on the cases of Chile and Brazil, two countries in which these communities create spaces for new practices of sociability among the popular sectors, becoming a major social movement for the return of democracy.

  20. "Oasis de neblina" en los cerros costeros del sur de Iquique, región de Tarapacá, Chile, durante el evento El Niño 1997-1998 Fog oases during the El Niño Southern Oscillation 1997-1998, in the coastal hills south of Iquique, Tarapacá region, Chile

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    MÉLICA MUÑOZ-SCHICK

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la flora de cuatro sitios de "oasis de neblina" del desierto costero del Norte de Chile, entre Iquique y la desembocadura del río Loa, muestreados entre los meses de octubre de 1997 y enero de 1998. No existían muestreos anteriores en tres de los sitios: Alto Patache, Punta Lobos y Alto Chipana. Se registraron en esta ocasión 72 especies de plantas vasculares, lo que amplía notablemente el conocimiento florístico de este sector, que poseía a la fecha apenas una veintena de especies registradas. De las especies recolectadas, tres constituyen nuevos registros para la flora chilena: Nolana adansonii (Roem. et Schult. Johnst., Solanum cfr. montanum L. y Ophryosporus cfr. floribundus (DC. King et Rob., mientras que Alstroemeria lutea (Muñoz 2000 constituye una especie nueva para la ciencia. Esta última, junto a Eulychnia aricensis Ritter, Pyrrhocactus saxifragus Ritter y Nolana intonsa Johnst., son endémicas locales. Del total de especies, un 43 % son endémicas y un 52,8 % son nativas no endémicas, existiendo un bajo porcentaje (4,2 % de especies adventicias; 34 especies (47,2 % comparten su área de distribución con el Perú. Las familias Asteraceae, Nolanaceae y Solanaceae son las mejor representadas en el área con más de siete especies cada una. Las condiciones climáticas derivadas del evento El Niño 1997-1998 han favorecido el desarrollo de la vegetación en los oasis de neblina al sur de Iquique. Aunque no hay un aumento de las precipitaciones durante el período 1997-1998, sí se aprecia un incremento en las temperaturas así como en el contenido líquido de la neblina, lo que favorecería el desarrollo de una vegetación más exuberante y la expansión del área de ocupación de algunos elementos florísticosThe flora of four fog oases in the northern Chilean coastal desert, visited between October 1997 and January 1998, is described. These botanical collections are new for Alto Patache, Punta Lobos and Alto Chipana

  1. Geochemistry of the Puna Austral and Cordillera Oriental basement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becchio, Raul; Lucassen, Friedrich; Franz, Gerhard; Kasemann, Simone

    1998-01-01

    Major and trace elements, rare earths, and 143 Nd/ 147 Nd and, 147 Sm/ 144 Nd isotope ratios have been determined in the Puna Austral and Cordillera Oriental basement. The basement is formed by high temperature amphibolite facies rocks ranulites (750-550 degrees C) and green schists. They are represented by schists, paragneiss, orthogneiss, migmatites, few metabasites, marbles and chalcosilicatic banks. Hypotheses on the formation and evolution of the basement are presented

  2. "Oasis de neblina" en los cerros costeros del sur de Iquique, región de Tarapacá, Chile, durante el evento El Niño 1997-1998 Fog oases during the El Niño Southern Oscillation 1997-1998, in the coastal hills south of Iquique, Tarapacá region, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    MÉLICA MUÑOZ-SCHICK; RAQUEL PINTO; ALDO MESA; ANDRÉS MOREIRA-MUÑOZ

    2001-01-01

    Se describe la flora de cuatro sitios de "oasis de neblina" del desierto costero del Norte de Chile, entre Iquique y la desembocadura del río Loa, muestreados entre los meses de octubre de 1997 y enero de 1998. No existían muestreos anteriores en tres de los sitios: Alto Patache, Punta Lobos y Alto Chipana. Se registraron en esta ocasión 72 especies de plantas vasculares, lo que amplía notablemente el conocimiento florístico de este sector, que poseía a la fecha apenas una veintena de especie...

  3. Peronism and political citizenship in the Patagonia: the look of the magazine Argentina Austral (1946-1955)

    OpenAIRE

    Ruffini, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Desde 1929, y durante casi cuarenta años, en la Patagonia circuló la revista Argentina Austral. Esta continuidad fue facilitada por el sello original de la publicación que era propiedad de la empresa ganadera, comercial y naviera más importante del sur argentino: la Sociedad Anónima Importadora y Exportadora de la Patagonia, dirigida por la familia Braun-Menéndez Behety. La revista asumió una postura de demanda de ampliación de los derechos políticos de los habitantes del sur mientras expresa...

  4. Del asentamiento minero al espacio continental: Chuquicamata (Chile y la contribución de la minería a la configuración del territorio y el desarrollo social y económico de la Región de Antofagasta durante el siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EUGENIO GARCES FELIÚ

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente paper tiene por objetivo analizar las contribuciones de Chuquicamata al desarrollo territorial, social y económico de la II Región de Antofagasta durante el siglo XX, a partir de su condición de complejo industrial y company town minero, que evoluciona desde las rentas y aportes propios de un campamento del cobre hasta su despliegue a escala regional, con alcances y encadenamientos continentales, contribuyendo al desarrollo social y económico de la región y el país. En esta perspectiva, el Norte de Chile y, en particular esta región, ostentan importantes ventajas comparativas y competitivas, extensivas al siglo XXI, tanto para la explotación de minerales como para su encadenamiento con otros sectores productivos, en un proceso que genera nuevas configuraciones de ordenamiento territorial, basadas no sólo en la dinámica urbana de los company totvns sino que también en la extensión y complejidad del "territorio minero", activado económicamente por la minería.This article analyzes the contributions of Chuquicamata to the territorial, social and economic development of the II Region of Antofagasta during the twentieth century. The process begins with the local contributions of an industrial complex and company town, that evolves from profits and contributions specific to a copper mining settlement to a situation of regional significance, generating continental economic relations and linkages which contribute to the social and economic development of the region and he country. From this perspective, Northern Chile, and this region in particular, hold important comparative and competitive advantages that extend into the twenty first century, both for the exploitation of mineral resources and for increasing linkages with other productive sectors, in a process that generates new spatial configurations, based not only on the urban dynamics of the company town, but also through the extent and complexity of the mining territory

  5. Periodontal status of teeth restored with crowns and its contralateral homologue, Valdivia- Chile.

    OpenAIRE

    Israel Antonio Juárez; Sofía Larroulet; Makarena Ojeda; Cristian Rosas

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: To determine periodontal status of fixes single prostheses (FSP) made during the year 2013 in Austral University of Chile, and its contralateral homologue (CH).Methods: All patients with FSP made during 2013, that met the selection criteria and agreed to participate were evaluated. During the year 2014 was measured: probing depth, attachment level; bleeding on probing and dental plaque index for each FSP and CH; and consigned biological width invasion. Were measured one FSP...

  6. Thermohaline circulation in the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIB) during austral summer and winter periods of 1997

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshBabu, V.; Suryanarayana, A.; Murty, V.S.N.

    -79 degrees E; 9 degrees-14 degrees S) during austral summer (January 1997) from the Indian research vessel ORV Sagar Kanya, while during the austral winter season (June-July 1997), hydrographical stations were occupied by Russian research vessel RV...

  7. The austral peregrine falcon: Color variation, productivity, and pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    The austral peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus cassini) was studied in the Andean foot- hills and across the Patagonian steppe from November to December 1981. The birds under study (18 pairs) were reproducing at or near normal (pre-DDT) levels for other races. Pesticide residues, while elevated, were well below the values associated with reproductive failure in other populations. With one exception, eggshells were not abnormally thin. The peregrine falcon in Patagonia exhibits extreme color variation. Pallid birds are nearly pure white below (light cream as juveniles), whereas normally pigmented birds are black-crowned and conspicuously barred with black ventrally. Rare individuals of the Normal Phase display black heads, broad black ventral barring, and warm reddish-brown ventral background coloration.

  8. Conservation challenges for the Austral and Neotropical America section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Gerardo; Vale, Mariana M; Bonacic, Cristian; Calvo-Alvarado, Julio; List, Rurik; Bynum, Nora; Medellín, Rodrigo A; Simonetti, Javier A; Rodríguez, Jon Paul

    2009-08-01

    The Austral and Neotropical America (ANA) section of the Society for Conservation Biology includes a vast territory with some of the largest relatively pristine ecosystems in the world. With more than 573 million people, the economic growth of the region still depends strongly on natural resource exploitation and still has high rates of environmental degradation and biodiversity loss. A survey among the ANA section membership, with more than 700 members, including most of the section's prominent ecologists and conservationists, indicates that lack of capacity building for conservation, corruption, and threats such as deforestation and illegal trade of species, are among the most urgent problems that need to be addressed to improve conservation in the region. There are, however, strong universities and ecology groups taking the lead in environmental research and conservation, a most important issue to enhance the ability of the region to solve conservation and development conflicts.

  9. Mass movement-induced tsunamis: main effects during the Patagonian Fjordland seismic crisis in Aisén (45°25'S, Chile Tsunamis inducidos por movimientos en masa: principales efectos durante la crisis sísmica de la Patagonia Archipelágica en Aisén (45°25' S, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Naranjo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The epicentre of the long-lasting seismic crisis started on the evening of January 22,2007 and it was located 20 km to the west of Puerto Chacabuco in the Patagonian fjordland, Chile (45°25'S. Approximately 7,000 events were recorded up to early May, four of which reached magnitudes greater than 5 (Richter, with local intensities up to VII in Puerto Chacabuco and Puerto Aisén and VI in Coihaique. The seismic swarm was located within the Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault Zone (LOFZ, which controls the emplacement of several monogenetic volcanic cones and larger stratovolcanoes. The January 23 (Ms 5,2 and April 1 (Ms 5,4 events caused minor damages in salmón industry installations near the epicentral zone, however the earthquake that oceurred at 13:54 hours (local time on April 21 (Mw 6,2 triggered various mass movements on the Fiordo Aisén slopes and generated tsunamis. Debris flows and tsunami waves caused the death of three people and the disappearance of seven, in addition to severe damages to the salmón industry installations. A similar phenomenon had oceurred in 1927, but then fewer people inhabited the área. Initially, confusión dominated the scientific coordination of the emergeney management due to seismic data misinterpretation.En la noche del 22 de enero de 2007 comenzó una crisis sísmica, cuyos epicentros se localizaron principalmente en el fiordo Aisén, a unos 20 km al noroeste de Puerto Chacabuco, en la zona archipelágica de Patagonia, en Chile (45°25'S. Hasta comienzos de mayo, los sismógrafos habían registrado cerca de 7.000 sismos, de los cuales cuatro habían sobrepasado la magnitud 5 (Richter, con intensidades locales de hasta VII en Puerto Chacabuco y Puerto Aisén y VI en Coihaique. El enjambre sísmico está asociado a estructuras geológicas de la Zona de Falla Liquiñe-Ofqui (ZFLO la cual, además, controla el emplazamiento de numerosos conos volcánicos, así como estratovolcanes mayores. Aunque los sismos del 23 de enero

  10. Alimentación y relaciones tróficas del pez espada (Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758, frente a Chile centro-norte durante 2005 Feeding and trophic relationships of the swordfísh (Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758, off central and northern Chile during 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Letelier

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron 126 estómagos de pez espada (Xiphias gladius, capturados entre los 25° y 34°S y 78° y 90°W, por barcos palangreros de la pesquería industrial frente a Chile centro-norte. Del total de estómagos analizados, 54 se encontraron vacíos (42,9% y 72 (57,1% presentaron sus estómagos con contenidos, de estos últimos la proporción sexual correspondió a 32 machos (44,4%, 37 hembras (51,4%o y 3 indeterminados (4,2%o. Para el análisis de contenidos estomacales se utilizaron los métodos numéricos, de frecuencia, gravimétricos e índice de importancia relativa (IIR. Los cefalópodos fueron el alimento principal (%IIR > 90, mientras que los peces aparecen como alimento secundario (%IIR A total of 126 sword-fish (Xiphias gladius stomach were analyzed. The stomachs were obtained from specimens captured within the 25° to 34°S and 78° to 90°W área, by industrial longline vessels. Only 72 (57.1% of the total stomach had food ítems in their stomachs, whit a sex proportion of 32 males (44.4%o, 37 females (51.4% and 3 indeterminate (4.2%. Traditional methods for the stomach contents analysis such as the numeric, frequency of occurrence, gravimetric and índex of relative importance (IRI were used. Cephalopods were the main food ítems (%IIR > 90 followed by the fishes (%IIR < 4. The squid (Dosidicus gigas was the principal food in this study (%IIR = 85.1. No significant differences were found between the feeding of males and females of swordfishes (U = 81; p = 0.4862, p < 0.05. A cluster analysis showed higher stomach contents similarity between fall and winter than those from spring, within the size groups the I group was different than others and finally, the feeding from zone 3 were different from others zones.

  11. El Informe Valech y la tortura masiva y sistemática como crimen contra la humanidad cometido en Chile durante el régimen militar. Su enjuiciamiento desde la perspectiva del derecho penal internacional: Apuntes a propósito de la obra del Prof. Dr. Kai Ambos, Der Allgemeine Teil des Völkerstrafrechts, 2 ed., Duncker und Humblot, Berlín 2004, 1058 páginas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Pierre Matus A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se reseña el texto del Prof. Dr. Kai Ambos, Der Allgemeine Teil des Völkerstrafrechts y, al mismo tiempo, se propone la aplicación de los principales resultados de esa obra para un eventual enjuiciamiento de la tortura masiva y sistemática aplicada en Chile entre 1973 y 1990, tal y como se describe en el Informe de la Comisión Nacional de Prisión Política y Tortura (Informe Valech. Así, se comienza describiendo y analizando la sistematización propuesta por Ambos para una parte general del derecho penal internacional, luego se analiza la tortura como crimen contra la humanidad, sujeto a las reglas del derecho penal internacional. En este apartado se determinan sus elementos principales (el carácter masivo y sistemático, el Tribunal competente en Chile para conocer de estas causas y el procedimiento aplicable. A continuación se describen los hechos, tal y como se dieron a conocer en el Informe Valech, que permiten concluir que en Chile se aplicó la tortura de manera masiva y sistemática durante el régimen militar, favorecida por éste, mediante el establecimiento de una "maquinaria" de represión "legalizada". Enseguida, se determina la existencia de una responsabilidad penal internacional individual derivada de estos hechos, para, a continuación, pasar a analizar los principales problemas de la parte general del derecho penal internacional que se presentarían en el caso de juzgarse tales responsabilidades individuales, siguiendo el esquema de análisis en dos niveles propuesto por Kai Ambos, a saber, discutiendo primero los presupuestos objetivos y subjetivos de esa responsabilidad, para finalizar analizando las principales defensas que podrían oponerse por los eventuales acusados.This article reviews Prof. Dr. Kai Ambos' book, Der Allgemeine Teil des Völkerstrafrechts, and proposes the application of the main results of this book to the possible trial of the acts of massive and systematic torture carried out

  12. Nitrogen sediment fluxes in an upwelling system off central Chile (Concepción Bay and adjacent shelf during the 1997-1998 El Niño Flujos de compuestos nitrogenados desde los sedimentos, en un sistema de surgencia de Chile central (Bahía Concepción y plataforma adyacente durante El Niño 1997-1998

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    PRAXEDES MUÑOZ

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Two stations representing coastal and shelf environments (bay of Concepción and adjacent shelf, respectively were sampled in order to assess benthic nitrogen fluxes. During the study period anomalously high oxygen bottom waters conditions were observed, coinciding with the 1997-1998 El Niño event. From both sites, intact sediment cores were collected for incubation experiments to directly estimate total ammonium fluxes. Pore-water chemistry was also assessed to estimate diffusive fluxes of nitrogen compounds (NH4+, NO3- and NO2-. The NH4+ flux from incubation experiments ranged from 0.55 to 2.18 mmol m-2 day-1 in the inner bay and from 1.84 to 2.14 mmol m-2 day-1 on the shelf. NO3- diffusive fluxes to the sediments were observed in the bay in March (-17 x 10-2 mmol m-2 day-1and on the shelf in November (-2.7 x 10-2 mmol m-2 day-1, associated with the lowest NH4+ diffusive fluxes and coincident with a stronger gradient of Eh in the first centimeters of the sediments. Besides, total NH4+ fluxes lower than in normal periods were observed, suggesting the influence of less reducing conditions, consequence in turn of the lower fluxes of particulated organic material and higher dissolved oxygen in the bottom waters. These conditions were probably imposed by the El Niño event. On the other hand, and relative to previous reports, an increase of irrigation coefficients (DI was estimated. Thus, the flux extension of other nitrogen compounds could have acquired relevance in relation to NH4+ fluxes during the study periodSe analizaron los flujos de compuestos nitrogenados desde los sedimentos en dos áreas representativas de condiciones costeras y de plataforma (Bahía Concepción y plataforma adyacente, respectivamente. Durante el período de muestreo las aguas de fondo presentaron un anómalamente alto contenido de oxígeno disuelto, coincidente con el evento El Niño 1997-1998. De ambos sitios, se incubaron testigos de sedimento intactos para

  13. U-Pb zircon constraints on the age of the Cretaceous Mata Amarilla Formation, Southern Patagonia, Argentina: its relationship with the evolution of the Austral Basin Edades U-Pb en circones de la Formación Mata Amarilla (Cretácico, Patagonia Austral, Argentina: su relación con la evoluci��n de la Cuenca Austral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto N Varela

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the abundant fossil content of the Mata Amarilla Formation (Southern Patagonia, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina, its age has always generated a considerable number of questions and debates. The chronological data provided by invertebrates, dinosaurs, fish, turtles, plesiosaurs and fossil flora are contradictory. In this work, twenty U-Pb spot analyses by laser ablation were carried out on the outer parts of the zoned zircon crystals from a tuff layer of the middle section of the Mata Amarilla Formation, yielding a U-Pb concordia age of 96.23±0.71 Ma, which corresponds to the middle Cenomanian. The deposition of the lower section of the Mata Amarilla Formation marks the onset of the foreland stage of the Austral Basin (also known as Magallanes Basin; this transition is characterized by the west-east shift of the depositional systems, which is consistent with the progradation of the Cretaceous fold-and-thrust belt. Thus, the onset of the foreland stage could have occurred between the upper Albian and lower Cenomanian, as the underlying Piedra Clavada Formation is lower Albian in age. On comparing the data obtained with information from the Última Esperanza Province in Chile, it can be suggested that the initiation of the closure of the Rocas Verdes Marginal Basin occurred simultaneously.A pesar del abundante contenido fosilífero de la Formación Mata Amarilla (Patagonia Austral, Provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina, siempre se generaron abundantes dudas y debates acerca de cuál es la edad de esta formación. Los datos cronológicos aportados por los invertebrados, los dinosaurios, peces, tortugas, plesiosaurios y flora fósil son dispares. En el presente trabajo se obtuvo una edad U-Pb concordia por la metodología de ablación láser aplicada a 20 puntos de la parte externa de circones zonados provenientes de un nivel tobáceo hallado en la sección media de la Formación Mata Amarilla, lo cual arrojó una edad de 96,23±0,71 Ma, que

  14. Black carbon and other light-absorbing impurities in the Andes of Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, P. M.; Cordero, R.; Warren, S. G.; Pankow, A.; Jorquera, J.; Schrempf, M.; Doherty, S. J.; Cabellero, M.; Carrasco, J. F.; Neshyba, S.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) and other light-absorbing impurities in snow absorb solar radiation and thus have the potential to accelerate glacial retreat and snowmelt. In Chile, glaciers and seasonal snow are important sources of water for irrigation and domestic uses. In July 2015 (Austral winter) we sampled snow in the western Andes in a north-south transect of Chile from 18 S to 34 S. Most of the sampled snow had fallen during a single synoptic event, during 11-13 July. The snow was melted and passed through 0.4 micrometer nuclepore filters. Preliminary estimates indicate that (1) the ratio of BC to dust in snow increases going south from Northern to Central Chile, and (2) in snow sampled during the two weeks following the snowstorm, the impurities were concentrated in the upper 5 cm of snow, indicating that the surface layer became polluted over time by dry deposition.

  15. Un Plan Regulador para Cartagena, una ciudad de la costa central de Chile: una visión de futuro en 1976. / A master plan for Cartagena, a city on the central coast of Chile: a vision in 1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavez Reyes,María Isabel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la reseña de un proyecto de planificación urbana, conforme a la escuela desarrollada por la FAU de la Universidad de Chile, durante la etapa madura del Estado Planificador Urbano-Regional chileno. / It provides an overview of an urban planning project, developed under the FAU School of the University of Chile, during the mature stage of the Urban-Regional Planning State of Chile.

  16. Chile; Recent Economic Developments

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the sources of growth in Chile and compares Chile’s experience with that of other countries. Two alternative measures of the sources of growth for Chile are presented to facilitate comparisons with other studies. The first measure adjusts factor inputs for the degree of utilization (using the unemployment rate), and the second measure introduces an index of the quality of factor inputs. The paper presents estimates of potential output of Chile for 1971–95, and also discuss...

  17. Chile: Its Conventional Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-18

    tdf.htm>. Internet. Accessed 30 October 2004. 20 21 BIBLIOGRAPHY Barros, Van Buren Mario. Historia Diplomatica de Chile . Santiago: Editorial Andres...USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT CHILE : ITS CONVENTIONAL THREATS by Lieutenant Colonel Claudio Toledo Chilean Army Dr. Gabriel Marcella Project...3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Chile Its Conventional Threats 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  18. Chile's agricultural diversification

    OpenAIRE

    Arnade, Carlos Anthony; Sparks, Amy

    1993-01-01

    Chile's fruit sector, both in production and exports, has grown significantly since 1974. At that time, Chile introduced structural reforms in its economy which assured that market principles would operate regarding land ownership. Also, the government began a 'hands-off' policy which basically allowed free-market principles to prevail. As a result of these conditions operating in the economy, Chile's agricultural sector diversified from producing largely annual crops and wool to also produci...

  19. Resultados del relevamiento de HI en el Cielo Austral: 3. Relevamiento de Nubes de Alta Velocidad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morras, R.; Bajaja, E.; Arnal, E. M.; Pöppel, W. G. L.

    Los resultados del relevamiento de HI del Hemisferio Austral fueron reprocesados con el fin de incrementar su sensibilidad. Así, se utilizó esta nueva base de datos con el fin de obtener un nuevo relevamiento de Nubes de Alta Velocidad en el cielo austral. El ruido r.m.s. alcanzado es de 0.015-0.020 K, con una resolución espectral de 8 km/seg. El cubrimiento espacial del relevamiento mejora en un factor 16 al realizado por Bajaja et al (1985).

  20. Chile: los mapuches y el Bicentenario Chile: Mapuches e do Bicentenario Chile: Mapuche and the Bicentennial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bengoa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El Bicentenario de la República de Chile se conmemoró en el mes de septiembre del año 2010. Además de marcar un importante hito histórico, coincidió con un cambio político en el Gobierno del país, el que pasó de la Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia a la Alianza de partidos formada por la derecha chilena. Se cumplieron por tanto 20 años desde que en el año 1990 cambiara el Gobierno militar presidido por el general Pinochet. Ese largo tiempo, dos décadas, coincide con un período de políticas que el Estado ha implementado hacia los Pueblos Indígenas. El Proyecto “Conmemoraciones y Memorias Subalternas” ha realizado durante el año 2010 un conjunto de investigaciones de terreno y documentales tendientes a comprender del modo más objetivo y científico lo ocurrido en el período y por tanto la situación actual de las sociedades mapuches en sus complejas relaciones con la chilena.O Bicentenario da República do Chile comemorou-se no mês de Setembro do ano 2010. Junto com transformar-se num marco histórico, coincidiu com uma mudança política no Governo do país, que passou da Concertação de Partidos pela Democracia (centro-esquerda à Aliança de partidos formada pela direita chilena. Cumpriram-se por tanto 20 anos desde que em 1990 mudasse o Governo militar presidido pelo general Pinochet. Esse longo tempo, duas décadas, coincide com um período de políticas que o Estado implementou para com os Povos Indígenas. O Projeto “Comemorações e Memórias Subalternas” realizou durante o ano 2010 um conjunto de pesquisas de campo e documentais tendentes a compreender do modo mais objetivo e científico o ocorrido no período e, por tanto, a situação atual das sociedades mapuches em suas complexas relações com a chilena.The conmeration of the 200 years of the Independence of Chile was in September 2010. This year was also the political change from the Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia to the right

  1. Chile 1920-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Paul W.

    1981-01-01

    Annotated bibliography on the history of Chile during 60 years in the middle of the twentieth century is presented. A general outline of major Chilean developments during this period is presented to aid college level history instructors develop curriculum on Chile. Outline topics are the end of the Parliamentary Republic, 1920-31; popular front…

  2. IDRC in Chile

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers at PUCC also studied residential energy use, the need to use wood fuel more efficiently, and the potential for small- and medium-scale hydroelectric power generation. Chile's energy management policies drew on this research. IDRC. IDRC in Chile. INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH CENTRE. R.

  3. Advances in ammonite biostratigraphy of the marine Atacama basin (Lower Cretaceous), northern Chile, and its relationship with the Neuquén basin, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourgues, Francisco Amaro

    2004-09-01

    Preliminary results about the Lower Cretaceous ammonite biostratigraphy of northern Chile reveal eight fossiliferous levels: Lower-Upper Valanginian neocomitid and olcostephanid faunas in the Punta del Cobre and Abundancia Formations and Upper Hauterivian-Barremian crioceratid in the Nantoco, Totoralillo, and Pabellón Formations. The faunal affinities with the Neuquén are strong during the Valanginian and Hauterivian. In contrast, during the Barremian and Aptian, the ammonites show affinities with Austral, California, and Tethys basinal faunas. The Lower Valanginian-lower Upper Aptian series in northern Chile comprises two sedimentary cycles separated by a regressive pulse of Upper Hauterivian-Lower Barremian age. This pulse may be equivalent to the regression that ended the Early Cretaceous marine cycle in central Chile and central west Argentina, where the second marine sedimentary cycle observed in northern Chile is not represented.

  4. Rheum australe D. Don: A review of its botany, ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rokaya, Maan Bahadur; Münzbergová, Zuzana; Tumsina, B.; Bhattarai, K. R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 141, č. 3 (2012), s. 761-774 ISSN 0378-8741 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/09/0549 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Rheum australe * traditional uses * phytochemistry Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.755, year: 2012

  5. Rheum australe D. Don: a review of its botany, ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokaya, Maan Bahadur; Münzbergová, Zuzana; Timsina, Binu; Bhattarai, Krishna Ram

    2012-06-14

    Rheum australe D. Don (Polygonaceae) has been commonly used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related to the circulatory, digestive, endocrine, respiratory and skeletal systems as well as to infectious diseases. To provide the up-to-date information that is available on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Rheum australe. Additionally, to highlight the possible uses of this species to treat different diseases and to provide a basis for future research. The present review covers the literature available from 1980 to 2011. The information was collected from scientific journals, books, theses and reports via a library and electronic search (Google Scholar, Web of Science and ScienceDirect). Ethnomedical uses of Rheum australe have been recorded from China, India, Nepal and Pakistan for 57 different types of ailments. The phytochemical studies have shown the presence of many secondary metabolites belonging to anthraquinones, stilbenes, anthrones, oxantrone ethers and esters, chromones, flavonoids, carbohydrate, lignans, phenols and sterols. Crude extracts and isolated compounds from Rheum australe show a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities, such as antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer, hepatoprotective and immune-enhancing activities, as well as a usefulness for improving renal function. Rheum australe has been widely used source of medicine for years without any adverse effects. Many studies have provided evidence for various traditional uses. However, there is a need for additional studies of the isolated compounds to validate the traditional uses in human models. The present review on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry and toxicity has provided preliminary information for further studies and commercial exploitations of the plant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bio-optical characteristics of phytoplankton populations in the upwelling system off the coast of Chile Características (bio-ópticas de poblaciones de fitoplancton en el sistema de surgencia de la costa de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VENETIA STUART

    2004-03-01

    likely that the correlation between in situ and satellite chl-a could be improved by using regional algorithmsLa composición de pigmentos y las características de absorción fueron analizadas en muestras de fitoplancton recolectadas en dos cruceros frente a las costas Chile. Se encontraron altas concentraciones de pigmentos (hasta 20 mg chl-a m-3 en aguas de surgencia sobre el quiebre de la plataforma frente a Concepción durante la primavera, octubre de 1998; sin embargo, se encontraron condiciones relativamente oligotróficas costa afuera. De manera similar, estaciones más al norte (entre Coquimbo e Iquique, muestreadas durante el verano austral (febrero de 1999, también mostraron bajas concentraciones de pigmentos, caracterizados por la presencia de primnesioficeas y cianobacterias (Synechococccus sp. y Prochlorococcus sp.. El coeficiente de absorción específico del fitoplancton a 443 nm (a*ph(443 fue mucho mayor para las poblaciones costa afuera que para las poblaciones costeras, las cuales estaban dominadas por diatomeas. Esta diferencia fue atribuida a cambios en el empaquetamiento y composición de pigmentos. La proporción relativa entre carotenoides no-fotosintéticos y chl-a, junto con la razón de la altura del pico de las bandas Gausianas en las regiones azul y roja del espectro p(435/p(676 (un índice del efecto de empaquetamiento, representa hasta el 92 % de la variación total en a*ph(443. Las razones de absorción azul/verde estuvieron relacionadas fuertemente a la concentración relativa de 19'-hexanoiloxifucoxantina y fucoxantina. Se encontró una relación aceptable entre las estimaciones de chl-a (datos de SeaWiFS medidas in situ y las obtenidas con el satélite, a pesar de la gran variabilidad en los coeficientes de absorción específica del fitoplancton, sugiriendo que las relaciones de absorción de clorofila "global" abarcan las variaciones regionales observadas a la altura de las costas de Chile. Las mediciones de chl-a satelitales fueron

  7. Chile - Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1999-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper for Chile describes the postcrisis recovery experience. The recovery from the 2008–2009 global crisis has been markedly different both among advanced and emerging economies. The steady improvement in the labor wedge-distortions related to the consumption leisure decision helped support the recovery. In Chile, the growth generated by this improvement, was sufficient to overcome the relatively weak performance of efficiency (TFP). Chile’s recovery has been characteriz...

  8. Broncospasmo durante la anestesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln de la Parte Pérez

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available En esta revisión bibliográfica se presentan los factores que contribuyen a la hiperreactividad de las vías aéreas durante la anestesia. Se presenta una actualización de las acciones de los agentes anestésicos empleados en nuestro medio, así como el tratamiento utilizado en esta complicación. El objetivo fundamental es ofrecer a los anestesiólogos, los elementos necesarios para una mejor conducción anestésica de los pacientes con hiperreactividad de las vías aéreas. Se enfatiza además en la importancia de las medidas preventivas y en el tratamiento inmediato que permita contrarrestar esta complicaciónThose factors contributing to hyperreactivity of the airways during anesthesia are presented in this bibliographic review. An updating is made of the action of the anesthetics used in our setting and the treatment given to this complication is explained. The main objective is to provide anesthesiologists with the necessary elements for a better anesthetic conduction of the patients with hyperreactivity of the airways. It is underlined the importance of taking preventive actions and of immediate treatment to face this complication

  9. CONOCIMIENTOS Y ACTITUDES SOBRE VIH/SIDA DE ESTUDIANTES DE ENFERMERÍA DE LAS UNIVERSIDADES DE LA FRONTERA Y AUSTRAL DE CHILE. TEMUCO - VALDIVIA. CHILE, 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Rivas R,Edith; Rivas L,Angélica; Barría P,R Mauricio; Sepúlveda R,Catalina

    2009-01-01

    Los adolescentes constituyen la población más expuesta a contraer enfermedades de transmisión sexual, entre otros aspectos, porque muchos experimentan su primera relación sexual sin protección. El VIH/SIDA persiste como una enfermedad socialmente temida y causa de discriminación, evidenciándose déficit de conocimientos sobre formas de contagio, conduciendo a actitudes perjudiciales hacia quienes padecen este mal. El objetivo del estudio fue describir los conocimientos y actitudes de estudiant...

  10. U-Pb zircon constraints on the age of the Cretaceous Mata Amarilla Formation, Southern Patagonia, Argentina: Its relationship with the evolution of the Austral Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varela, Augusto N; Poire, Daniel G; Martin, Thomas; Gerdes, Axel; Goin, Francisco J; Gelfo, Javier N; Hoffmann, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Despite the abundant fossil content of the Mata Amarilla Formation (Southern Patagonia, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina), its age has always generated a considerable number of questions and debates. The chronological data provided by invertebrates, dinosaurs, fish, turtles, plesiosaurs and fossil flora are contradictory. In this work, twenty U-Pb spot analyses by laser ablation were carried out on the outer parts of the zoned zircon crystals from a tuff layer of the middle section of the Mata Amarilla Formation, yielding a U-Pb concordia age of 96.23±0.71 Ma, which corresponds to the middle Cenomanian. The deposition of the lower section of the Mata Amarilla Formation marks the onset of the foreland stage of the Austral Basin (also known as Magallanes Basin); this transition is characterized by the west-east shift of the depositional systems, which is consistent with the progradation of the Cretaceous fold-and-thrust belt. Thus, the onset of the foreland stage could have occurred between the upper Albian and lower Cenomanian, as the underlying Piedra Clavada Formation is lower Albian in age. On comparing the data obtained with information from the Ultima Esperanza Province in Chile, it can be suggested that the initiation of the closure of the Rocas Verdes Marginal Basin occurred simultaneously

  11. MIGRATION PATTERNS, USE OF STOPOVER AREAS, AND AUSTRAL SUMMER MOVEMENTS OF SWAINSON'S HAWKS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochert, Michael N; Fuller, Mark R; Schueck, Linda S; Bond, Laura; Bechard, Marc J; Woodbridge, Brian; Holroyd, Geoff; Martell, Mark; Banasch, Ursula

    From 1995-1998, we tracked movements of adult Swainson's Hawks ( Buteo swainsoni ) using satellite telemetry to characterize migration, important stopover areas, and austral summer movements. We tagged 46 hawks from July - September on their nesting grounds in seven U.S. states and two Canadian provinces. Swainson's Hawks basically followed three routes south on a broad front, converged along the east coast of central Mexico, and followed a concentrated corridor to a communal austral summer area in central Argentina. North of 20° N, southward and northward tracks differed little for individuals from east of the Continental Divide but differed greatly (up to 1700 km) for individuals from west of the Continental Divide. Hawks left the breeding grounds mid-August to mid-October; departure dates did not differ by location, year, or sex. South migration lasted 42 to 98 days, and north migration took 51 to 82 days. On south migration, 36% of the Swainson's Hawks departed the nesting grounds nearly 3 weeks earlier than the other radio marked hawks and made stopovers 9.0 - 26.0 days long in seven separate areas, mainly in the southern Great Plains, southern Arizona and New Mexico, and north-central Mexico. The austral period lasted 76 to 128 days. All Swainson's Hawks used a core area in central Argentina within 23% of the 738800 km 2 austral summer range where they frequently moved long distances (up to 1600 km). Conservation of Swainson's Hawks must be an international effort that considers habitats used during nesting and non-nesting seasons including migration stopovers.

  12. MIGRATION PATTERNS, USE OF STOPOVER AREAS, AND AUSTRAL SUMMER MOVEMENTS OF SWAINSON’S HAWKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochert, Michael N.; Fuller, Mark R.; Schueck, Linda S.; Bond, Laura; Bechard, Marc J.; Woodbridge, Brian; Holroyd, Geoff; Martell, Mark; Banasch, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    From 1995–1998, we tracked movements of adult Swainson’s Hawks (Buteo swainsoni) using satellite telemetry to characterize migration, important stopover areas, and austral summer movements. We tagged 46 hawks from July - September on their nesting grounds in seven U.S. states and two Canadian provinces. Swainson’s Hawks basically followed three routes south on a broad front, converged along the east coast of central Mexico, and followed a concentrated corridor to a communal austral summer area in central Argentina. North of 20° N, southward and northward tracks differed little for individuals from east of the Continental Divide but differed greatly (up to 1700 km) for individuals from west of the Continental Divide. Hawks left the breeding grounds mid-August to mid-October; departure dates did not differ by location, year, or sex. South migration lasted 42 to 98 days, and north migration took 51 to 82 days. On south migration, 36% of the Swainson’s Hawks departed the nesting grounds nearly 3 weeks earlier than the other radio marked hawks and made stopovers 9.0 – 26.0 days long in seven separate areas, mainly in the southern Great Plains, southern Arizona and New Mexico, and north-central Mexico. The austral period lasted 76 to 128 days. All Swainson’s Hawks used a core area in central Argentina within 23% of the 738800 km2 austral summer range where they frequently moved long distances (up to 1600 km). Conservation of Swainson’s Hawks must be an international effort that considers habitats used during nesting and non-nesting seasons including migration stopovers. PMID:26380528

  13. Features of the El Niño 2015-2016 during the austral spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboita, Michelle; Pereira, Heloisa; Ambrizzi, Tércio

    2017-04-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an ocean-atmosphere interaction phenomenon that impacts the South America rainfall. The purpose of this study is to describe the features of the atmospheric circulation and their impacts over South America precipitation during the austral spring (September to November 2015) of the El Niño 2015-2016. This event began in the austral summer of 2015 and extended until austral fall of 2016. The El Niño 2015-2016 event was classified as very strong by the National Oceanic Index (ONI), once it was presented the sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies equal and higher than 2.0 degrees, in some months. Considering a more recent classification of the El Niño types or diversity (Eastern-Pacific or canonical, EP; Central-Pacifc, CP and MIX, when there is contribution from the eastern and central equatorial Pacific), this event can be classified as a MIX type, i.e., the high SST anomalies appear in central and eastern Pacific and in the east side of this ocean the anomalies pattern cover a smaller area than in canonical events. Considering the South Hemisphere and the austral spring, the polar and subtropical jets were more intense than the climatological values. The Walker cells displaced to east and one downward branch contributed to dry conditions over the Northeast of Brazil. On the other hand, the negative anomalies of geopotential height at 1000 hPa over the South Atlantic Ocean near the southeast of South America, the high frequency of extratropical cyclones and the increase of the humidity flux convergence integrated vertically over the southeast of South America contributed to the positive precipitation anomalies in this continental area.

  14. Mesoscale variability in the Bransfield Strait region (Antarctica during Austral summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. García

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The Bransfield Strait is one the best-known areas of Antarctica's oceanic surroundings. In spite of this, the study of the mesoscale variability of its local circulation has been addressed only recently. This paper focuses on the mesoscale structure of local physical oceanographic conditions in the Bransfield Strait during the Austral summer as derived from the BIOANTAR 93 cruise and auxiliary remote sensing data. Moreover, data recovered from moored current meters allow identification of transient mesoscale phenomena.

  15. Les droits des consommateurs en matière de TIC en Afrique australe

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les droits des consommateurs en matière de TIC en Afrique australe. Un projet antérieur appuyé par le CRDI, ... et feront l'objet d'un rapport qui sera copublié par le CRDI. Ce rapport s'adressera principalement aux groupes de consommateurs, aux organismes de réglementation et aux responsables de politiques africains.

  16. Effectiveness of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of Acanthospermum australe (Loefl. Kuntze against diarrhea-inducing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mallmann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Leaves and roots of Acanthospermum australe (Asteraceae have been used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of various ailments including diarrhea, skin diseases, blennorrhagia, dyspepsia, parasitic worms and malaria. The aim of study was to characterize the chemical profiles of the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of leaves and roots of A. australe, and to evaluate their antimicrobial activities against diarrhea-inducing bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Shigella dysenteriae and Yersinia enterocolitica, as well as their cytotoxic properties. Aqueous leaf extracts were obtained by infusion, while aqueous root extracts were obtained by decoction. The hydroalcoholic leaf and root extracts were prepared by maceration in 90% ethanol for 3 days. Antimicrobial activity was assessed using standard techniques and cytotoxicity was evaluated using Chinese hamster ovary cells CHO-K1. Chemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, saponins and phenolic compounds in the extracts. Although root extracts were not effective against E. faecalis, leaf extracts at concentrations of 20 mg/mL exhibited bactericidal activities against this microorganism. The hydroalcoholic root extract was unique in presenting a bactericidal effect against S. dysenteriae. None of the extracts showed bacteriostatic or bactericidal activities against Y. enterocolitica. The results presented herein demonstrate that the Gram-positive E. faecalis and the Gram-negative S. dysenteriae were susceptible to A. australe extracts, although bacteriostatic/bactericidal activities were only observed at concentrations considered too high for clinical application. Our results support the ethnopharmacological use of A. australe in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, particularly diarrhea caused by infectious bacteria, although further studies are required to determine the anti-diarrhea effects and the toxicities of the extracts in vivo.

  17. In vitro effect of Acanthospermum australe (Asteraceae extracts on Acanthamoeba polyphaga trophozoites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LC Castro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acanthamoeba is a free-living protozoan widely distributed in the environment, occurring in vegetative trophozoite and resistance cyst stages during its life cycle. It constitutes an etiological agent of Acanthamoeba keratitis, a disease that may cause severe ocular inflammation and blindness. New drugs can be developed from molecules found in plants and thus help in its difficult treatment. Acanthospermum australe (Asteraceae, a plant used in folk medicine, had its effect tested on Acanthamoeba polyphaga. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of A. austral were obtained from aerial parts for infusion and static maceration, respectively. Concentrations of 10, 5, 2.5, 1.25 and 0.625 mg/ml of the extract were tested against Acanthamoeba polyphaga trophozoites. The cytotoxic effect of the extracts was tested in mammalian cells using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. RESULTS: The 10 mg/ml concentration of ethanolic extract was lethal to 100% of the A. polyphaga trophozoites in 24 h and both extracts presented cytotoxic effect against mammalian cells. These findings suggest that the A. austral ethanolic extract may have compounds with relevance to the development of new amoebicidal drugs.

  18. Disminución de la participación de la población en organizaciones sociales durante los últimos trece años en Chile e implicaciones para la construcción de una política de planificación urbana más participativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Geraldine Herrmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La Política Nacional de Desarrollo Urbano 2014 de Chile declara como un objetivo la participación ciudadana "efectiva". Sin embargo, como muestra este artículo, la participación de la población en asociaciones voluntarias ha decrecido significativamente en Chile en general, y en la ciudad de Santiago en particular. La presente investigación procesa analíticamente las estadísticas sobre participación ciudadana contenidas en las encuestas CASEN 2000 y CASEN 2009, y en la Encuesta Santiago Cómo Vamos 2013, para concluir que la participación en organizaciones sociales disminuyó casi a la mitad en la ciudad de Santiago en los últimos trece años y que, en general, no existe interés por parte de la ciudadanía en instrumentos de planificación participativa. Por último, se identifican las implicaciones que tiene esta prescindencia en la construcción de una política de planificación urbana más participativa, y los desafíos que tal situación plantea.

  19. Genetic and morphological evidence for cryptic species in Macrobrachium australe and resurrection of M. ustulatum (Crustacea, Palaemonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalie Castelin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Macrobrachium australe is an amphidromous prawn living in the insular freshwater systems of the Indo-Pacific. Because it possesses few informative morphological characters, that often vary from one habitat to another, M. australe has produced much taxonomic confusion and has historically been described under eight synonyms. Here, 53 specimens collected throughout the Indo-Pacific under the name M. australe were phylogenetically and morphologically examined. Results revealed that what has been called M. australe belongs to at least two distinct species: M. australe, distributed from the Southwest Indian Ocean to the Central Pacific Ocean, and a cryptic species potentially restricted to the Northwest Pacific Ocean, here identified as M. ustulatum, which until now was considered as a junior synonym. Although they are not quite found in the same habitat (lentic-lotic, the presence of these distinct, and reciprocally monophyletic entities in the same rivers on the islands of Palau and Santo strongly favors the hypothesis of two reproductively isolated entities. Six morphological characters, including the proportions of the joints of the male second pereiopod, the shape of the epistome lobe and the armature of the fourth thoracic sternite, are evidenced as diagnostic. A neotype of M. australe is designated and deposited in the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle in Paris.

  20. First record of the ant genus Oxyepoecus (Formicidae: Myrmicinae: Solenopsidini in Chile, with remarks on its geographical range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana CUEZZO

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El género de hormigas Oxyepoecus (Formicidae: Myrmicinae: Solenopsidini Santschi, 1926, está compuesto por 16 especies reconocidas como válidas. Tres de estas especies, O. inquilinus, O. bruchi y O. daguerrei, son consideradas actualmente como vulnerables (VuD2 e incluidas en la lista roja de especies amenazadas. El propósito de este trabajo es registrar, por primera vez, una de estas especies para Chile: O. inquilinus. Esta nueva localidad constituye el límite de distribución austral de este género rara vez recolectado.

  1. [Domestic violence in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Tomás; Grez, Marcela; Prato, Juan Andrés; Torres, Rafael; Ruiz, Sergio

    2014-08-01

    According to recent surveys, there is a high prevalence of domestic violence (DV) in Chile. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed, Scielo, and Lilacs with the MesH terms "Chile", "Mental Health", "Health", "Domestic Violence", to explore the impact of DV on health in Chile. Eleven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Two studies were prospective, exploring the influence of DV on maternal-infant health. Nine studies explored the influence of DV on mental health in adults. DV was associated with deranged mental health indicators specially anxiety and depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Similar results were observed among mothers who were victims of violence and their children. It is concluded that DV is a complex phenomenon with serious effects on health. However the number of studies on the subject is low and new follow up studies are required. Predictive models for DV and effective preventive measures are urgently needed.

  2. Primer "Entrenamiento en Metodologías de Investigación Clínica en Chile" (EMIC-Chile: Fundamentos psicoeducativos First "Training in Clinical Research Methodologies in Chile" (EMIC-Chile: Psychoeducational foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Cabieses

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available EMIC-Chile ("Entrenamiento en Metodologías para la Investigación Clínica en Chile" es un proyecto académico desarrollado durante el año 2008 en Chile para entrenar a profesionales de la salud y disciplinas afines en metodología de investigación clínica, con el objetivo de aumentar la calidad de los proyectos de investigación con fines concursables en nuestro país. El propósito de este artículo es dar a conocer el programa y sus fundamentos teóricos de enseñanza-aprendizaje, que estuvieron en la base de la estructura, metodología, evaluación y sistematización del conocimiento entregado. Para ello, primero se describe el programa, la metodología, la evaluación y el seguimiento. Posteriormente se detallan los aspectos psicoeducativos considerados, con especial énfasis en el aprendizaje social y la educación de adultos. Finalmente, se discute en torno a las posibles consideraciones de este programa para futuras intervenciones educativas en investigación en salud en Chile. Se espera que esta experiencia y sus fundamentos educativos sirvan de motor para futuras iniciativas en el área, a favor de la investigación en salud en Chile.EMIC-Chile ("Entrenamiento en Metodologías para la Investigación Clínica en Chile" is an academic project developed in Chile during 2008 to train health professionals in clinical research. The purpose of this initiative was to improve the quality of research projects that are submitted to apply for public funding. The aim of this article is to describe the psycho-educative theories that supported this training program, its structure, methods and evaluation. Firstly, the program is described in detail. Secondly, psycho-educative theories are described, with special emphasis of social learning theory and education for adults. Finally, implications of EMIC-Chile are stated, in order to improve future research training experiences in Chile. It is expected that this article enhance other research experts

  3. Interannual variations in the zonal asymmetry of the subpolar latitudes total ozone column during the austral spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Agosta

    2010-06-01

    patrones estadísticamente significativos en geopotencial y vientos zonales asociados a una onda cuasi-estacionaria 1 que abarca la estratósfera inferior. Los cambios en la onda cuasi-estacionaria 1 asociados a las posiciones extremas de mínimo de ozono muestran tener fuentes y sumideros que determinan interacciones transientes entre la troposfera y la estratosfera. Así, estados climáticos distinguibles de la troposfera parecen estar dinámicamente vinculados con el estado de la estratosfera y la capa de ozono. La migración de la vaguada de CTO desde el sur de Sudamérica hacia el este durante la década de 1990 puede estar vinculada a cambios en la variabilidad del Modo Anular del Sur durante la primavera austral.

  4. IDRC in Chile

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    labour market trends and align educa- tional programs with the skills needed by industry. Researchers at PUC also studied residential energy use ... IDRC represented “the possibility of keeping ideas alive” during the Pinochet dictatorship, says Ricardo Lagos, an IDRC- supported researcher who went on to become Chile's ...

  5. IDRC in Chile

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Latin Americans benefit from the potential of open data. □ Indigenous farmers cope ... Fast-Start Financing. Duration: 2012–2015. Grantee: Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. Water resources in the populous Maipo. River Basin are under stress from competing demands and climate change effects. Researchers are ...

  6. Un modelo de la historia de la vegetación de la Cordillera de La Costa de Chile central-sur: la hipótesis glacial de Darwin A model for the history of vegetation of the Coastal Range of central-southern Chile: Darwin's glacial hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA VILLAGRÁN

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available En Chile central-sur, entre los paralelos 37 y 43º S, existen comunidades aisladas de coníferas y tundras magallánicas, cuya distribución principal es altoandina y/o de latitudes altas. De acuerdo a Darwin (1859, en general, estas "islas" corresponderían a los remanentes de poblaciones glaciales, que ocuparon sitios de menor altitud y latitudes más bajas, durante el avance de los hielos. Se desprende de esta hipótesis que, a lo largo de Chile, se habrían producido desplazamientos de la flora austral y andina hacia el Valle Longitudinal, durante la última glaciación, y en sentido inverso, durante el Tardiglacial (14.600-10.000 14C años AP y Holoceno (después de 10.000 14C años AP. Considerando esta hipótesis, en este trabajo se analizan dos secuencias palinológicas, procedentes de las cimas de la Cordillera de la Costa de la Región de los Lagos (cordilleras de Nahuelbuta y de Sarao, y se correlacionan con registros publicados, tanto de otros sitios de cimas de cerros, como de sitios de baja altitud, todos ellos procedentes de las regiones de Los Lagos y de Los Canales. Los registros de las cimas de la Cordillera de La Costa, analizados en este estudio, muestran la siguiente secuencia cronológica: (1 El registro de la Cordillera de Sarao documenta, para el Holoceno temprano, a partir de 9.040 14C años AP, la colonización del elemento de tundras magallánicas y bosque norpatagónico con coníferas, aunque ambas formaciones alcanzan su máximo desarrollo en el Holoceno medio, sucedidas por el elemento de bosque norpatagónico-valdiviano, en el Holoceno tardío. (2 El registro de la Cordillera de Nahuelbuta muestra que la colonización de estos mismos elementos se produce, recién, en el Holoceno medio, alrededor de 5.430 14C años AP. Otros registros de polen de las cimas de la Cordillera de La Costa (Cordillera Pelada y de Piuchué muestran que el desarrollo de ambas formaciones se produjo en el Tardiglacial y Holoceno temprano

  7. Growth rates of Haliotis rufescens and Haliotis discus hannai in tank culture systems in southern Chile (41.5°S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Mardones

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The increased activity of aquaculture in Chile involves cultivation of salmonids, oysters mussels and other species such, and to a lesser extent species such as red abalone (Haliotis rufescens and Japanese abalone (Haliotis discus hannai. The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth rate of Haliotis rufescens and Haliotis discus hannai fed with different pellet based diets with Macrocystis sp. and Ulva sp., grown in ponds for 13 months. The results for both species denoted that there was an increase in length and biomass during experimental period, existing low growth rates during the austral winter (July-September and increase during the austral summer (December-January. Results are consistent with descriptions of literature that there is high rate of growth during the summer and using diet of brown algae. From the economic standpoint abalone farming would be an economically viable activity for local aquaculture, considering the water quality and food requirements.

  8. The mosses (Bryophyta) of Capitán Prat Province, Aisén Region, southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larraín, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The bryophytes of Capitán Prat province have remained one of the least explored in Chile. The eventual construction of several dams on the rivers Baker and Pascua required prospection of all groups of organisms including bryophytes, work that was facilitated by the recent construction of vehicular roads that now offer easy access to previously almost unaccessible locations. The results of intense bryophyte collecting during the austral summer of 2007 are here presented. A total of 260 moss taxa are reported for the province, corresponding to 256 species and four infraspecific taxa, of which 211 are new records for the province, 54 are new for Aisén Region, and two are new records for continental Chile (Pohlia longicollis (Hedw.) Lindb. and Rigodium toxarion var. robustum (Broth.) Zomlefer). Twelve species extend their known distribution ranges to the north, whereas 49 extend them to the south. PMID:27698577

  9. Intraseasonal variability of the Atlantic Intertropical Convergence Zone during austral summer and winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaziello, Ana Carolina Nóbile; Carvalho, Leila M. V.; Gandu, Adilson W.

    2016-09-01

    The Atlantic Intertropical Convergence Zone (A-ITCZ) exhibits variations on several time-scales and plays a crucial role in precipitation regimes of northern South America and western Africa. Here we investigate the variability of the A-ITCZ on intraseasonal time-scales during austral summer (November-March) and winter (May-September) based on a multivariate index that describes the main atmospheric features of the A-ITCZ and retains its variability on interannual, semiannual, and intraseasonal time-scales. This index is the time coefficient of the first combined empirical orthogonal function mode of anomalies (annual cycle removed) of precipitation, and zonal and meridional wind components at 850 hPa from the climate forecast system reanalysis (1979-2010). We examine associations between the intraseasonal variability of the A-ITCZ and the activity of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO). We show that during austral summer intraseasonal variability of the A-ITCZ is associated with a Rossby wave train in the Northern Hemisphere. In austral winter this variability is associated with the propagation of a Rossby wave in the Southern Hemisphere consistent with the Pacific-South American pattern. Moreover, we show that intense A-ITCZ events on intraseasonal time-scales are more frequent during the phase of MJO characterized by convection over western Pacific and suppression over the Indian Ocean. These teleconnection patterns induce anomalies in the trade winds and upper level divergence over the equatorial Atlantic that modulate the intensity of the A-ITCZ.

  10. La nutricion durante el embarazo

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Chanivet, Gwendolin; Aragón Flores, Jose Andrés; Cabeza Garcia, María Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introducción: durante los primeros meses de embarazo, es cuando se forma los órganos vitales por lo que es muy importante , una buena dieta materna. Existe un estudio que pone de manifiesto la relación de la aparición de alergias en el recién nacido y el estado nutricional materno. Objetivo: evaluar el estado nutricional durante...

  11. Superficial deposits in northeast flank of Sierras Australes (Provincia de Buenos Aires, Republica Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, R.; Fucks, E.; De Francesco, F.

    2004-01-01

    Pleistocene and Holocene superficial deposits, which have been recognized in an area of 1500 km2 in the northeast flank of Sierras Australes, are characterized. In divide they are underlain by silts and siltstone which are called Sediments Pampeanas. There, a lower sequence, consisting mainly of aeolian sediments (loess) with scarce fluvial deposits and diamictons, was recognized. In some places an upper sequence that is product of aeolian and anthropogenic activity, was also recognized. In the valley sequences, the loess deposits can not only be underlain by fluvial sediments but can also overlain them. The more recent fluvial deposits which have eroded loess sequences are of the post conquest age [es

  12. Leaf venation pattern to recognize austral South American medicinal species of "cow's hoof" (Bauhinia L., Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée H. Fortunato

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The leaves extracts of some species of Bauhinia L. s.l. are consumed to treat diabetes, inflammation, pains and several disorders in traditional medicine in austral South America. Despite its wide use and commercialization, sale is not controlled, and botanical quality of samples is not always adequate because of plant misidentification and adulteration. Here, we characterized leaf vein pattern in nineteen taxa to contribute to the recognition and commercial quality control of plant material commercially available. The vein characters intercostal tertiary and quinternary vein fabric, areole development and shape, free ending veinlet branching and marginal ultimate venation allowed to distinguish the main medicinal species in the region.

  13. La pérennité des conflits en Afrique du Sud et Australe

    OpenAIRE

    Chapleau, Philippe

    2002-01-01

    Alors que beaucoup d'observateurs envisageaient une pacification des conflits d'Afrique Australe et une normalisation de la situation en République Sud-Africaine où les différentes parties étaient parvenues à dialoguer, l'analyse des conséquences de la politique de De Klerk montre que l'instabilité reste chronique dans le sous-continent et que l'on assiste en Afrique du Sud même à l'émergence d'une conflictualité nouvelle qui s'adjoint aux formes plus anciennes de conflit. Ces dernières se so...

  14. DNA-damaging activity of a cinnamate derivative and further compounds from Cinnamomum australe (Lauraceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonezi, Carlos Alberto; Lopes, Marcia Nasser; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Araujo, Angela Regina; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva; Young, Maria Claudia Marx; Silva, Marcelo Rogerio da

    2004-01-01

    The bioactive compound trans-3'-methylsulphonylallyl trans-cinnamate (1) along with the inactive iryelliptin (2) and (7R,8S,1'S)-Δ 8' -3',5'-dimethoxy-1',4'-dihydro-4'-oxo-7.0.2',8.1'-neolignan (3) were isolated from the leaves of Cinnamomum australe. The structures of these compounds were assigned by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR data and comparison with data registered in the literature for these compounds. The DNA-damaging activity of 1 is being described for the first time. (author)

  15. Composition of phytoplankton in the Bransfield Strait and Elephant Island during austral summer of 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Sánchez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors inform about the composition and distribution of phytoplanktonic community between the first 75 m of depth in Bransfield Strait y around the Elephant island, during the ANTAR X expedition in the 1999 Austral Summer (22nd–29th January 1999. The higher cellular concentration (500 cel/mL was given by the autotrophic nanoplankton, with a high density mainly on the bay stations and down the first 25 m of depth. Among the most representative species we have Leucocryptos marina, Phaeocystis antarctica, the Monadas and the pennate diatoms.

  16. Aproximación al lenguaje político fundacional de la Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia en Chile. Análisis de los conceptos Democracia y Socialismo en las revistas políticas durante la segunda mitad de 1980: El caso de Ricardo Lagos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Kantar Contreras

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El golpe de Estado de 1973 inaugura en la izquierda chilena, particularmente en el Partido Socialista y el MAPU, un proceso de autocrítica frente a lo realizado durante la Unidad Popular, debido a este proceso se repiensan y reelaboran conceptos fundamentales del acervo teórico de la izquierda, modificando el lenguaje político de la oposición a la dictadura. En este escenario, revisamos las apropiaciones, reelaboraciones y usos conceptuales de la democracia y el socialismo que el líder socialista Ricardo Lagos desarrollo desde la tribuna de lasrevistas políticas opositoras al régimen dictatorial.

  17. Recirculation effect of Chilean copper smelting dust with high impurities contents on the impurity distributions during smelting process; Efecto de la recirculacion de polvo de fundicion de cobre de Chile con altos contenidos de impurezas en la distribucion de impurezas durante el proceso de fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montenegro, V.; Sano, H.; Fujisawa, T.

    2010-07-01

    Usually, dust generated during the copper smelting process by the Teniente Converter and the Flash Smelting Furnaces in Chile, contains high concentrations of copper, zinc, arsenic, antimony and other metals. In general, the dust is recirculated to the smelting process or it is directed to hydrometallurgical process for recovery and stabilization. However, in recent years the generation of dust has increased because of the degradation of the quality of the concentrate. In addition, the environmental regulations have become stricter. It is therefore desirable to understand the behavior of those elements, when the smelting process operates with recirculation of dust. In this study, the effect of dust recirculation to smelting process on the distribution among the matte, slag and gas phases was evaluated, as a function of matte grade, amount of recirculated dust, oxygen enrichment and temperature. It was found that the concentration in the matte of the impurities such as arsenic, antimony and bismuth, increased slightly with recirculation of dust. On the other hand, the concentration of lead and zinc depend of the direct recirculation of dust to the process. Additionally, it was found that high concentrations of arsenic and antimony in the dust may lead to the formation and precipitation of copper arsenates and other metals (speiss), which may generates important operational problems. (Author) 15 refs.

  18. Spent Fuel in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López Lizana, F.

    2015-01-01

    The government has made a complete and serious study of many different aspects and possible road maps for nuclear electric power with strong emphasis on safety and energy independence. In the study, the chapter of SFM has not been a relevant issue at this early stage due to the fact that it has been left for later implementation stage. This paper deals with the options Chile might consider in managing its Spent Fuel taking into account foreign experience and factors related to safety, economics, public acceptance and possible novel approaches in spent fuel treatment. The country’s distinctiveness and past experience in this area taking into account that Chile has two research reactors which will have an influence in the design of the Spent Fuel option. (author)

  19. Diet of the American mink Mustela vison and its potential impact on the native fauna of Navarino Island, Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, Chile Dieta del visón norteamericano Mustela vison y su impacto potencial sobre la fauna nativa de Isla Navarino, Reserva de Biosfera Cabo de Hornos, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELKE SCHÜTTLER

    2008-12-01

    ás austral del mundo. Para estudiar su impacto potencial sobre la fauna nativa, estimamos su dieta en Isla Navarino como parte de un programa de control de especies invasoras. Durante tres años (2005-2007 colectamos 512 fecas en diversos habitats semiacuáticos: costa marina, riberas de ríos y lagos. La dieta consistió principalmente en mamíferos (37 % biomasa, aves (36 % y peces (24 %. Durante la primavera y el verano el visón consumió significativamente más aves, sin embargo los mamíferos constituyeron la presa principal durante el otoño y el invierno, cuando las aves migratorias han abandonado la region. La depredación sobre aves afectó principalmente a Passeriformes adultos, seguidos por Anseriformes y Pelecaniformes que fueron capturados como polluelos. Respecto a los mamíferos, un roedor exótico, la rata almizclera (Ondatra zibethicus, fue la presa principal y junto al roedor nativo Abrothrix xanthorhinus constituyó el 78 % de la biomasa de presas de mamíferos. Para un manejo integral de especies de mamíferos exóticos invasores en Isla Navarino y la Reserva de Biosfera Cabo de Hornos es importante desarrollar investigación sobre las interacciones entre los mamíferos introducidos e iniciar un control inmediato de la población de visones en su estado inicial de invasión.

  20. Sarcocystis spp. in red deer (Cervus elaphus, fallow deer (Dama dama, and pudu (Pudu pudu in southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Reyes Lobão-Tello

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Worldwinde, cervids are considered an important source of infection and dissemination of a wide variety of pathogens, both for farm animals and humans. Among this diseases is sarcosporidiosis, which is a parasitic disease caused by Sarcocystis spp. (Protozoa: Apicomplexa. Most frequent clinical signs are hemolytic anemia, weakness, weight loss and decrease of growth and some species of Sarcocystis might cause abortions. The clinical disease in ruminants is fairly rare but the infection is very frequent. Infections are accumulative and the parasite does not generate immunity in any of the hosts. Ovine sarcosporidiosis is a serious issue in the some regions of Chile due to the macrocysts located in the muscle which means condemnation of the whole carcass. Sarcocystis spp. has been widely reported in red deer and other cervid species but in Chile the situation remains unknown. Nowadays there is little to no evidence of Sarcocystis in foreign deer in Chile and there is only one report of the parasite on pudu. The main goal of this study is to demonstrate the presence of Sarcocystis spp. in myocardium of red deer and fallow deer in Chile, and confirm the presence of Sarcocystis spp. in pudu. All cervid cases from 1994 to 2013 of the Institute of Animal Pathology of the Universidad Austral de Chile were reviewed. The animals selected were those in which a myocardium sample was taken. From the histopathological samples observed, it was found that 5 of the 9 red deer, 1 of the 4 fallow deer and in 11 of the 23 pudu there were Sarcocystis cysts in the myocardium. This study represents the first record for Chile of Sarcocystis spp. in myocardium of red deer and fallow deer. Stablishing the red deer, fallow deer and pudu as hosts of Sarcocystis aids to have a better understanding of the parasite epidemiology in Chile and the role of wild and captive cervids in the maintenance and spread of these parasites.

  1. Identidad Docente en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia González Castro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo invita a pensar el discurso identitario docente en Chile, desde la perspectiva de la tropología, entendida como ejes textuales sobre los cuales se figura la realidad y que son efecto de la interacción comunicativa entre integrantes de un colectivo social, que comparten una enciclopedia o repertorio de experiencias comunes que permiten asignar sentido a un mensaje.

  2. Influence of the preceding austral summer Southern Hemisphere annular mode on the amplitude of ENSO decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fei; Li, Jianping; Ding, Ruiqiang

    2017-11-01

    There is increasing evidence of the possible role of extratropical forcing in the evolution of ENSO. The Southern Hemisphere Annular Mode (SAM) is the dominant mode of atmospheric circulation in the Southern Hemisphere extratropics. This study shows that the austral summer (December-January-February; DJF) SAM may also influence the amplitude of ENSO decay during austral autumn (March-April-May; MAM). The mechanisms associated with this SAM-ENSO relationship can be briefly summarized as follows: The SAM is positively (negatively) correlated with SST in the Southern Hemisphere middle (high) latitudes. This dipole-like SST anomaly pattern is referred to as the Southern Ocean Dipole (SOD). The DJF SOD, caused by the DJF SAM, could persist until MAM and then influence atmospheric circulation, including trade winds, over the Niño3.4 area. Anomalous trade winds and SST anomalies over the Niño3.4 area related to the DJF SAM are further developed through the Bjerkness feedback, which eventually results in a cooling (warming) over the Niño3.4 area followed by the positive (negative) DJF SAM.

  3. THEOTONIO DOS SANTOS EN EL CHILE DE LA UNIDAD POPULAR

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal Molina,Paula

    2013-01-01

    Se presenta una entrevista realizada a Theotonio dos Santos, que menciona los motivos y su experiencia vivida en Chile durante el periodo de la Unidad Popular. A partir de esto, describe algunos temas de debate en la izquierda chilena de la época, su visión de la Unidad Popular, el marxismo y las particularidades de la su teoría. Así también, se refiere al movimiento social contemporáneo y a la necesidad de la existencia del pensamiento critico.

  4. Fundamentos del Tipo de Cambio Real en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Cerda; Alvaro Donoso; Aldo Lema

    2003-01-01

    Un modelo basado en la relación gasto-producto (efecto Salter-Swan) y los términos de intercambio, habría predicho un incremento más pronunciado del tipo de cambio real (TCR) en Chile durante la segunda mitad de los '80, una caída menos acentuada entre 1990 y 1997, y un aumento más fuerte a partir de 1998 cuando irrumpió la crisis financiera internacional. Este trabajo incorpora en forma exhaustiva otros factores en la determinación de largo plazo del TCR, tanto de oferta como de demanda. Usa...

  5. Política educativa y profundizacion de la desigualdad en chile

    OpenAIRE

    Oliva,María Angélica

    2008-01-01

    La desigualdad educativa se profundizó durante la dictadura militar en Chile. Después de 17 años del retorno a la democracia, la situación no ha remontado. Ello merece un análisis que, en este trabajo, es realizado desde la óptica deontológica, enfatizando tres aspectos: de la incidencia del conflicto entre Estado Docente y Libertad de Enseñanza y la desigualdad educativa en Chile; el rol del Estado subsidiario, una fractura en la educación como bien público y, finalmente, la Constitución de ...

  6. Chile y la globalización: una dependencia potencialmente peligrosa Chile and globalization: a potentially dangerous dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Duque

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo tiene varios propósitos. Primero, discutir el concepto de globalización en sus diferentes acepciones, particularmente, la económica, la política y la cultural. En segundo lugar, intenta tratar de describir y demostrar el enorme grado de dependencia que Chile tiene del actual proceso globalizador. En tercer término, se trata de señalar que la actual globalización, es un proceso similar al que ha ocurrido en otras épocas de la historia. Especialmente se comenta en detalle el análisis del profesor Ferguson quien compara la actual globalización con la que ocurrió a fines del siglo XIX y comienzos del XX. Se concluye que el actual proceso de globalización es tan volátil, inestable y peligroso como fue la globalización decimonónica. Se concluye también indicando que es altamente probable que el actual proceso globalizador, termine en forma similar a como terminó la globalización 1870-1914. Finalmente se argumenta que debido a que Chile está geográficamente ubicado en la parte más austral del hemisferio sur, es probable que el país salga relativamente intacto de la conflagración que se avecina.This article begins by discussing the different meanings of globalization, especially the economic, political and social ones. It then describes how Chile is greatly dependent on the current globalization process, as well as points out that this process is similar to others that have taken place in other times in history. It discusses in detail professor Ferguson's analysis comparing the current globalization with the one that occurred at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th. The article concludes that the current process is as volatile, unstable and dangerous as that of the 19th century, and that it is highly probable that it will end as that of 1870-1914. It also argues that since Chile is on the southernmost part of the southern hemisphere, it will be relatively preserved from the oncoming conflagration.

  7. Primary Medical Care in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.

    Primary medical care in Chile: accessibility under military rule [Front Cover] [Front Matter] [Title Page] Contents Tables Figures Preface Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: The Restructuring of Medical Care Financing in Chile Chapter 3: Inflation and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 4: Help...

  8. Rule of Repression in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Indian Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This report on the current condition of the Mapuche Indians of Chile is edited from a document on the "Situation of Human Rights in Chile" and details the repressive and inhumane treatment of the largest indigenous ethnic minority in the country. (Author/RTS)

  9. Protecting Dark Skies in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. Chris; Sanhueza, Pedro; Phillips, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Current projections indicate that Chile will host approximately 70% of the astronomical collecting area on Earth by 2030, augmenting the enormous area of ALMA with that of three next-generation optical telescopes: LSST, GMTO, and E-ELT. These cutting-edge facilities represent billions of dollars of investment in the astronomical facilities hosted in Chile. The Chilean government, Chilean astronomical community, and the international observatories in Chile have recognized that these investments are threatened by light pollution, and have formed a strong collaboration to work at managing the threats. We will provide an update on the work being done in Chile, ranging from training municipalities about new lighting regulations to exploring international recognition of the dark sky sites of Northern Chile.

  10. Country profile: Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The first case of AIDS in Chile was diagnosed in 1984. There have been 1060 cases reported since then throughout the country, or 8.2 cases for every 100,000 Chileans. 92.8% of all people with AIDS in Chile are male, with the male:female AIDS patient ratio increasing from 12.9:1 for the period 1984-1991 to 15.2:1 currently. This increase in the proportion of male AIDS cases suggests the existence of a rapidly increasing male HIV infection rate. 82% of reported cases are the result of unprotected sexual intercourse, 66.8% of which are among males who identify themselves as homosexual or bisexual. The 7.2:1 ratio of homosexual/bisexual transmission to heterosexual transmission for 1984-1989, however, declined to 3.9:1 for 1990-1994, indicating an increase in the extent of HIV/AIDS transmission through sex between men and women. Heterosexual sex is the reported means of transmission for 15.2% of currently identified AIDS cases in Chile. The mode of transmission was unknown for 10% of reported cases, due to vertical transmission among 1%, and the result of the direct exchange of blood among 7%. 60% of these latter cases were reported among IV drug users, 20% were reported as the result of blood transfusion, and 16% were reported in hemophiliacs. Most transmissions by blood transfusion occurred before 1987, when blood product controls were implemented. Infection due to IV drug use grew to 69.8% of such blood-related cases in 1990-94, compared to just 29.4% of cases in 1984-89. 81.5% of all cases are among people aged 20-49 years, with 64.1% of cases among individuals aged 30-49. Those under age 20 comprise 2.3% of total cases and those aged 20-29 years comprise 17.4%.

  11. Phosphate geochemistry, mineralization processes, and Thioploca distribution in shelf sediments off central Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmkvist, Lars; Arning, Esther T.; Küster-Heins, Kathrin

    2010-01-01

    Sediments underlying the major costal upwelling systems of the world oceans are hot-spots of modern formation of hydroxyapatites, often associated with benthic communities of large, nitrate-accumulating sulfur bacteria. We studied the association between phosphate release, organic phosphorus mine...... organic detritus. Although the pore water was super-saturated with respect to hydroxyapatite, this mineral was only a minor P-component in the sediment. Most solid-phase phosphate was bound to iron.......Sediments underlying the major costal upwelling systems of the world oceans are hot-spots of modern formation of hydroxyapatites, often associated with benthic communities of large, nitrate-accumulating sulfur bacteria. We studied the association between phosphate release, organic phosphorus...... mineralization, and occurrence of dense communities of the filamentous sulfur bacteria, Thioploca spp., on the continental shelf off central Chile during the austral summer when high phytoplankton productivity and anoxic bottom water prevailed. Freshly deposited phytodetritus stimulated extremely high sulfate...

  12. Accès au savoir en Afrique australe : le libre accès à la recherche à l ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Access to Knowledge Southern Africa (A2KSA) a pour but de mieux comprendre les différentes contraintes entourant l'accès des universités d'Afrique australe au savoir à des fins de recherche et ... A new website and resource library will help improve developing country registration and information systems for vital events.

  13. Occurrence of Magellanic Penguins along the Northeast Brazilian Coast during 2008 Austral Winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ramos da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the austral winter of 2008, thousands of penguins traveled to low latitudes along the South Atlantic coast of South America. The atmospheric and oceanic conditions from April to July 2008 may account for the penguins' unusual geographic distribution. During that period, South Atlantic coastal waters were cooler; the wind anomalies had northward and onshore components; the ocean's coastal region presented northward currents that favored the penguins to travel toward lower latitudes. This anomalous climate regime resulted from extreme meteorological frontal systems that occurred mainly during June 2008. Three consecutive extreme midlatitude cyclones produced strong wind shear that resulted in the northward oceanic flow along the South American eastern shoreline favoring the penguins to be spotted in northern tropical waters.

  14. Observations and Modeling of the North West Shelf of Australia during Austral Summer 2011/2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, Jeffrey; Pequignet, A.-Christine; Macdonald, Helen; Jones, Nicole; Lowe, Ryan; Ivey, Gregory; Rice, Ana; Rowley, Clark; Brinkman, Richard; Steinberg, Craig; Strutton, Peter

    2015-04-01

    During the austral summer of 2011/2012, a series of collaborations between U.S. and Australian funded projects led to the collection of a large observational and modeling dataset for the North West Shelf of Australia. These partnerships resulted in the deployment of 30 moorings at 23 different sites and 5 AUV gliders for various intervals of measurement between November 2011 and August 2012. This region is best known for its strong tidal flows and highly energetic internal tides, but lower frequency flows are also significant with the postulated Holloway Current flowing towards the southwest along the coast and providing a possible limited connecting pathway between the Indonesian Throughflow and the Leeuwin Current. Observations from ADCP current meters over this austral summer showed a weak (3-12 cm/s) mean southwestward flow, but this mean masked generally stronger low-frequency, along-shore flows that reached 25 cm/s or more in either direction, reversing at weekly or longer periods. In general currents tended to be northeastward in Nov.-Dec. and southwestward in Jan.-Apr., but reversals from these trends occurred during both periods. Bottom pressure records from the moorings indicated highly coherent bottom pressure anomaly fluctuations at all sites but also showed a reversal of the onshore/offshore pressure gradient from Nov. to Apr. Two tropical cyclones (Iggy and Lua) passed close by the North West Shelf during the observational period, and in both cases the coastal circulation towards the southwest was strengthened during the storms and then reversed towards the northeast after the storms. Other reversals occurred that were not associated with tropical cyclone dynamics. Analyses of these data and associated modeling runs are ongoing and directed towards the goal of better understanding the low-frequency dynamics of this coastal current. Additionally, understanding the physical forcing of this connecting current will be helpful for future work on the

  15. Robotics research in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ruiz-del-Solar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of research in robotics in a developing country is a challenging task. Factors such as low research funds, low trust from local companies and the government, and a small number of qualified researchers hinder the development of strong, local research groups. In this article, and as a case of study, we present our research group in robotics at the Advanced Mining Technology Center of the Universidad de Chile, and the way in which we have addressed these challenges. In 2008, we decided to focus our research efforts in mining, which is the main industry in Chile. We observed that this industry has needs in terms of safety, productivity, operational continuity, and environmental care. All these needs could be addressed with robotics and automation technology. In a first stage, we concentrate ourselves in building capabilities in field robotics, starting with the automation of a commercial vehicle. An important outcome of this project was the earn of the local mining industry confidence. Then, in a second stage started in 2012, we began working with the local mining industry in technological projects. In this article, we describe three of the technological projects that we have developed with industry support: (i an autonomous vehicle for mining environments without global positioning system coverage; (ii the inspection of the irrigation flow in heap leach piles using unmanned aerial vehicles and thermal cameras; and (iii an enhanced vision system for vehicle teleoperation in adverse climatic conditions.

  16. Distribution and habitat ecology of the sorediate species of Menegazzia (Parmeliaceae, lichenized Ascomycota in Chile Distribución y ecología de las especies sorediosas de Menegazzia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota liquenizado en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JARLE W BJERKE

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The taxonomy and ecology of the sorediate species of Menegazzia from the southernmost regions of Chile and Argentina and the South Atlantic Islands was recently published, only with sporadic reports from the more northern regions. In the present work the distribution patterns and habitat ecology of the sorediate species are discussed, with emphasis on the area north of 48º S. Eleven species are treated. Menegazzia subpertusa, an epiphyte of sclerophyll scrubs, is recorded from South America for the first time (Chile and Argentina. Menegazzia neozelandica has a disjunct distribution in Chile, with occurrences in Fray Jorge (Fourth Region of Chile and on Islas Juan Fernández, and along the coast south of latitude 38º S. Menegazzia kawesqarica and M. tenuis are most common in the southernmost part of Chile, but are also found at high altitudes at lower latitudes. Additional treated species are M. chrysogaster, M. fumarprotocetrarica, M. globulifera, M. magellanica, M. norsorediata, M. sanguinascens and M. wandae. Several of the sorediate species are early colonisers of newly developed substrates. They show variable occurrences along light and humidity gradients. Distribution maps and a revised key are presented.Recientemente se han publicado datos sobre la taxonomía y ecología de las especies sorediosas de Menegazzia representadas en las regiones más australes de Chile y Argentina e islas del Atlántico Sur, además de registros esporádicos en zonas ubicadas más al norte en Chile. En este trabajo se discuten los patrones de distribución y la ecología del hábitat de 11 especies sorediosas, con especial enfásis en aquellas que se desarrollan al norte de los 48º S. Menegazzia subpertusa, un epífito de arbustos esclerófilos, se registra por primera vez en América (Chile y Argentina. Menegazzia neozelandica tiene una distribución discontinua en Chile; ha sido recolectada en Fray Jorge (Cuarta Región de Chile, Islas Juan Fern

  17. Primer "Entrenamiento en Metodologías de Investigación Clínica en Chile" (EMIC-Chile: Fundamentos psicoeducativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Cabieses

    Full Text Available EMIC-Chile ("Entrenamiento en Metodologías para la Investigación Clínica en Chile" es un proyecto académico desarrollado durante el año 2008 en Chile para entrenar a profesionales de la salud y disciplinas afines en metodología de investigación clínica, con el objetivo de aumentar la calidad de los proyectos de investigación con fines concursables en nuestro país. El propósito de este artículo es dar a conocer el programa y sus fundamentos teóricos de enseñanza-aprendizaje, que estuvieron en la base de la estructura, metodología, evaluación y sistematización del conocimiento entregado. Para ello, primero se describe el programa, la metodología, la evaluación y el seguimiento. Posteriormente se detallan los aspectos psicoeducativos considerados, con especial énfasis en el aprendizaje social y la educación de adultos. Finalmente, se discute en torno a las posibles consideraciones de este programa para futuras intervenciones educativas en investigación en salud en Chile. Se espera que esta experiencia y sus fundamentos educativos sirvan de motor para futuras iniciativas en el área, a favor de la investigación en salud en Chile.

  18. Eso's Situation in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    ESO, the European Southern Observatory, in reply to questions raised by the international media, as well as an ongoing debate about the so-called "Paranal case" in Chilean newspapers, would like to make a number of related observations concerning its status and continued operation in that country [1]. THE ESO OBSERVATORY SITES IN CHILE The European Southern Observatory, an international organisation established and supported by eight European countries, has been operating more than 30 years in the Republic of Chile. Here ESO maintains one of the world's prime astronomical observatories on the La Silla mountain in the southern part of the Atacama desert. This location is in the Fourth Chilean Region, some 600 km north of Santiago de Chile. In order to protect the La Silla site against dust and light pollution from possible future mining industries, roads and settlements, ESO early acquired the territory around this site. It totals about 825 sq. km and has effectively contributed to the preservation of its continued, excellent "astronomical" quality. Each year, more than 500 astronomers from European countries, Chile and elsewhere profit from this when they come to La Silla to observe with one or more of the 15 telescopes now located there. In 1987, the ESO Council [2] decided to embark upon one of the most prestigious and technologically advanced projects ever conceived in astronomy, the Very Large Telescope (VLT). It will consist of four interconnected 8.2-metre telescopes and will become the largest optical telescope in the world when it is ready. It is safe to predict that many exciting discoveries will be made with this instrument, and it will undoubtedly play a very important role in our exploration of the distant universe and its many mysteries during the coming decades. THE VLT AND PARANAL In order to find the best site for the VLT, ESO performed a thorough investigation of many possible mountain tops, both near La Silla and in Northern Chile. They showed

  19. Mesoscale primary production and bio-optical variability off Antofagasta (23-24º S during the transition to El Niño 1997-1998 Variabilidad de la producción primaria y bio-óptica a mesoescala frente a las costas de Antofagasta (23-24º S durante la transición a El Niño 1997-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEMITA PIZARRO

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The spatial variability of primary production (PP, chlorophyll-a (Chl-a and the photosynthetic parameters were studied off Antofagasta, Chile (23-24ºS, 70-72º W during austral summer and winter. Between cruises (January and July 1997, significant changes occurred in the water column, including higher temperatures in the euphotic zone (Zeu deepening of thermocline below Zeu, an increase of oxygen concentration and the intrusion of Subtropical Waters with potential limitation of nutrients. These strong physical anomalies due to the transition period of El Niño 1997-1998 appeared in this study area during March 1997. During the July cruise, the El Niño event 1997-1998 was in the middle of its development (IOS-2. The hypothesis that chlorophyll-a concentrations and primary production differ significantly in the coastal areas in the Antofagasta region due to year-round coastal upwelling was tested in this study. Photosynthesis versus irradiance (P-E experiments were performed daily, using simulated in situ incubations with samples collected within the Zeu. Also in vitro incubations were done at several selected stations. For results analyses, stations were pooled in coastal and oceanic sites according to distance from the narrow shelf and differential influence of local upwelling. Integrated Chl-a values during both cruises were significantly higher at the coastal stations, and since between cruises no differences were found, a mean value of 44 mg Chl-a m-2 can be reported for the coastal area. Daily PP values were significantly different in space and time (P Durante el verano e invierno austral, se estudió la variabilidad espacial de la producción primaria (PP, clorofila-a (Cl-a y los parámetros fotosintéticos en las costas de Antofagasta, Chile (23-24º S, 70-72º O. Entre ambos cruceros (enero y julio 1997 hubo cambios significativos en la columna de agua, los que incluyeron aumento de la temperatura en la zona eufótica (Zeu, profundizaci

  20. Una forma moderna de sociabilidad: inicio de la Masonería en Chile (1862

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Mauricio Parada Ulloa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio es un análisis heurístico e interpretativo y tiene como propósito analizar los antecedentes fundacionales de la masonería en Chile durante la segunda mitad del siglo XIX. Para ello, se identifican las vías de ingreso de los extranjeros en territorio Latinoamericano y nacional que fue a partir de los puertos del pacífico lo que permitió la fundación de logias. En el caso de Chile el ingreso de la masonería fue a través de los puertos de Valparaíso y Talcahuano, gracias a la movilidad de comerciantes, artesanos y profesionales de origen británico, francés y norteamericano, lo que permitió la llegada de la Orden a las ciudades de Concepción y Copiapó. La institucionalización de la masonería en Chile fue con la fundación de la Gran Logia de Chile en 1862, lo que favoreció la consolidación de la Orden en el país, la fundación de logias en distintas ciudades y la iniciación de chilenos durante las siguientes décadas.

  1. Nuclear energy evolution in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir Dupouy, J.

    1984-01-01

    The interest about the nuclear in Chile, as is the case in other countries, began at the end of World War Two. That initial interest did not have a big national impact, since the secrecy that characterized the first years of the nuclear era restrained the acquisition of technological information. Since August 1945 up to our days, scientifical, political and international people and events have chronologically marked the evolution of nuclear energy in Chile. (Author)

  2. El proceso emprendedor en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    José Miguel Benavente

    2004-01-01

    Este estudio analiza los factores que afectan en forma positiva y negativa el proceso de creación de emprendimientos dinámicos en Chile. Se basa en una encuesta a 200 empresas jóvenes, la cual es parte de una muestra de casi 2000 empresas de América Latina. El presente estudio se enfoca básicamente en el segmento de nuevos emprendimientos existentes en Chile.

  3. Influence of aerosol-cloud interaction on austral summer precipitation over Southern Africa during ENSO events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchith, R. D.; Sivakumar, V.

    2018-04-01

    In the present study, we are investigating the role of aerosols-and clouds in modulating the austral summer precipitation (December-February) during ENSO events over southern Africa region for the period from 2002 to2012 by using satellite and complimentary data sets. Aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) and Cloud radiative forcing (CRF) shows distinct patterns for El-Nina and La-Nina years. Further analysis were carried out by selecting the four Southern Africa regions where the precipitation shows remarkable difference during El-Nino and La-Nina years. These regions are R1 (33°S-24°S, 18°E-30°E), R2 (17°S-10°S, 24°E-32°E), R3 (19°S-9°S, 33°E-41°E) and R4 (7°S-0°S, 27°E-36°E). Aerosol Optical depth (AOD) shows considerable differences during these events. In region R1, R2 and R3 AOD shows more abundance in El-Nino years as compared to La-Nina years where as in R4 the AOD shows more abundance in La-Nina years. Cloud Droplet Effective radius (CDER) shows higher values during La-Nina years over R1, R2 and R3 regions but in R4 region CDER shows higher values in El-Nino years. Aerosol indirect effect (AIE) is estimated both for fixed cloud liquid water path (CLWP) and for fixed cloud ice path (CIP) bins, ranging from 1 to 300 gm -2 at 25 gm -2 interval over all the selected regions for El-Nino and La-Nina years. The results indicate more influence of positive indirect effect (Twomey effect) over R1 and R3 region during El-Nino years as compared to La-Nina years. This analysis reveals the important role of aerosol on cloud-precipitation interaction mechanism illustrating the interlinkage between dynamics and microphysics during austral summer season over southern Africa.

  4. Phytoplankton blooms during austral summer in the Ross Sea, Antarctica: Driving factors and trophic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangoni, Olga; Saggiomo, Vincenzo; Bolinesi, Francesco; Margiotta, Francesca; Budillon, Giorgio; Cotroneo, Yuri; Misic, Cristina; Rivaro, Paola; Saggiomo, Maria

    2017-01-01

    During the austral summer of 2014, an oceanographic cruise was conducted in the Ross Sea in the framework of the RoME (Ross Sea Mesoscale Experiment) Project. Forty-three hydrological stations were sampled within three different areas: the northern Ross Sea (RoME 1), Terra Nova Bay (RoME 2), and the southern Ross Sea (RoME 3). The ecological and photophysiological characteristics of the phytoplankton were investigated (i.e., size structure, functional groups, PSII maximum quantum efficiency, photoprotective pigments), as related to hydrographic and chemical features. The aim was to identify the mechanisms that modulate phytoplankton blooms, and consequently, the fate of organic materials produced by the blooms. The observed biomass standing stocks were very high (e.g., integrated chlorophyll-a up to 371 mg m-2 in the top 100 m). Large differences in phytoplankton community composition, relative contribution of functional groups and photosynthetic parameters were observed among the three subsystems. The diatoms (in different physiological status) were the dominant taxa in RoME 1 and RoME 3; in RoME 1, a post-bloom phase was identified, whereas in RoME 3, an active phytoplankton bloom occurred. In RoME 2, diatoms co-occurred with Phaeocystis antarctica, but were vertically segregated by the upper mixed layer, with senescent diatoms dominating in the upper layer, and P. antarctica blooming in the deeper layer. The dominance of the phytoplankton micro-fraction over the whole area and the high Chl-a suggested the prevalence of non-grazed large cells, independent of the distribution of the two functional groups. These data emphasise the occurrence of significant temporal changes in the phytoplankton biomass in the Ross Sea during austral summer. The mechanisms that drive such changes and the fate of the carbon production are probably related to the variations in the limiting factors induced by the concurrent hydrological modifications to the Ross Sea, and they remain to

  5. Chile menos volátil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Larraín B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde fines de 1998 la economía chilena se desaceleró mucho. Si entre 1988 y 1998 la tasa de crecimiento promedio alcanzó un 7.8%, durante el período postcrisis asiática fue de sólo un 3.7%. Sin embargo, junto con la desaceleración del crecimiento, la volatilidad de la economía se redujo prácticamente a la mitad.Este trabajo investiga, mediante un análisis empírico formal, el papel que tuvieron la introducción de la flotación cambiaria y la utilización de la regla de superávit estructural en transformar a Chile en una economía menos volátil. Nuestros resultados muestran que la introducción de la regla fiscal parece haber reducido en un tercio la volatilidad del crecimiento del PIB. Por su parte, la flotación cambiaria contribuyó a reducir esa volatilidad adicionalmente en alrededor de un cuarto. Así, en conjunto, ambas medidas aparecen como responsables de haber disminuido la volatilidad del crecimiento de la economía chilena en casi 60%. Estos resultados son robustos ante especificaciones y posibles problemas de endogeneidad en algunas de las variables explicativas.

  6. Accès au savoir en Afrique australe : le libre accès à la recherche à l ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Access to Knowledge Southern Africa (A2KSA) a pour but de mieux comprendre les différentes contraintes entourant l'accès des universités d'Afrique australe au savoir à des fins de recherche et d'enseignement. ... Le CRDI offre un appui essentiel à la recherche en santé mondiale au Moyen-Orient et en Afrique du Nord.

  7. Holocene tephra-fall deposits of southern and austral Andes volcanic zones (33-54oS): eruption recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naranjo, J.A.; Polanco, E.; Lara, L; Moreno, H; Stern, C.R

    2001-01-01

    Radiometric 14 C dating is a very useful tool to study the chronostratigraphy of pyroclastic deposits. In addition, 14 C ages are essential parameters for the estimation of the recurrence time of the explosive volcanic activity. The origin, distribution and relative age of mappable Holocene tephra-fall deposits of the Southern Andes Volcanic Zone (SVZ) and Austral Andes Volcanic Zone (AVZ) from 33 o S-54 o S, were studied and their recurrence period is analysed (au)

  8. Construction of a complete set of alien chromosome addition lines from Gossypium australe in Gossypium hirsutum: morphological, cytological, and genotypic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Wang, Yingying; Wang, Kai; Zhu, Xiefei; Guo, Wangzhen; Zhang, Tianzhen; Zhou, Baoliang

    2014-05-01

    We report the first complete set of alien addition lines of G. hirsutum . The characterized lines can be used to introduce valuable traits from G. australe into cultivated cotton. Gossypium australe is a diploid wild cotton species (2n = 26, GG) native to Australia that possesses valuable characteristics unavailable in the cultivated cotton gene pool, such as delayed pigment gland morphogenesis in the seed and resistances to pests and diseases. However, it is very difficult to directly transfer favorable traits into cultivated cotton through conventional gene recombination due to the absence of pairing and crossover between chromosomes of G. australe and Gossypium hirsutum (2n = 52, AADD). To enhance the transfer of favorable genes from wild species into cultivated cotton, we developed a set of hirsutum-australe monosomic alien chromosome addition lines (MAAL) using a combination of morphological survey, microsatellite marker-assisted selection, and molecular cytogenetic analysis. The amphidiploid (2n = 78, AADDGG) of G. australe and G. hirsutum was consecutively backcrossed with upland cotton to develop alien addition lines of individual G. australe chromosomes in G. hirsutum. From these backcross progeny, we generated the first complete set of chromosome addition lines in cotton; 11 of 13 lines are monosomic additions, and chromosomes 7G(a) and 13G(a) are multiple additions. MAALs of 1G(a) and 11G(a) were the first to be isolated. The chromosome addition lines can be employed as bridges for the transfer of desired genes from G. australe into G. hirsutum, as well as for gene assignment, isolation of chromosome-specific probes, flow sorting and microdissection of chromosome, development of chromosome-specific ''paints'' for fluorochrome-labeled DNA fragments, physical mapping, and selective isolation and mapping of cDNAs for a particular G. australe chromosome.

  9. DNA barcoding as an aid for species identification in austral black flies (Insecta: Diptera: Simuliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Triana, Luis M; Montes De Oca, Fernanda; Prosser, Sean W J; Hebert, Paul D N; Gregory, T Ryan; McMurtrie, Shelley

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, the utility of a partial sequence of the COI gene, the DNA barcoding region, for the identification of species of black flies in the austral region was assessed. Twenty-eight morphospecies were analyzed: eight of the genus Austrosimulium (four species in the subgenus Austrosimulium s. str., three species in the subgenus Novaustrosimulium, and one species unassigned to subgenus), two of the genus Cnesia, eight of Gigantodax, three of Paracnephia, one of Paraustrosimulium, and six of Simulium (subgenera Morops, Nevermannia, and Pternaspatha). The neighbour-joining tree derived from the DNA barcode sequences grouped most specimens according to species or species groups recognized by morphotaxonomic studies. Intraspecific sequence divergences within morphologically distinct species ranged from 0% to 1.8%, while higher divergences (2%-4.2%) in certain species suggested the presence of cryptic diversity. The existence of well-defined groups within S. simile revealed the likely inclusion of cryptic diversity. DNA barcodes also showed that specimens identified as C. dissimilis, C. nr. pussilla, and C. ornata might be conspecific, suggesting possible synonymy. DNA barcoding combined with a sound morphotaxonomic framework would provide an effective approach for the identification of black flies in the region.

  10. Precipitation variability in the winter rainfall zone of South Africa during the last 1400 yr linked to the austral westerlies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stager, J. C.; Mayewski, P. A.; White, J.; Chase, B. M.; Neumann, F. H.; Meadows, M. E.; King, C. D.; Dixon, D. A.

    2012-05-01

    The austral westerlies strongly influence precipitation and ocean circulation in the southern temperate zone, with important consequences for cultures and ecosystems. Global climate models anticipate poleward retreat of the austral westerlies with future warming, but the available paleoclimate records that might test these models have been limited to South America and New Zealand, are not fully consistent with each other and may be complicated by influences from other climatic factors. Here we present the first high-resolution diatom and sedimentological records from the winter rainfall region of South Africa, representing precipitation in the equatorward margin of the westerly wind belt during the last 1400 yr. Inferred rainfall was relatively high ∼1400-1200 cal yr BP, decreased until ∼950 cal yr BP, and rose notably through the Little Ice Age with pulses centred on ∼600, 530, 470, 330, 200, 90, and 20 cal yr BP. Synchronous fluctuations in Antarctic ice core chemistry strongly suggest that these variations were linked to changes in the westerlies. Equatorward drift of the westerlies during the wet periods may have influenced Atlantic meridional overturning circulation by restricting marine flow around the tip of Africa. Apparent inconsistencies among some aspects of records from South America, New Zealand and South Africa warn against the simplistic application of single records to the Southern Hemisphere as a whole. Nonetheless, these findings in general do support model projections of increasing aridity in the austral winter rainfall zones with future warming.

  11. Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory, and GC-MS Studies on Castanospermum australe A. Cunn. & C. Fraser ex Hook.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thankarajan Sajeesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Castanospermum australe and to profile phytochemicals by GC-MS. The ethanolic extracts were prepared by successive solvent extraction using Soxhlet apparatus. The analgesic activity was analyzed by hot plate method and acetic acid-induced writhing test whereas anti-inflammatory study was done by carrageenan induced paw oedema model. The acute toxicity study revealed that ethanol extracts of leaf and bark of C. australe were safe even at a higher dose of 2000 mg/kg whereas ethanol extract of seed was toxic at the same dose. In both hot plate method (5.85 s and acetic acid-induced writhing test (57%, the leaf ethanol extract exhibited significant analgesic activity (P<0.001 at a dose of 400 mg/kg. The anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extract was exhibited by the reduction in paw linear diameter by 64.76% at 400 mg/kg in carrageenan induced paw oedema. The GC-MS analysis of the ethanol extract of leaf revealed sixteen major compounds of which 1,7-dimethyl-4,10-dioxa-1,7-diazacyclododecane, (+-N-methylephedrine, and permethylspermine were found to be pharmaceutically and the most important. These findings justify that C. australe can be a valuable natural analgesic and anti-inflammatory source which seemed to provide potential phytotherapeutics against various ailments.

  12. Decadal-scale teleconnection between South Atlantic SST and southeast Australia surface air temperature in austral summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiaqing; Li, Jianping; Sun, Cheng; Zhao, Sen; Mao, Jiangyu; Dong, Di; Li, Yanjie; Feng, Juan

    2018-04-01

    Austral summer (December-February) surface air temperature over southeast Australia (SEA) is found to be remotely influenced by sea surface temperature (SST) in the South Atlantic at decadal time scales. In austral summer, warm SST anomalies in the southwest South Atlantic induce concurrent above-normal surface air temperature over SEA. This decadal-scale teleconnection occurs through the eastward propagating South Atlantic-Australia (SAA) wave train triggered by SST anomalies in the southwest South Atlantic. The excitation of the SAA wave train is verified by forcing experiments based on both linear barotropic and baroclinic models, propagation pathway and spatial scale of the observed SAA wave train are further explained by the Rossby wave ray tracing analysis in non-uniform basic flow. The SAA wave train forced by southwest South Atlantic warming is characterized by an anomalous anticyclone off the eastern coast of the Australia. Temperature diagnostic analyses based on the thermodynamic equation suggest anomalous northerly flows on western flank of this anticyclone can induce low-level warm advection anomaly over SEA, which thus lead to the warming of surface air temperature there. Finally, SST-forced atmospheric general circulation model ensemble experiments also demonstrate that SST forcing in the South Atlantic is associated with the SAA teleconnection wave train in austral summer, this wave train then modulate surface air temperature over SEA on decadal timescales. Hence, observations combined with numerical simulations consistently demonstrate the decadal-scale teleconnection between South Atlantic SST and summertime surface air temperature over SEA.

  13. Precipitation variability in the winter rainfall zone of South Africa during the last 1400 yr linked to the austral westerlies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Stager

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The austral westerlies strongly influence precipitation and ocean circulation in the southern temperate zone, with important consequences for cultures and ecosystems. Global climate models anticipate poleward retreat of the austral westerlies with future warming, but the available paleoclimate records that might test these models have been limited to South America and New Zealand, are not fully consistent with each other and may be complicated by influences from other climatic factors. Here we present the first high-resolution diatom and sedimentological records from the winter rainfall region of South Africa, representing precipitation in the equatorward margin of the westerly wind belt during the last 1400 yr. Inferred rainfall was relatively high ∼1400–1200 cal yr BP, decreased until ∼950 cal yr BP, and rose notably through the Little Ice Age with pulses centred on ∼600, 530, 470, 330, 200, 90, and 20 cal yr BP. Synchronous fluctuations in Antarctic ice core chemistry strongly suggest that these variations were linked to changes in the westerlies. Equatorward drift of the westerlies during the wet periods may have influenced Atlantic meridional overturning circulation by restricting marine flow around the tip of Africa. Apparent inconsistencies among some aspects of records from South America, New Zealand and South Africa warn against the simplistic application of single records to the Southern Hemisphere as a whole. Nonetheless, these findings in general do support model projections of increasing aridity in the austral winter rainfall zones with future warming.

  14. First bird remains from the Eocene of Algarrobo, central Chile Primeros restos de aves del Eoceno de Algarrobo, Chile central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto E Yury-Yáñez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Paleogene records of birds in the Eastern margin of the Pacific Ocean have increased in recent years, being almost exclusively restricted to fossil Sphenisciformes (penguins. New avian remains (Ornithurae, Neornithes from Middle-to-Late Eocene levels of the Estratos de Algarrobo unit, in Algarrobo, central Chile, are disclosed in the present work. These new finds are significant in representing the first non-spheniscid bird remains of Middle to Late Eocene age, recovered in mid-latitudes of the eastern Pacific and probably belonging to a procelarid. It complements the regional record of Eocene birds, previously known only at high-latitudes such as Seymour Island (Antarctica and Magallanes (Chile, and low-latitude locations in Peru.Los registros de aves paleógenas en el margen oriental del Océano Pacífico se han incrementado en los últimos años, estando casi exclusivamente restringidos a Sphenisciformes fósiles (pingüinos. Nuevos fósiles avianos (Ornithurae, Neornithes provenientes de niveles del Eoceno Medio a Tardío de los Estratos de Algarrobo, en Algarrobo, Chile central, son dados a conocer en el presente trabajo. Estos nuevos hallazgos son significativos en representar los primeros restos de aves no-spheníscidos de edad Eoceno Medio a Tardío, recuperadas en latitudes intermedias del Pacífico oriental y probablemente pertenezcan a un procelárido. Este hallazgo complementa el registro regional del grupo durante el Eoceno, anteriormente conocido en localidades de altas latitudes como isla Seymour (Antártica y Magallanes (Chile, y localidades de bajas latitudes en Perú.

  15. Newspaper Ownership in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Gronemeyer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio se propone realizar una investigación empírica para determi- nar si la concentración de la propiedad de la prensa chilena se refleja en una homogeneización de los temas tratados en los editoriales de los periódi- cos. La investigación estudia las áreas temáticas tratadas en los editoriales de tres diarios de referencia nacionales (El Mercurio, La Segunda y La Ter- cera y dos periódicos regionales (El Sur de Concepción y La Discusión de Chillán durante 2005, 2009 y 2011 para medir cuantitativamente las coin- cidencias en los temas editorializados entre y dentro de ellos. Se concluye con un análisis con correlaciones para determinar la homogeneidad - hete- rogeneidad de las pautas o agendas de temas editorializados.

  16. Country watch: Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasca, T

    2000-01-01

    Confidentiality is a critical issue in the conduct of HIV tests in Chile. Though HIV testing is confidential in the public health system (through the use of a coding system), syphilis tests which are conducted simultaneously with HIV, require clients to provide their identity as well as address. In response to this concern, the National AIDS Commission has launched training programs in all 26 public health services for staff involved with HIV/AIDS programs. The training programs allow professional staff and volunteers to understand the importance of confidentiality. Nevertheless, cases of breaches of confidentiality have been reported, raising doubts as to the ability of the system to maintain confidentiality. These cases often occur at the hospitals or clinics where staff is insensitive to the needs of their clients and oblivious of their rights. Hence, it is highlighted that to reinforce confidentiality, patients, advocacy groups, human rights activists and health care administrators must pay attention to the many ways in which confidentiality is breached.

  17. complejidad en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alejandro Bustamante-Ubilla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tiene por objetivo caracterizar el clima organizacional al interior de 2 hospitales dealta complejidad de Chile, determinando las dimensiones más y menos influyentes. Para su desarrollose aplicó un cuestionario que consta de 71 variables agrupadas en 14 dimensiones a una muestra de561 funcionarios. La interpretación de los resultados se realizó a través del análisis del valor prome-dio estandarizado y su confiabilidad ratificada mediante el alfa de Cronbach. A partir de lo anterior, sedeterminó que las dimensiones que influyen por encima del promedio fueron: identidad, motivaciónlaboral y responsabilidad; en tanto que las dimensiones que muestran un nivel de impacto por debajodel promedio resultaron ser: equipo y distribución de personas y material, administración del conflictoy comunicación.© 2015 Universidad ICESI. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. Este es un artículo Open Access bajo lalicencia CC BY (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

  18. Country watch: Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya Leiva, M

    1996-01-01

    Servicio Paz y Justicia (SERPAJ) is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) established in Chile in 1977. It supports fundamental human dignity and rights by fighting discrimination and exclusion based upon individual differences. SERPAJ promotes training, organization, and the political participation of community members as part of the democratic process, working mainly with the at risk women, street children, and youth of Santiago's working-class neighborhoods. Groups participate in workshops and training courses on human rights and development, civic education, and methods of non-violent community action. In 1987, SERPAJ-Sur Oriente began to include the topic of sexuality and AIDS/STDs in courses training working-class women as community human rights agents. The NGO is therefore one of the first mainstream Chilean human rights organizations to incorporate HIV/AIDS issues. A basic facts brochure was developed, followed by a pilot education project developed in one neighborhood which was then systematically replicated in other neighborhoods. The comments of some people who have participated in SERPAJ workshops are presented.

  19. Gastrointestinal and external parasites of Enicognathus ferrugineus and Enicognathus leptorhynchus (Aves, Psittacidae in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Osvaldo Valdebenito

    Full Text Available Abstract Parasite species are important components of biodiversity, as they provide valuable information about host health, evolutionary relationships, population structures, trophic interactions, the existence of environmental stresses, and climatic conditions. With the aim of describing the parasites associated with parrots of the genus Enicognathus Gray 1840 from central Chile, thirteen austral parakeets, Enicognathus ferrugineus, and five slender-billed parakeets, E. leptorhynchus, were examined between September 2007 and March 2014. The prevalence of ectoparasites and endoparasites was 88.9% and 22.2%, respectively. On eleven of the E. ferrugineus (84.6% analyzed, and on all of the E. leptorhynchus analyzed (100%, five feather mite species (Pararalichus hastifolia, Genoprotolichus major, Protonyssus sp., Fainalges sp., and Eurydiscalges sp. were collected. On ten E. ferrugineus (76.9% and two E. leptorhynchus (40%, the chewing lice Heteromenopon macrurum, Psittacobrossus patagoni, and Paragoniocotes enicognathidis were collected. The nematode Capillaria plagiaticia was collected from three E. ferrugineus (23.1%, and the nematode Ascaridia hermaphrodita was found in one E. leptorhynchus (20%. The presence of C. plagiaticia, Protonyssus sp., Fainalges sp., and Eurydiscalges sp. from the two Enicognathus spp. are new records for Chile and represent new parasite-host associations.

  20. Seasonal and elevational contrasts in temperature trends in Central Chile between 1979 and 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, F.; Brock, B.; Montecinos, A.

    2018-03-01

    We analyze trends in temperature from 18 temperature stations and one upper air sounding site at 30°-35° S in central Chile between 1979-2015, to explore geographical and season temperature trends and their controls, using regional ocean-atmosphere indices. Significant warming trends are widespread at inland stations, while trends are non-significant or negative at coastal sites, as found in previous studies. However, ubiquitous warming across the region in the past 8 years, suggests the recent period of coastal cooling has ended. Significant warming trends are largely restricted to austral spring, summer and autumn seasons, with very few significant positive or negative trends in winter identified. Autumn warming is notably strong in the Andes, which, together with significant warming in spring, could help to explain the negative mass balance of snow and glaciers in the region. A strong Pacific maritime influence on regional temperature trends is inferred through correlation with the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) index and coastal sea surface temperature, but the strength of this influence rapidly diminishes inland, and the majority of valley, and all Andes, sites are independent of the IPO index. Instead, valley and Andes sites, and mid-troposphere temperature in the coastal radiosonde profile, show correlation with the autumn Antarctic Oscillation which, in its current positive phase, promotes subsidence and warming at the latitude of central Chile.

  1. Modernitet og forbrugskultur i Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristoffanini, Pablo Rolando

    2012-01-01

    I de sidste årtier er Chile blevet et egentligt forbrugersamfund. Udbredelsen af forbrugskulturen og forbrugerismen er centrale fænomener i chilenernes dagligliv og har nået et omfang, som har konsekvenser for de borgere, der ikke kan deltage fuldt ud heri, noget som er typisk for et samfund med en...... ujævn økonomisk udvikling og med store sociale forskelle. Denne proces er ikke et produkt af en stille, fredelig og naturlig samfundsudvikling, således som magteliten og de toneangivende intellektuelle i Chile har fremstillet det. Som jeg vil vise, er skabelsen af et egentlig forbrugssamfund knyttet til...... til i dag. Ifølge disse er Chile blevet et moderne samfund netop i kraft af, at Chile er et ægte forbrugersamfund med alt, hvad dette indebærer, såvel materielt som symbolsk. For det tredje er billedet af Chile som en ”supermoderne” nation i den latinamerikanske kontekst en udbredt forestilling hos...

  2. Fungal parasites infect marine diatoms in the upwelling ecosystem of the Humboldt current system off central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Marcelo H; Jara, Ana M; Pantoja, Silvio

    2016-05-01

    This is the first report of fungal parasitism of diatoms in a highly productive coastal upwelling ecosystem, based on a year-round time series of diatom and parasitic Chytridiomycota abundance in the Humboldt Current System off Chile (36°30.80'S-73°07.70'W). Our results show co-variation in the presence of Skeletonema, Thalassiosira and Chaetoceros diatoms with attached and detached chytrid sporangia. High abundance of attached sporangia was observed during the austral spring, coinciding with a predominance of Thalassiosira and Skeletonema under active upwelling conditions. Towards the end of austral spring, a decreasing proportion of attached sporangia was accompanied by a decline in abundance of Skeletonema and Thalassiosira and the predominance of Chaetoceros, suggesting specificity and host density dependence of chytrid infection. The new findings on fungal parasitism of diatoms provide further support for the inclusion of Fungi in the current model of the role played by the marine microbial community in the coastal ocean. We propose a conceptual model where Fungi contribute to controlling the dynamics of phytoplankton populations, as well as the release of organic matter and the transfer of organic carbon through the pelagic trophic web in coastal upwelling ecosystems. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Wildfires in Chile: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Úbeda, Xavier; Sarricolea, Pablo

    2016-11-01

    This paper reviews the literature examining the wildfire phenomenon in Chile. Since ancient times, Chile's wildfires have shaped the country's landscape, but today, as in many other parts of the world, the fire regime - pattern, frequency and intensity - has grown at an alarming rate. In 2014, > 8000 fires were responsible for burning c. 130,000 ha, making it the worst year in Chile's recent history. The reasons for this increase appear to be the increment in the area planted with flammable species; the rejection of these landscape modifications on the part of local communities that target these plantations in arson attacks; and, the adoption of intensive forest management practices resulting in the accumulation of a high fuel load. These trends have left many native species in a precarious situation and forest plantation companies under considerable financial pressure. An additional problem is posed by fires at the wildland urban interface (WUI), threatening those inhabitants that live in Chile's most heavily populated cities. The prevalence of natural fires in Chile; the relationship between certain plant species and fire in terms of seed germination strategies and plant adaptation; the relationship between fire and invasive species; and, the need for fire prevention systems and territorial plans that include fire risk assessments are some of the key aspects discussed in this article. Several of the questions raised will require further research, including just how fire-dependent the ecosystems in Chile are, how the forest at the WUI can be better managed to prevent human and material damage, and how best to address the social controversy that pits the Mapuche population against the timber companies.

  4. TRANSFORMACIONES AGROPRODUCTIVAS E INDICADORES DE SUSTENTABILIDAD EN LA CUENCA DEL RIO QUEQUÉN GRANDE (PROVINCIA DE BUENOS AIRES, ARGENTINA), DURANTE LOS PERÍODOS 1988-1998 Y 1998-2008

    OpenAIRE

    PATRICIA VAZQUEZ; MÓNICA SACIDO; LAURA ZULAICA

    2012-01-01

    La región pampeana posee fuertes ventajas comparativas para la producción agropecuaria. Los modelos productivos actuales incluyen la siembra directa con aumento en el uso de agroquímicos y el avance de la agricultura ha generado una fuerte fragmentación de los pastizales naturales. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar las transformaciones agroproductivas en la Cuenca del río Quequen Grande (situada en la Pampa Austral) y sus principales consecuencias durante los períodos 1988-1998 y 1998-2...

  5. Cadmium toxicity assessment in juveniles of the Austral South America amphipod Hyalella curvispina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusto, Anabella; Somma, Lucas A; Ferrari, Lucrecia

    2012-05-01

    Hyalella curvispina is representative of zoobenthic communities in Austral South America. It is taxonomically close to Hyalella azteca and abundant in fresh water bodies of the pampasic region of Argentina. It is usually used as test organism in ecotoxicological studies at a regional level, and there is a strong concern to increase the knowledge of both their biology and their sensitivity to different toxic agents. The aim of the present work was to assess the effects of cadmium on H. curvispina juveniles exposed to concentrations expected in the water bodies of the distribution area of the species. Survival, growth and cadmium body burden were evaluated in aqueous and solid matrices under fixed experimental conditions. Animals were exposed in ten-day static toxicity bioassays to 2.5, 5.25 and 11.25 μg Cd/L for the aqueous-phase bioassays, and to 0.85, 2.8 and 5.6 mg Cd/Kg dry sediment for the solid-phase bioassays. In water only assays, the animals exposed to 11.25 μg Cd/L showed a significant decrease in survival and growth. In the sediment bioassays, no effect was observed on survival, and weight was significantly reduced at the highest concentration. Cadmium uptake was concentration dependent for both assay matrices and one order of magnitude higher in the aqueous medium than in the solid matrix. Results indicate that juveniles of H. curvispina are sensitive to cadmium concentrations expected in their environment and thus confirm their importance as test organisms for ecotoxicity assessment in water bodies within the distribution area of the species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. PESCA ARTESANAL Y SALMONICULTURA EN AISÉN: ITINERARIO DE UNA INVESTIGACIÓN CRÍTICA SOBRE EL DESARROLLO EN EL SUR-AUSTRAL DE CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Saavedra Gallo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan las respuestas económico-culturales de dos localidades pesquero-artesanales del litoral de Aisén frente a los procesos de desarrollo económico y modernización que se despliegan actualmente en sus territorios. La problematización se enmarca en la expansión de la industria productora de salmones en cautiverio y en la promoción local de las mentalidades emprendedoras por parte de las agencias del Estado. En términos generales, ambas coyunturas son observadas en un proceso y en un espacio más amplio en el que confluyen actores diversos. A este espacio le hemos denominado campo del desarrollo. Si bien las consecuencias del proceso reseñado -ambientales y territoriales, socioeconómicas, socioculturales y político-culturales- pueden asociarse a perspectivas convencionales, por ejemplo, de corte estructural o bien reflejarse en objetivaciones ancladas en indicadores de crecimiento económico, es significativo atender también a los aspectos de orden subjetivo que todo ello ha implicado. En particular aludimos a las dinámicas de estructuración práctica, que dan cuenta de otras dimensiones antropológicas –y no convencionales- del proceso. Bajo esta consideración proponemos un encuadre hipotético transversal, en donde sostenemos que los factores decisivos del desarrollo económico no emanan únicamente de las políticas públicas y/o desde las fuerzas estructurantes y/o des-estructurantes del mercado, pues estos procesos de modernización capitalista están condicionados por dinámicas de estructuración social y cultural expresadas en el espacio costero-local del desarrollo.

  7. PESCA ARTESANAL Y SALMONICULTURA EN AISÉN: ITINERARIO DE UNA INVESTIGACIÓN CRÍTICA SOBRE EL DESARROLLO EN EL SUR-AUSTRAL DE CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo Saavedra Gallo

    2012-01-01

    Se analizan las respuestas económico-culturales de dos localidades pesquero-artesanales del litoral de Aisén frente a los procesos de desarrollo económico y modernización que se despliegan actualmente en sus territorios. La problematización se enmarca en la expansión de la industria productora de salmones en cautiverio y en la promoción local de las mentalidades emprendedoras por parte de las agencias del Estado. En términos generales, ambas coyunturas son observadas en un proceso y en un esp...

  8. La transdisciplina hecha práctica: El Programa Honor de Estudios Ambientales y Desarrollo Humano Sostenible de la Universidad Austral de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Skewes V.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La UACh ha propuesto, a través del CEAM, el Programa de Honor en Estudios Ambientales, el cual, de inspiración transdisciplinaria, establece una nueva experiencia formativa para estudiantes, profesoras y profesores, y no académicos, experiencia fundada en una concepción de co-partícipes protagónicos que, sobre la base de sus proyecciones al entorno regional, procuran acceder a nuevas formas de entendimiento y acción. La asignatura, Filosofías del Desarrollo, se incubo esta idea, abriéndose a una comunidad indígena. Cada equipo de alumnos y alumnas catalogó y sistematizó proyectos demostrativos de gestión comunitaria chilenos considerados exitosos, los que se someten a la discusión del grupo curso al tanto que la comunidad escogida evaluó los trabajos sobre la base de su contribución a solucionar sus problemas. Palabras-llave: Gestión Comunitaria; Transdisciplinaridad; Excelencia en Enseñanza Superior; Ecossocioeconomia Abstract At the UACH, an interdisciplinary group of scholars linked to environmental studies put forward a pilot project for implementing a new experience in higher education. We aim to provide a summary of what this experience has meant, using the most recent class as an example. Some background about the university and the Chilean system needs to be supplied, while most of the paper deals with the particular features of this program and its immediate future. This paper describes the honors experience at the UACh. The UACh program is of interest not only because of its Latin American context, but also because it is focused on a particular theme, Environmental Studies and Sustainable Human Development. After three years, the program has just completed its pilot phase, and so the time is appropriate to describe its accomplishments and challenges. Key-Words: Communitarian Management; Transdisciplinary; Higher Education; Ecosocioeconomics “El crecimiento de los saberes, sin precedente en la historia, aumenta la desigualdad entre aquellos que los poseen y los que carecen de ellos, engendrando así desigualdades crecientes en el seno de los pueblos y entre las naciones de nuestro planeta” Preámbulo a la Carta a la Transdisciplinariedad.

  9. Derivado cinamoílico com atividade no reparo de DNA e outras substâncias de Cinnamomum australe (Lauraceae DNA-damaging activity of a cinnamate derivative and further compounds from Cinnamomum australe (Lauraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Carbonezi

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The bioactive compound trans-3'-methylsulphonylallyl trans-cinnamate (1 along with the inactives iryelliptin (2 and (7R,8S,1'S-delta8'-3',5'-dimethoxy-1',4'-dihydro-4'-oxo-7.0.2',8.1'-neolignan (3 were isolated from the leaves of Cinnamomum australe. The structures of these compounds were assigned by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR data and comparison with data registered in the literature for these compounds. The DNA-damaging activity of 1 is being described for the first time.

  10. The biomethane potential in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiffert, M.; Kaltschmitt, M.; Miranda, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Within the last decade natural gas gained considerable importance in Chile. The contribution of natural gas within the energy system will increase in the future by predicted 3.6% annually until the year 2015. Due to limited resources within its own country, the energy system of Chile depends on natural gas imports preferential from Argentina. Therefore, the aim of several stakeholders from policy and industry is to reduce the share of imported primary energy within the overall energy system. In order to reach this goal, the use of domestic resources and particularly the utilisation of biomass as one of the most important renewable sources of energy in Chile could play an important role. Against this background, the goal of this paper is the analysis of the technical potentials of biomethane as a substitute for natural gas. For the production of biomethane the anaerobic or bio-chemical (i.e. Biogas) as well as the thermo-chemical conversion pathways (i.e. Bio-SNG) are considered. The results of this analysis show that biomass converted to biomethane is a promising energy provision option for Chile and it contributes to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

  11. Forest nursery management in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rene Escobar R.; Manuel Sanchez O.; Guillermo Pereira C.

    2002-01-01

    The forest economy in Chile is based on products from artificial reforestation efforts on approximately 2 million ha. From these, about 1.5 million ha (75%) are planted with Pinus radiata, 400,000 ha (20%) with species of Eucalyptus, principally E. globulus and E. nitens, and the rest (5%) composed by other...

  12. El turismo «backpacker» en Chile como expresión de una subcultura juvenil global

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Martín-Cabello

    2014-01-01

    Cada año miles de jóvenes viajan durante varios meses alrededor del mundo practicando un tipo de turismo cultural no estructurado o semiestructurado denominado «turismo backpacker». Esta experiencia produce una subcultura juvenil distintiva con un carácter global. El artículo presenta los resultados de una investigación de naturaleza cualitativa realizada con mochileros en Chile durante el año 2011. El artículo muestra, por un lado, las similitudes entre el perfil y la subcultura de los mochi...

  13. El turismo «backpacker» en Chile como expresión de una subcultura juvenil global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Martín-Cabello

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cada año miles de jóvenes viajan durante varios meses alrededor del mundo practicando un tipo de turismo cultural no estructurado o semiestructurado denominado «turismo backpacker». Esta experiencia produce una subcultura juvenil distintiva con un carácter global. El artículo presenta los resultados de una investigación de naturaleza cualitativa realizada con mochileros en Chile durante el año 2011. El artículo muestra, por un lado, las similitudes entre el perfil y la subcultura de los mochileros en todo el mundo y los mochileros en Chile y, por otro lado, sugiere la presencia de una ideología particular entre los mochileros latinoamericanos.

  14. La asociación de amigos de la Unión Soviética en Chile, 1927-1943 = A associação de amigos da União Soviética no Chile 1927-1943 = The friends association for the Soviet Union in Chile 1927-1943

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loyola, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Usando fontes de arquivos impressos e oficiais, este artigo investiga a Associação dos Amigos da URSS, entidade pertencente ao Partido Comunista que atuou no Chile durante o início do século XX. Considerando a Revolução Russa de 1917 e o desenvolvimento da União Soviética como marcos na construção da identidade e imagem da militância comunista chilena, a abordagem aqui proposta analisa como as ideias soviéticas estavam presentes na política interna durante esse período

  15. Configuración de la homosexualidad medicalizada en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Rolando Cornejo

    Full Text Available Este artículo realiza un análisis histórico de la producción intelectual chilena en torno a la homosexualidad y constata una permanencia del paradigma medicalizador, verificable hasta la actualidad. Tal paradigma, su conceptualización y representación, además de influenciar imaginarios sociales, dan lugar a la homofobia y a las dificultades para introducir reformas pro derechos de la comunidad LGBT. Sus antecedentes inmediatos se encuentran en el higienismo y en intentos modernizadores acaecidos en Chile durante las primeras décadas del siglo XX. Dicho paradigma habría transitado en Chile por cuatro momentos: un período de instalación; otro de predominio de la interpretación psicoanalítica; un tercero de hegemonía del método fenomenológico; y finalmente un período de apologética medicalizadora, años, coincidente con la vuelta a la democracia, la irrupción de los movimientos LGBT organizados y las reivindicaciones de derechos para las personas LGBT.

  16. Chiliques volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A January 6, 2002 ASTER nighttime thermal infrared image of Chiliques volcano in Chile shows a hot spot in the summit crater and several others along the upper flanks of the edifice, indicating new volcanic activity. Examination of an earlier nighttime thermal infrared image from May 24,2000 showed no thermal anomaly. Chiliques volcano was previously thought to be dormant. Rising to an elevation of 5778 m, Chiliques is a simple stratovolcano with a 500-m-diameter circular summit crater. This mountain is one of the most important high altitude ceremonial centers of the Incas. It is rarely visited due to its difficult accessibility. Climbing to the summit along Inca trails, numerous ruins are encountered; at the summit there are a series of constructions used for rituals. There is a beautiful lagoon in the crater that is almost always frozen.The daytime image was acquired on November 19, 2000 and was created by displaying ASTER bands 1,2 and 3 in blue, green and red. The nighttime image was acquired January 6, 2002, and is a color-coded display of a single thermal infrared band. The hottest areas are white, and colder areas are darker shades of red. Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.These images were acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U

  17. Geologic map of the MTM -85280 quadrangle, Planum Australe region of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herkenhoff, Ken

    1998-01-01

    The polar deposits on Mars are of great interest because they probably record martian climate variations (Thomas and others, 1992). The area shown on this map includes polar layered deposits with distinct low-albedo features and a sharp boundary between the layered deposits and the moderately cratered unit that forms the floor of Chasma Australe. Detailed mapping of this quadrangle was undertaken to further investigate the geologic relations between the albedo features and the layered deposits and to better constrain the recent geologic history of the south polar region. Dark dunes in the north polar region appear to be derived from erosion of the layered deposits, but the source of dark material in the south polar region is less clear (Thomas and Weitz, 1989). The presence of dark material in the brighter, redder layered deposits is paradoxical (Herkenhoff and Murray, 1990a); resolving this paradox is likely to result in a better understanding of the origin and evolution of the layered deposits and, therefore, the mechanisms by which global climate variations are recorded. Published geologic maps of the south polar region of Mars have been based on images acquired by either Mariner 9 (Condit and Soderblom, 1978; Scott and Carr, 1978) or the Viking Orbiters (Tanaka and Scott, 1987). The extent of the layered deposits mapped previously from Mariner 9 data is different from that mapped using Viking Orbiter images, and the present map agrees with the map by Tanaka and Scott (1987): the floor of Chasma Australe is not mapped as layered deposits. The residual polar ice cap, areas of partial frost cover, the layered deposits, and two nonvolatile surface units - the dust mantle and the dark material - were mapped by Herkenhoff and Murray (1990a) at 1:2,000,000 scale using a color mosaic of Viking Orbiter images. This mosaic and an additional Viking color mosaic were used to confirm the identification of the nonvolatile Amazonian units for this map and to test hypotheses

  18. Registro de un par madre-cría de ballena franca austral (Eubalaena australis en la costa de Lima, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Orihuela

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hasta el presente reporte, la distribución de la ballena franca austral en el Pacífico Sur se extendía hasta los 15°08’S en la bahía San Fernando, Ica. Previamente, ballenas francas australes en Perú fueron registradas en noviembre de 1987 en Ilo, Moquegua y setiembre de 1996 en Atico, Arequipa. Estos registros podrían corresponder a una recuperación de la población del Pacífico Sudeste, la cual ha sido declarada En Peligro Crítico por la IUCN. Aquí reportamos un par madre-cría de ballenas francas australes avistados en el distrito de Chorrillos, en Lima, el 20 de agosto de 2012, desde las 9:30 h por un período de 4 horas hasta la 13:30 h.

  19. Ecología trófica de una especie endémica de Patagonia Sur: el Ostrero Austral (Haematopus Leucopodus en el estuario del Río Gallegos (Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Juan Pablo Leiva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecología trófica de una especie endémica de Patagonia sur: el Ostrero Austral (Haematopus leucopodus en el estuario del río Gallegos (Santa Cruz. Este estudio contribuye con información sobre la variación poblacional del Ostrero Austral, el comportamiento alimentario y su dieta en un sector del estuario del río Gallegos, durante el año 2010. Asimismo, se presentan las variaciones temporales en la densidad, biomasa y longitud máxima de valvas de la población de alme-jas (Darina solenoides disponibles, en la zona llamada Orenaike. La abundancia máxima de ostreros fue de 650 en el mes de marzo y el mínimo de 15 individuos en octubre. La tasa media de alimenta-ción fue de 0,67 presas/min. Los ostreros dedicaron 93,20% del tiempo a la búsqueda de alimento; mientras que el resto se distribuyó entre manipulación e ingesta de la presa, y una pequeña proporción (0,56% al acicalamiento o descanso. Las principales presas fueron los moluscos bivalvos Darina solenoides y Mytilus edulis platensis las cuales aportaron en conjunto casi el 60% de la dieta. Los poliquetos también resultaron importantes, contribuyendo con más del 40% a la alimentación. La densidad media de almejas disponibles en el sustrato fue de 56,08 ind/m2, la biomasa media de 0,189 g/ind y el largo de valva promedio de 24,89 mm. Las dimensiones medias de las presas seleccionadas por el ostrero fueron 28,25 mm de largo máximo y 12,98 mm de alto para Darina solenoides y 26,43 mm de largo máximo y 13,55 mm de alto para Mytilus edulis platensis, lo que estaría indicando que es una especie altamente selectiva en relación a las dimensiones de sus presas. La biomasa media de las presas consumidas fue de 0,194 g de peso seco/almeja.

  20. Socialisme i Chile efter Pinochet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristoffanini, Pablo Rolando

    2008-01-01

    Chile bliver ofte præsenteret som et paradigme for resten af det latinamerikanske kontinent: Et land med høj økonomisk vækst og politisk stabilitet. Landet har endda haft to socialistiske præsidenter siden 2000, den sidste den første kvindelige præsident. Succeshistorien har en bagside: De...... socialistiske regeringer har accepteret et begrænset demokrati og videreført en nyliberal økonomisk politik, der har bragt dem på konfrontationskurs med massebevægelserne og isoleret Chile fra de andre lande i regionen, der søger integration og gensidig støøte. Udgivelsesdato: Februar...

  1. [Chile: social protection in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urriola, Rafael

    2006-10-01

    This piece begins with a brief discussion of the concepts leading to the social right to health protection. Special emphasis is placed on the principle of social cohesion, which has influenced social health protection in European countries. Chile's experience in this field from the 1990s to the present is described, as exemplified in three dimensions. In the first place, social security coverage is presented as a means to achieve universal (horizontal) coverage. A discussion follows on vertical coverage, where the author identifies health problems for which insured persons have guaranteed rights of access to medical care. This section describes available emergency care, primary health care, and the special plan for Universal Access to Explicit Guarantees (Acceso Universal de Garantías Explícitas de salud, or AUGE). Thirdly, the discussion covers the funding sources supporting the Chilean health care system: Government subsidies, contributions to social security, and out-of-pocket disbursements for private care. Chile's public health system has various special programs. One of them is catastrophic insurance, which covers 100% of the care needed for complex and very costly treatments. Older persons (over 65) have coverage for 100% of the cost of eyeglasses and hearing aids, and for 50% of the cost of home care. If life expectancy is an appropriate indicator of health system results, it is worth noting that Chile and the United States of America have both achieved a life expectancy of 77 years, even though Chile spends only 5.9% of its gross domestic product on health care, as compared to the 15% spent by the United States.

  2. Serious fungal infections in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Duarte, E; Denning, D W

    2017-06-01

    The incidence and prevalence of fungal infections in Chile are unknown. Here, we have estimated the burden of serious fungal diseases from data obtained from clinical reports, WHO reports, Chilean census, OECD reports and comprehensive literature search available on PubMed and SciELO, among other scientific resources. Due the lack of official data about fungal diseases, frequencies were calculated based on the specific populations at risk. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (>4 episodes/year) is estimated to occur in 3108/100,000. Using a low international average rate of 5/100,000, we estimate 878 candidaemia cases and 132 patients with intra-abdominal candidiasis. Due to the low incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in Chile, limited numbers of patients with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis are likely: a total of 1212, 25% following TB. Invasive aspergillosis is estimated to affect 296 patients following leukaemia therapy, transplantation and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 1.7/100,000. In addition, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (SAFS) were estimated to be around 97.9/100,000 and 127/100,000 respectively, in 675,772 adult asthmatics and 1700 CF patients. Given a 38,000 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) population, with around 2189 new cases of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) annually, cryptococcal meningitis and Pneumocystis pneumonia are estimated at 0.12/100,000 and 4.3/100,000, respectively. In total, 325,000 (1.9%) people in Chile develop serious fungal infections annually. Respiratory fungal disease predominates in Chile; a national action plan for fungal disease is urgently needed, including epidemiological studies to validate the estimates.

  3. Alcanzando el desarrollo sostenible a través de la curricular en las instituciones de educación superior del África austral

    OpenAIRE

    Global University Network for Innovation

    2008-01-01

    Seis universidades del África austral participan en una red de trece instituciones cuyo objetivo es incluir en sus planes de estudios aspectos relacionados con el desarrollo sostenible. El peso que adquieren estas universidades en la red demuestra que la educación superior contribuye en gran medida a mejorar la sostenibilidad en general, incluyendo factores vinculados especialmente al desarrollo del África austral, tales como la situación económica marginal de la región en el contexto mund...

  4. Chile: el género como gancho político de la modernidad posible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana CIORINO NAVARRO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La autora analiza la situación social y política de las mujeres en Chile durante el proceso de transición a la democracia. Cuestiona el papel que se atribuye a los planteamientos de género, desde los espacios políticos institucionalizados. Describe los procesos que están viviendo los diversos sectores del Movimiento Feminista y plantea una serie de objetivos para la profundización de un proyecto político feminista.ABSTRACT: The author analyses the social and politic situation of the women in Chile, during democratic transition. She discusses the roles atributted to genre aspects, from stablished political spaces. She describes the process that diferente sectors of the Feminist Movement are living and set several objetives for a political feminist proyect.

  5. Mechanisms and Attribution of Changes in Austral Summer Precipitation Related to the South Atlantic Convergence Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilli, Marcia Terezinha

    Austral summer (DJF) precipitation over tropical South America (SA) is characterized by the South American Monsoon System (SAMS) and the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ). The increase in atmospheric temperature and water vapor content over the SA during the last decades of the 20 th century could affect the duration and amplitude of the SAMS and the intensity of the SACZ. This research examines the spatial variability of precipitation trends over SE Brazil, focusing on the SACZ. More specifically, this study investigates trends in precipitation over Southeastern Brazil (SE Brazil) and examines changes in the position and intensity of the SACZ. SE Brazil is the most densely populated region in the country with a large portion of this population living in urban centers. The SACZ is important for agriculture and water supply for millions of people. One of the main goals of this research is to identify mechanisms associated with the observed changes in the characteristics of the SACZ during the last three decades of the 20th century, and examine the relative contribution of natural and anthropogenic forcing to precipitation trends. The first chapter investigates the pattern of spatial variability of precipitation trends over the coastal region of SE Brazil. This study shows that over the southern portion of the study area, precipitation is increasing due to the increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme events. Over the northern portion of the area, while the intensity of extreme events is increasing, the number of precipitating days is decreasing. This spatial pattern of precipitation trends suggests a poleward shift of the SACZ, which is investigated in the second chapter. Chapter 2 focuses on the underlying mechanisms associated with changes in precipitation intensity related to the position of the SACZ. Decadal variations in the mean state of the atmosphere suggest that the observed changes in precipitation over SE Brazil are associated with a

  6. Viruses and Protists Induced-mortality of Prokaryotes around the Antarctic Peninsula during the Austral Summer

    KAUST Repository

    Vaque, Dolors

    2017-03-27

    During the Austral summer 2009 we studied three areas surrounding the Antarctic Peninsula: the Bellingshausen Sea, the Bransfield Strait and the Weddell Sea. We aimed to investigate, whether viruses or protists were the main agents inducing prokaryotic mortality rates, and the sensitivity to temperature of prokaryotic heterotrophic production and mortality based on the activation energy (Ea) for each process. Seawater samples were taken at seven depths (0.1-100 m) to quantify viruses, prokaryotes and protists abundances, and heterotrophic prokaryotic production (PHP). Viral lytic production, lysogeny, and mortality rates of prokaryotes due to viruses and protists were estimated at surface (0.1-1 m) and at the Deep Fluorescence Maximum (DFM, 12-55 m) at eight representative stations of the three areas. The average viral lytic production ranged from 1.0 +/- 0.3 x 10(7) viruses ml(-1) d(-1) in the Bellingshausen Sea to1.3 +/- 0.7 x 10(7) viruses ml(-1) d(-1) in the Bransfield Strait, while lysogeny, when detectable, recorded the lowest value in the Bellingshausen Sea (0.05 +/- 0.05 x 10(7) viruses ml(-1) d(-1)) and the highest in the Weddell Sea (4.3 +/- 3.5 x 10(7) viruses ml(-1) d(-1)). Average mortality rates due to viruses ranged from 9.7 +/- 6.1 x 10(4) cells ml(-1) d(-1) in the Weddell Sea to 14.3 +/- 4.0 x 10(4) cells ml(-1) d(-1) in the Bellingshausen Sea, and were higher than averaged grazing rates in the Weddell Sea (5.9 +/- 1.1 x 10(4) cells ml(-1) d(-1)) and in the Bellingshausen Sea (6.8 +/- 0.9 x 10(4) cells ml-1 d(-1)). The highest impact on prokaryotes by viruses and main differences between viral and protists activities were observed in surface samples: 17.8 +/- 6.8 x 10(4) cells ml(-1) d(-1) and 6.5 +/- 3.9 x 10(4) cells ml(-1) d(-1) in the Weddell Sea; 22.1 +/- 9.6 x 10(4) cells ml(-1) d(-1) and 11.6 +/- 1.4 x 10(4) cells ml(-1) d(-1) in the Bransfield Strait; and 16.1 +/- 5.7 x 10(4) cells ml(-1) d(-1) and 7.9 +/- 2.6 x 10(4) cells ml(-1) d(-1) in

  7. Viruses and Protists Induced-mortality of Prokaryotes around the Antarctic Peninsula during the Austral Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaqué, Dolors; Boras, Julia A.; Torrent-Llagostera, Francesc; Agustí, Susana; Arrieta, Jesús M.; Lara, Elena; Castillo, Yaiza M.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Sala, Maria M.

    2017-01-01

    During the Austral summer 2009 we studied three areas surrounding the Antarctic Peninsula: the Bellingshausen Sea, the Bransfield Strait and the Weddell Sea. We aimed to investigate, whether viruses or protists were the main agents inducing prokaryotic mortality rates, and the sensitivity to temperature of prokaryotic heterotrophic production and mortality based on the activation energy (Ea) for each process. Seawater samples were taken at seven depths (0.1–100 m) to quantify viruses, prokaryotes and protists abundances, and heterotrophic prokaryotic production (PHP). Viral lytic production, lysogeny, and mortality rates of prokaryotes due to viruses and protists were estimated at surface (0.1–1 m) and at the Deep Fluorescence Maximum (DFM, 12–55 m) at eight representative stations of the three areas. The average viral lytic production ranged from 1.0 ± 0.3 × 107 viruses ml−1 d−1 in the Bellingshausen Sea to1.3 ± 0.7 × 107 viruses ml−1 d−1 in the Bransfield Strait, while lysogeny, when detectable, recorded the lowest value in the Bellingshausen Sea (0.05 ± 0.05 × 107 viruses ml−1 d−1) and the highest in the Weddell Sea (4.3 ± 3.5 × 107 viruses ml−1 d−1). Average mortality rates due to viruses ranged from 9.7 ± 6.1 × 104 cells ml−1 d−1 in the Weddell Sea to 14.3 ± 4.0 × 104 cells ml−1 d−1 in the Bellingshausen Sea, and were higher than averaged grazing rates in the Weddell Sea (5.9 ± 1.1 × 104 cells ml−1 d−1) and in the Bellingshausen Sea (6.8 ± 0.9 × 104 cells ml−1 d−1). The highest impact on prokaryotes by viruses and main differences between viral and protists activities were observed in surface samples: 17.8 ± 6.8 × 104 cells ml−1 d−1 and 6.5 ± 3.9 × 104 cells ml−1 d−1 in the Weddell Sea; 22.1 ± 9.6 × 104 cells ml−1 d−1 and 11.6 ± 1.4 × 104 cells ml−1 d−1 in the Bransfield Strait; and 16.1 ± 5.7 × 104 cells ml−1 d−1 and 7.9 ± 2.6 × 104 cells ml−1 d−1 in the Bellingshausen

  8. Le bassin transfrontalier du fleuve Zambèze en Afrique australe: des eaux conflictuelles?

    OpenAIRE

    Maupin, Agathe

    2012-01-01

    L’accord de 2004 sur la création de la commission de bassin transfrontalier du Zambèze devait obtenir les six ratifications des huit États riverains qui sont requises pour son entrée en vigueur dans le bassin du fleuve Zambèze. Le Zimbabwe, la Tanzanie et le Malawi ont fait durer cet événement durant six ans. La Zambie, qui n’a ni signé, ni ratifié l’accord, risque aujourd’hui d’être contrainte par cette majorité. Il est intéressant de revenir sur les tensions autour de la gestion des ressour...

  9. INSTALACIONES Y EQUIPAMIENTO VITIVINÍCOLA EN EL REINO DE CHILE. VASIJAS, PIPAS, LAGARES (SIGLO XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Lacoste

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo examina las instalaciones y el equipamiento de los establecimientos vitivinícolas del Reino de Chile en el siglo XVIII. El tema es relevante porque en ese momento, Chile era el principal polo vitivinícola de América y ejercía un liderazgo en la región. Se estudian las distintas formas de lagares, tanto los de cuero como los de adobe, cal y ladrillo; también se indaga en la evolución de la vasija vinaria, de la greda la madera. Los hornos botijeros ocuparon un lugar importante por su aporte a la fabricación de tinajas y botijas. Estos recipientes fueron como un icono característico de la viticultura del sur de América (en México la vasija no era de greda sino de madera, aún al comienzo de la industria vitivinícola. Posteriormente, a partir de la mitad de la centuria, comenzó la incorporación de vasija de madera (pipas y barriles en Chile. Durante cincuenta años éstas convivieron con los recipientes de greda, hasta comenzar a sustituirlos progresivamente en el siglo XIX. Este equipamiento hizo posible el desarrollo de una de las principales industrias que hubo en América española durante la época colonial y que, actualmente, sigue siendo la principal industria de Chile.

  10. Bienestar animal durante el transporte y su relación con la calidad de la carne bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlyn Romero P.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El bienestar animal (BA es un elemento diferenciador en la comercialización de la carne bovina a nivel internacional, aunque no forma parte de los acuerdos comerciales, se pueden citar ejemplos de las experiencias de Chile, Argentina, Brasil y Uruguay con la Unión Europea, que los ha privilegiado para la exportación de carne fresca bovina con este valor agregado. Durante el transporte, cargue y descargue los bovinos son sometidos a factores estresantes que afectan su bienestar y la calidad de la carne, además de producir importantes pérdidas económicas a los productores. Este trabajo presenta una revisión sobre el bienestar animal durante el transporte, y su relación con la calidad de la carne bovina.

  11. Inmigración alemana en el sur de Chile, siglo XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, Lisette

    2009-01-01

    Presentación (en español) Durante aproximadamente un mes de trabajo de campo en Chile, Lisette Winkler (EScoM-FMSH) ha grabado una serie de entrevistas que les hizo a los descendientes de los colonos alemanes quienes se instalaron en los alrededores del lago Llanquihue en el siglo XIX. Los documentos audiovisuales fueron recopilados en dos aldeas del sur del país, Frutillar y Puerto Octay. Recogen tanto testimonios orales de los descendientes como tomas panorámicas de los paisajes del sur, qu...

  12. Liquidity premium in emerging markets during the international credit financial crisis: the Mexico and Chile cases

    OpenAIRE

    Humberto Valencia Herrera

    2015-01-01

    El factor de descuento estocástico tiene una prima de riesgo en forma persistente para los activos más negociados en los años de la crisis crediticia financiera internacional 2007- 2008, efecto que persiste durante 2009 en México y Chile. Este efecto no es persistente en el período 2010-2012, cuando es solo estadísticamente observable en algunos años, pero desaparece en otros. Derechos Reservados©2015 Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Contaduría y Administración. Este ...

  13. Modernización de la Defensa en Chile, 2006-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo García Pino; Juan Esteban Montes

    2009-01-01

    Los autores analizan las modernizaciones que ha experimentado la defensa en Chile durante el gobierno de la Presidenta Bachelet en cuanto a su estructura política, personal de las FFAA, su potenciación estratégica, transparencia, control y eficiencia en el gasto en defensa, la dimensión internacional de la defensa y la reforma de la justicia militar. Argumentan que estas modernizaciones han sido exitosas, entre otras causas, porque se basan en un amplio consenso político y cívico-militar.

  14. Modernización de la Defensa en Chile, 2006-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo García Pino

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Los autores analizan las modernizaciones que ha experimentado la defensa en Chile durante el gobierno de la Presidenta Bachelet en cuanto a su estructura política, personal de las FFAA, su potenciación estratégica, transparencia, control y eficiencia en el gasto en defensa, la dimensión internacional de la defensa y la reforma de la justicia militar. Argumentan que estas modernizaciones han sido exitosas, entre otras causas, porque se basan en un amplio consenso político y cívico-militar.

  15. Competencia política y fraude electoral en Chile, 1912-1925

    OpenAIRE

    Ponce de León Atria, Macarena

    2015-01-01

    Este artículo busca comprender las complejidades de la competencia electoral por el poder político en Chile en los inicios de su institucionalización. El fraude, sobre todo el cohecho, junto a la rotativa ministerial durante la llamada República Parlamentaria (1891-1925) han sido argumentos recurrentes en la historiografía para probar la crisis política del período. Este artículo cambia el foco sobre el parlamentarismo y el tipo de fraude, e intenta probar que, entre las diversas estrategias ...

  16. Sistema de salud de Chile The health system of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Becerril-Montekio; Juan de Dios Reyes; Annick Manuel

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Chile, incluyendo su estructura, financiamiento, beneficiarios y recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone. Este sistema está compuesto por dos sectores, público y privado. El sector público está formado por todos los organismos que constituyen el Sistema Nacional de Servicios de Salud y cubre aproximadamente a 70% de la población, incluyendo a los pobres del campo y las ciudades, la clase media baja y los jubilados, así como ...

  17. Productividad del cultivo de chile jalapeño (Capsicum anuum L.) con manejo orgánico o convencional en Calakmul, Campeche, México

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Morón Ríos; José Armando Alayón Gamboa

    2014-01-01

    Se compara el rendimiento productivo y econó - mico del cultivo de chile jalapeño con manejo or - gánico como alternativa al cultivo convencional que utiliza agroquímicos. Se sembraron dos par - celas con chile jalapeño variedad “Don Benito”, sin riego, manejadas de acuerdo al calendario del agricultor. Durante el ciclo agrícola, men - sualmente, se registraron todas las inversiones monetarias realizadas en agroquímicos, jornales, adición de lombricomposta y fitoinsecticidas. También, se regi...

  18. Earthquake engineering research program in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragoni, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    Earthquake engineering research in Chile has been carried out for more than 30 years. Systematic research is done at the university of Chile in Santiago. Other universities such as the Catholic University, university of Concepcion, and the Federico Santa Maria Technical University have begun to teach and conduct research in earthquake engineering in recent years. 

  19. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have led to…

  20. Metazoan parasite fauna as a biological tag for the habitat of the flounder Hippoglossina macrops from northern Chile, in a depth gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Marcelo E; González, Maria Teresa; Acuña, Enzo

    2004-12-01

    Quantitative changes in the parasite communities of the flounder Hippoglossina macrops (Steindachner) were studied along a depth gradient. Samples were obtained from the waters off Coquimbo, Chile (29 degrees 18'S to 30 degrees 50'S), at depths ranging from 160 to 342 m. Samples were assigned to 3 depths, i.e., shallow water (less than 200 m), midwater (from 200 to 300 m), and deep water (more than 300 m). Twelve parasite species were recorded: Neoheterobothrium chilensis and Entobdella hippoglossi (Monogenea); Holobomolochus chilensis and Protochondria longicauda (Copepoda); Gliptonobdella sp. (Hirudinea); Nybelinia surmenicola, Scolex pleuronectis, and Neobothriocephalus adspinosus (Cestoda); Floridosentis sp. and Corynosoma australe (Acanthocephala); Anisakidae (Nematoda); and an unidentified hemiurid (Digenea). Univariate analyses showed that C. australe has its highest prevalence and mean intensity of infection in hosts from shallow waters. Floridosentis sp. showed significant differences along the depth gradient, with higher mean intensity and prevalence of infection in fish from midwater. Among the ectoparasites, only N. chilensis exhibited differences in mean intensity with depth, where intensity of infection increased with depth of host habitat. A canonical multivariate analysis demonstrated that parasite burdens can be a good predictor of the environment (shallow, mid-, or deep water) occupied by the flounders.

  1. Temperature decrease in the extratropics of South America in response to a tropical forcing during the austral winter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, G.V. [Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas y Transferencia de Tecnologia a la Produccion (CICYTTP-CONICET), Diamante, Entre Rios (Argentina)

    2010-07-01

    This paper focuses on the dynamic mechanisms that create favorable conditions for the occurrence of frosts that affect large areas of Argentina and are denominated generalized frosts (GF). The hemispheric teleconnection patterns linked to extreme cold events affecting central and northeastern Argentina during winter are identified. The objective is to determine whether the conditions found in previous studies for the composite of winters with extreme (maximum and minimum) frequency of GF occurrence respond to typical characteristics of the austral winter or they are inherent to those particular winters. Taking the mean winter as basic state in the 1961-1990 period, a series of numerical experiments are run using a primitive equation model in which waves are excited with a thermal forcing. The positions of the thermal forcing are chosen according to observed convection anomalies in a basic state given by the austral winters with extreme frequency of GF occurrence. The wave trains excited by anomalous convection situated in specific regions may propagate across the Pacific Ocean and reach South America with the appropriate phase, creating the local favorable conditions for the occurrence of GF. However, the anomalous convection is, by itself, not sufficient since the response also depends on the basic state configuration. This is proved by placing the forcing over the region of significant anomalous convection for maximum and minimum frequency of GF occurrence and the response was very different in comparison to the mean winter. It is concluded that the conditions for a greater GF frequency of occurrence are inherent to these particular winters, so that such conditions are not present in the average winter. (orig.)

  2. Species diversity and plastid dna haplotype distributions ofPinus Subsection Australes (pinaceae in Guerrero and Oaxaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ortiz-Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pinus subsección Australes es un grupo de pinos duros de América del Norte que comprende aproximadamente 29 especies de árboles importantes económicamente y ecológicamente distribuidos a lo largo de toda América del Norte y Central y las Islas Caribeñas. Estudios previos han mostrado que las especies de esta subsección a menudo comparten haplotipos de ADN de plastidio, un patrón que es atribuido a la hibridación introgresiva y la retención de polimorfismos ancestrales. Aquí describimos la diversidad de haplotipos de plastidio y la morfología para este grupo de especies en los estados de Guerrero y Oaxaca, México. Siete especies de Pinus subsección Australes son reconocidas en el área de estudio, una de las cuales, P. patulaincluye dos variedades. Siete sitios variables y nueve haplotipos fueron encontrados amplificando un fragmento de 840 p. b. de ADN de la región codificante ycf1. Se encontraron haplotipos compartidos para P. patulavar. patula, P. patula var. longipedunculata, P.herrerae y P. tecunumanii. Cuatro de los nueve haplotipos encontrados están restringidos a Oaxaca. Aunque las genealogías de genes son valiosas para estudiar la evolución de este grupo, se requieren mayor muestreo de individuos y más sitios variables para la inferencia de relaciones entre las especies.

  3. Analysis of [Gossypium capitis-viridis × (G.hirsutum × G.australe2] Trispecific Hybrid and Selected Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Chen

    Full Text Available Speciation is always a contentious and challenging issue following with the presence of gene flow. In Gossypium, there are many valuable resources and wild diploid cotton especially C and B genome species possess some excellent traits which cultivated cotton always lacks. In order to explore character transferring rule from wild cotton to upland tetraploid cotton, the [G. capitis-viridis × (G. hirsutum × G. australe2] triple hybrid was synthesized by interspecies hybridization and chromosome doubling. Morphology comparisons were measured among this hybrid and its parents. It showed that trispecific hybrid F1 had some intermediate morphological characters like leaf style between its parents and some different characters from its parents, like crawl growth characteristics and two kind flower color. It is highly resistant to insects comparing with other cotton species by four year field investigation. By cytogenetic analysis, triple hybrid was further confirmed by meiosis behavior of pollen mother cells. Comparing with regular meiosis of its three parents, it was distinguished by the occurrence of polyads with various numbers of unbalanced microspores and finally generating various abnormal pollen grains. All this phenomenon results in the sterility of this hybrid. This hybrid was further identified by SSR marker from DNA molecular level. It showed that 98 selected polymorphism primers amplified effective bands in this hybrids and its parents. The genetic proportion of three parents in this hybrid is 47.8% from G. hirsutum, 14.3% from G. australe, 7.0% from G. capitis-viridis, and 30.9% recombination bands respectively. It was testified that wild genetic material has been transferred into cultivated cotton and this new germplasm can be incorporated into cotton breeding program.

  4. THE ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES OF A GLOBAL MERCHANT -BANKER IN CHILE: HUTH & CO. OF LONDON, 1820S-1850S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUEL LLORCA-JAÑA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with Huth & Co.'s activities in Chile during the 1820s-1850s. Huth was the only London merchant-banker that decided to go global before 1850, and also the only one to open a branch in Chile. The analysis of how his branches operated should take this into account, yet Huth's activities in Chile have only previously been examined using a bilateral approach to examine the economic relations between Chile and Britain. This situation was mainly due to the fact that the richest collection of primary material on Huth & Co. (the Huth papers at University College London had been ignored by scholars working on Anglo-Chilean economic relations during the first half of the nineteenth-century. The main focus of this paper is on the information that we were made unaware of due to this restricted investigative approach. Among them are the connections established between Huth's branches in Chile and the USA, Asia, continental Europe and the rest of Latin America; and the important trade in Spanish quicksilver.El presente artículo trata sobre las actividades económicas en Chile de Huth & Co. durante el período 1820-1850. Huth & Co. fue el único mercader banquero de Londres que decidió tener una empresa global antes de 1850 y el único también en abrir una oficina en Chile. Por lo tanto, las actividades de la sucursal en Chile deben ser analizadas considerando estos dos importantes hechos. Sin embargo, antes de este estudio, las actividades de Huth en el país fueron examinadas usando un enfoque estrictamente bilateral de las relaciones entre Chile y Gran Bretaña. Esta visión restrictiva se debió en gran parte al desconocimiento de los historiadores interesados en las relaciones anglo-chilenas de una importante fuente de información: los archivos de Huth disponibles en el University College London. Debido a este desconocimiento, la historiografía no ha dado cuenta de importantes hechos tratado en este artículo. Por ejemplo, de las

  5. [Antimicrobial susceptibility in Chile 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains.

  6. Rainfall erosivity in Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Carlos A.; Vidal, Karim L.

    2011-11-01

    SummaryOne of the most widely used indicators of potential water erosion risk is the rainfall-runoff erosivity factor ( R) of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). R is traditionally determined by calculating a long-term average of the annual sum of the product of a storm's kinetic energy ( E) and its maximum 30-min intensity ( I30), known as the EI30. The original method used to calculate EI30 requires pluviograph records for at most 30-min time intervals. Such high resolution data is difficult to obtain in many parts of the world, and processing it is laborious and time-consuming. In Chile, even though there is a well-distributed rain gauge network, there is no systematic characterization of the territory in terms of rainfall erosivity. This study presents a rainfall erosivity map for most of the cultivated land in the country. R values were calculated by the prescribed method for 16 stations with continuous graphical record rain gauges in Central Chile. The stations were distributed along 800 km (north-south), and spanned a precipitation gradient of 140-2200 mm yr -1. More than 270 years of data were used, and 5400 storms were analyzed. Additionally, 241 spatially distributed R values were generated by using an empirical procedure based on annual rainfall. Point estimates generated by both methods were interpolated by using kriging to create a map of rainfall erosivity for Central Chile. The results show that the empirical procedure used in this study predicted the annual rainfall erosivity well (model efficiency = 0.88). Also, an increment in the rainfall erosivities was found as a result of the rainfall depths, a regional feature determined by elevation and increasing with latitude from north to south. R values in the study area range from 90 MJ mm ha -1 h -1 yr -1 in the north up to 7375 MJ mm ha -1 h -1 yr -1 in the southern area, at the foothills of the Andes Mountains. Although the map and the estimates could be improved in the future by

  7. TANAMI: Tracking Active Galactic Nuclei with Austral Milliarcsecond Interferometry. II. Additional sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, C.; Kadler, M.; Ojha, R.; Schulz, R.; Trüstedt, J.; Edwards, P. G.; Ros, E.; Carpenter, B.; Angioni, R.; Blanchard, J.; Böck, M.; Burd, P. R.; Dörr, M.; Dutka, M. S.; Eberl, T.; Gulyaev, S.; Hase, H.; Horiuchi, S.; Katz, U.; Krauß, F.; Lovell, J. E. J.; Natusch, T.; Nesci, R.; Phillips, C.; Plötz, C.; Pursimo, T.; Quick, J. F. H.; Stevens, J.; Thompson, D. J.; Tingay, S. J.; Tzioumis, A. K.; Weston, S.; Wilms, J.; Zensus, J. A.

    2018-02-01

    Context. TANAMI is a multiwavelength program monitoring active galactic nuclei (AGN) south of - 30° declination including high-resolution very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) imaging, radio, optical/UV, X-ray, and γ-ray studies. We have previously published first-epoch8.4 GHz VLBI images of the parsec-scale structure of the initial sample. In this paper, we present images of 39 additional sources. The full sample comprises most of the radio- and γ-ray brightest AGN in the southern quarter of the sky, overlapping with the region from which high-energy (> 100 TeV) neutrino events have been found. Aims: We characterize the parsec-scale radio properties of the jets and compare them with the quasi-simultaneous Fermi/LAT γ-ray data. Furthermore, we study the jet properties of sources which are in positional coincidence with high-energy neutrino events compared to the full sample. We test the positional agreement of high-energy neutrino events with various AGN samples. Methods: TANAMI VLBI observations at 8.4 GHz are made with southern hemisphere radio telescopes located in Australia, Antarctica, Chile, New Zealand, and South Africa. Results: Our observations yield the first images of many jets below - 30° declination at milliarcsecond resolution. We find that γ-ray loud TANAMI sources tend to be more compact on parsec-scales and have higher core brightness temperatures than γ-ray faint jets, indicating higher Doppler factors. No significant structural difference is found between sources in positional coincidence with high-energy neutrino events and other TANAMI jets. The 22 γ-ray brightest AGN in the TANAMI sky show only a weak positional agreement with high-energy neutrinos demonstrating that the > 100 TeV IceCube signal is not simply dominated by a small number of the γ-ray brightest blazars. Instead, a larger number of sources have to contribute to the signal with each individual source having only a small Poisson probability for producing an event in

  8. EL RACISMO AMBIENTAL EN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATÍAS MEZA-LOPEHANDÍA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El problema de la desigualdad en Chile ha sido abordado desde diferentes puntos de vista como la cuestión de la distribución de la riqueza o el acceso a los derechos sociales. Es este trabajo se observa el mismo problema pero desde la perspectiva recientemente esbozada por los movimientos sociales: la del racismo ambiental o la desigual distribución de los deshechos del desarrollo y el consumo. De esta manera se revisan sucintamente los principales conflictos que han surgido en el último tiempo a lo largo del país entre empresas públicas y privadas y comunidades locales y originarias. Así mismo se examinan las formas de organización que estas últimas han asumido y el estado actual de articulación entre ellas. De la revisión de la situación se concluye que estamos ante el surgimiento de un actor de nuevo tipo, que surge de las contradicciones del Chile neoliberal y que se diferencia del movimiento ecologista por vincular sus reivindicaciones a la defensa del territorio y al derecho a la autodeterminación de los pueblos.

  9. President of Chile at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The President of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, in the ATLAS cavern with, from left to right, Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesman, Vivian Heyl, CONICYT President, and Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General. Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General, and Vivian Heyl, CONICYT President, signing a cooperation agreement between CERN and Chile’s Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT).The President of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, paid a visit to CERN during her three-day tour of Switzerland. The charismatic Michelle Bachelet and her large delegation were greeted by the CERN Director-General and then taken to see the ATLAS experiment and the LHC. She also took time to meet the Chilean community working at CERN, comprising several physicists in the Theory Group and the ATLAS experiment. The meeting was followed by the signing of a cooperation agreement between CERN and Chile’s Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científi...

  10. Un modelo de la historia de la vegetación de la Cordillera de La Costa de Chile central-sur: la hipótesis glacial de Darwin A model for the history of vegetation of the Coastal Range of central-southern Chile: Darwin's glacial hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    CAROLINA VILLAGRÁN

    2001-01-01

    En Chile central-sur, entre los paralelos 37 y 43º S, existen comunidades aisladas de coníferas y tundras magallánicas, cuya distribución principal es altoandina y/o de latitudes altas. De acuerdo a Darwin (1859), en general, estas "islas" corresponderían a los remanentes de poblaciones glaciales, que ocuparon sitios de menor altitud y latitudes más bajas, durante el avance de los hielos. Se desprende de esta hipótesis que, a lo largo de Chile, se habrían producido desplazamientos de la flora...

  11. Letter from Chile: Re-establishing health care in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Jorge

    1993-01-01

    Chile's long term social policy has produced very impressive outcomes in general health indicators, with a national health service established as early as 1952. During the years of the Pinochet dictatorship (1973-89) public health institutions were greatly affected, with sharp diminution in financing which affected investment and salaries. The democratic government initiated in 1990 faced a difficult situation, with underpaid staff and decrepit hospitals. The ministry took immediate action to improve salaries and start an ambitious health sector reform including investment in infrastructure, technology, and modern management. Decentralisation and autonomy, changes in payment for service mechanisms, and a public-private mix are the main objectives of this reform, keeping the public role as predominant in the proposed structure. This process has been affected by union unrest and public opinion dissatisfaction, which tend to present obstacles to progress in this complicated issue. Imagesp729-ap730-a

  12. Natural history of Emerita analoga (Stimpson (Anomura, Hippidae in a sandy beach of northern Chile Historia natural de Emerita analoga (Stimpson (Anomura, Hippidae en una playa arenosa del norte de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERALDO CONTRERAS

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Sediment samplings were carried across the intertidal of the beach at Hornitos, northern Chile (22°26´S during August and November 1996 and March, July and November 1997 for a study of the reproductive and population biology of Emerita analoga (Stimpson (Decapoda, Anomura in a region of the Chilean coast characterized by persistent upwelling. The highest abundances of E. analoga occurred during March and December 1997. During November 1996, March and December 1997, the highest abundances occurred below the effluent line, while in July 1996 and August 1997, most of the stages of E. analoga occurred in higher abundances above the effluent line. Ovigerous females were recorded over the entire study period. Juveniles were also present during all sampling months, peaking during March 1997. Body size of ovigerous females varied between 12.6 and 26.4 mm. Fecundity increased significantly with body size of females in all samples analyzed. The analyses of recruitment pattern for males and females suggest the existence of two pulses in the recruitment of E. analoga at Hornitos: one between October and December, and another one between February and March. Growth analyses show that females have growth rates a maximum body sizes higher than males. Comparisons with similar studies carried out at the coast of south central Chile (ca. 39° S, a region where upwelling occurs occasionally, show that E. analoga from this region have similar growth rates but attain a greater maximum body size than in Hornitos. It is concluded that proximity to areas of persistent upwelling seems not to affect life history of E. analoga in northern ChileSe realizaron muestreos de sedimentos en la playa de Hornitos, norte de Chile (ca. 22°26´S durante Agosto y Noviembre de 1996 y Marzo, Julio y Noviembre de 1997, con el objetivo de estudiar la biología reproductiva y poblacional de Emerita analoga (Stimpson (Decapoda, Anomura en una región de la costa Chilena, caracterizada por

  13. Relations Between Chile and ESO

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    As announced in an earlier Press Release (PR 08/94 of 6 May 1994), a high-ranking ESO delegation visited Santiago de Chile during the week of 24 - 28 May 1994 to discuss various important matters of mutual interest with the Chilean Government. It consisted of Dr. Peter Creola (President of ESO Council), Dr. Catherine Cesarsky (Vice-President of ESO Council), Dr. Henrik Grage (Former Vice-President of ESO Council) and Professor Riccardo Giacconi (ESO Director General), the latter accompanied by his advisers. THE SUPPLEMENTARY TREATY BETWEEN CHILE AND ESO Following a meeting with the ambassadors to Chile of the eight ESO member countries, the ESO delegation was received by the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Carlos Figueroa, and members of his staff. The ESO delegation was pleased to receive assurances that the present Chilean Government, like its predecessors, will continue to honour all contractual agreements, in particular the privileges and immunities of this Organisation, which were laid down in the Treaty between ESO and Chile that was signed by the parties in 1963 and ratified the following year. The discussions covered some aspects of the proposed Supplementary Treaty which has been under preparation during the past year. This included in particular the desire of the Chilean side to further increase the percentage of guaranteed time for Chilean astronomers at the future ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) and also the rules governing the installation by ESO member countries of additional telescopes at the ESO observatories in Chile. ESO invited a Chilean delegation to visit the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany) later this year for the final adjustment of the text of the Supplementary Treaty, after which it should be possible to proceed rapidly with the signing and ratification by the Chilean Parliament and the ESO Council. THE SITUATION AROUND PARANAL The ESO delegation expressed its deep concern to the Chilean Government about the continuing legal

  14. Gilberto Harris Bucher, Emigrantes e inmigrantes en Chile, 1810-1915. Nuevos aportes y notas revisionnistas, Valparaíso, Universidad de Playa Ancha Editorial, 2001.

    OpenAIRE

    Compagnon, Olivier

    2005-01-01

    Professeur d’histoire à l’Université des Sciences de l’Éducation de Playa Ancha (Valparaíso), auteur de nombreux travaux consacrés aux phénomènes d’émigration et d’immigration au Chili au XIXe siècle (Emigración y políticas gubernamentales de Chile durante el siglo XIX en 1996, Inmigración e emigración en Chile durante el siglo XIX. Estudios y documentos en 1997), l’auteur propose avec cet ouvrage une série d’études destinées à contrecarrer un certain nombre d’idées généralement admises à pro...

  15. Current Discussions Between ESO and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    [Joint Press Release by the Government of the Republic of Chile and the European Southern Observatory. The text is issued simultaneously in Santiago de Chile (in Spanish) and at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (in English).] Today, Tuesday, 18 April 1995, at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany), Mr. Roberto Cifuentes, Plenipotentiary Ambassador representing the Government of the Republic of Chile, and the Director General of the European Southern Observatory, Professor Riccardo Giacconi, have signed a Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement to the Convention of 6 November 1963 which governs the relations between Chile and this International Organisation. This Agreement which in practice signifies a widening and strengthening of the cooperative relations between the Organisation and the Chilean scientific community will hereafter be submitted for ratification by the National Congress of the Republic of Chile (the Parliament) and by the ESO Council. According to the Agreement signed today, Chilean astronomers will have privileged access within up to 10 percent observing time on all present and future ESO telescopes in Chile. Moreover, ESO accepts to incorporate into its labour regulations for Chilean personnel concepts like freedom of association and collective bargaining. This signing of the Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement to the original Convention of 1963 follows after months of constructive dialogue between the parties. It constitutes an important step towards a solution of some of the pending points on the current agenda for discussions between the Government of Chile and ESO. Among the issues still pending, ESO has informed the Government of Chile that respect for its immunities by the Chilean State is of vital importance for the continuation of the construction of the world's largest telescope at Paranal, as well as the continued presence of the Organisation in Chile. The Chilean Government, on its side, and concerning

  16. Crustal seismicity in central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, S.; Vera, E.; Alvarado, P.; Monfret, T.

    2004-06-01

    Both the genesis and rates of activity of shallow intraplate seismic activity in central Chile are poorly understood, mainly because of the lack of association of seismicity with recognizable fault features at the surface and a poor record of seismic activity. The goal of this work is to detail the characteristics of seismicity that takes place in the western flank of the Andes in central Chile. This region, located less than 100 km from Santiago, has been the site of earthquakes with magnitudes up to 6.9, including several 5+ magnitude shocks in recent years. Because most of the events lie outside the Central Chile Seismic Network, at distances up to 60 km to the east, it is essential to have adequate knowledge of the velocity structure in the Andean region to produce the highest possible quality of epicentral locations. For this, a N-S refraction line, using mining blasts of the Disputada de Las Condes open pit mine, has been acquired. These blasts were detected and recorded as far as 180 km south of the mine. Interpretation of the travel times indicates an upper crustal model consisting of three layers: 2.2-, 6.7-, and 6.1-km thick, overlying a half space; their associated P wave velocities are 4.75-5.0 (gradient), 5.8-6.0 (gradient), 6.2, and 6.6 km/s, respectively. Hypocentral relocation of earthquakes in 1986-2001, using the newly developed velocity model, reveals several regions of concentrated seismicity. One clearly delineates the fault zone and extensions of the strike-slip earthquake that took place in September 1987 at the source of the Cachapoal River. Other regions of activity are near the San José volcano, the source of the Maipo River, and two previously recognized lineaments that correspond to the southern extension of the Pocuro fault and Olivares River. A temporary array of seismographs, installed in the high Maipo River (1996) and San José volcano (1997) regions, established the hypocentral location of events with errors of less than 1 km

  17. Hacia un planteamiento de arquitectura docente, en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mac Clure Alamos, Oscar

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available On this pages the author expound the different architectural Solutions adopted for school projects from his professional experience: 22 years (1959-1981 in the Construction Society of Educational Establishments in Santiago de Chile, as well as the execution -four years at the Santiago University (late State Technical University- of the modified project for the Planetarium which had been projected by the Construction Society. He also expound briefly a number of constructions of educational character carried out through the practicing of his profession. Taking as a base these experiences, he offers some suggestions and conclusions that will be useful for future programmes intended to solve the problems of the school buildings. From a critical and objective position he tries to show the actual situation on the educational architecture in this country.En estas páginas se pretende dar a conocer diferentes soluciones arquitectónicas adoptadas en los proyectos escolares, a través de mi experiencia profesional, durante 22 años (1959 - 1981 en la Sociedad Constructora de Establecimientos Educacionales en Santiago de Chile. También la ejecución, durante 4 años (1981 - 1985, en la Universidad de Santiago (ex Universidad Técnica del Estado del proyecto modificado y la construcción del edificio para el Planetario, que había realizado en la Sociedad Constructora. En forma breve expondré, además, algunas obras de carácter educacional, realizadas en el ejercicio privado de mi profesión. En base a estas experiencias procuraré entregar algunas sugerencias y conclusiones que podrían ser útiles en futuros programas destinados a resolver los problemas de las construcciones docentes. Desde una posición crítica y objetiva intentaré también dar a conocer la situación actual de la arquitectura educacional en el país.

  18. Mujeres inmigrantes peruanas en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Stefoni

    2002-01-01

    Este artículo reflexiona en torno a la situación de la migración peruana en Chile, en particular sobre la situación de exclusión social y laboral que enfrentan las mujeres inmigrantes en Santiago. La migración peruana se caracteriza por ser eminentemente femenina y con una alta concentración laboral de este grupo en el trabajo doméstico. ¿Por qué se han vuelto las labores la fuente principal de trabajo para estas mujeres?, ¿basta con señalar que se debe a mano de obra más barata o existen otr...

  19. Chile: perspectives in school health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, M C; Gazmuri, C; Venegas, L

    1990-09-01

    The leading health problems of children and adolescents in Chile is reviewed. The Chilean educational system and how the system addresses its principal health problems are described. A school health program is described as well as other educational programs designed and developed by nongovernmental institutions which have a smaller coverage. Current research studies regarding growth and development, child morbidity, nutritional level, and mental health studies are reviewed. In addition, principal challenges that include developing more efficient ways of referring children, enriching the curriculum and teacher training, assigning school hours for health teachers, and enlarging coverage of the health care evaluation programs are outlined. Of special importance is developing prevention programs for parents and children using school and community leaders to prevent health problems in areas such as human sexuality education, decision-making, social abilities, and alcohol and drug abuse. Main efforts should be directed toward low-income families and children to improve life conditions.

  20. Intercultural bilingual education in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Ibarra Figueroa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on analysis of the actions of public bodies and institutions that are being created in Chile to meet demand in Intercultural Bilingual Education (IBE. The aim is to analyze the practical training of students in initial teacher training in intercultural basic education at the Catholic University of Temuco. In addition, reveal the working methods of collaborative field between family-school- community partnership in key initial identification and subsequent components and devices in the proper relationship of individuals, in order to establish criteria by biopsychosocial processes from the identity the Other and You as host in the plural diversity of human beings, with aim is to recommend  a public policy with an emphasis on multicultural values of each community, enriching the human condition and biopolitics regarding the integration from the educational training and the role that fits the state.

  1. Chile and Mercosur: One Strategic Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oviedo, Humberto

    2000-01-01

    ... a big free trade area. Chile has been proactive to open its economy unilaterally and now is looking for creating the best conditions to participate in some important economic blocks, as a NAFTA, MERCOSUR, the Asian-Pacific...

  2. A decade towards better health in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmke, Irene

    2011-10-01

    In 1990, after 17 years of dictatorship, Chile started rebuilding its political system with a focus on improving social conditions and health. A recent study of the last 10 years shows some positive results. Irene Helmke reports.

  3. Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, in extreme southern Chile. WMO station ID 85934. Period of record 1896-1954. The original forms were scanned at the Museo...

  4. May 1960 Puerto Montt, Valdivia, Chile Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On May 22, 1960, a Mw 9.5 earthquake, the largest earthquake ever instrumentally recorded, occurred in southern Chile. The series of earthquakes that followed...

  5. Infraestructura y significado en la dominiación Inka del centro oeste argentino (Coa extremo austral Oriental del Tawantinsuyu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Roberto Bárcena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el apoyo de la ANPCyT (SECYT y del CONICET mediante subsidios, desarrollamos investigaciones arqueológicas y etnohistóricas sobre la dominación inka en el Centro oeste argentino, extremo austral oriental del Tawantinsuyu. En la actualidad trabajamos en las provincias de La Rioja (Famatina, Laguna Brava, Guandacol, entre otras áreas, San Juan (Reserva de la Biosfera de San Guillermo, Valle Fértil, Paso del Lámar —Jáchal—, entre otros sectores y Mendoza (Valle de Uspallata, Valle de Uco, entre otras zonas, estudiando la vialidad y los sitios relacionados, excavando varios de éstos. Un abordaje de tal envergadura implica, entre otras, la posibilidad de contrastar semejanzas y diferencias en la implantación territorial, diversidad en las relaciones con las poblaciones locales y sumanifestación en los indicadores arqueológicos y etnohistóricos y permite contrastar los modelos de dominación regional. En este contexto nos referimos, desde la perspectiva del significado, al registro de bienes inka como ser, entre otros, la propia arquitectura o los relacionados con los sitios ceremoniales de alturaWith the support of the ANPCyT (SECYT and of the CONICET we have undertaken archaeological and ethnohistorical research on the Inka domination in the Argentine centralwest, at the oriental austral extreme of the Tawantinsuyu. Our team is presently working in the provinces of: La Rioja (at Famatina, Laguna Brava,Guandacol, among other areas, San Juan (at the Reserva de la Biosfera de San Guillermo, Valle Fértil and Paso del Lámar -Jáchal-, among other sectors and,Mendoza (at the Valle deUspallata, Valle deUco, among other zones, studying the net of roads and other related sites, excavating several of the later ones. Such an approach implies, between others, the possibility of contrasting similarities and differences in the territorial implantation, the diversity in relations with the local inhabitants and its manifestation in the

  6. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the AUSTRAL RAINBOW from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1976-09-10 to 1976-09-15 (NODC Accession 8100229)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from AUSTRAL RAINBOW in the Pacific Ocean from September 10, 1976 to September 15,...

  7. From mammals back to birds: Host-switch of the acanthocephalan Corynosoma australe from pinnipeds to the Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Orts, Jesús Servando; Brandão, Martha; Georgieva, Simona; Raga, Juan Antonio; Crespo, Enrique Alberto; Luque, José Luis; Aznar, Francisco Javier

    2017-01-01

    Trophically-transmitted parasites are regularly exposed to potential new hosts through food web interactions. Successful colonization, or switching, to novel hosts, occur readily when 'donor' and 'target' hosts are phylogenetically related, whereas switching between distantly related hosts is rare and may result from stochastic factors (i.e. rare favourable mutations). This study investigates a host-switching event between a marine acanthocephalan specific to pinnipeds that is apparently able to reproduce in Magellanic penguins Spheniscus magellanicus from Brazil. Detailed analysis of morphological and morphometrical data from acanthocephalans from penguins indicates that they belong to Corynosoma australe Johnston, 1937. Partial fragments of the 28S rRNA and mitochondrial cox1 genes were amplified from isolates from penguins and two pinniped species (i.e. South American sea lion Otaria flavescens and South American fur seal Arctocephalus australis) to confirm this identification. Infection parameters clearly differ between penguins and the two pinniped species, which were significantly lower in S. magellanicus. The sex ratio of C. australe also differed between penguins and pinnipeds; in S. magellanicus was strongly biased against males, while in pinnipeds it was close to 1:1. Females of C. australe from O. flavescens were smaller than those from S. magellanicus and A. australis. However, fecundity (i.e. the proportion of fully developed eggs) was lower and more variable in females collected from S. magellanicus. At first glance, the occurrence of reproductive individuals of C. australe in Magellanic penguins could be interpreted as an adaptive colonization of a novel avian host through favourable mutations. However, it could also be considered, perhaps more likely, as an example of ecological fitting through the use of a plesimorphic (host) resource, since the ancestors of Corynosoma infected aquatic birds.

  8. From mammals back to birds: Host-switch of the acanthocephalan Corynosoma australe from pinnipeds to the Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Servando Hernández-Orts

    Full Text Available Trophically-transmitted parasites are regularly exposed to potential new hosts through food web interactions. Successful colonization, or switching, to novel hosts, occur readily when 'donor' and 'target' hosts are phylogenetically related, whereas switching between distantly related hosts is rare and may result from stochastic factors (i.e. rare favourable mutations. This study investigates a host-switching event between a marine acanthocephalan specific to pinnipeds that is apparently able to reproduce in Magellanic penguins Spheniscus magellanicus from Brazil. Detailed analysis of morphological and morphometrical data from acanthocephalans from penguins indicates that they belong to Corynosoma australe Johnston, 1937. Partial fragments of the 28S rRNA and mitochondrial cox1 genes were amplified from isolates from penguins and two pinniped species (i.e. South American sea lion Otaria flavescens and South American fur seal Arctocephalus australis to confirm this identification. Infection parameters clearly differ between penguins and the two pinniped species, which were significantly lower in S. magellanicus. The sex ratio of C. australe also differed between penguins and pinnipeds; in S. magellanicus was strongly biased against males, while in pinnipeds it was close to 1:1. Females of C. australe from O. flavescens were smaller than those from S. magellanicus and A. australis. However, fecundity (i.e. the proportion of fully developed eggs was lower and more variable in females collected from S. magellanicus. At first glance, the occurrence of reproductive individuals of C. australe in Magellanic penguins could be interpreted as an adaptive colonization of a novel avian host through favourable mutations. However, it could also be considered, perhaps more likely, as an example of ecological fitting through the use of a plesimorphic (host resource, since the ancestors of Corynosoma infected aquatic birds.

  9. From mammals back to birds: Host-switch of the acanthocephalan Corynosoma australe from pinnipeds to the Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Martha; Georgieva, Simona; Raga, Juan Antonio; Crespo, Enrique Alberto; Luque, José Luis

    2017-01-01

    Trophically-transmitted parasites are regularly exposed to potential new hosts through food web interactions. Successful colonization, or switching, to novel hosts, occur readily when ‘donor’ and ‘target’ hosts are phylogenetically related, whereas switching between distantly related hosts is rare and may result from stochastic factors (i.e. rare favourable mutations). This study investigates a host-switching event between a marine acanthocephalan specific to pinnipeds that is apparently able to reproduce in Magellanic penguins Spheniscus magellanicus from Brazil. Detailed analysis of morphological and morphometrical data from acanthocephalans from penguins indicates that they belong to Corynosoma australe Johnston, 1937. Partial fragments of the 28S rRNA and mitochondrial cox1 genes were amplified from isolates from penguins and two pinniped species (i.e. South American sea lion Otaria flavescens and South American fur seal Arctocephalus australis) to confirm this identification. Infection parameters clearly differ between penguins and the two pinniped species, which were significantly lower in S. magellanicus. The sex ratio of C. australe also differed between penguins and pinnipeds; in S. magellanicus was strongly biased against males, while in pinnipeds it was close to 1:1. Females of C. australe from O. flavescens were smaller than those from S. magellanicus and A. australis. However, fecundity (i.e. the proportion of fully developed eggs) was lower and more variable in females collected from S. magellanicus. At first glance, the occurrence of reproductive individuals of C. australe in Magellanic penguins could be interpreted as an adaptive colonization of a novel avian host through favourable mutations. However, it could also be considered, perhaps more likely, as an example of ecological fitting through the use of a plesimorphic (host) resource, since the ancestors of Corynosoma infected aquatic birds. PMID:28981550

  10. Where Do Mexico and Chile Stand on Inclusive Education? Short Title: Inclusion in Mexico and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cedillo, Ismael; Romero-Contreras, Silvia; Ramos-Abadie, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the background, current situation and challenges of educational integration and inclusive education in Mexico and Chile. These countries obtained similar low results on the academic achievement of their students (Mexico last and Chile second last) among OECD countries; and above average scores, among Latin-American countries.…

  11. Ethylnaphthoquinone derivatives as inhibitors of indoleamine-2, 3-dioxygenase from the mangrove endophytic fungus Neofusicoccum austral SYSU-SKS024.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hui; Zhang, Hongao; Liu, Yena; Gu, Qiong; Xu, Jun; Huang, Xishan; She, Zhigang

    2018-03-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the dichloromethane extract of the fungus Neofusicoccum austral SYSU-SKS024 led to the isolation of three new ethylnaphthoquinone derivatives, neofusnaphthoquinone A (1), 6-(1-methoxylethy1)-2,7-dimethoxyjuglone (2), (3R,4R)-3-methoxyl-botryosphaerone D (6), together with six known analogs (3-5 and 7-9). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Neofusnaphthoquinone A (1) is the third example of the unsymmetrical naphthoquinone dimer, which is rarely found in natural source. All of the isolates were evaluated for their indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitory activity, compounds 1-6 showed in vitro inhibitory effects against IDO with IC 50 values ranging from 0.11 to 10.92μM. This is the first time naphthoquinone dimer (1), as a novel carbon skeleton possessing IDO inhibitory activity, was reported. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Causes and Model Skill of the Persistent Intense Rainfall and Flooding in Paraguay during the Austral Summer 2015-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss-Gollin, J.; Munoz, A. G.; Pastén, M.

    2017-12-01

    During the austral summer 2015-16 severe flooding displaced over 150,000 people on the Paraguay River system in Paraguay, Argentina, and Southern Brazil. This flooding was out of phase with the typical seasonal cycle of the Paraguay River, and was driven by repeated intense rainfall events in the Lower Paraguay River basin. Using a weather typing approach within a diagnostic framework, we show that enhanced moisture inflow from the low-level jet and local convergence associated with baroclinic systems favored the development of mesoscale convective activity and enhanced precipitation. The observed circulation patterns were made more likely by the cross-timescale interactions of multiple climate mechanisms including the strong, mature El Niño event and an active Madden-Julien Oscillation in phases four and five. We also perform a comparison of the rainfall predictability using seasonal forecasts from the Latin American Observatory of Climate Events (OLE2) and sub-seasonal forecasts produced by the ECMWF. We find that the model output precipitation field exhibited limited skill at lead times beyond the synoptic timescale, but that a Model Output Statistics (MOS) approach, in which the leading principal components of the observed rainfall field are regressed on the leading principal components of model-simulated rainfall fields, substantially improves spatial representation of rainfall forecasts. Possible implications for flood preparedness are briefly discussed.

  13. POTENCIAL FITOTÓXICO DE Pterodon polygalaeflorus BENTH (LEGUMINOSAE SOBRE Acanthospermum australe (LOEFL. O. KUNTZE E Senna occidentalis (L. LINK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALDENIR JOSÉ BELINELO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were synthesize and characterize the allelopatic activity of 6a,7bdi-hydroxyvouacapan-17b-oic acid derivatives, isolated from seeds of Pterodon polygalaeflorus Benth (Leguminosae. The compound characterization processes involve in infrared spectrometry (IR and hydrogen and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (1H and 13C NMR including experiments in double dimensions (COSY 1H 1H, HMQC and HMBC. Allellopathic effects were evaluated by bioassays, carried out at controlled 25 °C temperature and photoperiod (12h light/12h dark, during 72 hours. Sample concentrations of 1,0, 100,0 and 1000,0 mg.L-1 were tested. Senna occidentalis (fedegoso and Acanthospermum australe (carrapichinho were used as the target weed plants. Was observed that the allelopatic effect of the compounds increased as a function of the enhancement of concentration, thus showing a relation dose dependence. The N-ethyl-6a-acethoxy- 7b-hydroxyvouacapan-17b-amide and N,N-diethyl-6a-acethoxy-7b-hydroxyvouacapan 17b-amide were the derivatives that present the biggest inhibitory effect on seed germination and root growth of fedegoso and carrapichinho. Therefore, these compounds represent the most allelochemical potential against these weeds.

  14. Las viviendas de la colonización alemana en el sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Tilleria González

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available La ocupación efectiva del territorio austral chileno se produjo en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX. Para su ejecución fueron claves las medidas dictadas por el Estado a través del denominado “proyecto de colonización”, que favoreció la llegada de inmigrantes procedentes de Europa durante un periodo de grandes flujos migratorios hacia el continente americano. La ciudad de Valdivia fue el punto de partida de este proyecto. En 1845 desembarcan los  pobladores procedentes de los territorios de la Confederación Alemana. En esta ciudad se producen los primeros intercambios culturales entre la población local y la extranjera, en un “laboratorio constructivo” que estableció las bases de la arquitectura de la colonización y determinó la formación de la vivienda tradicional del sur del país. Mediante un estudio histórico y constructivo hemos identificado los invariantes arquitectónicos generados en este periodo de la colonización. Hemos comprobado su permanencia en distintos ejemplos de viviendas tradicionales localizadas, entre las ciudades de Valdivia y Puerto Montt, a lo largo del territorio que fue ocupado entre 1845 y 1875 con esta población alemana.

  15. NEOLIBERALISMO Y CREACIÓN DE 'SENTIDO COMÚN': CRISIS EDUCATIVA Y MEDIOS DE COMUNICACIÓN EN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Santa Cruz Grao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante las tres últimas décadas, distintos gobiernos en Chile, tanto a lo largo de la dictadura de Pinochet como en el actual periodo democrático, han incorporado y consolidado mecanismos de mercado tanto en el funcionamiento y como en la gestión educativa a distintos niveles. Los medios de comunicación son agentes centrales en la creación de ‘sentido común’ y la difusión de discursos hegemónicos en el conjunto de la sociedad. El presente artículo analiza el discurso educativo de los dos principales periódicos de Chile, La Tercera y El Mercurio, durante el proceso de debate y negociación de la actual ley educativa. En el primer apartado se presenta una revisión de la literatura que aborda el tratamiento que hace la prensa del campo educativo. La segunda parte presenta el contexto político en torno a la implementación y posterior deslegitimación de las políticas de cuasimercado en Chile. Por último, se analiza el discurso de los medios en torno a la crisis educativa en Chile, sosteniendo que el modelo de cuasimercado no ha sido bien implementado, pero que dichas políticas son las adecuadas para mejorar la enseñanza. Tres son los argumentos centrales que aparecen en los medios para sostener esta tesis: no ha habido suficiente descentralización y autonomía de los agentes educativos; la competencia entre escuelas ha sido imperfecta; y, por último, la educación ha sido capturada por los docentes y sus organizaciones gremiales, impidiendo la mejora del sistema.

  16. [Papillomavirus and cervical cancer in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Ryan, Miguel; Valenzuela, María Teresa

    2008-11-01

    Molecular, clinical and epidemiological studies have established beyond doubt that human papiloma viruses (HPV) cause cervical cancer. The virus is also associated with genital warts and other less common cancers in oropharynx, vulva, vagina and penis. Worldwide, VPH genotypes 16 and 18 are the most common high risk genotypes, detected in near 70% of women with cervical cancer. The discovery of a cause-effect relationship between several carcinogenic microorganisms and cancer open avenues for new diagnostic, treatment and prevention strategies. In this issue of Revista Médica de Chile, two papers on HPV are presented. Guzman and colleagues demonstrate that HPV can be detected in 66% to 77% of healthy male adolescents bypolymerase chain reaction and that positivity depends on the site of the penis that is sampled. These results support the role of male to female transmission of high risk HPVs in Chile and should lead to even more active educational campaigns. The second paper provides recommendations for HPV vaccine use in Chile, generated by the Immunization Advisory Committee of the Chilean Infectious Disease Society. To issue these recommendations, the Committee analyzes the epidemiological information available on HPV infection and cervical cancer in Chile, vaccine safety and effectiveness data, and describes cost-effectiveness studies. Taking into account that universal vaccination is controversial, the Committee favors vaccine use in Chile and it's incorporation into a national program. However, there is an indication that the country requires the implementation of an integrated surveillance approach including cross matching of data obtained from HPV genotype surveillance, monitoring of vaccination coverage, and surveillance of cervical cancer. The final decision of universal vaccine use in Chile should be based on a through analysis of information.ev Mid Chile

  17. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetovic, Alexander, E-mail: alexander@galetovic.cl [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile. Av. San Carlos de Apoquindo 2200, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Munoz, Cristian M., E-mail: cmunozm@aes.com [AES Gener and Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Catolica de Chile (Chile)

    2011-10-15

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: > We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. > Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. > Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. > Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. > We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  18. A unique collaboration in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The Chilean Red Cross Society and the family planning association--APROFA, International Planned Parenthood Federation's affiliate, are joining forces to help prevent the spread of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. APROFA established a working group to study the knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behavior of students at the National Training Institute, INACAP. 7000 students were sampled in 11 Chilean cities. The study found that 36% of the females, and 77% of males were sexually active before the age of 20. Nearly 1/2 of the women and 1/5 of the men did not know that condoms could protect them against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and pregnancy. APROFA designed a program to increase students knowledge of AIDS, reduce promiscuity and increase knowledge of and use of condoms. In October, 1988 an educational package distributed, consisting of a training manual, slides, educational booklets, a poster, and a video of 3 films. It has proved so successful that APROFA has adapted it for community groups, educational institutions, and its youth program. APROFA/Red Cross nurses and Red Cross volunteers have participated in workshops and training with the package. The Red Cross has organized AIDS-related activities in Chile since 1986, including education campaigns, information for blood donors, and a telephone hotline to provide AIDS counseling. Goals are to target more poor areas and groups outside of society's mainstream in the next year for sex education and information on STDs.

  19. ¿Existe discriminación salarial contra la población indígena en Chile?

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Montero; Paz Garcés

    2009-01-01

    En este artículo se presenta evidencia empírica respecto a la existencia de una discriminación salarial contra la población indígena en Chile para el periodo 1996-2006, con datos provenientes de la encuesta Casen. Los resultados muestran que la discriminación salarial he permanecido relativamente estable durante los pasados diez años, en torno de 12%. Mediante la aplicación de técnicas de bootstrapping es posible construir un intervalo de confianza para la medida de discriminación salarial, l...

  20. EFECTOS INDESEADOS DE LA MEDICIÓN DE LA CALIDAD EDUCATIVA EN CHILE. LA RESPUESTA DE LA SOCIEDAD CIVIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Campos-Martínez

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Con el avance de reformas que usan pruebas estandarizadas para evaluar y gestionar a las escuelas, sus efectos se hacen cada vez más presentes mientras las experiencias de resistencia se multiplican. El presente artículo utiliza técnicas cualitativas aplicadas durante un período de cinco años en tres escuelas de Santiago de Chile para explorar los efectos indeseados de este tipo de pruebas y el impacto de una campaña educativa que busca terminar con ellos.

  1. Radioactive wastes management development in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir, S.A.; Cruz, P.F.; Rivera, J.D.; Jorquera, O.H.

    1994-01-01

    A Facility for immobilizing and conditioning of radioactive wastes generated in Chile, has recently started in operation. It is a Radioactive Wastes Treatment Plant, RWTP, whose owner is Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, CCHEN. A Storgement Building of Conditioned Wastes accomplishes the facility for medium and low level activity wastes. The Project has been carried with participation of chilean professionals at CCHEN and Technical Assistance of International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA. Processes developed are volume reduction by compaction; immobilization by cementation and conditioning. Equipment has been selected to process radioactive wastes into a 200 liters drum, in which wastes are definitively conditioned, avoiding exposition and contamination risks. The Plant has capacity to treat low and medium activity radioactive wastes produced in Chile due to Reactor Experimental No. 1 operation, and annex Laboratories in Nuclear Research Centers, as also those produced by users of nuclear techniques in Industries, Hospitals, Research Centers and Universities, in the whole country. With the infrastructure developed in Chile, a centralization of Radioactive Wastes Management activities is achieved. A data base system helps to control and register radioactive wastes arising in Chile. Generation of radioactive wastes in Chile, has found solution for the present production and that of near future

  2. Zahraničně obchodní politika Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Horáková, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The Diploma thesis focuses on foreign trade policy of Chile. The first part is a brief summary of socio-economic characteristics of the country. The following section deals with the individual strategies in the approach to foreign trade policy applied in Chile since independence to the present. It exams the determinants of changes in foreign trade policy of Chile and monitors changes in territorial and commodity structure of the foreign trade of Chile. In the final section assesses the curren...

  3. Chile; Staff Report for the 2003 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    Chile has successfully resisted contagion from neighboring countries difficulties. Chile's inflation targeting framework has successfully anchored inflation expectations and increased the economy's resilience to external shocks while maintaining price stability. The floating exchange rate regime is an essential part of the macroeconomic policy framework and continues to serve Chile well. The interest in recapitalizing the central bank is welcomed. Executive Directors commend Chile for the tra...

  4. [Beginning of the Microbiology education in Chile: formation centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Carlos

    2015-08-01

    The first Chair of Microbiology in Chile was created in the School of Medicine of the Cañadilla at the University of Chile in 1892. Dr. Alejandro del Río Soto Aguilar was its first Professor. For almost three decades it was the only educational center for microbiologists in Chile. Among them were the first Professors of the new School of Medicine of the Catholic University of Chile and of the University of Concepción.

  5. Extreme hydrometeorological events in the Peruvian Central Andes during austral summer and their relationship with the large-scale circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulca, Juan C.

    In this Master's dissertation, atmospheric circulation patterns associated with extreme hydrometeorological events in the Mantaro Basin, Peruvian Central Andes, and their teleconnections during the austral summer (December-January-February-March) are addressed. Extreme rainfall events in the Mantaro basin are related to variations of the large-scale circulation as indicated by the changing strength of the Bolivian High-Nordeste Low (BH-NL) system. Dry (wet) spells are associated with a weakening (strengthening) of the BH-NL system and reduced (enhanced) influx of moist air from the lowlands to the east due to strengthened westerly (easterly) wind anomalies at mid- and upper-tropospheric levels. At the same time extreme rainfall events of the opposite sign occur over northeastern Brazil (NEB) due to enhanced (inhibited) convective activity in conjunction with a strengthened (weakened) Nordeste Low. Cold episodes in the Mantaro Basin are grouped in three types: weak, strong and extraordinary cold episodes. Weak and strong cold episodes in the MB are mainly associated with a weakening of the BH-NL system due to tropical-extratropical interactions. Both types of cold episodes are associated with westerly wind anomalies at mid- and upper-tropospheric levels aloft the Peruvian Central Andes, which inhibit the influx of humid air masses from the lowlands to the east and hence limit the potential for development of convective cloud cover. The resulting clear sky conditions cause nighttime temperatures to drop, leading to cold extremes below the 10-percentile. Extraordinary cold episodes in the MB are associated with cold and dry polar air advection at all tropospheric levels toward the central Peruvian Andes. Therefore, weak and strong cold episodes in the MB appear to be caused by radiative cooling associated with reduced cloudiness, rather than cold air advection, while the latter plays an important role for extraordinary cold episodes only.

  6. Gaseous elemental mercury in the marine boundary layer and air-sea flux in the Southern Ocean in austral summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiancheng; Xie, Zhouqing; Wang, Feiyue; Kang, Hui

    2017-12-15

    Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) in the marine boundary layer (MBL), and dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) in surface seawater of the Southern Ocean were measured in the austral summer from December 13, 2014 to February 1, 2015. GEM concentrations in the MBL ranged from 0.4 to 1.9ngm -3 (mean±standard deviation: 0.9±0.2ngm -3 ), whereas DGM concentrations in surface seawater ranged from 7.0 to 75.9pgL -1 (mean±standard deviation: 23.7±13.2pgL -1 ). The occasionally observed low GEM in the MBL suggested either the occurrence of atmospheric mercury depletion in summer, or the transport of GEM-depleted air from the Antarctic Plateau. Elevated GEM concentrations in the MBL and DGM concentrations in surface seawater were consistently observed in the ice-covered region of the Ross Sea implying the influence of the sea ice environment. Diminishing sea ice could cause more mercury evasion from the ocean to the air. Using the thin film gas exchange model, the air-sea fluxes of gaseous mercury in non-ice-covered area during the study period were estimated to range from 0.0 to 6.5ngm -2 h -1 with a mean value of 1.5±1.8ngm -2 h -1 , revealing GEM (re-)emission from the East Southern Ocean in summer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Across the Indian Ocean: A remarkable example of trans-oceanic dispersal in an austral mygalomorph spider.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie E Harrison

    Full Text Available The Migidae are a family of austral trapdoor spiders known to show a highly restricted and disjunct distribution pattern. Here, we aim to investigate the phylogeny and historical biogeography of the group, which was previously thought to be vicariant in origin, and examine the biogeographic origins of the genus Moggridgea using a dated multi-gene phylogeny. Moggridgea specimens were sampled from southern Australia and Africa, and Bertmainus was sampled from Western Australia. Sanger sequencing methods were used to generate a robust six marker molecular dataset consisting of the nuclear genes 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, ITS rRNA, XPNPEP3 and H3 and the mitochondrial gene COI. Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood methods were used to analyse the dataset, and the key dispersal nodes were dated using BEAST. Based on our data, we demonstrate that Moggridgea rainbowi from Kangaroo Island, Australia is a valid member of the otherwise African genus Moggridgea. Molecular clock dating analyses show that the inter-specific divergence of M. rainbowi from African congeners is between 2.27-16.02 million years ago (Mya. This divergence date significantly post-dates the separation of Africa from Gondwana (95 Mya and therefore does not support a vicariant origin for Australian Moggridgea. It also pre-dates human colonisation of Kangaroo Island, a result which is further supported by the intra-specific divergence date of 1.10-6.39 Mya between separate populations on Kangaroo Island. These analyses provide strong support for the hypothesis that Moggridgea colonised Australia via long-distance trans-Indian Ocean dispersal, representing the first such documented case in a mygalomorph spider.

  8. Nitrogen uptake by phytoplankton in surface waters of the Indian sector of Southern Ocean during austral summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, S. C.; Patra, Sivaji; Vishnu Vardhan, K.; Sarkar, A.; Mishra, R. K.; Anilkumar, N.

    2018-03-01

    This study reports the nitrogen uptake rate (using 15N tracer) of phytoplankton in surface waters of different frontal zones in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean (SO) during austral summer of 2013. The investigated area encompasses four major frontal systems, i.e., the subtropical front (STF), subantarctic front (SAF), polar front-1 (PF1) and polar front-2 (PF2). Southward decrease of surface water temperature was observed, whereas surface salinity did not show any significant trend. Nutrient (NO3 - and SiO4 4-) concentrations increased southward from STF to PF; while ammonium (NH4 +), nitrite (NO2 -) and phosphate (PO4 3-) remained comparatively stable. Analysis of nutrient ratios indicated potential N-limited conditions at the STF and SAF but no such scenario was observed for PF. In terms of phytoplankton biomass, PF1 was found to be the most productive followed by SAF, whereas PF2 was the least productive region. Nitrate uptake rate increased with increasing latitude, as no systematic spatial variation was discerned for NH4 + and urea (CO(NH2)2). Linear relationship between nitrate and total N-uptake reveals that the studied area is capable of exporting up to 60% of the total production to the deep ocean if the environmental settings are favorable. Like N-uptake rates the f-ratio also increased towards PF region indicating comparatively higher new production in the PF than in the subtropics. The moderately high average f-ratio (0.53) indicates potentially near equal contributions by new production and regenerated production to the total productivity in the study area. Elevation in N-uptake rates with declining temperature suggests that the SO with its vast quantity of cool water could play an important role in drawing down the atmospheric CO2 through the "solubility pump".

  9. The influence of differing protected area status and environmental factors on the macroinvertebrate fauna of temperate austral wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Furlonge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One means of conserving wetlands is to designate the area around them as ‘protected’. Although many different types of protected areas exist, ranging from international (Ramsar-listed to local importance, there is little information on how the type of protection influences biodiversity conservation. Studies of the effectiveness of protected area systems are a priority, if we are to understand their importance and design systems effectively. Many Tasmanian wetlands are regarded as having high to very high conservation values with more than 60% located within protected areas. This study tested macroinvertebrate richness and assemblage responses to a range of environmental attributes and differing types of protected area status at 66 protected Tasmanian (Australian wetlands. Two hundred and eighteen taxa were identified with an average of 33 species (or morphospecies and 18 families recorded per wetland. The wetland assemblages were idiosyncratic, four families contributed 21% of the total recorded and only two families contributed greater than 10%. Wetlands were not significantly nested on the basis of the composition of their macroinvertebrate assemblages. No single environmental attribute had a strong relationship with macroinvertebrate richness or assemblage composition and neither species richness nor assemblage composition varied significantly between different types of protected areas. Although the majority of protected area types were designed to support terrestrial conservation objectives rather than wetland values, our results suggest that the latter were also afforded protection. The state of the proximal zone (the terrestrial zone within 50m of the wetland edge and the type of aquatic habitat present (macrophyte or sediment-dominated substrates were the most important determinants of macroinvertebrate richness and assemblage composition across all types of protected wetlands. These results suggest that for temperate austral wetlands

  10. Ideology drives health care reforms in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, S

    1996-01-01

    The health care system of Chile evolved from rather unique historical circumstances to become one of the most progressive in Latin America, offering universal access to all citizens. Since the advent of the Pinochet regime in 1973, Chile has implemented Thatcherite/Reaganite reforms resulting in the privatization of much of the health care system. In the process, state support for health care has been sharply curtailed with deleterious effects on health services. As Chile emerges from the shadow of the Pinochet dictatorship, it faces numerous challenges as it struggles to rebuild its health care system. Other developing nations considering free-market reforms may wish to consider the high costs of the Chilean experiment.

  11. Chile: the Mapuche and the Bicentennial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bengoa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The conmeration of the 200 years of the Independence of Chile was in September 2010. This year was also the political change from the Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia to the right political wing chilean political parties. During the last 20 years the Goverment of Chile was in the hands of the center left coalition, after the dictatorship period of Gral Augusto Pinochet end in 1990. During two decades the state aplied social policies in order two develop the indigenous comunities, specially the mapuche comunities of the south of Chile. During 2010 the research proyect named “Conmemoraciones y memorias subalternas” tried to understand the current situation of the comunities, the conflict and others aspects of the indigenous situation. This paper is part of those research.

  12. Chile mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Carmen López

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes main facts about Chile starting with key socio-demographic, socio-economic, political, environmental, epidemiological, social support and social pathology aspects that characterize the context in which current mental and neurological policy and programmes have been put in place since 2000, as part of the National Health Plan and Health Sector Strategy Plan. The 'National Plan for Mental Health and Psychiatry', using a community psychiatry approach, has been partially implemented for people covered by the Public Health Insurance, which comprises 62% of the Chilean population (people with lower income). This paper also describes: the management, population needs and demands, financial resources, human resources in primary care, mental health specialist care and community-based care, physical capital, social capital, provision and processes, and outcomes of the plan. Strengths are analyzed, like the health reform, including its values and principles, the active participation of consumer and family groups as well as mental health NGOs, access to mental health services through primary care, quality assurance of the mental health services delivered to the population and progressive development of a culture of respect for human rights, including those of people with mental illnesses. Finally, difficulties for the advance of mental health care are also enumerated: the low priority still given to mental health compared with physical health by the country's leaders, the insufficient emphasis on mental health in both undergraduate and postgraduate professional training, the strong stigma and discrimination associated with mental illness in the general population and the advocacy by some mental health professionals of the traditional model of care (role of the psychiatric hospital).

  13. Socioeconomic determinants of disability in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitko Melo, Pedro; Cabieses Valdes, Báltica

    2011-10-01

    Disability is a worldwide public health priority. A shift from a biomedical perspective of dysfunction to a broader social understanding of disability has been proposed. Among many different social factors described in the past, socioeconomic position remains as a key multidimensional determinant of health. The study goal was to analyze the relationship between disability and different domains of socioeconomic position in Chile. Cross-sectional analysis of an anonymized population-based survey conducted in Chile in 2006. Any disability (dichotomous variable) and 6 different types of disability were analyzed on the bases of their relationship with income quintiles, occupational status, educational level, and material living standards (quality of the housing, overcrowding rate and sanitary conditions). Confounding and interaction effects were explored using R statistical program. Income, education, occupation, and material measures of socioeconomic position, along with some sociodemographic characteristics of the population, were independently associated with the chance of being disabled in Chile. Interestingly, classic measures of socioeconomic position (income, education, and occupation) were consistently associated with any disability in Chile, whereas material living conditions were partially confounded by these classic measures. In addition to this, each type of disability showed a particular pattern of related social determinants, which also varied by age group. This study contributed to the understanding of disability in Chile and how different domains of socioeconomic position might be associated with this prevalent condition. Disability remains a complex multidimensional public health problem in Chile that requires the inclusion of a wide range of risk factors, of which socioeconomic position is particularly relevant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ecología trófica del jabalí europeo (Sus scrofa silvestre en Chile Trophic ecology of the wild boar (Sus scrofa in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÓSCAR SKEWES

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Documentamos la dieta del jabalí silvestre en el centro-sur de Chile basados en el examen de 20 estómagos colectados en los faldeos de volcán Mocho-Choshuenco (39°54' S, 72°02' O y en el Parque Nacional Vicente Pérez Rosales (41°03' S, 71°54' O. La dieta está representada por animales, vegetales y hongos. Entre los vegetales y hongos son consumidas tanto las partes epígeas como hipógeas, lo mismo que frutos y semillas. Hongos y rizomas de Gunnera tinctoria constituyen ítemes vegetales cuantitativamente importantes en la alimentación. El jabalí forrajea en general en ambiente boscoso, pero las especies vegetales más frecuentes en la dieta se encuentran en espacios abiertos o fuera del bosque. El ambiente dominado por Chusquea spp. constituye un importante sitio de alimentación. Los roedores de la familia Muridae dominan entre los animales determinados en la dieta del jabalí. Esta situación, sin embargo, parece obedecer a la ocurrencia de una ratada producto de la semillación masiva de Chusquea spp. durante la época de muestreo. Las aves de la familia Rhinocryptidae e invertebrados (en especial larvas del coleóptero Chiasognathus grantii constituyen parte frecuente de los ítemes animales de la dieta del jabalí. En comparación a estudios en otras partes del mundo, el jabalí silvestre en Chile consume hongos en porcentaje de ocurrencia similar (65 % a su dieta en Estados Unidos de América pero bastante más alta que su dieta en Europa (5-32 %. En relación al volumen del componente animal, el jabalí en Chile consume más (16,1 % que en Estados Unidos de América (6 % y que en Europa (7-13 %We document the diet of wild boar in south-central Chile based on analysis of 20 stomachs collected on the outskirts of Mocho-Choshuenco volcano (39°54' S, 72°02' W and of Vicente Pérez Rosales National Park (41°03' S, 71°54' W. The diet incorporates animals, plants and fungi. Among the latter two, both epigeal and hypogeal parts

  15. Metazoan parasite fauna of the bigeye flounder, Hippoglossina macrops, from Northern Chile. Influence of host age and sex

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    González M Teresa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The metazoan parasite fauna of Hippoglossina macrops (n = 123 from northern Chile (30°S is quantitatively described for the first time, and the role of host age and sex was evaluated. Twelve parasite species were recovered, including 5 ectoparasites (2 Monogenea, 2 Copepoda and 1 Piscicolidae and 7 endoparasites (1 Digenea, 3 Cestoda, 2 Acanthocephala, and 1 Nematoda. The copepod Holobomolochus chilensis, the monogenean Neoheterobothrium sp., the adult acanthocephalan Floridosentis sp. and the hirudinean, Gliptonobdella sp. are new geographical and host records. The most prevalent ectoparasitic species were the monogenean, Neoheterobothrium sp. and the copepod, H. chilensis. Among endoparasites, the acanthocephalans Floridosentis sp. and Corynosoma australe were most prevalent and abundant. Prevalence and mean intensity of infection for most parasitic species were not affected by host sex, however the prevalence of Floridosentis sp. was significantly greater in males. Intensity of infection was positively correlated with host age for Neoheterobothrium sp., and negatively correlated for Floridosentis sp. and H. chilensis. The helminth species richness of the host H. macrops was lower compared to related flatfishes from the Northern Hemisphere. The relationship of the helminth fauna of H. macrops, its feeding habits and ecological habitats are discussed.

  16. Statistical downscaling of sea-surface wind over the Peru-Chile upwelling region: diagnosing the impact of climate change from the IPSL-CM4 model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goubanova, K. [CNES/CNRS/IRD/UPS, Laboratoire d' Etudes en Geophysique et Oceanographie Spatiale, Toulouse (France); Instituto del Mar del Peru, Callao (Peru); Echevin, V.; Terray, P. [IPSL/UPMC/IRD, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie et de Climatologie, Experimentation et Approches Numeriques, Paris (France); Dewitte, B. [CNES/CNRS/IRD/UPS, Laboratoire d' Etudes en Geophysique et Oceanographie Spatiale, Toulouse (France); Instituto del Mar del Peru, Callao (Peru); Instituto Geofisico del Peru, Lima (Peru); Codron, F. [UPMC/CNRS, Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, Paris (France); Takahashi, K. [Instituto Geofisico del Peru, Lima (Peru); Vrac, M. [IPSL/CNRS/CEA/UVSQ, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2011-04-15

    The key aspect of the ocean circulation off Peru-Chile is the wind-driven upwelling of deep, cold, nutrient-rich waters that promote a rich marine ecosystem. It has been suggested that global warming may be associated with an intensification of upwelling-favorable winds. However, the lack of high-resolution long-term observations has been a limitation for a quantitative analysis of this process. In this study, we use a statistical downscaling method to assess the regional impact of climate change on the sea-surface wind over the Peru-Chile upwelling region as simulated by the global coupled general circulation model IPSL-CM4. Taking advantage of the high-resolution QuikSCAT wind product and of the NCEP reanalysis data, a statistical model based on multiple linear regressions is built for the daily mean meridional and zonal wind at 10 m for the period 2000-2008. The large-scale 10 m wind components and sea level pressure are used as regional circulation predictors. The skill of the downscaling method is assessed by comparing with the surface wind derived from the ERS satellite measurements, with in situ wind observations collected by ICOADS and through cross-validation. It is then applied to the outputs of the IPSL-CM4 model over stabilized periods of the pre-industrial, 2 x CO{sub 2} and 4 x CO{sub 2} IPCC climate scenarios. The results indicate that surface along-shore winds off central Chile (off central Peru) experience a significant intensification (weakening) during Austral winter (summer) in warmer climates. This is associated with a general decrease in intra-seasonal variability. (orig.)

  17. Los impactos ambientales de la minería del cobre durante el Momento de Swansea en el siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Morrisey

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza los impactos ambientales de la minería de cobre del siglo XIX durante el "Momento de Swansea", la diáspora industrial global centrada en la tecnología de fundición de Gales y el capital británico, entre finales de 1820 y la década de 1870. Basándose en la perspectiva de la historia ambiental, ejemplos provenientes desde Chile, Cuba y Australia, y la historiografía reciente, se plantean preguntas sobre los cambios ecológicos, sociales y culturales en los paisajes mineros y de más allá, a nivel local, regional y mundial.  Se aboga por la necesidad de considerar las interconexiones de los cambios ambientales materiales y mentales en la evaluación de la amplia gama de las relaciones hombre-naturaleza

  18. Publicaciones culturales de resistencia durante la dictadura: estudio de tres casos de representación visual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Francisca González Valenzuela

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo aborda la resistencia cultural desarrollada durante el período dictatorial en Chile (1973-1989, desde la mirada de tres publicaciones que formaron parte de las redes de expresión artística erigidas al margen del discurso oficial: Palabra Escrita, La Bicicleta y La Castaña. Mediante la revisión de la experiencia productiva de estos medios, se propone ejemplificar las variantes de una disyuntiva estética que definió formas antagónicas de representar la escena cultural post golpe; las cuales encuentran su origen tanto en la influencia de los relatos sociales colindantes a sus espacios de circulación, como en el acceso a determinados medios de producción y manejo técnico.

  19. Variación temporal de la población de la almeja Darina solenoides y del mejillón Mytilus Edulis Platensis, y su relación con la alimentación del ostrero austral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Javier Gallardo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El presente trabajo de investigación se ha planteado en el marco de una beca para alumnos avanzados de la UNPA, Unidad Académica Río Gallegos. Tiene como objetivo analizar las variaciones temporales de la población del mejillón Mytilus edulis platensis y de la almeja Darina solenoides y se inserta en un Proyecto de Investigación (29A/227 dirigido por Dra. Z. Lizarralde que tiene como objeto estudiar la ecología trófica del Ostrero Austral (Haematopus leucopodus en el estuario del río Gallegos (Santa Cruz. Durante el 2010 se efectuaron muestreos mensuales (abril a diciembre en un banco de mejillones y otro de almejas, con el objeto de analizar la variación temporal de la densidad y biomasa, y la estructura de tallas poblacional. Se analizó la granulometría y porcentaje de materia orgánica de los sedimentos. El sedimento del banco de mejillones se encuentra constituido en su mayoría por la fracción correspondiente a los gránulos; en el banco de almejas por arenas muy finas (43% y finas (39%. En ambos casos la materia orgánica no supera el 3 %. La densidad de mejillones alcanzó un valor máximo de 2255 individuos/m2 en abril y un mínimo de 497 en noviembre. La biomasa máxima se encontró en abril (110 g/m 2. La densidad de Darina solenoides alcanzó un valor máximo de 565 en junio y un mínimo de 282 individuos/m2 en el mes de octubre. La biomasa máxima ocurrió en diciembre (132 g/m2. No se detectó el período de reclutamiento de nuevos individuos en los bancos de las especies estudiadas.

  20. Utilisation des espèces sauvages australiennes Gossypium sturtianum J.H. Willis et G. australe F. Muell. pour l'amélioration du cotonnier cultivé G. hirsutum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahoton, L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of the Wild Australian Species Gossypium sturtianum J. H. Willis and G. australe F. Muell to Improve G. hirsutum L. Huit variétés de niébé améliorées et une locale (témoin ont été testées en champ pendant trois ans en vue d'évaluer leur performance à produire à la fois des graines et du fourrage. Les résultats obtenus montrent que les taux de germination et de croissance étaient élevés (80% pour toutes les variétés étudiées. Les moyennes de rendement étaient respectivement de 1262 à 3598 kg/ha pour la production de fourrage sec et de 528 à 1149 kg/ha pour la production de graines. Les variétés IAR 4/48/15-1, IAR 72 et TVU 12349 ont produit la plus grande quantité de feuilles vertes (&gt; 50% au stade de la récolte de graines durant la saison sèche tandis que les variétés IAR 4/48/15-1, IAR 7/180-4-5 et TVU 12349 ont produit le plus grand nombre de gousses par plant. Le poids de 100 graines le plus élevé a été produit par la variété IT89KD-288 et la variété témoin (Kananado. Le pourcentage moyen de la matière protéique variait de 15,2 à 21,6%.Une faible corrélation a été observée entre les rendements en graines, les rendements en fourrage et le rapport gousses/plant. Pour l'augmentation du revenu des fermiers, les variétés TVU 12349, IT89KD-288, IAR 7/180-4-12 et IAR 4/48/15-1 s'avèrent les plus performantes pour ces paramètres étudiés et sont à recommander dans un système de production intégré.

  1. Identifying role of subtropical southeast Pacific SST anomalies on precipitation dynamics in Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, D.; Garreaud, R.

    2014-12-01

    Central Chile (CC, western South America coasts, 28°S- 38°S) is the heartland of Chile with the highest population and important economic activities. The region is characterized by semiarid Mediterranean climate with a marked precipitation gradient along the coast from north to south, mostly due to the positioning of the South Pacific Subtropical Anticyclone and the midlatitude westerlies belt. Although there are several diagnostic studies that focus on the impact of tropical Pacific SST on CC precipitation variability via atmospheric teleconnections, less attention has been placed on impacts of subtropical southeast (SE) Pacific SST on precipitation. The later region is immediately adjacent to CC and it interferes with the overpassing atmospheric systems. In particular we want to assess the impact of a consistent cooling over the SE Pacific during the last 30 years. This study is being tackled by a combination of observational and reanalysis datasets together with numerical simulations. Observational dataset includes gridded dataset of CRU, TRMM and GPCP. Moreover, Reynolds SST data V2 based on AVHRR infrared satellite SST data is used for analyzing spatial and temporal changes in SST. Current modelling experiment includes a control simulation, used as reference, and sensitivity simulation that involves perturbations to SST over subtropical SE Pacific for a normal year austral winter (2001) season. A number of simulations with different initial conditions have been carried out by employing ICTP-RegCM4. The domain for simulations was centered at 82oW and 32oW with 288x288 grid cells on 20 km spatial resolution. Preliminary results indicate that the response of precipitation in CC to SST anomalies in the subtropical SE Pacific exhibits more or less linear behavior. In the colder SST experiments, drier conditions dominate over CC, which is possibly related with the intensification of South Pacific Subtropical Anticyclone (SPSA) or a reduction in the available

  2. Saxitoxins and okadaic acid group: accumulation and distribution in invertebrate marine vectors from Southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Carlos; Pérez, Francisco; Contreras, Cristóbal; Figueroa, Diego; Barriga, Andrés; López-Rivera, Américo; Araneda, Oscar F; Contreras, Héctor R

    2015-01-01

    Harmful algae blooms (HABs) are the main source of marine toxins in the aquatic environment surrounding the austral fjords in Chile. Huichas Island (Aysén) has an history of HABs spanning more than 30 years, but there is limited investigation of the bioaccumulation of marine toxins in the bivalves and gastropods from the Region of Aysén. In this study, bivalves (Mytilus chilenses, Choromytilus chorus, Aulacomya ater, Gari solida, Tagelus dombeii and Venus antiqua) and carnivorous gastropods (Argobuccinum ranelliformes and Concholepas concholepas) were collected from 28 sites. Researchers analysed the accumulation of STX-group toxins using a LC with a derivatisation post column (LC-PCOX), while lipophilic toxins (OA-group, azapiracids, pectenotoxins and yessotoxins) were analysed using LC-MS/MS with electrospray ionisation (+/-) in visceral (hepatopancreas) and non-visceral tissues (mantle, adductor muscle, gills and foot). Levels of STX-group and OA-group toxins varied among individuals from the same site. Among all tissue samples, the highest concentrations of STX-group toxins were noted in the hepatopancreas in V. antiqua (95 ± 0.1 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1)), T. dombeii (148 ± 1.4 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1)) and G. solida (3232 ± 5.2 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1); p concholepas (81 ± 0.7 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1)) and T. dombeii (114 ± 1.2 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1)). The highest variability of toxins was detected in G. solida, where high levels of carbamate derivatives were identified (GTXs, neoSTX and STX). In addition to the detected hydrophilic toxins, OA-group toxins were detected (OA and DTX-1) with an average ratio of ≈1:1. The highest levels of OA-group toxins were in the foot of C. concholepas, with levels of 400.3 ± 3.6 μg OA eq kg(-1) (p mantle > adductor muscle for the STX-group toxins and foot > digestive gland for the OA-group toxins. These results gave a better understanding of the variability and compartmentalisation of STX-group and OA-group toxins in different

  3. Análisis y terapia del comprtamiento en Chile: origenes, estado actual y proyectos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo E. Vera-Villarroel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo realiza una revisión sobre los orígenes, estado actual y proyecciones del análisis del comportamiento y sus derivaciones en Chile. Su aplicación y entrenamiento sistemático se remonta a la parte final de la década de los sesenta, cuando Sergio Yulis introduce la terapia conductual en los cursos de psicoterapia. Durante los primeros años se realizan variadas aplicaciones tanto en área básica como aplicada. Durante el año 1973 muchos docentes deben abandonar el país, produciéndose un retroceso en el avance de la disciplina. Actualmente la orientación es considerada como una de las escuelas fundamentales en la formación de los futuros psicólogos y otros profesionales de la salud aun cuando no se cuente con la mayor preferencia entre la comunidad psicológica chilena. No existe ni en la formación ni en el país en la actualidad la fuerte presencia del conductismo que existió a finales de los setentaEl presente artículo realiza una revisión sobre los orígenes, estado actual y proyecciones del análisis del comportamiento y sus derivaciones en Chile. Su aplicación y entrenamiento sistemático se remonta a la parte final de la década de los sesenta, cuando Sergio Yulis introduce la terapia conductual en los cursos de psicoterapia. Durante los primeros años se realizan variadas aplicaciones tanto en área básica como aplicada. Durante el año 1973 muchos docentes deben abandonar el país, produciéndose un retroceso en el avance de la disciplina. Actualmente la orientación es considerada como una de las escuelas fundamentales en la formación de los futuros psicólogos y otros profesionales de la salud aun cuando no se cuente con la mayor preferencia entre la comunidad psicológica chilena. No existe ni en la formación ni en el país en la actualidad la fuerte presencia del conductismo que existió a finales de los setenta

  4. Análisis de necesidades tecnoeducativas: estado del arte de las TIC en el medio educativo de la macro región sur-austral

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Levicoy, Danilo; Inay, Ignacio; Olivares, Abraham

    2010-01-01

    El trabajo que se presenta corresponde a un análisis comparativo, respecto de la inserción de las TIC en el proceso de formación en la macro región sur-austral chilena, el estudio se orienta bajo un análisis de carácter cualitativo en el que se verifican aspectos tales como infraestructura, capacitación de profesores, aplicaciones en matemáticas, entre otros. Los resultados muestran que la inserción de las TIC en el medio educativo de la región se ha incrementado levemente, sin embargo, aú...

  5. África Austral: Los minerales como recurso estratégico para los intereses de Estados Unidos y China, período 2000-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Herreros Achury, Nuria Natalia

    2016-01-01

    La región de África Austral emerge como un nuevo escenario geopolítico complejo, en el que la lucha por la adquisición de los derechos de exploración, extracción y distribución de minerales estratégicos ha intensificado la presencia del número de actores estratégicos en esta zona. En este sentido, es interesante analizar el juego de poder que se desarrolla entre Estados Unidos y China con el fin de neutralizar la debilidad estratégica que representa la carencia de estos recursos naturales, es...

  6. Nuclear public information activities in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Quintana; R

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear plans and developing programs in developing and developed countries are facing-in a higher or lower degree- opposition from public opinion. The objectives and contents of the public education program on nuclear energy in Chile are dealt with in this paper

  7. DEZVOLTAREA CONTEMPORANĂ A TURISMULUI DIN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Mihaela Győri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary development of the Chilean Tourism sector is analyzed mainly on thebasis of data supplied by the National Service of Tourism in Chile. Figures on inboundtourism, domestic tourism, lodging, employment, receipts, as well as the existing structurewithin the sector, were taken into consideration for the investigated period of 1999-2006.

  8. Doing Business 2014 Economy Profile : Chile

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2013-01-01

    This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Chile In a series of annual reports, Doing Business assesses regulations affecting domestic firms in 189 economies and ranks the economies in 10 areas of business regulation, such as starting a business, resolving insolvency and trading across borders. This year's report data cover regulations measured from June 2012 through M...

  9. A solar radiation database for Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Alejandra; Falvey, Mark; Rondanelli, Roberto

    2017-11-01

    Chile hosts some of the sunniest places on earth, which has led to a growing solar energy industry in recent years. However, the lack of high resolution measurements of solar irradiance becomes a critical obstacle for both financing and design of solar installations. Besides the Atacama Desert, Chile displays a large array of "solar climates" due to large latitude and altitude variations, and so provides a useful testbed for the development of solar irradiance maps. Here a new public database for surface solar irradiance over Chile is presented. This database includes hourly irradiance from 2004 to 2016 at 90 m horizontal resolution over continental Chile. Our results are based on global reanalysis data to force a radiative transfer model for clear sky solar irradiance and an empirical model based on geostationary satellite data for cloudy conditions. The results have been validated using 140 surface solar irradiance stations throughout the country. Model mean percentage error in hourly time series of global horizontal irradiance is only 0.73%, considering both clear and cloudy days. The simplicity and accuracy of the model over a wide range of solar conditions provides confidence that the model can be easily generalized to other regions of the world.

  10. Functional Labour Market Areas for Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Rowe

    2017-01-01

    Administrative areas are arbitrarily designed and do not necessarily reflect the geographical patterns of socio-economic and labour market activity. Labour market areas (LMAs) are required to analyse spatial labour market activity and provide a framework to guide spatially-explicit employment policy development. This resource describes a data source of a set of recently created labour market areas for Chile.

  11. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... viticultural area are four 1:24,000 Scale U.S.G.S. topography maps. They are titled: (1) St. Helena, CA 1960... Valley viticultural area, using landmarks and points of reference found on appropriate U.S.G.S. maps..., with a county road known locally as Chiles and Pope Valley Road; (5) Then in a southwesterly direction...

  12. Presencia de Circulifer tenellus Baker y Beet mild curly top virus en maleza durante el invierno en el centro norte de México Circulifer tenellus Baker and Beet mild curly top virus presence in weeds during the winter in north-central Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo Velásquez-Valle; Luis Roberto Reveles-Torres; Mario Domingo Amador-Ramírez; María Mercedes Medina-Aguilar; Guillermo Medina-García

    2012-01-01

    Una de las enfermedades más importantes del chile para secado en el norte centro de México es la denominada amarillamientos del chile. Existe poca información acerca de la interacción entre el vector (Circulifer tenellus Baker), el Beet mild curly top virus y la maleza durante el invierno en esta región, consecuentemente el objetivo del trabajo fue identificar maleza de invierno que sirve como refugio para el vector y hospedero del virus en esta región. Entre enero y marzo de 2011 se muestrea...

  13. Educación pública, autonomía universitaria y cambio político: notas para el análisis del movimiento universitario en chile, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    José Molina Bravo

    2013-01-01

    El trabajo propone tópicos de análisis e inter - pretación de las movilizaciones estudiantiles desarrolladas en Chile durante el año 2011, las que reposicionaron en el centro del debate polí - tico nacional, el valor y necesidad de fortalecer la Educación Pública, cuestionando las políticas y reformas neoliberales operadas desde 1981 y profundizadas durante los gobiernos demo - cráticos del período 1990-2010. Analiza desde la perspectiva de la historia de la educación, el rol protagónico de l...

  14. Sistema de salud de Chile The health system of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Becerril-Montekio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Chile, incluyendo su estructura, financiamiento, beneficiarios y recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone. Este sistema está compuesto por dos sectores, público y privado. El sector público está formado por todos los organismos que constituyen el Sistema Nacional de Servicios de Salud y cubre aproximadamente a 70% de la población, incluyendo a los pobres del campo y las ciudades, la clase media baja y los jubilados, así como los profesionales y técnicos. El sector privado cubre aproximadamente a 17.5% de la población perteneciente a los grupos sociales de mayores ingresos. Un pequeño sector de la población, perteneciente a la clase alta, realiza pagos directos de bolsillo a proveedores privados de servicios de atención a la salud. Alrededor de 10% de la población está cubierta por otras agencias públicas, fundamentalmente los Servicios de Salud de las Fuerzas Armadas. Recientemente el sistema se reformó creando el Régimen General de Garantías en Salud, que establece un Sistema Universal con Garantías Explícitas que se tradujo, en 2005, en el Plan de Acceso Universal con Garantías Explícitas (AUGE, que garantiza el acceso oportuno a servicios de calidad para 56 problemas de salud, incluyendo cáncer en niños, cáncer de mama, trastornos isquémicos del corazón, VIH/SIDA y diabetes.This paper describes the Chilean health system, including its structure, financing, beneficiaries, and its physical, material and human resources. This system has two sectors, public and private. The public sector comprises all the organisms that constitute the National System of Health Services, which covers 70% of the population, including the rural and urban poor, the low middle-class, the retired, and the self-employed professionals and technicians.The private sector covers 17.5% of the population, mostly the upper middle-class and the high-income population. A small

  15. Autoconstrucción utilizando tecnologías socialmente apropiadas, en Chile

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    Serrano, Pedro

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available CETAL es una organización no gubernamental que labora en el campo de las tecnologías socialmente apropiadas, uno de sus principales objetivos es aportar a la construcción de un modelo de desarrollo alternativo consistente con las necesidades de desarrollo de los países latinoamericanos y de otros países del Tercer Mundo. Este trabajo corresponde a un programa de autoconstrucción de soluciones de vivienda durante el período 1985-1986, en el puerto de San Antonio, Chile, donde la mayoría de las casas fueron destruidas por el terremoto de marzo de 1985. Presentamos, en este trabajo, nuestra experiencia en lo social y lo tecnológico, basada en la activa participación de todas las familias en el diseño y la construcción de soluciones de vivienda.

  16. EI ícono noticioso de Chile. Pinochet frente a los medios

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    Juan Jacobo Velasco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En Chile Pinochet es el ícono noticioso más importante de los 30 años últimos, fue la principal figura mediática durante los 17 años de régimen autoritario y en los 14 años de democracia. Los medios de comunicación sobrevivieron en el régimen militar por su adscripción al gobierno y al tirano, convirtiéndose en voceros no oficiales. Para los medios de comunicación internacionales el "dictador" para la prensa chilena el "general en retiro". Los crímenes de lesa humanidad y los atracos a los dineros del Estado y la corrupción en su mandato han hecho que su nombre persista en los medios.

  17. Liquidity premium in emerging markets during the international credit financial crisis: the Mexico and Chile cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Valencia Herrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El factor de descuento estocástico tiene una prima de riesgo en forma persistente para los activos más negociados en los años de la crisis crediticia financiera internacional 2007- 2008, efecto que persiste durante 2009 en México y Chile. Este efecto no es persistente en el período 2010-2012, cuando es solo estadísticamente observable en algunos años, pero desaparece en otros. Derechos Reservados©2015 Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Contaduría y Administración. Este es un artículo de acceso abierto distribuido bajo los términos de la Licencia Creative Commons CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

  18. An analysis of health progress in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, E; Kaempffer, A M

    1983-01-01

    Chile has been no exception to the Latin American trend of declining general mortality, i.e., over the past 20 years (between 1961-81) general mortality in Chile fell by some 47%. A number of circumstances makes Chile a suitable place for studying the factors leading to these favorable developments. National information is available, including reasonably reliable data on the magnitude of health problems, the risks of dying, and the collection of conditioning factors affecting health. Adjusting for age and sex, overall mortality in Chile fell by 20% in the 1960s and 29% in the 1970s, but the most marked declines, especially in the latter decade, occurred among infants (a 60% reduction) and children 1-4 years old (a 67% reduction). Morbidity indicators suggest that overall morbidity declined little, but considerable reductions were observed in infectious disease cases preventable by immunization as well as in moderate and severe cases of malnutrition. Data on deaths attributed to specific causes show that mortality due to certain causes, including communicable diseases, malnutrition, maternal problems, and stomach cancer, dropped sharply, while mortality caused by a wide range of mostly chronic problems remained relatively stable. This implies that health efforts made to combine those latter problems failed to greatly modify the mortality involved. It is difficult to quantify the mental health status of any group unless data on reliable and representative indicators are available. In Chile, information is available only on mortality caused by problems whose genesis normally involves a change in mental health. This happens in the case of alcoholism and cirrhosis of the liver, the latter generally being caused in Chile by excess alcohol consumption. Accidents and violent acts also have been associated frequently in Chile with excess alcohol consumption and emotional disturbances. With the exception of mortality attributed to alcoholism, which increased by 0.3 deaths

  19. Transcriptome Sequencing and Differential Gene Expression Analysis of Delayed Gland Morphogenesis in Gossypium australe during Seed Germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Tao; Zhao, Liang; Lv, Yuanda; Chen, Jiedan; Hu, Yan; Zhang, Tianzhen; Zhou, Baoliang

    2013-01-01

    The genus Gossypium is a globally important crop that is used to produce textiles, oil and protein. However, gossypol, which is found in cultivated cottonseed, is toxic to humans and non-ruminant animals. Efforts have been made to breed improved cultivated cotton with lower gossypol content. The delayed gland morphogenesis trait possessed by some Australian wild cotton species may enable the widespread, direct usage of cottonseed. However, the mechanisms about the delayed gland morphogenesis are still unknown. Here, we sequenced the first Australian wild cotton species ( Gossypium australe ) and a diploid cotton species ( Gossypium arboreum ) using the Illumina Hiseq 2000 RNA-seq platform to help elucidate the mechanisms underlying gossypol synthesis and gland development. Paired-end Illumina short reads were de novo assembled into 226,184, 213,257 and 275,434 transcripts, clustering into 61,048, 47,908 and 72,985 individual clusters with N50 lengths of 1,710 bp, 1544 BP and 1,743 bp, respectively. The clustered Unigenes were searched against three public protein databases (TrEMBL, SwissProt and RefSeq) and the nucleotide and protein sequences of Gossypium raimondii using BLASTx and BLASTn. A total of 21,987, 17,209 and 25,325 Unigenes were annotated. Of these, 18,766 (85.4%), 14,552 (84.6%) and 21,374 (84.4%) Unigenes could be assigned to GO-term classifications. We identified and analyzed 13,884 differentially expressed Unigenes by clustering and functional enrichment. Terpenoid-related biosynthesis pathways showed differentially regulated expression patterns between the two cotton species. Phylogenetic analysis of the terpene synthases family was also carried out to clarify the classifications of TPSs. RNA-seq data from two distinct cotton species provide comprehensive transcriptome annotation resources and global gene expression profiles during seed germination and gland and gossypol formation. These data may be used to further elucidate various mechanisms and

  20. Identifying appropriate spatial scales for marine conservation and management using a larval dispersal model: The case of Concholepas concholepas (loco) in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavelli, Lysel; Kaplan, David Michael; Colas, François; Stotz, Wolfgang; Yannicelli, Beatriz; Lett, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Along the coast of Chile, fisheries targeting the marine gastropod Concholepas concholepas, commonly named “loco”, were highly valuable until the end of the 80s when catches declined significantly. Since the late 90s, a management plan based on territorial-user-rights areas has been implemented, with limited effect on stock recovery. More effective loco conservation and management is impeded by lack of information regarding connectivity via larval dispersal between these individually-managed areas. To develop a regional view of loco connectivity, we integrate loco life history information into a biophysical, individual-based larval dispersal model. This model is used to evaluate scales of loco connectivity and seasonality in connectivity patterns, as well as to partition the coast into largely disconnected subpopulations using a recently developed connectivity-matrix clustering algorithm. We find mean dispersal distances ranging from 170 to 220 km depending on release depth of larvae and planktonic larval duration. Settlement success levels depend quantitatively on the physical and biological processes included in the model, but connectivity patterns remain qualitatively similar. Model estimates of settlement success peak for larval release dates in late austral autumn, consistent with field results and with favorable conditions for larval coastal retention due to weak upwelling during austral autumn. Despite the relatively homogeneous Chilean coastline, distinct subpopulations with minimal connectivity between them are readily identifiable. Barriers to connectivity that are robust to changes in model configuration exist at 23°S and 29°S latitudes. These zones are all associated with important headlands and embayments of the Chilean coast.

  1. [Association between sunburn in children and ultraviolet radiation and ozone layer, during six summers (1996-2001) in Santiago, Chile (33,5 degrees S)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranibar, Ligia; Cabrera, Sergio; Honeyman, Juan

    2003-09-01

    During the recent 10 years the ozone layer has decreased while ultraviolet radiation has increased in Santiago, Chile. To determine whether the number of sunburns in children correlate with ultraviolet radiation in Santiago. During six Austral Summers (1996-2001) children below 15 years old, consulting for sunburn, were evaluated at the "Corporation for the Aid of Burned Children" (COANIQUEM) in Santiago (33.5 degrees S). The number of children with sunburns during each Summer was compared with the corresponding UV-B radiation and the ozone thickness, to establish a probable relation between a geophysical change and its consequences in skin health. The ozone layer values were obtained from the NASA WEB-page and the ultraviolet radiation was measured with a four-channel medium resolution radiometer. In each Summer there was a predominance of sunburns among boys and among ages between 6 and 10 years. During the 96-97 Austral Summer, the highest number of children with sunburns (63) was diagnosed. That Summer also had the highest mean UV-305 nm radiation with an important amount of days with ozone ozone and UV-305 nm radiation was detected. At the same time the maximal values of Erythemal Dose Rate (33 muWatt cm2), UV Index (13) and Erythemal Daily Dose (7.500 Joule m2) were observed. In Santiago, Summers with a higher number of days with low ozone protection seem to reappear every 3 years. Understanding the interaction of physical processes that control the ozone layer, may help to design better photo-protection programs for human health.

  2. HISTORIA AMBIENTAL DE LOS ARCHIPIÉLAGOS DE LA TRAPANANDA (PATAGONIA SEPTENTRIONAL, CHILE: DESAFÍOS PARA LA CONSERVACIÓN DE LA BALLENA AZUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Paillacheo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La reaparición de la ballena azul en el sur de Chile constituye un desafío para las políticas de conservación e invita a repensar la historia del mar austral y, en particular, de la costa aysenina. El paisaje social de este litoral corresponde a un ecosistema de tránsito y marginalizado entre dos regiones conocidas: Chiloé y Patagonia austral. Es ambiente extremo en el que diversas poblaciones humanas han desplegado variadas estrategias adaptativas asociadas al bosque y a los sistemas marinos, documentadas en registros arqueológicos, históricos y etnográficos, los que se procura sintetizar para la reconstrucción de una historia ambiental de la región. Los antecedentes arqueo-históricos dan cuenta de poblaciones canoeras cuya relación con la naturaleza, fundada en un uso extensivo de los recursos, facilitó su integración a los paisajes locales, caracterizados por formaciones archipielágicas. Este patrón se modifica con los procesos históricos desencadenados a partir de la anexión del territorio a los espacios económicos nacionales, situación asociada a sucesivas oleadas poblacionales que se asientan en el litoral de Aysén, modificando las estrategias adaptativas tradicionales. Con la llegada de estas poblaciones se instaura un modelo intensivo y depredador en un paisaje intrínsecamente lábil y, por tanto, agotable. La posibilidad de constituir esta historia en un referente para un adecuado resguardo del área, y, en especial de la ballena azul, especie emblemática cuya presencia se detecta a partir de 2003, es el desafío a que aquí se alude.

  3. Estudiantes conectados y movilizados: El uso de Facebook en las protestas estudiantiles en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Cabalín Quijada

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Considerando la relación entre los nuevos medios digitales y la acción política de los jóvenes, el objetivo de este artículo es describir el uso de Facebook durante el movimiento estudiantil chileno de 2011, a través de un análisis de contenido y textual de la página de Facebook de la Federación de Estudiantes de la Universidad de Chile (FECH. En 2011, Chile experimentó una serie de movilizaciones, quizás las más importantes de su historia reciente, donde los jóvenes fueron los protagonistas de la discusión sobre la educación. Durante estas manifestaciones, Facebook fue una de las redes sociales en Internet más utilizadas por las organizaciones participantes. En el caso de la FECH, esta agrupación estudiantil usó Facebook principalmente para convocar a las acciones de protestas, para resaltar los logros del movimiento y para señalar quiénes eran sus adversarios. Sin embargo, la mayor parte del contenido publicado fue generado por los medios de comunicación tradicionales, demostrando que en el nivel comunicacional también se entrelazan las estrategias usuales de los movimientos sociales con las nuevas prácticas más innovadoras. Por lo tanto, se rechaza la visión del determinismo tecnológico, porque no da cuenta de los fenómenos complejos que caracterizan el desarrollo de los movimientos estudiantiles y juveniles.

  4. ERCP during pregnancy CPRE durante el embarazo

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    Jesús García-Cano

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: ERCP during pregnancy is always challenging for the entire team performing the endoscopic intervention. In this study techniques and different interventional aspects used at several centres about the clinical experience on ERCP in pregnant women are analyzed. Patients and methods: the practice on ERCP in pregnant women in six centers during a period of ten years is reported. Results: eleven patients were included in the study. Mean age was 30.6 years. Indication for ERCP was always symptomatic common bile duct stone (CBDS disease. Before the procedure abdominal ultrasound was performed at all times and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in four occasions. Conscious sedation by means of midazolam and fentanyl or meperidine was applied. Sphincterotomes and guidewires were used for bilary cannulation. Sometimes, rapid exchange platforms with short-length guidewires controlled by the same endoscopist were employed. Biliary cannulation was confirmed in 9 occasions by bile aspiration. In five procedures, a mean of 30 seconds of fluoroscopy was used, both to verify cannulation and to corroborate complete CBDS clearance. These patients had the pelvic zone protected with a lead shield and radiation dose was measured. Ten biliary sphincterotomies were performed followed by CBDS extraction. Two plastic stents were inserted. Relief of biliary obstruction was attained in all circumstances. Only one patient had hyperamylasemia after ERCP. All pregnant women had healthy foetuses with normal deliveries. Conclusions: with experience, ERCP appears to be a safe technique during pregnancy. With simple measures fluoroscopic time can be diminished or even abolished. It seems that ERCP during pregnancy is underused in our working areas, although it has shown to be a useful technique for relieving biliary obstruction.Antecedentes y objetivos: la CPRE realizada durante el embarazo constituye siempre un reto para todo el equipo que participa

  5. INDIGENOUS MOBILIZATIONS AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTESTS IN THE SALAR DE ATACAMA (NORTHERN CHILE

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    Paola Bolados García

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Después del retorno a la democracia en Chile -a fines del siglo pasado-, se inicia un proceso de reconocimiento formal de los pueblos originarios a través de una política indígena y multicultural. No obstante, esta coincidió con el avance y la consolidación del modelo neoliberal impuesto durante el régimen militar a mediados de la década de 1970, el cual continuó privatizando recursos naturales concentrados en territorios indígenas. En este trabajo mostramos como este neoliberalismo multicultural desplegado en un contexto de nuevas privatizaciones, fue contestado y resistido por las poblaciones indígenas atacameñas en el norte de Chile a mediados de la primera década del nuevo siglo, poniendo en crisis las relaciones con el estado y las empresas -principalmente mineras y turísticas-, presentes en su territorio. Nos centramos en las luchas emprendidas por las comunidades atacameñas a mediados del 2000 y sus intentos por recuperar los recursos naturales y culturales mercantilizados bajo un discurso de derechos indígenas y ambientales propagado por los gobiernos socialistas de Ricardo Lagos (2000-2006 y Michelle Bachelet (2006-2010.

  6. LA COLECTIVIDAD BRITÁNICA EN VALPARAÍSO DURANTE LA PRIMERA MITAD DEL SIGLO XX

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    BALDOMERO ESTRADA TURRA

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo analizamos la importancia de la colectividad británica en el desarrollo económico de Valparaíso (Chile, pese a su limitada presencia, durante la primera mitad del siglo XX. Se hace notar el predominio de la colectividad el comercio internacional como también en la actividad industrial especialmente en aquellas que poseían un mayor desarrollo tecnológico. La disminución de la importancia económica y también demográfica de la colectividad británica en Valparaíso, a partir de la década de 1920, se relaciona directamente con la perdida de influencia británica, en nuestro Continente, luego de la Primera Guerra MundialIn this work we analyze the importance of the british immigrants in the economic development of Valparaiso during the first half of twenty century. We highlight their predominance in the international trade and in the industrial activity especially those that reveal a high technological development. The economic and demographic decline of the british immigrants from 1920 is in close relation with the lost of the british influence in Latin America after the First World War

  7. Contribución al estudio del género Rhynchospora (Cyperaceae V. Sección Longirostres en América Austral

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    Encarnación R. Guaglianone

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available La sección Longirostres del género Rhynchospora subgénero Haplostylis (Cyperaceae, comprende 19 especies, la mayoría extendidas en América tropical y templada, 2 especies cosmopolitas y otra, R. hookeri, está restringida a Malasia, India y Africa. Rhynchospora careyana, R. corniculata, R. inundata y R. macrostachya habitan en América del Norte y las Antillas. De las 13 especies que se encuentran en América austral, se describen en este trabajo, 10 especies, 2 subespecies y 5 variedades. Estos taxones son: R. corymbosa, cosmopolita, y sus variedades: corymbosa, bonariensis y chacoensis; se proponen dos nuevas combinaciones, y stat. nov.: R. corymbosa var. angustirostris (Barros Guagl. y R. corymbosa var. legrandii (Kük. ex Barros Guagl. Se tratan también R. amazonica y su subsp. guianensis, R. asperula (previamente subordinada a R. corymbosa; R. gigantea, R. scutellata, R. stenocarpa, R. triflora, también cosmopolita y R. trispicata. Se describe una nueva especie, R. latibracteata Guagl., de Brasil austral y Uruguay, y se propone un nuevo nombre: R. pedersenii Guagl. Todos los taxones son descriptos y la mayoría ilustrados. Se proveen claves para su identificación y mapas de distribución geográfica. R. sampaioana, se excluye de la sección Longirostres

  8. Experimental evidence of a stratospheric circulation influence on mesospheric temperatures and ice-particles during the 2010-2011 austral summer at 69°S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Ray J.; Höffner, Josef; Lübken, Franz-Josef; Viehl, Timo P.; Kaifler, Bernd; Klekociuk, Andrew R.

    2012-11-01

    A significant inter-annual decrease in polar mesosphere ice-particles, i.e., PMSE and PMC, during 2010-2011 is compared with earlier austral summers, in particular with 2009-2010. The first IAP iron lidar temperature measurement at Davis (68.6°S), Antarctica from 14 December 2010 are used to assess thermal effects of atmospheric processes on the mesopause region. We report low average temperatures of ˜125 K measured by Fe-lidar near 90 km when the PMSE season commenced, whereas temperatures were warmer in 2010-2011 compared to 2009-2010 at altitudes where PMSE normally occur (around 86 km). Summer mesopause region temperature anomalies are derived using Aura MLS records. We reveal that the late break-down of the Antarctic stratospheric polar vortex on 5 January 2010, coupled with enhanced early summer mesospheric zonal wind field, provide a barrier to upward propagation of atmospheric gravity waves to be the main mechanism for the observed warm early summer season below the mesopause. The mesopause in 2010-2011 was unusually high and cold. We conclude that the timing of the annual break-down of the southern polar stratospheric vortex as manifest in zonal winds at 30 hPa impacts mesosphere temperature and ice-particle formation early in the austral summer.

  9. Multiproxy approach revealing climate and cultural changes during the last 26kyrs in south-central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarzua, Ana M.; Jarpa, Leonora; Martel, Alejandra; Vega, Rodrigo; Pino, Mario

    2010-05-01

    Holocene environments provide a better basis for understanding and managing the present landscape in Araucanian Region. Almost the absence of native forests in the area makes urgent strategies for the recovery and rehabilitation of a relict ecosystem that today represents their regional analog only in the tops of the Chilean Coastal Range. Acknowledgments: Universidad Austral de Chile (DID 2007-08, FORECOS P04-065-F), BSN-34567-04.

  10. Araucaria araucana and the Austral parakeet: pre-dispersal seed predation on a masting species El pehuén y la cachaña: depredación predispersión de una especie "masting"

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    JOHN D SHEPHERD

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Pre-dispersal seed predation by Austral parakeets, Enicognathus ferrugineus, on pehuén, Araucaria araucana, was studied to assess the relationship between predation and seed production. We collected falling seeds in four araucaria forests of southwestern Neuquén Province, Argentina during four years that included both mast and intermast years. Predation rates were negatively correlated with seed production. When seed production was high, predation rates ranged from 0.6 to 3.3 %; when it was low, predation rates ranged from 13.0 to 20.6 %. Years differed in the pattern of monthly seed fall with peak seed fall in March 2002 and April 2003. Predation rates were lower and more uniform in the year of higher seed production, but did not differ between sites. In an intermast year, predation rates increased during the season, reaching their highest rates after peak seed fall. Parakeets handled seeds differently in mast and intermast years, dropping fewer slightly-damaged seeds when production was low. We discuss these results in the context of the predator satiation hypothesis.Se estudió la depredación predispersión de semillas del Pehuén, Araucaria araucana, por la cachaña, Enicognathus ferrugineus, para evaluar la relación entre depredación y producción de semillas. Durante cuatro años, incluyendo años de alta ("semillazón" y baja producción de semillas, se colectaron semillas caídas de los árboles en bosques del sudoeste de la Provincia del Neuquén, Argentina. Se detectó una correlación negativa entre depredación y producción de semillas. En los años de alta y baja producción de semillas, las tasas de depredación variaron entre 0,6 y 3,3 % y entre 13,0 y 20,6 %, respectivamente. Entre años existe una variación en el patrón temporal de caída de semillas, con picos de caída en marzo y abril para 2002 y 2003, respectivamente. La tasa de depredación de semillas fue más baja y uniforme en el año de alta producción de conos

  11. LAS ANDANZAS DE JUAN RAFAEL ALLENDE POR LA CIUDAD DE LOS ‘PALACIOS MARMÓREOS’ Y LAS CAZUELAS DELEITOSAS. SANTIAGO DE CHILE, 1880-1910

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    Daniel Palma Alvarado

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN. El artículo presenta un capítulo de la historia social y urbana de Santiago de Chile, en un período durante el cual la ciudad asistió a profundos cambios que modificaron el viejo trazado colonial y las relaciones sociales entre sus habitantes. Por medio de la aguda pluma del escritor satírico Juan Rafael Allende, descubrimos las insuficiencias del proceso de urbanización, los nuevos personajes que se dieron cita en las calles y plazas, y las variadas diversiones que animaban la vida cotidiana de los capitalinos. Palabras clave: Santiago de Chile, Juan Rafael Allende, prensa satírica, historia urbana ABSTRACT. This article deals with a chapter of the social and urban history of Santiago de Chile, throughout a period in which the city was subject of deep changes that modified its colonial setting and long lasting social relationships. Following the sharpness of the satiric writer Juan Rafael Allende, we look to the insuficiencies of the urbanizing process, the new characters ocupying the city’s squares and streets, as well as the multiple entertainments animating the everyday life of its inhabitants. Key words: Santiago de Chile, Juan Rafael Allende, satiric press, urban history

  12. Characteristics of focal mechanisms in Chile subduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiaoshan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We use the Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT solution of the earthquakes occurred in Chile subduction to analyze the characteristics of focal mechanisms. We define the angle between P, B, and T axes of focal mechanisms and three stress axes of tectonic stress field as the consistency parameter, to research the dynamic changes of focal mechanism pattern in earthquake preparation area before the 2010 Maule, Chile earthquake. The result shows that the consistency parameter decreases before the earthquake, and the area of the lower consistent parameter visually coincides with the distribution of aftershocks. This phenomenon is similar to the Load-Unload Response Ratio (LURR decreases prior to the occurrence of macro-fracture happened in the acoustic emission experiments involving large rock specimens under tri-axial stress.

  13. [Mental disorders among immigrants in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Graciela; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Castro, Ariel; Guajardo, Viviana; Torres, Pamela; Díaz, Berta

    2011-10-01

    Chile is receiving immigrant populations coming from other Latin-American countries. To determine the prevalence of Common Mental Disorders (CMD) among immigrants who live in Independencia, a quarter in Santiago, Chile. A cross sectional study was carried out in the primary health care clinic and in the state-funded school of Independencia. A representative sample of 282 adults and 341 children were interviewed. Mental disorders were diagnosed using CIS-R and MINI structured interviews. The interviewed immigrants came mostly from Peru. The prevalence of mental disorders in the adult population was 17.8% and among children, it was 29.3%. The adult immigrants have a lower prevalence of mental disorders than the Chilean population but it increases among children. Barriers of access to health services, that should be solved, were detected.

  14. Presencia de los géneros invasores Mus y Rattus en áreas naturales de Chile: un riesgo ambiental y epidemiológico Presence of the invasive genera Mus and Rattus in natural areas in Chile: an environmental and epidemiological risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL LOBOS

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Realizamos un estudio que incluyó muestreos y prospecciones en un gradiente latitudinal en Chile continental para determinar la presencia y ausencia de roedores murinos introducidos, particularmente Mus musculus, Rattus rattus y R. norvegicus en áreas naturales o silvestres a lo largo de Chile. Además se analizó el riesgo epidemiológico que representan estas especies en el marco de un estudio sobre el virus Hanta. Los resultados mostraron que M. musculus rara vez es recolectado en áreas naturales. Sin embargo, las dos especies de Rattus han invadido ampliamente la región mediterránea chilena. Las regiones desérticas, los ambientes de alturas y las regiones australes, serían biótopos restringidos para estos invasores. Desde una perspectiva epidemiológica, la presencia del virus Hanta (variedades Andes y Seoul en Rattus es un elemento que demuestra que las especies invasoras además de generar impactos ecológicos, pueden ocasionar problemas económicos y de salud pública. La fragilidad de los ecosistemas mediterráneos determina que la presencia de especies exóticas constituya un elemento de alto riesgo para la conservación del patrimonio natural del país. Probablemente, la conservación de áreas naturales constituye la mejor herramienta para enfrentar a estas especies exóticasWe conducted a latitudinal study in natural areas of continental Chile to evaluate the occurrence of the introduced murine rodents Mus musculus, Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus. Furthermore, we evaluated the epidemiological risk of these species as part of an ongoing study on Hantavirus. The results allowed us to conclude that M. musculus occurs rarely in natural environments. However, the two species of Rattus have widely invaded the mediterranean region of Chile. Desert, altitudinal and high latitude regions seem to be restricted areas for these invasive rodents. From an epidemiological perspective, the occurrence of Hantavirus in Rattus (Andes and Seoul

  15. Molecular evidence for long distance dispersal across the Southern Hemisphere in the Ganoderma applanatum-australe species complex (Basidiomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncalvo, Jean-Marc; Buchanan, Peter K

    2008-04-01

    We examined phylogeographic relationships in the cosmopolitan polypore fungus Ganoderma applanatum and allies, and conservatively infer a possible age of origin for these fungi. Results indicate that it is very unlikely that members of this species complex diversified before the break-up of Gondwana from Laurasia ca 120M years ago, and also before the final separation of the Gondwanan landmasses from each other that was achieved about 66M years ago. An earliest possible age of origin of 30M years was estimated from nucleotide substitution rates in the 18S rDNA gene. Phylogenetic reconstruction of a worldwide sampling of ITS rDNA sequences reveals at least eight distinct clades that are strongly correlated with the geographic origin of the strains, and also correspond to mating groups. These include one Southern Hemisphere clade, one Southern Hemisphere-Eastern Asia clade, two temperate Northern Hemisphere clades, three Asian clades, and one neotropical clade. Geographically distant collections from the Southern Hemisphere shared identical ITS haplotypes, and an ITS recombinant was noted. Nested clade analysis of a parsimony network among isolates of the Southern Hemisphere clade indicated restricted gene flow with isolation-by-distance among the New Zealand, Australia-Tasmania, Chile-Argentine, and South Africa populations, suggesting episodic events of long-distance dispersal within the Southern Hemisphere. This study indicates that dispersal bias plays a more important role than generally admitted to explain the Southern Hemisphere distribution of many taxa, at least for saprobic fungi.

  16. Studies to Control Endemic Typhoid Fever in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    1985. 2. Corey G, Ferreccio C, Garcia J, Maldonado A, Schenone H. Flores B. (1983) Estudio epidemiologico en manipuladores de alimentos en servicio de ... salud San Felipe - Los Andes. Boletin del instituto de salud publica, 24+95-99. 3. Diaz M, Munoz V, Durruty J, Osorio M, Arriagada M, Reyes H, Lynch MB...Chile. 111:609-615. 11. Ministerio de Salud , Republica de Chile. (1982) Informe de gobierno de Chile. Proceedings of the XXI Conference sanitaria

  17. DETERMINANTES DEL PRECIO DE VIVIENDAS EN LA REGIÓN METROPOLITANA DE CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Sagner T

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza econométricamente los factores que determinaron la dinámi-ca de precios del sector residencial en la región metropolitana de Chile durante elperiodo 1990-2007. Los resultados muestran que la antigüedad y superficie son de-terminantes estadísticamente significativos en la formación del precio; el acceso aestaciones del Metro tiende a capitalizarse de forma no lineal, y tanto el ingreso delhogar como el agregado son variables económicamente significativas. La descompo-sición de precios revela que entre 68 a 71% del monto es explicado por determinantesrelacionados con los atributos de la propiedad, mientras que cerca de 68% del creci-miento observado entre 1990 y 2007 es consecuencia de determinantes macrofinan-cieros. Durante el periodo 2006-2007 la evolución de precios inmobiliarios no difierede manera significativa de la predicha por el modelo. Los resultados encontrados sonrobustos a estimaciones por tipo de vivienda y subperiodos muestrales.

  18. Chile's pipelines - who's out in the cold?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellhouse, G.

    1998-01-01

    There is a battle on in Northern Chile to supply the region with gas and electricity. Two pipelines and a transmission line are being built, but there is insufficient demand to merit the construction of all of these projects. It is widely believed that the first pipeline to be finished will be the overall winner, but the situation is not that simple. A more sensible conclusion could be the merger of the two pipeline projects, rationalising supply of gas to the region. (Author)

  19. Productividad del cultivo de chile jalapeño (Capsicum anuum L. con manejo orgánico o convencional en Calakmul, Campeche, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Morón Ríos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se compara el rendimiento productivo y econó - mico del cultivo de chile jalapeño con manejo or - gánico como alternativa al cultivo convencional que utiliza agroquímicos. Se sembraron dos par - celas con chile jalapeño variedad “Don Benito”, sin riego, manejadas de acuerdo al calendario del agricultor. Durante el ciclo agrícola, men - sualmente, se registraron todas las inversiones monetarias realizadas en agroquímicos, jornales, adición de lombricomposta y fitoinsecticidas. También, se registró la biomasa de las plantas y las dimensiones de los frutos. La producción con manejo convencional fue mayor, pero el cos - to de producción se duplicó en comparación con el cultivo orgánico, afectándose negativamente su rentabilidad.

  20. VITICULTURA Y POLÍTICA INTERNACIONAL: EL INTENTO DE REINCORPORAR A MENDOZA Y SAN JUAN A CHILE (1820-1835

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO LACOSTE

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre 1830 y 1835 algunos dirigentes de Mendoza y San Juan, provincias vitivinícolas, trataron de separarse de la República Argentina y regresar a Chile, tal como en la época colonial. Durante más de dos siglos, Mendoza y San Juan fueron parte del Corregimiento de Cuyo del Reino de Chile. Esta situación cambió desde 1776 con la creación del Virreinato del Río de la Plata. Después de la Revolución de 1810, Mendoza y San Juan formaron parte de la República Argentina. Pero algunos años después de la independencia, un grupo descontento con la acción y decisiones del gobierno de Buenos Aires, inició acciones orientadas a la secesión. Este artículo investiga las razones y motivaciones socioeconómicas de este grupoBetween 1830 and 1835 some leaders of Mendoza and San Juan, wine industry oriented provinces, attempted to withdrawal from Argentina Republic, and come back to Chile such as in colonial times. During more than two centuries, Mendoza and San Juan were members of Cuyo Province in Chile's Kingdom. This situation changed since 1776 because the creation of the River Plate Viceroyalty. After Revolution of 1810, Mendoza and San Juan took part of Argentina Republic. But some years after the independence, a group discontented with de action and decision of Buenos Aires government begun the action oriented to secession. This paper explores the socioeconomic reasons and motivation of this group

  1. The Occurrence of Fog in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereceda, Pilar; Schemenauer, Robert S.

    1991-08-01

    The topography in Chile is extremely complex and many types of fog are found; both factors complicate the presentation of the data. Despite this, measurements from standard meteorological stations suggest a latitudinal maximum in fog frequency between 35° and 40°S for coastal stations. This is supported by data from inland stations in Chile and the available observations from Argentina on the Atlantic coast of South America. Along the Chilean coast the average number of days with fog ranges from 3 to 59 per year. The variation in fog frequencies is related to persistent synoptic-scale circulation patterns and to ocean currents.Specialized fog observations wore made at three remote locations in northern Chile to determine fog frequencies on the coastal mountains. The sites were in a very add region (26°-28°S) near a large-scale fog-water collection project. Fog frequencies as high as 189 days per year with another 84 days of patchy fog were reported at an altitude of 860 m. These are 3-15 times higher than at low-elevation coastal locations at similar latitudes. Clearly, observations from standard meteorological stations are not suitable for estimating higher-elevation fog frequencies.

  2. Radiological protection in interventional cardiology in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.; Leyton, F.A.; Farias, E.; Silva, A.M.; Vano, E.; Oyarzun, C.; Gamarra, J.; Ortiz, P.

    2001-01-01

    In September 2000, an expert mission was assigned to Chile, under the regional project named 'International BBS in Medical Practices Radiation Protection and Quality Assurance In Interventional Radiology' (ARCAL XLIX). The objective of the mission was to evaluate the level of radiation protection (RP) and safety in interventional cardiology ( IC ) installations. A team of local cardiologists, medical physicists and technologists was created for this purpose and during one week, several cardiology laboratories were evaluated and some basic quality controls (QC) were carried out. A basic pilot training course in radiation protection was imparted at the Hospital of the University of Chile in Santiago de Chile and some of the key objectives for a future national quality assurance programme were presented during the national congress of IC. In addition, a national survey on radiation protection aspects was circulated and its results evaluated. These activities enabled the local team to become familiar with the methodology of assessment of the level of protection and the organization of a programme, which was illustrated with the examples of similar European programmes. As result of these actions, several proposals were made to both the local authorities and the IAEA. The most important were: a) to initiate a basic QC programme, b) to organize a training in RP for cardiologists in order to formalize their accreditation, c) to improve personal occupational dosimetry, d) to initiate a programme of patient dosimetry, e) to optimize the technical and clinical protocols, f) to create a national registry of incidents with skin injuries. (author)

  3. Los asilados de las Embajadas de Europa Occidental en Chile tras el golpe militar y sus consecuencias diplomáticas: El caso de Suecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Camacho Padilla

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The asylum seekers of the embassies of western Europe in Chile after the military coup and their  diplomatic consequences: The case of SwedenGiven te expectations that western governments  had in the reforms being implemented by the  Unidad Popular, the September 1973 coup d’état  in Chile caused a great international outcry. The  violence and repression that accompanied the  military coup produced a worldwide repudiation  of the military junta. Sweden stood out most consistently among the countries that declared  their opposition to Chile during the period of the  dictatorship by continuously denouncing the  violations to human rights. In this context, Sweden’s Ambassador to Chile, Harald Edelstam, played a very important role in saving the lives of  hundreds of Chilean citizens and foreign nationals  who sought refuge from the regime’s bloody  repression. Making use of the privileges he enjoyed as a diplomat, Edelstam confronted the  military authorities to release people wrongfully  sentenced to the death penalty. As a result, he was  declared persona non grata and forced to leave  Chile. This was the beginning of a long and controversial diplomatic relationship that lasted until  the return of democracy in Chile in 1990. This  article is a first attempt at understanding how  human rights violations affected bilateral relations  between Chile and Sweden with respect to the  diplomatic efforts of Ambassador Harald Edelstam. El golpe de Estado en Chile en septiembre de  1973 causó una gran conmoción internacional  debido a las esperanzas que tenían los gobiernos  occidentales en las reformas que estaba implementando la Unidad Popular. La violencia y represión que acompañaron al golpe militar redundaron en el repudio mundial de la Junta Militar.  Entre los países que se destacaron más firmemente en su oposición a Chile durante la dictadura se  encuentra Suecia, que denunció permanentemente

  4. Utilización de modelos de simulación para estimar el riesgo de epidemias inducidas por la presencia europea durante el contacto indirecto en Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fugassa, Martín H.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El Contacto Indirecto en el archipiélago de Tierra del Fuego fue un proceso extenso iniciado probablemente con el viaje de Magallanes en 1520 y que acaba en forma difusa hacia principios del siglo XIX, con los primeros establecimientos y actividad económica permanente. Mediante un trabajo anterior, Fugassa y Guichón establecen un listado de posibles enfermedades infecciosas que habrían actuado durante este período. En el presente trabajo analizamos aquellas enfermedades infecciosas de dispersión aerógena, y utilizando un modelo de simulación generamos expectativas sobre la probable contaminación del archipiélago, con dichos microorganismos, desde los barcos que navegaron las costas fueguinas. Finalmente, mediante el uso de una ecuación sencilla y de información demográfica, ofrecemos un escenario virtual sobre la infección y endemicidad en las poblaciones humanas nativas durante el Contacto Indirecto. Este trabajo es parte de un proyecto orientado a analizar la dispersión de las enfermedades en Patagonia Austral

  5. A dinâmica política da redistribuição de renda no Chile e no Uruguai nos anos 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Florencia Antía Aguñin

    2014-01-01

    A capacidade de redistribuição de renda das políticas públicas é fundamental para enfrentar o problema da desigualdade socioeconômica que caracteriza os países da América Latina. Este estudo explica a variação no escopo e nas trajetórias percorridas pelas propostas de reformas tributária e trabalhista durante os governos de centro-esquerda no Chile e no Uruguai, nos anos 2000. Para explicar os diferentes trajetos de reforma, o estudo fornece um quadro analítico que enfatiza a importância d...

  6. LA RESPUESTA DEL ANTICICLÓN DEL PACÍFICO SUR EN LA COSTA DE CHILE FRENTE AL CAMBIO CLIMÁTICO-IMPACTOS

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Minetti

    2007-01-01

    Aprovechando la reconstrucción del índice de posición latitudinal del anticiclón del O.Pacífico Sur sobre la costa de Chile (L) durante el período 1901-2004, se analiza su comportamiento de largo plazo como variable anual o mensual en el período más precipitante del clima mediterráneo sudamericano. Existe una importante evidencia del traslado de L hacia latitudes altas desde mediados del Siglo XX al presente, que podría ser justificado con el actual proceso de calentamiento global, sin embarg...

  7. Frecuencia y tipo de actividades de laboratorio que realizan profesores/as primarios en el area de las ciencias, en Santiago de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Cofre Mardones, H.; Galaz, C.; Garcia, C.; Honores, M.; Moreno, L.; Andrade, L.; Vergara Díaz, C.

    2009-01-01

    El presente estudio tuvo como objetivos principal indagar sobre las percepciones que tienen los profesores primarios que realizan clases de ciencias en dos comunas de Santiago de Chile, sobre las actividades de laboratorio. Para ello se desarrolló un cuestionario con 13 preguntas cerradas y 32 afirmaciones de escala likert. La encuesta fue respondida por un total de 70 profesores de quinto y sexto nivel de educación primaria durante el periodo final de clases en el año 2008. Los resultados má...

  8. Two-day Planetary Wave Impact on Austral Polar Mesopause Temperatures: as Revealed by a January Diminution in PMSE above Davis, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R. J.; Klekociuk, A. R.; Murphy, D. J.; Holdsworth, D. A.

    2008-12-01

    A new characteristic of the austral summer polar mesopause as revealed by ground MST radar charged ice- aerosol echoes and satellite MLS temperature is reported, that is plausibly linked to the low-latitude easterly wind jet. Four consecutive seasons of polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE) and mesosphere temperature observations above Davis, Antarctica (geographic: 68.6°S; 78.0°N) exhibit an annual mid-January diminution in PMSE occurrence rate that is correlated with a simultaneous mesopause warming by several degrees. Interestingly, the corresponding mesosphere meridional wind field changes from equatorward to a poleward flow at these times. Although displaying some inter-annual variation in the peak onset time, the mid-January mesopause warming correlates with the peak in the line-of-sight meridional wind and temperature enhancements (both poleward and in altitude) associated with the low-latitude 2-day planetary wave (PW). Periodogram analyses of PMSE and Aura MLS temperatures show the dominance of 5- day PWs throughout the austral summer coupled with pronounced 2-day PWs evident from early January to mid-February. Zonal spectral analyses of Aura MLS temperature records reveal the high-latitude 2-day PWs have zonal wavenumber (s) with both westward (s = -2, -3) and eastward (s = 2, 3) spectral features consistent with the periodogram results. Our polar observations support the evolution of a myriad of prodigy PWs spawned from the westward 2-day PW (s = -3) activity, originating from the low-latitude easterly jet, albeit not previously linked to the reported mid-January diminution of PMSE at southern latitudes.

  9. Water or sediment? Partitioning the role of water column and sediment chemistry as drivers of macroinvertebrate communities in an austral South African stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalu, Tatenda; Wasserman, Ryan J; Tonkin, Jonathan D; Mwedzi, Tongayi; Magoro, Mandla L; Weyl, Olaf L F

    2017-12-31

    Water pollution is a critical management issue, with many rivers and streams draining urban areas being polluted by the disposal of untreated solid waste and wastewater discharge, storm water and agricultural runoff. This has implications for biodiversity, and many rivers in the developing world are now considered compromised. We investigated benthic macroinvertebrate community structure and composition in relation to physico-chemical conditions of the water column and sediments. The study was conducted in an Austral catchment subject to both urban and agricultural pollutants in two different seasons. We assessed whether sediment characteristics were more important drivers of macroinvertebrate community composition than water column characteristics. We expected clear differences in macroinvertebrate community composition and in the associated community metrics due to distinct flow conditions between the two seasons. A combination of multivariate analyses (canonical correspondence analysis (CCA)) and biological indicator analysis were used to examine these patterns. Chironomidae was the most abundant family (>60%) in the upper mainstem river and stream sites. Stream sites were positively associated with CCA axis 2, being characterised by high turbidity and lower pH, salinity, phosphate concentration, channel width and canopy cover. Canopy cover, channel width, substrate embeddedness, phosphate concentration, pH, salinity and turbidity all had a significant effect on macroinvertebrate community composition. Using CCA variation partitioning, water quality was, however, a better predictor of benthic macroinvertebrate composition than sediment chemical conditions. Furthermore, our results suggest that seasonality had little effect on structuring benthic macroinvertebrate communities in this south-eastern zone of South Africa, despite clear changes in sediment chemistry. This likely reflects the relative lack of major variability in water chemistry compared to sediment

  10. Chile: Una Vision Politica, Economica y Social (Chile: A Political, Economic, and Social View).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Hwang, Adriana

    1972-01-01

    This address seeks to explain in brief the historical background and political, economic, and social conditions leading to the democratic election of a Marxist president in Chile. A historical sketch of Chilean government from independence in 1810 is provided with a description of the situation just before Salvador Allende's election in 1969. Some…

  11. The Mass Media and Political Socialization: Chile, 1970-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Amy R.

    2005-01-01

    This project seeks to determine the effect of the mass media on political attitudes and behaviors in Chile between the years 1970 and 2000. The relationship between the media and "political socialization" is just now gaining recognition in scholarly research, and Chile offers an excellent case study. This paper traces these two variables…

  12. Critical Perspectives on Adolescent Vocational Guidance in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; McWhirter, Benedict T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the lens of critical psychology is applied to adolescent career development and vocational guidance in Chile. The authors describe and critique the status of adolescent vocational guidance in Chile, the reproduction of extant social inequities in Chilean education, and offer recommendations for enhancing vocational guidance…

  13. Chile - Institutional Design for an Effective Education Quality Assurance

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this report is to present the Government of Chile with policy options related to the institutional distribution of roles and responsibilities for effective quality assurance in education. Following the introduction, the report is structured as follows. Chapter II presents background information on the evolution of Chile's education system since 1980. This information,...

  14. Childcare in Chile. The role of ethnicity and socioeconomic inequalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cárcamo Leiva, Rodrigo Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Chile has embarked on a road that must lead to the reduction of inequality gaps for the population. A public policy called Chile Growths With You has focused on an increase in the breadth of coverage of non-maternal care through childcare centers to provide equal opportunities in early childhood and

  15. All projects related to chile | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Impact of ICTs on Local Democracy : Transparency and Citizen Participation in the Municipality of Peñalolén (Chile). Project. The municipality of Peñalolén in Santiago, Chile, is characterized by great socioeconomic diversity and strong social networks (clubs for the elderly and young people, sports clubs, labour unions, ...

  16. [A scientometric view of Revista Médica de Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauskopf, Manuel; Krauskopf, Erwin

    2008-08-01

    During the last decade Revista Médica de Chile increased its visibility, measured on citations and impact factor. To perform a scientometric analysis to assess the performance of Revista Médica de Chile. Thomson's-ISI Web of Science and Journal Citation Reports QCR) were consulted for performance indicators of Revista Médica de Chile and Latin American journals whose subject is General and Internal Medicine. We also report the h-index of the journal, which infers quality linked to the quantity of the output. According to the h-index, Revista Médica de Chile ranks 4 among the 36 journals indexed and published by Argentina, Brazil, Chile and México. The top ten articles published by Revista Médica de Chile and the institutions with the higher contribution to the journal, were identified using citations. In the Latin American region, Brazil relevantly increased its scientific output. However, Argentina, Chile and México maintain a plateau during the last decade. Revista Médica de Chile increased notoriously its performance. Its contribution to the Chilean scientific community dedicated to Medicine appears to be of central value.

  17. Hedging in derivatives markets: the experience of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Avalos; Ramon Moreno

    2013-01-01

    Prior to the onset of the 2008 financial crisis, domestic FX derivatives markets in Chile had gained depth and liquidity, boosted by the growing hedging needs of private pension funds. During the crisis, Chile suffered significantly less stress than other EMEs, within Latin America and outside. We present evidence suggesting that this was related to the liquidity and resilience of its FX derivatives markets.

  18. [Health inequality gap in inmigrant versus local children in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabieses, Baltica; Chepo, Macarena; Oyarte, Marcela; Markkula, Niina; Bustos, Patricia; Pedrero, Víctor; Delgado, Iris

    2017-12-01

    Children and young international migrants face different health challenges compa red with the local population, particularly if they live in insecure environments or adverse social conditions. This study seeks to identify gaps in health outcomes of children between immigrant and local population in Chile. This study analyses data from three sources: (i) Born in Chile: Electronic records of antenatal visits from all municipal antenatal clinics of Recoleta in 2012; (ii) Growing up in Chile: Population survey "National Socioeconomic Characterization" (CASEN) from 2013 and (iii) Getting sick in Chile: Data of all hospital discharges in 2012, provided by the department of statistics and health information (DEIS) of the Ministry of Health. (I) Born in Chile: Im migrants more frequently have psychosocial risk (62.3% vs 50.1% in Chileans) and enter later into the program (63.1% vs 33.4% enter later than 14 weeks of pregnancy). All birth outcomes were better among immigrants (e.g. caesarean sections rates: 24.2% immigrants vs % Chileans). (ii) Growing up in Chile: A higher proportion of migrant children is outside the school system and lives in multidi mensional poverty (40% immigrants vs 23.2% Chileans). (iii) Getting sick in Chile: Injuries and other external causes were more frequent cause of hospitalisation among migrants (23.6%) than the local population (16.7%) aged between 7 and 14 years. Addressing the needs of the children in Chile, regardless of their immigration status, is an ethical, legal and moral imperative.

  19. HIV ISSUES AND MAPUCHES IN CHILE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Cabieses, Báltica; Araya, Alejandra; Matsumoto, Cristina; Miner, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Chile is a country with an incipient HIV epidemic. Just as in other countries, disadvantaged groups in Chile are contributing to the increased incidence of the disease. The Mapuche indigenous population is one such group that has been affected by the spread of HIV. However, no prevention programs are tailored to the culturally specific needs of this community. In recognition of this discrepancy, an academic-community partnership was formed to develop an HIV educational module for a Mapuche community. The module was developed for use as part of an already established health-related program. The aims of the module were to identify perceptions about HIV among Mapuches and present information specific to HIV and its prevention. Focus was placed on cultural sensitivity. The module was carried out in connection with a first-aid course in an attempt to increase effectiveness of the intervention by working jointly with an established community program. Sixteen (16) Mapuches participated voluntarily and demonstrated some knowledge regarding HIV, but they lacked an overall understanding as to how it is transmitted and why prevention strategies are affective. Participants correctly identified sexual contact as a means of transmission, but when asked why, one person stated, “I just know it, I read it.” There were significant barriers to communication within the group, secondary to cultural practices related to age and gender. Major obstacles in controlling HIV are the lack of prevention strategies targeted to disadvantaged groups. The module developed for this intervention was the first effort of the Academic Community Partnership established between the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile and the Mapuche group around HIV prevention. Continued collaboration between academia and affected communities as well as incorporating HIV information into established programs are effective strategies for delivering prevention information to disadvantaged populations and for

  20. Area Handbook Series: Chile: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    Roberto. "Competencia poco libre, la concentra- ci6n de los mercados y la presencia de los grupos," Mensaje [Santiago], 28, No. 283, October 1979, 645...Autoritario Chileno: Un Estudio de Dos Casos." (Paper presented at workshop "Six Years of Military Rule in Chile," sponsored by Latin American Program...and Louis C. Faron. Native Peoples of South America. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1959. Stragier, Julio Sj. "El Mercado de la Vivienda en la Economia social

  1. EFECTOS DEL EMBARAZO ADOLESCENTE EN CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    Loyola Heufemann, AMANDA

    2014-01-01

    Los efectos del embarazo adolescente en Chile han sido poco estudiados aun cuando existe diversa literatura para el resto del mundo, en especial para países desarrollados. Este trabajo estima el efecto del embarazo adolescente sobre la asistencia o completitud de la educación secundaria, años de escolaridad y participación laboral. Usando datos de corte transversal del a˜no 2012 y un enfoque de variable instrumental a trav´es del uso de la entrega comunal de la píldora anticoncept...

  2. FORESIGHT TEST CASE CHILE: UNIACC UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Nicolás Vizcaya Carrillo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available it is true that all human activities today are capable of analysis and prospective projection, confirmed there are a number of areas of knowledge which are considered key to the development of mankind and therefore of each company in each country is to see the evolution of the relevant future. It is true that today there are hundreds of professional disciplines that are studied and are performed as day to day and that play important roles in the welfare and development of society and in particular if this trial will be analyzed in the development of techniques current looking for Chile.

  3. LA NOVELA DE LA DICTADURA EN CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    Lulo C,Mario

    2009-01-01

    Para un sector de la crítica y de la academia chilena, la gran novela de la Dictadura es una asignatura pendiente. En este artículo se problematiza este tema mediante la formulación de una hipótesis según la cual una serie de novelas aparecidas en Chile entre 1977 y 2006 cumplen con la función de narrar -desde su fragmentariedad- las causas y consecuencias del 11 de septiembre de 1973. Así, busca plantear las bases epistemológicas e históricas que posibiliten llevar a cabo una investigación d...

  4. Sobre lectura y escritura en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grínor Rojo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, research conducted in Chile on reading, reading proficiency and reading news on politics shows that negative values around 50. These data add to the forty million illiterates in Latin America, so this article rejects the death of the book and the frivolous faith in the replacement of the book by the use of information technology and communication (schools full of computers Instead, he insists on paying serious attention to the links between reason, book, and reading in the development of the individual and society

  5. Chile Successfully Halts Rise in Childhood Obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorisek, Aleksandra Sasa

    2014-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity in Latin America has become a cause for concern. The IAEA has worked closely with the Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA) at the University of Chile since 1997 to address the problem of malnutrition in the country. In Santiago, the Laboratory of Energy Metabolism and Stable Isotopes was established in 1998 with the help of the IAEA to provide an isotope ratio mass spectrometer and training in the use of stable isotope techniques to assess body composition, infant feeding practices and total daily energy expenditure

  6. La atencion preescolar en Chile: desafios para la redemocratizacion (Preschool Care in Chile: Challenges for Redemocratization. Discussion Paper No. 13).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filp, Johanna; Undurrage, Consuelo

    This paper examines the current status of programs for preschool children in Chile. Section 1 of the paper provides an overview of the situation of preschool children in Chile. The country's population includes more than 1.6 million children between the ages of 0 and 5 years 11 months, and in urban areas, 18.4 percent of children between the ages…

  7. CRUZANDO LOS MALLKUS. LAS MIGRACIONES BOLIVIANAS PENDULARES DURANTE LAS GRANDES CRISIS SALITRERAS (1914 - 1933

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio González Miranda

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el proceso migratorio pendular de la población boliviana (especialmente indígena hacia las salitreras de Tarapacá; destacándose la “gran crisis” de 1930 y años siguientes, analizando el desarraigo del retorno a Bolivia. Se sostiene que a partir del término de la Primera Guerra Mundial se inicia la decadencia del ciclo de expansión del salitre, generando procesos migratorios de atracción y expulsión de mano de obra, donde el drama social producto de la cesantía fue el factor común. En otras palabras, se plantea que la crisis del salitre no surgió en la década de los años treinta, como suele reconocerse en la literatura especializada sobre la industria salitrera, sino a partir de la primera guerra mundial se inicia el proceso de decadencia del mercado mundial del nitrato, siendo la década de los años veinte cuando se define el futuro de esta industria. Se estudia, especialmente a través de la prensa y archivos oficiales, los sistemas de enganche, los flujos de ida y venida de trabajadores bolivianos con sus familias, especialmente durante los años de crisis entre 1914 y 1933, donde el drama de la cesantía afectó a miles de bolivianos que debieron regresar a sus comunidades de origen. Este artículo se enmarca dentro de un análisis histórico que rescata la importancia de la sociedad civil en las relaciones entre países fronterizos, como Bolivia y Chile, fenómeno que la disciplina de las relaciones internacionales denomina acertadamente “paradiplomacia”.

  8. Meteorological drivers of ablation processes on a cold glacier in the semi-arid Andes of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. MacDonell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Meteorological and surface change measurements collected during a 2.5 yr period are used to calculate surface mass and energy balances at 5324 m a.s.l. on Guanaco Glacier, a cold-based glacier in the semi-arid Andes of Chile. Meteorological conditions are marked by extremely low vapour pressures (annual mean of 1.1 hPa, strong winds (annual mean of 10 m s−1, shortwave radiation receipt persistently close to the theoretical site maximum during cloud-free days (mean annual 295 W m−2; summer hourly maximum 1354 W m−2 and low precipitation rates (mean annual 45 mm w.e.. Snowfall occurs sporadically throughout the year and is related to frontal events in the winter and convective storms during the summer months. Net shortwave radiation provides the greatest source of energy to the glacier surface, and net longwave radiation dominates energy losses. The turbulent latent heat flux is always negative, which means that the surface is always losing mass via sublimation, which is the main form of ablation at the site. Sublimation rates are most strongly correlated with net shortwave radiation, incoming shortwave radiation, albedo and vapour pressure. Low glacier surface temperatures restrict melting for much of the period, however episodic melting occurs during the austral summer, when warm, humid, calm and high pressure conditions restrict sublimation and make more energy available for melting. Low accumulation (131 mm w.e. over the period and relatively high ablation (1435 mm w.e. means that mass change over the period was negative (−1304 mm w.e., which continued the negative trend recorded in the region over the last few decades.

  9. HIV Issues and Mapuches in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Cabieses, Báltica; Araya, Alejandra; Matsumoto, Cristina; Miner, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Chile is a country with an incipient HIV epidemic. Just as in other countries, disadvantaged groups in Chile are contributing to the increased incidence of the disease. The Mapuche indigenous population is one such group that has been affected by the spread of HIV. However, no prevention programs are tailored to the culturally specific needs of this community. In recognition of this discrepancy, an academic-community partnership was formed to develop an HIV educational module for a Mapuche community. The module was developed for use as part of an already established health-related program. The aims of the module were to identify perceptions about HIV among Mapuches and present information specific to HIV and its prevention. Focus was placed on cultural sensitivity. A total of 16 Mapuches participated voluntarily and showed some knowledge regarding HIV, but they lacked an overall understanding as to how it is transmitted and why prevention strategies are effective. Continued collaboration between academia and affected communities as well as incorporating HIV information into established programs are effective strategies for delivering prevention information to disadvantaged populations and for further understanding their perceptions and health care needs.

  10. Forest mapping with satellite in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, A. [SSC Satellitbild (Sweden)

    1995-12-31

    Chile has about 9.1 million ha of forest land, among which 7.6 million ha are native forest and 1.5 million ha are plantations of exotic species. The number of plantations is constantly growing due to the important role these areas play in the national economy. Pino Radiata (Pinus radiata) is found in most of the plantations while the remaining parts are dominated by Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.) The governmental Instituto Forestal (INFOR) in Santiago de Chile, is monitoring the rapid changes in these areas through frequent inventories. As an inventory of this type takes about six years to complete in all areas (one region per year), it is of great importance to find quicker ways to cover these areas. The native forest has in recent years been the subject of debate, not only for economic reasons, but also as a result of ecological pressure for conservation. Where to conserve, where to put restrictions and where to allow forestry are the big issues. Against this background it is necessary to evaluate different data sources that can give information about the present forest situation and provide the means to monitor the changes. The aim of the project was to evaluate whether satellite imagery could fulfill INFOR`s demand for forestry information, and to investigate the kind of data source and methodology to apply when using satellite data

  11. Silencio y memoria: Nocturno de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Iniesta Ruiz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio, sostenido por el Trabajo de Fin de Grado Representación y ficción: Nocturno de Chile y Sostiene Pereira (2015, se introduce en la construcción literaria articulada en la obra Nocturno de Chile, de Roberto Bolaño, examinando y evaluando sus fronteras, fronteras que resultan tan movedizas como las de cualquier construcción inserta en el marco de la ficción. Las implicaciones históricas y políticas del relato hacen que su impronta testimonial cobre una fuerza inusitada, y nociones como la memoria, la violencia o el silencio ayudan a vertebrar una obra de arte verbal que logra, en el decurso de su propia narración, asediar al lector con las angustiosas imágenes de un pasado hecho presente en el camino de un tiempo político que se subyuga a la propia creación artística.

  12. Carbon monoxide concentration forecasting in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Patricio; Palacios, Rodrigo; Castillo, Alejandro

    2004-08-01

    In the city of Santiago, Chile, air quality is defined in terms of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 microm (PM10) concentrations. An air quality forecasting model based on past concentrations of PM10 and meteorological conditions currently is used by the metropolitan agency for the environment, which allows restrictions to emissions to be imposed in advance. This model, however, fails to forecast between 40 and 50% of the days considered to be harmful for the inhabitants every year. Given that a high correlation between particulate matter and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations is observed at monitoring stations in the city, a model for CO concentration forecasting would be a useful tool to complement information about expected air quality in the city. Here, the results of a neural network-based model aimed to forecast maximum values of the 8-hr moving average of CO concentrations for the next day are presented. Forecasts from the neural network model are compared with those produced with linear regressions. The neural network model seems to leave more room to adjust free parameters with 1-yr data to predict the following year's values. We have worked with 3 yr of data measured at the monitoring station located in the zone with the worst air quality in the city of Santiago, Chile.

  13. [Burden of psychiatric diseases in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente P, Benjamín; Kohn, Robert; Saldivia B, Sandra; Rioseco S, Pedro

    2007-12-01

    Chile has one of the highest disease burdens caused by neuropsychiatric illnesses in the world, according to WHO, reaching to 31%. Major depression and alcohol use disorders are ranked first and second in attributed disability among adults. Nearly one-third of the population has had a psychiatric disorder in their lifetime, and 22.2% in the past year. Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent conditions, followed by major depression and alcohol abuse. Currently, mental health accounts for 2.3%) of the health care budget, which is less than some neighboring countries. The availability of 1.3 psychiatric beds per 10,000 inhabitants, is less than the mean of lower-income countries. Moreover, 81% are for chronic rather than acute care. Chile has 4.0 psychiatrist per 100,000 inhabitants, which is lower than other countries in Latin America. Only 38.5% of those patients with a psychiatric diagnosis receive any kind of mental health care, whether from a specialist or primary care. There is a perception among lay persons, that psychiatric treatments lack efficacy, despite evidence demonstrating the contrary. Not addressing the treatment gap in mental health has serious public health implications.

  14. Adaptation and Genotype x Environment Interaction of Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L. Genotypes in South Central Chile Adaptación e Interacción Genotipo x Ambiente en Lino (Linum usitatissimum L. en la Zona Centro Sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Berti

    2010-09-01

    ón y la interacción genotipo x ambiente de 16 genotipos de lino (incluyendo 10 procedentes de Norte América y 6 de Argentina los que se sembraron en 11 ambientes (localidad-año en Chile entre el 2003 y el 2007. El rendimiento de semillas observado fue de más de 5700 kg ha-1 en algunos ambientes lo que indicaría un alto potencial. De acuerdo a los modelos AMMI y SREG los 11 ambientes fueron clasificados en cuatro grupos por el modelo AMMI y en tres grupos por el modelo SREG. Los genotipos fueron clasificados en cinco grupos por el modelo SREG, donde cuatro de los grupos incluían un sólo genotipo. El promedio general de rendimiento de semillas fue similar para todos los genotipos, sin embargo, el genotipo Nekoma fue considerado el más estable y de mayor rendimiento de semillas en todos los ambientes evaluados. El ambiente con mayor rendimiento fue Chillán 2003-2004, pero esta localidad tuvo baja estabilidad en el tiempo. Los ambientes con más alto rendimiento fueron Chillán 2003-2004 y Los Ángeles 2004-2005, hay que considerar que ambos ambientes fueron regados durante floración y llenado de granos. El contenido de aceite fluctuó entre 420 y 530 g kg-1. Las diferencias climáticas entre ambientes no influenciaron la composición del aceite como se esperaba. El lino se adapta a la zona centro sur de Chile observándose diferencias entre genotipos para rendimiento de biomasa y semillas, índice de cosecha, peso del hectolitro, contenido y composición del aceite.

  15. Variación de compuestos químicos en hojas de poblaciones de Drimys spp. (Magnoliophyta: Winteraceae en Chile Variation of chemical compounds in leaves of Drimys spp. (Magnoliophyta: Winteraceae populations in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIEGO MUÑOZ-CONCHA

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available El canelo (Drimys winteri es un árbol nativo de Chile con propiedades medicinales y sagrado para el pueblo mapuche. Se ha descrito en esta especie la presencia de compuestos químicos con actividad biológica como aceites esenciales, terpenos y flavonoides. Estos grupos de compuestos fueron cuantificados en hojas de cinco poblaciones de D. winteri y una de D. andina de Chile mediante hidrodestilación (aceites volátiles, extracción Soxhlet con hexano (terpenos y espectrofotometría (flavonoides. El contenido promedio de aceites esenciales fue de 0,5 mL 100 g-1, el de terpenos de 7,1 %, y el de flavonoides de 1,8 %, en base a peso seco. A pesar de las importantes variaciones observadas dentro y entre poblaciones, las diferencias de poblaciones fueron significativas para los tres grupos de compuestos estudiados. Las poblaciones de la Séptima Región de Chile presentaron los valores más altos de aceites esenciales (0,68 mL 100 g-1 en la población de Huerta de Maule, terpenos y flavonoides (9,47 y 2,37 %, respectivamente, ambos en la población de Pangal. La población más austral estudiada, ubicada en Huillinco, Chiloé, presentó valores significativamente más bajos para los tres grupos de compuestos: 0,22 ml/100g de aceites esenciales, 3,36 % de terpenos y 1,21 % de flavonoides. Las poblaciones de D. winteri y D. andina de la IX Región, cercanas geográficamente, presentaron diferentes contenidos de aceites esenciales y flavonoides. Se concluye que efectivamente poblaciones distintas de especies de Drimys poseen cantidades significativamente diferentes de aceites esenciales, terpenos y flavonoidesCanelo (Drimys winteri is a Chilean native tree with medicinal properties and sacred to mapuche people. This species contains chemical compounds with biological activity such as: essential oils, terpenes and flavonoids, which were quantified in leaves of five D. winteri and one D. andina populations by hydrodistillation (essential oils, hexane

  16. ESO and Chile: 10 Years of Productive Scientific Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    ESO and the Government of Chile launched today the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe", written by the beneficiaries of the ESO-Chile Joint Committee. This annual fund provides grants for individual Chilean scientists, research infrastructures, scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. In a ceremony held in Santiago on 19 June 2006, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) and the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs marked the 10th Anniversary of the Supplementary Agreement, which granted to Chilean astronomers up to 10 percent of the total observing time on ESO telescopes. This agreement also established an annual fund for the development of astronomy, managed by the so-called "ESO-Chile Joint Committee". ESO PR Photo 21/06 ESO PR Photo 21/06 Ten Years ESO-Chile Agreement Ceremony The celebration event was hosted by ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of Special Policy for the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ambassador Luis Winter. "ESO's commitment is, and always will be, to promote astronomy and scientific knowledge in the country hosting our observatories", said ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "We hope Chile and Europe will continue with great achievements in this fascinating joint adventure, the exploration of the universe." On behalf of the Government of Chile, Ambassador Luis Winter outlined the historical importance of the Supplementary Agreement, ratified by the Chilean Congress in 1996. "Such is the magnitude of ESO-Chile Joint Committee that, only in 2005, this annual fund represented 8 percent of all financing sources for Chilean astronomy, including those from Government and universities", Ambassador Winter said. The ESO Representative and Head of Science in Chile, Dr. Felix Mirabel, and the appointed Chilean astronomer for the ESO-Chile Joint Committee, Dr. Leonardo Bronfman, also took part in the

  17. vARIATIONS MENSUELLES DURANT TROIS ANNÉES DU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Université .... ont reçu une alimentation à base de pâturage de. Panicum maximum avec ... Variations mensuelles durant trois années du nombre de spermatozoïdes par éjaculat et des paramètres de spermocytogramme du sperme de bélier ...

  18. Barotrauma ocular durante mergulho autônomo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Abalem de Sá

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Relato de um caso de barotrauma ocular bilateral relacionado ao mergulho autônomo, com hemorragia conjuntival e periocular. Alguns conceitos de física e cuidados durante o mergulho são reportados para um melhor entendimento da fisiopatogenia do quadro, de modo que se possa melhor orientar os pacientes quanto à prevenção.

  19. Analýza obchodných vzťahov medzi EU a Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Chabová, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of my bachelor thesis is to particularly charakterize Chile's economy and to analyze its position in international trade. The main part of my whole work is the analysis of business relationship between European Union and Chile, which I also describe in point of law. The work has five main chapters. The first chapter describes the economical situation of Chile. The second chapter is concerned with Chile's whole foreign trade. The third chapter analyze Chile's foreign trade legally thro...

  20. Auge y Caída de Japón en Chile, 1897-1943

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César David Ross Orellana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La interrogante que guía este trabajo se pregunta por cuáles son las claves explicativas de la relación bilateral entre Japón y Chile durante su primera gran fase (1897-1943. Se plantea como un proceso histórico de auge (1897-1939 y caída (1939-1943 que en su final estuvo marcado por una intensa dimensión política que ha estado casi totalmente ausente del debate académico. El enfoque teóricometodológico de este trabajo es el de la Historia de las Relaciones Internacionales, centrado en determinar las claves de continuidad y cambio dentro de un proceso histórico específico. Se concluye que el debate académico referido a las relaciones entre Japón y América Latina y el Caribe (ALC —en general— y las relaciones entre Japón y Chile —en particular—, ha generado interpretaciones globales basadas en generalizaciones válidas para el ámbito mundial y para los patrones históricos derivados de la política y la acción internacional de las potencias hegemónicas. Tal planteamiento no resulta igualmente válido para las relaciones entre dos países cuya historia, ubicada en los bordes de los grandes acontecimientos de entonces, se escribía conectada pero al margen de esos fenómenos.

  1. Auge y Caída de Japón en Chile, 1897-1943

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César David Ross Orellana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La interrogante que guía este trabajo se pregunta por cuáles son las claves explicativas de la relación bilateral entre Japón y Chile durante su primera gran fase (1897-1943. Se plantea como un proceso histórico de auge (1897-1939 y caída (1939-1943 que en su final estuvo marcado por una intensa dimensión política que ha estado casi totalmente ausente del debate académico. El enfoque teórico-metodológico de este trabajo es el de la Historia de las Relaciones Internacionales, centrado en determinar las claves de continuidad y cambio dentro de un proceso histórico específico. Se concluye que el debate académico referido a las relaciones entre Japón y América Latina y el Caribe (ALC -en general- y las relaciones entre Japón y Chile -en particular-, ha generado interpretaciones globales basadas en generalizaciones válidas para el ámbito mundial y para los patrones históricos derivados de la política y la acción internacional de las potencias hegemónicas. Tal planteamiento no resulta igualmente válido para las relaciones entre dos países cuya historia, ubicada en los bordes de los grandes acontecimientos de entonces, se escribía conectada pero al margen de esos fenómenos.

  2. Historia de la infancia en el Chile republicano 1810 – 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Parada Olivares

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Leer “Historia de la infancia en  el Chile republicano 1810 – 2010” de  Jorge Rojas Flores es internarse en  una travesía de interminables temáticas, en la cual los niños con sus aventuras y desventuras son el eje central  de la narración. El autor ha tenido la  capacidad de construir un relato muy  claro en base a variopintas fuentes,  cada una de ellas seleccionada especialmente para reconstruir la realidad  de los infantes en las distintas épocas  de la historia de Chile. Estructuralmente, el escrito está dividido en seis capítulos estos últimos conformados por períodos, cada uno de estos titulados según las  principales características del contexto social, político y cultural preponderante durante un determinado  espacio de tiempo; “Los niños en la  sociedad tradicional, 1800 1840”,  “La infancia en el estado liberal,  1840 1890” “La infancia y las amenazas de una sociedad en crisis, 1890  1920” “La infancia y el estado de  bienestar, 1920 1950”, “La infancia  en los tiempos de la reforma y la revolución, 1950 1973” y finalmente  “Dictadura, democracia y sociedad  de mercado, 1973 hasta hoy”

  3. NOTAS PARA UNA HISTORIA DE LAS RELACIONES VECINALES DE CHILE EN EL SIGLO XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Araya Leüpin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available En una retrospectiva histórica sobre las relaciones de Chile con sus países vecinos a lo largo del siglo XX hay algunas tendencias que resaltan y que pese a los cambios en el sistema internacional han tendido a permanecer a lo largo del tiempo, adquiriendo por tanto rasgos de “larga duración” o aquello que la Escuela Francesa de Historia de las Relaciones Internacionales denominó corrientesprofundas. Lo primero es que en la construcción mutua de nuestras identidades, estas se han basado durante períodos prolongados en la imagen del otro como un vecino amenazante, con lo cual las relaciones bilaterales tienden a ser percibidas como un juego en donde alguien pierde a costa de las ganancias del otro. Lo segundo es que la relación con nuestros vecinos, incluso con aquellos como en el caso de Argentina han tenido una mejoría significativa al menos desde la década de los 90s con la recuperación de la democracia en ambos países, ha mantenido cursos zigzagueantes entre la cooperación y el conflicto. Lo tercero es un notorio contraste entre la tendencia a la continuidad en la política exterior de Chile en relación a los temas vecinales, independiente del tipo de gobierno que exista, esta continuidad se ha explicado como política de estado, sin embargo, por sus características, esta difícilmente cumple con los estándares de una efectiva política de estado. De manera contrastante, las fluctuaciones en las políticas exteriores de nuestros vecinos han dependido del alto grado de personalismo en las decisiones, la menor institucionalización de la política interna y/o de las fluctuaciones en la popularidad de los gobernantes.

  4. POR UNA LEGISLACIÓN SOCIAL EN CHILE: EL MOVIMIENTO DE LOS PANADEROS (1888-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Yáñez Andrade

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo estudia la evolución del movimiento de panaderos en Chile, desde fines del siglo XIX hasta 1930. En especial se hace referencia a la etapa de movilizaciones para la eliminación del trabajo nocturno en las panaderías durante 1923 y 1924. Se plantea como tesis central que el movimiento de panaderos estaba en un proceso de transición organizativa desde la modalidad de sociedad de resistencia hacia una organización sindical proclive a institucionalizar sus demandas y aceptar la legislación, aspecto que explica la demanda en pro de la eliminación del trabajo nocturno. El mejoramiento en las condiciones de trabajo supuso modernizar el mercado laboral y generar nuevas modalidades de control de la mano de obra.This article studies the evolution of the bakers' movement in Chile, from the beginning of the nineteenth century to the 1930s. Special reference is made to the demonstrations organized to elimínate night work in the bakeries in 1923 and 1924. The main argument is that the bakers' movement was in a transitional period of organization from a resistance society to a labour-union organization. As a result there was an attempt to institutionalize their demands and accept legislation, which explains their demand in order to elimínate night work. The improvement of working conditions implied the modernization of the labour market and the generation of new forms of labour control.

  5. Una Aproximación al Estudio de la Actividad Distrital de los Diputados: los Casos de Chile y Bolivia

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    Mikel Barreda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available El paper se ocupa de la actividad de los diputados en sus distritos/circunscripciones en períodos no electorales. Se presta especial atención a la autonomía del diputado con respecto al partido en la definición de las actividades de representación en el distrito por el que fue electo. Dos son los objetivos principales del trabajo. En primer lugar, realizar una descripción de la actividad distrital, a partir de un análisis de la frecuencia, soportes y relación con el partido durante la actividad distrital. En segundo lugar, explorar algunos de los posibles determinantes del grado de autonomía de los diputados con respecto a sus partidos en su actividad distrital. Los casos elegidos son partidos de Bolivia y Chile.

  6. El Parque Portal Bicentenario en Santiago de Chile / Portal Bicentennial Park in Santiago de Chile

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    Beach Lobos, Myriam;

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta los principios que orientaron el diseño del Parque Portal Bicentenario, un parque de 50 hás. que será el eje principal de la nueva urbanización “Ciudad Parque Bicentenario”, actualmente en construcción en los terrenos del ex aeropuerto de Los Cerrillos en Santiago de Chile.The following text was submitted to the Architecture Competition together with the project drawings. It presents the principles that leaded the design. The 123 acres park will be the main axis of a new urban development in Santiago “Ciudad Parque Bicentenario” at present under construction on the area occupied by the former Cerrillos Airport, Santiago de Chile.

  7. Craniofacial chronological microdifferentiation of human prehistoric populations of the Azapa valley, northern Chile Microdiferenciación cronológica craneofacial de poblaciones humanas prehistóricas del Valle de Azapa, norte de Chile

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    FRANCISCO ROTHHAMMER

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Archeological evidence suggest that the cultural developments occurred in the highlands around lake Titicaca in the Central Andes, exerted influence on the cultural elaborations of the human groups that peopled the valley of Azapa, close to the city of Arica, and the Pacific coast of northern Chile. In this communication we show by means of a distance analysis, that a craniofacial differentiation accompanied the process of cultural evolution in the valley. The biological influence of Tiwanaku is partially reflected in craniofacial morphology, providing preliminary evidence that cultural changes were associated to intermittent gene flow from the highlands, specially during the Alto Ramírez and San Miguel phasesLos desarrollos culturales ocurridos en el altiplano en el área circumtiticaca en los Andes centrales, ejercieron influencia sobre las elaboraciones culturales de los grupos humanos que poblaban el Valle de Azapa cercano a la ciudad de Arica y la costa del norte de Chile. En esta comunicación presentamos un análisis de distancias que demostró que una diferenciación craniofacial acompaño en el valle el proceso de evolución cultural. La influencia biológica de Tiwanaku se refleja parcialmente en la morfología craniofacial, proporcionando evidencia preliminar de que los cambios culturales en el valle se realizaron acompañados de flujo génico intermitente desde el altiplano, especialmente durante las fases Alto Ramírez y San Miguel

  8. Verónica Undurraga Schüler. Los rostros del honor. Normas culturales y estrategias de promoción social en Chile colonial, siglo XVIII

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    Mabel Paola López Jerez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available “Soy un pobre artesano, pero tengo honor”. Esta frase expresada por el sastre Diego Escobar, cargada de sentido, pero también de aparentes contradicciones, fue uno de los indicios que luego de un juicioso análisis, realizado durante siete años con más de doscientos expedientes judiciales por injurias, calumnias, lesiones, homicidios, heridas y disensos matrimoniales, extraídos del Archivo Nacional Histórico de Chile, además de registros de escribanos y documentación parroquial, le permitieron a Verónica Undurraga señalar que “durante el siglo XVIII en Santiago de Chile el honor dejó de ser un código cultural monolítico y patrimonio exclusivo de las élites y se desgajó en múltiples capas, se cercenó en diversos horizontes, prestando sus representaciones polisémicas a sujetos de los más variados lugares sociales” (p. 26.

  9. Mortalidad por cáncer pulmonar en Chile: tendencia y proyección a seis años con modelos lineales dinámicos bayesianos

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    Francisco Torres-Avilés

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue analizar la tendencia de la tasa de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón en Chile, durante el periodo 1990-2009 y proyectar estas tasas a seis años. La información de mortalidad fue obtenida del Ministerio de Salud de Chile. Para calcular las tasas se utilizaron las proyecciones de población según el Censo de 2002. Las tasas se estandarizaron usando la población mundial como referencia. Se ajustaron modelos lineales dinámicos bayesianos para estimar la tendencia entre 1990-2009 y proyectar el periodo 2010-2015. Durante el periodo se observa una reducción del 19,9% de la tasa de mortalidad en hombres, mientras que en mujeres, la tendencia es creciente con aumento de 28,4%. El modelo de segundo orden entregó un mejor ajuste en hombres y el de primer orden en mujeres. Entre 2010 y 2015, se mantiene la tendencia decreciente en hombres, en cambio se proyecta una estabilización en la tendencia de mortalidad por cáncer pulmonar en mujeres en Chile. Este tipo de análisis es útil para implementar sistemas de vigilancia epidemiológica y evaluar estrategias.

  10. Homicide in Chile: Trends 2000-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otzen, Tamara; Sanhueza, Antonio; Manterola, Carlos; Hetz, Monica; Melnik, Tamara

    2015-12-15

    Homicide, an external cause of morbidity and mortality, caused 473,000 deaths worldwide in 2012, a rate of 6.2 per 100,000 inhabitants. The aim of this study was to describe homicide mortality trends in Chile between 2000 and 2012 by year, gender, age group, geographic distribution (by zone and by region) and type of homicide. This was a population-based study. Data for homicide mortality in Chile between 2000 and 2012 were used and they were provided by the Chilean Ministry of Health's Department of Statistics and Health Information (DEIS) and PAHO/WHO. The homicide mortality rates were calculated per 100,000 inhabitants. The study variables were year, geographic distribution, gender, age group and type of homicide. The annual percentage change (APC) of the rates was analyzed, and a logarithm of the rates by year and region was fitted by applying linear regression models. In addition, relative risks (RR) were calculated. 95% confidence intervals were considered in all the analyses. The average yearly rate of homicide (HMR) in Chile (2000-2012) was 4.9. The rates were higher in men (8.7) than in women (1.1), with a RR of 8.2. The rates were higher in the country's central zone (5.0), increasing in recent years in the southern zone, with a significant positive APC of 1.1%. The Aisén Region had the highest rate (7.6), although Antofagasta was the region with the most significant APC (3.1%). The highest rate (9.2) was verified in the 25 to 39 age group. The highest rate (5.5) was recorded in 2005. The most frequent type of homicide was assault with an object (44.8%). Although the homicide rates are higher in the southern zone of the country, the northern zone is showing a tendency to increase, becoming an even more serious problem, which not only affects those directly involved, but society as a whole.

  11. Análisis de sistema de conversores fluido-dinámicos de energía renovable para la Patagonia Austral de Argentina

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    Carlos Victor Manuel Labriola

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El potencial de energía en mares y océanos se puede clasificar de distintas formas, por ejemplo: * La energía de las mareas ó Mareomotriz * La energía de las corrientes marinas * La energía de las olas ó Undimotriz * La energía térmica oceánica (OTEC. De estas formas de energía oceánica, tres son posibles en la zona Atlántica de nuestra Patagonia Austral, la Mareomotriz, la Undimotriz y la de corrientes marinas. La Energía Mareomotriz se da desde Viedma hasta Tierra del Fuego con amplitudes de mareas de 4m hasta 20m, la Energía de las Olas se da en la costa de Chubut y Santa Cruz con potenciales de 10 a 30kW/m lineal de frente de ola y el aprovechamiento de las corrientes marinas se puede dar en lugares puntuales como ser la desembocadura del río Deseado o la de Río Gallegos. Para estas Fuentes de Energía se está realizando un banco de pruebas de modelos conversores de las mismas a Energía Eléctrica, en la Unidad Académica Caleta Olivia (UACO de la Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia Austral (UNPA. Este banco dispondrá de dos canales de ensayos hidrodinámicos uno para energía de las corrientes marinas y otro para las olas. El primero dispondrá de una bomba de circulación con velocidad de fluido variable entre 0 y 4m/s. El banco para olas tendrá un sistema de batido del agua para producir ondas de amplitud y período variable. Además se están dimensionando dos modelos de conversores de energía oceánica. Uno es una turbina, tipo eólica sumergida y el otro modelo es de tubo electromecánico oscilante como conversor energético de las olas.

  12. Role of the Angola Low in modulating southern African austral summer rainfall and relationships with synoptic and interannual modes of variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crétat, Julien; Pohl, Benjamin; Dieppois, Bastien

    2017-04-01

    The Angola Low has been suggested in many previous studies to be an important regional feature governing southern African rainfall variability during austral summer, which is, in particular, expressed through modulations of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) impacts on rainfall at the interannual timescale. Here, we analyse a variety of state-of-the-art reanalyses (NCEP2, ERA-Interim and MERRA2) and rainfall data (in situ rain-gauges and satellite-derived products) for: i) identifying the recurrent regimes of the Angola Low (position and intensity) at the daily timescale; ii) diagnosing how they modulate the spatio-temporal variability of austral summer rainfall; and iii) examining their relationships with synoptic convective regimes and ENSO, both at the interannual timescale. The recurrent regimes of the Angola Low are identified over the 1980-2015 period by applying a cluster analysis to daily 700-hPa wind vorticity anomalies over the Angola sector from November to March. The exact number and morphological properties of vorticity regimes vary significantly among the reanalyses, in particular when using the lowest spatial resolution reanalysis (i.e., NCEP2) that leads to detect less diversity, smoothest patterns and weakest intensity across the recurrent regimes. Despite such uncertainties, the regimes describing active Angola Low are quite robust among the reanalyses. Three preferential locations (locked over eastern Angola, shifted few degrees eastward or south-westward), which significantly impact on the rainfall spatial distribution over tropical and subtropical southern Africa, are identified. Independently from its location, Angola Low favours moisture advection from the southwest Indian Ocean and reduces moisture export towards the southeast Atlantic, hence contributing to increase moisture convergence over the subcontinent. Lead/lag correlations with synoptic convective regimes suggest that Angola Low may be a local precursor of tropical

  13. Vida Chile 1998-2006: resultados y desafíos de la política de promoción de la salud en Chile The Vida Chile program: results and challenges with health promotion policy in Chile, 1998-2006

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    Judith Salinas

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available La prioridad política otorgada por el Gobierno de Chile a la promoción de la salud se expresa en el desarrollo alcanzado por el Consejo Vida Chile y su Plan Nacional de Promoción de la Salud (PNPS. En este artículo se presenta el modelo evaluativo del PNPS chileno y sus principales resultados preliminares en el ámbito técnico y económico en el período 1998-2006. Para medir los resultados de las metas de proceso se utilizaron indicadores de cobertura (número de personas, de espacios promotores de la salud y de actividades y del grado de cumplimiento de las estrategias. El número de actividades durante el período aumentó significativamente; 98% de los municipios del país cuentan con un plan comunal de promoción y un comité Vida Chile, que surge como instancia de trabajo intersectorial y ejecutora del Plan Comunal de Promoción; se incrementó el número de organizaciones sociales incorporadas a las estrategias de promoción de la salud; 34% de los establecimientos de educación del país (preescolar, básica y media resultaron acreditadas como entidades promotoras de la salud; y aproximadamente 20% de la población total del país de todos los grupos de edad recibió beneficios directos de los planes comunales de promoción en 2006, entre otros logros. El costo total anual per capita de los planes comunales ascendió a $US 6,60. Los principales factores facilitadores identificados fueron contar con la participación de las organizaciones sociales y redes comunitarias y disponer de un presupuesto adecuado para el plan comunal. Los factores obstaculizadores más frecuentes fueron la falta de tiempo o de recursos humanos para la promoción, la dispersión geográfica de la población y los problemas de accesibilidad a las actividades. Se hacen recomendaciones para la aplicación y el mejoramiento de los programas de promoción de la salud en la comunidad.The Government of Chile has placed a high priority on health promotion. This is

  14. LOS ESTUDIANTES SECUNDARIOS DURANTE LA UNIDAD POPULAR, 1970-1973

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    Jorge Rojas Flores

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio busca reconstruir la experiencia organizativa y la participación política de los estudiantes secundarios en el conflictivo período en que gobernó Salvador Allende (1970-1973. Desde el entusiasmo inicial hasta las profundas fisuras que dividieron en dos bloques a la Federación de Estudiantes Secundarios de Santiago (FESES, el período estuvo dominado por un alto nivel de politización y una participación masiva de los estudiantes, que pocas veces se había observado y que tardaría en repetirse. Aunque el tema educacional fue uno más de los frentes de lucha de los actores sociales y políticos de la época, en él quedaron en evidencia las distintas posturas en juego y la forma en que se estructuró la acción partidaria.This study reconstructs the organizing experience and political participation of High School students during the conflictive period in which Salvador Allende governed Chile (1970-1973. From an initial enthusiasm to the appearance of deep cracks that divided the Federación de Estudiantes Secundarios (FESES in two blocs, the period was characterized by a high level of politicization and a massive student participation, few times seen, which took longer to reappear in Chile. Although education was only one of the various struggle fronts that motivated social and political actors of that time to participate, it is possible to see here evidences of the main political stances and partisan structure of Chile.

  15. Metallurgical characterization of kaolin from Atacama, Chile

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    Oscar Rivera

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to determine the exploitation potentiality of a kaolin deposit from Atacama in the north of Chile, two types of kaolin (K-1 and K-2 were characterized by XRD, XRF, SEM/EDXS, size distribution, whiteness and DSC. Kaolinite, quartz, muscovite and albite were recognized as main constituents of the ore deposit, and also a significant amount of impurities that negatively impacts on quality were detected. Results show that the low quality presented by the samples, especially K-2, impedes their industrial use as raw material and further mineral concentration processes are proposed. Finally, the results of thermal analysis confirm a conversion to metakaolin that could be the basis for an alternative processing route.

  16. Avian influenza in Chile: a successful experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, Vanessa; Herrera, José; Moreira, Rubén; Rojas, Hernán

    2007-03-01

    Avian influenza (AI) was diagnosed in May 2002 for the first time in Chile and South America. The epidemic was caused by the highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) virus subtype H7N3 that emerged from a low pathogenic virus. The index farm was a broiler breeder, located in San Antonio, V Region, which at the time was a densely populated poultry area. Stamping of 465,000 breeders, in 27 sheds, was immediately conducted. Surveillance activities detected a second outbreak, 1 wk later, at a turkey breeding farm from the same company. The second farm was located 4 km from the index case. Only 25% of the sheds were infected, and 18,500 turkeys were destroyed. In both outbreaks, surveillance zones and across-country control measures were established: prediagnosis quarantine, depopulation, intensive surveillance, movement control, and increased biosecurity. Other measures included cleaning, disinfection, and controlling the farms with sentinels to detect the potential presence of the virus. Zoning procedures were implemented to allow the international trade of poultry products from unaffected areas. Positive serologic results to H5N2 virus also were detected in other poultry farms, but there was no evidence of clinical signs or virus isolation. Epidemiological investigation and laboratory confirmation determined that positive serology was related to a contaminated imported batch of vaccine against inclusion body hepatitis. All actions taken allowed the control of the epidemic, and within 7 mo, Chile was free of AI. Epidemic and control measures that prevented further spread are described in this article, which illustrates the importance of a combination of control measures during and after an outbreak of AI. This study is a good example of how veterinary services need to respond if their country is affected by HPAI.

  17. A new case constructing adelid moth from Chile (Lepidoptera

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    Luis E. Parra

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A new case constructing adelid moth from Chile (Lepidoptera. The adult and larva of Ceromitia tubulifolia sp. nov. are described and illustrated. The larvae seem to be associated with sclerophyllous forest of central Chile. The larvae make a protective case from of a piece of leaf. The name phylloikos is proposed for this form of larval case. A review of the morphology and bionomics of this species are provided.Uma nova mariposa Adelidae (Lepidoptera construtora de casulo do Chile. O adulto e a larva de Ceromitia tubulifolia sp. nov. são descritos e ilustrados. As larvas parecem estar associadas à mata esclerófila do Chile central. A larva utiliza um pedaço de folha para construir uma estrutura protetora denominada phylloikos. Comentários sobre aspectos morfológicos e bionômicos da espécie são apresentados.

  18. EPIDEMIOLOGÍA DE LA DIABETES MELLITUS EN CHILE

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    Jorge Sapunar Z., MD, MSC, FACP

    2016-03-01

    Finalmente, la frecuencia, morbilidad y mortalidad de la diabetes mellitus, se suman para explicar que el manejo de la enfermedad y sus complicaciones consuma el 10,2% del presupuesto en salud de Chile.

  19. Reducción de la mortalidad materna en Chile de 1990 a 2000 The reduction in maternal mortality in Chile, 1990­2000

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    Enrique Donoso Siña

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar si Chile alcanzó el objetivo de reducir en 50% la mortalidad materna entre 1990 y 2000, conforme a lo establecido en el Plan de Acción Regional para la Reducción de la Mortalidad Materna en las Américas. MÉTODOS: Se diseñó un estudio observacional y descriptivo que permitiera analizar la tendencia de la mortalidad materna en el país durante 1990­2000. Las variables evaluadas fueron la razón de mortalidad materna, las causas de muerte y la edad de las madres fallecidas. Las causas se clasificaron de acuerdo con la novena revisión de la Clasificación internacional de enfermedades,traumatismos y causas de defunción (CIE-9, y los datos brutos se obtuvieron de los anuarios del Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas de Chile. La fluctuación de las variables se estimó según el porcentaje de cambio acumulado, y la tendencia, mediante análisis de correlación de Pearson. RESULTADOS: El estudio demostró una reducción de la mortalidad materna de 60,3% de 1990 a 2000; la razón de mortalidad materna más baja, de 18,7/100 000 nacidos vivos, se registró en el año 2000. El análisis indica que las cinco causas más importantes de muerte materna fueron: hipertensión arterial, aborto, enfermedades maternas concurrentes (pregestacionales, sepsis puerperal y hemorragia posparto. Se observó una tendencia descendente significativa de la mortalidad materna por hipertensión arterial (r= ­0,712; P= 0,014, aborto (r= ­0,810; P = 0,003 y sepsis puerperal (r= ­0,718; P= 0,013, pero no se encontraron cambios estadísticamente significativos en la mortalidad por enfermedades maternas concurrentes ni por hemorragia posparto. La cifra más alta de mortalidad materna correspondió a las mujeres de 40 años de edad y mayores (100,2/100 000 nacidos vivos, y la más baja a las adolescentes de 15 a 19 años (18,7/100 000 nacidos vivos. CONCLUSIONES: Chile cumplió el objetivo del Plan de Acción Regional para la Reducción de la

  20. Tendencias actuales sobre equidad en educación superior en Chile y sus antecedentes internacionales

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    Gonzalo Fonseca Grandón

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La participación de los jóvenes pertenecientes a los grupos socioeconómicos bajos en la educación superior a nivel internacional y especialmente a nivel latinoamericano, ha constituido una constante preocupación de los gobiernos y las propias instituciones de educación superior durante las últimas dos décadas. Esto, debido principalmente al crecimiento dramático que ha experimentado la matrícula en este nivel, con la participación de grupos socioeconómicos que hace algunos años prácticamente no tenían presencia en educación superior. Este artículo realiza una breve revisión y reflexión, en torno a las tendencias de equidad en educación superior en Chile y a nivel internacional, profundizando en algunos conceptos, antecedentes, indicadores y desafíos presentes en relación a este tema en nuestro país. Se releva el aumento en el acceso a la educación superior de todos los grupos socioeconómicos, sin embargo, persiste la brecha entre los quintiles ricos y pobres. El desafío está en ampliar las acciones vinculadas al acceso y enfatizar en la permanencia y resultados de los estudiantes en la educación terciaria. Los antecedentes que componen este artículo, constituyen parte de la revisión conceptual de un Proyecto FDI ejecutado por la Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción durante el año 2009, en conjunto con otras catorce universidades del Consejo de Rectores de Universidades Chilenas (Cruch pertenecientes al Grupo Operativo de Cinda (Centro Interuniversitario de Desarrollo.

  1. Instrucción pública en chile. 1864

    OpenAIRE

    Amunártegui, Luis Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Memoria escrita por el Secretario General de la Universidad de Chile. Descripción de la educación en Chile, particularmente de la universitaria, introducido por el argumento del origen común de las naciones hispanoamericanas, y las diferencias que se presentan a partir de los procesos de emancipación.

  2. The Revolutionary Left and Terrorist Violence in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    public’s expectations. The combination of an increased money supply and artificially low official prices eventually precipitated a black market in food...Fraude Electoral Designada por la Facultad de Derecho de la Pontifica Universidad de Chile," in Libro Blanco del Cambio de Gobierno de Chile, Editorial...the black market at very inflated exchange rates. Foreigners, however, including a Frenchman, a Swede, a Spanish Jesuit, and a Brazilian, have

  3. Development in Chile 1990 - 2005: Lessons from a positive experience

    OpenAIRE

    García Hurtado, Álvaro

    2006-01-01

    Chile, in the last 15 years, has shown remarkable results in terms of growth, poverty reduction and democratic governance. This paper reviews the structural changes that were behind these positive outcomes, as well as the pending challenges for Chile’s development. Also shows that Chile did better in terms of growth than social integration and that this is related to the weak representation and participation of a wide majority in the national debate and decision making process. It also draws ...

  4. Growth and biomass production with enhanced {beta}-glucan and dietary fibre contents of Ganoderma australe ATHUM 4345 in a batch-stirred tank bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papaspyridi, Lefki-Maria; Christakopoulos, Paul [BIOtechMASS Unit, Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Katapodis, Petros [BIOtechMASS Unit, Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biological Applications and Technologies, University of Ioannina, Ioannina (Greece); Gonou-Zagou, Zacharoula; Kapsanaki-Gotsi, Evangelia [Department of Ecology and Systematics, Faculty of Biology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2011-02-15

    In this study we maximized biomass production by the basidiomycete Ganoderma australe ATHUM 4345, a species of pharmaceutical interest as it is a valuable source of nutraceuticals, including dietary fibers and glucans. We used the Biolog FF MicroPlate to screen 95 different carbon sources for growth monitoring. The pattern of substrate catabolism forms a substrate assimilation fingerprint, which is useful in selecting components for media optimization of maximum biomass production. Response surface methodology, based on the central composite design was applied to explore the optimum concentrations of carbon and nitrogen sources of culture medium in shake flask cultures. When the improved culture medium was tested in a 20-L stirred tank bioreactor, using 13.7 g/L glucose and 30.0 g/L yeast extract, high biomass yields (10.1{+-}0.4 g/L) and productivity of 0.09 g L{sup -1} h{sup -1} were obtained. The yield coefficients for total glucan and dietary fibers on biomass formed were 94.82{+-}6 and 341.15{+-}12.3 mg/g mycelium dry weight, respectively. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Distribution pattern of macrozooplankton along the 140°E meridian in the Southern Ocean during austral summer 2002 and 2003

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    Atsushi Tanimura

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Field surveys were conducted along 140°E in the Southern Ocean north of Terre Adelie during three cruises: the KH cruise by RV Hakuho Maru, and TC1 and TC2 cruises by RV Tangaroa during the austral summers of 2002 and 2003. Macrozooplankton were sampled using a Rectangular Midwater Trawl (RMT 8: mesh size: 4.5mm; effective mouth area: 8m2 along each transect. Macrozooplankton communities were separated by the Southern Boundary of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (SB-ACC based on cluster analysis. North of the SB-ACC, macrozooplankton assemblages comprised species of the northern oceanic community characterized by Salpa thompsoni, Euphausia frigida and Themisto gaudichaudii, while south of the SB-ACC, macrozooplankton assemblages were numerically dominated by Euphausia superba and/or Euphausia crystallorophias. It is suggested that the SB-ACC functions as the major biogeographic barrier to separate the macrozooplankton communities, and the contributions of macro- and meso-zooplankton to total zooplankton abundance varies seasonally as well as regionally in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean crossing the SB-ACC.

  6. Behavioral problems and tobacco use among adolescents in Chile

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    Caris Luis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between behavioral problems and tobacco smoking among adolescent students in Chile. METHODS: Data were drawn from a study that included questionnaire surveys of 46 907 school-attending adolescents in all 13 of the administrative regions of Chile. Assessments were based on an adapted, Spanish-language version of the Drug Use Screening Inventory. The conditional form of the logistic regression model was used for analysis, with matching of students on individual schools, and with further statistical adjustments for sex, age, and selected risk factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of tobacco smoking among the adolescents was very high across all of Chile, with a level between 56% and 65% in each of the 13 regions. The estimated odds of tobacco use in youths at the highest level of behavioral problems was about twice that for youths at the lowest levels, both before and after controlling for sex, age, lack of participation in recreational activities, level of irritability, and levels of problems with school, family attention, and mental health. CONCLUSIONS: These findings help to complement and complete the evidence of prior studies on tobacco smoking among adolescents with behavior problems, including recent research on Central American youths. Although the magnitude of observed associations in Chile was not as great as that for the associations found in Central America, both the strength of these associations and their statistical significance were observed throughout Chile. This is the first study in Chile on potentially causal relationships such as these.

  7. Uso indicado e uso referido de medicamentos durante a gravidez

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    Claudia Garcia Serpa Osorio-de-Castro

    Full Text Available Poucos estudos descrevem a utilização de medicamentos na gravidez com detalhamento de práticas prescritivas. A pesquisa integra grande inquérito sobre atenção perinatal em hospitais do Município do Rio de Janeiro. A natureza do hospital - se pública, contratada/conveniada ao SUS ou privada - determinou estratificação de 10.072 puérperas internadas. A coleta de dados se deu por entrevista e por consulta a prontuários, cobrindo medicamentos utilizados durante a gravidez e prescritos durante a internação hospitalar quando do parto. Medicamentos foram classificados pela ATC e outro sistema para casos especiais de uso referido. Houve média de 2,08 medicamentos prescritos no parto e 2,3 usados durante a gestação, sendo os mais prescritos anestésicos, antibióticos, ocitocina e analgésicos, com diferenças significativas entre estratos, e os mais referidos sulfato ferroso, vitaminas, escopolamina e paracetamol. Para interromper a gravidez, 49,7% relatam o uso de chás e 9,2% de misoprostol. O perfil de utilização é corroborado pela literatura. A pesquisa oferece oportunidade de conhecimento de padrões de prescrição ao parto e de uso referido durante a gestação nos setores público e privado.

  8. Uso indicado e uso referido de medicamentos durante a gravidez

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    Osorio-de-Castro Claudia Garcia Serpa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Poucos estudos descrevem a utilização de medicamentos na gravidez com detalhamento de práticas prescritivas. A pesquisa integra grande inquérito sobre atenção perinatal em hospitais do Município do Rio de Janeiro. A natureza do hospital - se pública, contratada/conveniada ao SUS ou privada - determinou estratificação de 10.072 puérperas internadas. A coleta de dados se deu por entrevista e por consulta a prontuários, cobrindo medicamentos utilizados durante a gravidez e prescritos durante a internação hospitalar quando do parto. Medicamentos foram classificados pela ATC e outro sistema para casos especiais de uso referido. Houve média de 2,08 medicamentos prescritos no parto e 2,3 usados durante a gestação, sendo os mais prescritos anestésicos, antibióticos, ocitocina e analgésicos, com diferenças significativas entre estratos, e os mais referidos sulfato ferroso, vitaminas, escopolamina e paracetamol. Para interromper a gravidez, 49,7% relatam o uso de chás e 9,2% de misoprostol. O perfil de utilização é corroborado pela literatura. A pesquisa oferece oportunidade de conhecimento de padrões de prescrição ao parto e de uso referido durante a gestação nos setores público e privado.

  9. Activity and population characteristics of Andean Condors in southern Chile Actividad y características poblacionales de los Cóndores Andinos en el sur de Chile

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    RONALD J. SARNO

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Data were collected on general activity patterns and population characteristics of free-ranging Andean Condors Vultur gryphus in Torres del Paine National Park, Chile from July 1992 to June 1994 during 3,680 h of observation. Seasonal differences were evident in relative abundance and activity patterns. The mean number of condors sighted/ observation significantly higher in fall-winter than in spring-summer. There was a significant decrease from spring-summer to fall-winter in the percentage of observations during which we sighted solitary condors and a significant increase in the number of groups of condors. In addition, mean monthly maximum group size was significantly larger in fall-winter than spring-summer. The sex ratio (males:females of juveniles was significantly skewed in favor of females, and that of adults was significantly skewed in favor of males. The significantly different adult:juvenile ratio of condors visiting the park could have resulted from differences in distribution and habitat use and/or low breeding rates. Differential juvenile mortality and dispersal could also have produced skewed age and sex ratios, but more research is needed. Condor activity seemed related to wind speed. The greatest proportion of condors was observed flying in calm and low winds and less frequently in moderate to very strong winds. Temperature seemed to have an important effect on aerial activity because the greatest proportion of condors was sighted flying and soaring on warm days. Temperature and wind speed were weakly correlated.Se recolectaron datos sobre los patrones generales de actividad y caractersticas de la población del Cóndor Andino Vultur gryphus. El estudio se realizó en el Parque Nacional Torres del Paine, Chile, entre julio 1992 y junio de 1994, totalizando 3680 horas de observación. Durante el estudio fueron evidentes diferencias estacionales en los patrones de actividad y abundancia relativa de estas aves. El numero promedio

  10. LOS EXILIADOS. LA LUCHA POR LOS DERECHOS HUMANOS DURANTE LA DICTADURA, de Silvina Jensen

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    Nicolás Hochman

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available RESEÑASLOS EXILIADOS. LA LUCHA POR LOSDERECHOS HUMANOS DURANTE LA DICTADURAJENSEN, Silvina (2009. Los exiliados. La lucha por losderechos humanos durante la dictadura , Buenos Aires:Sudamericana. ISSN 978-950-073-158-4

  11. Análisis y terapia del comportamiento en chile: Orígenes, estado actual y proyecciones

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    Pablo e. Vera-Villarroel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo realiza una revisión sobre los orígenes, estado actual y proyecciones delanálisis del comportamiento y sus derivaciones en Chile. Su aplicación y entrenamiento sistemático se remonta a la parte final de la década de los sesenta, cuando Sergio Yulis introducela terapia conductual en los cursos de psicoterapia. Durante los primeros años se realizanvariadas aplicaciones tanto en área básica como aplicada. Durante el año 1973 muchosdocentes deben abandonar el país, produciéndose un retroceso en el avance de la disciplina.Actualmente la orientación es considerada como una de las escuelas fundamentales en laformación de los futuros psicólogos y otros profesionales de la salud aun cuando no se cuentecon la mayor preferencia entre la comunidad psicológica chilena. No existe ni en la formaciónni en el país en la actualidad la fuerte presencia del conductismo que existió a finales de lossetenta.

  12. Taxonomic identification of appendicularians collected in the epipelagic waters off northern Chile (Tunicata, Appendicularia Identificación taxonómica de las apendicularias capturadas en aguas epipelágicas de la zona norte de Chile (Tunicata, Appendicularia

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    GUILLERMO ARAVENA

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This work provides a first taxonomic description of appendicularians collected during September and August of 1995 in the north coast of Chile (18º23'-31º00' S. Fifteen species were identified. They belong to the families Oikopleuridae (Oikopleura longicauda, O. cophocerca, O. dioica, O. rufescens, O. fusiformis, O. albicans, O. gracilis and Megalocercus abyssorum, and Fritillariidae (Fritillaria pellucida typica, F. pellucida omani, F. haplostoma F. tenella, F. formica digitata, F. venusta and F. fraudax. All the species are first records for waters of northern Chile, thus broadening their previous distribution in the southeast Pacific. The most abundant species were Oikopleura longicauda (56.1 %, O. gracilis (10.4 %, Fritillaria pellucida typica (6.7 %; O. albicans (5.0 %; F. pellucida omani (4.7 %; O. cophocerca (4.4 % and F. venusta (4.1 %, whereas the eight remaining species, constituted 8.6 % of the total appendicularians collectedEl presente trabajo proporciona una primera descripción taxonómica de las apendicularias colectadas durante septiembre y agosto de 1995 en la costa norte de Chile (18º23'-31º00' S. Se identificaron 15 especies de apendicularias pertenecientes a las familias Oikopleuridae (Oikopleura longicauda, O. cophocerca, O. dioica, O. rufescens, O. fusiformis, O. albicans, O. gracilis and Megalocercus abyssorum y Fritillariidae (Fritillaria pellucida typica, F. pellucida omani, F. haplostoma F. tenella, F. formica digitata, F. venusta and F. fraudax. Todas las especies identificadas se registran por primera vez para aguas del norte de Chile y se amplía su distribución en esta área del Pacífico Suroriental. Las especies más abundantes fueron Oikopleura longicauda (56,1 %, O. gracilis (10,4 %, Fritillaria pellucida typica (6,7 %; O. albicans (5,0 %; F. pellucida omani (4,7 %; O. cophocerca (4,4 % y F. venusta (4,1 %, mientras que las ocho especies restantes constituyeron el 8,6 % del total de apendicularias

  13. As guerras frias do Cone Sul: Argentina, Brasil, Chile e Uruguai (1945-1952

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    Ernesto Bohoslavsky

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo mostra como alguns jornais e partidos políticos liberal- -progressistas (no governo ou na oposição processaram os eventos vinculados ao final da segunda guerra mundial e o começo da guerra fria na Argentina, Brasil, Chile e Uruguai. Tenta-se sinalar que esses atores aproveitaram alguns elementos ideológicos transnacionais (como o antifascismo ou o anticomunismo para interpretar a realidade política local, para consolidar certa autoimagem nacional e para descrever aos seus adversários políticos. A diversidade de representações do inimigo que tiveram os grupos liberais dos quatro países entre 1945 e 1952 foi gerada por, ao menos, três variáveis: a a posição do governo e os principais atores políticos frente à guerra (neutralidade x participação; proliados x pro-Eixo, b a natureza do regime político vigente (democracia x ditadura;c as tradições ideológicas presentes durante os anos do conflito bélico e seu poder político e eleitoral.

  14. El mundo del trabajo entre el disciplinamiento y la resistencia, Chile, 1973-1981

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    Ana Paola López Dietz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available El artículo estudia la política laboral de la dictadura y las expresiones de resistencia del movimiento sindical en Chile, entre 1971 y 1981. Durante este período se produjeron cambios importantes en la estructura económica, política y social del país como la reestructuración productiva, la implementación del modelo neoliberal y la represión al movimiento sindical. También se impuso un nuevo plan laboral que atomizó los sindicatos, limitó el derecho a huelga y prohibió las negociaciones colectivas por rama. Aun así, el movimiento sindical se organizó, en condiciones de represión y persecución, para luchar contra la dictadura y sus políticas laborales, llevando adelante una serie de acciones de resistencia como huelgas encubiertas, ausentismo laboral y movilizaciones.

  15. Práctica y significado del consentimiento informado en hospitales de Colombia y Chile

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    Constanza Ovalle

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Comparo el significado y la práctica del consentimiento informado (CI en doshospitales de Colombia y Chile, mediante el método cualitativo de estudio de casos. Los resultadosempíricos los contrasté inductivamente con las tensiones, diferencias y vínculos entre los presupuestosteóricos de la bioética con los jurídicos en el período 2005-2008, en el marco de sus respectivaspolíticas públicas. Confirmé el incumplimiento del CI y el no reconocimiento de la autonomía de lospacientes y de las pacientes en la práctica del CI. Propongo como una manera de dirimir el conflictoentre los aspectos legales y bioéticos del CI, la fundamentación de un enfoque de derechos con unaperspectiva bioética, y planteo pautas a seguir durante el proceso de CI.

  16. La Medialuna: un edificio para Chile/The Crescent, a building for Chile

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    Moreira Recchione, Alberto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se refiere los antecedentes históricos sobre la escuela ecuestre de la jineta y su introducción en las faenas agrícola-ganaderas chilenas. Se reseña el nacimiento del rodeo como deporte nacional chileno y los requerimientos del complejo espacio de la “fiesta del rodeo”: un problema arquitectónico y también urbanístico./ The equestrian school of "La Jineta" in Chile, and the architecture for the national holiday of "rodeo."

  17. The International Plate Boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC) in the northern Chile seismic gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, B.; Asch, A.; Sodoudi, F.; Manzanares, A.; Ritter, O.; Klotz, J.; Chong-Diaz, G.; Barrientos, S.; Villotte, J.-P.; Oncken, O.

    2009-04-01

    Fast convergence between the oceanic Nazca and the continental South American plate is accommodated by recurrent rupture of large segments of the two plates' interface. The resulting earthquakes are among the largest and, for their sizes, most frequent on Earth. Along the Chilean and southern Peruvian margin, all segments have ruptured at least once in the past 150 years for which there exist historic and/or instrumental records. The one segment that is most mature for re-rupture stretches for more than 500 km along the northernmost Chilean coast between roughly -23° and -18° latitude. It last broke in 1877 in a magnitude ~8.8 earthquake, triggering a major Tsunami. From the historical record, it has been known to have a recurrence cycle of approximately 110 years. The adjoining segments to the north and south broke rather recently in 1995 and 2001 in M>8 earthquakes and an M 7.7 earthquake encroached the southern part of the gap in 2007. The IPOC project intends to investigate this segment of the Nazca-South American plate boundary, on which a strong to devastating earthquake is expected to occur within the next years, by monitoring at a variety of time-scales deformation, seismicity, and magnetotelluric fields in the subduction zone at the closing stages of the interseismic cycle before and possibly during occurrence of a big earthquake. For that purpose, installation of long-term observatories in Northern Chile started in 2006 in a close cooperation of the Universidad de Chile (Santiago, Chile), the Universidad Catolica del Norte (Antofagasta, Chile), the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (Paris, France), and the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ, Potsdam, Germany). Currently we are operating 14 modern seismological stations equipped with STS-2 broadband seismometers and accelerometers (EPI sensor). At least two more stations will be installed in the near future. To cope with the high resolution and dynamic of the sensors and data acquisition

  18. Observations on female sterilization in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menanteau-Horta, D

    1982-01-01

    Prior to 1976, voluntary female sterilization was 1 of the regular family planning services offered in Chile. After that the Ministry of Public Health declared that it could not be considered a fertility regulation activity and could thus be performed only for health reasons. Between 1971-75, there was almost a 6-fold increase in the number of sterilizations performed at the Valdivia Regional Hospital, with a rise to 2400 procedures. Such an unprecedented increase in voluntary sterilization prompted this study. The results are based on a 1976 survey of women sterilized between 1971-75 at the Valdivia Regional Hospital. Personal interviews were conducted. The number of voluntary sterilizations there during the aforementioned period showed a sustained upward trend; the number of births increased only moderately during that time. The data on sterilization in the Valdivia area is compared to that collected by the Santiago study. Age, marital status, place of origin or residence, education, and religion were compared. Socioeconomic and occupational data were also examined. 9 of 10 women in Valdivia were from low-income families. This agrees closely with the Santiago data. About 1/4 of the women in both samples were employed outside the home. Also in both samples, about 1/2 of the spouses of sterilized women were blue collar workers; only 1/5 or less were white collar, and very few were professionals. About 52% in Valdivia and 45% in Santiago had borne 7 or more viable offspring. The average number of spontaneous abortions was also similar. A significantly higher percentage (P0.01) of Valdivia women used contraceptives. There are some general trends apparent in both groups as to the reasons for sterilization; most were prompted by difficult socioeconomic conditions. 37.9% of the Santiago women felt their families were complete and 27.3% of the other group cited the same reason. Other reasons were medical, failure of contraception, problems with spouse, and other. Medical

  19. [Consumption of antidepressants in Chile from 1992 to 2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirón, Marcela; Machado, Márcio; Ruiz, Inés

    2008-09-01

    Data from the Ministry of Health show that in Chile in 2004, 17% of the population had some form of depression, and mood disorders are the tenth cause of disability-adjusted life years (DALY) loss. To determine consumption of antidepressants (ADs) in Chile from 1992 to 2004. National sales data were obtained from the company IMS Health Chile and converted into defined daily doses (DDDs) per 1,000 inhabitants per day. Available ADs were classified in four pharmacological groups (i.e., serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, SNRLs; selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitors, SSRLs; tricyclic antidepressants, TCAs; and others). Total economic burden of ADs utilization and cost per DDDs were also calculated. Trends over time were analyzed using Pearson-R2. Total ADs consumption in Chile measured by DDDs per 1,000 inhabitants per day (DHD) increased linearly (y =0.901x + 1.9129; R2 =0.9296; p economic burden of ADs in Chile (total cost of DDDs consumed) increased from US$65.4 million in 2001 to US$74.6 million in 2004 (14% increase). Average cost per DDD of all AD increased linearly, however not significantly from US$ 0.94 in 2001 to US$ 1.04 in 2004 (y =0.0362x + 0.8784; R2 =0.7382; p =0,262). DDDs per 1,000 inhabitants per day increased linearly over 470% from 1992-2004. SSRLs were the most commonly consumed drugs in Chile. Future research should evaluate the cost-effectiveness of antidepressants in Chile, comparing the results with drug utilization, and determining if unnecessary expenditures have been paid out.

  20. Increasing the donor pool in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, J M

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate organ donation in Chile following the creation of the "Corporación Nacional de Fomento de Trasplantes." The corporation was created in 1991 as a private, nonprofit organization whose main purpose was to increase the number of actual donors and multiorgan procurement. The organization is independent of the national government and acts as a link between the needs of patients and society and those of the National Ministry of Health. Following the creation of the corporation, the number of actual donors increased from 32 to 98. The number of potential donors increased 3-fold. Family refusal for organ donation was between 28% and 53.4%. Pediatric and marginal donors increased from 2% to 15%. Ninety-five percent of the donors came from Santiago, where 33% of the population lives and most of the efforts were concentrated. The corporation is working to increase organ donation throughout the rest of the country by organizing public campaigns; promoting knowledge about transplantation among medical and nursing personnel at hospitals, schools, universities, and social gatherings; evaluating technical and financial results; and helping with the processes of organ procurement.

  1. Social Networks and Political Parties in Chile

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    Adler Lomnitz, Larissa

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the origin and evolution of two Chilean political parties (the Radical Party and the Christian Democrat Party through the analysis of the social networks that originated and composed them. The aim of this study is to propose a model of national political cultures on the basis of the structure of social networks related to power and of the symbol system, which legitimizes it. The structure of social networks, horizontal and vertical, are based on reciprocal or redistributive forms of exchange, on what is being exchanged and on the articulation between networks. In every society there are symmetrical and asymmetrical exchanges, which produce horizontal and vertical networks. These networks interact among themselves to form the social fabric. The dominance of some over others and how they combine, delineate the character of the political culture (authoritarian vs. egalitarian. Chile is a multiparty country within which there are cohorts of horizontal groups of friends, who informally exercise a central control over their members and create invisible boundaries setting them apart from others, in which leadership is under constrains. The result is both a strong presidential system based on an almost fanatic legitimacy, combined with factionalism and a strong parliamentary system.

  2. Psychosocial variables of sexual satisfaction in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Jaime E; Páez, Dario

    2006-01-01

    This study analyzed psychosocial variables of sexual satisfaction in Chile using data from the COSECON survey. Participants were 5,407 subjects (2,244 min and 3,163 women, aged 18-69 years). We used a cross-sectional questionnaire with a national probability sample. Data were collected using a thorough sexual behavior questionnaire consisting of 190 face-to-face questions and 24 self-reported questions. A single item included in the COSECON questionnaire assessed sexual satisfaction. Results showed that high education level, marital status, and high socioeconomic levels were associated with sexual satisfaction in women but not in men. The results also showed important gender differences and sustain the idea that sexuality changes may be more present in middle and high social classes. The proximal variables typically used for measuring sexual satisfaction, such as the frequency of sexual intercourse and orgasm, showed a positive but smaller association with sexual satisfaction. Other important variables related to sexual satisfaction were being in love with the partner and having a steady partner. The results confirmed previous findings and are discussed in the frame of approaches like the exchange, equity, and sexual scripts theories.

  3. Predecessors of the giant 1960 Chile earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisternas, Marco; Atwater, Brian F; Torrejón, Fernando; Sawai, Yuki; Machuca, Gonzalo; Lagos, Marcelo; Eipert, Annaliese; Youlton, Cristián; Salgado, Ignacio; Kamataki, Takanobu; Shishikura, Masanobu; Rajendran, C P; Malik, Javed K; Rizal, Yan; Husni, Muhammad

    2005-09-15

    It is commonly thought that the longer the time since last earthquake, the larger the next earthquake's slip will be. But this logical predictor of earthquake size, unsuccessful for large earthquakes on a strike-slip fault, fails also with the giant 1960 Chile earthquake of magnitude 9.5 (ref. 3). Although the time since the preceding earthquake spanned 123 years (refs 4, 5), the estimated slip in 1960, which occurred on a fault between the Nazca and South American tectonic plates, equalled 250-350 years' worth of the plate motion. Thus the average interval between such giant earthquakes on this fault should span several centuries. Here we present evidence that such long intervals were indeed typical of the last two millennia. We use buried soils and sand layers as records of tectonic subsidence and tsunami inundation at an estuary midway along the 1960 rupture. In these records, the 1960 earthquake ended a recurrence interval that had begun almost four centuries before, with an earthquake documented by Spanish conquistadors in 1575. Two later earthquakes, in 1737 and 1837, produced little if any subsidence or tsunami at the estuary and they therefore probably left the fault partly loaded with accumulated plate motion that the 1960 earthquake then expended.

  4. Psychiatric disorders among the Mapuche in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Benjamin; Kohn, Robert; Rioseco, Pedro; Saldivia, Sandra; Torres, Silverio

    2005-06-01

    The Mapuche are the largest indigenous group in Chile; yet almost all data on the mental health of indigenous populations are from North America. The study examines the differential DSM-III-R prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders and service utilization among indigenous and non-indigenous community residence. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was administered to a stratified random sample of 75 Mapuche and 434 non-Mapuche residents of the province of Cautín. Lifetime prevalence and 12-month prevalence rates were estimated. Approximately 28.4% of the Mapuche population had a lifetime, and 15.7% a 12-month, prevalent psychiatric disorder compared to 38.0% and 25.7%, respectively, of the non-Mapuche. Few significant differences were noted between the two groups; however, generalized anxiety disorder, simple phobia, and drug dependence were less prevalent among the Mapuche. Service utilization among the Mapuche with mental illness was low. This is a preliminary study based on a small sample size. Further research on the mental health of indigenous populations of South America is needed.

  5. [Nutritive value of shellfish consumed in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, N; Vera, G; Araya, H

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the protein quality and digestibility of shellfish commonly consumed in Chile, and to estimate its contribution to the protein needs of the Chilean population. The shellfish studied were chorito (Mytilus edulis chilensis), macha (Mesodesma donacium), loco (Concholepas concholepas), cholga (Aulacomya ater), erizo (Loxechinus albus) and almeja (no specific variety). The NPU method was used to determine protein quality. The percentage of protein adequacy for adult rations was calculated according to FAO/WHO 1973. The contribution of shellfish to the protein availability according to the family income of the Santiago population, was also calculated. Most of the shellfish presented NPU values of about 70; the lowest values were found for loco (54.9) and macha (63.3). The apparent and true digestibility gave an average of 83.6 and 90.4, respectively. The percentage of protein adequacy of habitual rations ranged between 27% (erizo) and 58% (loco). The availability of shellfish protein in relation to total protein increased from 0.4 to 2.5% when income increased. It is concluded therefore, that shellfish protein is, in general, of good quality. Nevertheless, it might be considered of poor influence insofar as fulfilling the protein needs of the population studied, whatever its socioeconomic level.

  6. DIÁSPORA BRANCA NA ÁFRICA AUSTRAL 1914. (Dossiê:As fontes para a História da África

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    Sílvio Marcus de Souza Correa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O presente artigo trata da deportação de alemães da então colônia alemã do sudoeste africano (atual Namíbia para a então União Sul-Africana (atual África do Sul em 1914. A análise enfoca o deslocamento forçado de centenas de pessoas e as consequências imediatas dessa diáspora em suas vidas. Com base na historiografia, em fontes hemerográficas, diários ou memórias como a de Hertha Brodersen-Manns (1891-1959, esse episódio se inscreve na fase final do colonialismo alemão em África, mas também numa história de diásporas sobrepostas.Palavras-chave: Diáspora, Colonialismo, África australAbstract: This article deals with the deportation of Germans from the whilom German South-West Africa (now Namibia to the whilom Union of South Africa (now South Africa in 1914. The analysis focuses on the forced displacement of hundreds of people and the immediate consequences of this diaspora in their lives. Based on historiography, newspapers, journals or memoirs like the book of Hertha Brodersen-Manns (1891-1959, this episode belongs to the final phase of German colonialism in Africa, but also taking part in the history of Overlapping Diasporas.Keywords: Diaspora, Colonialism, South AfricaRecebido em: 03/07/2015  – Aceito em 25/07/2015

  7. Distribution of Cd, Pb and Cu between dissolved fraction, inorganic particulate and phytoplankton in seawater of Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea, Antarctica) during austral summer 2011-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, S; Annibaldi, A; Romagnoli, T; Libani, G; Antonucci, M; Scarponi, G; Totti, C; Truzzi, C

    2017-10-01

    During the austral summer 2011-2012, the metal quotas of Cd, Pb and Cu in the phytoplankton of Terra Nova Bay (TNB, Antarctica) were measured for the first time. Evolution of all the three metal distributions between dissolved and particulate fractions during the season was also evaluated. Metal concentrations were mainly affected by the dynamic of the pack ice melting and phytoplankton activity. In mid-December when TNB area was covered by a thick pack ice layer and phytoplankton activity was very low, all the three metals were present mainly in their dissolved species. When the pack ice started to melt and the water column characteristics became ideal (i.e. moderate stratification, ice free area), the phytoplankton bloom occurred. Cd showed a nutrient-type behaviour with dissolved and particulate fractions mainly influenced by phytoplankton activity. Cd quota showed a mean value of 0.12 ± 0.07 nmol L -1 (30-100% of the total particulate). Also Cu showed a nutrient-type behaviour, with its quota in phytoplankton varying between 0.08 and 2.1 nmol L -1 (20-100% of the total particulate). Pb features the typical distribution of a scavenged element with very low algal content (0.03 ± 0.02 nmol L -1 , representing 20-50% of the total particulate). The vertical distribution of this element was influenced by several factors (e.g. pack ice melting, atmospheric inputs), the phytoplankton activity affecting Pb behaviour only partially. Metal:C ratios provide valuable information on the biological requirements for Cd, Pb and Cu, leading us to better understand their biogeochemical cycles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. POTENCIAL DE LA ORGANOGÉNESIS COMO ESTRATEGIA PARA LA MASIFICACIÓN in vitro DE Fitzroya cupressoides EN SUDAMÉRICA AUSTRAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vidal Cob-Uicab

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fitzroya cupressoides (alerce es una conífera endémica de Sudamérica austral cuya madera ostenta atributos de belleza y durabilidad. El presente estudio evaluó el efecto de componentes hormonales suplementado con medios de cultivo sobre la capacidad organogénica de Fitzroya cupressoides, y se analizó el proceso de regeneración in vitro mediante estudios histológicos. Se ensayó el medio de cultivo básico Quorin y Lepoivre (QL suplementado con diferentes concentraciones de ácido indol 3-butírico (AIB, 6-bencilaminopurina (BAP y ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D utilizando segmentos nodales y hojas aciculares. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con cinco repeticiones balanceado; la unidad experimental fue un frasco de vidrio conteniendo un explante, y la inducción de callogénesis correspondió a una placa petri con cuatro explantes foliares. Hubo efectos significativos (P = 0.001 del tratamiento sobre las variables respuesta número de brotes y elongación caulinar. La prueba de rangos múltiples de Duncan confirmó que los tratamientos que observaron diferencias significativas fueron 0.1 mg·L-1 de AIB y 1.5 mg·L-1 de BAP para número de brotes por explante y 0.1 mg·L-1 AIB y 1.0 mg·L-1 de BAP para la elongación caulinar. El análisis histológico demostró la proliferación de estructuras meristemáticas a partir de tejido subepidérmico.

  9. Medical students' palliative care education in a Latin American university: a three-year experience at Austral University in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutto, Eduardo Mario; Bunge, Sofía; Vignaroli, Ernesto; Bertolino, Mariela; Villar, Marcelo José; Wenk, Roberto

    2014-10-01

    The School of Medicine of Austral University incorporated palliative care as an elective in undergraduate medicine curriculum during 2010. We analyzed the experience and results after 3 years of teaching palliative care. We compared students who chose palliative care as an elective subject (PC Group) with students who did not (Non-PC Group). We focused on the experience of contact with palliative care patients and self-perceived attitudes. Additionally, the impact produced by palliative care education in knowledge, self-perceived attitudes, and comfort was evaluated. All the students tested completed a questionnaire on their attitude when exposed to dying patients. Students in the PC Group completed an additional questionnaire to assess their level of knowledge and their self-perceived comfort when interacting with patients. We tested 146 students. All students in the PC Group and 95.2% in the Non-PC Group considered that specific death issues ought to be part of the curriculum. Some students indicated that they could be present in a mandatory course. Before taking their elective, students in the PC Group confirmed a lack of technical training to understand palliative care patients, as did those students in the Non-PC Group. After taking a palliative care elective students expressed an improvement in self-perceived attitudes toward suffering and there was a significant increase (ppalliative care education provides opportunities to improve attitudes not specific to this discipline: interprofessional collaboration, holistic care, patient-centered care, self-awareness, and humanism. We conclude that an exposure to palliative care improved student's perception about the complexities of dying patients and their care.

  10. Antioquia durante la federación, 1850-1885

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Javier Ortiz Mesa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El Federalismo en Colombia, formalmente instituido por la Constitución nacional de 1853, imperó entre las décadas de 1850 y 1880, siendo ratificado por las reformas constitucionales de 1858 y 1863. Dichas reformas buscaron trasformar las instituciones coloni ales aún existentes por otras más acordes con las nuevas realidades del capitalismo mundial de libre competencia y con los intereses de los sectores que pugnaban por el control del poder, dando libre circulación a la tierra y a la mano de obra indígena y esclava. Para el caso Antioqueño, la relativa estabilidad económica y política de la que gozó el Estado de Antioquia durante la segunda mitad del siglo XIX, sumada a “una predominante homogeneidad étnica y cultural de su sociedad”, constituyó un marco más que adecuado para la formación de una de las hegemonías políticas más sólidas del país durante el período. El “federalis mo conservador” que se construyó en Antioquia durante el régimen radical estuvo fundado básicamente en la defensa de la región, en un relativo aislamiento político del centro y de los demás Estados, en el cuidado de sus riquezas por parte de las élites de ambos partidos, en un apoyo irrestricto de la Iglesia católica y en el reconocimiento de su papel como institución de cohesión y ordenamiento social.

  11. Violência durante o sono Violent behavior during sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Poyares

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Casos de comportamento violento (CV durante o sono são relatados na literatura. A incidência de comportamento violento durante o sono não é muito conhecida. Um estudo epidemiológico mostra que cerca de 2% da população geral apresentava comportamento violento dormindo e eram predominantemente homens. Neste artigo, os autores descrevem aspectos clínicos e médico-legais envolvidos na investigação do comportamento violento. O comportamento violento se refere a ferimentos auto-infligidos ou infligidos a um terceiro durante o sono. Ocorre, muito freqüentemente, seguindo um despertar parcial no contexto de um transtorno de despertar (parassonias. Os transtornos do sono predominantes diagnosticados são: transtorno de comportamento REM e sonambulismo. O comportamento violento poderia ser precipitado pelo estresse, uso de álcool e drogas, privação do sono ou febre.Cases of violent behavior during sleep have been reported in the literature. However, the incidence of violent behavior during sleep is not known. One epidemiological study showed that approximately 2% of the general population, predominantly males, presented violent behavior while asleep. In the present study, the authors describe clinical and medico-legal aspects involved in violent behavior investigation. Violent behavior refers to self-injury or injury to another during sleep. It happens most frequently following partial awakening in the context of arousal disorders (parasomnias. The most frequently diagnosed sleep disorders are REM behavior disorder and somnambulism. Violent behavior might be precipitated by stress, use of alcohol or drugs, sleep deprivation or fever.

  12. Alteraciones oftalmológicas durante el embarazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoriel Cuan Aguilar

    Full Text Available Los trastornos oftalmológicos son muy comunes durante el embarazo. Se realiza la presente revisión con el objetivo de documentar las variadas condiciones oculares que podrían aparecer durante la gestación o se podrían modificar por esta, lo que conllevaría estar bien atentos sobre las gestantes que aquejan trastornos visuales. Durante el período de gestación las mujeres se exponen a variados cambios tanto a nivel sistémico como ocular. A partir de algunos de estos cambios, el embarazo origina alteraciones a nivel ocular, los cuales son la mayoría de las veces transitorias, aunque en ocasiones pueden establecerse de forma permanente. Los efectos oculares del embarazo pueden ser fisiológicos, patológicos o pueden ocasionar modificaciones de condiciones prexistentes. De esta manera, pueden observarse en este período cambios a nivel de los párpados, la córnea, el cristalino, la presión intraocular, el campo visual, entre otros. También exacerbaciones de patologías como retinopatía diabética, enfermedad de Grave y retinitis por toxoplasma, así como complicaciones provocadas por el propio embarazo como preclampsia-eclampsia, desprendimiento de retina seroso, ceguera cortical, síndrome de HELLP, retinopatía serosa central, etcétera. Se relacionan además alteraciones neuroftalmológicas y complicaciones oftálmicas en relación con el parto, como trombosis del seno venoso, adenoma pituitario, hipertensión intracraneal benigna, neuritis óptica, así como retinopatía y síndrome de Sheehan.

  13. Aproximación crítica al pensamiento dicotómico “indios amigos” versus “indios enemigos” bajo el gobierno del Marqués de Baides, Chile,1639-1646

    OpenAIRE

    Jimena Obregón Iturra

    2008-01-01

    En este artículo nos proponemos cuestionar la diferenciación binaria entre indios amigos e indios enemigos, ampliamente difundida durante el siglo XVII para calificar a los distintos grupos araucano-mapuches del sur de Chile. Restringiendo el análisis al funcionamiento de esta categorización dual bajo el gobierno del Marqués de Baides, mostramos cómo el primer Parlamento de Quillín enuncia y consagra la partición entre los “enemigos” ausentes del parlamento y los “amigos” que han dado las pac...

  14. Satisfacción escolar y bienestar subjetivo en la adolescencia: poniendo a prueba indicadores para su medición comparativa en Brasil, Chile y España

    OpenAIRE

    Casas Aznar, Ferran; Castellá Sarriera, Jorge‏; Alfaro Inzunza, Jaime; González Carrasco, Mònica; Figuer, Cristina; Abs da Cruz, Daniel; Bedin, Lívia; Valdenegro, Boris; Oyarzún, Denise

    2014-01-01

    En este estudio se analiza la comparabilidad interlingüística e intercultural del bienestar subjetivo y la satisfacción escolar como componente de dicho bienestar durante la adolescencia, a partir de tres muestras, una de Brasil (n = 1588), una de Chile (n = 843) y una de España (n = 2900), de 12–16 años de edad. Se adoptan como indicadores de bienestar subjetivo dos versiones del personal wellbeing index (PWI) de Cummins, Eckersley, van Pallant, Vugt y Misajon (2003), que lo evalúan por ámbi...

  15. Efecto del volumen radicular sobre el crecimiento de Acacia dealbata Link. en vivero y en terreno en el secano de la Región del Biobío, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Quiroz,Iván; Pincheira,Matías Patricio; Hernández,José Andrés; González,Marta; García,Edison; Soto,Hernán

    2014-01-01

    Entre las especies arbóreas cultivadas en Chile, Acacia dealbata Link. se destaca por su rápido crecimiento y supervivencia en climas con marcado déficit hídrico y suelos altamente degradados. Aun cuando proporciona múltiples productos y servicios, la mayor parte de la investigación se ha centrado caracterizar su capacidad invasora, y poco se conoce respecto a su crecimiento durante los primeros años en terreno, escaseando antecedentes respecto efecto de la modificación de las prácticas silví...

  16. Santos e contrabandistas: a nacionalização de São Sebastião e a fronteira austral argentino-chilena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando J. Silla

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Este texto analisa relatos que giram em torno de como e por que uma imagem de São Sebastião teve de ser importada do Chile para ser instalada em uma capela do norte neuquino (Argentina. Este fato nos permitirá apreciar uma das maneiras como a conformação do Estado-nação argentino e a implantação de suas fronteiras nacionais foi percebida, significada e vivenciada pelos habitantes fronteiriços. Em particular, iluminará as relações existentes em alguns contextos entre religião e nacionalismo, assim como o fenômeno da invisibilidade/visibilidade das relações intercordilheira.This article analises how and why an image of San Sebastian had to be imported from Chile and settled in a church of north Neuquén (Argentina. This fact will allow us to understand how the emergence of the nation-state in Argentina was perceived, signified and lived by the frontier's inhabitants. Particulary, it will throw some light on the relations between religion and nationalism and on the invisivility/visibility of the relations across the Andean mountains.

  17. Autonomía emocional durante la adolescencia

    OpenAIRE

    Oliva Delgado, Alfredo; Parra Jiménez, Agueda

    2001-01-01

    El objetivo de esta investigación fue estudiar la relación entre la autonomía emocional respecto a los padres y el tipo de relaciones establecidas entre padres e hijos durante la adolescencia. También pretendíamos analizar las características socio-emocionales de aquellos chicos y chicas que manifiestan una alta autonomía emocional, así como el papel moderador jugado por el género y la calidad del contexto familiar sobre las relaciones entre la desvinculación afectiva y el desarro...

  18. Comunicación y conflicto familiar durante la adolescencia

    OpenAIRE

    Parra Jiménez, Águeda; Oliva Delgado, Alfredo

    2002-01-01

    El principal objetivo de esta investigación fue estudiar los patrones de comunicación y conflicto familiar durante la adolescencia. Una muestra de 221 chicos y 292 chicas de edades comprendidas entre 13 y 19 años completaron un cuestionario que incluía medidas de la frecuencia de la comunicación con sus progenitores, la frecuencia de aparición de episodios conflictivos, la intensidad emocional con que dichos conflictos eran percibidos, y la autonomía funcional ...

  19. Algunas reflexiones sobre el cuerpo durante el franquismo

    OpenAIRE

    Scharagrodsky, Pablo Ariel

    1998-01-01

    El cuerpo se ha visto históricamente atravesado por distintos sistemas de regulaciones y figuraciones, de saberes y dispositivos, que han ido ordenando y organizando los modelos de lo que constituye el buen y el mal gobierno del mismo, que han ido estableciendo el universo posible y deseable de los movimientos. El presente trabajo de investigación pretende develar cómo y porqué el conjunto de saberes, normas y prácticas de la educación física contribuyeron a generar en el cuerpo, durante el f...

  20. Las colonias escolares durante la Guerra Civil (1936-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalía Crego Navarro

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Las colonias escolares que funcionaron principalmente en el Levante y Cataluña, y, en menor medida en el Aragón republicano, Cuenca, Albacete y Madrid..., fueron unas instituciones que surgieron durante la guerra civil, que sirvieron no sólo de refugio a los niños evacuados a aquellas zonas a causa de los bombardeos, la escasez de alimentos y la orfandad, sino que cumplieron una función educativa muy importante, como desarrollaremos a lo largo de este trabajo.

  1. CONSIDERACIONES PARA EL USO DE LA LAPAROSCOPIA DURANTE EL EMBARAZO

    OpenAIRE

    Larraín de la C,Demetrio; Durruty V,Guillermo; Pomés C,Cristian; Cuello F,Mauricio

    2007-01-01

    Los avances en laparoscopia tanto tecnológicos como médicos han hecho posible ampliar el espectro de patologías ginecológicas susceptibles de ser manejados por esta vía. Condiciones médicas consideradas previamente como una contraindicación a esta vía, como el embarazo, son susceptibles de ser manejadas con seguridad y eficacia manteniendo los beneficios que esta técnica ofrece. El presente artículo revisa las indicaciones, recomendaciones, ventajas y desventajas de su uso durante el embarazo...

  2. [Mental health in Chile and Finland: Challenges and lessons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamal C, Pedro; Markkula, Niina; Peña, Sebastián

    2016-07-01

    This article analyses and compares the epidemiology of mental disorders and relevant public policies in Chile and Finland. In Chile, a specific mental health law is still lacking. While both countries highlight the role of primary care, Finland places more emphasis on participation and recovery of service users. Comprehensive mental health policies from Finland, such as a successful suicide prevention program, are presented. Both countries have similar prevalence of mental disorders, high alcohol consumption and high suicide rates. In Chile, the percentage of total disease burden due to psychiatric disorders is 13% and in Finland 14%. However, the resources to address these issues are very different. Finland spends 4.5% of its health budget on mental health, while in Chile the percentage is 2.2%. This results in differences in human resources and service provision. Finland has five times more psychiatric outpatient visits, four times more psychiatrists, triple antidepressant use and twice more clinical guidelines for different psychiatric conditions. In conclusion, both countries have similar challenges but differing realities. This may help to identify gaps and potential solutions for public health challenges in Chile. Finland’s experience demonstrates the importance of political will and long-term vision in the construction of mental health policies.

  3. National control and eradication program of bovine tuberculosis in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, Vanessa; Paredes, Luis; Rivera, Alejandro; Ternicier, Claudio

    2011-07-05

    There have been reports of the presence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in Chile for more than 100 years. Several prevalence studies have revealed that there is a wide spectrum of disease across the country with certain geographic areas where the disease is endemic through to other geographic areas where infection is sporadic and at very low prevalence. In 2009, this information was used to divide Chile into different geographic zones based on prevalence rates. This will enable the correct actions to be undertaken to reduce the prevalence of TB. Thus the northern part of Chile which has a medium to high prevalence of TB will be categorized as a control zone. In contrast, the southern part of Chile which has a high proportion of the bovine population, has a low prevalence of TB and will be classified as an eradication zone (Paredes, 2008). Although there have been several past attempts to create a national control and eradication program in Chile, none has been successful. A national program is proposed, and outlined in this paper. Progress toward program initiation in 2009 has been difficult, mostly because of the global economic crisis, difficulties in the milk and meat industry, and social and political issues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Policy-Driven Productivity in Chile and Mexico in the 1980s and 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael Bergoeing; Patrick J. Kehoe; Timothy J. Kehoe; Raimundo Soto

    2002-01-01

    Both Chile and Mexico experienced severe economic crises in the early 1980s, but Chile recovered much faster than did Mexico. Using growth accounting and a calibrated dynamic general equilibrium model, we conclude that the crucial determinant of this difference between the two countries was the faster productivity growth in Chile, rather than higher investment or employment. Our hypothesis is that this difference in productivity was driven by earlier policy reforms in Chile, the most crucial ...

  5. TRANSFORMACIONES AGROPRODUCTIVAS E INDICADORES DE SUSTENTABILIDAD EN LA CUENCA DEL RIO QUEQUÉN GRANDE (PROVINCIA DE BUENOS AIRES, ARGENTINA, DURANTE LOS PERÍODOS 1988-1998 Y 1998-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA VAZQUEZ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La región pampeana posee fuertes ventajas comparativas para la producción agropecuaria. Los modelos productivos actuales incluyen la siembra directa con aumento en el uso de agroquímicos y el avance de la agricultura ha generado una fuerte fragmentación de los pastizales naturales. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar las transformaciones agroproductivas en la Cuenca del río Quequen Grande (situada en la Pampa Austral y sus principales consecuencias durante los períodos 1988-1998 y 1998-2008. La metodología utilizada se basó en la clasificación supervisada de imágenes de satélite para los años seleccionados. Los estadísticos obtenidos se correlacionaron con cálculos de los indicadores de riesgo de intervención del hábitat y de contaminación por plaguicidas. El proceso de agriculturización se manifestó con distinta intensidad en los ambientes geomorfológicos de la Cuenca, la unidad de sierras y serranías fue la más afectada en ambos períodos, presentando valores altos de riesgo ambiental.

  6. 75 FR 3756 - Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ...)] Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia AGENCY: United States International Trade... preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of... mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  7. 75 FR 22369 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's Republic of China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ...-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's Republic of China... orders on certain preserved mushrooms (mushrooms) from Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's Republic... reviews of the antidumping duty orders on mushrooms from Chile, India, Indonesia, and the PRC, pursuant to...

  8. 75 FR 28059 - Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... Trade Agreements with Chile, Australia, and Singapore. DATES: July 15, 2010: Deadline for filing written... effects of the free trade agreements (FTAs) concluded with Chile, Singapore, and Australia. In its report...

  9. 76 FR 14320 - Importation of Figs and Pomegranates From Chile Under a Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... allowed. Importation of pomegranates (Punica granatum) from Chile is allowed if the fruit is fumigated... Pomegranate (Punica granatum) and Fig (Ficus carica) from Chile Imported into the Continental United States... pomegranates (Punica granatum) may be imported into the continental United States from Chile under the...

  10. Los Andes Fueguinos: el registro micropaleontológico de los mayores acontecimientos paleooceanográfícos australes del Campaniano al Mioceno The Fuegian Andes: the micropaleontological record of the major Campanian-Miocene paleocea-nographic austral events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Malumián

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La sucesión de las asociaciones de microfósiles de la casi completa columna estratigráfica marina del Cretácico Tardío-Mioceno de los Andes Fueguinos, en el margen orogénico de la Cuenca Austral, revela una estrecha relación con los acontecimientos tectónicos locales, las transgresiones-regresiones atlánticas sobre la Plataforma Patagónica y los mayores acontecimientos paleooceanográfícos globales. La secuencia fueguina campaniana tardía-eocena temprana, dominada por asociaciones de foraminiferos aglutinados tipo 'flysch' y ambientes deficientes en oxígeno de acotada profundidad, es coherente con cuencas aportilladas en un período de estiramiento cortical. El Maastrichtiano (Formación Policarpo con foraminiferos aglutinados cosmopolitas contrasta con la asociación calcárea endémica Austral de la primera transgresión atlántica patagónica. En la transición Paleoceno/Eoceno, las estratigráficamente restringidas asociaciones de microfósiles calcáreos exhiben el mayor recambio del Cenozoico, con el pasaje de una asociación cosmopolita tipo 'Midway' (Formación La Barca a otra fuertemente endémica (Formación Punta Noguera, donde aparecen los géneros cenozoicos patagónicos-fueguinos característicos. El Paleógeno temprano no registra taxones filotérmicos, y sólo un episodio fugaz de calizas briozoales (Formación Río Bueno y el bajo porcentaje de ostrácodos de la Familia Hemicytheridae insinúa un período cálido. La secuencia eocena media tardía (Grupo La Despedida se inicia con una transgresión distribuida en la Cuenca Austral (Formaciones Leticia, Man Aike, Río Turbio, capas con Boltovskoyella coeva con un pico de temperatura en 42 Ma, que porta una fauna fueguina retrógrada y nodosáridos de gran porte, los cuales fueron reemplazados a través del Eoceno Tardío (Formación Cerro Colorado por típicos géneros antarticos, reflejando la decreciente temperatura que culmina en la Zona de Tenuitella ins

  11. Globalization, Inequality, and Transnational Activism: A Case Study on Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moctezuma Garcia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has transformed how states are governed through a neoliberal economic approach that reinforces an unregulated capitalist market. An emphasis on Chile is important because it was the first state in Latin America to apply neoliberalism and has been hailed as a prime example for other developing states to integrate similar strategies to strengthen the local economy. However, inequality continues to persist despite economic gains. A combination of historical struggles affecting victims of the Pinochet era and present struggles with poverty, have resulted in a constant conflict between the power elite and the rest of society. Social movements in Chile have played a pivotal role in raising international awareness and pressuring the local government to protect the rights of highly vulnerable populations. A focus on transnational activism provides an effective medium for local and international advocates to work together toward holding Chile accountable for addressing social disparities.

  12. Chile y los Desafíos Globales de Seguridad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Griffiths Spielman

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo pretende abordar el tema "Chile y los desafíos globales de seguridad", asumiendo a modo de propuesta una noción de seguridad relativa a todo fenómeno violento e intencional, que como producto de su actuación provoca mortalidad, y ello desde la perspectiva de un país pequeño, tal y como Chile, si bien notablemente interconectado a nivel global. En consecuencia, Chile debería asumir un efecto potencialmente mayor de las principales amenazas globales. En síntesis, se expresa que en el actual escenario de seguridad, la lejanía geográfica de los fenómenos ya no es necesariamente un factor que prevenga los efectos de dichas amenazas sobre la seguridad de un Estado.

  13. The Unexpected Awakening of Chaitén Volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carn, Simon A.; Zogorski, John S.; Lara, Luis; Ewert, John W.; Watt, Sebastian; Prata, Alfred J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Villarosa, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    On 2 May 2008, a large eruption began unexpectedly at the inconspicuous Chaitén volcano in Chile's southern volcanic zone. Ash columns abruptly jetted from the volcano into the stratosphere, followed by lava dome effusion and continuous low-altitude ash plumes [Lara, 2009]. Apocalyptic photographs of eruption plumes suffused with lightning were circulated globally. Effects of the eruption were extensive. Floods and lahars inundated the town of Chaitén, and its 4625 residents were evacuated. Widespread ashfall and drifting ash clouds closed regional airports and cancelled hundreds of domestic flights in Argentina and Chile and numerous international flights [Guffanti et al., 2008]. Ash heavily affected the aquaculture industry in the nearby Gulf of Corcovado, curtailed ecotourism, and closed regional nature preserves. To better prepare for future eruptions, the Chilean government has boosted support for monitoring and hazard mitigation at Chaitén and at 42 other highly hazardous, active volcanoes in Chile.

  14. Analysis and projections of physics in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, Leopoldo; Zambra, Marcelo [Comision Chilena de EnergIa Nuclear, Casilla 188D, Santiago (Chile); Loewe, Marcelo [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Facultad de Fisica, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago (Chile); Gutierrez, Gonzalo; Molina, Mario [Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile); Barra, Felipe; Lund, Fernando [Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Av. Blanco Encalada 2008, Santiago (Chile); Saavedra, Carlos [Universidad de Conception, Departamento de Fisica, Esteban Iturra S/N, Barrio Universitario, Conception (Chile); Haberle, Patricio [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa MarIa, Departamento de Fisica, Av. Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile)], E-mail: lsoto@cchen.cl

    2008-11-01

    In the present work, an assessment of the Physics research capacity in Chile is presented. For this, the period between 2000 and June 2005 has been studied. In this period almost 200 physicists have contributed to scientific production in terms of ISI publications. Amongst these 200, {approx}160 correspond to theoretical physicists and only {approx}40 to experimental physicists; {approx}178 are men and only {approx}22 are women. A more detailed analysis shows that {approx}160 physicists have at least one appearance in ISI publications per year considering the last 3 years. Ten years ago, a similar criteria (at least one appearance per year in ISI articles, considering mobile three-year periods), the number of active physicists in the Chilean community was estimated at 70. Therefore, the Chilean active physicists' community has doubled in 10 years. There exist 20 centres in which scientific research is developed: 18 university centres, a government institute and a private institute. As regards scientific productivity, both as related to disciplines or research areas, and well as in relation to research centres, it is found that, generally, scientific production, in a particular area in Physics or in a research centre, is directly related to the number of corresponding researchers; that is to say, the percentage of the national productivity in an area or research centre corresponds to its share in the total number of physicists in the country. A geographical analysis shows that 50% of the productivity corresponds to Santiago and 50% to the rest of the country. The impact of the different funds for research is assessed, also: FONDECYT, Presidential Chairs and large projects and centres of excellence. According to Physics researchers opinion, Fondo Nacional de Ciencia y TecnologIa (FONDECYT, National Fund fro Science and Technology) has become the best instrument to support researchi activities in Chile. However, the amount of projects awarded has practically not

  15. Analysis and projections of physics in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, Leopoldo; Zambra, Marcelo; Loewe, Marcelo; Gutierrez, Gonzalo; Molina, Mario; Barra, Felipe; Lund, Fernando; Saavedra, Carlos; Haberle, Patricio

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, an assessment of the Physics research capacity in Chile is presented. For this, the period between 2000 and June 2005 has been studied. In this period almost 200 physicists have contributed to scientific production in terms of ISI publications. Amongst these 200, ∼160 correspond to theoretical physicists and only ∼40 to experimental physicists; ∼178 are men and only ∼22 are women. A more detailed analysis shows that ∼160 physicists have at least one appearance in ISI publications per year considering the last 3 years. Ten years ago, a similar criteria (at least one appearance per year in ISI articles, considering mobile three-year periods), the number of active physicists in the Chilean community was estimated at 70. Therefore, the Chilean active physicists' community has doubled in 10 years. There exist 20 centres in which scientific research is developed: 18 university centres, a government institute and a private institute. As regards scientific productivity, both as related to disciplines or research areas, and well as in relation to research centres, it is found that, generally, scientific production, in a particular area in Physics or in a research centre, is directly related to the number of corresponding researchers; that is to say, the percentage of the national productivity in an area or research centre corresponds to its share in the total number of physicists in the country. A geographical analysis shows that 50% of the productivity corresponds to Santiago and 50% to the rest of the country. The impact of the different funds for research is assessed, also: FONDECYT, Presidential Chairs and large projects and centres of excellence. According to Physics researchers opinion, Fondo Nacional de Ciencia y TecnologIa (FONDECYT, National Fund fro Science and Technology) has become the best instrument to support researchi activities in Chile. However, the amount of projects awarded has practically not been increased, which is

  16. Nanofósiles calcáreos paleógenos y biostratigrafía para dos pozos en el este de la Cuenca Austral, Patagonia, Argentina Paleogene calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy for two boreholes in the eastern Austral Basin, Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Pérez Panera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcareous nannofossils from two boreholes (Campo Bola and Sur Río Chico in the subsurface of eastern Austral Basin, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina, allowed the identification of Early to Middle Paleocene, Early to Middle Eocene and Late Eocene to Early Oligocene assemblages. These assemblages match the formations logged in the boreholes Campo Bola, Man Aike and Río Leona respectively, and represent three paleogene sedimentary cycles within the basin. These results permitted the reinterpretation of previous data from an adjacent borehole (Cerro Redondo. The southern boreholes (Cerro Redondo and Sur Río Chico yield an Early to Middle Paleocene calcareous nannofossil assemblage and an almost continuous record of nannofossils from Early Eocene to Early Oligocene. A discontinuity is interpreted by the absence of Late Paleocene assemblages. The northern borehole (Campo Bola yield only late Early Eocene to Early Oligocene assemblages. The data also indicates that the Paleogene beds unconformably overlie Upper Cretaceous strata.El estudio de los nanofósiles calcáreos recuperados en muestras de subsuelo de dos pozos de exploración (Campo Bola y Sur Río Chico en el este de la Cuenca Austral, provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina, permitió reconocer asociaciones del Paleoceno Temprano a Medio, Eoceno Temprano a Medio y Eoceno Tardío a Oligoceno Temprano. Estas asociaciones son coincidentes con las formaciones atravesadas en los sondeos hechos en Campo Bola, Man Aike y Río Leona, respectivamente, y representan tres ciclos sedimentarios paleógenos dentro de la cuenca. Estos resultados permitieron la reinterpretación de datos previos de un pozo adyacente (Cerro Redondo. Los pozos ubicados al sur (Cerro Redondo y Sur Río Chico contienen asociaciones de nanofósiles calcáreos del Paleoceno Temprano a Medio y un registro prácticamente continuo de nanofósiles del Eoceno Temprano al Oligoceno Temprano. Se interpreta una discontinuidad por ausencia de

  17. [Foodborne disease outbreaks surveillance in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea, Andrea; Díaz, Janepsy; Fuentes, Rodrigo; Vaquero, Alejandra; García, Maritza

    2012-10-01

    Foodborne disease outbreaks are one of the main health problems globally, having an extensive impact on human welfare. The World Health Organization considers them as the main cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries, and responsible for high levels of loss of productivity in developed countries. To describe the epidemiology of foodborne disease outbreaks according to data contained in an automated surveillance system. Descriptive observational study of notified outbreaks from the surveillance system, between 2005 and 2010 in Chile. The information was based on etiology, temporal and spatial distribution, and epidemiologic description of outbreaks during this period. There were 5,689 notified outbreaks. Most of them occurred during 2006 (1,106 outbreaks, rate 6.7 per 100,000 inhabitants) and 2008 (1,316 outbreaks, rate 7.9 per 100, 000 inhabitants) with an increase during summer. Fifty four percent occurred in the Metropolitan region. The group aged 15 to 44 years old, was the most affected one. Sixty four percent of the outbreaks had the food involved registered, of which fish and fishery products reached 42%. An 81% of the outbreaks did not have a precise etiologic diagnosis. Of all patients involved, 97% were outpatients, 3,2% were hospitalized patients, and 0,1% died. Only 49% of the outbreaks had information about the lack of food safety, with a 34,1% related to food handling procedures. Through the information on the epidemiology of foodborne diseases obtained by the Chilean surveillance system, appropriate control measures could be taken.

  18. Migración y Mercado Laboral en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Dante Contreras; Jaime Ruiz-Tagle; Paulina Sepúlveda

    2013-01-01

    Los últimos procesos migratorios que ha vivido Chile han despertado el interés respecto a los efectos de la inmigración sobre la economía del país. El objetivo de este trabajo es caracterizar y analizar los efectos de la inmigración sobre el mercado laboral en Chile y la situación de los migrantes en el mercado laboral local. Utilizando los datos de la encuesta CASEN 2006 y 2009, y los datos de Extranjería del Ministerio del Interior y del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, encontramos que ...

  19. Chile y las sociedades latinoamericanas en un mundo globalizado

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Garretón, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Sr Ministro de Educación de Francia, Jack Lang, Sra Ministro de Educación de Chile, Mariana Aylwin, Sr Embajador de Chile en Francia, Marcelo Schilling, Sr Presidente de la Universidad Paris-3 Sorbonne-Nouvelle, Jean-Michel Lacroix, Sr Director del Instituto de Altos Estudios de América Latina, Jean Michel Blanquer, señoras y señores, amigas y amigos. Es un honor para mí ser el primer profesor invitado de la Cátedra de Estudios Chilenos creada por el Ministerio de Educación francés en la Univ...

  20. Chile: Inauguración de la universidad Alberto Hurtado.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Montes SJ.

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available El 20 de octubre de 1997, se inauguró en Santiago de chile la Universidad Alberto Hurtado, dirigida por la Compañía de Jesús. En esa ocasión, su Rector, Fernando Montes S.J, pronunció su discurso inaugural en presencia del presidente chileno Eduardo Frei, del expresidente Patricio Alwing y de unas mil personas, entre senadores, diputados, figuras políticas, académicas y religiosas de Chile. Encuentro produce aquí el texto completo del discurso del Padre Montes S. J.

  1. Scenarios for wind power in Brazil, Argentina and Chile; Cenarios para a energia eolio eletrica no Brasil, Argentina e Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedecca, Joao Gorestein; Nogueira, Larissa Goncalves; Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martino [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], emails: jdedecca@fem.unicamp.br, larissa@fem.unicamp.br, januzzi@fem.unicamp.br; Gomes, Rodolfo Dourado [International Energy Initiative-Latin America (IEI-LA), Campinas, SP (Brazil)], email: rodolfo@iei-la.org

    2010-07-01

    The Chilean, Argentinean and Brazilian power matrixes presented in the last two decades a growth of the non-renewable energy sources share, especially fossil sources, mainly in installed capacity and in a lesser degree in energy production. Greenpeace and the European Renewable Energy Council have elaborated a reference energy scenario together with a scenario analyzing the institution of ample measures for the promotion of renewable energy sources. Feed-in tariffs and auction or bidding mechanisms implemented in Brazil and Argentina and the renewable portfolio standard implemented in Chile allied with the wind industry state in these countries indicate that Chile and Argentina will fulfill the 2020 wind power installed capacity predicted in the reference scenarios, while Brazil will reach the energy revolution scenario prediction. Important energy policy changes are required if the Chile and Argentina energy revolution scenarios wind power installed capacity are to become a reality in 2020. (author)

  2. Intelectuais e política no Chile: Apontamentos sobre a revista Aurora de Chile (1938-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Amélia M.C. Melo

    Full Text Available Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é o de examinar a revista Aurora de Chile que circula em Santiago entre 1938-1940. Criada por Pablo Neruda esta publicação apresentou-se como um importante órgão de comunicação da Alianza de Intelectuales de Chile para la Defensa de la Cultura (AICH, entidade fundada em articulação com outras organizações internacionais de intelectuais e com orientação da Comintern. A revista situou-se nos debates políticos e culturais desses anos no Chile e atuou vigorosamente na defesa dos princípios da democracia, das liberdades públicas e contra o fascismo. Neste estudo busco demonstrar o papel desta revista como uma das vozes da perspectiva frentista que passou a orientar o Partido Comunista Chileno no período.

  3. Climate dynamics along the arid northern coast of Chile: The 1997-1998 Dinámica del Clima de la Región de Antofagasta (DICLIMA) experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutllant, José A.; Fuenzalida, Humberto; Aceituno, Patricio

    2003-09-01

    The DICLIMA field experiment was designed to test and quantify the hypothesis of an afternoon enhancement of the coastal subsidence in the extremely arid northern Chile because of solar heating over the west slope of the Andes. Ten-day campaigns near Antofagasta (23°S) were carried out in January 1997, July 1997, and January 1998. Significant diurnal cycles in temperature, mixing ratio, and wind from about 1000 to 4000 m above sea level were observed. This layer was decoupled from the marine boundary layer circulation below by the subsidence inversion when its base was under the average height of the coastal mountain range. The solar heating cycle over the Andes and associated circulation resulted in a mean afternoon zonal divergence above the subsidence inversion base of about 30 × 10-6 s-1, exceeding by a factor of 5 typical subtropical west coast divergences. The corresponding early morning convergence was particularly intense during the austral winter experiment. In spite of the very strong El Niño conditions that prevailed during the July 1997 and January 1998 experiments, the overwhelming control that radiation exerts on the daily cycles of the atmospheric circulation over the west slope of the Andes seems to guarantee the general validity of the results.

  4. Relación del desempeño académico de estudiantes de primer año de universidad en Chile y los instrumentos de selección para su ingreso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastón Vergara-Díaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Si bien el rendimiento académico del estudiantado que ingresa a las universidades chilenas ha sido objeto de múltiples estudios, pocas investigaciones han analizado la relación que tienen los instrumentos de selección de ingreso y el rendimiento académico posterior. En una muestra de 440 estudiantes de Ingeniería Comercial de la Universidad Austral de Chile, pertenecientes a cinco promociones de primer año, se estudiaron los instrumentos de admisión a la carrera, y se determinó cuáles explican mejor el rendimiento académico. Para ello se utilizaron los resultados de las pruebas de selección universitaria (PSU y las notas de enseñanza media (NEM obtenidos por el estudiantado, en relación con el promedio semestral ponderado (PSP del primer año universitario. Se determinó que el promedio de NEM explica mejor el rendimiento académico estudiantil, al presentar la mejor correlación con el rendimiento académico del primer semestre y de manera más fuerte en el segundo.

  5. Caries dental asociada a factores de riesgo durante el embarazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cecilio Pérez Oviedo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El periodo gestacional se relaciona con una mayor incidencia de caries dental, aunque la asociación entre gestación e incremento de caries no ha podido aún ser científicamente demostrada. Se propuso realizar un estudio para determinar la presencia de caries dental y algunos factores de riesgo asociados en el primer y tercer trimestre del embarazo, para detectar la aparición de lesiones cariosas nuevas y cambios relacionados con los factores de riesgo entre ambos trimestres. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo longitudinal desde diciembre de 2006 a febrero de 2008 en el municipio de Florida, Camagüey, Cuba. El universo de estudio estuvo constituido por 38 embarazadas y la muestra por 21, que fueron interrogadas y examinadas en ambos trimestres con el objetivo de determinar la presencia de caries y los factores de riesgo asociados como: higiene bucal deficiente, dieta cariogénica, pH salival bajo, ocurrencia de vómitos y embarazo previo. La información necesaria fue recogida en un formulario confeccionado al efecto. En el primer trimestre el 80,95 % estaban afectadas por caries dental y se observó aparición de lesiones nuevas en 6 embarazadas, en el tercer trimestre. Los factores de riesgo presentados con mayor frecuencia en el primer trimestre fueron la dieta cariogénica en el 66,66 % y la higiene bucal deficiente en el 47,61 % de las pacientes. Ninguna embarazada modificó la dieta durante el embarazo, sin embargo la higiene bucal deficiente persistió en el 14,28 %. El 52,38 % de las embarazadas afectadas en el primer trimestre consumían dieta cariogénica y el 47,61 % habían tenido embarazo previo. Se concluyó que hubo afectación por nuevas caries durante el embarazo, los factores de riesgo que predominantes fueron la dieta cariogénica, la higiene bucal deficiente y el embarazo previo. Las pacientes no modificaron la dieta durante el embarazo, pero sí mejoraron la higiene bucal. Todas las que presentaban vómitos y pH salival

  6. Variable structural controls through time in the Southern Central Andes (~36°S Controles estructurales variables en el tiempo en los Andes Centrales Australes (~36°S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío L Orts

    2012-05-01

    brittle-ductile transitions at the upper crust with no major influence of previous structures. This fact can be explained by a higher thermal flux achieved in the retroarc area in the last 17 Ma due to the eastward arc expansion during a shallow subduction regime.Los Andes Centrales Australes a los 36°S han sido reconocidos como una faja orogénica en donde la contracción, principalmente acomodada por estructuras de basamento, está asociada a la inversión de un sistema extensional del Triásico Tardío-Jurásico Temprano. Basados en una sección estructural, construida a partir de datos de campo, líneas sísmicas 2D, datos de pozo y el procesamiento de anomalías de Bouger, proponemos una evolución tectónica polifásica. En el sector occidental, a lo largo del eje cordillerano, estructuras de basamento con orientación NW a NNW fueron invertidas actuando como un control de primer orden en la generación de fajas frontales de piel fina angostas y de orientación norte. La transferencia de acortamiento es controlada por el despegue principal del Jurásico Tardío. Estas estructuras coinciden con bajos de anomalías gravimétricas que cortan de manera oblicua al eje estructural andino. Hacia el este del dominio de inversión, por debajo de las fajas frontales de deformación de piel fina, la información sísmica revela depocentros cuneiformes del Triásico Tardío que no experimentaron una inversión significativa. Hacia el este, bloques de basamento doble-vergentes definen el frente orogénico emergente Andino a estas latitudes. Estas estructuras contraccionales truncan anomalías gravimétricas definidas por anisotropías de basamento, indicando que no están relacionadas a inversión tectónica, a diferencia del dominio occidental. Fueron distinguidas dos fases contraccionales. La más antigua es de edad cretácica tardía, inferida a partir de relaciones de 'onlap' en los estratos del Cretácico Superior identificados en perfiles sísmicos. Estas secuencias

  7. Chile: protección social de la salud Chile: social protection in health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Urriola

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This piece begins with a brief discussion of the concepts leading to the social right to health protection. Special emphasis is placed on the principle of social cohesion, which has influenced social health protection in European countries. Chile’s experience in this field from the 1990s to the present is described, as exemplified in three dimensions. In the first place, social security coverage is presented as a means to achieve universal (horizontal coverage. A discussion follows on vertical coverage, where the author identifies health problems for which insured persons have guaranteed rights of access to medical care. This section describes available emergency care, primary health care, and the special plan for Universal Access to Explicit Guarantees (Acceso Universal de Garantías Explícitas de salud, or AUGE. Thirdly, the discussion covers the funding sources supporting the Chilean health care system: Government subsidies, contributions to social security, and out-of-pocket disbursements for private care. Chile’s public health system has various special programs. One of them is catastrophic insurance, which covers 100% of the care needed for complex and very costly treatments. Older persons (over 65 have coverage for 100% of the cost of eyeglasses and hearing aids, and for 50% of the cost of home care. If life expectancy is an appropriate indicator of health system results, it is worth noting that Chile and the United States of America have both achieved a life expectancy of 77 years, even though Chile spends only 5.9% of its gross domestic product on health care, as compared to the 15% spent by the United States.

  8. Los movimientos de protesta del Pueblo Mapuche en Chile, 2000-2012: Balance y perspectivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Cancino

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aunque el Pueblo Mapuche de Chile es numéricamente reducido, sus reivindicaciones históricas y luchas actuales tienen el mismo contenido que las de otros pueblos originarios de América Latina con mayor población. Durante cuatro siglos los Mapuches no dejaron de combatir el colonialismo español. Desde 1830, el Estado chileno ha ejercido una colonización interior que les expropió sus tierras ancestrales, desconoció su lengua, cultura e identidad subsumiéndolos en la identidad chilena. Los movimientos mapuches actuales expresan la continuidad de una lucha de resistencia frente al Estado Nacional que nunca ha cesado. En 1979 la dictadura militar promulgó el Decreto de Ley 2.568 cuyo objetivo fue la disolución de las comunidades mapuches. Las movilizaciones mapuches fueron iniciadas en los 80 y formaban parte de los movimientos de protesta contra los procesos de globalización y modernización que han generado enormes impactos ambientales. En este artículo se discutirán las perspectivas de la lucha mapuche en un país donde los pueblos originarios constituyen una minoría y las posibilidades eventuales de estos de entablar alianza con otros sectores oprimidos para poder alcanzar los objetivos de su lucha. English: Although the Mapuche people of Chile is numerically a small group, its historical and current struggles have the same content as that of other peoples of Latin America with larger population. For four centuries the Mapuche people never stopped fighting against the Spanish colonialism. Since 1830, the Chilean government has exerted inner colonization by expropriating their ancestral lands, ignoring their language, culture and identity forcing them into the Chilean identity. The current Mapuche movements express the continuity of a resistance struggle against the Federal Government which has never ceased. In 1979, the military dictatorship enacted the Decree Law 2.568 aimed at the liquidation of the Mapuche communities. The

  9. Un análisis de las reformas judiciales de Argentina, Chile y Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin SKAAR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata sobre las reformas judiciales en Sudamérica, durante los años 90. Muestra que tanto en el caso de la Argentina como en el de Chile, las reformas a los códigos de procedimiento estuvieron motivadas por tres factores centrales, vinculados con el doble pro­ceso de democratización y liberalización económica: i la preocupación con la violación de dere­chos humanos que provenía de los pasados regímenes autoritarios; ii el deseo de crear ambientes legales estables tanto para los derechos de propiedad como para la inversión extranjera; y iii la preocupación pública en torno a tasas de criminalidad cada vez más altas. Las reformas consti­tucionales que afectaron a las Cortes Supremas tanto en la Argentina como en Chile estuvieron vinculadas por razones estrictamente auto-interesadas. En última instancia, estas reformas fue­ron el resultado de compromisos políticos entre la izquierda y la derecha en respuesta a parti­culares eventos nacionales. En Uruguay, los frustrados intentos por desarrollar reformas en el código de procedimientos criminales y en el ámbito de la Corte Suprema pueden atribuirse a una combinación de falta de voluntad política, la carencia de apoyo a las mismas reformas judi­ciales, y una falta de recursos económicos. Notablemente, el análisis muestra que en ninguno de los tres países examinados las agencias internacionales han jugado un rol significativo a la hora de promover reformas u ofrecer asistencia financiera o técnica en favor de los cambios en los códigos de procedimiento o en la organización de las Cortes Supremas. Ello sugiere que estos dos tipos de reformas judiciales en el Cono Sur han sido motivados, ante todo, a partir de deman­das nacionales, y no a partir de una presión internacional –lo que muestra una diferencia impor­tante en el contexto de reformas que distinguió a estos tres países latinoamericanos–, y el que se dio en otros países de la región.

  10. Pandemic Influenza Due to pH1N1/2009 Virus: Estimation of Infection Burden in Reunion Island through a Prospective Serosurvey, Austral Winter 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellagi, Koussay; Guernier, Vanina; Pascalis, Hervé; Gérardin, Patrick; Fianu, Adrian; Lapidus, Nathanael; Naty, Nadège; Tortosa, Pablo; Boussaïd, Karim; Jaffar-Banjee, Marie-Christine; Filleul, Laurent; Flahault, Antoine; Carrat, Fabrice; Favier, Francois; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Background To date, there is little information that reflects the true extent of spread of the pH1N1/2009v influenza pandemic at the community level as infection often results in mild or no clinical symptoms. This study aimed at assessing through a prospective study, the attack rate of pH1N1/2009 virus in Reunion Island and risk factors of infection, during the 2009 season. Methodology/Principal Findings A serosurvey was conducted during the 2009 austral winter, in the frame of a prospective population study. Pairs of sera were collected from 1687 individuals belonging to 772 households, during and after passage of the pandemic wave. Antibodies to pH1N1/2009v were titered using the hemagglutination inhibition assay (HIA) with titers ≥1/40 being considered positive. Seroprevalence during the first two weeks of detection of pH1N1/2009v in Reunion Island was 29.8% in people under 20 years of age, 35.6% in adults (20–59 years) and 73.3% in the elderly (≥60 years) (P<0.0001). Baseline corrected cumulative incidence rates, were 42.9%, 13.9% and 0% in these age groups respectively (P<0.0001). A significant decline in antibody titers occurred soon after the passage of the epidemic wave. Seroconversion rates to pH1N1/2009 correlated negatively with age: 63.2%, 39.4% and 16.7%, in each age group respectively (P<0.0001). Seroconversion occurred in 65.2% of individuals who were seronegative at inclusion compared to 6.8% in those who were initially seropositive. Conclusions Seroincidence of pH1N1/2009v infection was three times that estimated from clinical surveillance, indicating that almost two thirds of infections occurring at the community level have escaped medical detection. People under 20 years of age were the most affected group. Pre-epidemic titers ≥1/40 prevented seroconversion and are likely protective against infection. A concern was raised about the long term stability of the antibody responses. PMID:21980532

  11. Rearranjo estrutural de PET durante compressão plana

    OpenAIRE

    Elton Luis Gasparotto Denardin

    2004-01-01

    As características da tensão – deformação do Poli(tereftalato de etileno) (PET) durante o processo de deformação por compressão plana tem sido estudadas. Amostras de PET com e sem tratamento térmico obtidas por injeção foram deformadas a diferentes temperaturas de deformação, abaixo e acima da temperatura de transição vítrea (Tg) utilizando diferentes taxas de deformação e tensões finais aplicadas. O comportamento mecânico foi analisado através das curvas de tensão – deformação obtidas por de...

  12. Energy from the Andes. The hydropower plant La Confluencia in Chile; Energie aus den Anden. Die Wasserkraftanlage La Confluencia in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Mathias [Hochschule Regensburg (Germany). Bauingenieurwesen

    2012-11-01

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the hydropower plant La Confluencia situated nearly 150 km south of Santiago de Chile (Chile). La Confluencia is a project development of a Norwegian-Australian joint venture of SN Power utilities (Oslo, Norway) and Pacific Hydro (Melbourne, Australia). Constructora Hochtief Tecsa (Santiago, Chile) took over the order to construct the plant completely including planning, construction, equipment and operation. The system concept was developed in collaboration with Poeyry Energy (Zurich, Switzerland). The plant design was devised in cooperation with Intertechne (Curitiba, Brazil), EDIC Ingenieros (Santiago, Chile) and Geocontrol (Madrid, Spain).

  13. Política e saúde no Chile e no Brasil: contribuições para uma comparação Political system and health policy in Chile and Brazil: contributions to a comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eliana Labra

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa comparativamente aspectos político-institucionais das transformações do sistema de saúde implementadas no Chile e no Brasil no último século, enfatizando as "modernizações" neoliberais chilenas dos começos dos anos 80, durante a ditadura de Pinochet, e as reformas empreendidas no Brasil, em fins da mesma década, na esteira do processo de redemocratização, após quase 20 anos de autoritarismo militar. A tese central é que o desenvolvimento político é dimensão relevante na explicação dos processos de decisão relativos às políticas de saúde e à diferente configuração de cada sistema. Por último, postula-se que o legado histórico de cada construção pode resistir às mudanças, tanto na democracia como na ditadura.This work analyses the main political aspects of transformations in the health systems of Chile and Brazil in the XX century, emphasizing the Chilean neo-liberal "modernizations" in the 80s under the Pinochet dictatorship, and, in the same decade, the Brazilian reforms during the democratic transition initiated after almost 20 years of military rule. Political development is pointed to as a relevant dimension in the explanation of the differences in policy-making and, thus, in the configuration of each health system. Last but not least, it is postulated that the historical legacy of each health institutional construct challenges changes both under democratic and authoritarian regimes.

  14. MANIFESTACIONES OCULTAS DE VIOLENCIA, DURANTE EL DESARROLLO DEL RECREO ESCOLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny María Artavia Granados

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es producto de un proceso de investigación realizado en una escuela de la Dirección Regional de Educación de Occidente, en Costa Rica. Este tiene como fin determinar si durante el desarrollo de los recreos se suscitan manifestaciones de violencia implícitas u ocultas entre las y los estudiantes II Ciclo de la Educación General Básica. En el proceso del estudio se tomaron en cuenta aspectos relacionados con las actividades lúdicas y las interacciones personales desarrolladas durante los recreos escolares y que podrían propiciar violencia escolar implícita u oculta. Se procuró identificar la existencia de enfrentamientos y conflictos entre estudiantes, que conllevan amenazas, manifestaciones de exclusión, persecuciones e intimidaciones entre las y los niños. Se plantearon algunas conclusiones entre las que destacan que un alto porcentaje de la población estudiantil investigada manifiesta recibir amenazas, y que estas, en mayor número, se producen entre las niñas. Asimismo, un alto porcentaje de esta población estudiada indica que ha sido excluida en la dinámica del recreo por diferentes motivos, entre los que destacan: características físicas, género, condición social y situaciones particulares educativas que presentan algunos niños o niñas en edad escolar.

  15. [Fertility Survey, Metropolitana region, Chile 1989].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    A fertility study was carried out by the Chilean Association for Protection of the Family (APROFA) in metropolitan Chile in 1989 to update data from the most recent fertility study in 1974. A random and self-weighted sample of 600 women aged 15-44 in 32 urban communes of the metropolitan region were interviewed in November 1989. 55% were married or in stable consensual unions, 39.1% were single, and 5.9% were separated, divorced, or widowed. 24.1% had primary educations, 15.5% had some form of higher education, and .2% were illiterate. 64.2% of the women had children, of whom 63.8% had 1 or 2. Only 2.1% had 6 or more children. 46.2% felt that the ideal family size was 1-2 children and 30.7% that it was 3 children. 40.4% of women with children wanted another child and 59.6% did not. 25.1% of the sample had never had sexual relations, 7.3% had not had sexual relations in the 12 months prior to the interview, and the remaining 67.6% were sexually active. At the time of the survey 6.1% were pregnant and 11.1% had had a birth in the preceding 12 months. 28.3% of these pregnancies were considered unwanted, usually for economic reasons or because the family was considered complete. 55.6% of the sample reported using contraceptives. 48.6% used IUDs, 26.0% used oral contraceptives, 6.9% periodic abstinence methods, and 1.8% barrier methods. Only 7.5% of women aged 15-19 used contraception. Rates of use stabilized after age 25 at about 72%. 80.9% of women married or in union used a method, as did 20.2% of single and 59.3% of separated or divorced women. The data for the survey are still under analysis and all statistics are provisional.

  16. Runoff and suspended sediment transport after plantation interventions in experimental catchments with contrasting rainfall conditions, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iroume, A.; Schuller, P.; Bronstert, A.; Carey, P.; Palacios, H.; Ulloa, H.

    2012-04-01

    dry in Nacimiento and this fact could explain the minor differences in suspended sediments transport between the control and treatment catchments. In Los Ulmos mean monthly suspended sediment loads for the pre-treatment period were 63.9 kg/ha in LUC and 165 kg/ha in LUT. Then, mean monthly suspended sediment loads during the first year of the post-harvesting period (May to December 2010) were 70 kg/ha in LUC and 203 kg/ha in LUT and 38 kg/ha in LUC and 103 kg/ha in LUT from January to August 2011. Low soil disturbances associated to the summer logging operations in NT and the very dry year following clearfelling could explain the similarities among suspended sediment transport in the two Nacimiento catchments. Major differences were registered in the LUT catchment, probably associated to higher erosive processes in this rainy site. This research is supported by the Chilean Government through projects FONDECYT Project 1090574 and CONICYT/BMBF 243-2010. The authors acknowledge the support of Forestal Mininco S.A. and the Forest Research Centre of Universidad Austral de Chile.

  17. Variaciones de un glaciar de montaña en los Andes de Chile central en las últimas dos décadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available VARIATIONS D’UN GLACIER DE MONTAGNE DANS LES ANDES DU CHILI CENTRAL AU COURS DES DEUX DERNIÈRES DÉCENNIES. Les résultats du bilan de masse du glacier Echaurren Norte sont présentés. Il s’agit d’un glacier de montagne de 0,4 km2 situé dans les Andes du Chili central, à 50 km à l’est de Santiago, à une altitude moyenne de 3 750 m. Ce programme de la Direction Générale d’Eaux du Chili a permis de recueillir régulièrement une information sur les bilans de masse pendant 18 ans, entre les années 1975 et 1993. C’est le seul registre de bilan de masse d’un glacier au Chili. L’ablation pendant la période de fonte a été de 252 cm d’eau en moyenne annuelle, avec une accumulation hivernale moyenne de 280 cm d’eau. Le bilan net est positif pour la période, mais on observe une grande variation interannuelle. Le bilan positif du glacier Echaurren Norte contraste avec le recul généralisé des autres glaciers du Chili central. Se presentan resultados del balance de masa del glaciar Echaurren Norte, un glaciar de montaña de 0,4 km2 ubicado a una altitud media de 3 750 m.s.n.m., en los Andes de Chile central, 50 km al este de Santiago. Los datos, recolectados como parte de un programa regular de la Dirección General de Aguas, Chile, cubren un período de 18 años, desde 1975 a 1993 y constituyen el único registro de balance de masa de un glaciar en Chile. La ablación durante el período de deshielo fue de 252 cm eq. en agua anuales en promedio, con una acumulación invernal promedio de 280 cm eq. en agua. El balance neto para el período es positivo, pero existe una gran variación interanual. El balance positivo del glaciar Echaurren Norte contrasta con el retroceso generalizado en otros glaciares de Chile central. VARIATIONS OF A MOUNTAIN GLACIER IN THE CENTRAL CHILEAN ANDES DURING THE LAST TWENTY YEARS. Mass balance results for Echaurren Norte Glacier are presented. This mountain glacier, with an area of 0,4 km2, is located at

  18. The New Student Loan System in Chile's Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrain, Christian; Zurita, Salvador

    2008-01-01

    Chile's higher education system stands out as being one of the most privatized and open to the market in the world. Recently, the Chilean Congress passed Law #20.027 of 2005, which provides the legal framework for the creation of a student loan system guaranteed both by the State and by higher education institutions (HEIs), financed by the private…

  19. Radiation doses in neuroangiography for a clinical hospital in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergara, F.; Valenzuela, E.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the levels of radiation to the patient in neuroangiography procedures diagnostic and therapy in a Chile's Hospital, using a biplane angiographic system Siemens model ArtisZee. This research was conducted under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the support of their radiation protection programs for patients

  20. Triassic volcanic units in coastal region of Antofagasta, northern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basso, M.; Cortes, J.A.; Marinovic, N

    2001-01-01

    U-Pb geochronological evidence of a Middle to Late Triassic volcanic event was found in the coastal region of Antofagasta, northern Chile (23 o -23 o 30 ). Two new ages were obtained from rhyolitic tuffs and an associated dome, which have classically been attributed to the Jurassic La Negra Formation (au)

  1. Fourth Generation Warfare in Chile: Illicit Drug Trafficking Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    chain, such as Mexico, Central America, Ecuador, Venezuela , Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, among others. In addition to the increase in levels of...Organization of American States, the Common Market of the South ( Mercosur ), the Group of Financial Action of South America (Gafisud), and also in the Mechanism

  2. A gendered look at workplace mental health in Chile | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-21

    Apr 21, 2016 ... Assessing the impact of working conditions on mental health. Documenting workplace mental health risks and protective factors. Identifying policy best practices that promote healthier workplaces. Strengthening the training capacity of research user organizations. Raising public awareness in Chile of ...

  3. Evictions and the Right to Housing: Experience from Canada, Chile ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This book tells the story of evictions and planned evictions in the Canadian cities of Vancouver, Toronto, and Calgary. It explores the housing plight of Santiago de Chile's urban poor during the military dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet. It looks at how the 500th anniversary of Columbus's arrival in America resulted in mass ...

  4. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Chile 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    Chile has experienced several serious energy supply incidents over the last decade, including major droughts, a sustained gas supply cut from Argentina (since 2004), and a major earthquake in early 2010 which affected electricity networks and refineries, and caused several black-outs. Due to Chile's unique and sinuous geography - it runs 4 300 kilometres from North to South and only 175 kms from East to West- the country's energy markets are regionally disjointed, particularly as the regional gas and electricity grids are not connected. In the arid North, energy demand is dominated by the mining industry, and operates based on a separate thermal-based Sistema Interconectado Norte Grande (SING) electricity grid. The more densely-populated central region (including Santiago) operates on the more hydro-dependent Sistema Interconectado Central (SIC) electricity grid. The southernmost, hydro-rich regions of the country are not connected to the rest of Chile in terms of electricity and gas. The following report is based on an IEA Emergency Response Assessment carried out in 2010 and 2011 which looked specifically at Chile's capacity to respond to short-term emergencies in oil, gas and electricity.

  5. Sowing Consumers in the Garden of Mass Retailing in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ossandón, José

    2014-01-01

    It is known that some key elements of modern consumer credit were originally developed in department stores. However, almost no attention has been given to new developments in this area. This paper studies the case of retail credit in Chile. Special attention is given to a particular technique...

  6. Severe mortality impact of the 1957 influenza pandemic in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowell, Gerardo; Simonsen, Lone; Fuentes, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological studies of the 1957 influenza pandemic are scarce, particularly from lower income settings. METHODS: We analyzed the spatial-temporal mortality patterns of the 1957 influenza pandemic in Chile including detailed age-specific mortality data from a large city and inves......INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological studies of the 1957 influenza pandemic are scarce, particularly from lower income settings. METHODS: We analyzed the spatial-temporal mortality patterns of the 1957 influenza pandemic in Chile including detailed age-specific mortality data from a large city...... and investigated risk factors for severe mortality impact across regions. RESULTS: Chile exhibited two waves of excess mortality in winter 1957 and 1959 with a cumulative excess mortality rate of 12 per 10,000, and a ~10-fold mortality difference across provinces. High excess-mortality rates were associated...... with high baseline mortality (R2=41.8%; P=0.02), but not with latitude (P>0.7). Excess mortality rates increased sharply with age. Transmissibility declined from R=1.4-2.1 to R=1.2-1.4 between the two pandemic waves. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated A/H2N2 mortality burden in Chile is the highest on record...

  7. Education with ICT in South Korea and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Jaime; Salinas, Alvaro; Harris, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a linear-analytical case study on the development of ICT within the educational systems of Chile and South Korea. Through a comprehensive meta-data analysis and bibliographic review, we collected information on both educational systems and their ICT adoption policies. Key differences necessary to understand how both countries…

  8. Dynamics of Investment for Market-Oriented Farmers in Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyes, A.; Kuyvenhoven, A.; Lensink, R.; Moll, H.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Using panel data from a survey conducted in 2006 and 2008 of 177 market-oriented farmers in central Chile, we investigate investment under imperfect capital markets. Specifically we determine the impact of formal credit constraints on fixed investment. By controlling for endogeneity problems, we

  9. All projects related to chile | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Total Funding: CA$ 553,000.00. Women supporting women: Networked civic engagement to foster effective women's leadership for inclusive policymaking. Project. “Women supporting Women” is an applied research project led by Fundación Democracia y Desarrollo. Region: Chile, West Indies, North and Central America, ...

  10. All projects related to chile | Page 7 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Latin American Schoolnets (REDAL) network and the Latin American Education Portals Network (RELPE) have made a substantive contribution to ... The municipality of Peñalolén in Santiago, Chile, is characterized by great socioeconomic diversity and strong social networks (clubs for the elderly and young people, ...

  11. All projects related to chile | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-07-11

    The Impact of Price, Tax, and Advertising Policies on Alcohol Use in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, and Peru. Project. Alcohol consumption in the Americas comes at a considerable cost. End Date: July 11, 2017. Topic: SURVEYS, STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, POLICY MAKING, LOW INCOME GROUPS, SOCIAL PROBLEMS, ...

  12. How Local Market Pressures Shape Leadership Practices: Evidence from Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Alejandro; Fromm, Germán

    2016-01-01

    Chile is well known worldwide for its extensive use of market-driven mechanisms in education. Using a case study strategy in three schools, this paper shows that "universal" voucher system and mixed provision (co-existence of subsidised private and state-funded schools) policies are reshaping school management practices. The paper draws…

  13. All projects related to Chile | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to support policies and programs that create greater opportunities and improve the well-being of 900,000 people living in poverty in the rural-urban territories of Chile, Colombia, and Mexico. Topic: ECONOMIC GROWTH, RURAL AREAS, EMPLOYMENT, LATIN AMERICA, FOOD, POLICY MAKING. Region: ...

  14. Neoliberal Education and Student Movements in Chile: Inequalities and Malaise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabalin, Cristian

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the major consequences of the neoliberal education system implemented in Chile during the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet and how two important student movements contested this structure. In 2006 and 2011, thousands of students filled the streets to demand better public education, more social justice and equal opportunities.…

  15. How Chile is taking its first steps towards nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitev, Lubomir

    2014-01-01

    Chile's Association of Engineers is urging the government to launch a programme of new nuclear build due to the rising electricity demand that could lead to four reactors being in operation by 2030. Fernando Sierpe, head of the association's nuclear power committee, talks to NucNet about plans, progress and possible obstacles.

  16. The Araucanian Indian in Chile. IWGIA Document 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdichewsky, Bernardo

    One of the larger of the native peoples of South America, the Araucanians include different ethnic subgroups, some of which are now extinct. Once geographically spread extensively over the southern cone of South America, at present they are reduced to only two closely related groups: (1) the Mapuche of southern Chile, the largest one; and (2) the…

  17. [Health research and health technology assessment in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Manuel Antonio; Cabieses, Báltica; Paraje, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Health research is considered an essential element for the improvement of population health and it has been recommended that a share of the national health budget should be allocated to develop this field. Chile has undertaken efforts in the last decades in order to improve the governmental structure created to promote the development of health research, which has increased human resources and funding opportunities. On the other hand, the sustained economic growth of Chile in the last decades suggests that the health expenditure will maintain its increasing trend in the following years. This additional funding could be used to improve coverage of current activities performed in the health system, but also to address the incorporation of new strategies. More recently, health technology assessment (HTA) has been proposed as a process to support decisions about allocation of resources based on scientific evidence. This paper examines the relationship between the development of health research and the HTA process. First, it presents a brief diagnosis of the situation of health research in Chile. Second, it reviews the conceptual basis and the methods that account for the relationship between a HTA process and the development of health research. In particular, it emphasizes the relevance of identifying information gaps where funding additional research can be considered a good use of public resources. Finally, it discusses the challenges and possible courses of action that Chile could take in order to guarantee the continuous improvement of an articulated structure for health research and HTA.

  18. The histories and destinies of Chile and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke Penaluna

    2016-01-01

    In Strangers on Familiar Soil, Edward Dallam Melillo shows how Californians and Chileans each have one foot on their land and the other connecting them through the Pacific Ocean. Melillo reframes our understanding of US history in the west and links the histories and destinies of Chile and California from 1786 to the current day. Contrary to popular belief, Melillo...

  19. Cooperating to compete : associative peasant business firms in Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berdegué Sacristán, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1990 the government of Chile has carried out a major effort to support the participation of small scale agriculture in one of the most liberalized and competitive economies of the developing world. In particular, the Agricultural Development Institute (INDAP), and agency of the Ministry of

  20. All projects related to chile | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-04-23

    Topic: STATISTICAL DATA, DATABASES, DATA RETRIEVAL, DATA ANALYSIS, POLICY MAKING, Governance, Internet. Region: Brazil, South America, Chile, ... Latin American societies continue to struggle with high income inequality as a source of social and economic tension. Start Date: April 23, 2009. End Date: March ...

  1. Interdisciplinary studies of eruption at Chaiten Volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Pallister; Jon J. Major; Thomas C. Pierson; Richard P. Hoblitt; Jacob B. Lowenstern; John C. Eichelberger; Lara. Luis; Hugo Moreno; Jorge Munoz; Jonathan M. Castro; Andres Iroume; Andrea Andreoli; Julia Jones; Fred Swanson; Charlie Crisafulli

    2010-01-01

    There was keen interest within the volcanology community when the first large eruption of high-silica rhyolite since that of Alaska's Novarupta volcano in 1912 began on 1 May 2008 at Chaiten volcano, southern Chile, a 3-kilometer-diameter caldera volcano with a prehistoric record of rhyolite eruptions. Vigorous explosions occurred through 8 May 2008, after which...

  2. Recent Curriculum Change in Post-Pinochet Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedo-Richmond, Ruth; Richmond, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Reports on curriculum reform in Chile following the 1990 replacement of the Pinochet military regime with the democratically elected government of Patricio Aylwin. Significant reforms occurred in primary and rural education. Other improvements included increased professionalization of teaching, and funding for the Ministry of Education. (MJP)

  3. La prensa satírica de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paúl Alonso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Refiere el autor sobre la revista más vendida de Chile y convertida en el referente obligado de la prensa alternativa en Latinoamérica. De humor descarnado, irreverente, de marcado rechazo a la Dictadura militar de Pinochet y en la búsqueda constante por revelar las contradicciones de la sociedad chilena.

  4. All projects related to Chile | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-04-23

    Labour Market Regulations, Outcomes and Income Distribution in Colombia and Chile. Project. Latin American societies continue to struggle with high income inequality as a source of social and economic tension. Start Date: April 23, 2009. End Date: March 31, 2011. Topic: LABOUR MARKET, LABOUR POLICY, LABOUR ...

  5. Domestic Violence and Women's Mental Health in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballo, Rosario; Ramirez, Cynthia; Castillo, Marcela; Caballero, Gabriela Alejandra; Lozoff, Betsy

    2004-01-01

    Domestic violence against women is a pervasive, global health problem. This study investigates the correlates and psychological outcomes of domestic abuse among women in a semi-industrial country. The participants included 215 mothers residing in working-class communities located on the outskirts of Santiago, Chile. We utilized structural equation…

  6. Chile : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Plusieurs études ont montré que certaines formes de réseautage d'affaires collaboratif peuvent avoir une incidence positive sur l'innovation, les résultats financiers et le développement régional. Région: Chile, El Salvador, Paraguay, Uruguay. Programme: Initiative Think tank. Financement total : CA$ 250,000.00.

  7. All projects related to chile | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-03-31

    Start Date: March 31, 2008. End Date: January 1, 2010. Topic: YOUTH ORGANIZATIONS, YOUTH UNREST, SOCIAL PARTICIPATION. Region: Argentina, South America, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay, North and Central America. Total Funding: CA$ 2,917,200.00. Women Migrants Advocacy in Latin America.

  8. Integrated geophysical characteristics of the 2015 Illapel, Chile, earthquake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herman, Matthew W.; Nealy, Jennifer L.; Yeck, William L.; Barnhart, William D.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Benz, Harley M.

    2017-01-01

    On 16 September 2015, a Mw 8.3 earthquake ruptured the subduction zone offshore of Illapel, Chile, generating an aftershock sequence with 14 Mw 6.0–7.0 events. A double source W phase moment tensor inversion consists of a Mw 7.2 subevent and the main Mw 8.2 phase. We determine two slip models for

  9. All projects related to chile | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-11-17

    Rethinking Political Legitimacy: Citizen Inclusion and Social Digital Media. Project. In Chile, a mobilized, invigorated civil society is using new digital technologies to transform political participation. Start Date: November 17, 2011. End Date: May 17, 2014. Topic: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, COMPUTER NETWORKS, ...

  10. Education in Chile. Bulletin, 1964, No. 10. OE-14096

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeburger, Adela R.; Hauch, Charles C.

    1964-01-01

    This bulletin notes that Chile was one of the first Latin American republics to achieve political democracy, with all aspects of its cultural, educational, and philosophical life influenced by Spanish tradition, reinforced by French and Italian influences. This document provides a brief historical background, then proceeds to describe the system…

  11. Science, Technology, and Innovation in Chile | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    With this in mind, and following a conversation between Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chrétien and Chilean President Eduardo Frei in 1997, IDRC and the Chilean National Council for Science and Technology (CONICYT) agreed to collaborate in a review of Chile's policies and programs in science and technology.

  12. [Brucellosis in Chile: Description of a series of 13 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Roberto; Vidal, Pamela; Sotomayor, Camila; Norambuena, Mackarenna; Luppi, Mario; Silva, Francisco; Cifuentes, Marcela

    2017-06-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis caused by Brucella spp. It may be acquired by consuming unpasteurized dairy products. Brucellosis has a low incidence in Chile, thus, we have a scarce data. To report and to characterize the first series of clinical cases of adult patients diagnosed with brucellosis in Chile. We describe a series of 13 clinical cases in patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2016 in three different centers in the Metropolitan Region, Chile. A retrospective analysis was performed on clinical presentation, laboratory, antibiotic treatment, morbidity and mortality. The mean age was 50 years old. Eight cases had a record of consumption of unpasteurized dairy products. The most frequently reported complaints were fever. The most frequent focal point involved was the spine. Only one patient had a positive blood culture, while the diagnosis was made using serological techniques in the other part of the group. The most indicated antibiotic regimens were doxycycline-rifampicin and doxycycline-gentamicin. The hospital stay was 20 days approximately as an average. Clinical cure was achieved in all cases. Brucellosis is an infrequent zoonosis in Chile, and it produces a nonspecific clinical picture, so it is necessary to have high suspicion to make the diagnosis based in the antecedent of consumption of unpasteurized dairy or raw meat.

  13. Patrones reproductivos del lobo marino común, Otaria flavescens (Shaw 1800, en el centro-sur de Chile Breeding patterns in southern sea lions, Otaria flavescens (Shaw 1800, in south-central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HÉCTOR J PAVÉS

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El desfase latitudinal de los eventos reproductivos en Otaria flavescens sugiere la existencia de una adaptación fisiológica y conductual a condiciones ambientales locales. La identificación de cambios en los patrones conductuales intraespecíficos frente a modificaciones ambientales sugieren una relación entre estos. Se pretende revisar los patrones reproductivos del O. flavescens, determinando la existencia de una sincronización y estabilidad en ellos durante las temporadas 1996-1997 y 1997-1998 en la colonia de Punta Lobería, Chile. Se realizaron observaciones directas de las agrupaciones y conductas reproductivas empleando binoculares, y apoyadas por el uso de material fílmico y fotográfico. Los resultados evidenciaron modificaciones en, (a el número de harenes (de 28 disminuye a 19, (b la distribución espacial de los harenes (70 % de los harenes durante 1997-1998 se establecieron en el lado norte de la playa reproductiva, durante la temporada anterior estos se distribuyeron a lo largo de toda la playa, (c proporción etaria (un macho: 12 hembras: un juvenil: siete cachorros, desciende a un macho: nueve hembras: dos juveniles: seis cachorros, (d índice de poliginia (de 12,4 a 7,8 HPMT y de 11 a 9 HP, y (e la población organizada en harenes (disminución del 10,3 %. Estas variaciones estarían relacionadas con la reducción del espacio óptimo para el establecimiento de harenes debido a la incorporación de suelo/roca posterior a un derrumbe invernal. Los patrones conductuales reproductivos que se mantuvieron invariables durante las temporadas fueron, (a la estacionalidad de los harenes (constitución durante la cuarta semana de diciembre y disolución en la cuarta semana de febrero, (b el período de partos (inicio durante la segunda semana de enero, finalización durante la cuarta semana de enero, y (c el período de cópulas (inicio durante la tercera semana de enero, finalización durante la segunda semana de febrero. Por lo

  14. LOS USOS DE LA TABERNA: RENTA FISCAL, COMBATE AL ALCOHOLISMO Y CACICAZGO POLÍTICO EN CHILE. 1870-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCOS FERNÁNDEZ LABBÉ

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo examina los debates y medidas establecidas en Chile a partir de las últimas décadas del siglo XIX para regular la producción, expendio y consumo de bebidas alcohólicas, concentrándose en los intereses políticos y productivos que este tipo de discusiones y medidas permiten interpretar. Junto con exponer las principales estrategias establecidas por el Estado para conseguir una renta permanente a partir del impuesto a las bebidas alcohólicas, se analizan las prácticas políticas que, en el nivel municipal, vinculaban a los expendedores de bebidas embriagantes con la actividad política electoral, concluyéndose que este tipo de relaciones entorpecieron la aplicación efectiva de aspectos centrales de la legislación antialcohólica implementada durante el periodo en estudioThe present article examines the debates and measures established in Chile since the last decades of the 19th century to regulate the production, expense and consumption of alcoholic beverages, being concentrating on the productive and political interests that this type of discussions and measures permit to interpret. Along with exposing the main strategies established by the State to obtain a permanent income from the tax to the alcoholic beverages, the political practices are analyzed that, in the municipal level, linked the dealers of beverages with the electoral political activity, being concluded that this type of relations they hindered the effective application of central aspects of the anti-alcoholic legislation implemented during the period in study

  15. La provisión de servicios de salud en Chile: aspectos históricos, dilemas y perspectivas

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    Carlos Azevedo Antonio

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Se hace un breve análisis histórico del Sistema de Salud en Chile, desde el Sistema Nacional de Salud, con énfasis a las reformas ocurridas a partir de 1980, durante el régimen militar y los cambios introducidos desde 1990 por los gobiernos democráticos. Se compara la oferta actual de servicos por el subsistema público com aquella del privado utilizando como indicadores por mil beneficiarios: la tasa de consultas, de exámenes de laboratorio, de hospitalizaciones, de altas y de cirugías y la satisfación usuaria. Se analizan los principales dilemas del sistema de salud y las perspectivas de solución a la luz de las principales medidas tomadas en el presente. Hay buenas perpectivas de que el subsistema público mantenga su liderazgo histórico en la conducción y oferta de servicios en Chile debido a la rigurosa lógica geográfica y demográfica en la oferta de servicios, la disponibilidad estable de recursos financieros, una red de servicios suficiente y además, la considerable motivación de sus recursos humanos. Son mencionados aspectos innovadores que pueden ser útiles a otros sistemas, especialmente en América Latina, tales como: organización y gestión de servicios regionales de salud; metodologías innovadoras de pago de servicios; sistema de vigilancia sanitaria y la regulamentación estatal del financiamento privado en salud.

  16. El poder creador: tipos de poder y estrategias de sujeción en la frontera sur de Chile en la época colonial

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    Boccara, Guillaume

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analiza la evolución de las estrategias y métodos utilizados por los españoles para dominar a los pueblos autóctonos (reche o mapuche del centro-sur de Chile. Se pretende demostrar que existe una diferencia radical entre el modelo de conquista imperante durante el primer siglo (1550-1641 y los dispositivos de sujeción que se asentaron después (1641-1810, pasando de una máquina de conquista soberana, que remite a un ejercicio violento del poder y que tiende a funcionar a partir de la integración-exclusión, a otra que se funda en una empresa de civilización-asimilación de los pueblos sin policía. Asimismo, se pone en evidencia el papel central jugado por los jesuitas en el paso de un modelo a otro.

  17. Poder colonial e etnicidade no Chile: territorialização e reestruturação entre os Mapuche da época colonial

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    Guillaume Boccara

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho analisamos os mecanismos mediante os quais os grupos indígenas do sul do Chile conseguiram eximir-se da empresa de conquista e colonização levada a cabo pelos hispano-crioulos entre o século XVI e o início do século XIX. Mostramos como depois de um primeiro período, durante o qual os Mapuche resistiram militarmente à violência da conquista (1550-1650, logo começaram a transformar sua estratégia em função do novo contexto de negociação e comércio com os agentes coloniais, para constituir-se numa etnia política e economicamente poderosa.

  18. Oficios, milicias y cofradías. Éxito económico, prestigio y redes sociales afromestizas en Santiago de Chile, 1780-1820

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    Hugo Contreras Cruces

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo estudia a un grupo de mulatos y otros afromestizos de la ciudad de Santiago de Chile durante los últimos años del siglo XVIII y comienzos del siglo XIX, quienes a través de la práctica de un oficio artesanal o del comercio minorista y de su inserción institucional en milicias de castas y cofradías comenzaron y solidificaron un proceso que, por una parte, se traducía en la acumulación de bienes que tenían un carácter tanto material como simbólico; y por otra, en el aumento de su prestigio personal y social, que los alejaba cada vez más de los sectores populares coloniales.

  19. Control social y construcción de hegemonía en la ciudad de Concepción (Chile, 1860-1900

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    Mauricio F., Rojas Gómez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies some cultural transformations of subaltern sectors of the city of Concepcion during XIX century. It is specially centered in aspects concerned with evolution and valoration of work and education ideas. Two central aspects go through this article: the social control dynamic occurred within an economical and political structure of liberal and the state hegemony building.Este trabajo estudia algunas transformaciones culturales de los sectores subalternos de la ciudad de Concepción (Chile durante el siglo XIX. En especial se centra en aspectos relativos a la evolución y valoración de las ideas de trabajo y educación. Los ejes del estudio son: la dinámica del control social, ocurrida dentro de una estructura económica y política de tinte liberal y la construcción de hegemonía estatal.

  20. Conducta de forrajeo del gastrópodo Acanthina monodon Pallas, 1774 (Gastropoda: Muricidae en el intermareal rocoso de Chile central Foraging behavior of the gastropod Acanthina monodon Pallas, 1774 (Gastropoda: Muricidae in the intertidal rocky shores of central Chile

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    RUBÉN E. SOTO

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo investigamos aspectos de la ecología y conducta de forrajeo de Acanthina monodon, un gastrópodo murícido que habita en el intermareal rocoso de Chile central. En terreno, estudiamos las variaciones temporales en su distribución, densidad y dieta. En el laboratorio, cuantificamos la tasa de consumo, las preferencias alimentarias, el tiempo de ingestión y la rentabilidad energética obtenida con distintos tipos de presas mediante experimentos y registros en video. Las mayores densidades de individuos de A. monodon fueron observadas en la franja intermareal cercana al nivel cero de marea. En terreno, A. monodon realiza sus actividades de forrajeo principalmente durante la noche y su dieta consistió principalmente de mitílidos (95 % y cirripedios (5 %. La composición de la dieta de A. monodon en terreno presentó variaciones temporales las cuales dependerían principalmente de cambios en la oferta de los distintos tipos de mitílidos presentes en terreno durante los dos años de muestreo. En el laboratorio, los individuos de Acanthina presentaron preferencias alimentarias significativas por el mitílido Semimytilus algosus. En general, A. monodon bajo condiciones de laboratorio presentó una conducta de forrajeo en la cual maximizó la ganancia neta de energía, mediante la selección de las especies y tamaños de presas que le retribuyen la mayor rentabilidad energéticaWe investigated the ecology and foraging behavior of Acanthina monodon, a muricid gastropod that inhabits in the intertidal rocky shores of central Chile. In the field, we studied temporal variation of their spatial distribution, density, and diet composition. While in the laboratory, we quantified the consumption rate, alimentary preferences, ingestion times and energy profitability obtained with different types of prey using experiments and video recording. High densities of A. monodon individuals were observed in the intertidal fringe near at the

  1. O impacto do projeto do Pacto ABC nas relações Brasil-Argentina durante o segundo Governo Vargas

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    Raquel Paz dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho é parte de minha tese de doutorado na qual analiso as relações Brasil-Argentina numa perspectiva cultural entre 1930-1954, demonstrando como a cooperação foi uma característica presente nestas relações e traçando uma crítica ao recorrente paradigma da rivalidade. Este artigo analisa o impacto do projeto do Pacto ABC nas relações bilaterais no segundo governo de Getúlio Vargas. Através da análise de correspondências diplomáticas, artigos de jornais e documentos do senado brasileiro demonstram-se que a proposta do presidente Juan Perón de formação de uma união aduaneira entre Argentina, Brasil e Chile foi apoiada pelos setores varguistas, mas fortemente rechaçada pelos setores opositores contribuindo para a crise do governo brasileiro. Constatou-se também a influência do governo norte-americano no sentido de desenvolver uma intensa campanha propagandística contra o peronismo e apoiar os grupos contrários a aproximação da Argentina, buscando ordenar a América Latina dentro de sua orbita durante a Guerra Fria. Neste contexto, a proposta de integração regional fracassou, provocando profundos abalos nas relações diplomáticas entre os dois países.

  2. LAS RELACIONES DIPLOMÁTICAS Y POLÍTICO-PARTIDISTAS ÍTALO-CHILENAS DURANTE EL GOBIERNO DE EDUARDO FREÍ MONTALVA

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    Raffaele Nocera

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El ensayo explora los enlaces que se instauraron, durante la década de los sesenta del siglo pasado, entre la Democrazia Cristiana italiana y el Partido Demócrata Cristiano de Chile y, en términos generales, entre el gobierno italiano y el chileno, a través de una documentación de archivo que, hasta ahora, ha quedado bastante escondida. En este sentido, destacan los intercambios epistolares entre Eduardo Frei Montalva y algunos representantes y líderes del partido italiano (Fanfani, Moro, Bernassola y Freato. El ensayo se propone ofrecer temas de debate sobre las razones que movieron a la DC italiana a invertir muchos recursos -sobre todo financieros- y abnegación, en un escenario geopolítico lejano y, con excepción de Cuba, de competencia exclusiva de EE.UU.This work explores the links established between the Italian Christian Democracy and Chile's Christian Democrat Party during the sixties. Moreover, it considers the relationships between the Italian and Chilean governments, based on documentation that was, until now, unknown. Of particular interest is the regular mail correspondence between Eduardo Frei Montalva and some of the representatives and leaders of the Italian Christian Democracy (Fanfani, Moro, Bernassola and Freato. The article offers insights to debate about the reasons that encouraged the Italian Christian Democracy to invest financial resources and time in a distant Latin American geopolitical scenario, which was, with the exception of Cuba, part of United States sphere of influence.

  3. Worthy Women of Chile: What Role Did They Play? Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad Program 1995 (Chile).

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    Hertzberg, Ruth A.

    This paper describes the lives of some notable women in the history of Chile from the time of the conquistadors to the present. The significant women described in the paper include: (1) Ines de Suarez (accompanied Pedro de Validivia in 1544); (2) Micaela Bastidas Puyucahua (wife of Incan leader Jose Gabriel Tupac Amaru, about 1780); (3) Gabriela…

  4. Cooperativas como política pública: Electrificación rural en Chile, 1940-1970

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    José Tomás Labarca

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cooperatives as public policy: Rural electrification in Chile, 1940-1970 This article examines the relations between cooperatives and the State in Chile during the implementation of the National Electrification Plan from 1940 to 1970. Scholars generally agree that Latin American developmentalism entailed State expansion and market regression. I challenge this common explanation by arguing that in rural areas the Electrification Plan was carried out largely by cooperatives. This in turn prompted the creation of a State bureaucracy charged with controlling the electrification cooperatives, and helped to develop technical expertise and more efficient economic administration. Based on these findings, the article suggests that coordination between the State and the cooperatives led to technical relations and not, as it is often argued, one of co-optation. Furthermore, state expansion allowed for the creation of a new cooperative market. In conclusion, electrification cooperatives triggered economic and institutional innovations that raise new questions on how to explain Latin American developmental strategies. Resumen: Este artículo analiza la relación entre las cooperativas y el Estado en Chile durante la implementación del Plan Nacional de Electrificación entre 1940 y 1970. Los investigadores del desarrollismo latinoamericano generalmente han coincidido en comprenderlo como un proceso de expansión del Estado y retroceso del mercado. El artículo cuestiona esta explicación tradicional argumentando que en las áreas rurales el plan de electrificación fue implementado en gran parte por cooperativas. Esto produjo la creación de una burocracia estatal idónea para controlar las cooperativas, así como también condicionó al cooperativismo de electrificación rural a ser dirigido con altos índices de preparación técnica y eficiencia económica. A partir de estos hallazgos, el artículo sugiere que la coordinación entre el Estado y las

  5. Servicio civil en Chile, análisis de los directivos de primer nivel jerárquico (2003-13

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    Bastián González-Bustamante

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Este artículo analiza los principales factores que condicionan la selección de un directivo público de primer nivel jerárquico en Chile con base en una perspectiva de corte sociológico y el uso del concepto especies de capital. El trabajo realiza un recorrido teórico y descriptivo sobre la modernización del Estado y la profesionalización de la gestión pública en Chile. Posteriormente con una muestra de 45 casos correspondientes a altos directivos nombrados durante el período 2003-13, se trabaja con modelos de regresión logística para determinar los factores que condicionan la selección de estos funcionarios. Se llega a la conclusión que el capital político no es un factor que favorece la selección del actor.

  6. Expansión Hare Krishna en contextos de crisis: resignificando la movilización social desde una perspectiva religiosa en Chile

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    Bahamondes González, Luis Andrés

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the expansion of the Hare Krishna movement in Santiago, Chile, analysing mobilization discourse and mechanisms adopted in the face of the social upheavals of the new millennium. It seeks to understand not only recent internal transformation of the Hare Krishna movement, but also to identify social action strategies and independent policies concerning social issues in the public arena. We will analyse the active position the religious group has embraced in a context of growing social demands and how its actions are guided by the philosophical and spiritual conception of its doctrine.La presente investigación se focalizará en la expansión del movimiento Hare Krishna en Santiago de Chile, analizando los discursos y mecanismos de movilización que desarrollan sus integrantes frente al escenario de agitación social vivido con la llegada del nuevo milenio. Con ello no solo se buscará vislumbrar las transformaciones internas acaecidas en el movimiento durante el último tiempo, sino además pretendemos identificar estrategias de acción social y políticas independientes frente a inquietudes o problemas sociales instalados en la agenda pública. De esta forma, analizaremos la manera como este grupo religioso se posiciona activamente en un escenario de demandas sociales y guía su accionar desde la particularidad filosófica y espiritual de su doctrina.

  7. Escalas de producción en economías mineras: El caso de Chile en su dimensión regional

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    Nathaly Rivera

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Una proporción importante de la producción de cobre en Chile está geográficamente concentrada en dos regiones: Antofagasta y Atacama. A pesar de la evolución positiva del precio del cobre, el ingreso promedio de estas localidades ha presentado variaciones. Así, durante periodos de incrementos en el precio del cobre el ingreso promedio de Atacama ha aumentado, mientras que lo mismo no ha ocurrido en Antofagasta· Este trabajo analiza esta diferencia a partir del rol de las escalas de producción en el sector minero. Utilizando un análisis de sensibilidad para un modelo insumo-producto desagregado, se calculan encadenamientos y multiplicadores por escalas de producción a nivel regional. Esta estrategia permite identificar y cuantificar el impacto de cada escala de producción, confirmando efectos heterogéneos de la minería sobre la producción e ingreso local, aspectos que adquieren especial relevancia al analizarse la política minera actual en Chile.

  8. La Ratio Studiorum de la compañía de Jesús: Su aporte al desarrollo pedagógico y cultural del Chile colonial

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    Alejandra Contreras Gutiérrez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La educación colonial en Chile es un tema que ha sido escasamente abordado por los historiadores e intelectuales del país y, dentro de la exigua bibliografía que existe dedicada exclusivamente al tema, se puede observar una perspectiva común entre los histo-riadores que, o bien tratan el asunto de manera superficial o bien lo hacen con un evidente ánimo de reprobación hacia la cultura clerical que fomentaba este tipo de enseñanza. En el presente artículo revisaremos el plan de estudios de la Compañía de Jesús llamado Ratio Studiorum, para por medio de ella dar cuenta de los lineamientos y objetivos que se había trazado la enseñanza jesuita durante la colonia. Con esta presentación esperamos contribuir al conocimiento de una parte importante de nuestra historia de la enseñanza en Chile, así como también de nuestra historia cultural.

  9. Jazz en Chile: su historia y función social Jazz in Chile: its history and social function

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    Álvaro Menanteau

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una visión general de la historia del jazz en Chile que destaca la función social de esta música y el cambio que tuvo a través del tiempo. Estos cambios se relacionaron con diferentes valoraciones de la práctica jazzística local. En un principio el jazz fue música popular masiva. Posteriormente fue valorado estéticamente por un segmento de élite, quienes eran profesionales en áreas no musicales y en muchos casos eran instrumentistas aficionados. En una tercera etapa, músicos profesionales asumieron la práctica del jazz como una plataforma para fusionar el lenguaje jazzístico con recursos tomados de la música tradicional chilena. Este tránsito del jazz en Chile está cruzado por factores socioeconómicos y estéticos, que se analizan en el trabajo.The article presents an overview of the history of jazz in Chile on the basis of the social function of jazz and the changes it has underwent over the years in terms of the valúes it has represented for Chilean society. Initially jazz was considered as mass popular music. Afterwards it was valued in aesthetic terms by a group belonging to the élite of Chilean society. Many of them belonged to non-music professions and in some cases were amateur musicians. Most recently professional musicians took up jazz as the basis for combining the jazz style with elements belonging to traditional music of Chile. This process in Chile is also influenced by social, economic and aesthetic aspects which are explored in this article.

  10. Comportamiento mecanico de la interfase de subduccion durante el ciclo sismico: Estudio mediante la geodesia espacial en el norte de Chile

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    Bejar Pizarro, Marta

    The rampant success of quantum theory is the result of applications of the 'new' quantum mechanics of Schrodinger and Heisenberg (1926-7), the Feynman-Schwinger-Tomonaga Quantum Electro-dynamics (1946-51), the electro-weak theory of Salaam, Weinberg, and Glashow (1967-9), and Quantum Chromodynamics (1973-); in fact, this success of 'the' quantum theory has depended on a continuous stream of brilliant and quite disparate mathematical formulations. In this carefully concealed ferment there lie plenty of unresolved difficulties, simply because in churning out fabulously accurate calculational tools there has been no sensible explanation of all that is going on. It is even argued that such an understanding is nothing to do with physics. A long-standing and famous illustration of this is the paradoxical thought-experiment of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (1935). Fundamental to all quantum theories, and also their paradoxes, is the location of sub-microscopic objects; or, rather, that the specification of such a location is fraught with mathematical inconsistency. This project encompasses a detailed, critical survey of the tangled history of Position within quantum theories. The first step is to show that, contrary to appearances, canonical quantum mechanics has only a vague notion of locality. After analysing a number of previous attempts at a 'relativistic quantum mechanics', two lines of thought are considered in detail. The first is the work of Wan and students, which is shown to be no real improvement on the iisu.al 'nonrelativistic' theory. The second is based on an idea of Dirac's - using backwards-in-time light-cones as the hypersurface in space-time. There remain considerable difficulties in the way of producing a consistent scheme here. To keep things nicely stirred up, the author then proposes his own approach - an adaptation of Feynman's QED propagators. This new approach is distinguished from Feynman's since the propagator or Green's function is not obtained by Feynman's rule. The type of equation solved is also different: instead of an initial-value problem, a solution that obeys a time-symmetric causality criterion is found for an inhomogeneous partial differential equation with homogeneous boundary conditions. To make the consideration of locality more precise, some results of Fourier transform theory are presented in a form that is directly applicable. Somewhat away from the main thrust of the thesis, there is also an attempt to explain, the manner in which quantum effects disappear as the number of particles increases in such things as experimental realisations of the EPR and de Broglie thought experiments.

  11. Manifestaciones ocultas de violencia, durante el desarrollo del recreo escolar

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    Artavia Granados, Jenny María

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es producto de un proceso de investigación realizado en una escuela de la Dirección Regional de Educación de Occidente, en Costa Rica. Este tiene como fin determinar si durante el desarrollo de los recreos se suscitan manifestaciones de violencia implícitas u ocultas entre las y los estudiantes II Ciclo de la Educación General Básica. En el proceso del estudio se tomaron en cuenta aspectos relacionados con las actividades lúdicas y las interacciones personales desarrolladas durante los recreos escolares y que podrían propiciar violencia escolar implícita u oculta. Se procuró identificar la existencia de enfrentamientos y conflictos entre estudiantes, que conllevan amenazas, manifestaciones de exclusión, persecuciones e intimidaciones entre las y los niños. Se plantearon algunas conclusiones entre las que destacan que un alto porcentaje de la población estudiantil investigada manifiesta recibir amenazas, y que estas, en mayor número, se producen entre las niñas. Asimismo, un alto porcentaje de esta población estudiada indica que ha sido excluida en la dinámica del recreo por diferentes motivos, entre los que destacan: características físicas, género, condición social y situaciones particulares educativas que presentan algunos niños o niñas en edad escolar.This article is the product of a research process carried out in a school at Dirección Regional de Occidente (Western Regional Bureau of Education, in Costa Rica. This is intended to determine if during the development of school recesses manifestations of violence, implied or hidden, arise among the students of II Cycle of the General Basic Education. The process of the study took into account aspects related to recreational activities and personal interactions developed in school recess and that could lead to implied or hidden school violence or bullying. It was aimed to identify the existence of confrontations and conflicts between students

  12. Perfil de actividad durante el juego en futbolistas infantiles

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    José C. Barbero Álvarez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En fútbol, el patrón de actividad de jugadores adultos, tanto masculinos como femeninos, ha sido ampliamente estudiado, pero son escasos los estudios que han centrado su atención en el análisis de los desplazamientos de los jugadores de categorías infantiles. Un mayor conocimiento de las demandas de este deporte en las etapas iniciales permitiría la confección de programas de entrenamiento más acordes con las características de los chicos de estas edades. El objetivo del presente estudio fue cuantificar de los desplazamientos en jugadores de fútbol de categoría infantil (12,2 ± 0,6 años; 156 ± 0,8 cm y 51 ± 5,2 kg que pertenecían a la selección de la ciudad autónoma de Melilla, mediante la aplicación de dispositivos basados en tecnología GPS. Los resultados obtenidos certifican que el fútbol infantil es una especialidad deportiva intermitente en la que se intercalan actividades de alta intensidad con situaciones del juego que permiten que el jugador recupere estando parado, andando o con una velocidad de carrera muy baja. La tasa trabajo-descanso fue de 1:3,5 y la distancia media recorrida por minuto fue aproximadamente de 100 m. Esta distancia varía disminuyendo de forma lineal conforme transcurre el partido, existiendo diferencias significativas entre el inicio y el final del juego, lo que indicaría la aparición de la fatiga. Los esfuerzos de alta intensidad que se realizan implican el 6,1% del tiempo de juego y el 16,3 % de la distancia recorrida, efectuando un sprint máximo de entre 10 y 15 m de media, cada 141 segundos. La aplicación de tareas que reproduzcan la intensidad del juego durante cortos periodos de tiempo (no superiores a 10 minutos aseguraría una elevada intensidad de trabajo durante los entrenamientos.

  13. Cinco milenios de evolucion en Arica (Chile

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    Cocilovo, José Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Una serie de trabajos realizados durante la última década, en Arica y Valle de Azapa, empleando variables métricas y no métricas, prueban la existencia de diferencias significativas entre los antiguos habitantes de la costa y del valle, desde 4000 aC hasta 1450 dC. Esto fue explicado por un incremento gradual del parentesco local, moderado por migraciones de rango medio y amplio. Posibles corrientes de poblamiento altiplánicas y transaltiplánicas, fueron establecidas por evidencias craneométricas y moleculares (DNAmt. El modelo final propuesto, concuerda con la información arqueológica y etnohistórica disponible. Sin embargo, la unidad biológica de esta subárea es sostenida por Sutter (2000, 2003 y Sutter y Mertz (2004 a partir del análisis de rasgos no métricos. Por esta razón, en este trabajo se revisa la información existente y los argumentos que sustentan ambas posiciones. Se empleó una muestra de 300 individuos de los períodos Arcaico Tardío, Formativo, Medio y Tardío de sitios de la Costa y Valle de Azapa. Se utilizan pruebas χ 2 para analizar la asociación de estos rasgos con distintos factores (sexo, edad, deformación y grupo, el coeficiente de correlación de Spearman para evaluar la asociación entre rasgos y Análisis de Correspondencia junto con MMD para el estudio de la variación temporal. Los nuevos resultados confirman el proceso de diferenciación cronológica y permiten concluir que la discrepancia planteada, entre la unidad y la diversidad del desarrollo biológico de Arica, refleja sin dudas la existencia de problemas vinculados tanto con la naturaleza, la definición y la observación de estas variables, como con el diseño experimental y la construcción de las muestras. Trabajo realizado con fondos UNRC, CONICET y FONDECYT

  14. Ophiolite Emplacement and the Effects of the Subduction of the Active Chile Ridge System: Heterogeneous Paleostress Regimes Recorded in the Taitao Ophiolite (Southern Chile Emplazamiento de ofiolitas y los efectos de la subducción de la dorsal activa de Chile: Regímenes heterogéneos de paleostress registrados en la Oflolita Taitao (Sur de Chile

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    Eugenio E Veloso

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The repeated north and southward migration of the Chile Triple junction, offshore the Península de Taitao, is expected to have imposed contrasting stress fields in the forearc for the last 6 Ma because of changes in convergence direction and rate of subducting plates. NNW-SSE to E-W and minor NE-SW striking brittle faults developed in the plutonic units of the Mio-Pliocene Taitao Ophiolite, whereas NNE-SSW and minor NW-SE trending faults developed in its eastern border (Bahía Barrientes fault-zone. These brittle faults are studied to elucídate the style of ophiolite emplacement and the tectonic effects resulting from the alternated migration of the Chile Triple junction in the área. Analyses of heterogeneous fault-slip data on both áreas suggest that faults were activated by different stress fields. Two different compressional stress fields were identified in the plutomc units (A and B, whereas three different stress fields, ranging from compressional to strike-slip, were identified in the BahíaBarrientos fault-zone (C, D and E. Calculated directions of Oj axes for A, C, D and E solutions are mostly E-W trending, roughly similar to the convergence direction of subducting plates, whereas that for B solution is counterclockwise rotated ca. 60° with respect to the previous E-W trend. Brittle structures related to solution B were attributed to an early deformation of the ophiolite, most probably developed shortly after its emplacement {ca. 6 Ma. These structures were further counterclockwise rotated, while new structures (related to solution A developed in the plutomc units in order to absorb the continuous deformation. In the eastern margin of the ophiolite, the stress field divided inte compressional and strike-slip components. During periods of relatively strong compression (fast subduction of the Nazca píate, the fault-zone experienced well defined compressional and strike-slip movements (solutions C and D. In contrast, during periods of

  15. Particulate matter and plankton dynamics in the Ross Sea Polynya of Terra Nova Bay during the Austral Summer 1997/98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonda Umani, S.; Accornero, A.; Budillon, G.; Capello, M.; Tucci, S.; Cabrini, M.; Del Negro, P.; Monti, M.; De Vittor, C.

    2002-07-01

    The structure and variability of the plankton community and the distribution and composition of suspended particulate matter, were investigated in the polynya of Terra Nova Bay (western Ross Sea) during the austral summer 1997/1998, with the ultimate objective of understanding the trophic control of carbon export from the upper water column. Sampling was conducted along a transect parallel to the shore, near the retreating ice edge at the beginning of December, closer to the coast at the beginning of February, and more offshore in late February. Hydrological casts and water sampling were performed at several depths to measure total particulate matter (TPM), particulate organic carbon (POC), biogenic silica (BSi), chlorophyll a (Chl a) and phaeopigment (Phaeo) concentrations. Subsamples were taken for counting autotrophic and heterotrophic pico- and nanoplankton and to assess the abundance and composition of microphyto- and microzooplankton. Statistical analysis identified two major groups of samples: the first included the most coastal surface samples of early December, characterized by the prevalence of autotrophic nanoplankton biomass; the second included all the remaining samples and was dominated by microphytoplankton. With regard to the relation of the plankton community composition to the biogenic suspended and sinking material, we identified the succession of three distinct periods. In early December Phaeocystis dominated the plankton assemblage in the well-mixed water column, while at the retreating ice-edge a bloom of small diatoms (ND) was developing in the lens of superficial diluted water. Concentrations of biogenic particulates were generally low and confined to the uppermost layer. The very low downward fluxes, the near absence of faecal pellets and the high Chl a/Phaeo ratios suggested that the herbivorous food web was not established yet or, at least, was not working efficiently. In early February the superficial pycnocline and the increased water

  16. Feminismo, Iglesia Católica y derechos sexuales y reproductivos en el Chile post-dictatorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Morán Faúndes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0104-026X2013000200004 La sexualidad y la reproducción se han tornado en las últimas décadas campos dedisputas entre sectores antagónicos, generando una dinámica regional de avances y regresionesen la agenda de derechos sexuales y reproductivos. Chile no ha sido la excepción, y muchasreformas en estas materias han sido frenadas por la oposición ejercida por los sectores másconservadores, mientras otras simplemente no han llegado siquiera a abrirse a discusión pública.La literatura suele destacar la existencia de dos grandes causas que pueden explicar losobstáculos para el reconocimiento de estos derechos en el país: la influencia que ha tenido lajerarquía católica en el delineamiento de políticas sexuales, y el debilitamiento de losmovimientos feministas y de mujeres en el período post-dictatorial. El presente artículo analizaciertos factores que buscan iluminar las causas de estos dos procesos. En el caso de la IglesiaCatólica, se consideran dos factores que explicarían la influencia de esta institución en eldelineamiento de las políticas sexuales de la post-dictadura: la autoridad moral conferida a lamisma por su rol social y político desempeñado durante el siglo XX, y el rol otorgado por laselites a la iglesia en la búsqueda del consenso político durante los noventa. Para el caso delfeminismo, se analizan en tanto los procesos de normalización del discurso, la devaluación dela militancia y la institucionalización del movimiento como factores explicativos de sudebilitamiento en la capacidad para incidir en las políticas sexuales.

  17. Patrones de uso de servicios entre adultos con problemas de salud mental, en Chile Service use patterns among adults with mental health problems in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín Vicente

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir el patrón de uso de servicios generales y especializados entre los adultos con problemas de salud mental, así como su nivel de satisfacción con dichos servicios, con la finalidad de contribuir a optimizar los escasos recursos disponibles en la Región para la atención de la salud mental, particularmente en lo que corresponde a Chile. MÉTODO: Los diagnósticos y los patrones de uso de los servicios de salud mental se obtuvieron del Estudio Chileno de Prevalencia Psiquiátrica (ECPP, una investigación representativa de la población adulta del país, basada en una muestra aleatoria estratificada de 2 987 personas de 15 años y más, que abarcó el período de 1992 a 1999. Los diagnósticos psiquiátricos se obtuvieron por medio del instrumento de entrevista denominado Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. Asimismo, se preguntó a los entrevistados acerca del uso de servicios generales y de salud mental en los seis meses precedentes y sobre las dificultades que encontraron para acceder a ellos. RESULTADOS: Más de 44% de los entrevistados tuvieron contacto con algún tipo de servicio de salud durante los 6 meses previos al estudio, pero solo 5,6% recibieron atención especializada. Quienes presentan los diagnósticos de trastorno obsesivo y de pánico consultan con mayor frecuencia, pero no en centros especializados. El consumo de sustancias tóxicas y la personalidad antisocial se relacionaron con un bajo nivel de consulta. El sistema formal de salud es la opción que más se menciona como recurso de ayuda. Más de 75% refieren satisfacción o gran satisfacción con la atención recibida. CONCLUSIONES: Se confirma la existencia de una amplia brecha entre las necesidades de atención y el tratamiento realmente recibido. Los recursos alternativos informales y folclóricos (sacerdote, familiares, curanderos, hierbateros [yerberos], etc. se utilizan con una frecuencia menor de la esperada. Las barreras

  18. Factores determinantes de la esperanza de vida en Chile

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    Planck Barahona-Urbina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: En las últimas décadas, Chile ha experimentado un fuerte crecimiento económico, lo que ha permitido mejorar las condiciones de vida de los ciudadanos. Objetivos: Determinar los factores asociados a la esperanza de vida en Chile. Diseño: Análisis econométrico. Lugar: Chile. Intervenciones: Aplicación del modelo de regresión múltiple con series temporales para el análisis de la esperanza de vida en Chile. Se utilizó datos de naturaleza agregada del Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE y el Banco Central de Chile para el período comprendido entre 1988 y 2008. Se utilizó como variable dependiente la esperanza de vida en años y, como variables explicativas, el PIB per cápita, número de médicos, número de enfermeras y gasto público en salud. Principales medidas de resultados: Factores asociados a la esperanza de vida. Resultados: Luego del análisis, los resultados han puesto de manifiesto que el ingreso per cápita, el número de médicos, número de enfermeras y el gasto en salud resultaron ser estadísticamente significativos, es decir, tienen un efecto positivo sobre la esperanza de vida de las personas. Conclusiones: A la luz de los resultados podría argumentarse lo beneficioso que puede resultar en términos cuantitativos un aumento del PIB per cápita a la hora de conseguir una mayor esperanza de vida de las personas. Igualmente, los resultados sugieren el efecto positivo que produce un incremento del número de personal médico en el país dado, pues esta variable ha permitido satisfacer la demanda sanitaria cada vez más creciente de la población. El aumento del presupuesto social en salud ha sido una variable que ha tenido un resultado positivo a la hora de valorar su efecto en la mejora de las condiciones de vida en Chile.

  19. REQUERIMIENTO MACRONUTRIMENTAL EN PLANTAS DE CHILE (Capsicum annuum L.

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    Salazar-Jara FI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La extracción nutrimental determina la cantidad de nutrimentos extraída por una planta, puede cuantificarse en una etapa fenológica determinada o a través del ciclo de cultivo. Es una forma para establecer cuánto fertilizante se debe aplicar al cultivo de chile mediante el cálculo de la cantidad de nutrimento requerido por la planta para expresar un rendimiento esperado, por lo tanto, la cantidad necesaria de nutrimento para producir una tonelada de producto fresco debe ser un dato conocido. Se revisó literatura científica actualizada acerca de la cantidad de nutrimentos que extrae el cultivo de chile por tonelada de frutos frescos cosechados al igual que las partes vegetales no destinadas para consumo (follaje, tallos, raíces, es decir, el requerimiento nutrimental específico de chile; asimismo, se revisó la distribución de los nutrimentos en los órganos de las plantas, cómo es influenciada por las diferencias en tecnología de producción, rendimiento y las condiciones del suelo. Se encontró que la extracción y requerimientos nutrimentales en chile variaron por cultivares, tipos de chiles (jalapeño, dulce y pimiento, órgano muestreado y por sistemas de producción. De acuerdo con los resultados encontrados en esta revisión, se puede asegurar que el requerimiento nutrimental específico del cultivo de chile que sirva de base para el cálculo de dosis de fertilización, es como se indica a continuación (en kg t-1: Nitrógeno (N, 2.4 - 4.0; Fósforo (P2O5, 0.4 - 1.0; Potasio (K2O, 3.4 - 5.29, Calcio (CaO: 0.55 - 1.80 y Magnesio (MgO, 0.28 - 0.49.

  20. Reformismo e intervencionismo militar durante la Guerra Civil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón SALAS LARRAZÁBAL

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available El reformismo militar ha sido durante nuestra historia contemporánea una obsesión que cayó en manía, tal vez porque nunca se hizo una verdadera reforma y el intervencionismo de los militares en la política, un hábito que llegó a adquirir caracteres patológicos endémicos. Del centenar largo de españoles que ocuparon una o varias veces la cartera de la guerra desde la convocatoria de Cortes en 1.809 hasta nuestra Guerra Civil, raro fue el que no llevaba en sus bolsillos al incorporarse a su puesto un proyecto de reforma militar y lo mismo podría decirse de los que en número sensiblemente igual se sucedieron en el Ministerio de Marina, todos los cuales eran portadores de su personal programa naval. Del mismo modo también puede afirmarse que en casi todas las situaciones en que, con éxito o sin él, se produjo un cambio sustancial en el funcionamiento de las Instituciones, los que lo protagonizaron o eran militares o buscaron y encontraron apoyo en las Fuerzas Armadas.